WorldWideScience

Sample records for prevention removing barriers

  1. Removing Barriers to Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nealis, Libby Kuffner

    2013-01-01

    Specialized instructional support personnel (SISP) are part of a multidisciplinary education team that provides a wide range of school-based prevention and intervention services to help students become effective learners and productive citizens. They work with teachers, principals, and parents to ensure that all students are successful in school.…

  2. Removing bridge barriers stimulates suicides: an unfortunate natural experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beautrais, Annette L; Gibb, Sheree J; Fergusson, David M; Horwood, L John; Larkin, Gregory Luke

    2009-06-01

    Safety barriers to prevent suicide by jumping were removed from Grafton Bridge in Auckland, New Zealand, in 1996 after having been in place for 60 years. This study compared the number of suicides due to jumping from the bridge after the reinstallation of safety barriers in 2003. National mortality data for suicide deaths were compared for three time periods: 1991-1995 (old barrier in place); 1997-2002 (no barriers in place); 2003-2006 (after barriers were reinstated). Removal of barriers was followed by a fivefold increase in the number and rate of suicides from the bridge. These increases led to a decision to reinstall safety barriers. Since the reinstallation of barriers, of an improved design, in 2003, there have been no suicides from the bridge. This natural experiment, using a powerful a-b-a (reversal) design, shows that safety barriers are effective in preventing suicide: their removal increases suicides; their reinstatement prevents suicides.

  3. 28 CFR 36.304 - Removal of barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., vending machines, display racks, and other furniture; (5) Repositioning telephones; (6) Adding raised.... These measures include, for example, removal of obstructing furniture or vending machines, widening of...) General. A public accommodation shall remove architectural barriers in existing facilities, including...

  4. Transforming environmental permitting and compliance policies to promote pollution prevention: Removing barriers and providing incentives to foster technology innovation, economic productivity, and environmental protection. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, D.R.; Kerr, R.L.; Fleischer, S.; Gorsen, M.; Harris, E.

    1993-04-01

    The Technology Innovation and Economics (TIE) Committee, a standing committee of EPA's National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT), has concluded that major changes are needed in federal and state permitting and compliance programs to encourage adoption of practical pollution prevention approaches to environmental protection. The Committee recommends seven major areas for improvement, including: (1) Redesigning permit procedures to encourage regulated facilities to expand multi-media and pollution prevention environmental improvement efforts; (2) Accelerating development and use of innovative pollution prevention technologies and techniques through special permitting and review procedures during RD ampersand D and commercialization phases; (3) Developing and expanding federal and state pollution prevention enforcement initiative; (4) Supporting state initiatives in pollution prevention facility planning; (5) Expanding pollution prevention-related training, educational and technology diffusion efforts to better reach managers in all sectors of the economy; (6) Altering personnel reward systems to encourage EPA staff to champion pollution prevention; (7) Expanding and publicizing the system of national awards honoring outstanding pollution prevention research, training and technology implementation

  5. Investing in Energy Efficiency. Removing the Barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Investing in improving energy efficiency has the clear advantages of reducing energy costs, improving security of supply and mitigating the environmental impacts of energy use. And still, many viable opportunities for higher energy efficiency are not tapped because of the existence of numerous barriers to such investments. These lost opportunities imply costs to the individual energy consumers and to the society as a whole and they are particularly important in economies in transition. This report identifies various types of barriers for making energy efficiency investments (be they of legal, administrative, institutional or financial nature), mainly in buildings, district heating and efficient lighting. The role of various bodies and organisations for the facilitation of energy efficiency investments is analysed, from public authorities and regulators to banks and international financing institutions

  6. Permeable reactive barriers for pollutant removal from groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, F.G.; Meggyes, T.

    2001-01-01

    The removal of pollutants from the groundwater using permeable reactive barriers is a novel in-situ groundwater remediation technology. The most relevant decontamination processes used are chemical reduction, oxidation, precipitation and sorption, for which examples are given. Some common organic pollutants are halogenated hydrocarbons, aromatic and nitroaromatic compounds which can be treated in reactive barriers successfully. Lead, chromium and, in particular, uranium are dealt with in great detail among inorganic pollutants because of their occurrence in many European countries. Construction methods for cut-off walls and reactive barriers exhibit similar features. Apart from conventional methods, drilling, deep soil mixing, jet technology, arrays of wells, injected systems and biobarriers are applied to construct permeable reactive barriers. Permeable reactive barriers bear great potential for the future in remediation engineering. (orig.)

  7. Learning Mentors Eight Years on: Still Removing Barriers to Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Jo

    2011-01-01

    The Learning Mentor role has been seen as one of the success stories of education policy introduced under New Labour, establishing itself as a key figure in the explosion of new non-teaching roles in the schools workforce. But have they stuck to their original, somewhat narrow brief of "removing barriers to learning" with the primary aim…

  8. Removing cost barriers — lessons from West Africa | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-10

    Jun 10, 2016 ... Removing cost barriers — lessons from West Africa ... les dynamiques sociales et le développement local (LASDEL) analyzed ... How the fee exemptions were introduced created new demands on already weak health systems. ... Less is more: Improving yields for Sahelian women with tiny dozes of fertilizer.

  9. Setting plug & abandonment barriers with minimum removal of tubulars

    OpenAIRE

    Nessa, Jon Olav

    2012-01-01

    Master's thesis in Petroleum engineering The useful life of an offshore well is determined by the reserves which it contacts, the pressure support within the reservoir and the continued integrity of the wellbore. When a well has reached the end of its lifetime, plugging operations have to be conducted before permanent abandonment. Conventional Plug and Abandonment (P&A) operations will often require removing a section of the casing in order to create cross sectional barriers for well aband...

  10. [Removal of nitrate from groundwater using permeable reactive barrier].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiu-Li; Yang, Jun-Jun; Lu, Xiao-Xia; Zhang, Shu; Hou, Zhen

    2013-03-01

    To provide a cost-effective method for the remediation of nitrate-polluted groundwater, column experiments were performed to study the removal of nitrate by permeable reactive barrier filled with fermented mulch and sand (biowall), and the mechanisms and influence factors were explored. The experimental results showed that the environmental condition in the simulated biowall became highly reduced after three days of operation (oxidation-reduction potential was below - 100 mV), which was favorable for the reduction of nitrate. During the 15 days of operation, the removal rate of nitrate nitrogen (NO3(-) -N) by the simulated biowall was 80%-90% (NO3(-)-N was reduced from 20 mg x L(-1) in the inlet water to 1.6 mg x L(-1) in the outlet water); the concentration of nitrite nitrogen (NO2(-) -N) in the outlet water was below 2.5 mg x L(-1); the concentration of ammonium nitrogen (NH4(+) -N) was low in the first two days but increased to about 12 mg x L(-1) since day three. The major mechanisms involved in the removal of nitrate nitrogen were adsorption and biodegradation. When increasing the water flow velocity in the simulated biowall, the removal rate of NO3(-) -N was reduced and the concentration of NH4(+) -N in the outlet water was significantly reduced. A simulated zeolite wall was set up following the simulated biowall and 98% of the NH4(+) -N could be removed from the water.

  11. Internal Medicine Hospitalists' Perceived Barriers and Recommendations for Optimizing Secondary Prevention of Osteoporotic Hip Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Eng Keong; Loh, Kah Poh; Goff, Sarah L

    2017-12-01

    Osteoporosis is a major public health concern affecting an estimated 10 million people in the United States. To the best of our knowledge, no qualitative study has explored barriers perceived by medicine hospitalists to secondary prevention of osteoporotic hip fractures. We aimed to describe these perceived barriers and recommendations regarding how to optimize secondary prevention of osteoporotic hip fracture. In-depth, semistructured interviews were performed with 15 internal medicine hospitalists in a tertiary-care referral medical center. The interviews were analyzed with directed content analysis. Internal medicine hospitalists consider secondary osteoporotic hip fracture prevention as the responsibility of outpatient physicians. Identified barriers were stratified based on themes including physicians' perception, patients' characteristics, risks and benefits of osteoporosis treatment, healthcare delivery system, and patient care transition from the inpatient to the outpatient setting. Some of the recommendations include building an integrated system that involves a multidisciplinary team such as the fracture liaison service, initiating a change to the hospital policy to facilitate inpatient care and management of osteoporosis, and creating a smooth patient care transition to the outpatient setting. Our study highlighted how internal medicine hospitalists perceive their role in the secondary prevention of osteoporotic hip fractures and what they perceive as barriers to initiating preventive measures in the hospital. Inconsistency in patient care transition and the fragmented nature of the existing healthcare system were identified as major barriers. A fracture liaison service could remove some of these barriers.

  12. Nurses' attitude and perceived barriers to pressure ulcer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etafa, Werku; Argaw, Zeleke; Gemechu, Endalew; Melese, Belachew

    2018-01-01

    The presence or absence of pressure ulcers has been generally regarded as a performance measure of quality nursing care and overall patient health. The aim of this study- wasto explorenurses' attitude about pressure ulcer prevention'and to identify staff nurses' perceived barriers to pressure ulcer prevention public hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A self-reported multi-center institutional based cross sectional study design was employed to collect data from staff nurses ( N  = 222) working in six (6) selected public hospitals in Addis Ababa, from April 01-28/2015. Majority of the nurses had ( n  = 116, 52.2%) negative attitude towards pressure ulcer prevention. The mean scores of the test for all participants was 3.09out of 11(SD =0.92, range = 1-5). Similarly, the study revealed several barriers need to be resolved to put in to practice the strategies of pressure ulcer prevention; Heavy workload and inadequate staff (lack of tie) (83.1%), shortage of resources/equipment (67.7%) and inadequate training (63.2%) were among the major barriers identified in the study. The study finding suggests that Addis Ababa nurses have negative attitude to pressure ulcer prevention. Also several barriers exist for implementing pressure ulcer prevention protocols in public hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Suggestion for improving this situation is attractive.

  13. Household Barriers to Effective Malaria Prevention and Control in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Malaria is endemic throughout Nigeria. Majority of Nigerians live in rural areas where subsistence farming is their main occupation. Most of them live below poverty line, earning less than $1.25 a day. In rural communities, many household factors constitute barriers to effective malaria prevention and control.

  14. Perceived barriers to preventive dental care among Libyan dentists

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-04-23

    Apr 23, 2014 ... Settings and design: A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey was .... Table 3 reports comparison of barriers by to preventive .... and customer needs, and have less control at work, which ... needs and contributes to job satisfaction (21). .... received any funding or benefits from industry or else- where to ...

  15. Performance evaluation of intermediate cover soil barrier for removal of heavy metals in landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kazuyuki; Anegawa, Aya; Endo, Kazuto; Yamada, Masato; Ono, Yusaku; Ono, Yoshiro

    2008-11-01

    This pilot-scale study evaluated the use of intermediate cover soil barriers for removing heavy metals in leachate generated from test cells for co-disposed fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerators, ash melting plants, and shredder residue. Cover soil barriers were mixtures of Andisol (volcanic ash soil), waste iron powder, (grinder dust waste from iron foundries), and slag fragments. The cover soil barriers were installed in the test cells' bottom layer. Sorption/desorption is an important process in cover soil bottom barrier for removal of heavy metals in landfill leachate. Salt concentrations such as those of Na, K, and Ca in leachate were extremely high (often greater than 30 gL(-1)) because of high salt content in fly ash from ash melting plants. Concentrations of all heavy metals (nickel, manganese, copper, zinc, lead, and cadmium) in test cell leachates with a cover soil barrier were lower than those of the test cell without a cover soil barrier and were mostly below the discharge limit, probably because of dilution caused by the amount of leachate and heavy metal removal by the cover soil barrier. The cover soil barriers' heavy metal removal efficiency was calculated. About 50% of copper, nickel, and manganese were removed. About 20% of the zinc and boron were removed, but lead and cadmium were removed only slightly. Based on results of calculation of the Langelier saturation index and analyses of core samples, the reactivity of the cover soil barrier apparently decreases because of calcium carbonate precipitation on the cover soil barriers' surfaces.

  16. Barriers to lifestyle changes for prevention of cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Leppin, Anja; Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Elimination of modifiable risk factors including unhealthy lifestyle has the potential for prevention of 80% of cardiovascular disease cases. The present study focuses on disclosing barriers for maintaining specific lifestyle changes by exploring associations between perceiving...... inequality even in populations with equal and cost-free access to health care. Our study suggests supplementing traditional public campaigns to counter cardiovascular disease by using individualized and targeted initiatives....... these barriers and various sociodemographic and health-related characteristics. METHODS: Data were collected through a web-based questionnaire survey and included 962 respondents who initially accepted treatment for a hypothetical cardiovascular risk, and who subsequently stated that they preferred lifestyle...

  17. Experimental investigation on NOx removal using pulsed dielectric barrier discharges in combination with catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chirumamilla, V.R.; Hoeben, W.F.L.M.; Beckers, F.J.C.M.; Huiskamp, T.; Pemen, A.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, an experimental investigation of the removal of NOx has been carried out with a dielectric barrier discharge reactor filled with different catalytic materials. NOx removal efficiency and by-products formation were studied as a function of energy density using plasma catalytic

  18. Water removal from a dry barrier cover system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stormont, J.C.; Ankeny, M.D.; Tansey, M.K.

    1994-01-01

    The results of the numerical simulations reveal that horizontal air flow through the coarse with reasonable pressure gradients can remove large quantities of water from the cover system. Initially, the water removal from the cover system is dominated by the evaporation and advection of water vapor out of the coarse layer. Once the coarse layer is dry, removal of water by evaporation near the fine/coarse layer interface reduces the local water content and water potential, and water moves toward the fine-coarse layer interface and becomes available for evaporation. This result is important in that it suggests the fine layer water content may be moderated by air flow in the coarse layer. Incorporating diffusion of water vapor from the fine layer into the coarse layer substantially increases the water movement out of the fine layer

  19. Safety barriers to prevent release of hydrocarbons during production of oil and gas

    OpenAIRE

    Sklet, Snorre; Hauge, Stein

    2004-01-01

    This report documents a set of scenarios related to release of hydrocarbons during production on oil and gas platforms. For each release scenario, initiating events, barrier functions aimed to prevent loss of containment, and barrier systems that realize these barrier functions are identified and described. Safety barriers to prevent release of hydrocarbons during production of oil and gas

  20. Removal of chromate in a permeable reactive barrier using zero-valent iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Locht, T

    2002-01-01

    Chromate is a commonly found groundwater contaminant. Permeable reactive barriers containing zero-valent iron as iron filings are able to remove the chromate by a combined reduction/precipitation reaction. However, due to the passivation of the reduction capability of the iron surfaces by the pre......). Mixing in sand had no significant enhancing effect on the removal capacity, in contrast to a pH adjustment of the groundwater to pH 4, which significantly increased the removal capacity....

  1. Research aims to identify and remove barriers faced by Africa's ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2013-07-10

    Jul 10, 2013 ... Across Africa, men and women are increasingly entering the marketplace as small ... that prevent them from growing, improving their performance, and increasing earnings. This is ... Woman working in a small shop in Ghana.

  2. Economic and other barriers to adopting recommendations to prevent childhood obesity: results of a focus group study with parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taveras Elsie M

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents are integral to the implementation of obesity prevention and management recommendations for children. Exploration of barriers to and facilitators of parental decisions to adopt obesity prevention recommendations will inform future efforts to reduce childhood obesity. Methods We conducted 4 focus groups (2 English, 2 Spanish among a total of 19 parents of overweight (BMI ≥ 85th percentile children aged 5-17 years. The main discussion focused on 7 common obesity prevention recommendations: reducing television (TV watching, removing TV from child's bedroom, increasing physically active games, participating in community or school-based athletics, walking to school, walking more in general, and eating less fast food. Parents were asked to discuss what factors would make each recommendation more difficult (barriers or easier (facilitators to follow. Participants were also asked about the relative importance of economic (time and dollar costs/savings barriers and facilitators if these were not brought into the discussion unprompted. Results Parents identified many barriers but few facilitators to adopting obesity prevention recommendations for their children. Members of all groups identified economic barriers (time and dollar costs among a variety of pertinent barriers, although the discussion of dollar costs often required prompting. Parents cited other barriers including child preference, difficulty with changing habits, lack of information, lack of transportation, difficulty with monitoring child behavior, need for assistance from family members, parity with other family members, and neighborhood walking safety. Facilitators identified included access to physical activity programs, availability of alternatives to fast food and TV which are acceptable to the child, enlisting outside support, dietary information, involving the child, setting limits, making behavior changes gradually, and parental change in shopping

  3. Mobile Application Removes Societal Barriers to P4 Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, J-P

    2017-01-01

    The overlap between one innovative paradigm (P4 medicine: predictive, personalized, participatory and preventive) and another (a new definition of "Healthy ageing") is fertile ground for new technologies; a new mobile application (app) that could broaden our scientific knowledge of the ageing process and help us to better analyse the impact of possible interventions in slowing the ageing decline. A novel mobile application is here presented as a game including questions and tests will allow in 10 minutes the assessment of the following domains: robustness, flexibility (lower muscle strength), balance, mental and memory complaints, semantic memory and visual retention. This game is completed by specific measurements, which could allow establishing precise information on functional and cognitive abilities. A global evaluation precedes advice and different types of exercises. The repetition of the tests and measures will allow a long follow up of the individual performances which could be shared (on specific request) with family members and general practitioners.

  4. Removing Barriers for Effective Deployment of Intermittent Renewable Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabali, Amirsaman

    The stochastic nature of intermittent renewable resources is the main barrier to effective integration of renewable generation. This problem can be studied from feeder-scale and grid-scale perspectives. Two new stochastic methods are proposed to meet the feeder-scale controllable load with a hybrid renewable generation (including wind and PV) and energy storage system. For the first method, an optimization problem is developed whose objective function is the cost of the hybrid system including the cost of renewable generation and storage subject to constraints on energy storage and shifted load. A smart-grid strategy is developed to shift the load and match the renewable energy generation and controllable load. Minimizing the cost function guarantees minimum PV and wind generation installation, as well as storage capacity selection for supplying the controllable load. A confidence coefficient is allocated to each stochastic constraint which shows to what degree the constraint is satisfied. In the second method, a stochastic framework is developed for optimal sizing and reliability analysis of a hybrid power system including renewable resources (PV and wind) and energy storage system. The hybrid power system is optimally sized to satisfy the controllable load with a specified reliability level. A load-shifting strategy is added to provide more flexibility for the system and decrease the installation cost. Load shifting strategies and their potential impacts on the hybrid system reliability/cost analysis are evaluated trough different scenarios. Using a compromise-solution method, the best compromise between the reliability and cost will be realized for the hybrid system. For the second problem, a grid-scale stochastic framework is developed to examine the storage application and its optimal placement for the social cost and transmission congestion relief of wind integration. Storage systems are optimally placed and adequately sized to minimize the sum of operation

  5. Removal of ammonia from gas streams with dielectric barrier discharge plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Lanyan; Huang Li; Shu Xiaohong; Zhang Renxi; Dong Wenbo; Hou Huiqi

    2008-01-01

    We reported on the experimental study of gas-phase removal of ammonia (NH 3 ) via dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) at atmospheric pressure, in which we mainly concentrated on three aspects-influence of initial NH 3 concentration, peak voltage, and gas residence time on NH 3 removal efficiency. Effectiveness, e.g. the removal efficiency, specific energy density, absolute removal amount and energy yield, of the self-made DBD reactor had also been studied. Basic analysis on DBD physical parameters and its performance was made in comparison with previous investigation. Moreover, products were detected via ion exchange chromatography (IEC). Experimental results demonstrated the application potential of DBD as an alternative technology for odor-causing gases elimination from gas streams

  6. Quantitative assessment of safety barrier performance in the prevention of domino scenarios triggered by fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landucci, Gabriele; Argenti, Francesca; Tugnoli, Alessandro; Cozzani, Valerio

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of domino scenarios triggered by fire critically depends on the presence and the performance of safety barriers that may have the potential to prevent escalation, delaying or avoiding the heat-up of secondary targets. The aim of the present study is the quantitative assessment of safety barrier performance in preventing the escalation of fired domino scenarios. A LOPA (layer of protection analysis) based methodology, aimed at the definition and quantification of safety barrier performance in the prevention of escalation was developed. Data on the more common types of safety barriers were obtained in order to characterize the effectiveness and probability of failure on demand of relevant safety barriers. The methodology was exemplified with a case study. The results obtained define a procedure for the estimation of safety barrier performance in the prevention of fire escalation in domino scenarios. - Highlights: • We developed a methodology for the quantitative assessment of safety barriers. • We focused on safety barriers aimed at preventing domino effect triggered by fire. • We obtained data on effectiveness and availability of the safety barriers. • The methodology was exemplified with a case study of industrial interest. • The results showed the role of safety barriers in preventing fired domino escalation

  7. The Analysis of The Effect Of Removing Barriers On The Creativity Students' Mathematical Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Seyedeh Edna Khalilinezhad; Ahmad Shahvarani; Mohamadreza Mardanbeigi

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, flowering of student creativity is one of the most important purposes of education. But in our country, due to the fact that creativity is effected by environmental conditions and factors, it is barely investigated, reviewed, and accurately programmed. For these reasons, the aim of the present study was to identify and removal the four group of the creativity barriers, and investigate their effect on students' learning and creativity growth in math. This research is of an applied ty...

  8. The Analysis of The Effect Of Removing Barriers On The Creativity Students' Mathematical Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Edna Khalilinezhad

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, flowering of student creativity is one of the most important purposes of education. But in our country, due to the fact that creativity is effected by environmental conditions and factors, it is barely investigated, reviewed, and accurately programmed. For these reasons, the aim of the present study was to identify and removal the four group of the creativity barriers, and investigate their effect on students' learning and creativity growth in math. This research is of an applied type with a sample consisting of 40 eighths grade girl students from Reyhane-Nabi school in Ahvaz City. The sample was divided into two homogenous groups: control and experimental. In order to train the experimental group, creativity barriers were removed and its effect on learning, creativity, and students' interest in math was analyzed. Then the information obtained by descriptive and inferential Statistics was analyzed. Results of T-test for independent and paired samples showed that removing creativity barriers would have a positive effect on students' learning and creativity, in math.

  9. Influence of oxygen concentration on ethylene removal using dielectric barrier discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Katsuyuki; Motodate, Takuma; Takaki, Koichi; Koide, Shoji

    2018-01-01

    Ethylene gas is decomposed using a dielectric barrier discharge plasma reactor for long-period preservation of fruits and vegetables. The oxygen concentration in ambient gas is varied from 2 to 20% to simulate the fruit and vegetable transport container. The experimental results show that the efficiency of ethylene gas decomposition increases with decreasing oxygen concentration. The reactions of ethylene molecules with ozone are analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. The analysis results show that the oxidization process by ozone is later than that by oxygen atoms. The amount of oxygen atoms that contribute to ethylene removal increases with decreasing oxygen concentration because the reaction between oxygen radicals and oxygen molecules is suppressed at low oxygen concentrations. Ozone is completely removed and the energy efficiency of C2H4 removal is increased using manganese dioxide as a catalyst.

  10. Restoring stream habitat connectivity: a proposed method for prioritizing the removal of resident fish passage barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hanley, Jesse R; Wright, Jed; Diebel, Matthew; Fedora, Mark A; Soucy, Charles L

    2013-08-15

    Systematic methods for prioritizing the repair and removal of fish passage barriers, while growing of late, have hitherto focused almost exclusively on meeting the needs of migratory fish species (e.g., anadromous salmonids). An important but as of yet unaddressed issue is the development of new modeling approaches which are applicable to resident fish species habitat restoration programs. In this paper, we develop a budget constrained optimization model for deciding which barriers to repair or remove in order to maximize habitat availability for stream resident fish. Habitat availability at the local stream reach is determined based on the recently proposed C metric, which accounts for the amount, quality, distance and level of connectivity to different stream habitat types. We assess the computational performance of our model using geospatial barrier and stream data collected from the Pine-Popple Watershed, located in northeast Wisconsin (USA). The optimization model is found to be an efficient and practical decision support tool. Optimal solutions, which are useful in informing basin-wide restoration planning efforts, can be generated on average in only a few minutes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Pervious concrete reactive barrier for removal of heavy metals from acid mine drainage − column study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabalala, Ayanda N., E-mail: Ayanda.Shabalala@ump.ac.za [University of Johannesburg, PO Box 524, Auckland Park 2006 (South Africa); Ekolu, Stephen O. [University of Johannesburg, PO Box 524, Auckland Park 2006 (South Africa); Diop, Souleymane [Council for Geoscience, Private bag x112, Pretoria, 0001 (South Africa); Solomon, Fitsum [University of Johannesburg, PO Box 524, Auckland Park 2006 (South Africa)

    2017-02-05

    Highlights: • Pervious concrete raises the low pH of acid mine drainage up to 12; heavy metals precipitate. • Pervious concrete successfully removed greater than 99% of inorganic contaminants. • Ca(OH){sub 2} in pervious concrete reacts with SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} in acid mine drainage to form expansive gypsum. • Incorporating fly ash into pervious concrete mitigates damage caused by gypsum. • Pervious concrete reactive barrier offers a promising alternative method for treatment of acid mine drainage. - Abstract: This paper presents a column study conducted to investigate the potential use of pervious concrete as a reactive barrier for treatment of water impacted by mine waste. The study was done using acid mine drainage (AMD) collected from a gold mine (WZ) and a coalfield (TDB). Pervious concrete mixtures consisting of Portland cement CEM I 52.5R with or without 30% fly ash (FA) were prepared at a water-cementitious ratio of 0.27 then used to make cubes which were employed in the reactor columns. It was found that the removal efficiency levels of Al, Fe, Mn, Co and Ni were 75%, 98%, 99%, 94% and 95% for WZ; 87%, 96%, 99%, 98% and 90% for TDB, respectively. The high rate of acid reduction and metal removal by pervious concrete is attributed to dissolution of portlandite which is a typical constituent of concrete. The dominant reaction product in all four columns was gypsum, which also contributed to some removal of sulphate from AMD. Formation of gypsum, goethite, and Glauber’s salt were identified. Precipitation of metal hydroxides seems to be the dominant metal removal mechanism. Use of pervious concrete offers a promising alternative treatment method for polluted or acidic mine water.

  12. Pervious concrete reactive barrier for removal of heavy metals from acid mine drainage − column study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabalala, Ayanda N.; Ekolu, Stephen O.; Diop, Souleymane; Solomon, Fitsum

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Pervious concrete raises the low pH of acid mine drainage up to 12; heavy metals precipitate. • Pervious concrete successfully removed greater than 99% of inorganic contaminants. • Ca(OH)_2 in pervious concrete reacts with SO_4"2"− in acid mine drainage to form expansive gypsum. • Incorporating fly ash into pervious concrete mitigates damage caused by gypsum. • Pervious concrete reactive barrier offers a promising alternative method for treatment of acid mine drainage. - Abstract: This paper presents a column study conducted to investigate the potential use of pervious concrete as a reactive barrier for treatment of water impacted by mine waste. The study was done using acid mine drainage (AMD) collected from a gold mine (WZ) and a coalfield (TDB). Pervious concrete mixtures consisting of Portland cement CEM I 52.5R with or without 30% fly ash (FA) were prepared at a water-cementitious ratio of 0.27 then used to make cubes which were employed in the reactor columns. It was found that the removal efficiency levels of Al, Fe, Mn, Co and Ni were 75%, 98%, 99%, 94% and 95% for WZ; 87%, 96%, 99%, 98% and 90% for TDB, respectively. The high rate of acid reduction and metal removal by pervious concrete is attributed to dissolution of portlandite which is a typical constituent of concrete. The dominant reaction product in all four columns was gypsum, which also contributed to some removal of sulphate from AMD. Formation of gypsum, goethite, and Glauber’s salt were identified. Precipitation of metal hydroxides seems to be the dominant metal removal mechanism. Use of pervious concrete offers a promising alternative treatment method for polluted or acidic mine water.

  13. Reversible electrokinetic adsorption barriers for the removal of atrazine and oxyfluorfen from spiked soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira Dos Santos, E; Sáez, C; Cañizares, P; Martínez-Huitle, C A; Rodrigo, M A

    2017-01-15

    This study demonstrates the application of reversible electrokinetic adsorption barrier (REKAB) technology to soils spiked with low-solubility pollutants. A permeable reactive barrier (PRB) of granular activated carbon (GAC) was placed between the anode and cathode of an electrokinetic (EK) soil remediation bench-scale setup with the aim of enhancing the removal of two low-solubility herbicides (atrazine and oxyfluorfen) using a surfactant solution (sodium dodecyl sulfate) as the flushing fluid. This innovative study focused on evaluating the interaction between the EK system and the GAC-PRB, attempting to obtain insights into the primary mechanisms involved. The obtained results highlighted the successful treatment of atrazine and oxyfluorfen in contaminated soils. The results obtained from the tests after 15days of treatment were compared with those obtained using the more conventional electrokinetic soil flushing (EKSF) technology, and very important differences were observed. Although both technologies are efficient for removing the herbicides from soils, REKAB outperforms EKSF. After the 15-day treatment tests, only approximately 10% of atrazine and oxyfluorfen remained in the soil, and adsorption onto the GAC bed was an important removal mechanism (15-17% of herbicide retained). The evaporation loses in REKAB were lower than those obtained in EKSF (45-50% compared to 60-65%). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Removal and prevention of dental plaque with d-tagatose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y; Levin, G V

    2002-08-01

    Dental plaque develops when early bacterial colonizers adhere to the acquired pellicle (saliva-derived proteinous coating on the tooth surface) followed by adhesion of late interspecies colonizers to form this type of biofilm (coaggregation). In developing a d-tagatose-based toothpaste, we examined 15 oral isolates, including both early colonizers (Streptococcus and Actinomyces) and late colonizers (Fusobacterium, Porphyromonas, Prevotella, Veillonella, Capnocytophaga, and Actinobacillus), and tested them for their ability to coaggregate with each other. We then tested the ability of d-tagatose to reverse any such coaggregations. Coaggregation was examined visually and scored by using a system ranging from 0, for no visible coaggregation to 4, for maximum coaggregation. d-Tagatose, at a concentration of less than 750 mm, completely reversed the coaggregation of 17 (60%) of 28 strongly coaggregating pairs (coaggregation score = 2 or higher) tested. In contrast, d-sorbitol had little reversal effect. d-Tagatose-sensitive coaggregations were d-galactose-reversible as well. d-Tagatose acted on both early and late colonizers; both groups, especially the late colonizers, were frequently involved in periodontal diseases. Thus, d-tagatose has the potential for preventing and removing plaque development and for altering the subgingival microbiota. These effective qualities offer conservative control of gingival and periodontal disease.

  15. Safety barriers on oil and gas platforms. Means to prevent hydrocarbon releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sklet, Snorre

    2005-12-15

    The main objective of the PhD project has been to develop concepts and methods that can be used to define, illustrate, analyse, and improve safety barriers in the operational phase of offshore oil and gas production platforms. The main contributions of this thesis are; Clarification of the term safety barrier with respect to definitions, classification, and relevant attributes for analysis of barrier performance Development and discussion of a representative set of hydrocarbon release scenarios Development and testing of a new method, BORA-Release, for qualitative and quantitative risk analysis of hydrocarbon releases Safety barriers are defined as physical and/or non-physical means planned to prevent, control, or mitigate undesired events or accidents. The means may range from a single technical unit or human actions, to a complex socio-technical system. It is useful to distinguish between barrier functions and barrier systems. Barrier functions describe the purpose of safety barriers or what the safety barriers shall do in order to prevent, control, or mitigate undesired events or accidents. Barrier systems describe how a barrier function is realized or executed. If the barrier system is functioning, the barrier function is performed. If a barrier function is performed successfully, it should have a direct and significant effect on the occurrence and/or consequences of an undesired event or accident. It is recommended to address the following attributes to characterize the performance of safety barriers; a) functionality/effectiveness, b) reliability/ availability, c) response time, d) robustness, and e) triggering event or condition. For some types of barriers, not all the attributes are relevant or necessary in order to describe the barrier performance. The presented hydrocarbon release scenarios include initiating events, barrier functions introduced to prevent hydrocarbon releases, and barrier systems realizing the barrier functions. Both technical and human

  16. School Administrator Perceptions of Cyberbullying Facilitators and Barriers to Preventive Action: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Rachel; Tully, Melissa; Ramirez, Marizen

    2017-06-01

    Schools are often held responsible for preventing or addressing cyberbullying, yet little is known about school administrator perceptions of cyberbullying and the challenges they face in addressing this public health issue. The goal of this study is to examine school administrators' perceptions of the facilitators of cyberbullying and barriers to primary and secondary prevention strategies. Public school administrators ( N = 36) participated in in-depth interviews about bullying and discussed their experiences with cyberbullying and their perceptions of cyberbullying facilitators and barriers to prevention. Three main themes arose from the analysis: (1) cyberbullying as a major challenge; (2) facilitators of cyberbullying and barriers to preventive action, including parents and technology; and (3) prevention efforts, including unclear jurisdiction for action, primary versus secondary prevention efforts, and technology attributes that facilitate school response to bullying. Although administrators perceive cyberbullying as a major challenge facing their schools, they are often unsure about appropriate primary and secondary prevention efforts. Relationships with parents and police complicate response and prevention as schools attempt to navigate unclear jurisdiction. Additionally, technology presents a challenge to schools because it is seen as an enabler of cyberbullying, a facilitator of prevention, and a necessary part of education efforts. Lack of research on prevention strategies, parents' knowledge and attitudes, and confusion about responsibility for addressing cyberbullying are barriers to action. Findings suggest administrators could benefit from additional clarity on which strategies are most effective for primary prevention of cyberbullying, and that prevention strategies should proactively involve parents to promote effective collaboration with schools.

  17. Sustaining Teen Pregnancy Prevention Programs in Schools: Needs and Barriers Identified by School Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, Lesley R.; Brandt, Heather M.; Prince, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Background: To reduce teen pregnancy rates, prevention programs must be consistently available to large numbers of youth. However, prevention efforts have been historically conducted with little emphasis on ensuring program sustainability. This study examined the needs and barriers to sustaining teen pregnancy prevention (TPP) programming in…

  18. Do Barriers to Crime Prevention Moderate the Effects of Situational Crime Prevention Policies on Violent Crime in High Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevigny, Eric L.; Zhang, Gary

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates how barriers to school-based crime prevention programming moderate the effects of situational crime prevention (SCP) policies on levels of violent crime in U.S. public high schools. Using data from the 2008 School Survey on Crime and Safety, we estimate a series of negative binomial regression models with interactions to…

  19. Examining Barriers to Sustained Implementation of School-Wide Prevention Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turri, Mary G.; Mercer, Sterett H.; McIntosh, Kent; Nese, Rhonda N. T.; Strickland-Cohen, M. Kathleen; Hoselton, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if an experimental 5-item measure of barriers to implementing and sustaining school-wide prevention practices, the "Assessment of Barriers to Implementation and Sustainability in Schools" (ABISS), would relate to objective measures of school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports…

  20. Effectiveness of Physical Barriers Installation for Prevention of Incidents in Mexico City’s Subway System

    OpenAIRE

    Portillo-Villasana, Gerardo de Jesús; Huerta-Barrientos, Aida; Dillarza Andrade, Yazmin

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, suicides inside the installations of subway platforms are considered a public health problem in Mexico City. One solution to prevent them is the installation of physical barriers, but their high cost is unattractive for governmental authorities. Traditional approaches of research on the effectiveness of physical barriers for preventing suicides have been limited to analyzing statistically the effects of installing platform screen doors and blue lights on subway platforms. Although c...

  1. Planning against crime: preventing crime with people not barriers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Landman, K

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available to the places in which it occurs. That is why many residents and businesses have opted for enclosed neighbourhoods and security villages. But there are alternatives that avoid the problems of access and exclusion that come with erecting barriers. A model...

  2. Optimizing The Efficiency of a Dielectric Barrier Discharge Reactor for Removal of Nitric Oxides in Gas Phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Aiasah Hashim; Wong, C.S.; Abas, M.R.

    2016-01-01

    A dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor was built and used to remove nitric oxides in gas phase. In the preliminary work, it was found that the DBD reactor can used for direct processing of contaminated air stream. It was observed that if the applied energy is sufficiently high, reduction can overcome the oxidation process. The other characteristics that can affect the efficiency of the reactor are the processing flow rate, number of DBD tubes used and how the tubes are connected. The composition of the feed gas also plays important role. To improve the efficiency, more tubes were added and configured in combination of serial and parallel connections to achieve the best result. The reactor was found to be most efficient when using 6 tubes configured to have 2 sets of 3 tubes in series connected in parallel. The maximum flow rate that can be treated is 5 scfh. When operated with the optimum input voltage of 32 kV, the reactor can remove up to 80 % nitric oxide in the reduction mode. This means that the energy is sufficiently high to sustain the reduction mode and prevent further oxidation. (author)

  3. Detection, removal and prevention of calculus: Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa G. Kamath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental plaque is considered to be a major etiological factor in the development of periodontal disease. Accordingly, the elimination of supra- and sub-gingival plaque and calculus is the cornerstone of periodontal therapy. Dental calculus is mineralized plaque; because it is porous, it can absorb various toxic products that can damage the periodontal tissues. Hence, calculus should be accurately detected and thoroughly removed for adequate periodontal therapy. Many techniques have been used to identify and remove calculus deposits present on the root surface. The purpose of this review was to compile the various methods and their advantages for the detection and removal of calculus.

  4. Removal of atrazine in water by combination of activated carbon and dielectric barrier discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanraes, Patrick, E-mail: patrick.vanraes@ugent.be [Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 41 B4, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Willems, Gert; Nikiforov, Anton [Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 41 B4, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Surmont, Pieter; Lynen, Frederic [Separation Science Group, Department of Organic Chemistry, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281 S4-bis, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Vandamme, Jeroen; Van Durme, Jim [Research Group Molecular Odor Chemistry, Department of Microbial and Molecular Systems (M2S), KU Leuven, Technology Campus, Gebroeders De Smetstraat 1, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Verheust, Yannick P.; Van Hulle, Stijn W.H.; Dumoulin, Ann [Department of Industrial Biological Sciences, Ghent University, Graaf Karel de Goedelaan 5, 8500 Kortrijk (Belgium); Leys, Christophe [Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 41 B4, 9000 Gent (Belgium)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Increasing input power with a factor 3.5 leads to deeper atrazine oxidation without significantly changing energy yield of atrazine removal. • Chlorine containing oxidation by-products of first and later generations are detected with HPLC–MS analysis, in agreement with literature. • Desorption analysis shows lower atrazine concentration and higher by-product concentration on activated carbon textile after plasma treatment. • Comparison with plasma reactors described in literature for atrazine decomposition confirms relatively high energy efficiency of our reactor. - Abstract: Efficiency of modern wastewater treatment plants to remove or decompose persistent contaminants in low concentration is often insufficient to meet the demands imposed by governmental laws. Novel, efficient and cheap methods are required to address this global issue. We developed a new type of plasma reactor, in which atrazine decomposition by atmospheric dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in dry air is combined with micropollutant adsorption on activated carbon textile and with extra bubbling of generated ozone. Investigation of reaction kinetics and by-product analysis shows that increasing input power with a factor 3.5 leads to deeper atrazine oxidation without significantly changing energy yield of atrazine removal. By-products of first and later generations are detected with HPLC–MS analysis in water and adsorbed on the activated carbon textile. Our reactor is compared in energy efficiency with reactors described in literature, showing that combination of plasma discharge with pollutant adsorption and ozone recycling is attractive for future applications of water treatment.

  5. Removal of atrazine in water by combination of activated carbon and dielectric barrier discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanraes, Patrick; Willems, Gert; Nikiforov, Anton; Surmont, Pieter; Lynen, Frederic; Vandamme, Jeroen; Van Durme, Jim; Verheust, Yannick P.; Van Hulle, Stijn W.H.; Dumoulin, Ann; Leys, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Increasing input power with a factor 3.5 leads to deeper atrazine oxidation without significantly changing energy yield of atrazine removal. • Chlorine containing oxidation by-products of first and later generations are detected with HPLC–MS analysis, in agreement with literature. • Desorption analysis shows lower atrazine concentration and higher by-product concentration on activated carbon textile after plasma treatment. • Comparison with plasma reactors described in literature for atrazine decomposition confirms relatively high energy efficiency of our reactor. - Abstract: Efficiency of modern wastewater treatment plants to remove or decompose persistent contaminants in low concentration is often insufficient to meet the demands imposed by governmental laws. Novel, efficient and cheap methods are required to address this global issue. We developed a new type of plasma reactor, in which atrazine decomposition by atmospheric dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in dry air is combined with micropollutant adsorption on activated carbon textile and with extra bubbling of generated ozone. Investigation of reaction kinetics and by-product analysis shows that increasing input power with a factor 3.5 leads to deeper atrazine oxidation without significantly changing energy yield of atrazine removal. By-products of first and later generations are detected with HPLC–MS analysis in water and adsorbed on the activated carbon textile. Our reactor is compared in energy efficiency with reactors described in literature, showing that combination of plasma discharge with pollutant adsorption and ozone recycling is attractive for future applications of water treatment.

  6. Removal of formaldehyde from gas streams via packed-bed dielectric barrier discharge plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Huixian; Zhu Aimin; Yang Xuefeng; Li Cuihong; Xu Yong

    2005-01-01

    Formaldehyde is a major indoor air pollutant and can cause serious health disorders in residents. This work reports the removal of formaldehyde from gas streams via alumina-pellet-filled dielectric barrier discharge plasmas at atmospheric pressure and 70 deg. C. With a feed gas mixture of 140 ppm HCHO, 21.0% O 2 , 1.0% H 2 O in N 2 , ∼92% of formaldehyde can be effectively destructed at GHSV (gas flow volume per hour per discharge volume) of 16 500 h -1 and E in = 108 J l -1 . An increase in the specific surface area of the alumina pellets enhances the HCHO removal, and this indicates that the adsorbed HCHO species may have a lower C-H bond breakage energy. Based on an examination of the influence of gas composition on the removal efficiency, the primary destruction pathways, besides the reactions initiated by discharge-generated radicals, such as O, H, OH and HO 2 , may include the consecutive dissociations of HCHO molecules and HCO radicals through their collisions with vibrationally- and electronically-excited metastable N 2 species. The increase of O 2 content in the inlet gas stream is able to diminish the CO production and to promote the formation of CO 2 via O-atom or HO 2 -radical involved reactions

  7. How Barriers to Collaboration Prevent Progress in Demand for Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goduscheit, René Chester; Knudsen, Mette Præst

    2015-01-01

    (RTOs) as potential mediators of collaboration between SMEs and universities. On the basis of a unique sample consisting of 151 SMEs, RTOs and universities from seven countries, the differences across dyads of potential collaborations are identified. In particular, the article finds that both firms...... and universities with collaboration experience with the other partner in general perceive higher barriers than inexperienced firms or universities. In terms of the mediating role of RTOs, the article illustrates that universities perceive lower barriers when collaborating with RTOs than with SMEs. A similar...... tendency to a mediating role of RTOs can be found among the SMEs' perception of university collaboration. Finally, the analysis shows that the knowledge institutions perceive the SMEs as very important collaboration partners, but the same sense of importance is not shared by the SMEs regarding...

  8. Health beliefs of blue collar workers. Increasing self efficacy and removing barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, S; Sisk, R J; Baldwin, K A

    1997-05-01

    The study compared the health beliefs of participants and non-participants in a blood pressure and cholesterol screening held at the worksite. A cross sectional, ex-post facto design was used. Questionnaires measuring health beliefs related to cardiac screening and prevention of cardiac problems were distributed to a convenience sample of 200 blue-collar workers in a large manufacturing plant in the Midwest. One hundred fifty-one (75.5%) completed questionnaires were returned, of which 45 had participated in cardiac worksite screening in the past month. A multivariate analysis of variance was used to analyze data. Participants perceived significantly fewer barriers to cardiac screening and scored significantly higher on self efficacy than non-participants. These findings concur with other studies identifying barriers and self efficacy as important predictors of health behavior. Occupational health nurses' efforts are warranted to reduce barriers and improve self efficacy by advertising screenings, scheduling them at convenient times and locations, assuring privacy, and keeping time inconvenience to a minimum.

  9. Regulatory barriers to pollution prevention: A position paper of the implementation council of the American institute for pollution prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byers, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    Pollution prevention/waste minimization is a win-win-win situation for government, industry, and the public, which offers more than just protection of the environment for all. Industry gains from reduced capital and operating costs, reduced liabilities, cleaner and safer working conditions, conservation of energy and material resources, and the opportunity for government and industry to work together in a cooperative manner. However, a number of regulatory barriers exist which discourage pollution prevention/waste minimization. This paper provides examples for the aluminum, chemical, petroleum, and wood treating industries of how these regulatory barriers become disincentives. To promote pollusion prevention/waste minimization, Congress and the US EPA need to reexamine those RCRA provisions which support a command and control strategy that creates the barriers. The barriers include the distinction between value and valueless materials, offsite storage requirements prior to reuse/recycle, the Derived from Rule, the Burning for Fuel Rule, land ban technology standards, and RD and D restrictions. A new RCRA Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization subtitle is proposed to eliminate or minimize these barriers

  10. The role of ritualistic ceremonial in removing barriers between subcultures in the National Health Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Ian; Brown, Reva Berman

    2002-05-01

    The role of ritualistic ceremonial in removing barriers between subcultures in the National Health Service Background. One of the ways in which it is possible to achieve successful organizational change is through the elimination of those ceremonies that reinforce or preserve the negative aspects of professional and work group autonomy, thus maintaining the barriers between subcultures. Conversely, the encouraging of ceremonies which reinforce positive aspects is likely to achieve more flexible, team-orientated changes. Aim. The paper considers those ceremonies, which perpetuate barriers in a National Health Service (NHS) Trust, and explores new ceremonies which may question, weaken or eliminate current dysfunctional practices. Design. Our research approach was mainly phenomenological, as we wished to elicit the symbolic significance of organizational routines. The primary source of data was spoken language. The findings are based on purposive sampling of informants by means of semi-structured interview and observation. Other types of information were also collected, including business plans, reports and brochures. Informants included the Chief Executive and four Board members, three consultants, the director of nursing and midwifery, 10 middle managers and eight junior, nonmedical and nonmanagerial employees. Findings. Two broad bands of ceremonies have been identified - those which preserve the existing norms and autonomy of professional and worker groups, which we have named Ceremonies of Preservation, and those which encourage change, which we have called Ceremonies of Change. Considerable data are provided to help to 'tell the story'. Conclusion. The paper argues that attention to ceremonial in the wider change process may facilitate the desired, specific change or changes in practice. It suggests that changes which confront unnecessary demarcation, but which do not undermine professional integrity, can create real benefits for NHS hospitals.

  11. Removal of caffeine from water by combining dielectric barrier discharge (DBD plasma with goethite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this research, dielectric barrier discharge plasma was developed to cooperate with goethite for removing caffeine in aqueous solution. Goethite was characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The effects of input power, initial concentration and catalysts concentration on the removal efficiency of caffeine were evaluated. Furthermore, the degradation pathways of caffeine were also discussed preliminarily. In the case of caffeine concentration at 50 mg L−1, the degradation efficiency of caffeine was improved from 41% to 94% after 24 min on the conditions of input power of 75 W by combining goethite catalysts (2.5 g L−1, while the energy efficiency could be enhanced 1.6–2.3 times compared to the single DBD reactor. The reaction mechanism experiments demonstrated that attack by hydroxyl radical and ozone was the main degradation process of caffeine in aqueous solution. These studies also provided a theoretical and practical basis for the application of DBD-goethite in treatment of caffeine from water.

  12. Experimental study of fire barriers preventing vertical fire spread in ETISs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Huang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the external thermal insulation system (ETIS has been applied increasingly in a large amount of buildings for energy conservation purpose. However, the increase use of combustible insulation materials in the ETIS has raised serious fire safety problems. Fires involving this type of ETIS have caused severe damage and loss. In order to improve its fire safety, fire barriers were suggested to be installed. This paper introduces fire experiments that have been done to study the effects of fire barriers on preventing vertical fire spread along the ETIS. The experiments were performed according to BS 8414-1:2002 “Fire performance of external cladding systems – Part 1: Test method for non-loadbearing external cladding systems applied to the face of the building”. The test facility consists of a 9 m high wall. The fire sources were wood cribs with a fire size of 3 ± 0.5 MW. The insulation materials were expanded polystyrene foam (EPS. The fire barrier was a horizontal strip of rockwool with a width of 300 mm. Thermocouples were used to measure temperatures outside and inside the ETIS. A series of experiments with different fire scenarios were done: no fire barrier, two fire barriers and three fire barriers at different heights. Test results were compared. The results show that the ETIS using EPS without fire barriers almost burned out, while the ETIS with fire barriers performed well in preventing fire spread. The temperatures above the fire barrier were much lower than those below the fire barrier, and most of the insulation materials above the top fire barrier stayed in place.

  13. Barriers and Facilitators to Melanoma Prevention and Control Behaviors Among At-Risk Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yelena P; Parsons, Bridget G; Mooney, Ryan; Aspinwall, Lisa G; Cloyes, Kristin; Hay, Jennifer L; Kohlmann, Wendy; Grossman, Douglas; Leachman, Sancy A

    2018-04-06

    Melanoma prevention is essential for children who are at elevated risk for the disease due to family history. However, children who carry a familial risk for the disease do not optimally adhere to recommended melanoma preventive behaviors. The current study sought to identify perceived barriers to and facilitators of children's engagement in melanoma preventive behaviors among children at elevated risk for melanoma due to family history of the disease (i.e., having a parent with a history of melanoma) from both parents' and childrens' perspectives. Qualitative methods were employed and consisted of separate focus group discussions with children (ages 8-17 years, n = 37) and their parents (n = 39). Focus group transcripts were coded using content analysis. Parents and children reported a number of barriers and facilitators, including on the individual (e.g., knowledge and awareness, preferences), social (e.g., peer influences, family modeling and communication), and contextual (e.g., healthcare provider communication) levels. The identified categories of barriers and facilitators both confirm and extend the literature documenting the reasons children who are at elevated risk for melanoma do not engage in melanoma prevention and control behaviors. Programs aiming to decrease melanoma risk among children of melanoma survivors could help families address their barriers to preventive behavior implementation and build on facilitators. Melanoma survivors and their children could benefit from support on their interactions with healthcare providers, schools, peers, and other caregivers about melanoma prevention.

  14. Biogeochemical and engineered barriers for preventing spread of contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltrėnaitė, Edita; Lietuvninkas, Arvydas; Baltrėnas, Pranas

    2018-02-01

    The intensive industrial development and urbanization, as well as the negligible return of hazardous components to the deeper layers of the Earth, increases the contamination load on the noosphere (i.e., the new status of the biosphere, the development of which is mainly controlled by the conscious activity of a human being). The need for reducing the spread and mobility of contaminants is growing. The insights into the role of the tree in the reduction of contaminant mobility through its life cycle are presented to show an important function performed by the living matter and its products in reducing contamination. For maintaining the sustainable development, natural materials are often used as the media in the environmental protection technologies. However, due to increasing contamination intensity, the capacity of natural materials is not sufficiently high. Therefore, the popularity of engineered materials, such as biochar which is the thermochemically modified lignocellulosic product, is growing. The new approaches, based on using the contaminant footprint, as well as natural (biogeochemical) and engineered barriers for reducing contaminant migration and their application, are described in the paper.

  15. Assessment of common interventions and perceived barriers to pressure ulcer prevention in southwest Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilesanmi, Rose Ekama; Olabisi, Prisca

    2014-01-01

    We examined the interventions used by nurses to prevent pressure ulcers in 3 hospitals in south west Nigeria and perceived barriers to effective nursing pressure ulcer prevention interventions. One hundred ninety-three nurses were purposively selected from neurological, orthopedic, intensive care, and accident and emergency units of participating hospitals. Study sites were 3 teaching hospitals in south west Nigeria (Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Lagos; University College Hospital, Ibadan; and Obafemi Awolowo Teaching Hospital Ile-Ife). Data were collected via a structured questionnaire designed for this study. It included 3 sections: demographic information, practices used for pressure ulcer prevention, and perceived barriers to prevention. Sections of the questionnaire that queried interventions and perceived barriers to pressure ulcer prevention were evaluated for face and content validity. Reliability was evaluated via internal consistency; the split half reliability was 0.82. Similar practices regarding pressure ulcer prevention were found across the 3 hospitals. The most commonly used intervention was patient repositioning every 2 hours; the least used intervention was completion of a validated pressure ulcer risk scale. Nurses described using interventions that have not proved effective for pressure ulcer prevention such as massaging bony prominences and application of talcum powder. Nurses identified 2 principal factors that act as barriers to successful prevention of pressure ulcers: inadequate manpower and inadequate supply of linens on the wards. Nurses use a combination of evidence-based interventions, along with interventions that have not proved effective for pressure ulcer prevention. We recommend development of national standards for pressure ulcer prevention in Nigeria that are based on current best evidence and consistent with current international guidelines.

  16. Removal of main exhaust gases of vehicles by a double dielectric barrier discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco, M; Valdivia, R; Pacheco, J; Rivera, C; Alva, E; Santana, A; Huertas, J; Lefort, B; Estrada, N

    2012-01-01

    Because the health effects and their contribution to climate change, the emissions of toxic gases are becoming more controlled. In order to improve the diminution of toxic gases to the atmosphere, several techniques have been developed; here it will be focus only to automotive emissions. This work deals about the treatment of toxic gases emitted from vehicles by a non-thermal plasma. Several tests were done in a 4-cylinder 2002/Z16SE motor to characterize the vehicle emissions. With these results gas mixture simulating the exhaust gases vehicles, was used in experiments at different conditions employing a double dielectric barrier reactor for their treatment. The removal efficiencies superior to 90% show the competence of the non-thermal plasma reactor to treat these gases. Experimental results are explained with the aid of a simple chemical model that suggests a possible mechanism of degradation of toxic gases. The plasma reactor employed could works at 12V supplied without difficulty by a vehicle battery.

  17. Removal of priority pollutants from water by means of dielectric barrier discharge atmospheric plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hijosa-Valsero, María, E-mail: mhijv@unileon.es [Instituto de Diagnóstico Ambiental y Estudios del Agua (IDAEA), CID, CSIC, C/Jordi Girona 18-26, E-08034 Barcelona (Spain); Molina, Ricardo, E-mail: ricardo.molina@cid.csic.es [Instituto de Química Avanzada de Cataluña (IQAC), CID, CSIC, C/Jordi Girona 18-26, E-08034 Barcelona (Spain); Schikora, Hendrik, E-mail: hendrik.schikora@igb.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer IGB, Nobelstraße 12, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Müller, Michael, E-mail: michael.mueller@igb.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer IGB, Nobelstraße 12, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Bayona, Josep M., E-mail: josep.bayona@cid.csic.es [Instituto de Diagnóstico Ambiental y Estudios del Agua (IDAEA), CID, CSIC, C/Jordi Girona 18-26, E-08034 Barcelona (Spain)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • DBD plasma reactors were used to remove pollutants from aqueous solutions. • Atrazine, chlorfenvinfos, 2,4-dibromophenol and lindane were studied. • First-order degradation kinetics were observed for all the compounds. • Degradation by-products were identified by GC–MS. • Treatment efficiencies were lower in industrial wastewater than in pure water. -- Abstract: Two different nonthermal plasma reactors at atmospheric pressure were assessed for the removal of organic micropollutants (atrazine, chlorfenvinfos, 2,4-dibromophenol, and lindane) from aqueous solutions (1–5 mg L{sup −1}) at laboratory scale. Both devices were dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactors; one was a conventional batch reactor (R1) and the other a coaxial thin-falling-water-film reactor (R2). A first-order degradation kinetics was proposed for both experiments. The kinetic constants (k) were slightly faster in R1 (0.534 min{sup −1} for atrazine; 0.567 min{sup −1} for chlorfenvinfos; 0.802 min{sup −1} for 2,4-dibromophenol; 0.389 min{sup −1} for lindane) than in R2 (0.104 min{sup −1} for atrazine; 0.523 min{sup −1} for chlorfenvinfos; 0.273 min{sup −1} for 2,4-dibromophenol; 0.294 min{sup −1} for lindane). However, energy efficiencies were about one order of magnitude higher in R2 (89 mg kW{sup −1} h{sup −1} for atrazine; 447 mg kW{sup −1} h{sup −1} for chlorfenvinfos; 47 mg kW{sup −1} h{sup −1} for 2,4-dibromophenol; 50 mg kW{sup −1} h{sup −1} for lindane) than in R1. Degradation by-products of all four compounds were identified in R1. As expected, when the plasma treatment (R1) was applied to industrial wastewater spiked with atrazine or lindane, micropollutant removal was also achieved, although at a lower rate than with aqueous solutions (k = 0.117 min{sup −1} for atrazine; k = 0.061 min{sup −1} for lindane)

  18. Perceived Benefits and Barriers of a Community-Based Diabetes Prevention and Management Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawley-Brzoska, Samantha; Misra, Ranjita

    2018-03-13

    This study examined the perceptions of benefits of and barriers to participating in a community-based diabetes program to improve program effectiveness. The Diabetes Prevention and Management (DPM) program was a twenty-two session, 1-year program, modeled after the evidence-based National Diabetes Prevention Program and AADE7 Self-Care Behaviors framework. Community-based participatory research approach was used to culturally tailor the curriculum. Participants included overweight or obese adults with dysglycemia. A benefits and barriers survey was developed to gather information on participants' perception of the program, as well as information on demographics and health literacy levels. Eighty-nine adults participated in the DPM program (73% females; 62% diabetic; 77% had adequate health literacy); 79% of participants completed the benefits and barriers survey. Principal component analysis indicated two components representing benefits (Cronbach's α = 0.83) and barriers (α = 0.65). The majority perceived high benefits and low barriers to program participation; benefits included helpful interaction with health coach or program leader (73%), improved lifestyle modification (65%) due to the program, and satisfaction with the program (75%). Open-ended questions confirmed themes related to benefits of program participation, suggestion for programmatic improvements as well as barriers to participation. Participant feedback could be used to guide interventions and tailor future program implementation.

  19. Implementation of fall prevention in residential care facilities: A systematic review of barriers and facilitators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlaeyen, Ellen; Stas, Joke; Leysens, Greet; Van der Elst, Elisa; Janssens, Elise; Dejaeger, Eddy; Dobbels, Fabienne; Milisen, Koen

    2017-05-01

    To identify the barriers and facilitators for fall prevention implementation in residential care facilities. Systematic review. Review registration number on PROSPERO: CRD42013004655. Two independent reviewers systematically searched five databases (i.e. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Web of Science) and the reference lists of relevant articles. This systematic review was conducted in line with the Center for Reviews and Dissemination Handbook and reported according to the PRISMA guideline. Only original research focusing on determinants of fall prevention implementation in residential care facilities was included. We used the Mixed Method Appraisal Tool for quality appraisal. Thematic analysis was performed for qualitative data; quantitative data were analyzed descriptively. To synthesize the results, we used the framework of Grol and colleagues that describes six healthcare levels wherein implementation barriers and facilitators can be identified. We found eight relevant studies, identifying 44 determinants that influence implementation. Of these, 17 were facilitators and 27 were barriers. Results indicated that the social and organizational levels have the greatest number of influencing factors (9 and 14, respectively), whereas resident and economical/political levels have the least (3 and 4, respectively). The most cited facilitators were good communication and facility equipment availability, while staff feeling overwhelmed, helpless, frustrated and concerned about their ability to control fall management, staffing issues, limited knowledge and skills (i.e., general clinical skill deficiencies, poor fall management skills or lack of computer skills); and poor communication were the most cited barriers. Successful implementation of fall prevention depends on many factors across different healthcare levels. The focus of implementation interventions, however, should be on modifiable barriers and facilitators such as communication, knowledge, and skills

  20. A coagulation-powdered activated carbon-ultrafiltration - Multiple barrier approach for removing toxins from two Australian cyanobacterial blooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, Mike B.; Richard, Yann; Ho, Lionel; Chow, Christopher W.K.; O'Neill, Brian K.; Newcombe, Gayle

    2011-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are a major problem for the world wide water industry as they can produce metabolites toxic to humans in addition to taste and odour compounds that make drinking water aesthetically displeasing. Removal of cyanobacterial toxins from drinking water is important to avoid serious illness in consumers. This objective can be confidently achieved through the application of the multiple barrier approach to drinking water quality and safety. In this study the use of a multiple barrier approach incorporating coagulation, powdered activated carbon (PAC) and ultrafiltration (UF) was investigated for the removal of intracellular and extracellular cyanobacterial toxins from two naturally occurring blooms in South Australia. Also investigated was the impact of these treatments on the UF flux. In this multibarrier approach, coagulation was used to remove the cells and thus the intracellular toxin while PAC was used for extracellular toxin adsorption and finally the UF was used for floc, PAC and cell removal. Cyanobacterial cells were completely removed using the UF membrane alone and when used in conjunction with coagulation. Extracellular toxins were removed to varying degrees by PAC addition. UF flux deteriorated dramatically during a trial with a very high cell concentration; however, the flux was improved by coagulation and PAC addition.

  1. Barriers and Enablers to Enacting Child and Youth Related Injury Prevention Legislation in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Rothman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Injury prevention policy is crucial for the safety of Canada’s children; however legislation is not adopted uniformly across the country. This study aimed to identify key barriers and enablers to enacting injury prevention legislation. Purposive snowball sampling identified individuals involved in injury prevention throughout Canada. An online survey asked respondents to identify policies that were relevant to them, and whether legislation existed in their province. Respondents rated the importance of barriers or enablers using a 5-point Likert type scale and included open-ended comments. Fifty-seven respondents identified the most common injury topics: bicycle helmets (44, 77%, cell phone-distracted driving (36, 63%, booster seats (28, 49%, ski helmets (24, 42%, and graduated driver’s licensing (21, 37%. The top enablers were research/surveillance, managerial/political support and professional group consultation, with much variability between injury topics. Open-ended comments emphasized the importance of a united opinion as an enabler and barriers included costs of protective equipment and inadequate enforcement of legislation. The results highlighted the importance of strategies that include research, management and community collaboration and that injury prevention topics should be addressed individually as information may be lost if topics are considered together. Findings can inform the process of turning injury prevention evidence into action.

  2. Barriers to Effective Implementation of Programs for the Prevention of Workplace Violence in Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blando, James; Ridenour, Marilyn; Hartley, Daniel; Casteel, Carri

    2015-01-01

    Effective workplace violence (WPV) prevention programs are essential, yet challenging to implement in healthcare. The aim of this study was to identify major barriers to implementation of effective violence prevention programs. After reviewing the related literature, the authors describe their research methods and analysis and report the following seven themes as major barriers to effective implementation of workplace violence programs: a lack of action despite reporting; varying perceptions of violence; bullying; profit-driven management models; lack of management accountability; a focus on customer service; and weak social service and law enforcement approaches to mentally ill patients. The authors discuss their findings in light of previous studies and experiences and offer suggestions for decreasing WPV in healthcare settings. They conclude that although many of these challenges to effective implementation of workplace violence programs are both within the program itself and relate to broader industry and societal issues, creative innovations can address these issues and improve WPV prevention programs.

  3. Effects of Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Treatment on Pentachlorophenol Removal of Granular Activated Carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Puhui; Qu Guangzhou; Li Jie

    2013-01-01

    The pentachlorophenol (PCP) adsorbed granular activated carbon (GAC) was treated by dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma. The effects of DBD plasma on the structure of GAC and PCP decomposition were analyzed by N 2 adsorption, thermogravimetric, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The experimental data of adsorption kinetics and thermodynamics of PCP on GAC were fitted with different kinetics and isotherm models, respectively. The results indicate that the types of N 2 adsorption isotherm of GAC are not changed by DBD plasma, while the specific surface area and pore volume increase after DBD plasma treatment. It is found that the weight loss of the saturated GAC is the highest, on the contrary, the weight loss of DBD treated GAC is the least because of reduced PCP residue on the GAC. The XPS spectra and SEM image suggest that some PCP on the GAC is removed by DBD plasma, and the surface of GAC treated by DBD plasma presents irregular and heterogeneous morphology. The GC-MS identification of by-products shows that two main dechlorination intermediate products, tetrachlorophenol and trichlorophenol, are distinguished. The fitting results of experimental data of adsorption kinetics and thermodynamics indicate that the pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second order models can be used for the prediction of the kinetics of virgin GAC and DBD treated GAC for PCP adsorption, and the Langmuir isotherm model fits better with the data of adsorption isotherm than the Freundlich isotherm in the adsorption of PCP on virgin GAC and DBD treated GAC

  4. How thin barrier metal can be used to prevent Co diffusion in the modern integrated circuits?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixit, Hemant; Konar, Aniruddha; Pandey, Rajan; Ethirajan, Tamilmani

    2017-01-01

    In modern integrated circuits (ICs), billions of transistors are connected to each other via thin metal layers (e.g. copper, cobalt, etc) known as interconnects. At elevated process temperatures, inter-diffusion of atomic species can occur among these metal layers, causing sub-optimal performance of interconnects, which may lead to the failure of an IC. Thus, typically a thin barrier metal layer is used to prevent the inter-diffusion of atomic species within interconnects. For ICs with sub-10 nm transistors (10 nm technology node), the design rule (thickness scaling) demands the thinnest possible barrier layer. Therefore, here we investigate the critical thickness of a titanium–nitride (TiN) barrier that can prevent the cobalt diffusion using multi-scale modeling and simulations. First, we compute the Co diffusion barrier in crystalline and amorphous TiN with the nudged elastic band method within first-principles density functional theory simulations. Later, using the calculated activation energy barriers, we quantify the Co diffusion length in the TiN metal layer with the help of kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. Such a multi-scale modelling approach yields an exact critical thickness of the metal layer sufficient to prevent the Co diffusion in IC interconnects. We obtain a diffusion length of a maximum of 2 nm for a typical process of thermal annealing at 400 °C for 30 min. Our study thus provides useful physical insights for the Co diffusion in the TiN layer and further quantifies the critical thickness (∼2 nm) to which the metal barrier layer can be thinned down for sub-10 nm ICs. (paper)

  5. How thin barrier metal can be used to prevent Co diffusion in the modern integrated circuits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Hemant; Konar, Aniruddha; Pandey, Rajan; Ethirajan, Tamilmani

    2017-11-01

    In modern integrated circuits (ICs), billions of transistors are connected to each other via thin metal layers (e.g. copper, cobalt, etc) known as interconnects. At elevated process temperatures, inter-diffusion of atomic species can occur among these metal layers, causing sub-optimal performance of interconnects, which may lead to the failure of an IC. Thus, typically a thin barrier metal layer is used to prevent the inter-diffusion of atomic species within interconnects. For ICs with sub-10 nm transistors (10 nm technology node), the design rule (thickness scaling) demands the thinnest possible barrier layer. Therefore, here we investigate the critical thickness of a titanium-nitride (TiN) barrier that can prevent the cobalt diffusion using multi-scale modeling and simulations. First, we compute the Co diffusion barrier in crystalline and amorphous TiN with the nudged elastic band method within first-principles density functional theory simulations. Later, using the calculated activation energy barriers, we quantify the Co diffusion length in the TiN metal layer with the help of kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. Such a multi-scale modelling approach yields an exact critical thickness of the metal layer sufficient to prevent the Co diffusion in IC interconnects. We obtain a diffusion length of a maximum of 2 nm for a typical process of thermal annealing at 400 °C for 30 min. Our study thus provides useful physical insights for the Co diffusion in the TiN layer and further quantifies the critical thickness (~2 nm) to which the metal barrier layer can be thinned down for sub-10 nm ICs.

  6. Exploring primary school headteachers' perspectives on the barriers and facilitators of preventing childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard-Drake, E J; Halliday, V

    2016-03-01

    Headteachers of primary schools in England are a crucial partner for childhood obesity prevention. Understanding how this works in practice is limited by their views being underrepresented or missing from the evidence base. The aim of this study was to explore primary school headteachers' perspectives on childhood obesity and the perceived barriers and facilitators of prevention. A qualitative study with a purposive sample of 14 primary school headteachers from the Yorkshire and Humber region of England was conducted. Semi-structured interviews were audio-taped, transcribed and analysed using an inductive thematic approach. An extensive range of barriers and facilitators emerged within four key themes; understanding childhood obesity, primary school setting, the role of parents and external partners. A lack of knowledge, awareness and skills to deal with the sensitivity and complexity of childhood obesity across all school stakeholders presents the most significant barrier to effective action. Headteachers recognize primary schools are a crucial setting for childhood obesity prevention; however their school's often do not have the capability, capacity and confidence to make a meaningful and sustainable impact. To increase headteachers' ability and desire to prevent childhood obesity, schools require specialist and tailored training, resources and support from external partners such as public health teams and school nursing services. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. A reactive barrier to enhance the removal of emerging organic compounds during artificial recharge of aquifers through infiltration basins

    OpenAIRE

    Valhondo, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Artificial recharge of aquifers through infiltration basins (AR) improves water quality and in- creases groundwater resources, which make of it an appropriate technique for the renaturalization of waters affected directly or indirectly by wastewater effluents. Emerging organic compounds (EOCs), typically present in such waters, are mainly reduced during AR by sorption and biotrans- formation. We installed a reactive barrier in an infiltration basin (5000 m2) to enhance the removal of EOCs ...

  8. Removal of iron and manganese using granular activated carbon and zeolite in artificial barrier of riverbank filtration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Abustan; Harmuni, Halim; Mohd, Remy Rozainy M. A. Z.

    2017-04-01

    Iron and Manganese was examined from riverbank filtration (RBF) and river water in Sungai Kerian, Lubok Buntar, Serdang Kedah. Water from the RBF was influenced by geochemical and hydro chemical processes in the aquifer that made concentrations of iron (Fe), and manganese (Mn) high, and exceeded the standard values set by the Malaysia Ministry of Health. Therefore, in order to overcome the problem, the artificial barrier was proposed to improve the performance of the RBF. In this study, the capability and performance of granular activated carbon, zeolite and sand were investigated in this research. The effects of dosage, shaking speed, pH and contact time on removal of iron and manganese were studied to determine the best performance. For the removal of iron using granular activated carbon (GAC) and zeolite, the optimum contact time was at 2 hours with 200rpm shaking speed with 5g and 10g at pH 5 with percentage removal of iron was 87.81% and 83.20% respectively. The removal of manganese and zeolite arose sharply in 75 minutes with 90.21% removal, with 100rpm shaking speed. The GAC gave the best performance with 99.39% removal of manganese. The highest removal of manganese was achieved when the adsorbent dosage increased to 10g with shaking speed of 200rpm.

  9. Prevention of clogging in a biological trickle-bed reactor removing toluene from contaminated air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, F J; Hartmans, S

    1996-04-05

    Removal of organic compounds like toluene from waste gases with a trickle-bed reactor can result in clogging of the reactor due to the formation of an excessive amount of biomass. We therefore limited the amount of nutrients available for growth, to prevent clogging of the reactor. As a consequence of this nutrient limitation a lower removal rate was observed. However, when a fungal culture was used to inoculate the reactor, the toluene removal rate under nutrient limiting conditions was higher. Over a period of 375 days, an average removal rate of 27 g C/(m(3) h) was obtained with the reactor inoculated with the fungal culture. From the carbon balance over the reactor and the nitrogen availability it was concluded that, under these nutrient-limited conditions, large amounts of carbohydrates are probably formed. We also studied the application of a NaOH wash to remove excess biomass, as a method to prevent clogging. Under these conditions an average toluene removal rate of 35 g C/(m(3) h) was obtained. After about 50 days there was no net increase in the biomass content of the reactor. The amount of biomass which was formed in the reactor equaled the amount removed by the NaOH wash.

  10. Barriers to healthy-lifestyle participation in stroke: consumer participation in secondary prevention design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, Olive C; Doody, Catherine; Ni Choisdealbh, Cliodhna; Blake, Catherine

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the study was to explore community-dwelling stroke patients' perceived barriers to healthy-lifestyle participation for secondary disease prevention, as well as their preferred means for risk-reduction information dissemination and motivators to participation in healthy-lifestyle interventions. Four focus groups (5-6 stroke survivors per group) were defined from community support groups. Key questions addressed barriers to healthy-lifestyle adoption, preferred methods for receiving information and factors that would engage participants in a risk-reduction programme. Groups were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim and analysed for thematic content using a framework approach. Twenty-two participants, 12 men, 10 women, mean age 71.4 (53-87) years, were included in the study. Three overarching themes emerged as barriers to healthy-lifestyle participation: physical, mental and environmental. Exercise participation difficulties spread across all three themes; healthy eating and smoking cessation concentrated in environmental and mental dimensions. Talks (discussions) were noted as participants' preferred method of information provision. Risk-reduction programmes considered attractive were stroke specific, convenient and delivered by healthcare professionals and involved both social and exercise components. Many stroke patients appear unable to adopt healthy-lifestyle changes through advice alone because of physical, mental and environmental barriers. Risk-reduction programmes including interactive education should be specifically tailored to address barriers currently experienced and extend beyond the stroke survivor to others in their environment who influence lifestyle choices.

  11. Gun retailers as storage partners for suicide prevention: what barriers need to be overcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierpoint, Lauren A; Tung, Gregory J; Brooks-Russell, Ashley; Brandspigel, Sara; Betz, Marian; Runyan, Carol W

    2018-02-07

    Safe storage of guns outside the household while someone is at risk for suicide is important for suicide prevention. Some gun retailers offer temporary firearm storage as a community resource. Others may be willing if perceived barriers can be addressed. We invited all gun retailers in eight Mountain West states to respond to a questionnaire about the barriers they perceive in offering temporary, voluntary gun storage for community members. Ninety-five retailers responded (25% response rate). Fifty-eight percent believed federal laws make it harder to store guns and 25% perceived state laws to be obstacles. Over 60% cited legal liability in storing and returning guns as barriers. Other important barriers included cost, space and logistical issues of drop off and pick up. Strategies to reduce legal and other barriers will need to be addressed to better engage gun retailers as a community resource for safe gun storage. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Identifying barriers to receiving preventive dental services: expanding access to preventive dental hygiene services through affiliated practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross-Panico, Michelle L; Freeman, Wilbur K

    2012-01-01

    Minority children and children from lower income families are more likely to experience the burden of oral disease. Since oral disease reduces quality of life, it is a priority to utilize preventive dental services. The research questions ask if affiliated practice increases utilization of preventive dental services by underserved children from birth to 18 years of age, and what the barriers to receiving preventive dental services are and their level of importance. A survey was administered to parents/guardians of patients from birth to 18 years of age who received preventive dental services from Catholic Healthcare West East Valley Children's Dental Clinic, an affiliated practice dental clinic in Chandler, Arizona. Thirty-four surveys were completed: 21 completed in English and 13 completed in Spanish. The data was analyzed to provide descriptive statistics and non-parametrically analyzed using the Friedman's, Kendall's W and Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Tests. The cost of preventive dental services is more important to this population than both convenience of appointment time and distance traveled. As the cost increases for preventive dental services, this population will utilize preventive dental services less frequently. The study indicated that the increase of self-reported utilization of preventive dental services by underserved children, ranging in age from birth to 18 years old, in Arizona affiliated practice dental clinics, was primarily impacted by perceived reduced costs of receiving care. Funding efforts, reimbursement mechanisms and legislative policies should support this dental care delivery model to provide care to underserved children, adults and seniors throughout the U.S.

  13. Perioperative registered nurses knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and barriers regarding pressure ulcer prevention in perioperative patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallier, Peggy C; Reineke, Patricia R; Asadoorian, Kathy; Choonoo, John G; Campo, Marc; Malmgreen-Wallen, Christine

    2017-08-01

    Hospital acquired pressure ulcers have a detrimental effect on patient quality of life, morbidity, mortality, and cost to the healthcare industry. Little is known about pressure ulcer prevention in perioperative services. The objectives of this study were to describe perioperative registered nurses (RNs) knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and barriers about pressure ulcer prevention and to determine if knowledge and the availability of a pressure ulcer staging tool are predictors of pressure ulcer prevention behavior. A cross-sectional descriptive pilot study was conducted. Sixty-two perioperative RNs from 10 acute care hospitals participated. Perioperative nurses believed carrying out pressure ulcer prevention strategies is essential to nursing practice but only two-thirds reported conducting pressure ulcer risk assessment on all patients and daily assessment on at risk patients. Results indicated a knowledge deficit regarding assessment and prevention of pressure ulcers as performance on the PUKT (72%) fell below the recommended score of 90%. Results of binary logistic regression indicated that knowledge as measured by the PUKT and availability of a pressure ulcer staging tool were statistically significant (p=0.03) predictors of pressure ulcer prevention behavior. The initial model without the predictor variables, indicated an overall success rate of correct predictions of 64% which increase to 73% when the predictor variables were added to the initial model. Although perioperative nurses believe that pressure ulcer prevention is important, a knowledge deficit exists and there is a need for pressure ulcer prevention education. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Study on characteristics of high frequency dielectric barrier discharge for the removal of organic pollutant adsorbed on activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, G.Z.; Li, G.F. [Dalian Univ. of Technology, Dalian (China). Inst. of Electrostatics and Special Power; Li, J.; Lu, N.; Wu, Y.; Li, D. [Dalian Univ. of Technology, Dalian (China). Inst. of Electrostatics and Special Power; Key Lab of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering, Ministry of Education, Dalian (China)

    2010-07-01

    Advanced oxidation technologies such as photocatalysis, electrochemical degradation, Fenton oxidation, hydrogen peroxide oxidation, and plasma oxidation are increasingly being used to degrade refractory biodegradable organic contaminants. The plasma oxidation method has the advantage of direct in situ production of multiple types of high-reactive chemical species, including molecules and radicals that facilitate the degradation reaction. In addition, plasma oxidation does not produce any secondary pollution. Compared to other plasma technologies, the dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma has been considered as a promising technology for removing toxic compounds because of its stability and its treatability property of biologically recalcitrant compounds in wastewater. However, the energy efficiency of DBD requires improvement for economic reasons. This paper reported on an experimental study that investigated the electrical characteristics of a parallel plate DBD reactor using a high frequency power supply for the removal of pentachlorophenol (PCP) adsorbed on activated carbon (AC). This study examined the effects of AC with different mass on discharge characteristics and compared the voltage and current waveforms, and discharge images of DBD reactors with different dielectric configurations. When the DBD reactor filled with AC, the applied voltage of discharge decreased regardless of the DBD reactor configuration in terms of having a single barrier or two barriers. The discharge characteristics had no significant change with AC mass increasing. The discharge images and current waveforms showed that DBD reactor configuration consisting of two dielectrics is more homogeneous and stable than the one consisting of a single dielectric. Under the same electric field condition, the degradation efficiency of PCP in two barriers reactor is higher than that in single barrier reactor. It was concluded that the findings from this study may be instrumental in treating

  15. Linking field and laboratory studies to investigate nitrate removal using permeable reactive barrier technology during managed recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorski, G.; Beganskas, S.; Weir, W. B.; Redford, K.; Saltikov, C.; Fisher, A. T.

    2017-12-01

    We present data from a series of field and laboratory studies investigating mechanisms for the enhanced removal of nitrate during infiltration as a part of managed recharge. These studies combine physical, geochemical, and microbiological data collected during controlled infiltration experiments at both a plot and a laboratory scale using permeable reactive barrier (PRB) technology. The presence of a PRB, made of wood chips or biochar, enhances nitrate removal by stimulating the growth and productivity of native soil microbes to process nitrate via denitrification. Earlier work has shown that unamended soil can remove up to 50% of nitrate during infiltration at rates microbiological data show significant population changes below the PRB where most of the cycling occurs. Coupled with isotopic analyses, these results suggest that a PRB expands the range of infiltration rates at which significant nitrate can be removed by microbial activity. Further, nitrate removal occurs at different depths below the biochar and redwood chips, suggesting different mechanisms of nitrate removal in the presence of different PRB materials. In laboratory studies we flowed artificial groundwater through intact sediment cores collected at the same field site where we also ran infiltration tests. These experiments show that the fluid flow rate and the presence of a PRB exhibit primary control on nitrate removal during infiltration, and that the relationship between flow rate and nitrate removal is fundamentally different in the presence of a PRB. These data from multiple scales and flow regimes are combined to offer a deeper understanding how the use of PRB technology during infiltration can help address a significant non-point source issue at the surface-subsurface interface.

  16. Enhanced chitosan beads-supported Fe(0)-nanoparticles for removal of heavy metals from electroplating wastewater in permeable reactive barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tingyi; Yang, Xi; Wang, Zhong-Liang; Yan, Xiaoxing

    2013-11-01

    The removal of heavy metals from electroplating wastewater is a matter of paramount importance due to their high toxicity causing major environmental pollution problems. Nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI) became more effective to remove heavy metals from electroplating wastewater when enhanced chitosan (CS) beads were introduced as a support material in permeable reactive barriers (PRBs). The removal rate of Cr (VI) decreased with an increase of pH and initial Cr (VI) concentration. However, the removal rates of Cu (II), Cd (II) and Pb (II) increased with an increase of pH while decreased with an increase of their initial concentrations. The initial concentrations of heavy metals showed an effect on their removal sequence. Scanning electron microscope images showed that CS-NZVI beads enhanced by ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether (EGDE) had a loose and porous surface with a nucleus-shell structure. The pore size of the nucleus ranged from 19.2 to 138.6 μm with an average aperture size of around 58.6 μm. The shell showed a tube structure and electroplating wastewaters may reach NZVI through these tubes. X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS) demonstrated that the reduction of Cr (VI) to Cr (III) was complete in less than 2 h. Cu (II) and Pb (II) were removed via predominant reduction and auxiliary adsorption. However, main adsorption and auxiliary reduction worked for the removal of Cd (II). The removal rate of total Cr, Cu (II), Cd (II) and Pb (II) from actual electroplating wastewater was 89.4%, 98.9%, 94.9% and 99.4%, respectively. The findings revealed that EGDE-CS-NZVI-beads PRBs had the capacity to remediate actual electroplating wastewater and may become an effective and promising technology for in situ remediation of heavy metals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Facilitators and barriers to discussing HIV prevention with adolescents: perspectives of HIV-infected parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Laura L; Reis, Janet S; Weber, Kathleen M

    2013-08-01

    We examined HIV-infected parents' conversations about HIV prevention with their uninfected children, including what facilitated or hindered communication. Parents with HIV/AIDS (n = 90) who had children aged 10 to 18 years were recruited for a mixed method study from 2009 to 2010. Interviews assessed facilitators and barriers to discussing HIV prevention. A questionnaire identified the frequency and content of conversations, parental confidence level, and perceived importance of discussing preventive topics. Eighty-one percent of parents reported "sometimes" or "often" communicating about HIV prevention. A subset of parents found these conversations difficult; 44% indicated their desire for support. Facilitators to communication included utilizing support, focusing on the benefits of talking, and having a previous relationship with one's child. Barriers to discussions included fear of negative consequences, living in denial, and lacking a parental role model who discussed safer sex. Parents varied as to how they believed their HIV status affected communication. Those who did not disclose their HIV status to their children reported less frequent communication; self-efficacy partially mediated this relationship. Findings highlighted the need for communication skills training that support HIV-infected parents in their efforts to discuss HIV-related information with adolescents.

  18. Facilitators and Barriers to Discussing HIV Prevention With Adolescents: Perspectives of HIV-Infected Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Janet S.; Weber, Kathleen M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined HIV-infected parents’ conversations about HIV prevention with their uninfected children, including what facilitated or hindered communication. Methods. Parents with HIV/AIDS (n = 90) who had children aged 10 to 18 years were recruited for a mixed method study from 2009 to 2010. Interviews assessed facilitators and barriers to discussing HIV prevention. A questionnaire identified the frequency and content of conversations, parental confidence level, and perceived importance of discussing preventive topics. Results. Eighty-one percent of parents reported “sometimes” or “often” communicating about HIV prevention. A subset of parents found these conversations difficult; 44% indicated their desire for support. Facilitators to communication included utilizing support, focusing on the benefits of talking, and having a previous relationship with one’s child. Barriers to discussions included fear of negative consequences, living in denial, and lacking a parental role model who discussed safer sex. Parents varied as to how they believed their HIV status affected communication. Those who did not disclose their HIV status to their children reported less frequent communication; self-efficacy partially mediated this relationship. Conclusions. Findings highlighted the need for communication skills training that support HIV-infected parents in their efforts to discuss HIV-related information with adolescents. PMID:23763390

  19. The circulating air barrier: Effective prevention of liquid contaminant movement through soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, R.; Towers, T.; Johnson, H.; Overbey, W.

    1995-01-01

    The environmental cleanup task facing the United States Department of Energy (DOE) presents enormous technical, planning and institutional challenges, including the need to develop new technologies that are faster, better, safer, and cheaper, in order to expedite site cleanup. Characterization of contaminated sediments resulting from past tank leaks, continued safe operations of the tanks, total confinement of leaking materials, secondary waste minimization, and final closure of the single shell tanks are five of the many facets of the storage tank issue at Hanford and elsewhere in the nation. Each of these issues are considered in the development of the Circulating Air Barrier (CAB). The Circulating Air Barrier system is a desiccant-type barrier designed to prevent the movement of liquid contaminants toward the groundwater by using an air circulation and processing system to lower the water saturation in a targeted subsurface zone below the saturation level required for liquid flow. Vertical or horizontal wells can be installed to create a matrix of air injection and production so that air flows across the target barrier zone to the production wells. In the event of a tank leak, the system serves as a tool for early detection and provides a means to withdraw volatile contaminants to the surface for treatment. Demonstration and full-scale CAB systems have been designed for the Hanford Site. This includes chemical and geological characterization; model development, sensitivity analysis and performance optimization; subsurface configuration and surface processing equipment design; and development of a test program with associated cost estimates

  20. Understanding Barriers to Prevention of ntshav qab zib/nsthaav qaab zib: A Hmong perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Perez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The need to decrease health disparities has been widely documented in the professional literature, therefore, it is not surprising that one of the two goals listed in Healthy People 2010 is the reduction of health disparities in ethnic and racial communities in the United States. The research literature, however, shows that the majority of efforts to decrease health disparities have focused on the major racial and ethnic groups in the United State and few if any efforts have focused on the healthcare needs, practices, beliefs, barriers, and other health aspects of the Hmong community. The purpose of this study is to record barriers to addressing diabetes in the Hmong community. Data were collected using Photovoice, a qualitative data collection method which enables participants to record in photo format the issues they experience. Findings from the study identified several barriers to diabetes prevention in the Hmong community. Participants indicate 1 the environment as a major key barrier, 2 personal choices, habits, and life style and, 3 lack of a safe environment to access physical activity as factors contributing to the potential for developing diabetes.

  1. Educating Health Professionals about the Electronic Health Record (EHR: Removing the Barriers to Adoption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paule Bellwood

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the healthcare industry we have had a significant rise in the use of electronic health records (EHRs in health care settings (e.g. hospital, clinic, physician office and home. There are three main barriers that have arisen to the adoption of these technologies: (1 a shortage of health professional faculty who are familiar with EHRs and related technologies, (2 a shortage of health informatics specialists who can implement these technologies, and (3 poor access to differing types of EHR software. In this paper we outline a novel solution to these barriers: the development of a web portal that provides facility and health professional students with access to multiple differing types of EHRs over the WWW. The authors describe how the EHR is currently being used in educational curricula and how it has overcome many of these barriers. The authors also briefly describe the strengths and limitations of the approach.

  2. Removing barriers to women entrepreneurs’ engagement in decentralized sustainable energy solutions for the poor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick Glemarec

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available  Rapidly falling renewable technology costs and new business models mean that decentralized energy solutions hold great promise to accelerate universal sustainable energy access. Across developing countries, women are typically the primary household energy managers. Close to their customers, women entrepreneurs have the potential to lower customer acquisition and servicing costs and drive these new decentralized solutions. However, they remain under-represented in the industry. This paper attempts to understand the root causes of this gender gap. It formulates the research hypothesis that market transformation policies intended to reduce investment risks to accelerate energy access may not benefit men and women entrepreneurs equally because of the existing structural barriers that women face. To test this hypothesis, the paper conducts a gender sensitive investment barrier and risk analysis, overlaid onto an existing gender neutral taxonomy of investment barriers and risks for decentralized sustainable energy solutions. A key finding is that for women entrepreneurs, existing structural impediments to gender equality translate into additional investment barriers as well as increased likelihood of occurrence and severity of the financial impact of generic investment risks. The paper offers an illustrative theory of change to facilitate a dialogue on the specific interventions needed to address these gender differentiated risks locally. It concludes that market transformation efforts for universal sustainable energy access must include targeted policy measures to ensure equal benefits to men and women entrepreneurs, and optimize the use of public resources to catalyze private investment and reduce poverty.

  3. 3 CFR 13505 - Executive Order 13505 of March 9, 2009. Removing Barriers to Responsible Scientific Research...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Barriers to Responsible Scientific Research Involving Human Stem Cells 13505 Order 13505 Presidential... Scientific Research Involving Human Stem Cells By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution.... Research involving human embryonic stem cells and human non-embryonic stem cells has the potential to lead...

  4. Four barriers and a set of values that prevent violence among cannabis growers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammersvik, Eirik

    2015-03-01

    Cannabis markets are often described as less violent than other drug markets. Domestic cannabis cultivation markets seem to be especially non-violent. However, few studies have investigated why this might be. Two and half years of ethnographic fieldwork among indoor cannabis growers and interviews and conversations with 52 growers in Norway. This study identified four barriers and a set of values that prevent violence among growers. (1) Violence attracts increased attention from police and enemies, which inhibits 'business as usual' and reduces profits. (2) Careful attention to profits makes growers calculate and prepare for financial losses. (3) The prospect of covering debt by producing more cannabis makes it possible to choose non-violent sanctions. (4) Tight social ties and friendships prevent violence when conflicts erupt. However, the cannabis culture of the actors and the transactions stands out as the main reason why these four barriers are more important in cannabis markets than in other drug markets. This paper discusses how policymakers can benefit from the market changes that follow 'import substitution' to construct policies that prevent violence and facilitate peaceful drug markets and drug cultures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Preliminary tests of an electrokinetic barrier to prevent heavy metal pollution of soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, R.J.; Muntoni, A.; Ruggeri, R.; Winfield, K.C.

    2007-01-01

    Sardinia has to deal with significant environmental problems related to heavy-metal contamination, mainly located at its abandoned mining districts. In particular, acid mine drainage management and groundwater pollution are typical problems associated with mining activities which constitute a serious threat to human health. To prevent contaminant spread over the adjacent environment, it is of great interest to consider using an electric field as a containment fence to counteract pollutant transport. In this application, contaminant transport due to a hydraulic gradient driving force is prevented by the combined effect of electro-osmosis and electro-migration. Although there are other alternative containment technologies, the electrokinetic fence offers many advantages, as it is easy to operate, there is a minimal exposure to the operating personnel and it is likely to be effective for a wide range of contaminants. In this work, both one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) tests have been carried out. In the 1D tests, the efficiency of an electrokinetic barrier to prevent cadmium from polluting an uncontaminated sample was investigated; soil pH, metal concentration and current intensity have been monitored; results indicate that the barrier can prevent or significantly reduce heavy-metal contamination from spreading against a hydraulic gradient of 7. In 2D tests, two rows of electrodes inserted in a horizontally flat soil tank were used to generate an electric field. It was found that an electric field of 125 V m -1 was sufficient to prevent significant copper incursion from a contaminant flow under a hydraulic gradient of 1.3

  6. Hybridization of natural systems with advanced treatment processes for organic micropollutant removals: New concepts in multi-barrier treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Sudhakaran, Sairam

    2013-07-01

    In the past, emphasis has been on individual treatment processes comprising conventional treatment (coagulation, sedimentation, and filtration) followed by advanced treatment processes (adsorption, ion-exchange, oxidation, and membrane separation). With the depletion of water resources and high demand for power and chemical usage, efforts need to be made to judiciously use advanced treatment processes. There is a new interest in multiple barriers with synergies in which two coupled processes can function as a hybrid process. Within the context of this paper, the hybrid processes include a natural treatment process coupled with an advanced process. Pilot/full-scale studies have shown efficient removal of OMPs by these hybrid processes. With this hybridization, the usage of resources such as power and chemicals can be reduced. In this study, coupling/hybridization of aquifer recharge and recovery (ARR) with oxidation (O3), advanced oxidation process which involves OH radicals (AOP), nanofiltration (NF), reverse osmosis (RO) and granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption for OMP removal was studied. O3 or AOP as a pre-treatment and GAC, NF, RO, or UV/chlorination as a post-treatment to ARR was studied. NF can be replaced by RO for removal of OMPs since studies have shown similar performance of NF to RO for removal of many OMPs, thereby reducing costs and providing a more sustainable approach. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Prevention of Cutaneous Tissue Contracture During Removal of Craniofacial Implant Superstructures for CT and MRI Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen Sullivan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Head and neck cancer patients who have lost facial parts following surgical intervention frequently require craniofacial implant retained facial prostheses for restoration. Many craniofacial implant patients require computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans as part of their long-term follow-up care. Consequently removal of implant superstructures and peri-abutment tissue management is required for those studies. The purpose of the present paper was to describe a method for eliminating cranial imaging artifacts in patients with craniofacial implants.Material and Methods: Three patients wearing extraoral implant retained facial prostheses needing either computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging studies were discussed. Peri-implant soft tissues contracture after removal of percutaneous craniofacial implant abutments during computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging studies was prevented using a method proposed by authors. The procedure involves temporary removal of the supra-implant components prior to imaging and filling of the tissue openings with polyvinyl siloxane dental impression material.Results: Immediately after filling of the tissue openings with polyvinyl siloxane dental impression material patients were sent for the imaging studies, and were asked to return for removal of the silicone plugs and reconnection of all superstructure hardware after imaging procedures were complete. The silicone plugs were easily removed with a dental explorer. The percutaneous abutments were immediately replaced and screwed into the implants which were at the bone level.Conclusions: Presented herein method eliminates the source of artifacts and prevents contracture of percutaneous tissues upon removal of the implant abutments during imaging.

  8. Identifying gaps, barriers, and solutions in implementing pressure ulcer prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Irene M; Nadzam, Deborah Morris

    2011-06-01

    Patients continue to suffer from pressure ulcers (PUs), despite implementation of evidence-based pressure ulcer (PU) prevention protocols. In 2009, Joint Commission Resources (JCR) and Hill-Rom created the Nurse Safety Scholar-in-Residence (nurse scholar) program to foster the professional development of expert nurse clinicians to become translators of evidence into practice. The first nurse scholar activity has focused on PU prevention. Four hospitals with established PU programs participated in the PU prevention implementation project. Each hospital's team completed an inventory of PU prevention program components and provided copies of accompanying documentation, along with prevalence and incidence data. Site visits to the four participating hospitals were arranged to provide opportunities for more in-depth analysis and support. Following the initial site visit, the project team at each hospital developed action plans for the top three barriers to PU program implementation. A series of conference calls was held between the site visits. Pressure Ulcer Program Gaps and Recommendations. The four hospitals shared common gaps in terms of limitations in staff education and training; lack of physician involvement; limited involvement of unlicensed nursing staff; lack of plan for communicating at-risk status; and limited quality improvement evaluations of bedside practices. Detailed recommendations were identified for addressing each of these gaps. these Recommendations for eliminating gaps have been implemented by the participating teams to drive improvement and to reduce hospital-acquired PU rates. The nurse scholars will continue to study implementation of best practices for PU prevention.

  9. Moving Out of the Office: Removing Barriers to Access to Psychiatrists

    OpenAIRE

    Paris, Joel; Goldbloom, David; Kurdyak, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Our paper offers a perspective on barriers to access to psychiatric care. Research shows that access depends not simply on the total number of trained specialists but also on their kind of practice. In some large cities, some practitioners follow a small number of patients in long-term psychotherapy, a practice supported by government insurance, which places no limits on the number of sessions or treatment duration. The problem is that long-term psychotherapy, despite a rich tradition in psyc...

  10. Propitious Therapeutic Modulators to Prevent Blood-Spinal Cord Barrier Disruption in Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Hemant; Ropper, Alexander E; Lee, Soo-Hong; Han, Inbo

    2017-07-01

    The blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) is a specialized protective barrier that regulates the movement of molecules between blood vessels and the spinal cord parenchyma. Analogous to the blood-brain barrier (BBB), the BSCB plays a crucial role in maintaining the homeostasis and internal environmental stability of the central nervous system (CNS). After spinal cord injury (SCI), BSCB disruption leads to inflammatory cell invasion such as neutrophils and macrophages, contributing to permanent neurological disability. In this review, we focus on the major proteins mediating the BSCB disruption or BSCB repair after SCI. This review is composed of three parts. Section 1. SCI and the BSCB of the review describes critical events involved in the pathophysiology of SCI and their correlation with BSCB integrity/disruption. Section 2. Major proteins involved in BSCB disruption in SCI focuses on the actions of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), angiopoietins (Angs), bradykinin, nitric oxide (NO), and endothelins (ETs) in BSCB disruption and repair. Section 3. Therapeutic approaches discusses the major therapeutic compounds utilized to date for the prevention of BSCB disruption in animal model of SCI through modulation of several proteins.

  11. Contextual Facilitators of and Barriers to Nursing Home Pressure Ulcer Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Christine W; Solomon, Jeffrey; Palmer, Jennifer A; Lukas, Carol VanDeusen

    2016-05-01

    To present findings of a study of institutional factors related to pressure ulcer (PrU) prevention in Veterans Health Administration nursing homes. This continuing education activity is intended for physicians and nurses with an interest in skin and wound care. After participating in this educational activity, the participant should be better able to:1. Identify the study's design, process, and purpose.2. List the factors pertaining to sites with improving performance. Important gaps exist in the knowledge of how to achieve successful, sustained prevention of pressure ulcers (PrUs) in nursing homes. This study aimed to address those gaps by comparing nursing leadership and indirect care staff members' impressions about the context of PrU prevention in facilities with improving and declining PrU rates. The study was conducted in a sample of 6 Veterans Health Administration nursing homes (known as community living centers) purposively selected to represent a range of PrU care performance. One-time 30-minute semistructured interviews with 23 community living center staff were conducted. Qualitative interview data were analyzed using an analytic framework containing (a) a priori analytic constructs based on the study's conceptual framework and (b) sections for emerging constructs. Analysis revealed 6 key concepts differentiating sites with improving and declining PrU care performance. These concepts were (1) structures through which the change effort is initiated; (2) organizational prioritization, alignment, and support; (3) improvement culture; (4) clarity of roles and responsibilities; (5) communication strategies; and (6) staffing and clinical practices. Results also pointed to potential contextual facilitators of and barriers to successful PrU prevention. Leadership's visible prioritization of and support for PrU prevention and the initiation of PrU prevention activities through formal structures were the most striking components represented at sites with

  12. NOx removal enhancement by a Jerks - and - Jumps type electrode in a dielectric barrier discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercado-Cabrera, A; Villar, E L del; Valencia-Alvarado, R; Lopez-Callejas, R; Barocio, S R; Pena-Eguiluz, R; Munozoz-Castro, A; Jaramillo-Sierra, B; Piedad-Beneitez, A de la

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the electrode surface of a NOx removal treatment reactor has been modified in order to reduce its electric potential level and, at the same time, to increase its removal capacity by generating a cold plasma using a non-homogenous electric field on the electrode surface. This electric field has been achieved by means of a jerks and jumps-like electrode profile. The other electrode conserves the original flat form. Then, experiments on the removal of NOx were carried out in this 22.4 cm 3 reactor. Concentrations of 30-80 μmol/mol of NOx in nitrogen were used with 1 SLPM flows. The exhaust gases were analysed as well as characterised by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Additional experiments were also carried out in a second reactor of the same reaction volume but where two conventional flat and parallel electrodes were used, in order to compare the results. The NO removal efficiency in the two flat electrode case approached 87% while ∼98% in the jerks and jumps reactor

  13. Suburban Poverty: Barriers to Services and Injury Prevention among Marginalized Women Who Use Methamphetamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boeri, Miriam

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This paper aims to identify the needed healthcare and social services barriers for women living in suburban communities who are using or have used methamphetamine. Drug users are vulnerable to injury, violence and transmission of infectious diseases, and having access to healthcare has been shown to positively influence prevention and intervention among this population. Yet little is known regarding the social context of suburban drug users, their risks behaviors, and their access to healthcare.Methods: The data collection involved participant observation in the field, face-to-face interviews and focus groups. Audio-recorded in-depth life histories, drug use histories, and resource needs were collected from 31 suburban women who were former or current users of methamphetamine. The majority was drawn from marginalized communities and highly vulnerable to risk for injury and violence. We provided these women with healthcare and social service information and conducted follow-up interviews to identify barriers to these services.Results: Barriers included (1 restrictions imposed by the services and (2 limitations inherent in the women’s social, economic, or legal situations. We found that the barriers increased the women’s risk for further injury, violence and transmission of infectious diseases. Women who could not access needed healthcare and social resources typically used street drugs that were accessible and affordable to self-medicate their untreated emotional and physical pain.Conclusion: Our findings add to the literatureon how healthcare and social services are related to injury prevention. Social service providers in the suburbs were often indifferent to the needs of drug-using women. For these women, health services were accessed primarily at emergency departments (ED. To break the cycle of continued drug use, violence and injury, we suggest that ED staff be trained to perform substance abuse assessments and provide

  14. Barriers to lifestyle changes for prevention of cardiovascular disease - a survey among 40-60-year old Danes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Leppin, Anja; Gyrd-Hansen, Dort E; Jarbøl, Dorte Ejg; Søndergaard, Jens; Larsen, Pia Veldt

    2017-09-12

    Elimination of modifiable risk factors including unhealthy lifestyle has the potential for prevention of 80% of cardiovascular disease cases. The present study focuses on disclosing barriers for maintaining specific lifestyle changes by exploring associations between perceiving these barriers and various sociodemographic and health-related characteristics. Data were collected through a web-based questionnaire survey and included 962 respondents who initially accepted treatment for a hypothetical cardiovascular risk, and who subsequently stated that they preferred lifestyle changes to medication. Logistic regression was used to analyse associations between barriers to lifestyle changes and relevant covariates. A total of 45% of respondents were identified with at least one barrier to introducing 30 min extra exercise daily, 30% of respondents reported at least one barrier to dietary change, and among smokers at least one barrier to smoking cessation was reported by 62% of the respondents. The perception of specific barriers to lifestyle change depended on sociodemographic and health-related characteristics. We observed a considerable heterogeneity between different social groups in the population regarding a number of barriers to lifestyle change. Our study demonstrates that social inequality exists in the ability to take appropriate preventive measures through lifestyle changes to stay healthy. This finding underlines the challenge of social inequality even in populations with equal and cost-free access to health care. Our study suggests supplementing traditional public campaigns to counter cardiovascular disease by using individualized and targeted initiatives.

  15. Moving Out of the Office: Removing Barriers to Access to Psychiatrists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Joel; Goldbloom, David; Kurdyak, Paul

    2015-09-01

    Our paper offers a perspective on barriers to access to psychiatric care. Research shows that access depends not simply on the total number of trained specialists but also on their kind of practice. In some large cities, some practitioners follow a small number of patients in long-term psychotherapy, a practice supported by government insurance, which places no limits on the number of sessions or treatment duration. The problem is that long-term psychotherapy, despite a rich tradition in psychiatry, is not an evidence-based treatment. This review recommends a model in which psychiatrists spend more time in consultation with primary care professionals, in acute care for patients with severe mental illness, and in briefer, more cost-effective forms of psychotherapy.

  16. FeS-coated sand for removal of arsenic(III) under anaerobic conditions in permeable reactive barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Y.-S.; Gallegos, T.J.; Demond, A.H.; Hayes, K.F.

    2011-01-01

    Iron sulfide (as mackinawite, FeS) has shown considerable promise as a material for the removal of As(III) under anoxic conditions. However, as a nanoparticulate material, synthetic FeS is not suitable for use in conventional permeable reactive barriers (PRBs). This study developed a methodology for coating a natural silica sand to produce a material of an appropriate diameter for a PRB. Aging time, pH, rinse time, and volume ratios were varied, with a maximum coating of 4.0 mg FeS/g sand achieved using a pH 5.5 solution at a 1:4 volume ratio (sand: 2 g/L FeS suspension), three days of aging and no rinsing. Comparing the mass deposited on the sand, which had a natural iron-oxide coating, with and without chemical washing showed that the iron-oxide coating was essential to the formation of a stable FeS coating. Scanning electron microscopy images of the FeS-coated sand showed a patchwise FeS surface coating. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed a partial oxidation of the Fe(II) to Fe(III) during the coating process, and some oxidation of S to polysulfides. Removal of As(III) by FeS-coated sand was 30% of that by nanoparticulate FeS at pH 5 and 7. At pH 9, the relative removal was 400%, perhaps due to the natural oxide coating of the sand or a secondary mineral phase from mackinawite oxidation. Although many studies have investigated the coating of sands with iron oxides, little prior work reports coating with iron sulfides. The results suggest that a suitable PRB material for the removal of As(III) under anoxic conditions can be produced through the deposition of a coating of FeS onto natural silica sand with an iron-oxide coating. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Overcoming barriers to engaging socio-economically disadvantaged populations in CHD primary prevention: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunningham Heather

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preventative medicine has become increasingly important in efforts to reduce the burden of chronic disease in industrialised countries. However, interventions that fail to recruit socio-economically representative samples may widen existing health inequalities. This paper explores the barriers and facilitators to engaging a socio-economically disadvantaged (SED population in primary prevention for coronary heart disease (CHD. Methods The primary prevention element of Have a Heart Paisley (HaHP offered risk screening to all eligible individuals. The programme employed two approaches to engaging with the community: a a social marketing campaign and b a community development project adopting primarily face-to-face canvassing. Individuals living in areas of SED were under-recruited via the social marketing approach, but successfully recruited via face-to-face canvassing. This paper reports on focus group discussions with participants, exploring their perceptions about and experiences of both approaches. Results Various reasons were identified for low uptake of risk screening amongst individuals living in areas of high SED in response to the social marketing campaign and a number of ways in which the face-to-face canvassing approach overcame these barriers were identified. These have been categorised into four main themes: (1 processes of engagement; (2 issues of understanding; (3 design of the screening service and (4 the priority accorded to screening. The most immediate barriers to recruitment were the invitation letter, which often failed to reach its target, and the general distrust of postal correspondence. In contrast, participants were positive about the face-to-face canvassing approach. Participants expressed a lack of knowledge and understanding about CHD and their risk of developing it and felt there was a lack of clarity in the information provided in the mailing in terms of the process and value of screening. In

  18. Facilitators and barriers to students' learning in an obesity prevention graduate program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Kieu Anh; Anderson-Knott, Mindy; de Guzman, Maria Rosario T; Boeckner, Linda; Koszewski, Wanda

    2018-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a major public health concern with underpinnings at the individual, family, community and societal levels. The Transdisciplinary Childhood Obesity Prevention Graduate Certificate Program (TOP) is an innovative graduate-level certificate program developed to train professionals to understand and address obesity from multiple perspectives using an interprofessional education (IPE) approach. Currently, there is limited knowledge on what promotes or hinders learning in IPE approaches dealing with obesity prevention. The goal of this report is to address this gap by describing facilitators and barriers to learning in a graduate-level training program. Using a qualitative research design, semi-structured interviews were collected from 23 professional students, as part of a larger program evaluation project for TOP. Thematic analysis revealed the challenges and strengths of the program that relate specifically to: its interprofessional approach, its structure, and its activities. Interprofessional exchanges were reported to expand students' learning, but adequate interprofessional representation must be maintained, and the complexity of interprofessional collaborations must also be well-coordinated. Standardising the program structure and courses for consistency across professions, and clear communication are critical to program success. Findings add to the existing literature on what promotes effective learning in a professional obesity prevention program using an IPE approach.

  19. Organic substrates as electron donors in permeable reactive barriers for removal of heavy metals from acid mine drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijjanapanich, P; Pakdeerattanamint, K; Lens, P N L; Annachhatre, A P

    2012-12-01

    This research was conducted to select suitable natural organic substrates as potential carbon sources for use as electron donors for biological sulphate reduction in a permeable reactive barrier (PRB). A number of organic substrates were assessed through batch and continuous column experiments under anaerobic conditions with acid mine drainage (AMD) obtained from an abandoned lignite coal mine. To keep the heavy metal concentration at a constant level, the AMD was supplemented with heavy metals whenever necessary. Under anaerobic conditions, sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) converted sulphate into sulphide using the organic substrates as electron donors. The sulphide that was generated precipitated heavy metals as metal sulphides. Organic substrates, which yielded the highest sulphate reduction in batch tests, were selected for continuous column experiments which lasted over 200 days. A mixture of pig-farm wastewater treatment sludge, rice husk and coconut husk chips yielded the best heavy metal (Fe, Cu, Zn and Mn) removal efficiencies of over 90%.

  20. Barriers to lifestyle changes for prevention of cardiovascular disease ? a survey among 40?60-year old Danes

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Leppin, Anja; Gyrd-Hansen, Dort e; Jarb?l, Dorte Ejg; S?ndergaard, Jens; Larsen, Pia Veldt

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Elimination of modifiable risk factors including unhealthy lifestyle has the potential for prevention of 80% of cardiovascular disease cases. The present study focuses on disclosing barriers for maintaining specific lifestyle changes by exploring associations between perceiving these barriers and various sociodemographic and health-related characteristics.METHODS: Data were collected through a web-based questionnaire survey and included 962 respondents who initially accepted treat...

  1. Barriers to medication adherence for the secondary prevention of stroke: a qualitative interview study in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamison, James; Graffy, Jonathan; Mullis, Ricky; Mant, Jonathan; Sutton, Stephen

    2016-08-01

    Medications are highly effective at reducing risk of recurrent stroke, but success is influenced by adherence to treatment. Among survivors of stroke and transient ischaemic attack (TIA), adherence to medication is known to be suboptimal. To identify and report barriers to medication adherence for the secondary prevention of stroke/TIA. A qualitative interview study was conducted within general practice surgeries in the East of England, UK. Patients were approached by letter and invited to take part in a qualitative research study. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with survivors of stroke, caregivers, and GPs to explore their perspectives and views around secondary prevention and perceived barriers to medication adherence. Key themes were identified using a grounded theory approach. Verbatim quotes describing the themes are presented here. In total, 28 survivors of stroke, including 14 accompanying caregivers and five GPs, were interviewed. Two key themes were identified. Patient level barriers included ability to self-care, the importance people attach to a stroke event, and knowledge of stroke and medication. Medication level barriers included beliefs about medication and beliefs about how pills work, medication routines, changing medications, and regimen complexity and burden of treatment. Patients who have had a stroke are faced with multiple barriers to taking secondary prevention medications in UK general practice. This research suggests that a collaborative approach between caregivers, survivors, and healthcare professionals is needed to address these barriers and facilitate medication-taking behaviour. © British Journal of General Practice 2016.

  2. Enterocyte-specific epidermal growth factor prevents barrier dysfunction and improves mortality in murine peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jessica A; Gan, Heng; Samocha, Alexandr J; Fox, Amy C; Buchman, Timothy G; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2009-09-01

    Systemic administration of epidermal growth factor (EGF) decreases mortality in a murine model of septic peritonitis. Although EGF can have direct healing effects on the intestinal mucosa, it is unknown whether the benefits of systemic EGF in peritonitis are mediated through the intestine. Here, we demonstrate that enterocyte-specific overexpression of EGF is sufficient to prevent intestinal barrier dysfunction and improve survival in peritonitis. Transgenic FVB/N mice that overexpress EGF exclusively in enterocytes (IFABP-EGF) and wild-type (WT) mice were subjected to either sham laparotomy or cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Intestinal permeability, expression of the tight junction proteins claudins-1, -2, -3, -4, -5, -7, and -8, occludin, and zonula occludens-1; villus length; intestinal epithelial proliferation; and epithelial apoptosis were evaluated. A separate cohort of mice was followed for survival. Peritonitis induced a threefold increase in intestinal permeability in WT mice. This was associated with increased claudin-2 expression and a change in subcellular localization. Permeability decreased to basal levels in IFABP-EGF septic mice, and claudin-2 expression and localization were similar to those of sham animals. Claudin-4 expression was decreased following CLP but was not different between WT septic mice and IFABP-EGF septic mice. Peritonitis-induced decreases in villus length and proliferation and increases in apoptosis seen in WT septic mice did not occur in IFABP-EGF septic mice. IFABP-EGF mice had improved 7-day mortality compared with WT septic mice (6% vs. 64%). Since enterocyte-specific overexpression of EGF is sufficient to prevent peritonitis-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction and confers a survival advantage, the protective effects of systemic EGF in septic peritonitis appear to be mediated in an intestine-specific fashion.

  3. Combination HIV Prevention Strategy Implementation in El Salvador: Perceived Barriers and Adaptations Reported by Outreach Peer Educators and Supervisors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith Buck

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available El Salvador was one of three countries to receive funding from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria to conduct a combination HIV prevention intervention among transwomen (TW, men who have sex with men (MSM, and commercial sex workers (CSW. Program evaluation revealed that prevention activities reached only 50% of the target population. The purpose of this study is to examine the barriers that Salvadoran educators faced in implementing the peer education as designed and adaptations made as a result. Between March and June 2015, 18 in-depth interviews with educators were conducted. Violence was reported as the biggest barrier to intervention implementation. Other barriers differed by subpopulation. The level of violence and discrimination calls into question the feasibility and appropriateness of peer-led interventions in the Salvadoran context and demonstrates the importance of implementation research when translating HIV prevention interventions developed in high-income countries to low- and middle-income countries.

  4. Stability of tritium permeation prevention barrier with TiC and TiN + TiC coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan Changqi; Chen Qingwang; Dai Shaoxia; Jiang Weisheng

    1999-01-01

    The stability of tritium permeation prevention barrier of 316L stainless steel with coating TiC and TiN + TiC under the conditions of very large thermal gradient, thermal cycling and plasma irradiation is researched. The research includes two aspects: one is the study on the stability resisting H + plasma irradiation; another is on the ability of two coating materials when they are used in long term under the condition of very large thermal gradient and cycling. The results show that TiC and TiN + TiC composite coating materials, after chemical heat treatment and forming tritium permeation prevention barrier, can resist H + ion irradiation, and also can resist very large thermal gradient and thermal cycling. The long time experiments show that tritium permeation prevention barrier of those coating materials is stable when they are used in long term

  5. Effect of educational intervention on knowledge, perceived benefits, barriers and self-efficacy regarding AIDS preventive behaviors among drug addicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastami, Fatemeh; Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Hassanzadeh, Akbar

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Addicts account for approximately 68.15% of AIDS cases in Iran and injection drug users are considered as a major factor in the spread of AIDS in Iran. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of an educational intervention on the perceived self-efficacy, benefits, and barriers concerning AIDS preventive behaviors among drug addicts in Khorramabad, Iran. Methods: This is a quasi-experimental study carried out in 2013 on 88 addicts kept in rehabilitations center in Khorramabad. The data collection instruments included a questionnaire on self-efficacy, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, knowledge and preventive behaviors regarding HIV. Data were analyzed by paired t-test, independent t-test, Chi-square and analysis of covariance. Results: Paired t-test showed that the mean scores for perceived benefits and barriers, knowledge and preventive behaviors significantly increased in the intervention group after the intervention than before the intervention. But the increase in self-efficacy score was not statistically significant. Conclusions: The results of this study showed that training and education based on the health belief model led to an increase in knowledge, self-efficacy, perceived benefits, performance and reduction in perceived barriers in addicts. It is recommended that future studies should include strategies for enhancing self-efficacy and perceived benefits as well as strategies for reducing barriers to the adoption of preventive behaviors. PMID:27462632

  6. High-efficiency removal of NOx using dielectric barrier discharge nonthermal plasma with water as an outer electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, ZHAO; Feng, YU; Amin, ZHOU; Cunhua, MA; Bin, DAI

    2018-01-01

    With the rapid increase in the number of cars and the development of industry, nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions have become a serious and pressing problem. This work reports on the development of a water-cooled dielectric barrier discharge reactor for gaseous NOx removal at low temperature. The characteristics of the reactor are evaluated with and without packing of the reaction tube with 2 mm diameter dielectric beads composed of glass, ZnO, MnO2, ZrO2, or Fe2O3. It is found that the use of a water-cooled tube reduces the temperature, which stabilizes the reaction, and provides a much greater NO conversion efficiency (28.8%) than that obtained using quartz tube (14.1%) at a frequency of 8 kHz with an input voltage of 6.8 kV. Furthermore, under equivalent conditions, packing the reactor tube with glass beads greatly increases the NO conversion efficiency to 95.85%. This is because the dielectric beads alter the distribution of the electric field due to the influence of polarization at the glass bead surfaces, which ultimately enhances the plasma discharge intensity. The presence of the dielectric beads increases the gas residence time within the reactor. Experimental verification and a theoretical basis are provided for the industrial application of the proposed plasma NO removal process employing dielectric bead packing.

  7. Removing barriers: the Canadian Electricity Association's response to Canada's innovation strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-11-01

    The Canadian Electricity Association is of the opinion that the innovation strategy put forth by the government of Canada represents a step in the right direction. It particularly appreciated the integrated, cross-jurisdictional approach suggested by the government. Two key issues have an impact on the electricity sector's ability to innovate: the competitive challenge and the environmental challenge. The industry must rapidly adjust the corporate structures and cultures to the opening of almost 50 per cent of the electricity market in Canada as of May 2002, and place emphasis on efficiency and customer satisfaction. Awareness concerning the complexities of the environmental and economic trade-offs involved in the generation, transmission, distribution and marketing of electric power must be improved to assist customers in their energy use decisions. The issue of greenhouse gases and the impact of human activity on global climate must be kept in the forefront. The industry must continue to find effective means of improving the economics and environmental performance of low greenhouse gas options. The Canadian Electricity Association believes that the existing barriers to innovation in Canada should be identified and reduced as a first step. It stated that cost of capital is the fundamental driver of investment and innovation. The regulation and taxation system needs revising. Partnerships with governments and academic institutions are an effective way of pushing forward the innovation agenda. The Canadian Electricity Association recommended that tax incentives for research and development and related capital expenditures be increased. The tax treatment of investment in existing personnel should be improved. 1 ref

  8. Effect of microbial treatment on the prevention and removal of paraffin deposits on stainless steel surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Meng; Li, Wen-Hong; Lu, Mang; Zhang, Zhong-Zhi; Luo, Yi-Jing; Qiao, Wei; Sun, Shan-Shan; Zhong, Wei-Zhang; Zhang, Min

    2012-11-01

    In this study, biosurfactant-producing strain N2 and non-biosurfactant producing stain KB18 were used to investigate the effects of microbial treatment on the prevention and removal of paraffin deposits on stainless steel surfaces. Strain N2, with a biosurfactant production capacity, reduced the contact angle of stainless steel to 40.04°, and the corresponding adhesion work of aqueous phase was decreased by 26.5 mJ/m(2). By contrast, KB18 could only reduce the contact angle to 50.83°, with a corresponding 7.6 mJ/m(2) decrease in the aqueous phase work adhesion. The paraffin removal test showed that the paraffin removal efficiencies of strain N2 and KB18 were 79.0% and 61.2%, respectively. Interestingly, the N2 cells could attach on the surface of the oil droplets to inhibit droplets coalescence. These results indicate that biosurfactant-producing strains can alter the wettability of stainless steel and thus eliminate paraffin deposition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Linking HIV-Negative Youth to Prevention Services in 12 U.S. Cities: Barriers and Facilitators to Implementing the HIV Prevention Continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doll, Mimi; Fortenberry, J Dennis; Roseland, Denise; McAuliff, Kathleen; Wilson, Craig M; Boyer, Cherrie B

    2018-04-01

    Linkage of HIV-negative youth to prevention services is increasingly important with the development of effective pre-exposure prophylaxis that complements behavioral and other prevention-focused interventions. However, effective infrastructure for delivery of prevention services does not exist, leaving many programs to address HIV prevention without data to guide program development/implementation. The objective of this study was to provide a qualitative description of barriers and facilitators of linkage to prevention services among high-risk, HIV-negative youth. Thematic analysis of structured interviews with staff implementing linkage to prevention services programs for youth aged 12-24 years. Twelve adolescent medicine HIV primary care programs as part of larger testing research program focused on young sexual minority men of color. The study included staff implementing linkage to prevention services programs along with community-based HIV testing programs. The main outcomes of the study were key barriers/facilitators to linkage to prevention services. Eight themes summarized perspectives on linkage to prevention services: (1) relationships with community partners, (2) trust between providers and youth, (3) youth capacity to navigate prevention services, (4) pre-exposure prophylaxis specific issues, (5) privacy issues, (6) gaps in health records preventing tailored services, (7) confidentiality of care for youth accessing services through parents'/caretakers' insurance, and (8) need for health-care institutions to keep pace with models that prioritize HIV prevention among at-risk youth. Themes are discussed in the context of factors that facilitated/challenged linkage to prevention services. Several evidence-based HIV prevention tools are available; infrastructures for coordinated service delivery to high-risk youth have not been developed. Implementation of such infrastructures requires attention to community-, provider-, and youth-related issues. Copyright

  10. What Prevents Quality Midwifery Care? A Systematic Mapping of Barriers in Low and Middle Income Countries from the Provider Perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Filby

    Full Text Available Quality of care is essential for further progress in reducing maternal and newborn deaths. The integration of educated, trained, regulated and licensed midwives into the health system is associated with improved quality of care and sustained decreases in maternal and newborn mortality. To date, research on barriers to quality of care for women and newborns has not given due attention to the care provider's perspective. This paper addresses this gap by presenting the findings of a systematic mapping of the literature of the social, economic and professional barriers preventing midwifery personnel in low and middle income countries (LMICs from providing quality of care.A systematic search of five electronic databases for literature published between January 1990 and August 2013. Eligible items included published and unpublished items in all languages. Items were screened against inclusion and exclusion criteria, yielding 82 items from 34 countries. 44% discussed countries or regions in Africa, 38% in Asia, and 5% in the Americas. Nearly half the articles were published since 2011. Data was extracted and presented in a narrative synthesis and tables. Items were organized into three categories; social; economic and professional barriers, based on an analytical framework. Barriers connected to the socially and culturally constructed context of childbirth, although least reported, appear instrumental in preventing quality midwifery care.Significant social and cultural, economic and professional barriers can prevent the provision of quality midwifery care in LMICs. An analytical framework is proposed to show how the overlaps between the barriers reinforce each other, and that they arise from gender inequality. Links are made between burn out and moral distress, caused by the barriers, and poor quality care. Ongoing mechanisms to improve quality care will need to address the barriers from the midwifery provider perspective, as well as the underlying

  11. Identifying barriers and facilitators to participation in pressure ulcer prevention in allied healthcare professionals: a mixed methods evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsley, Peter R; Clarkson, Paul; Bader, Dan L; Schoonhoven, Lisette

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the barriers and facilitators for allied health professional's participation in pressure ulcer prevention. Mixed method cohort study. Single centre study in an acute university hospital trust. Five physiotherapists and four occupational therapists were recruited from the hospital trust. Therapists had been working in the National Health Service (NHS) for a minimum of one year. Therapist views and experiences were collated using an audio recorded focus group. This recording was analysed using constant comparison analysis. Secondary outcomes included assessment of attitudes and knowledge of pressure ulcer prevention using questionnaires. Key themes surrounding barriers to participation in pressure ulcer prevention included resources (staffing and equipment), education and professional boundaries. Fewer facilitators were described, with new training opportunities and communication being highlighted. Results from the questionnaires showed the therapists had a positive attitude towards pressure ulcer prevention with a median score of 81% (range 50 to 83%). However, there were gaps in knowledge with a median score of 69% (range 50 to 77%). The therapist reported several barriers to pressure ulcer prevention and few facilitators. The primary barriers were resources, equipment and education. Attitudes and knowledge in AHPs were comparable to data previously reported from experienced nursing staff. Copyright © 2016 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Determining optimal preventive maintenance interval for component of Well Barrier Element in an Oil & Gas Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siswanto, A.; Kurniati, N.

    2018-04-01

    An oil and gas company has 2,268 oil and gas wells. Well Barrier Element (WBE) is installed in a well to protect human, prevent asset damage and minimize harm to the environment. The primary WBE component is Surface Controlled Subsurface Safety Valve (SCSSV). The secondary WBE component is Christmas Tree Valves that consist of four valves i.e. Lower Master Valve (LMV), Upper Master Valve (UMV), Swab Valve (SV) and Wing Valve (WV). Current practice on WBE Preventive Maintenance (PM) program is conducted by considering the suggested schedule as stated on manual. Corrective Maintenance (CM) program is conducted when the component fails unexpectedly. Both PM and CM need cost and may cause production loss. This paper attempts to analyze the failure data and reliability based on historical data. Optimal PM interval is determined in order to minimize the total cost of maintenance per unit time. The optimal PM interval for SCSSV is 730 days, LMV is 985 days, UMV is 910 days, SV is 900 days and WV is 780 days. In average of all components, the cost reduction by implementing the suggested interval is 52%, while the reliability is improved by 4% and the availability is increased by 5%.

  13. Implementing the work disability prevention paradigm among therapists in Hong Kong: facilitators and barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeto, Grace P Y; Cheng, Andy S K; Lee, Edwin W C; Schonstein, Eva; Gross, Douglas P

    2011-03-01

    This is a discussion paper to examine the issues surrounding management of work-related injuries by physiotherapists and occupational therapists in Hong Kong. Therapists working in public hospitals are faced with managing injured workers with limited resources and this frequently results in suboptimal outcomes. In this paper, five experienced therapists critically reviewed the current practices in the physiotherapy and occupational therapy professions in Hong Kong, with regard to managing patients with work injuries. In many hospitals, therapists still practice with a disease-based model focusing on symptom relief and restoration of general physical function. We collated information about current programs initiated by physiotherapists and occupational therapists to provide more strategic intervention strategies for early screening of high-risk patients and adaptive biopsychosocial interventions targeting return-to-work outcomes. Clinical and system-level barriers and facilitators of a major paradigm shift towards work disability prevention are discussed. Physiotherapists and occupational therapists need to develop more strategic collaborations and actively voice out the need for major systematic changes within the local healthcare system, in order to provide a more effective management approach in line with the concept of Work Disability Prevention.

  14. Barriers and facilitators of HIV prevention with heterosexual Latino couples: beliefs of four stakeholder groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Jiménez, David; Seal, David W; Serrano-García, Irma

    2009-01-01

    Although HIV prevention interventions for women are efficacious, long-term behavior change maintenance within power-imbalanced heterosexual relationships has been difficult. To explore the feasibility, content, and format of an HIV intervention for Latino couples, the authors conducted 13 focus groups with HIV/AIDS researchers, service providers, and heterosexual men and women in Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic, and Mexico. Reasons that participants thought that men should be involved in prevention efforts included promotion of shared responsibility, creation of a safe environment for open conversation about sex, and increased sexual negotiation skills. Perceived barriers to men's involvement included cultural taboos, sexual conservatism associated with Catholicism and machismo, and power-imbalanced relationships. Participants stressed the need for recruitment of men within naturally occurring settings or by influential community leaders. Participants indicated that couples-level interventions would be successful if they used strong coed facilitators, included both unigender and mixed-gender discussion opportunities, and addressed personally meaningful topics. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  15. Barriers and Facilitators of HIV Prevention With Heterosexual Latino Couples: Beliefs of Four Stakeholder Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Jiménez, David; Seal, David W.; Serrano-García, Irma

    2012-01-01

    Although HIV prevention interventions for women are efficacious, long-term behavior change maintenance within power-imbalanced heterosexual relationships has been difficult. To explore the feasibility, content, and format of an HIV intervention for Latino couples, the authors conducted 13 focus groups with HIV/AIDS researchers, service providers, and heterosexual men and women in Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic, and Mexico. Reasons that participants thought that men should be involved in prevention efforts included promotion of shared responsibility, creation of a safe environment for open conversation about sex, and increased sexual negotiation skills. Perceived barriers to men’s involvement included cultural taboos, sexual conservatism associated with Catholicism and machismo, and power-imbalanced relationships. Participants stressed the need for recruitment of men within naturally occurring settings or by influential community leaders. Participants indicated that couples-level interventions would be successful if they used strong coed facilitators, included both unigender and mixed-gender discussion opportunities, and addressed personally meaningful topics. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:19209976

  16. Motivators and barriers for dog and cat owners and veterinary surgeons in the United Kingdom to using preventative medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belshaw, Zoe; Robinson, Natalie J; Dean, Rachel S; Brennan, Marnie L

    2018-06-01

    Routine use of preventative medicines is advocated as part of responsible dog and cat ownership. However, it has been suggested that the number of owners in the United Kingdom (UK) using preventative medicines to protect their pets is in decline. The aim of this novel study was to use a qualitative methodology to explore the attitudes of pet owners and veterinary surgeons in the UK to using preventative medicine products in dogs and cats. Preventative medicine was defined as "a drug or any other preparation used to prevent disease, illness or injury." Semi-structured interviews were conducted by telephone with owners and veterinary surgeons who had recently participated in a preventative healthcare consultation. Thematic analysis of transcribed recordings of these interviews identified four themes. This paper reports the theme related to motivators and barriers to using preventative medicines. Owners' understanding varied widely about the importance of preventative medicines for pets, as did their confidence in the safety of prescription products. A good relationship with their veterinary surgeon or practice, seeing adverts on the television about specific diseases, advice from a breeder and having personally seen infected animals appeared to be motivators for owners to use preventative medicines. Concern about adverse events and uncertainty about the necessity of using preventative medicines were barriers. Owners who trusted their veterinary surgeons to advise them on preventative medicine products described little use of alternative information sources when making preventative medicine choices. However, owners who preferred to do their own research described reading online opinions, particular in relation to the safety of preventative medicines, which they found confusing. In contrast, veterinary surgeons described broad confidence in the safety and efficacy of prescription preventative medicines and described protection of pet health as a strong motivator for

  17. Motivators and Barriers to Participation of Ethnic Minority Families in a Family-Based HIV Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Rogério M.; McKay, Mary M.; Baptiste, Donna; Bell, Carl C.; Madison-Boyd, Sybil; Paikoff, Roberta; Wilson, Marla; Phillips, Daisy

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Involving low-income, ethnic minority families in lengthy HIV prevention programs can be challenging. Understanding the motivators and barriers to involvement may help researchers and practitioners design programs that can be used by populations most at risk for HIV exposure. The present study discusses motivators and barriers to involvement in the Collaborative HIV Prevention and Adolescent Mental Health Project (CHAMP), using data from a sample of 118 families that participated at varying levels in the twelve sessions of the program. Most participants chose motivators that reflect their perceptions of individual and/or family needs (“CHAMP might help me, mine, and other families”), and of characteristics of the program, such as CHAMP staff were friendly, CHAMP was fun. Among barriers to involvement, respondents expressed concerns about confidentiality, and about being judged by program staff. Respondents also reported experiencing many stressful events in their families (e.g., death and violence in the family) that may have been barriers to their involvement. Knowing these motivators and barriers, researchers and practitioners can enhance involvement in HIV prevention programs. PMID:20686648

  18. Preliminary Reliability and Validity of an Exercise Benefits and Barriers for Stroke Prevention Scale in an African American Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aycock, Dawn M; Clark, Patricia C

    2015-01-01

    African Americans are at heightened risk of first stroke, and regular exercise can reduce stroke risk. Benefits and barriers to exercise subscales from 2 instruments were combined to create the Exercise Benefits and Barriers for Stroke Prevention (EBBSP) scale. Reliability and validity of the EBBSP scale were examined in a nonrandom sample of 66 African Americans who were primarily female, average age 43.3 ± 9.4 years, and high school graduates. Both subscales had adequate internal consistency reliability. Factor analysis revealed two factors for each subscale. More benefits and fewer perceived barriers were significantly related to current exercise and future intentions to exercise. The EBBSP scale may be useful in research focused on understanding, predicting, and promoting exercise for stroke prevention in adults.

  19. Barriers and facilitators among health professionals in primary care to prevention of cardiometabolic diseases: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wandell, P.E.; Waard, A.K.M. de; Holzmann, M.J.; Gornitzki, C.; Lionis, C.; Wit, N.J. de; Søndergaard, J.; Sønderlund, A.L.; Král, N.; Seifert, B.; Korevaar, J.C.; Schellevis, F.G.; Carlsson, A.C.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify potential facilitators and barriers for health care professionals to undertake selective prevention of cardiometabolic diseases (CMD) in primary health care. We developed a search string for Medline, Embase, Cinahl and PubMed. We also screened reference lists of

  20. Translating Research to Practice: Overcoming Barriers to Implementing Effective Off-Campus Party Intervention. Issues in Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This issue of "Issues in Prevention" focuses on overcoming barriers in implementing effective off-campus party intervention. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Confronting the Problems Associated With Off-Campus Parties With Evidence-Based Strategies (John D. Clapp); (2) Overview of Research on Effective Off-Campus Party…

  1. Barriers and facilitators to childhood obesity prevention among culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) communities in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyril, Sheila; Nicholson, Jan M; Agho, Kingsley; Polonsky, Michael; Renzaho, Andre M

    2017-06-01

    Childhood obesity is rising among culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) groups who show poor engagement in obesity prevention initiatives. We examined the barriers and facilitators to the engagement of CALD communities in obesity prevention initiatives. We used the nominal group technique to collect data from 39 participants from Vietnamese, Burmese, African, Afghani and Indian origins living in disadvantaged areas of Victoria, Australia. Data analysis revealed ranked priorities for barriers and facilitators for CALD community engagement in obesity prevention initiatives. CALD parents identified key barriers as being: competing priorities in the post-migration settlement phase; language, cultural and program accessibility barriers; low levels of food and health literacy; junk food advertisement targeting children; and lack of mandatory weight checks for schoolchildren. Key facilitators emerged as: bicultural playgroup leaders; ethnic community groups; and school-based healthy lunch box initiatives. This study has identified several policy recommendations including: the implementation of robust food taxation policies; consistent control of food advertising targeting children; improving CALD health literacy using bicultural workers; and matching health promotional materials with CALD community literacy levels. Implications for Public Health: These recommendations can directly influence public health policy to improve the engagement of CALD communities in obesity prevention services and ultimately reduce the widening obesity disparities in Australia. © 2017 The Authors.

  2. Is there evidence that barrier membranes prevent bone resorption in autologous bone grafts during the healing period? A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielkens, Pepijn F. M.; Bos, Ruud R. M.; Raghoebar, Gerry M.; Stegenga, Boudewijn

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Autologous bone is considered the "reference standard" for bone-grafting procedures. A barrier membrane covering an autologous bone graft (guided bone regeneration [GBR]) is expected to prevent graft resorption. Good clinical results have been reported for GBR, although potential

  3. Barriers and strategies for identifying and managing risk factors of cardiovascular diseases in levels of preventing, screening, and treating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber Azami Aghdash

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD are of the main causes of mortality in the world and impose a heavy economic, social, and health burden on society. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the barriers and strategies for identifying and managing risk factors of CVD in levels of preventing, screening, and treating. Methods: During present qualitative study with phenomenological approach, 60 subjects of cardiologists, nurses, patients, and their relatives were selected based on purposive sampling from educational-medical cardiothoracic subspecialty centers. Data were collected using an open-ended questionnaire and was extracted and analyzed with content analysis method. Results: Barriers were divided into three groups of individual barriers (low awareness, delay in referring for treatment and screening, incorrect beliefs, and not caring about health, socio-economic barriers (high costs, lack of resources, mental and psychological pressures, and health care barriers (non-alignment of doctors, being therapy-oriented, managerial and planning weaknesses, and lack of health care facilities. The most important presenting strategies are: providing public educations, improving family physician program, reduction of costs, cooperation of patients, and using functional indices to evaluate and improve the quality of services. Conclusion: Low awareness of people, high costs of services, lack of health care facilities, socio-cultural problems of people, and delay in referring of people, for treatment and screening are of the most important barriers of proper identifying and managing risk factors of CVD. Strategies provided in this study to overcome these barriers could be used.

  4. Impact of removing mucosal barrier injury laboratory-confirmed bloodstream infections from central line-associated bloodstream infection rates in the National Healthcare Safety Network, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, Isaac; Soe, Minn M; Epstein, Lauren; Edwards, Jonathan R; Magill, Shelley S; Thompson, Nicola D

    2017-03-01

    Central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) event data reported to the National Healthcare Safety Network from 2014, the first year of required use of the mucosal barrier injury laboratory-confirmed bloodstream infection (MBI-LCBI) definition, were analyzed to assess the impact of removing MBI-LCBI events from CLABSI rates. CLABSI rates decreased significantly in some location types after removing MBI-LCBI events, and MBI-LCBI events will be removed from publicly reported CLABSI rates. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Barriers and strategies for innovations entering BoP markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamp, L.M.; Ortt, J.R.; Harahap, B.

    2015-01-01

    Companies that bring a new product to the market or enter a new market with an existing product, come across a number of barriers that prevent large?scale diffusion. In order to circumvent or remove these barriers, they can adopt alternative strategies. This paper looks into these barriers and

  6. Thermo-responsive in-situ forming hydrogels as barriers to prevent post-operative peritendinous adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Pang-Yun; Chen, Shih-Heng; Chen, Chih-Hao; Chen, Shih-Hsien; Fong, Yi Teng; Chen, Jyh-Ping

    2017-11-01

    In this study, we aimed to assess whether thermo-responsive in-situ forming hydrogels based on poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) could prevent post-operative peritendinous adhesion. The clinical advantages of the thermo-responsive hydrogels are acting as barrier material to block penetration of fibroblasts, providing mobility and flexibility during application and enabling injection through a small opening to fill spaces of any shape after surgery. The thermo-responsiveness of hydrogels was determined to ensure their clinic uses. By grafting hydrophilic biopolymers chitosan (CS) and hyaluronic acid (HA) to PNIPAM, the copolymer hydrogels show enhanced water retention and lubrication, while reduced volume shrinkage during phase transition. In cell culture experiments, the thermo-responsive hydrogel has good biocompatibility and reduces fibroblast penetration. In animal experiments, the effectiveness of preventing post-operative peritendinous adhesion was studied in a rabbit deep flexor tendon model. From gross examination, histology, bending angles of joints, tendon gliding excursion and pull-out force, HA-CS-PNIPAM (HACPN) was confirmed to be the best barrier material to prevent post-operative peritendinous adhesion compared to PNIPAM and CS-PNIPAM (CPN) hydrogels and a commercial barrier film Seprafilm®. There was no significant difference in the breaking strength of HACPN-treated tendons and spontaneously healed ones, indicating HACPN hydrogel application did not interfere with normal tendon healing. We conclude that HACPN hydrogel can provide the best functional outcomes to significantly prevent post-operative tendon adhesion in vivo. We prepared thermo-responsive in-situ forming hydrogels based on poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) to prevent post-operative peritendinous adhesion. The injectable barrier hydrogel could have better anti-adhesive properties than current commercial products by acting as barrier material to block penetration of fibroblasts

  7. Dimensional Analysis of Psychosocial Barriers to Prevention of Early Childhood Caries Among Recent Immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo Perez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to define the underlying dimensions of psychosocial barriers to obtaining and providing dental care for young children among recent immigrants. Fifteen focus groups were conducted with 99 primary caregivers from African, South Asian, and Chinese recent immigrants. A secondary analysis of identified barriers using dimensional analysis methodology was performed to determine dimensions and properties of barriers. The analysis continued until irreducible properties were found or emerging dimensions were not relevant to the study. Identified dimensions were associated with barriers and individuals. Type, number, level, objectiveness, nature, and impact were barrier-related; awareness and controllability were individual-related dimensions. Type refers to barriers themselves. Number and level indicate the amount and location of barriers, respectively. Objectiveness refers to the extent that perceived barrier reflects reality and nature indicates its intrinsic characteristic. Impact concerns behaviors, goals, and outcomes compromised by barriers. Awareness alludes to the extent that individuals are aware of the barriers and controllability explains how much control people perceive to have over barriers. Identified dimensions are useful for better understanding and addressing existing barriers to children’s optimal oral health.

  8. Facilitating Factors and Barriers to the Use of Emerging Technologies for Suicide Prevention in Europe: Multicountry Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Carmen; Sánchez-Prada, Andrés; Parra-Vidales, Esther; de Leo, Diego; Franco-Martín, Manuel

    2018-01-01

    Background This study provides an analysis on the use of emerging technologies for the prevention of suicide in 8 different European countries. Objective The objective of this study was to analyze the potentiality of using emerging technologies in the area of suicide prevention based on the opinion of different professionals involved in suicide prevention. Methods Opinions of 3 groups of stakeholders (ie, relevant professionals in suicide field) were gathered using a specifically designed questionnaire to explore dimensions underlying perceptions of facilitating factors and barriers in relation to the use of emerging technologies for suicide prevention. Results Goal 1 involved facilitating factors for the use of emerging technologies in suicide prevention. Northern European countries, except for Belgium, attach greater relevance to those that optimize implementation and benefits. On the other hand, Southern European countries attach greater importance to professionally oriented and user-centered facilitating factors. According to different stakeholders, the analysis of these facilitating factors suggest that professionals in the field of social work attach greater relevance to those that optimize implementation and benefits. However, professionals involved in the area of mental health, policy makers, and political decision makers give greater importance to professionally oriented and user-centered facilitating factors. Goal 2 was related to barriers to the usability of emerging technologies for suicide prevention. Both countries and stakeholders attach greater importance to barriers associated with resource constraints than to those centered on personal limitations. There are no differences between countries or between stakeholders. Nevertheless, there is a certain stakeholders-countries interaction that indicates that the opinions on resource constraints expressed by different stakeholders do not follow a uniform pattern in different countries, but they differ

  9. Fingolimod prevents blood-brain barrier disruption induced by the sera from patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideaki Nishihara

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Effect of fingolimod in multiple sclerosis (MS is thought to involve the prevention of lymphocyte egress from lymphoid tissues, thereby reducing autoaggressive lymphocyte infiltration into the central nervous system across blood-brain barrier (BBB. However, brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs represent a possible additional target for fingolimod in MS patients by directly repairing the function of BBB, as S1P receptors are also expressed by BMECs. In this study, we evaluated the effects of fingolimod on BMECs and clarified whether fingolimod-phosphate restores the BBB function after exposure to MS sera. METHODS: Changes in tight junction proteins, adhesion molecules and transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER in BMECs were evaluated following incubation in conditioned medium with or without fingolimod/fingolimod-phosphate. In addition, the effects of sera derived from MS patients, including those in the relapse phase of relapse-remitting (RR MS, stable phase of RRMS and secondary progressive MS (SPMS, on the function of BBB in the presence of fingolimod-phosphate were assessed. RESULTS: Incubation with fingolimod-phosphate increased the claudin-5 protein levels and TEER values in BMECs, although it did not change the amount of occludin, ICAM-1 or MelCAM proteins. Pretreatment with fingolimod-phosphate restored the changes in the claudin-5 and VCAM-1 protein/mRNA levels and TEER values in BMECs after exposure to MS sera. CONCLUSIONS: Pretreatment with fingolimod-phosphate prevents BBB disruption caused by both RRMS and SPMS sera via the upregulation of claudin-5 and downregulation of VCAM-1 in BMECs, suggesting that fingolimod-phosphate is capable of directly modifying the BBB. BMECs represent a possible therapeutic target for fingolimod in MS patients.

  10. Knowledge, beliefs and barriers associated with prostate cancer prevention and screening behaviors among African-American men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blocker, Deborah E; Romocki, LaHoma Smith; Thomas, Kamilah B; Jones, Belinda L; Jackson, Ethel Jean; Reid, LaVerne; Campbell, Marci K

    2006-08-01

    African-American men have the highest prostate cancer rates worldwide, and innovative efforts are needed to increase cancer prevention and screening behaviors among this population. Formative research was conducted to assess attitudes and behaviors linked to prostate cancer prevention activities that could be used to develop a culturally relevant intervention for an African-American church-based population. Four gender-specific focus groups were conducted with 29 men and women at two African-American churches in central North Carolina. Three primary themes emerged from the focus group discussions: culturally and gender-influenced beliefs and barriers about cancer prevention and screening; barriers related to the healthcare system: and religious influences, including the importance of spiritual beliefs and church support. These discussions revealed the importance of the black family, the positive influence of spouses/partners on promoting cancer screening and healthy behaviors, the roles of faith and church leadership, and beliefs about God's will for good health. These findings also revealed that there are still major barriers and challenges to cancer prevention among African Americans, including continued mistrust of the medical community and negative attitudes toward specific screening tests. Findings provide important insights to consider in implementing successful prostate cancer prevention interventions designed for church-based audiences.

  11. Organization and staffing barriers to parent involvement in teen pregnancy prevention programs: challenges for community partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Janet E; Montgomery, Susanne; Lee, Jerry W

    2005-09-01

    To evaluate parent involvement in a Southern California teen pregnancy prevention community partnership project. Researchers expected to find parent and family-related participation barriers similar to those described in the family support literature, which they could address with program modifications. Three phases of qualitative evaluation occurred: key informant interviews and focus groups with youth and parents; focus groups with service providers; and key informant interviews with service providers, their supervisor, and the collaborative coordinator. Theory-based, open-ended question guides directed the interviews and focus groups, and transcriptions were coded and themed using grounded theory methods. Parents and youth sought ways to improve connections and communication with each other, and parents welcomed parenting education from the project. Unexpectedly, the major obstacles to parent participation identified in this project were largely organizational, and included the assignment of parent involvement tasks to agencies lacking capacities to work effectively with parents, inadequate administrative support for staff, and the absence of an effective system for communicating concerns and resolving conflicts among collaborative partners. Youth serving agencies may not be the best partners to implement effective parent involvement or family support interventions. Collaborative leadership must identify appropriate partners, engender their cooperation, and support their staff to further the overall goals of the collaborative.

  12. Barriers and facilitators to preventing pressure ulcers in nursing home residents: A qualitative analysis informed by the Theoretical Domains Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavallée, Jacqueline F; Gray, Trish A; Dumville, Jo; Cullum, Nicky

    2018-06-01

    Pressure ulcers are areas of localised damage to the skin and underlying tissue; and can cause pain, immobility, and delay recovery, impacting on health-related quality of life. The individuals who are most at risk of developing a pressure ulcer are those who are seriously ill, elderly, have impaired mobility and/or poor nutrition; thus, many nursing home residents are at risk. To understand the context of pressure ulcer prevention in nursing homes and to explore the potential barriers and facilitators to evidence-informed practices. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with nursing home nurses, healthcare assistants and managers, National Health Service community-based wound specialist nurses (known in the UK as tissue viability nurses) and a nurse manager in the North West of England. The interview guide was developed using the Theoretical Domains Framework to explore the barriers and facilitators to pressure ulcer prevention in nursing home residents. Data were analysed using a framework analysis and domains were identified as salient based on their frequency and the potential strength of their impact. 25 participants (nursing home: 2 managers, 7 healthcare assistants, 11 qualified nurses; National Health Service community services: 4 tissue viability nurses, 1 manager) were interviewed. Depending upon the behaviours reported and the context, the same domain could be classified as both a barrier and a facilitator. We identified seven domains as relevant in the prevention of pressure ulcers in nursing home residents mapping to four "barrier" domains and six "facilitator" domains. The four "barrier" domains were knowledge, physical skills, social influences and environmental context and resources and the six "facilitator" domains were interpersonal skills, environmental context and resources, social influences, beliefs about capabilities, beliefs about consequences and social/professional role and identity). Knowledge and insight into these barriers and

  13. Exploring barriers and facilitators to participation of male-to-female transgender persons in preventive HIV vaccine clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrasik, Michele Peake; Yoon, Ro; Mooney, Jessica; Broder, Gail; Bolton, Marcus; Votto, Teress; Davis-Vogel, Annet

    2014-06-01

    Observed seroincidence and prevalence rates in male-to-female (MTF) transgender individuals highlight the need for effective targeted HIV prevention strategies for this community. In order to develop an effective vaccine that can be used by transgender women, researchers must understand and address existing structural issues that present barriers to this group's participation in HIV vaccine clinical trials. Overcoming barriers to participation is important for ensuring HIV vaccine acceptability and efficacy for the MTF transgender community. To explore barriers and facilitators to MTF transgender participation in preventive HIV vaccine clinical trials, the HIV Vaccine Trials Network conducted focus groups among transgender women in four urban areas (Atlanta, Boston, Philadelphia, and San Francisco). Barriers and facilitators to engagement of transgender women in preventive HIV vaccine clinical trials led to the following recommendations: (a) transgender cultural competency training, (b) creating trans-friendly environments, (c) true partnerships with local trans-friendly organizations and health care providers, (d) protocols that focus on transgender specific issues, and (e) data collection and tracking of transgender individuals. These results have implications for the conduct of HIV vaccine trials, as well as engagement of transgender women in research programs in general.

  14. Remediation of the Highland Drive South Ravine, Port Hope, Ontario: Contaminated Groundwater Discharge Management Using Permeable Reactive Barriers and Contaminated Sediment Removal - 13447

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smyth, David; Roos, Gillian [Golder Associates Ltd., 2390 Argentia Road, Mississauga, ON L5N 5Z7 (Canada); Ferguson Jones, Andrea [MMM Group Ltd., 100 Commerce Valley Drive West, Thornhill, ON L3T 0A1 (Canada); Case, Glenn [AECL Port Hope Area Initiative Management Office, 115 Toronto Road, Port Hope, ON L1A 3S4 (Canada); Yule, Adam [Public Works and Government Services Canada, 4900 Yonge Street, 11th Floor, Toronto, ON, M2N 6A6 (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    The Highland Drive South Ravine (HDSR) is the discharge area for groundwater originating from the Highland Drive Landfill, the Pine Street North Extension (PSNE) roadbed parts of the Highland Drive roadbed and the PSNE Consolidation Site that contain historical low-level radioactive waste (LLRW). The contaminant plume from these LLRW sites contains elevated concentrations of uranium and arsenic and discharges with groundwater to shallow soils in a wet discharge area within the ravine, and directly to Hunt's Pond and Highland Drive South Creek, which are immediately to the south of the wet discharge area. Remediation and environmental management plans for HDSR have been developed within the framework of the Port Hope Project and the Port Hope Area Initiative. The LLRW sites will be fully remediated by excavation and relocation to a new Long-Term Waste Management Facility (LTWMF) as part of the Port Hope Project. It is projected, however, that the groundwater contaminant plume between the remediated LLRW sites and HDSR will persist for several hundreds of years. At the HDSR, sediment remediation within Hunt's Ponds and Highland Drive South Creek, excavation of the existing and placement of clean fill will be undertaken to remove current accumulations of solid-phase uranium and arsenic associated with the upper 0.75 m of soil in the wet discharge area, and permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) will be used for in situ treatment of contaminated groundwater to prevent the ongoing discharge of uranium and arsenic to the area in HDSR where shallow soil excavation and replacement has been undertaken. Bench-scale testing using groundwater from HDSR has confirmed excellent treatment characteristics for both uranium and arsenic using permeable reactive mixtures containing granular zero-valent iron (ZVI). A sequence of three PRBs containing ZVI and sand in backfilled trenches has been designed to intercept the groundwater flow system prior to its discharge to the ground

  15. Remediation of the Highland Drive South Ravine, Port Hope, Ontario: Contaminated Groundwater Discharge Management Using Permeable Reactive Barriers and Contaminated Sediment Removal - 13447

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smyth, David; Roos, Gillian; Ferguson Jones, Andrea; Case, Glenn; Yule, Adam

    2013-01-01

    The Highland Drive South Ravine (HDSR) is the discharge area for groundwater originating from the Highland Drive Landfill, the Pine Street North Extension (PSNE) roadbed parts of the Highland Drive roadbed and the PSNE Consolidation Site that contain historical low-level radioactive waste (LLRW). The contaminant plume from these LLRW sites contains elevated concentrations of uranium and arsenic and discharges with groundwater to shallow soils in a wet discharge area within the ravine, and directly to Hunt's Pond and Highland Drive South Creek, which are immediately to the south of the wet discharge area. Remediation and environmental management plans for HDSR have been developed within the framework of the Port Hope Project and the Port Hope Area Initiative. The LLRW sites will be fully remediated by excavation and relocation to a new Long-Term Waste Management Facility (LTWMF) as part of the Port Hope Project. It is projected, however, that the groundwater contaminant plume between the remediated LLRW sites and HDSR will persist for several hundreds of years. At the HDSR, sediment remediation within Hunt's Ponds and Highland Drive South Creek, excavation of the existing and placement of clean fill will be undertaken to remove current accumulations of solid-phase uranium and arsenic associated with the upper 0.75 m of soil in the wet discharge area, and permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) will be used for in situ treatment of contaminated groundwater to prevent the ongoing discharge of uranium and arsenic to the area in HDSR where shallow soil excavation and replacement has been undertaken. Bench-scale testing using groundwater from HDSR has confirmed excellent treatment characteristics for both uranium and arsenic using permeable reactive mixtures containing granular zero-valent iron (ZVI). A sequence of three PRBs containing ZVI and sand in backfilled trenches has been designed to intercept the groundwater flow system prior to its discharge to the ground surface

  16. Improving outcomes in cancer diagnosis, prevention and control: barriers, facilitators and the need for health literacy in Ibadan Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedimeji, Adebola A; Lounsbury, David; Popoola, Oluwafemi; Asuzu, Chioma; Lawal, Akinmayowa; Oladoyin, V; Crifase, Cassandra; Agalliu, Ilir; Shankar, Viswanathan; Adebiyi, Akindele

    2017-10-01

    Cancers constitute a significant public health problem in Nigeria. Breast, cervix and prostate cancers are leading causes of cancer-related deaths. Changing diets, lifestyles, HIV/AIDS and macro-structural factors contribute to cancer morbidity and mortality. Poor health information linking cancer risk to individual behaviors, environmental pollutants and structural barriers undermine prevention/control efforts. Studies suggest increasing health literacy and empowering individuals to take preventive action will improve outcomes and mitigate impact on a weak health system. We obtained qualitative data from 80 men, women, and young adults in 11 focus groups to assess beliefs, risk-perceptions, preventive behaviors and perceptions of barriers and facilitators to cancer control in Ibadan, Nigeria and conducted thematic analysis. Participants demonstrated awareness of cancers and mentioned several risk factors related to individual behaviors and the environment. Nonetheless, myths and misconceptions as well as micro, meso and macro level barriers impede prevention and control efforts. Developing and implementing comprehensive context-relevant health literacy interventions in community settings are urgently needed.Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Pulsed sub-microsecond dielectric barrier discharge treatment of simulated glass manufacturing industry flue gas: removal of SO2 and NOx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khacef, A; Cormier, J M

    2006-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to investigate the removal of SO 2 and NOx from simulated glass manufacturing industry flue gas containing O 2 , N 2 , NO, NO 2 , CO 2 , SO 2 and H 2 O using a sub-microsecond pulsed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) at atmospheric pressure. Removal efficiencies of SO 2 and NOx (NO+NO 2 ) were achieved as a function of gas temperature for two specific energies and two initial NO, NO 2 and SO 2 concentrations. The higher SO 2 and NOx removal efficiencies were achieved in a gas stream containing 163 ppm of SO 2 , 523 ppm of NO, 49 ppm of NO 2 , 14% of CO 2 , 8% of O 2 , 16% of H 2 O and N 2 as balance. The experimental results were evaluated using the energy cost or W-value (eV/molecule removed). About 100% of SO 2 and 36% of NOx were removed at a gas temperature of 100 deg. C with an energy cost of about 45 eV/molecule removed and 36 eV/molecule removed, respectively. These results indicate that DBD plasmas have the potential to remove SO 2 and NOx from gas streams without additives

  18. Iron supplement prevents lead-induced disruption of the blood-brain barrier during rat development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qiang; Luo Wenjing; Zheng Wei; Liu Yiping; Xu Hui; Zheng Gang; Dai Zhongming; Zhang Wenbin; Chen Yaoming; Chen Jingyuan

    2007-01-01

    Children are known to be venerable to lead (Pb) toxicity. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) in immature brain is particularly vulnerable to Pb insults. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that Pb exposure damaged the integrity of the BBB in young animals and iron (Fe) supplement may prevent against Pb-induced BBB disruption. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups. Three groups of rats were exposed to Pb in drinking water containing 342 μg Pb/mL as Pb acetate, among which two groups were concurrently administered by oral gavage once every other day with 7 mg Fe/kg and 14 mg Fe/kg as FeSO 4 solution as the low and high Fe treatment group, respectively, for 6 weeks. The control group received sodium acetate in drinking water. Pb exposure significantly increased Pb concentrations in blood by 6.6-folds (p < 0.05) and brain tissues by 1.5-2.0-folds (p < 0.05) as compared to controls. Under the electron microscope, Pb exposure in young animals caused an extensive extravascular staining of lanthanum nitrate in brain parenchyma, suggesting a leakage of cerebral vasculature. Western blot showed that Pb treatment led to 29-68% reduction (p < 0.05) in the expression of occludin as compared to the controls. Fe supplement among Pb-exposed rats maintained the normal ultra-structure of the BBB and restored the expression of occludin to normal levels. Moreover, the low dose Fe supplement significantly reduced Pb levels in blood and brain tissues. These data suggest that Pb exposure disrupts the structure of the BBB in young animals. The increased BBB permeability may facilitate the accumulation of Pb. Fe supplement appears to protect the integrity of the BBB against Pb insults, a beneficial effect that may have significant clinical implications

  19. Structural barriers to HIV prevention among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Vietnam: Diversity, stigma, and healthcare access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philbin, Morgan M; Hirsch, Jennifer S; Wilson, Patrick A; Ly, An Thanh; Giang, Le Minh; Parker, Richard G

    2018-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) in Vietnam experience disproportionate rates of HIV infection. To advance understanding of how structural barriers may shape their engagement with HIV prevention services, we draw on 32 in-depth interviews and four focus groups (n = 31) conducted with MSM in Hanoi between October 2015- March 2016. Three primary factors emerged: (1) Diversity, both in relation to identity and income; Vietnamese MSM described themselves as segregated into Bóng kín (hidden, often heterosexually-identified MSM) and Bóng lộ ('out,' transgender, or effeminate MSM). Lower-income, 'hidden' MSM from rural areas were reluctant to access MSM-targeted services; (2) Stigma: MSM reported being stigmatized by the healthcare system, family, and other MSM; and (3) Healthcare access: this was limited due to economic barriers and lack of MSM-friendly services. Our research suggests the need for multiple strategies to reach diverse types of MSM as well as to address barriers in access to health services such as stigma and costs. While a great deal has been written about the diversity of MSM in relation to gender performance and sexual identities, our research points to the substantial structural-level barriers that must be addressed in order to achieve meaningful and effective HIV prevention for MSM worldwide.

  20. Awareness, Facilitators, and Barriers to Policy Implementation Related to Obesity Prevention for Primary School Children in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Camelina; Moy, Foong Ming; Lim, Jennifer N W; Dahlui, Maznah

    2018-03-01

    To assess the awareness, facilitators, and barriers to policy implementation related to obesity prevention for primary school children. A cross-sectional study administered using an online questionnaire. Conducted in 447 primary schools in a state in Malaysia. One school administrator from each school served as a participant. The questionnaires consisted of 32 items on awareness, policy implementation, and facilitators and barriers to policy implementation. Descriptive analysis was used to describe the awareness, facilitators, and barriers of policies implementation. Association between schools' characteristics and policy implementation was assessed using logistic regression. The majority (90%) of school administrators were aware of the policies. However, only 50% to 70% of schools had implemented the policies fully. Reported barriers were lack of equipment, insufficient training, and limited time to complete implementation. Facilitators of policy implementation were commitment from the schools, staff members, students, and canteen operators. Policy implementation was comparable in all school types and locality; except the policy on "Food and Drinks sold at the school canteens" was implemented by more rural schools compared to urban schools (odds ratio: 1.74, 95% confidence interval: 1.13-2.69). Majority of the school administrators were aware of the existing policies; however, the implementation was only satisfactory. The identified barriers to policy implementation were modifiable and thus, the stakeholders should consider restrategizing plans in overcoming them.

  1. Beliefs about causes of weight gain, effective weight gain prevention strategies, and barriers to weight management in the Australian population

    OpenAIRE

    Dryer, Rachel; Ware, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To identify beliefs held by the general public regarding causes of weight gain, weight prevention strategies, and barriers to weight management; and to examine whether such beliefs predict the actual body mass of participants. Methods: A questionnaire-based survey was administered to participants recruited from regional and metropolitan areas of Australia. This questionnaire obtained demographic information, height, weight; as well as beliefs about causes of weight gain, weight preve...

  2. Practices that Prevent the Formation of Cyanobacterial Blooms in Water Resources and remove Cyanotoxins during Physical Treatment of Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book chapter presents findings of different studies on the prevention and elimination of cyanobacterial blooms in raw water resources as well as the removal of cyanotoxins during water treatment with physical processes. Initially,treatments that can be applied at the source ...

  3. Artificial barriers prevent genetic recovery of small isolated populations of a low-mobility freshwater fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, R A; Gauffre, B; Pavlova, A; Beheregaray, L B; Kearns, J; Lyon, J; Sasaki, M; Leblois, R; Sgro, C; Sunnucks, P

    2018-01-12

    Habitat loss and fragmentation often result in small, isolated populations vulnerable to environmental disturbance and loss of genetic diversity. Low genetic diversity can increase extinction risk of small populations by elevating inbreeding and inbreeding depression, and reducing adaptive potential. Due to their linear nature and extensive use by humans, freshwater ecosystems are especially vulnerable to habitat loss and fragmentation. Although the effects of fragmentation on genetic structure have been extensively studied in migratory fishes, they are less understood in low-mobility species. We estimated impacts of instream barriers on genetic structure and diversity of the low-mobility river blackfish (Gadopsis marmoratus) within five streams separated by weirs or dams constructed 45-120 years ago. We found evidence of small-scale (barriers, as expected for a fish with low mobility. Genetic diversity was lower above barriers in small streams only, regardless of barrier age. In particular, one isolated population showed evidence of a recent bottleneck and inbreeding. Differentiation above and below the barrier (F ST  = 0.13) was greatest in this stream, but in other streams did not differ from background levels. Spatially explicit simulations suggest that short-term barrier effects would not be detected with our data set unless effective population sizes were very small (barriers is reduced and requires more genetic markers compared to panmictic populations. We also demonstrate the importance of accounting for natural population genetic structure in fragmentation studies.

  4. Barriers to implementing infection prevention and control guidelines during crises: experiences of health care professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timen, Aura; Hulscher, Marlies E J L; Rust, Laura; van Steenbergen, Jim E; Akkermans, Reinier P; Grol, Richard P T M; van der Meer, Jos W M

    2010-11-01

    Communicable disease crises can endanger the health care system and often require special guidelines. Understanding reasons for nonadherence to crisis guidelines is needed to improve crisis management. We identified and measured barriers and conditions for optimal adherence as perceived by 4 categories of health care professionals. In-depth interviews were performed (n = 26) to develop a questionnaire for a cross-sectional survey of microbiologists (100% response), infection preventionists (74% response), public health physicians (96% response), and public health nurses (82% response). The groups were asked to appraise barriers encountered during 4 outbreaks (severe acute respiratory syndrome [SARS], Clostridium difficile ribotype 027, rubella, and avian influenza) according to a 5-point Likert scale. When at least 33% of the participants responded "strongly agree," "agree," or "rather agree than disagree," a barrier was defined as "often experienced." The common ("generic") barriers were included in a univariate and multivariate model. Barriers specific to the various groups were studied as well. Crisis guidelines were found to have 4 generic barriers to adherence: (1) lack of imperative or precise wording, (2) lack of easily identifiable instructions specific to each profession, (3) lack of concrete performance targets, and (4) lack of timely and adequate guidance on personal protective equipment and other safety measures. The cross-sectional study also yielded profession-specific sets of often-experienced barriers. To improve adherence to crisis guidelines, the generic barriers should be addressed when developing guidelines, irrespective of the infectious agent. Profession-specific barriers require profession-specific strategies to change attitudes, ensure organizational facilities, and provide an adequate setting for crisis management. Copyright © 2010 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights

  5. Facilitating Factors and Barriers to the Use of Emerging Technologies for Suicide Prevention in Europe: Multicountry Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Sánchez, Juan-Luis; Delgado, Carmen; Parra-Vidales, Esther; Franco-Martín, Manuel

    2018-01-24

    This study provides an analysis on the use of emerging technologies for the prevention of suicide in 8 different European countries. The objective of this study was to analyze the potentiality of using emerging technologies in the area of suicide prevention based on the opinion of different professionals involved in suicide prevention. Opinions of 3 groups of stakeholders (ie, relevant professionals in suicide field) were gathered using a specifically designed questionnaire to explore dimensions underlying perceptions of facilitating factors and barriers in relation to the use of emerging technologies for suicide prevention. Goal 1 involved facilitating factors for the use of emerging technologies in suicide prevention. Northern European countries, except for Belgium, attach greater relevance to those that optimize implementation and benefits. On the other hand, Southern European countries attach greater importance to professionally oriented and user-centered facilitating factors. According to different stakeholders, the analysis of these facilitating factors suggest that professionals in the field of social work attach greater relevance to those that optimize implementation and benefits. However, professionals involved in the area of mental health, policy makers, and political decision makers give greater importance to professionally oriented and user-centered facilitating factors. Goal 2 was related to barriers to the usability of emerging technologies for suicide prevention. Both countries and stakeholders attach greater importance to barriers associated with resource constraints than to those centered on personal limitations. There are no differences between countries or between stakeholders. Nevertheless, there is a certain stakeholders-countries interaction that indicates that the opinions on resource constraints expressed by different stakeholders do not follow a uniform pattern in different countries, but they differ depending on the country. Although all

  6. Best Practices and Barriers to Obesity Prevention in Head Start: Differences Between Director and Teacher Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd-Williams, Courtney; Dooley, Erin E; Sharma, Shreela V; Chuang, Ru-Jye; Butte, Nancy; Hoelscher, Deanna M

    2017-12-21

    Practices and barriers to promoting healthy eating and physical activity at Head Start centers may influence children's energy balance behaviors. We examined differences between directors' and teachers' perspectives on best practices and barriers to promoting healthy eating and physical activity in Head Start centers. We conducted a cross-sectional study of directors (n = 23) and teachers (n = 113) at 23 Head Start centers participating in the baseline assessment of the Texas Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration study. Participants completed surveys about practices and barriers to promoting healthy eating and physical activity. Multilevel regression models examined differences between director and teacher responses. More than half of directors and teachers reported meeting most best practices related to nutrition and physical activity; few directors or teachers (foods (especially sweets, salty snacks, and sugary drinks) in front of children" and "Teachers talk to children about trying/enjoying new foods" (P food service staff support, limited time, and insufficient funds (P < .05). More barriers to healthy eating were reported than were barriers to physical activity indicating that more support may be needed for healthy eating. Differences between responses of directors and teachers may have implications for future assessments of implementation of best practices and barriers to implementation related to nutrition and physical activity in early care and education centers.

  7. Recent advancement to prevent the development of allergy and allergic diseases and therapeutic strategy in the perspective of barrier dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osamu Natsume

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic strategy in late 20th century to prevent allergic diseases was derived from a conceptual framework of allergens elimination which was as same as that of coping with them after their onset. Manifold trials were implemented; however, most of them failed to verify the effectiveness of their preventive measures. Recent advancement of epidemiological studies and cutaneous biology revealed epidermal barrier dysfunction plays a major role of allergen sensitization and development of atopic dermatitis which ignites the inception of allergy march. For this decade, therapeutic strategy to prevent the development of food allergy has been confronted with a paradigm shift from avoidance and delayed introduction of allergenic foods based on the theoretical concept to early introduction of them based on the clinical and epidemiological evidences. Especially, prevention of peanut allergy and egg allergy has been established with the highest evidence verified by randomized controlled trials, although application in clinical practice should be done with attention. This paradigm shift concerning food allergy was also due to the discovery of cutaneous sensitization risk of food allergens for an infant with eczema revealed by prospective studies. Here we have recognized the increased importance of prevention of eczema/atopic dermatitis in infancy. Two randomized controlled trials using emollients showed successful results in prevention of atopic dermatitis in infancy; however, longer term safety and prognosis including allergy march should be pursued. To establish more fundamental strategy for prevention of the development of allergy, further studies clarifying the mechanisms of interaction between barrier dysfunction and microbial milieu are needed with macroscope to understand the relationship between allergic diseases and a diversity of environmental influences.

  8. The principles for creation of fire-prevention forest belts with barriers of deciduous species for protection from crown fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Sannikov

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article discuss one of the priority security problems in Russia, which is elaboration of the strategic system of the forest and society safeguards from catastrophic forest crown fires in connection with rapid climate warming. It is postulated, that a most effective and reliable barrier for the dispersal of the intensive crown fire in a coniferous forest massive can be a sufficiently wide strip of deciduous tree species – «deciduous forest barrier», which has phytomass capable of absorbing crown fire energy and transforming them to surface fire, which may be extinguished by technical means. The actuality of the natural study of the transition parameters from the crown fire to surface fire has been noted, depending on climate, fire intensity and the deciduous barrier structure. The results of the quantitative natural investigation of the consequences of catastrophic crown fires of 2004 in the island pine forests of forest-steppe zone in Kurgan Oblast, which passed through the belt of 50–70 year-old birch stands of middle density, has been cited and formalized mathematically. It has been shown, that 150 m width of deciduous forest barrier is necessary as a minimum for the reliable transition of the high intensive front crown fire to surface fire in the forest-steppe conditions of the Western Siberia, but this width reduces with a decreasing heating effect. It has been proposed to create the complex fire-prevention forest belts of different construction for the protection of forests, industrial objects and settlements. Besides a basic deciduous barrier, their structure should include technologically necessary buffer zones and zones for the localization and extinguishing surface fire, which stop a crown fire. It has been recommended to use natural regeneration of deciduous tree species, as a most effective and non-deficient method for the creation of deciduous forest barriers in the predominant forest types, except the lichen pine forests

  9. Association Between Parental Barriers to Accessing a Usual Source of Care and Children's Receipt of Preventive Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellettiere, John; Chuang, Emmeline; Hughes, Suzanne C; Quintanilla, Isaac; Hofstetter, C Richard; Hovell, Melbourne F

    Preventive health services are important for child development, and parents play a key role in facilitating access to services. This study examined how parents' reasons for not having a usual source of care were associated with their children's receipt of preventive services. We used pooled data from the 2011-2014 National Health Interview Survey (n = 34 843 participants). Parents' reasons for not having a usual source of care were framed within the Penchansky and Thomas model of access and measured through 3 dichotomous indicators: financial barriers (affordability), attitudes and beliefs about health care (acceptability), and all other nonfinancial barriers (accessibility, accommodation, and availability). We used multivariable logistic regression models to test associations between parental barriers and children's receipt of past-year well-child care visits and influenza vaccinations, controlling for other child, family, and contextual factors. In 2014, 14.3% (weighted percentage) of children had at least 1 parent without a usual source of care. Children of parents without a usual source of care because they "don't need a doctor and/or haven't had any problems" or they "don't like, trust, or believe in doctors" had 35% lower odds of receiving well-child care (adjusted odds ratio = 0.65; 95% CI, 0.56-0.74) and 23% lower odds of receiving influenza vaccination (adjusted odds ratio = 0.77; 95% CI, 0.69-0.86) than children of parents without those attitudes and beliefs about health care. Financial and other nonfinancial parental barriers were not associated with children's receipt of preventive services. Results were independent of several factors relevant to children's access to preventive health care, including whether the child had a usual source of care. Parents' attitudes and beliefs about having a usual source of care were strongly associated with their children's receipt of recommended preventive health services. Rates of receipt of child preventive

  10. Multifactorial skin barrier deficiency and atopic dermatitis: Essential topics to prevent the atopic march.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egawa, Gyohei; Kabashima, Kenji

    2016-08-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is the most common inflammatory skin disease in the industrialized world and has multiple causes. Over the past decade, data from both experimental models and patients have highlighted the primary pathogenic role of skin barrier deficiency in patients with AD. Increased access of environmental agents into the skin results in chronic inflammation and contributes to the systemic "atopic (allergic) march." In addition, persistent skin inflammation further attenuates skin barrier function, resulting in a positive feedback loop between the skin epithelium and the immune system that drives pathology. Understanding the mechanisms of skin barrier maintenance is essential for improving management of AD and limiting downstream atopic manifestations. In this article we review the latest developments in our understanding of the pathomechanisms of skin barrier deficiency, with a particular focus on the formation of the stratum corneum, the outermost layer of the skin, which contributes significantly to skin barrier function. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Giardia Prevention and Control: General Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Illness While Traveling. Prevent contact and contamination with feces (poop) during sex. Use a barrier during oral-anal ... tables, trash cans, etc.) Cleaning Wear gloves. Remove feces and discard in a plastic bag. Clean and ...

  12. Understanding Barriers to Safer Sex Practice in Zimbabwean Marriages: Implications for Future HIV Prevention Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugweni, Esther; Omar, Mayeh; Pearson, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Against the backdrop of high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence in stable relationships in Southern Africa, our study presents sociocultural barriers to safer sex practice in Zimbabwean marriages. We conducted 36 in-depth interviews and four focus group discussions with married men and women in Zimbabwe in 2008. Our aim was to identify…

  13. Visual Barriers to Prevent Ambulatory ALzheimer's Patients from Exiting through an Emergency Door.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namazi, Kevan H.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Conducted study on Alzheimer's unit to test seven different visual barrier conditions for reducing patient exits. Findings indicated that exiting was eliminated under two conditions. Results suggest visual agnosia, the inability to interpret what the eye sees, may be used as tool in managing wandering behavior of Alzheimer's patients. (Author/NB)

  14. The barriers to the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia from the perspective of critical care nurses: A qualitative descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atashi, Vajihe; Yousefi, Hojatollah; Mahjobipoor, Hosein; Yazdannik, Ahmadreza

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the perspectives of Iranian critical care nurses on the barriers to ventilator-associated pneumonia prevention in intensive care units. Most patients hospitalized in intensive care units need mechanical ventilation. One of the most prevalent and serious complications of mechanical ventilation is ventilator-associated pneumonia. There are different barriers to the prevention of this kind of pneumonia. Qualitative descriptive design was used. In this qualitative study, 23 critical care nurses were recruited via purposive sampling. Semi-structured interviews were done for data collection. The interviews were recorded digitally, transcribed word by word, and analyzed using the inductive content analysis approach. The barriers to the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia fell into three main categories, namely nurses' limited professional competence, unfavorable environmental conditions, and passive human resource management. The 10 subcategories of these main categories were unfavorable professional attitude, limited professional knowledge, low job motivation, limited professional accountability, non-standard physical structure, inadequate or inappropriate equipment, heavy workload, staff shortage, inadequate staff training, and ineffective supervision. The barriers to the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia in intensive care units are very diverse and complex and include a wide range of interrelated personal, environmental, and organizational barriers. This study created a better understanding of the barriers to ventilator-associated pneumonia prevention. Moreover, highlighted the importance of sufficient resources, adequate staffing level, and contextually-appropriate evidence-based guidelines for effective ventilator-associated pneumonia prevention. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Teaching children with autism spectrum disorders to mand for the removal of stimuli that prevent access to preferred items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shillingsburg, M Alice; Powell, Nicole M; Bowen, Crystal N

    2013-01-01

    Mand training is often a primary focus in early language instruction and typically includes mands that are positively reinforced. However, mands maintained by negative reinforcement are also important skills to teach. These include mands to escape aversive demands or unwanted items. Another type of negatively reinforced mand important to teach involves the removal of a stimulus that prevents access to a preferred activity. We taught 5 participants diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders to mand for the removal of a stimulus in order to access a preferred item that had been blocked. An evaluation was conducted to determine if participants responded differentially when the establishing operations for the preferred item were present versus absent. All participants learned to mand for the removal of the stimulus exclusively under conditions when the establishing operation was present.

  16. Community Stakeholders’ Perceptions of Barriers to Childhood Obesity Prevention in Low-Income Families, Massachusetts 2012–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Emmeline; Aftosmes-Tobio, Alyssa; Blaine, Rachel E.; Giannetti, Mary; Land, Thomas; Davison, Kirsten K.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The etiology of childhood obesity is multidimensional and includes individual, familial, organizational, and societal factors. Policymakers and researchers are promoting social–ecological approaches to obesity prevention that encompass multiple community sectors. Programs that successfully engage low-income families in making healthy choices are greatly needed, yet little is known about the extent to which stakeholders understand the complexity of barriers encountered by families. The objective of this study was to contextually frame barriers faced by low-income families reported by community stakeholders by using the Family Ecological Model (FEM). Methods From 2012 through 2013, we conducted semistructured interviews with 39 stakeholders from 2 communities in Massachusetts that were participating in a multisector intervention for childhood obesity prevention. Stakeholders represented schools; afterschool programs; health care; the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children; and early care and education. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, coded, and summarized. Results Stakeholder reports of the barriers experienced by low-income families had a strong degree of overlap with FEM and reflected awareness of the broader contextual factors (eg, availability of community resources, family culture, education) and social and emotional dynamics within families (eg, parent knowledge, social norms, distrust of health care providers, chronic life stressors) that could affect family adoption of healthy lifestyle behaviors. Furthermore, results illustrated a level of consistency in stakeholder awareness across multiple community sectors. Conclusion The congruity of stakeholder perspectives with those of low-income parents as summarized in FEM and across community sectors illustrates potential for synergizing the efforts necessary for multisector, multilevel community interventions for the prevention of childhood obesity. PMID

  17. Barriers and Facilitators to Engaging Communities in Gender-Based Violence Prevention following a Natural Disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloand, Elizabeth; Killion, Cheryl; Gary, Faye A; Dennis, Betty; Glass, Nancy; Hassan, Mona; Campbell, Doris W; Callwood, Gloria B

    2015-11-01

    Humanitarian workers in disaster settings report a dramatic increase in gender-based violence (GBV). This was true after the 2010 Haiti earthquake when women and girls lost the relative security of their homes and families. Researchers from the United States Virgin Islands and the United States mainland responded by collaborating with Haitian colleagues to develop GBV-focused strategies. To start, the research team performed a situational analysis to insure that the project was culturally, ethically, and logistically appropriate. The aim of this paper is to describe how the situational analysis framework helped the researchers effectively approach this community. Using post-earthquake Haiti as an exemplar, we identify key steps, barriers, and facilitators to undertaking a situational analysis. Barriers included logistics, infrastructure, language and community factors. Facilitators included established experts, organizations and agencies. Researchers in such circumstances need to be respectful of community members as experts and patient with local environmental and cultural conditions.

  18. Concepts for the removal of legal barriers to climate protection in Germany's buildings sector; Konzepte fuer die Beseitigung rechtlicher Hemmnisse des Klimaschutzes im Gebaeudebereich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buerger, Veit; Hermann, Andreas; Keimeyer, Friedhelm; Brunn, Christoph; Haus, David; Menge, Joanna [Oeko-Institut e.V. - Institut fuer Angewandte Oekologie, Berlin (Germany); Klinski, Stefan [Hochschule fuer Wirtschaft und Recht Berlin (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    This study examines ways to remove legal barriers to climate protection in the buildings sector with a special focus on the energy refurbishment of existing buildings. Part A is concerned with legal concepts for financing measures geared to the energy rehabilita-tion of buildings. In a first step possible regulatory instruments - both those being discussed by experts in specialist contexts and further feasible options - are identified, with which effective incentives for the implementation of ambitious energy refurbishments can be generated. The incentives should function as independently as possible from the incalculabilities of public budgets. The different options are then systematically analysed for their compatibility with the overarching requirements of Germany's national law and EU law as well as for their feasibility. Following an expert assessment of the functionality of those options categorised as legally positive, the report develops a well-coordinated set of different instruments which are partly based on public charges and partly on the commitments of private actors and allow for the introduction of a legal entitlement of building owners to support. Part B discusses the removal of (non-economic) legal barriers to the energy refurbishment of buildings. First of all an overview is provided of such barriers in different areas of the law (like tenancy law, residential property law, building law, among others). Then the focus is placed on specific legal barriers in the law on architectural and engineering fees as well as in public pro-curement law for construction contracts. Continuing along the same lines, concrete suggestions are developed for legal improvements.

  19. Attitude toward depression, its complications, prevention and barriers to seeking help among ethnic groups in Penang, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to explore attitudes towards, complications of and preventive measures for depression and the barriers that result in delays in seeking help among the various ethnic groups in Penang, Malaysia. In June 2007 a questionnaire‐based survey was undertaken in Penang. Face‐to‐face interviews were conducted, and 1855 respondents were approached to participate in the study by adopting a cluster random sampling method. A 25‐item questionnaire was used to explore public attitudes towards, complications of and preventive measures for depression and delays in seeking help. A total of 1149 (61.94%) showed willingness to participate in the survey. Ethnically, 490 (42.6%) of the respondents who participated in the survey were Malay, while 413 (35.9%) were Chinese, 149 (13%) Indian and 97 (8.4%) from other ethnic minorities. The mean age of the respondents was 30 years (SD ± 11.5). In evaluating public attitudes, the majority (n = 910, 79.2%) agreed with the statement that family and friends can enhance the depression recovery process by providing more care and attention to the patient and this was found to be statistically significant (P ≤0.001). More than one‐third of the respondents (n = 437, 38.0%) perceived depression as a normal medical condition and believed that it subsides automatically. The majority (n = 830, 72.2%) stated that depression results in social problems, while some felt that it can lead to raised blood pressure (n = 518, 45.1%). In terms of prevention, most of the respondents indicated that one can prevent depression by maintaining a good social life. In evaluating the barriers to seeking professional help, the majority (n = 582, 50.7%) stated that they did not believe they were at risk, with the next largest group identifying a lack of awareness regarding the signs and symptoms. However, a positive attitude was observed towards the complications and prevention of depression. Initiatives to increase mental health literacy will

  20. Hybridization of natural systems with advanced treatment processes for organic micropollutant removals: New concepts in multi-barrier treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Sudhakaran, Sairam; Maeng, Sungkyu; Amy, Gary L.

    2013-01-01

    ). With the depletion of water resources and high demand for power and chemical usage, efforts need to be made to judiciously use advanced treatment processes. There is a new interest in multiple barriers with synergies in which two coupled processes can function as a

  1. A concept mapping approach to identifying the barriers to implementing an evidence-based sports injury prevention programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Alex; Callaghan, Aisling; Bizzini, Mario; Jowett, Andrew; Keyzer, Patrick; Nicholson, Matthew

    2018-01-20

    Understanding the barriers to programme use is important to facilitate implementation of injury prevention programmes in real-word settings. This study investigated the barriers to coaches of adolescent female soccer teams, in Victoria, Australia, implementing the evidence-based FIFA 11+ injury prevention programme. Concept mapping with data collected from 19 soccer coaches and administrators. Brainstorming generated 65 statements as barriers to 11+ implementation. After the statements were synthesised and edited, participants sorted 59 statements into groups (mean, 6.2 groups; range, 3-10 groups). Multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analysis identified a six-cluster solution: Lack of 11+ knowledge among coaches (15 statements), Lack of player enjoyment and engagement (14), Lack of link to football-related goals (11), Lack of facilities and resources (8), Lack of leadership (6) and Lack of time at training (5). Statements in the 'Lack of 11+ knowledge among coaches' cluster received the highest mean importance (3.67 out of 5) and feasibility for the Football Federation to address (3.20) rating. Statements in the 'Lack of facilities and resources' cluster received the lowest mean importance rating (2.23), while statements in the 'Lack of time at training' cluster received the lowest mean feasibility rating (2.19). A multistrategy, ecological approach to implementing the 11+-with specific attention paid to improving coach knowledge about the 11+ and how to implement it, linking the 11+ to the primary goal of soccer training, and organisational leadership-is required to improve the uptake of the 11+ among the targeted coaches. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Preventing Sexual Violence Through Bystander Intervention: Attitudes, Behaviors, Missed Opportunities, and Barriers to Intervention Among Australian University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kania, Rachel; Cale, Jesse

    2018-03-01

    The concept of bystander intervention is gaining popularity in universities as a mechanism to prevent sexual violence. Prior research has focused on correlates of bystanders' intentions to intervene and intervention behaviors in situations where there is a risk of sexual violence. The current study builds on this literature by exploring the nature of missed opportunities, including perceived barriers to intervention. In all, 380 Australian undergraduate university students completed an online survey. Measures included a rape myth acceptance scale, bystander intentions to intervene, actual intervention behaviors, missed opportunities for intervention, and perceived barriers for missed opportunities. Promisingly, students reported high levels of intentions to intervene in situations where there was a risk of sexual violence and reported relatively few missed opportunities to do so when these situations did occur. Intervention behaviors varied by important demographic characteristics such as gender, age, attitudes toward sexual violence, and the nature of the situation. Younger female students, with lower levels of rape myth acceptance, who had previously engaged in bystander intervention behaviors were more likely to report intentions to intervene in future risky situations, and female international students reported fewer missed opportunities for intervention. The most common barrier to intervention for identified missed opportunities was a failure to recognize situations as having a potential risk for sexual violence, and students were most likely to intervene in situations when the opportunity to help a friend in distress arose. This study provides some preliminary empirical evidence about bystander intervention against sexual violence among Australian university students, and identifies unique contexts for intervention and what current barriers to intervention may be.

  3. Breast Cancer Awareness and Prevention Behavior among Women of Delhi, India: Identifying Barriers to Early Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhojit Dey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Globally, breast cancer (BC has become the leading cause of mortality in women. Awareness and early detection can curb the growing burden of BC and are the first step in the battle against BC. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the awareness and perceived barriers concerning the early detection of BC. Methods A total of 20 focus group discussions (FGDs were conducted during May 2013–March 2014. Pre-existing themes were used to conduct FGDs; each FGD group consisted of an average of ~10 women (aged ≥18–70 years who came to participate in a BC awareness workshop. All FGDs were audio taped and transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were inductively analyzed using ATLAS.ti. Based on emerged codes and categories, thematic analysis was done, and theory was developed using the grounded theory approach. Results Data were analyzed in three major themes: i knowledge and perception about BC; ii barriers faced by women in the early presentation of BC; and iii healthcare-seeking behavior. The findings revealed that shyness, fear, and posteriority were the major behavioral barriers in the early presentation of BC. Erroneously, pain was considered as an initial symptom of BC by most women. Financial constraint was also mentioned as a cause for delay in accessing treatment. Social stigma that breast problems reflect bad character of women also contributed in hiding BC symptoms. Conclusions Lack of BC awareness was prevalent, especially in low socioeconomic class. Women's ambivalence in prioritizing their own health and social and behavioral hurdles should be addressed by BC awareness campaigns appropriately suited for various levels of social class.

  4. Breast Cancer Awareness and Prevention Behavior Among Women of Delhi, India: Identifying Barriers to Early Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Subhojit; Sharma, Surabhi; Mishra, Arti; Krishnan, Suneeta; Govil, Jyotsna; Dhillon, Preet K

    2016-01-01

    Globally, breast cancer (BC) has become the leading cause of mortality in women. Awareness and early detection can curb the growing burden of BC and are the first step in the battle against BC. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the awareness and perceived barriers concerning the early detection of BC. A total of 20 focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted during May 2013-March 2014. Pre-existing themes were used to conduct FGDs; each FGD group consisted of an average of ~10 women (aged ≥18-70 years) who came to participate in a BC awareness workshop. All FGDs were audio taped and transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were inductively analyzed using ATLAS.ti. Based on emerged codes and categories, thematic analysis was done, and theory was developed using the grounded theory approach. Data were analyzed in three major themes: i) knowledge and perception about BC; ii) barriers faced by women in the early presentation of BC; and iii) healthcare-seeking behavior. The findings revealed that shyness, fear, and posteriority were the major behavioral barriers in the early presentation of BC. Erroneously, pain was considered as an initial symptom of BC by most women. Financial constraint was also mentioned as a cause for delay in accessing treatment. Social stigma that breast problems reflect bad character of women also contributed in hiding BC symptoms. Lack of BC awareness was prevalent, especially in low socioeconomic class. Women's ambivalence in prioritizing their own health and social and behavioral hurdles should be addressed by BC awareness campaigns appropriately suited for various levels of social class.

  5. Breast Cancer Awareness and Prevention Behavior Among Women of Delhi, India: Identifying Barriers to Early Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Dey, Subhojit; Sharma, Surabhi; Mishra, Arti; Krishnan, Suneeta; Govil, Jyotsna; Dhillon, Preet K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Globally, breast cancer (BC) has become the leading cause of mortality in women. Awareness and early detection can curb the growing burden of BC and are the first step in the battle against BC. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the awareness and perceived barriers concerning the early detection of BC. Methods A total of 20 focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted during May 2013–March 2014. Pre-existing themes were used to conduct FGDs; each FGD group consisted ...

  6. Overcoming the organization-practice barrier in sports injury prevention: A nonhierarchical organizational model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlström, Ö; Jacobsson, J; Timpka, T

    2015-08-01

    The organization of sports at the national level has seldom been included in scientific discussions of sports injury prevention. The aim of this study was to develop a model for organization of sports that supports prevention of overuse injuries. The quality function deployment technique was applied in seminars over a two-season period to develop a national organizational structure for athletics in Sweden that facilitates prevention of overuse injuries. Three central features of the resulting model for organization of sports at the national level are (a) diminishment of the organizational hierarchy: participatory safety policy design is introduced through annual meetings where actors from different sectors of the sporting community discuss training, injury prevention, and sports safety policy; (b) introduction of a safety surveillance system: a ubiquitous system for routine collection of injury and illness data; and (c) an open forum for discussion of safety issues: maintenance of a safety forum for participants from different sectors of the sport. A nonhierarchical model for organization of sports at the national level - facilitated by modern information technology - adapted for the prevention of overuse injuries has been developed. Further research is warranted to evaluate the new organizational model in prospective effectiveness studies. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Effectiveness of litter removal to prevent cambial kill-caused mortality in northern Arizona ponderosa pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    James F. Fowler; Carolyn Hull Sieg; Linda L. Wadleigh

    2010-01-01

    Removal of deep litter and duff from the base of mature southwestern ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) is commonly recommended to reduce mortality after prescribed burns, but experimental studies that quantify the effectiveness of such practices in reducing mortality are lacking. After a pilot study on each of four sites in northern Arizona, we monitored 15-16...

  8. A qualitative, interprofessional analysis of barriers to and facilitators of implementation of the Department of Veterans Affairs' Clostridium difficile prevention bundle using a human factors engineering approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanke, Eric; Moriarty, Helene; Carayon, Pascale; Safdar, Nasia

    2018-03-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is increasingly prevalent, severe, and costly. Adherence to infection prevention practices remains suboptimal. More effective strategies to implement guidelines and evidence are needed. Interprofessional focus groups consisting of physicians, resident physicians, nurses, and health technicians were conducted for a quality improvement project evaluating adherence to the Department of Veterans Affairs' (VA) nationally mandated C difficile prevention bundle. Qualitative analysis with a visual matrix display identified barrier and facilitator themes guided by the Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety model, a human factors engineering approach. Several themes, encompassing both barriers and facilitators to bundle adherence, emerged. Rapid turnaround time of C difficile polymerase chain reaction testing was a facilitator of timely diagnosis. Too few, poorly located, and cluttered sinks were barriers to appropriate hand hygiene. Patient care workload and the time-consuming process of contact isolation precautions were also barriers to adherence. Multiple work system components serve as barriers to and facilitators of adherence to the VA CDI prevention bundle among an interprofessional group of health care workers. Organizational factors appear to significantly influence bundle adherence. Interprofessional perspectives are needed to identify barriers to and facilitators of bundle implementation, which is a necessary first step to address adherence to bundled infection prevention practices. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Fragmentation reduces regional-scale spatial genetic structure in a wind-pollinated tree because genetic barriers are removed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rong; Compton, Stephen G; Shi, Yi-Su; Chen, Xiao-Yong

    2012-09-01

    Gene flow strongly influences the regional genetic structuring of plant populations. Seed and pollen dispersal patterns can respond differently to the increased isolation resulting from habitat fragmentation, with unpredictable consequences for gene flow and population structuring. In a recently fragmented landscape we compared the pre- and post-fragmentation genetic structure of populations of a tree species where pollen and seed dispersal respond differentially to forest fragmentation generated by flooding. Castanopsis sclerophylla is wind-pollinated, with seeds that are dispersed by gravity and rodents. Using microsatellites, we found no significant difference in genetic diversity between pre- and post-fragmentation cohorts. Significant genetic structure was observed in pre-fragmentation cohorts, due to an unknown genetic barrier that had isolated one small population. Among post-fragmentation cohorts this genetic barrier had disappeared and genetic structure was significantly weakened. The strengths of genetic structuring were at a similar level in both cohorts, suggesting that overall gene flow of C. sclerophylla has been unchanged by fragmentation at the regional scale. Fragmentation has blocked seed dispersal among habitats, but this appears to have been compensated for by enhanced pollen dispersal, as indicated by the disappearance of a genetic barrier, probably as a result of increased wind speeds and easier pollen movement over water. Extensive pollen flow can counteract some negative effects of fragmentation and assist the long-term persistence of small remnant populations.

  10. Assessment of Nurses’ Knowledge, Attitude, and Perceived Barriers to Expressed Pressure Ulcer Prevention Practice in Addis Ababa Government Hospitals, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Abebe Dilie; Daniel Mengistu

    2015-01-01

    Background. Although pressure ulcer development is now generally considered as an indicator for quality of nursing care, questions and concerns about situations in which they are unavoidable remain. Awareness about the significance of the problem, positive attitude towards prevention, and an adequate level of knowledge are cornerstones to effectively prevent pressure ulcers. Objective. To assess nurses’ knowledge, attitudes, and perceived barriers to expressed pressure ulcer prevention practi...

  11. School Administrator Perceptions of Cyberbullying Facilitators and Barriers to Preventive Action: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Rachel; Tully, Melissa; Ramirez, Marizen

    2017-01-01

    Background: Schools are often held responsible for preventing or addressing cyberbullying, yet little is known about school administrator perceptions of cyberbullying and the challenges they face in addressing this public health issue. Aims: The goal of this study is to examine school administrators' perceptions of the facilitators of…

  12. Blocking Synaptic Removal of GluA2-Containing AMPA Receptors Prevents the Natural Forgetting of Long-Term Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migues, Paola Virginia; Liu, Lidong; Archbold, Georgina E B; Einarsson, Einar Ö; Wong, Jacinda; Bonasia, Kyra; Ko, Seung Hyun; Wang, Yu Tian; Hardt, Oliver

    2016-03-23

    The neurobiological processes underpinning the natural forgetting of long-term memories are poorly understood. Based on the critical role of GluA2-containing AMPA receptors (GluA2/AMPARs) in long-term memory persistence, we tested in rats whether their synaptic removal underpins time-dependent memory loss. We found that blocking GluA2/AMPAR removal with the interference peptides GluA23Y or G2CT in the dorsal hippocampus during a memory retention interval prevented the normal forgetting of established, long-term object location memories, but did not affect their acquisition. The same intervention also preserved associative memories of food-reward conditioned place preference that would otherwise be lost over time. We then explored whether this forgetting process could play a part in behavioral phenomena involving time-dependent memory change. We found that infusing GluA23Y into the dorsal hippocampus during a 2 week retention interval blocked generalization of contextual fear expression, whereas infusing it into the infralimbic cortex after extinction of auditory fear prevented spontaneous recovery of the conditioned response. Exploring possible physiological mechanisms that could be involved in this form of memory decay, we found that bath application of GluA23Y prevented depotentiation, but not induction of long-term potentiation, in a hippocampal slice preparation. Together, these findings suggest that a decay-like forgetting process that involves the synaptic removal of GluA2/AMPARs erases consolidated long-term memories in the hippocampus and other brain structures over time. This well regulated forgetting process may critically contribute to establishing adaptive behavior, whereas its dysregulation could promote the decline of memory and cognition in neuropathological disorders. The neurobiological mechanisms involved in the natural forgetting of long-term memory and its possible functions are not fully understood. Based on our previous work describing the

  13. Barriers to prostate cancer prevention and community recommended health education strategies in an urban African American community in Jackson, Mississippi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekúndayò, Olúgbémiga T; Tataw, David B

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the use of survey research in collaboration with the African American urban community of Georgetown, Jackson, Mississippi to identify and understand prostate cancer knowledge, resource utilization, and health education strategies considered most effective in reaching the community with prostate cancer prevention messages. The study revealed profound needs in disease identification and resources awareness and utilization. Barriers to utilization were identified by participants to include lack of self-efficacy, low self-esteem, lack of trust in the health care system, limited knowledge of prostate pathology, and limited ability to pay. Participants' recommended strategies for reaching the community with prostate cancer education include traditional and nontraditional strategies. The list of recommendations exclude modern-day outlets such as handheld devices, Twitter, Facebook, blogs, wikis, and other Internet-based outlets. The findings provide a road map for program development and an intervention research agenda custom-tailored to the Georgetown community of Jackson, Mississippi.

  14. Prevention and treatment of chronic catarrhal gingivitis and gingival recession in patients with non-removable dental prosthesis designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Анатолій Михайлович Петрушанко

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Schemes of prevention and treatment of chronic catarrhal gingivitis and gingival recession in patients with non-removable dental prosthesis designs. It is proved their clinical effectiveness and evaluation criteria of developed gum recession land. After application of preventive and therapeutic complexes, which observed in patients, improve the hygienic condition of the mouth, confirming the feasibility of their application.Methods. It is included 153 patients with various defects of individual teeth and dentition, including 85 women (55.6% and 68 men (44.4% aged from 25 to 55 years. The control group consisted of 35 healthy individuals of the same age without metallic inclusions in the mouth.Results. In analyzing the evaluation index hygienic condition of the oral cavity in patients 25-34 years of gingivitis against the backdrop of orthopedic treatment non-removable denture constructions the indices Green-Vermillion and Silness-Loe following data were obtained: patients of the main group before treatment, the rate Green Vermillion index was an average of 1,70 ± 0,07 points to 1,75 ± 0,08 points, indicating a satisfactory level of oral hygiene. After application of preventive and therapeutic complexes improve the hygienic condition of the oral cavity, which marked the studied index indicators hygiene.Analyzing the data should be noted that positive changes of hygienic condition of the oral cavity were observed throughout the study period in all age groups of patients in both subgroups of observation and comparison.Conclusions. We offer health care systems for the prevention and treatment of gum recession and chronic catarrhal gingivitis in patients after dental prosthetics of non-replaceable constructs allowed to suspend pathological processes in the gums and improve oral hygiene

  15. BARRIERS TO COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION IN CRIME PREVENTION IN LOW INCOME COMMUNITIES IN CAPE TOWN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Claude Manaliyo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Community participation in crime prevention has been embraced byanti-crime organizations as apanaceaforcrime problems. Thisapproach gained its preeminent status after governments realisedthatlaw enforcement alone cannot reducecrimewithout involvingcommunities.This paper provides insight into challenges facingcommunityparticipationinone of the Cape Town townships. Thestudy employed qualitative method and participants such as ordinarycitizens and representatives of anti-crime organizati ons operating inKhayelitshawere purposively selected. Data was collected using in-depthface-to-faceinterviews. Key findings show that Khayelitsharesidentspatrolstreets during the night undera neighborhood watchproject; and by reporting committed crimes to police or providingpolice with informationon potential crimes, this same communitypatrol helps decrease potential criminal activities.Communityparticipation in Khayelitsha however, faces some impediments suchaspoverty among the community residents, and ineffective policeresponse to crimes.

  16. An economic evaluation of setting up physical barriers in railway stations for preventing railway injury: evidence from Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, C K; Yip, P S F

    2011-10-01

    Setting physical barriers, for example platform screen doors (PSDs), has been proven to be effective in preventing falls onto railway tracks, but its cost-effectiveness is not known. For economic evaluation of public health interventions, the importance of including non-health factors has been noted despite a lack of empirical studies. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of PSDs, which are installed in part of the Hong Kong railway system, for preventing railway injuries. Data on railway injuries from 1997 to 2007 were obtained from the railway operators. Poisson regression was used to examine the risk reduction. Two incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) were calculated to assess the cost-effectiveness based on (1) disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) only and (2) DALYs with potential fare revenue and passengers' waiting time lost due to railway circulation collapse. The PSD installation has effectively reduced railway injuries (adjusted 5-year average percentage change: -68.8%, pfair and appropriate value of the intervention's cost-effectiveness is needed.

  17. Laboratory experiment demonstrating the way in which a steam barrier prevents the dissolution of salt buried in a flooded packed bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.W.; Bowen, D.

    1977-01-01

    We have conducted a laboratory experiment to demonstrate a way in which a solid material can be prevented from dissolving in water. The differential solubility of salt (NaCl) in steam vs water is exploited. As long as the temperature of the area and water surrounding the salt is maintained above the boiling point of water, the salt cannot dissolve. This phenomenon, known as the thermal barrier, has far-reaching implications for preventing the dispersal of contaminants present near groundwater sources

  18. Prevention of biofilm formation and removal of existing biofilms by extracellular DNases of Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Helen L; Reuter, Mark; Hanman, Kate; Betts, Roy P; van Vliet, Arnoud H M

    2015-01-01

    The fastidious nature of the foodborne bacterial pathogen Campylobacter jejuni contrasts with its ability to survive in the food chain. The formation of biofilms, or the integration into existing biofilms by C. jejuni, is thought to contribute to food chain survival. As extracellular DNA (eDNA) has previously been proposed to play a role in C. jejuni biofilms, we have investigated the role of extracellular DNases (eDNases) produced by C. jejuni in biofilm formation. A search of 2791 C. jejuni genomes highlighted that almost half of C. jejuni genomes contains at least one eDNase gene, but only a minority of isolates contains two or three of these eDNase genes, such as C. jejuni strain RM1221 which contains the cje0256, cje0566 and cje1441 eDNase genes. Strain RM1221 did not form biofilms, whereas the eDNase-negative strains NCTC 11168 and 81116 did. Incubation of pre-formed biofilms of NCTC 11168 with live C. jejuni RM1221 or with spent medium from a RM1221 culture resulted in removal of the biofilm. Inactivation of the cje1441 eDNase gene in strain RM1221 restored biofilm formation, and made the mutant unable to degrade biofilms of strain NCTC 11168. Finally, C. jejuni strain RM1221 was able to degrade genomic DNA from C. jejuni NCTC 11168, 81116 and RM1221, whereas strain NCTC 11168 and the RM1221 cje1441 mutant were unable to do so. This was mirrored by an absence of eDNA in overnight cultures of C. jejuni RM1221. This suggests that the activity of eDNases in C. jejuni affects biofilm formation and is not conducive to a biofilm lifestyle. These eDNases do however have a potential role in controlling biofilm formation by C. jejuni strains in food chain relevant environments.

  19. Cancer chemoprevention and cancer preventive vaccines--a call to action: leaders of diverse stakeholder groups present strategies for overcoming multiple barriers to meet an urgent need.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herberman, Ronald B; Pearce, Homer L; Lippman, Scott M; Pyenson, Bruce S; Alberts, David S

    2006-12-15

    The emerging field of cancer prevention through chemoprevention agents and cancer vaccines offers significant promise for reducing suffering and death from cancer. However, that promise may not be kept unless major barriers to progress are lowered or eliminated. Among the most significant barriers are the relatively small investment from government and industry in research and development of cancer preventive agents; a predominant emphasis of translational cancer research on therapeutic interventions for metastatic or advanced cancer; complexities of prevention trial design; a relatively uncharted Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval process for preventive agents; insufficient public and patient understanding of the importance and potential for cancer preventive measures, with consequent unpredictable public and patient willingness to take preventive agents; an uncertain reimbursement from payors; and limitations in patent law, liability protection, and data package exclusivity that undermine the opportunity for recouping investment. Viewed individually or collectively, each of these barriers serves as a substantial deterrent to intellectual and financial investment by all sectors of the cancer community. In an effort to ultimately overcome these barriers, a Cancer Prevention Research Summit was assembled June 12-13, 2006 in Bethesda, Maryland, organized by C-Change with support from the AACR. The Summit brought together some 120 leaders from private, public, and not-for-profit entities, including cancer researchers and clinicians; federal health officials; regulatory agency representatives; pharmaceutical, biotech, and food industry leaders; patent attorneys; economists; public and private provider group executives; and advocates. Participants engaged in a detailed process to more carefully define the major barriers, identify potential solutions, and formulate initial priorities and recommendations for action. At the conclusion of this dialogue among

  20. Ephrin-B3 is the midline barrier that prevents corticospinal tract axons from recrossing, allowing for unilateral motor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullander, K; Croll, S D; Zimmer, M; Pan, L; McClain, J; Hughes, V; Zabski, S; DeChiara, T M; Klein, R; Yancopoulos, G D; Gale, N W

    2001-04-01

    Growing axons follow highly stereotypical pathways, guided by a variety of attractive and repulsive cues, before establishing specific connections with distant targets. A particularly well-known example that illustrates the complexity of axonal migration pathways involves the axonal projections of motor neurons located in the motor cortex. These projections take a complex route during which they first cross the midline, then form the corticospinal tract, and ultimately connect with motor neurons in the contralateral side of the spinal cord. These obligatory contralateral connections account for why one side of the brain controls movement on the opposing side of the body. The netrins and slits provide well-known midline signals that regulate axonal crossings at the midline. Herein we report that a member of the ephrin family, ephrin-B3, also plays a key role at the midline to regulate axonal crossing. In particular, we show that ephrin-B3 acts as the midline barrier that prevents corticospinal tract projections from recrossing when they enter the spinal gray matter. We report that in ephrin-B3(-/-) mice, corticospinal tract projections freely recross in the spinal gray matter, such that the motor cortex on one side of the brain now provides bilateral input to the spinal cord. This neuroanatomical abnormality in ephrin-B3(-/-) mice correlates with loss of unilateral motor control, yielding mice that simultaneously move their right and left limbs and thus have a peculiar hopping gait quite unlike the alternate step gait displayed by normal mice. The corticospinal and walking defects in ephrin-B3(-/-) mice resemble those recently reported for mice lacking the EphA4 receptor, which binds ephrin-B3 as well as other ephrins, suggesting that the binding of EphA4-bearing axonal processes to ephrin-B3 at the midline provides the repulsive signal that prevents corticospinal tract projections from recrossing the midline in the developing spinal cord.

  1. Selective Toll-Like Receptor 4 Antagonists Prevent Acute Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Takeshi; Kawakita, Fumihiro; Nishikawa, Hirofumi; Nakano, Fumi; Liu, Lei; Suzuki, Hidenori

    2018-05-31

    There are no direct evidences showing the linkage between Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The purpose of this study was to examine if selective blockage of TLR4 prevents BBB disruption after SAH in mice and if the TLR4 signaling involves mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). One hundred and fifty-one C57BL/6 male mice underwent sham or endovascular perforation SAH operation, randomly followed by an intracerebroventricular infusion of vehicle or two dosages (117 or 585 ng) of a selective TLR4 antagonist IAXO-102 at 30 min post-operation. The effects were evaluated by survival rates, neurological scores, and brain water content at 24-72 h and immunoglobulin G immunostaining and Western blotting at 24 h post-SAH. IAXO-102 significantly prevented post-SAH neurological impairments, brain edema, and BBB disruption, resulting in improved survival rates. IAXO-102 also significantly suppressed post-SAH activation of a major isoform of MAPK p46 c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 as well as periostin induction and preserved tight junction protein zona occludens-1. Another selective TLR4 antagonist TAK-242, which has a different binding site from IAXO-102, also showed similar effects to IAXO-102. This study first provided the evidence that TLR4 signaling is involved in post-SAH acute BBB disruption and that the signaling is mediated at least partly by JNK activation. TLR4-targeted therapy may be promising to reduce post-SAH morbidities and mortalities.

  2. The SETD8/PR-Set7 Methyltransferase Functions as a Barrier to Prevent Senescence-Associated Metabolic Remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Tanaka

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Cellular senescence is an irreversible growth arrest that contributes to development, tumor suppression, and age-related conditions. Senescent cells show active metabolism compared with proliferating cells, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here we show that the SETD8/PR-Set7 methyltransferase, which catalyzes mono-methylation of histone H4 at lysine 20 (H4K20me1, suppresses nucleolar and mitochondrial activities to prevent cellular senescence. SETD8 protein was selectively downregulated in both oncogene-induced and replicative senescence. Inhibition of SETD8 alone was sufficient to trigger senescence. Under these states, the expression of genes encoding ribosomal proteins (RPs and ribosomal RNAs as well as the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK inhibitor p16INK4A was increased, with a corresponding reduction of H4K20me1 at each locus. As a result, the loss of SETD8 concurrently stimulated nucleolar function and retinoblastoma protein-mediated mitochondrial metabolism. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that SETD8 acts as a barrier to prevent cellular senescence through chromatin-mediated regulation of senescence-associated metabolic remodeling. : Tanaka et al. show that SETD8/PR-Set7 methyltransferase represses senescence-associated genes including ribosomal proteins, ribosomal RNAs, and p16INK4A by catalyzing mono-methylation of histone H4 at lysine 20. Depletion of SETD8 derepresses these genes, resulting in nucleolar and mitochondrial coactivation characteristic of senescence-associated metabolic remodeling. Keywords: SETD8/PR-Set7, H4K20 methylation, senescence-associated metabolic remodeling, nucleolus, mitochondria

  3. Perceived barriers and facilitators of using dietary modification for CKD prevention among African Americans of low socioeconomic status: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Amber E; Boulware, L Ebony; Anderson, Cheryl A M; Chit-ua-aree, Tatpong; Kahan, Kimberly; Boyér, LaPricia Lewis; Liu, Yang; Crews, Deidra C

    2014-12-06

    Factors influencing the use of dietary interventions for modification of CKD risk among African Americans have not been well-explored. We assessed perceived barriers and facilitators of CKD prevention through dietary modifications among African Americans with low socioeconomic status (SES) and at high risk for CKD. We conducted a qualitative study involving three 90 minute focus groups of low SES (limited education, unemployed, uninsured, or incomehabits. They identified vouchers for healthy foods, family-based interventions, nutritional counseling and group gatherings for persons interested in making dietary changes as acceptable facilitators of dietary CKD prevention efforts. Low SES African Americans at high risk for CKD had limited perception of their risk but they identified multiple barriers and potential facilitators of CKD prevention via dietary modifications which can inform future studies and public health interventions.

  4. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention definition of mucosal barrier injury-associated bloodstream infection improves accurate detection of preventable bacteremia rates at a pediatric cancer center in a low- to middle-income country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Dara; González, Miriam L; Loera, Adriana; Aguilera, Marco; Relyea, George; Aristizabal, Paula; Caniza, Miguela A

    2016-04-01

    The US National Healthcare Safety Network has provided a definition of mucosal barrier injury-associated, laboratory-confirmed bloodstream infection (MBI-LCBI) to improve infection surveillance. To date there is little information about its influence in pediatric oncology centers in low- to middle-income countries. To determine the influence of the definition on the rate of central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) and compare the clinical characteristics of MBI versus non-MBI LCBI cases. We retrospectively applied the National Healthcare Safety Network definition to all CLABSIs recorded at a pediatric oncology center in Tijuana, Mexico, from January 2011 through December 2014. CLABSI events were reclassified according to the MBI-LCBI definition. Clinical characteristics and outcomes of MBI and non-MBI CLABSIs were compared. Of 55 CLABSI events, 44% (24 out of 55) qualified as MBI-LCBIs; all were MBI-LCBI subcategory 1 (intestinal flora pathogens). After the number of MBI-LCBI cases was removed from the numerator, the CLABSI rate during the study period decreased from 5.72-3.22 infections per 1,000 central line days. Patients with MBI-LCBI were significantly younger than non-MBI-LCBI patients (P = .029) and had a significantly greater frequency of neutropenia (100% vs 39%; P = .001) and chemotherapy exposure (87% vs 58%; P = .020) and significantly longer median hospitalization (34 vs 23 days; P = .008). A substantial proportion of CLABSI events at our pediatric cancer center met the MBI-LCBI criteria. Our results support separate monitoring and reporting of MBI and non-MBI-LCBIs in low- to middle-income countries to allow accurate detection and tracking of preventable (non-MBI) bloodstream infections. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of gender on awareness of cardiovascular risk factors, preventive action taken, and barriers to cardiovascular health in a group of Austrian subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidinger, Teresa; Zweimüller, Martin; Stütz, Lena; Demir, Dondue; Kaider, Alexandra; Strametz-Juranek, Jeanette

    2012-04-01

    The incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is increasing in industrialized countries. Preventive action is an important factor in minimizing CVD-associated morbidity and mortality. However, it is not known whether gender differences affect CVD or risk factor awareness influencing self-assessment of personal risk and preventive action. This study was performed to assess individual CVD and risk factor awareness, preventive action taken, and barriers to cardiovascular health. The study included 573 women and 336 men, randomly chosen to complete an anonymous questionnaire to assess individual CVD and risk factor awareness, preventive action taken, and barriers to cardiovascular health. The data were analyzed using SAS software. Cardiovascular disease was identified in 75% of patients, in both sexes, as the leading cause of death; however, both groups showed significant lack of knowledge about CVD risk factors. Type 2 diabetes was identified correctly in only 27.5%. Preventive action was linked more often to family members in 66.5% of women and 62.8% of men. The primary barrier to cardiovascular health in adults was incorrect assessment of personal CVD risk. More than half of female respondents (56.4%) and male respondents (52.7%) underestimated their risk of CVD. Knowledge about risk factors for CVD needs to be improved in members of both sexes. Because women, in particular, have difficulty in correctly assessing their personal CVD risk, future education programs are warranted to inform both women and men about CVD and its risk factors, thereby helping them to correctly assess their individual risk. However, greater effort is needed to inform men, compared with women, about the various ways in which to prevent CVD and to motivate them to take preventive action. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Reducing cultural and psychological barriers to Latino enrollment in HIV-prevention counseling: initial data on an enrollment meta-intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kristina; Durantini, Marta R; Albarracín, Julia; Crause, Candi; Albarracín, Dolores

    2013-01-01

    Aspects of Latino culture (e.g., machismo, marianism) can act as barriers to enrollment in HIV-prevention programs. To lift these barriers, a culturally appropriate meta-intervention was designed to increase intentions to enroll in HIV-prevention counseling by Latinos. Latino participants (N=41) were recruited from the community and randomly assigned to either an experimental or control meta-intervention condition that varied the introduction to a HIV-prevention counseling program. Following the meta-intervention, participants were issued an invitation to take part in HIV-prevention counseling. The outcome measure was the intention to enroll in a HIV-prevention counseling session. Findings indicated that enrollment intentions were higher in the experimental meta-intervention condition (96%) than in the control meta-intervention condition (53%). In addition, the effects of the meta-intervention were comparable across genders and participant ages. Findings suggest that the use of a culturally appropriate meta-intervention may be an effective strategy for increasing Latino enrollment in HIV-prevention programs. These promising findings warrant further investigation into the efficacy and effectiveness of this meta-intervention.

  7. Barriers and facilitators to implementation of the institute of medicine recommendations on preventing mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders among young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Mary E

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of the barriers and facilitators to implementation of the five overarching recommendations of the Institute of Medicine report and to consider the implications for nursing. Data were collected through use of a semi-structured interview of purposive sample of 22 key informants regarding the barriers and facilitators to implementation of the report's five major recommendations. The major barriers were competing priorities, lack of infrastructure for implementation, lack of public education regarding mental health and the effectiveness of prevention, stigma, and a paucity of facilitating factors. The facilitators were leadership, flexible resources, linkage to healthcare reform or other legislation, coordination across agencies and governmental levels, and additional research. The discussion focuses on ways of promoting facilitating factors and consideration of nursing's potential contributions in the areas of education, practice, and research. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Polymeric hydrogen diffusion barrier, high-pressure storage tank so equipped, method of fabricating a storage tank and method of preventing hydrogen diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessing, Paul A [Idaho Falls, ID

    2008-07-22

    An electrochemically active hydrogen diffusion barrier which comprises an anode layer, a cathode layer, and an intermediate electrolyte layer, which is conductive to protons and substantially impermeable to hydrogen. A catalytic metal present in or adjacent to the anode layer catalyzes an electrochemical reaction that converts any hydrogen that diffuses through the electrolyte layer to protons and electrons. The protons and electrons are transported to the cathode layer and reacted to form hydrogen. The hydrogen diffusion barrier is applied to a polymeric substrate used in a storage tank to store hydrogen under high pressure. A storage tank equipped with the electrochemically active hydrogen diffusion barrier, a method of fabricating the storage tank, and a method of preventing hydrogen from diffusing out of a storage tank are also disclosed.

  9. Primary care patients' perspectives of barriers and enablers of primary prevention and health promotion-a meta-ethnographic synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Peral, Patricia; Conejo-Cerón, Sonia; Fernández, Ana; Berenguera, Anna; Martínez-Andrés, María; Pons-Vigués, Mariona; Motrico, Emma; Rodríguez-Martín, Beatriz; Bellón, Juan A; Rubio-Valera, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Primary care (PC) patients have difficulties in committing to and incorporating primary prevention and health promotion (PP&HP) activities into their long-term care. We aimed to re-interpret, for the first time, qualitative findings regarding factors affecting PC patients' acceptance of PP&HP activities. A meta-ethnographic synthesis was generated following electronic and manual searches that retrieved 29 articles. Papers were reviewed and translated to produce a re-interpretation of the extracted concepts. The factors affecting PC patients' receptiveness to PP&HP activities were framed in a four-level ecological model (intrapersonal, interpersonal, institutional and environment and society). Intrapersonal factors (patients' beliefs/attitudes, knowledge, skills, self-concept, motivation and resources) were the most numerous, with almost 25 different factors. Public health education to modify erroneous beliefs and values regarding PP&HP could encourage a transition to healthier lifestyles. Health care professionals' abilities to communicate and involve patients in the decision-making process can act as facilitators. Biopsychosocial training (with emphasis on communication skills) for health professionals must start with undergraduates. Increased consultation time, the use of reminders, follow-up visits and tools for communicating risk and motivating patients could be applied at the intrapersonal level. Collaborative care involving other health professionals (nutritionists or psychotherapists) and family and community stakeholders (teachers or gym trainers) was important in developing healthier habits. Patients also cited barriers related to the built environment and socioeconomic difficulties that highlighted the need for policies promoting social justice and equity. Encouraging PP&HP using social marketing strategies and regulating media to control its impact on health were also cited. Only the perspectives of PC patients in the context of chronic conditions were

  10. Primary care patients' perspectives of barriers and enablers of primary prevention and health promotion-a meta-ethnographic synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Moreno-Peral

    Full Text Available Primary care (PC patients have difficulties in committing to and incorporating primary prevention and health promotion (PP&HP activities into their long-term care. We aimed to re-interpret, for the first time, qualitative findings regarding factors affecting PC patients' acceptance of PP&HP activities.A meta-ethnographic synthesis was generated following electronic and manual searches that retrieved 29 articles. Papers were reviewed and translated to produce a re-interpretation of the extracted concepts. The factors affecting PC patients' receptiveness to PP&HP activities were framed in a four-level ecological model (intrapersonal, interpersonal, institutional and environment and society. Intrapersonal factors (patients' beliefs/attitudes, knowledge, skills, self-concept, motivation and resources were the most numerous, with almost 25 different factors. Public health education to modify erroneous beliefs and values regarding PP&HP could encourage a transition to healthier lifestyles. Health care professionals' abilities to communicate and involve patients in the decision-making process can act as facilitators. Biopsychosocial training (with emphasis on communication skills for health professionals must start with undergraduates. Increased consultation time, the use of reminders, follow-up visits and tools for communicating risk and motivating patients could be applied at the intrapersonal level. Collaborative care involving other health professionals (nutritionists or psychotherapists and family and community stakeholders (teachers or gym trainers was important in developing healthier habits. Patients also cited barriers related to the built environment and socioeconomic difficulties that highlighted the need for policies promoting social justice and equity. Encouraging PP&HP using social marketing strategies and regulating media to control its impact on health were also cited. Only the perspectives of PC patients in the context of chronic

  11. Primary Care Patients’ Perspectives of Barriers and Enablers of Primary Prevention and Health Promotion—A Meta-Ethnographic Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Peral, Patricia; Conejo-Cerón, Sonia; Fernández, Ana; Berenguera, Anna; Martínez-Andrés, María; Pons-Vigués, Mariona; Motrico, Emma; Rodríguez-Martín, Beatriz; Bellón, Juan A.; Rubio-Valera, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background Primary care (PC) patients have difficulties in committing to and incorporating primary prevention and health promotion (PP&HP) activities into their long-term care. We aimed to re-interpret, for the first time, qualitative findings regarding factors affecting PC patients' acceptance of PP&HP activities. Methods and Findings A meta-ethnographic synthesis was generated following electronic and manual searches that retrieved 29 articles. Papers were reviewed and translated to produce a re-interpretation of the extracted concepts. The factors affecting PC patients' receptiveness to PP&HP activities were framed in a four-level ecological model (intrapersonal, interpersonal, institutional and environment and society). Intrapersonal factors (patients' beliefs/attitudes, knowledge, skills, self-concept, motivation and resources) were the most numerous, with almost 25 different factors. Public health education to modify erroneous beliefs and values regarding PP&HP could encourage a transition to healthier lifestyles. Health care professionals' abilities to communicate and involve patients in the decision-making process can act as facilitators. Biopsychosocial training (with emphasis on communication skills) for health professionals must start with undergraduates. Increased consultation time, the use of reminders, follow-up visits and tools for communicating risk and motivating patients could be applied at the intrapersonal level. Collaborative care involving other health professionals (nutritionists or psychotherapists) and family and community stakeholders (teachers or gym trainers) was important in developing healthier habits. Patients also cited barriers related to the built environment and socioeconomic difficulties that highlighted the need for policies promoting social justice and equity. Encouraging PP&HP using social marketing strategies and regulating media to control its impact on health were also cited. Only the perspectives of PC patients in the

  12. Barriers and bridges to infection prevention and control: results of a qualitative case study of a Netherlands' surgical unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backman, Chantal; Marck, Patricia B; Krogman, Naomi; Taylor, Geoff; Sales, Anne; Bonten, Marc J M; Gigengack-Baars, Ada C M

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of the study are to observe the overall work environment including infection prevention and control (IP&C) practices on the target surgical unit; to analyse the policies and procedures in the hospital and unit environments; to analyse the barriers and bridges to IP&C that practitioners identify in visual narratives of their unit environment and to collect monthly specific IP&C-related anonymised data. In this qualitative case study analysis, a socio-ecological approach on health systems informed the research design and provided a framework to better understand the complexity of implementing effective IP&C. The study was conducted on a surgical unit at a Netherlands' hospital that reported successful reductions in the prevalence of targeted multidrug-resistant organisms. Research methods included unit observations (n=3), review of relevant policies and procedures, five practitioner-led photo walkabouts of the unit (n=7), three photo elicitation focus groups with practitioners (n=13) and the review of related IP&C data. The findings indicate some conditions and processes present that may influence the low prevalence of multidrug-resistant organisms, including the 'search and destroy' active surveillance strategy, low occupancy rates, a centralised bed cleaning system and the presence of an active grass roots Hygiene in Practice group, which engages practitioners in several ongoing activities to promote IP&C on the units. Further research on the benefits of practitioner-led community of practices on IP&C practices such as the Hygiene in Practice group is also recommended. Additional case studies to compare theses practices with other acute care hospital around the world would be a valuable way to better understand what IP&C programmes are most effective in which contexts and for what reasons. Further data are available by contacting the primary author directly.

  13. Restoration of impaired intestinal barrier function by the hydrolysed casein diet contributes to the prevention of type 1 diabetes in the diabetes-prone BioBreeding rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, J T J; Lammers, K; Hoogendijk, A; Boer, M W; Brugman, S; Beijer-Liefers, S; Zandvoort, A; Harmsen, H; Welling, G; Stellaard, F; Bos, N A; Fasano, A; Rozing, J

    2010-12-01

    Impaired intestinal barrier function is observed in type 1 diabetes patients and animal models of the disease. Exposure to diabetogenic antigens from the intestinal milieu due to a compromised intestinal barrier is considered essential for induction of the autoimmune process leading to type 1 diabetes. Since a hydrolysed casein (HC) diet prevents autoimmune diabetes onset in diabetes-prone (DP)-BioBreeding (BB) rats, we studied the role of the HC diet on intestinal barrier function and, therefore, prevention of autoimmune diabetes onset in this animal model. DP-BB rats were fed the HC diet from weaning onwards and monitored for autoimmune diabetes development. Intestinal permeability was assessed in vivo by lactulose-mannitol test and ex vivo by measuring transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER). Levels of serum zonulin, a physiological tight junction modulator, were measured by ELISA. Ileal mRNA expression of Myo9b, Cldn1, Cldn2 and Ocln (which encode the tight junction-related proteins myosin IXb, claudin-1, claudin-2 and occludin) and Il-10, Tgf-ß (also known as Il10 and Tgfb, respectively, which encode regulatory cytokines) was analysed by quantitative PCR. The HC diet reduced autoimmune diabetes by 50% in DP-BB rats. In DP-BB rats, prediabetic gut permeability negatively correlated with the moment of autoimmune diabetes onset. The improved intestinal barrier function that was induced by HC diet in DP-BB rats was visualised by decreasing lactulose:mannitol ratio, decreasing serum zonulin levels and increasing ileal TEER. The HC diet modified ileal mRNA expression of Myo9b, and Cldn1 and Cldn2, but left Ocln expression unaltered. Improved intestinal barrier function might be an important intermediate in the prevention of autoimmune diabetes by the HC diet in DP-BB rats. Effects on tight junctions, ileal cytokines and zonulin production might be important mechanisms for this effect.

  14. Hataedock treatment has preventive therapeutic effects for atopic dermatitis through skin barrier protection in Dermatophagoides farinae-induced NC/Nga mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Ho-Yeol; Ahn, Sang-Hyun; Cheon, Jin-Hong; Park, Sun-Young; Kim, Kibong

    2017-07-12

    Hataedock treatment is traditionally used for the purpose of preventing the future skin disease by feeding herbal extracts to the newborn in traditional Chinese and Korean medicine. This study investigated the preventive therapeutic effects of Hataedock (HTD) treatment for atopic dermatitis (AD) through skin barrier protection in Dermatophagoides farinae-induced NC/Nga mice. To the HTD treatment group, the extract of Coptis japonica Makino and Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fischer, which analyzed with High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)-fingerprint for quality consistency, was administered orally to the 3-week-old mice before inducing AD. After that, Dermatophagoides farinae was applied except the control group to induce AD-like skin lesions. We confirmed the effects of HTD on morphological changes, protection of skin barrier, regulation of Th2 differentiation, inflammation regulation and induction of apoptosis through histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, and Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. HTD effectively reduced edema, angiogenesis and skin lesion. HTD also increased the levels of liver X receptor (LXR) and filaggrin but decreased the level of protein kinase C (PKC) (pprotection of skin barrier. Therefore, HTD may have potential applications for alternative and preventive treatment in the management of AD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Removing financial barriers to access reproductive, maternal and newborn health services: the challenges and policy implications for human resources for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPake, Barbara; Witter, Sophie; Ensor, Tim; Fustukian, Suzanne; Newlands, David; Martineau, Tim; Chirwa, Yotamu

    2013-09-22

    The last decade has seen widespread retreat from user fees with the intention to reduce financial constraints to users in accessing health care and in particular improving access to reproductive, maternal and newborn health services. This has had important benefits in reducing financial barriers to access in a number of settings. If the policies work as intended, service utilization rates increase. However this increases workloads for health staff and at the same time, the loss of user fee revenues can imply that health workers lose bonuses or allowances, or that it becomes more difficult to ensure uninterrupted supplies of health care inputs.This research aimed to assess how policies reducing demand-side barriers to access to health care have affected service delivery with a particular focus on human resources for health. We undertook case studies in five countries (Ghana, Nepal, Sierra Leone, Zambia and Zimbabwe). In each we reviewed financing and HRH policies, considered the impact financing policy change had made on health service utilization rates, analysed the distribution of health staff and their actual and potential workloads, and compared remuneration terms in the public sectors. We question a number of common assumptions about the financing and human resource inter-relationships. The impact of fee removal on utilization levels is mostly not sustained or supported by all the evidence. Shortages of human resources for health at the national level are not universal; maldistribution within countries is the greater problem. Low salaries are not universal; most of the countries pay health workers well by national benchmarks. The interconnectedness between user fee policy and HRH situations proves difficult to assess. Many policies have been changing over the relevant period, some clearly and others possibly in response to problems identified associated with financing policy change. Other relevant variables have also changed.However, as is now well

  16. Barriers in the implementation of isoniazid preventive therapy for people living with HIV in Northern Ethiopia: a mixed quantitative and qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebrehiwot Teklay

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Isoniazid preventive therapy is a key public health intervention for the prevention of tuberculosis disease among people living with HIV. Despite the confirmed efficacy of isoniazid preventive therapy and global recommendations existing for decades, its implementation remains limited. In resource constrained settings, few have investigated why isoniazid preventive therapy is not implemented on full scale. This study was designed to investigate the level of isoniazid preventive therapy implementation and reasons for suboptimal implementation in Tigray region of Ethiopia. Methods A review of patient records combined with a qualitative study using in-depth interviews and focus group discussions was conducted in 11 hospitals providing isoniazid preventive therapy in the Tigray Region. The study participants were health providers working in the HIV clinics of the 11 hospitals in the province. Health providers were interviewed about their experience of providing isoniazid preventive therapy and challenges faced during its implementation. All conversations were audio-recorded. Record review of 16,443 HIV patients registered for care in these hospitals between September 2011 and April 2014 was done to determine isoniazid preventive therapy utilization. Data were collected from April to August 2014. Results Fifty health providers participated in the study. Overall isoniazid preventive therapy coverage of the region was estimated to be 20 %. Isoniazid stock out, fear of creating isoniazid resistance, problems in patient acceptance, and lack of commitment of health managers to scale up the program were indicated by health providers as the main barriers hindering implementation of isoniazid preventive therapy. Conclusion Implementation of isoniazid preventive therapy in Tigray region of Ethiopia had low coverage. Frequent interruption of isoniazid supplies raises the concern of interrupted therapy resulting in creation of isoniazid

  17. Magnesium Presence Prevents Removal of Antigenic Nuclear-Associated Proteins from Bovine Pericardium for Heart Valve Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalgliesh, Ailsa J; Liu, Zhi Zhao; Griffiths, Leigh G

    2017-07-01

    Current heart valve prostheses are associated with significant complications, including aggressive immune response, limited valve life expectancy, and inability to grow in juvenile patients. Animal derived "tissue" valves undergo glutaraldehyde fixation to mask tissue antigenicity; however, chronic immunological responses and associated calcification still commonly occur. A heart valve formed from an unfixed bovine pericardium (BP) extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffold, in which antigenic burden has been eliminated or significantly reduced, has potential to overcome deficiencies of current bioprostheses. Decellularization and antigen removal methods frequently use sequential solutions extrapolated from analytical chemistry approaches to promote solubility and removal of tissue components from resultant ECM scaffolds. However, the extent to which such prefractionation strategies may inhibit removal of antigenic tissue components has not been explored. We hypothesize that presence of magnesium in prefractionation steps causes DNA precipitation and reduces removal of nuclear-associated antigenic proteins. Keeping all variables consistent bar the addition or absence of magnesium (2 mM magnesium chloride hexahydrate), residual BP ECM scaffold antigenicity and removed antigenicity were assessed, along with residual and removed DNA content, ECM morphology, scaffold composition, and recellularization potential. Furthermore, we used proteomic methods to determine the mechanism by which magnesium presence or absence affects scaffold residual antigenicity. This study demonstrates that absence of magnesium from antigen removal solutions enhances solubility and subsequent removal of antigenic nuclear-associated proteins from BP. We therefore conclude that the primary mechanism of action for magnesium removal during antigen removal processes is avoidance of DNA precipitation, facilitating solubilization and removal of nuclear-associated antigenic proteins. Future studies are

  18. Method and device for detecting impact events on a security barrier which includes a hollow rebar allowing insertion and removal of an optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pies, Ross E.

    2016-03-29

    A method and device for the detection of impact events on a security barrier. A hollow rebar is farmed within a security barrier, whereby the hollow rebar is completely surrounded by the security barrier. An optical fiber passes through the interior of the hollow rebar. An optical transmitter and an optical receiver are both optically connected to the optical fiber and connected to optical electronics. The optical electronics are configured to provide notification upon the detection of an impact event at the security barrier based on the detection of disturbances within the optical fiber.

  19. Administration of Lactobacillus salivarius LI01 or Pediococcus pentosaceus LI05 prevents CCl4-induced liver cirrhosis by protecting the intestinal barrier in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ding; Lv, Longxian; Fang, Daiqiong; Wu, Wenrui; Hu, Chenxia; Xu, Lichen; Chen, Yanfei; Guo, Jing; Hu, Xinjun; Li, Ang; Guo, Feifei; Ye, Jianzhong; Li, Yating; Andayani, Dewi; Li, Lanjuan

    2017-07-31

    Alterations in the gut microbiome have been reported in liver cirrhosis, and probiotic interventions are considered a potential treatment strategy. This study aimed to evaluate the effects and mechanisms of Lactobacillus salivarius LI01, Pediococcus pentosaceus LI05, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Clostridium butyricum MIYAIRI and Bacillus licheniformis Zhengchangsheng on CCl 4 -induced cirrhotic rats. Only administration of LI01 or LI05 prevented liver fibrosis and down-regulated the hepatic expression of profibrogenic genes. Serum endotoxins, bacterial translocations (BTs), and destruction of intestinal mucosal ultrastructure were reduced in rats treated with LI01 or LI05, indicating maintenance of the gut barrier as a mechanism; this was further confirmed by the reduction of not only hepatic inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-17A, but also hepatic TLR2, TLR4, TLR5 and TLR9. Metagenomic sequencing of 16S rRNA gene showed an increase in potential beneficial bacteria, such as Elusimicrobium and Prevotella, and a decrease in pathogenic bacteria, such as Escherichia. These alterations in gut microbiome were correlated with profibrogenic genes, gut barrier markers and inflammatory cytokines. In conclusion, L. salivarius LI01 and P. pentosaceus LI05 attenuated liver fibrosis by protecting the intestinal barrier and promoting microbiome health. These results suggest novel strategies for the prevention of liver cirrhosis.

  20. Office-based physical activity and nutrition intervention: barriers, enablers, and preferred strategies for workplace obesity prevention, Perth, Western Australia, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackford, Krysten; Jancey, Jonine; Howat, Peter; Ledger, Melissa; Lee, Andy H

    2013-09-12

    Workplace health promotion programs to prevent overweight and obesity in office-based employees should be evidence-based and comprehensive and should consider behavioral, social, organizational, and environmental factors. The objective of this study was to identify barriers to and enablers of physical activity and nutrition as well as intervention strategies for health promotion in office-based workplaces in the Perth, Western Australia, metropolitan area in 2012. We conducted an online survey of 111 employees from 55 organizations. The online survey investigated demographics, individual and workplace characteristics, barriers and enablers, intervention-strategy preferences, and physical activity and nutrition behaviors. We used χ(2) and Mann-Whitney U statistics to test for differences between age and sex groups for barriers and enablers, intervention-strategy preferences, and physical activity and nutrition behaviors. Stepwise multiple regression analysis determined factors that affect physical activity and nutrition behaviors. We identified several factors that affected physical activity and nutrition behaviors, including the most common barriers ("too tired" and "access to unhealthy food") and enablers ("enjoy physical activity" and "nutrition knowledge"). Intervention-strategy preferences demonstrated employee support for health promotion in the workplace. The findings provide useful insights into employees' preferences for interventions; they can be used to develop comprehensive programs for evidence-based workplace health promotion that consider environmental and policy influences as well as the individual.

  1. Community voices: barriers and opportunities for programmes to successfully prevent vertical transmission of HIV identified through consultations among people living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ginna; Caswell, Georgina; Edwards, Olive; Hsieh, Amy; Hull, Beri; Mallouris, Christoforos; Mason, Naisiadet; Nöstlinger, Christiana

    2012-07-11

    In 2010, two global networks of people living with HIV, the International Community of Women Living with HIV (ICW Global) and the Global Network of People living with HIV (GNP+) were invited to review a draft strategic framework for the global scale up of prevention of vertical transmission (PVT) through the primary prevention of HIV and the prevention of unintended pregnancies among women living with HIV. In order to ensure recommendations were based on expressed needs of people living with HIV, GNP+ and ICW Global undertook a consultation amongst people living with HIV which highlighted both facilitators and barriers to prevention services. This commentary summarizes the results of that consultation. The consultation was comprised of an online consultation (moderated chat-forum with 36 participants from 16 countries), an anonymous online e-survey (601 respondents from 58 countries), and focus-group discussions with people living with HIV in Jamaica (27 participants). The consultation highlighted the discrepancies across regions with respect to access to essential packages of PVT services. However, the consultation participants also identified common barriers to access, including a lack of trustworthy sources of information, service providers' attitudes, and gender-based violence. In addition, participant responses revealed common facilitators of access, including quality counselling on reproductive choices, male involvement, and decentralized services. The consultation provided some understanding and insight into the participants' experiences with and recommendations for PVT strategies. Participants agreed that successful, comprehensive PVT programming require greater efforts to both prevent primary HIV infection among young women and girls and, in particular, targeted efforts to ensure that women living with HIV and their partners are supported to avoid unintended pregnancies and to have safe, healthy pregnancies instead. In addition to providing the insights

  2. Supplementation with Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 prevents Decline of Mucus Barrier in Colon of Accelerated Aging Ercc1-/Δ7 Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriaan A Van Beek

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Although it is clear that probiotics improve intestinal barrier function, little is known about the effects of probiotics on the aging intestine. We investigated effects of 10-wk bacterial supplementation of Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1, Lactobacillus casei BL23, or Bifidobacterium breve DSM20213 on gut barrier and immunity in 16-week-old accelerated aging Ercc1-/Δ7 mice, which have a median lifespan of ~20wk, and their wild-type littermates. The colonic barrier in Ercc1-/Δ7 mice was characterized by a thin (<10µm mucus layer. L. plantarum prevented this decline in mucus integrity in Ercc1-/Δ7 mice, whereas B. breve exacerbated it. Bacterial supplementations affected the expression of immune-related genes, including Toll-like receptor 4. Regulatory T cell frequencies were increased in the mesenteric lymph nodes of L. plantarum- and L. casei-treated Ercc1-/Δ7 mice. L. plantarum- and L. casei-treated Ercc1-/Δ7 mice showed increased specific antibody production in a T cell-dependent immune response in vivo. By contrast, the effects of bacterial supplementation on wild-type control mice were negligible. Thus, supplementation with L. plantarum – but not with L. casei and B. breve – prevented the decline in the mucus barrier in Ercc1-/Δ7 mice. Our data indicate that age is an important factor influencing beneficial or detrimental effects of candidate probiotics. These findings also highlight the need for caution in translating beneficial effects of probiotics observed in young animals or humans to the elderly.

  3. Protective Effects of Let-7b on the Expression of Occludin by Targeting P38 MAPK in Preventing Intestinal Barrier Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihua Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Let-7b was dramatically reduced after a dicer knockout of mice with intestinal barrier function injuries. This paper aims to investigate the molecular mechanism of let-7b by targeting p38 MAPK in preventing intestinal barrier dysfunction. Methods: A total of 186 patients were enrolled, with 93 in the control group and 93 in the PRO group. Only 158 patients completed the entire study, whereas the others either did not meet the inclusion criteria or refused to participate. To further verify the role of let-7b, intestinal epithelial conditional knockout (IKO mice of mmu-let-7b model were established. Serum let-7b, zonulin, IL-6, and TNF-α concentrations were measured by ELISA or quantitative RT-PCR. Permeability assay was done by ussing chamber. The apoptotic cells were identified using an In Situ Cell Death Detection Kit. Protein was detected by western blot. Results: Probiotics can lower infection-related complications, as well as increase the serum and tissue let-7b levels. P38 MAPK was identified as the target of let-7b, as verified by NCM460 cells. P38 MAPK expression was increased, whereas tight-junction (TJ proteins were significantly decreased in let-7b IKO mice (both P<0.05. Negative regulation of p38 MAPK molecular signaling pathways was involved in the protective effects of let-7b on intestinal barrier function. Conclusion: Let-7b was identified as a novel diagnosis biomarker or a potential treatment target for preventing intestinal barrier dysfunction.

  4. Protective Effects of Let-7b on the Expression of Occludin by Targeting P38 MAPK in Preventing Intestinal Barrier Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhihua; Tian, Yinghai; Jiang, Yanqiong; Chen, Shihua; Liu, Ting; Moyer, Mary Pat; Qin, Huanlong; Zhou, Xinke

    2018-01-01

    Let-7b was dramatically reduced after a dicer knockout of mice with intestinal barrier function injuries. This paper aims to investigate the molecular mechanism of let-7b by targeting p38 MAPK in preventing intestinal barrier dysfunction. A total of 186 patients were enrolled, with 93 in the control group and 93 in the PRO group. Only 158 patients completed the entire study, whereas the others either did not meet the inclusion criteria or refused to participate. To further verify the role of let-7b, intestinal epithelial conditional knockout (IKO) mice of mmu-let-7b model were established. Serum let-7b, zonulin, IL-6, and TNF-α concentrations were measured by ELISA or quantitative RT-PCR. Permeability assay was done by ussing chamber. The apoptotic cells were identified using an In Situ Cell Death Detection Kit. Protein was detected by western blot. Probiotics can lower infection-related complications, as well as increase the serum and tissue let-7b levels. P38 MAPK was identified as the target of let-7b, as verified by NCM460 cells. P38 MAPK expression was increased, whereas tight-junction (TJ) proteins were significantly decreased in let-7b IKO mice (both P<0.05). Negative regulation of p38 MAPK molecular signaling pathways was involved in the protective effects of let-7b on intestinal barrier function. Let-7b was identified as a novel diagnosis biomarker or a potential treatment target for preventing intestinal barrier dysfunction. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Prevalence of, and barriers to, preventive lifestyle behaviors in hypertension (from a national survey of Canadians with hypertension).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Marianne E; Bienek, Asako; Campbell, Norman R C; Bancej, Christina M; Robitaille, Cynthia; Kaczorowski, Janusz; Joffres, Michel; Dai, Sulan; Gwadry-Sridar, Femida; Nolan, Robert P

    2012-02-15

    Patients with hypertension are advised to lower their blood pressure to lifestyle modification and/or pharmacotherapy. To describe the use of lifestyle changes for blood pressure control and to identify the barriers to these behaviors, the data from 6,142 Canadians with hypertension who responded to the 2009 Survey on Living With Chronic Diseases in Canada were analyzed. Most Canadians with diagnosed hypertension reported limiting salt consumption (89%), having changed the types of food they eat (89%), engaging in physical activity (80%), trying to control or lose weight if overweight (77%), quitting smoking if currently smoking (78%), and reducing alcohol intake if currently drinking more than the recommended levels (57%) at least some of the time to control their blood pressure. Men, those aged 20 to 44 years, and those with lower educational attainment and lower income were, in general, less likely to report engaging in lifestyle behaviors for blood pressure control. A low desire, interest, or awareness were commonly reported barriers to salt restriction, changes in diet, weight loss, smoking cessation, and alcohol reduction. In contrast, the most common barrier to engaging in physical activity to regulate blood pressure was the self-reported challenge of managing a coexisting physical condition or time constraints. In conclusion, programs and interventions to improve the adherence to lifestyle changes to treat hypertension may need to consider the identified barriers to lifestyle behaviors in their design. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Oral Health Knowledge, Past Oral Health Behaviors, and Barriers to Preventive Oral Care of Head Start Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlden, Adam P.; Hill, Lawrence F.; Alles-White, Monica L.; Cottrell, Randall R.

    2012-01-01

    Tooth decay remains the most common chronic disease of childhood. The CincySmiles Foundation (CSF) developed an instrument to evaluate Head Start parents' knowledge of oral health care practices and to identify barriers Head Start parents face when seeking dental treatment for their children. Data from Head Start parents (n = 675) across 3…

  7. Obesity Prevention in Early Child Care Settings: A Bistate (Minnesota and Wisconsin) Assessment of Best Practices, Implementation Difficulty, and Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanney, Marilyn S.; LaRowe, Tara L.; Davey, Cynthia; Frost, Natasha; Arcan, Chrisa; O'Meara, Joyce

    2017-01-01

    Background: Long-term evaluation studies reveal that high-quality early care and education (ECE) programs that include a lifestyle component predict later adult health outcomes. The purpose of this article is to characterize the nutrition and physical activity (PA) practices, including implementation difficulty and barriers, of licensed center-…

  8. Identification of barriers to the prevention and treatment of heat-related illness in Latino farmworkers using activity-oriented, participatory rural appraisal focus group methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Michelle; Krenz, Jennifer; Palmández, Pablo; Negrete, Maria; Perla, Martha; Murphy-Robinson, Helen; Spector, June T

    2013-10-24

    Heat-related illness (HRI) is an important cause of non-fatal illness and death in farmworkers. We sought to identify potential barriers to HRI prevention and treatment in Latino farmworkers. We conducted three semi-structured focus group discussions with 35 Latino farmworkers in the Central Washington, USA area using participatory rural appraisal techniques. Interviews were audio taped and transcribed in Spanish. Three researchers reviewed and coded transcripts and field notes, and investigator triangulation was used to identify relevant themes and quotes. Although the majority of participants in our study reported never receiving formal HRI training, most participants were aware that extreme heat can cause illness and were able to accurately describe HRI symptoms, risk factors, and certain prevention strategies. Four main observations regarding farmworkers' HRI-relevant beliefs and attitudes were identified: 1) farmworkers subscribe to varying degrees to the belief that cooling treatments should be avoided after heat exposure, with some believing that such treatments should be avoided after heat exposure, and others encouraging the use of such treatments; 2) the desire to lose weight may be reflected in behaviors that promote increased sweating; 3) highly caffeinated energy drinks are preferred to increase work efficiency and maintain alertness; and 4) the location of drinking water at work (e.g. next to restrooms) and whether water is clean, but not necessarily chemically-treated, are important considerations in deciding whether to drink the water provided at worksites. We identified potential barriers to HRI prevention and treatment related to hydration, certain HRI treatments, clothing use, and the desire to lose weight among Latino farmworkers. Strategies to address potential barriers to HRI prevention and treatment in this population may include engineering, administrative, and health education and health promotion strategies at individual, workplace

  9. Global programme to demonstrate the viability and removal of barriers that impede adoption and successful implementation of available, non-combustion technologies for destroying persistent organic pollutants (POPs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The objective of the Global Programme, in line with the strategic priorities of GEF Business Plan FY04-06, is to demonstrate the viability and removal of barriers that impede adoption and successful implementation of available non-combustion technologies for use in the destruction of obsolete Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) stockpiles and wastes, more specifically PCBs wastes in developing countries and countries with economies in transition. This specific Project (Slovakia Project), part of the Global Programme, will introduce and apply such technologies to destroy significant obsolete PCBs wastes in Slovakia, and will help remove barriers to the further adoption and effective implementation of available non-combustion technologies and meet the Stockholm Convention requirement to ensure the use of Best Available Techniques (BAT) and Best Environmental Practices (BEP). The [final draft of the] National Implementation Plan (NIP) in Slovakia favors the application of non-combustion technologies to destroy POPs. The Project will make available all technical, economic and financial parameters of the selected technology in a comparative, open and transparent way that would facilitate and provide further incentive to the global diffusion of innovative alternative non-combustion technologies. The GEF Council has approved (May 2004) a Project Brief for a similar activity in the Philippines. The GEF Slovakia Project will last 70 months. The first twenty-four months will be committed to parallel activities of a tendering process, obtaining necessary operating permits, including conducting necessary environmental impact analyses; designing, constructing and testing of the non-combustion technology to be deployed; and generally planning and organizing, among other things, such activities as a comprehensive public participation and involvement plan, and a comprehensive, participatory monitoring and evaluation plan. The next eighteen months of Project time would involve the

  10. Midwestern Latino caregivers' knowledge, attitudes and sense making of the oral health etiology, prevention and barriers that inhibit their children's oral health: a CBPR approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Kimberly K; Martínez-Mier, E Angeles; Soto-Rojas, Armando E; Jackson, Richard D; Stelzner, Sarah M; Galvez, Lorena C; Smith, Gabriela J; Acevedo, Miriam; Dandelet, Laura; Vega, Dulce

    2017-03-02

    Using community-based participatory research, the Health Protection Model was used to understand the cultural experiences, attitudes, knowledge and behaviors surrounding caries etiology, its prevention and barriers to accessing oral health care for children of Latino parents residing in Central Indiana. A community reference group (CBPR) was established and bi-lingual community research associates were used to conduct focus groups comprised of Latino caregivers. Transcripts were analyzed for thematic content using inductive thematic analysis. Results indicated significant gaps in parental knowledge regarding caries etiology and prevention, with cultural underlays. Most parents believed the etiology of caries was related to the child's ingestion of certain foods containing high amounts of carbohydrates. Fewer parents believed either genetics/biological inheritance or bacteria was the primary causative factor. Fatalism negatively impacted preventive practices, and a clear separation existed concerning the perceived responsibilities of mothers and fathers to provide for the oral needs of their children. Females were more likely to report they were primarily responsible for brushing their children's teeth, overseeing the child's diet and seeking dental care for the child. Fathers believed they were primarily responsible for providing the means to pay for professional care. Perceived barriers to care were related to finances and communication difficulties, especially communicating with providers and completing insurance forms. The main study implication is the demonstration of how the CBPR model provided enhanced understanding of Latino caregivers' experiences to inform improvements in oral prevention and treatment of their children. Current efforts continue to employ CBPR to implement programs to address the needs of this vulnerable population.

  11. Readiness for diabetes prevention and barriers to lifestyle change in women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus: rationale and study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipscombe, Lorraine L; Banerjee, Ananya Tina; McTavish, Sarah; Mukerji, Geetha; Lowe, Julia; Ray, Joel; Evans, Marilyn; Feig, Denice S

    2014-10-01

    Women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have a high risk of future diabetes, which can be prevented with lifestyle modification. Prior diabetes prevention programmes in this population have been limited by lack of adherence. The aim of this study is to evaluate readiness for behaviour change at different time points after GDM diagnosis and identify barriers and facilitators, to inform a lifestyle modification programme specifically designed for this group. The objective of this paper is to present the rationale and methodological design of this study. The ongoing prospective cohort study has recruited a multi-ethnic cohort of 1353 women with GDM from 7 Ontario, Canada hospitals during their pregnancy. A questionnaire was developed to evaluate stage of readiness for behaviour change, and sociodemographic, psychosocial, and clinical predictors of healthy diet and physical activity. Thus far, 960 women (71%) have completed a baseline survey prior to delivery. Prospective postpartum follow-up is ongoing. We are surveying women at 2 time-points after delivery: 3-12 months postpartum, and 13-24 months postpartum. Survey data will be linked to health care administrative databases for long-term follow-up for diabetes. Qualitative interviews were conducted in a subset of women to gain a deeper understanding of barriers and facilitators to lifestyle change. Our study is a fundamental first step in effectively addressing diabetes prevention in women with GDM. Our findings will aid in the design of a diabetes prevention intervention specifically targeted to women with recent GDM, which can then be evaluated in a clinical trial. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Ice barriers promote supercooling and prevent frost injury in reproductive buds, flowers and fruits of alpine dwarf shrubs throughout the summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuprian, Edith; Briceño, Verónica F; Wagner, Johanna; Neuner, Gilbert

    2014-10-01

    Over-wintering reproductive buds of many woody plants survive frost by supercooling. The bud tissues are isolated from acropetally advancing ice by the presence of ice barriers that restrict ice growth. Plants living in alpine environments also face the risk of ice formation in summer months. Little knowledge exists, how reproductive structures of woody alpine plants are protected from frost injury during episodic summer frosts. In order to address this question, frost resistance of three common dwarf shrubs, Calluna vulgaris , Empetrum hermaphroditum and Loiseleuria procumbens was measured and ice formation and propagation were monitored in twigs bearing reproductive shoots during various stages of reproductive development (bud, anthesis, and fruit) throughout the alpine summer. Results indicated that, in the investigated species, ice barriers were present at all reproductive stages, isolating the reproductive shoots from ice advancing from the subtending vegetative shoot. Additionally, in the reproductive stems ice nucleating agents that are active at warm, sub-zero temperatures, were absent. The ice barriers were 100% effective, with the exception of L. procumbens , where in 13% of the total observations, the ice barrier failed. The ice barriers were localized at the base of the pedicel, at the anatomical junction of the vegetative and reproductive shoot. There, structural aspects of the tissue impede or prevent ice from advancing from the frozen stem into the pedicel of the reproductive shoot. Under the experimental conditions used in this study, ice nucleation initially occurred in the stem of the vegetative shoot at species-specific mean temperatures in the range of -4.7 to -5.8 °C. Reproductive shoots, however, remained supercooled and ice free down to a range of -7.2 to -18.2 °C or even below -22 °C, the lowest temperature applied in the study. This level of supercooling is sufficient to prevent freezing of reproductive structures at the lowest air

  13. Barriers to uptake of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV services among mothers of vertically infected HIV-seropositive infants in Makurdi, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anígilájé EA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Emmanuel Ademola Anígilájé,1 Bem Ruben Ageda,2 Nnamdi Okechukwu Nweke1 1Department of Paediatrics, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Federal Medical Centre, Makurdi, Nigeria Background: Perinatal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV continues in Nigeria because of the poor use of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT services. This study reports on the barriers preventing mothers of vertically infected HIV-seropositive infants to use the PMTCT services at the Federal Medical Centre, Makurdi, Nigeria.Methods: This is a descriptive study conducted between January and April, 2014. A quantitative survey was applied to detect barriers along the PMTCT services cascade among 52 mothers of vertically infected HIV-seropositive infants. This includes 22 women who attended antenatal care at the Federal Medical Centre (designated as Group A mothers and 30 women who did not receive any form of PMTCT service (Group B mothers. The study was supplemented with a focused group discussion involving 12 discussants from the two groups.Results: In the quantitative assessment: among the Group A mothers, falling asleep was the most common reason (n=22, 100% for missing therapeutic/prophylactic antiretroviral medicine; financial constraint (n=22, 100% was the most common reason for antenatal care visit defaults; and a lot of the mothers (n=11, 50.0% did not give nevirapine to their newborns because they delivered at home. Among Group B mothers, unawareness of HIV-seropositive status was the most common reason (n=28, 93.3% given for not accessing PMTCT services. In the qualitative study: noninvolvement of male partners, stigma and discrimination experienced by HIV-seropositive mothers, financial constraints in couples, involvement of traditional birth attendants in antenatal care and delivery of HIV-infected women, unawareness of HIV-seropositive status by pregnant women, poor health system, and the lack of funding for PMTCT

  14. Facilitators and Barriers for Successful Implementation of Interconception Care in Preventive Child Health Care Services in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijpkens, M.K. (Meertien K.); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); Rosman, A.N. (Ageeth N.)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractObjectives Successful implementation of preconception and interconception care contributes to optimizing pregnancy outcomes. While interconception care to new mothers could potentially be provided by Preventive Child Health Care services, this care is currently not routinely available in

  15. Barriers to successful recruitment of parents of overweight children for an obesity prevention intervention: a qualitative study among youth health care professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerards Sanne MPL

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recruitment of participants for childhood overweight and obesity prevention interventions can be challenging. The goal of this study was to identify barriers that Dutch youth health care (YHC professionals perceive when referring parents of overweight children to an obesity prevention intervention. Methods Sixteen YHC professionals (nurses, physicians and management staff from eleven child health clinics participated in semi-structured interviews. An intervention implementation model was used as the framework for conducting, analyzing and interpreting the interviews. Results All YHC professionals were concerned about childhood obesity and perceived prevention of overweight and obesity as an important task of the YHC organization. In terms of frequency and perceived impact, the most important impeding factors for referring parents of overweight children to an intervention were denial of the overweight problem by parents and their resistance towards discussing weight issues. A few YHC professionals indicated that their communication skills in discussing weight issues could be improved, and some professionals mentioned that they had low self-efficacy in raising this topic. Conclusions We consider it important that YHC professionals receive more training to increase their self-efficacy and skills in motivating parents of overweight children to participate in obesity prevention interventions. Furthermore, parental awareness towards their child’s overweight should be addressed in future studies.

  16. Treatment with a barrier-strengthening moisturizer prevents relapse of hand-eczema. An open, randomized, prospective, parallel group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodén, Marie; Wirén, Karin; Smerud, Knut; Meland, Nils; Hønnås, Helge; Mørk, Gro; Lützow-Holm, Claus; Funk, Jörgen; Meding, Birgitta

    2010-11-01

    Hand eczema influences the quality of life. Management strategies include the use of moisturizers. In the present study the time to relapse of eczema during treatment with a barrier-strengthening moisturizer (5% urea) was compared with no treatment (no medical or non-medicated preparations) in 53 randomized patients with successfully treated hand eczema. The median time to relapse was 20 days in the moisturizer group compared with 2 days in the no treatment group (p = 0.04). Eczema relapsed in 90% of the patients within 26 weeks. No difference in severity was noted between the groups at relapse. Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) increased significantly in both groups; from 4.7 to 7.1 in the moisturizer group and from 4.1 to 7.8 in the no treatment group (p < 0.01) at the time of relapse. Hence, the application of moisturizers seems to prolong the disease-free interval in patients with controlled hand eczema. Whether the data is applic-able to moisturizers without barrier-strengthening properties remains to be elucidated.

  17. Perceived barriers to the implementation of Isoniazid preventive therapy for people living with HIV in resource constrained settings: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindachew, Mesele; Deribew, Amare; Memiah, Peter; Biadgilign, Sibhatu

    2014-01-01

    Isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) reduces the risk of active TB. IPT is a key public health intervention for the prevention of TB among people living with HIV and has been recommended as part of a comprehensive HIV and AIDS care strategy. However, its implementation has been very slow and has been impeded by several barriers. The Objective of the study is to assess the perceived barriers to the implementation of Isoniazid preventive therapy for people living with HIV in resource constrained settings in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia in 2010. A qualitative study using a semi-structured interviewed guide was used for the in-depth interview. A total of 12 key informants including ART Nurse, counselors and coordinators found in four hospitals were included in the interview. Each session of the in-depth interview was recorded via audio tape and detailed notes. The interview was transcribed verbatim. The data was analyzed manually. The findings revealed that poor patient adherence was a major factor; with the following issues cited as the reasons for poor adherence; forgetfulness; lack of understanding of condition and patient non- disclosure of HIV sero-status leading to insubstantial social support; underlying mental health issues resulting in missed or irregular patient appointments; weak patient/healthcare provider relationship due to limited quality interaction; lack of patient information, patient empowerment and proper counseling on IPT; and the deficient reinforcement by health officials and other stakeholders on the significance of IPT medication adherence as a critical for positive health outcomes. Uptake of the implementation of IPT is facing a challenge in resource limited settings. This recalled provision of training/capacity building and awareness creation mechanism for the health workers, facilitating disclosure and social support for the patients is recommended.

  18. Removing a broken guidewire in the hip joint: treatment options and recommendations for preventing an avoidable surgical catastrophe. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijeet Ashok Salunke

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT: Hardware breakage during hip surgery can pose challenging and difficult problems for orthopedic surgeons. Apart from technical difficulties relating to retrieval of the broken hardware, complications such as adjacent joint arthritis and damage to neurovascular structures and major viscera can occur. Complications occurring during the perioperative period must be informed to the patient and proper documentation is essential. The treatment options must be discussed with the patient and relatives and the implant company must be informed about this untoward incident. CASE REPORT: We report a case of complete removal of the implant and then removal of the broken guidewire using a combination of techniques, including a cannulated drill bit, pituitary forceps and Kerrison rongeur. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest some treatment options and recommendations for preventing an avoidable surgical catastrophe.

  19. Efficacy and safety of the C-Qur™ Film Adhesion Barrier for the prevention of surgical adhesions (CLIPEUS Trial): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stommel, Martijn W J; Strik, Chema; ten Broek, Richard P G; van Goor, Harry

    2014-09-26

    Adhesions develop in over 90% of patients after intra-abdominal surgery. Adhesion barriers are rarely used despite the high morbidity caused by intra-abdominal adhesions. Only one of the currently available adhesion barriers has demonstrated consistent evidence for reducing adhesions in visceral surgery. This agent has limitations through poor handling characteristics because it is sticky on both sides. C-Qur™ Film is a novel thin film adhesion barrier and it is sticky on only one side, resulting in better handling characteristics. The objective of this study is to assess efficacy and safety of C-Qur™ Film to decrease the incidence of adhesions after colorectal surgery. This is a prospective, investigator initiated, randomized, double-blinded, multicenter trial. Eligible patients undergoing colorectal resection requiring temporary loop ileostomy or loop/split colostomy by laparotomy or hand assisted laparoscopy will be included in the trial. Before closure, patients are randomized 1:1 to either the treatment arm (C-Qur™ Film) or control arm (no adhesion barrier). Patients will return 8 to 16 weeks post-colorectal resection for take down of their ostomy. During ostomy takedown, adhesions will be evaluated for incidence, extent, and severity. The primary outcome evaluation will be assessment of adhesions to the incision site. It is hypothesized that the use of C-Qur™ Film underneath the primary incision reduces the incidence of adhesion at the incision by 30%. To demonstrate 30% reduction in the incidence of adhesions, a sample size of 84 patients (32 + 10 per group (25% drop out)) is required (two-sided test, α = 0.05, 80% power). Results of this study add to the evidence on the use of anti-adhesive barriers in open and laparoscopic 'hand-assisted' colorectal surgery. We chose incidence of adhesions to the incision site as primary outcome measure since clinical outcomes such as small bowel obstruction, secondary infertility and adhesiolysis related

  20. REMOVAL OF ADDED NITRATE IN THE SINGLE, BINARY, AND TERNARY SYSTEMS OF COTTON BURR COMPOST, ZEROVALENT IRON, AND SEDIMENT: IMPLICATIONS FOR GROUNDWATER NITRATE REMEDIATION USING PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent research has shown that carbonaceous solid materials and zerovalent iron (Fe0) may potentially be used as media in permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) to degrade groundwater nitrate via heterotrophic denitrification in the solid carbon system, and via abiotic reduction and ...

  1. Oral Supplementation with Bovine Colostrum Prevents Septic Shock and Brain Barrier Disruption During Bloodstream Infection in Preterm Newborn Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunse, Anders; Worsøe, Päivi; Pors, Susanne Elisabeth

    2018-01-01

    Preterm infants have increased risk of neonatal sepsis, potentially inducing brain injury, and they may benefit from early initiation of enteral milk feeding. Using preterm pigs as models, we hypothesized that early provision of bovine colostrum to parentally nourished newborns protects against...... = 15) or oral provision of bovine colostrum with supplementary parenteral nutrition (SE + COL, n = 14), and compared with uninfected, TPN-nourished controls (CON + TPN, n = 11). SE-infected animals showed multiple signs of sepsis, including lethargy, hypotension, respiratory acidosis, internal organ...... hemorrhages, cellular responses (leukopenia, thrombocytopenia), brain barrier disruption and neuroinflammation. At 24 h, colostrum supplementation reduced the SE abundance in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, both p colostrum feeding normalized arterial blood pressure (38.5 ± 1.20 vs 30...

  2. Barriers and Facilitators for the Use of a Medical Mobile App to Prevent Work-Related Risks in Pregnancy: A Qualitative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velu, Adeline V; van Beukering, Monique Dm; Schaafsma, Frederieke G; Frings-Dresen, Monique Hw; Mol, Ben Wj; van der Post, Joris Am; Kok, Marjolein

    2017-08-22

    The number of women participating in the labor market in Europe has increased over the last several decades. At the same time, there is growing evidence that certain conditions of employment during pregnancy may have a negative influence on pregnancy outcomes. In order to better inform pregnant women, we aim to develop an app to help assess the health risk as a result of personal and work-related factors and provide personal advice for these women and their health care providers. The aim of this study was to compose a thematic overview of the perceived facilitators and barriers according to pregnant women, medical professionals, and employers for the use of a mobile app in obstetrical care to prevent occupational-related pregnancy complications. Two multidisciplinary focus group meetings with in total 14 participants were conducted with pregnant women, occupational physicians, general practitioners, midwives, obstetricians, and representatives of trade unions and employer organizations. Transcripts were analyzed by qualitatively coding procedures and constant comparative methods. We identified 24 potential facilitators and 12 potential barriers for the use of the app in 4 categories: content of the app, the app as a mean to provide information, ease of use, and external factors. The 3 main facilitators identified were the need for a good interaction between the app and the user, apps were viewed as a more practical source of information, and the information should be understandable, according to the existing guidelines, and well-dosed. The 2 main barriers for use were extensive battery and memory use of the smartphone and sending frequent push notifications. The results of this study are important considerations in the developing process of a medical app implementing a guideline or evidence-based information in practice. ©Adeline V Velu, Monique DM van Beukering, Frederieke G Schaafsma, Monique HW Frings-Dresen, Ben WJ Mol, Joris AM van der Post, Marjolein Kok

  3. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A

    2001-01-01

    , breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....

  4. Permeable reactive barrier of surface hydrophobic granular activated carbon coupled with elemental iron for the removal of 2,4-dichlorophenol in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Ji, E-mail: yangji@ecust.edu.cn [School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Environmental Risk Assessment and Control on Chemical Process, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Cao Limei; Guo Rui; Jia Jinping [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2010-12-15

    Granular activated carbon was modified with dimethyl dichlorosilane to improve its surface hydrophobicity, and therefore to improve the performance of permeable reactive barrier constructed with the modified granular activated carbon and elemental iron. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows that the surface silicon concentration of the modified granular activated carbon is higher than that of the original one, leading to the increased surface hydrophobicity. Although the specific surface area decreased from 895 to 835 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}, the modified granular activated carbon could adsorb 20% more 2,4-dichlorophenol than the original one did in water. It is also proven that the permeable reactive barrier with the modified granular activated carbon is more efficient at 2,4-dichlorophenol dechlorination, in which process 2,4-dichlorophenol is transformed to 2-chlorophenol or 4-chlorophenol then to phenol, or to phenol directly.

  5. Permeable reactive barrier of surface hydrophobic granular activated carbon coupled with elemental iron for the removal of 2,4-dichlorophenol in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Ji; Cao Limei; Guo Rui; Jia Jinping

    2010-01-01

    Granular activated carbon was modified with dimethyl dichlorosilane to improve its surface hydrophobicity, and therefore to improve the performance of permeable reactive barrier constructed with the modified granular activated carbon and elemental iron. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows that the surface silicon concentration of the modified granular activated carbon is higher than that of the original one, leading to the increased surface hydrophobicity. Although the specific surface area decreased from 895 to 835 m 2 g -1 , the modified granular activated carbon could adsorb 20% more 2,4-dichlorophenol than the original one did in water. It is also proven that the permeable reactive barrier with the modified granular activated carbon is more efficient at 2,4-dichlorophenol dechlorination, in which process 2,4-dichlorophenol is transformed to 2-chlorophenol or 4-chlorophenol then to phenol, or to phenol directly.

  6. Permeable reactive barrier of surface hydrophobic granular activated carbon coupled with elemental iron for the removal of 2,4-dichlorophenol in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ji; Cao, Limei; Guo, Rui; Jia, Jinping

    2010-12-15

    Granular activated carbon was modified with dimethyl dichlorosilane to improve its surface hydrophobicity, and therefore to improve the performance of permeable reactive barrier constructed with the modified granular activated carbon and elemental iron. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows that the surface silicon concentration of the modified granular activated carbon is higher than that of the original one, leading to the increased surface hydrophobicity. Although the specific surface area decreased from 895 to 835 m(2)g(-1), the modified granular activated carbon could adsorb 20% more 2,4-dichlorophenol than the original one did in water. It is also proven that the permeable reactive barrier with the modified granular activated carbon is more efficient at 2,4-dichlorophenol dechlorination, in which process 2,4-dichlorophenol is transformed to 2-chlorophenol or 4-chlorophenol then to phenol, or to phenol directly. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Prevention of Filipino Youth Behavioral Health Disparities: Identifying Barriers and Facilitators to Participating in "Incredible Years," an Evidence-Based Parenting Intervention, Los Angeles, California, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Nicole; Supan, Jocelyn; Kreutzer, Cary B; Samson, Allan; Coffey, Dean M; Javier, Joyce R

    2015-10-22

    Evidence-based interventions for training parents are proven to prevent onset and escalation of childhood mental health problems. However, participation in such programs is low, especially among hard-to-reach, underserved populations such as Filipino Americans. Filipinos, the largest Asian subgroup in California, have significant behavioral health disparities compared with non-Hispanic whites and other Asian subgroups. The purpose of this study was to learn about Filipinos' barriers and facilitators to participating in "Incredible Years" (IY), a parenting program. We conducted 4 focus groups in Los Angeles, California, in 2012; the groups consisted of 20 Filipino parents of children aged 6 to 12 years who recently completed the IY parenting program, which was offered as a prevention workshop. Three reviewers, including two co-authors (A.S., J.J.) and a research assistant used content analysis to independently code the interview transcripts and extract subthemes. Grounded theory analytic methods were used to analyze interview transcripts. Parents' perceived benefits of participation in IY were learning more effective parenting techniques, networking with other parents, improved spousal relationships, and improvements in their children's behavior. Parents' most common motivating factor for enrollment in IY was to improve their parenting skills and their relationships with their children. The most common barriers to participation were being uncomfortable sharing problems with others and the fear of being stigmatized by others judging their parenting skills. Participants said that parent testimonials would be the most effective way to promote IY. Many recommended outreach at schools, pediatricians' offices, and churches. Increasing Filipino American parent enrollment in IY in culturally relevant ways will reduce the incidence of mental health disorders among children in this growing population.

  8. Change of the work function and potential barrier transparency of W(100) and GaAs(110) single crystals during removing the inherent surface oxide layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asalkhanov, Yu.I.; Saneev, Eh.L.

    2002-01-01

    Changes of current voltage characteristics of slow monoenergetic electron beam through the surfaces of W(100) and GaAs(100) single crystals have been measured in the process of surface oxide layers elimination. It is shown that work function is decreased and transparency coefficient of surface potential barrier is increased under increasing the temperature of vacuum annealing. Peculiarities of surface potential change under oxide layer elimination in metals and semiconductors are discussed [ru

  9. Cylindrical gate all around Schottky barrier MOSFET with insulated shallow extensions at source/drain for removal of ambipolarity: a novel approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manoj; Pratap, Yogesh; Haldar, Subhasis; Gupta, Mridula; Gupta, R. S.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper TCAD-based simulation of a novel insulated shallow extension (ISE) cylindrical gate all around (CGAA) Schottky barrier (SB) MOSFET has been reported, to eliminate the suicidal ambipolar behavior (bias-dependent OFF state leakage current) of conventional SB-CGAA MOSFET by blocking the metal-induced gap states as well as unwanted charge sharing between source/channel and drain/channel regions. This novel structure offers low barrier height at the source and offers high ON-state current. The I ON/I OFF of ISE-CGAA-SB-MOSFET increases by 1177 times and offers steeper subthreshold slope (~60 mV/decade). However a little reduction in peak cut off frequency is observed and to further improve the cut-off frequency dual metal gate architecture has been employed and a comparative assessment of single metal gate, dual metal gate, single metal gate with ISE, and dual metal gate with ISE has been presented. The improved performance of Schottky barrier CGAA MOSFET by the incorporation of ISE makes it an attractive candidate for CMOS digital circuit design. The numerical simulation is performed using the ATLAS-3D device simulator.

  10. Task 20 - Prevention of Chloride Corrosion in High-Temperature Waste Treatment Systems (Corrosives Removals from Vitrification Slurries)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timpe, R.C.; Aulich, T.R.

    1998-01-01

    GTS Duratek is working with BNFL Incorporated on a US Department of Energy (DOE) contract to develop a facility to treat and immobilize radioactive waste at the Hanford site in southeast Washington. Development of the 10-ton/day Hanford facility will be based on findings from work at Duratek's 3.3-ton/day pilot plant in Columbia, Maryland, which is in the final stage of construction and scheduled for shakedown testing in early 1999. In prior work with the Catholic University of America Vitreous State Laboratory, Duratek has found that slurrying is the most efficient way to introduce low-level radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes into vitrification melters. However, many of the Hanford tank wastes to be vitrified contain species (primarily chloride and sulfate) that are corrosive to the vitrifier or the downstream air pollution control equipment, especially under the elevated temperature conditions existent in these components. Removal of these corrosives presents a significant challenge because most tank wastes contain high (up to 10-molar) concentrations of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) along with significant levels of nitrate, nitrite, and other anions, which render standard ion-exchange, membrane filtration, and other separation technologies relatively ineffective. In Task 20, the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) will work with Duratek to develop and optimize a vitrification pretreatment process for consistent, quantitative removal of chloride and sulfate prior to vitrifier injection

  11. Assessing supply-side barriers to uptake of intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in pregnancy: a qualitative study and document and record review in two regions of Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassi, Christian; Graham, Kirstie; Mufubenga, Patrobas; King, Rebecca; Meier, Joslyn; Gudoi, Sam Siduda

    2016-07-04

    Intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), provided as part of routine antenatal care (ANC), is one of three malaria-in-pregnancy prevention and control mechanisms recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). However, despite high ANC attendance and increased efforts to address known obstacles, IPTp uptake figures have remained low. This study aimed to identify and assess barriers that continue to impede IPTp uptake in Uganda, in particular for women who attend ANC. The paper focuses on supply-side barriers, i.e., challenges relating to the health service provider. In-depth interviews were conducted in two regions of Uganda in November 2013 and April/May 2014 with four different target audiences: seven district health officials, 15 health workers, 19 women who had attended ANC, and five opinion leaders. In addition, a document and record review was carried out at four health facilities. Guidelines with regard to IPTp provision in Uganda have been shown to be inconsistent and, at the time of the research, did not reflect the most recent WHO policy recommendation. There is a lack of training and supervision opportunities for health workers, resulting in poor knowledge of IPTp guidelines and uncertainty about the safety and efficacy of SP. ANC is not consistently offered in health facilities, leading to some women being denied services. While strengthening of the supply chain appears to have reduced the occurrence of stock-outs of SP in public facilities, stock-outs reportedly continue to occur in the private sector. There are also sources of data inaccuracy along the data recording and reporting chain, limiting policy makers' ability to react adequately to trends and challenges. Given the high ANC attendance rates in Uganda, supply-side barriers are likely to account for many missed opportunities for the provision of IPTp in Uganda. Improvements will require consistent provision of ANC, implementation of current

  12. Barriers and facilitating factors to the uptake of antiretroviral drugs for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourlay, Annabelle; Birdthistle, Isolde; Mburu, Gitau; Iorpenda, Kate; Wringe, Alison

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate and synthesize reasons for low access, initiation and adherence to antiretroviral drugs by mothers and exposed babies for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods A systematic literature review was conducted. Four databases were searched (Medline, Embase, Global Health and Web of Science) for studies conducted in sub-Saharan Africa from January 2000 to September 2012. Quantitative and qualitative studies were included that met pre-defined criteria. Antiretroviral (ARV) prophylaxis (maternal/infant) and combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) usage/registration at HIV care and treatment during pregnancy were included as outcomes. Results Of 574 references identified, 40 met the inclusion criteria. Four references were added after searching reference lists of included articles. Twenty studies were quantitative, 16 were qualitative and eight were mixed methods. Forty-one studies were conducted in Southern and East Africa, two in West Africa, none in Central Africa and one was multi-regional. The majority (n=25) were conducted before combination ART for PMTCT was emphasized in 2006. At the individual-level, poor knowledge of HIV/ART/vertical transmission, lower maternal educational level and psychological issues following HIV diagnosis were the key barriers identified. Stigma and fear of status disclosure to partners, family or community members (community-level factors) were the most frequently cited barriers overall and across time. The extent of partner/community support was another major factor impeding or facilitating the uptake of PMTCT ARVs, while cultural traditions including preferences for traditional healers and birth attendants were also common. Key health-systems issues included poor staff-client interactions, staff shortages, service accessibility and non-facility deliveries. Conclusions Long-standing health-systems issues (such as staffing and service accessibility) and community

  13. Use of onion extract, heparin, allantoin gel in prevention of scarring in chinese patients having laser removal of tattoos: a prospective randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Wai Sun; Ying, Shun Yuen; Chan, Pik Chu; Chan, Henry H

    2006-07-01

    With rapid advancement in cutaneous laser therapy, Q-switched lasers have become the standard treatment for tattoo removal. The longer wavelength Q-switched Nd:YAG laser is used when removing tattoos in darker skin patients to avoid scarring and permanent pigment changes. Nevertheless, the local experience revealed that nearly 25% of the Chinese patients developed scarring. Meanwhile, multiple clinical studies have shown that Contractubex gel (Merz Pharma, Frankfurt, Germany) was effective in the treatment and prevention of hypertrophic scars and keloids. To evaluate the efficacy of Contractubex gel in the prevention of scarring after laser removal of tattoos in Chinese patients. A total of 120 Chinese patients with 144 professional blue-black tattoos were recruited into the study. They were randomly assigned into the Contractubex group or the control group. All patients were treated with a QS 1,064-nm Nd:YAG laser using a 3-mm spot size, a 10-Hz repeat rate, a pulse duration of 6 nanoseconds, and fluences that ranged from 3.6 to 4.8 J/cm2 (mean fluence, 4.2 J/cm2). The treated areas were assessed 3 months after the last treatments for clinical clearance and complications. Fifty-two patients with 61 tattoos in the Contractubex group were able to achieve a mean clearing rate of 82.3+/-11.6%. There were 7 tattoos in 7 patients that developed scarring, 4 patients had permanent hypopigmentation, and 3 patients had transient hyperpigmentation. In contrast, 55 patients with 68 tattoos in the control group had a mean clearing rate of 80.4+/-11.3%. Among them, 16 tattoos in 14 patients developed scarring, 4 patients had permanent hypopigmentation, and 5 patients had transient hyperpigmentation. Although there was no significant difference in age, sex, fluence, treatment session, and clinical clearance between the two groups, the Contractubex group had a statistically significantly lower rate of scarring than the control group (ptattoos.

  14. Facilitators and barriers to the delivery of school-based smoking prevention interventions for children and young people: a protocol for a systematic review of qualitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbie, Fiona; Angus, Kathryn; Littlecott, Hannah; Allum, Karen; Wells, Valerie; Amos, Amanda; Haw, Sally; Bauld, Linda

    2018-04-06

    qualitative studies that seek to examine the barriers and facilitators to the delivery of school-based smoking prevention programmes in order to inform the design of future theory-based interventions in schools to prevent children and young people from smoking. PROSPERO CRD42014015483.

  15. Motivators, concerns, and barriers to adoption of pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention among gay and bisexual men in HIV serodiscordant male relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Ronald A.; Kaplan, Rachel L.; Lieber, Eli; Landovitz, Raphael J.; Lee, Sung-Jae; Leibowitz, Arleen A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors that may facilitate or impede future adoption of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention among gay and bisexual men in HIV-serodiscordant relationships. This qualitative study utilized semi-structured interviews conducted with a multi-racial/ethnic sample of 25 gay and bisexual HIV serodiscordant male couples (n=50 individuals) recruited from community settings in Los Angeles, California. A modified grounded theory approach was employed to identify major themes relating to future adoption of PrEP for HIV prevention. Motivators for adoption included protection against HIV infection, less concern and fear regarding HIV transmission, the opportunity to engage in unprotected sex, and endorsements of PrEP’s effectiveness. Concerns and barriers to adoption included the cost of PrEP, short- and long-term side effects, adverse effects of intermittent use or discontinuing PrEP, and accessibility of PrEP. The findings suggest the need for a carefully planned implementation program along with educational and counseling interventions in the dissemination of an effective PrEP agent. PMID:21476147

  16. Information barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, J.L.; Wolford, J.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: An information barrier (IB) consists of procedures and technology that prevent the release of sensitive information during a joint inspection of a sensitive nuclear item, and provides confidence that the measurement system into which it has been integrated functions exactly as designed and constructed. Work in the U.S. on radiation detection system information barriers dates back at least to 1990, even though the terminology is more recent. In January 1999 the Joint DoD-DOE Information Barrier Working Group was formed in the United States to help coordinate technical efforts related to information barrier R and D. This paper presents an overview of the efforts of this group, by its Chairs, as well as recommendations for further information barrier R and D. Progress on the demonstration of monitoring systems containing IBs is also provided. From the U.S. perspective, the basic, top-level functional requirements for the information barrier portion of an integrated radiation signature-information barrier inspection system are twofold: The host must be assured that his classified information is protected from disclosure to the inspecting party; and The inspecting party must be confident that the integrated inspection system measures, processes, and presents the radiation-signature-based measurement conclusion in an accurate and reproducible manner. It is the position of the United States that in the absence of any agreement to share classified nuclear weapons design information in the conduct of an inspection regime, the requirement to protect host country classified warhead design information is paramount and admits no tradeoff versus the confidence provided to the inspecting party in the accuracy and reproducibility of the measurements. The U.S. has reached an internal consensus on several critical design elements that define a general standard for radiation signature information barrier design. These criteria have stood the test of time under intense

  17. Noise-induced hearing loss in agriculture: Creating partnerships to overcome barriers and educate the community on prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet J Ehlers

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL is a common and preventable injury for farmers. Farmers are frequently exposed to excessive noise, ranking among the top three occupations and industries with the highest risk for hearing loss. Use of hearing protection among farmers is not common. Although the age when NIHL begins among farmers is unknown, its prevalence is higher among male adolescents who live and work on farms. The purpose of this paper is to describe how NIOSH created partnerships to promote hearing conservation for this hard-to-reach population. Partnerships included organizations and individuals who were trusted sources of information for the target population, young farmers 14-35 years of age and their families, and those who had linkages in rural communities. NIOSH engaged partners through exhibits and train-the-trainer workshops at state or national conventions. NIOSH workshops included basic information on NIHL as well as information on free or low-lost resources that participants could use in training others at schools and community events. People with hearing conservation expertise have an important role and many opportunities to improve the knowledge and implementation of hearing conservation among those in agriculture.

  18. Motivations and barriers to uptake and use of female-initiated, biomedical HIV prevention products in sub-Saharan Africa: an adapted meta-ethnography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakle, Robyn; Bourne, Adam; Jarrett, Caitlin; Stadler, Jonathan; Larson, Heidi

    2017-12-19

    Women bear a disproportionate burden of HIV throughout the world prompting extensive research into HIV prevention products for women which has met with varied success. With an aim of informing future policy and programming, this review examines the barriers and motivations to the uptake and use of female initiated products in sub-Saharan countries. We conducted a systematic review as an adapted meta-ethnography of qualitative data focused on actual use of products. After deduplication, 10,581 and 3861 papers in the first and second round respectively were screened. Following the PRISMA guidance, 22 papers were selected and synthesized using Malpass's definitions of first, second, and third order constructs. First order constructs, consisting of participant data published in the selected papers, were extracted and categorised by second and third order constructs for analysis. A weight of evidence review was conducted to compare and assess quality across the papers. The 22 papers selected span 11 studies in 13 countries. We derived 23 s order constructs that were translated into seven overarching third order constructs: Sexual Satisfaction, Trust, Empowerment and Control, Personal Well-being, Product use in the social-cultural environment, Practical Considerations, Risk Reduction, and Perceptions of Efficacy. Relationships and trust were seen to be as or more important for product use as efficacy. These constructs reveal an inherent inter-relationality where decision making around HIV prevention uptake and use cannot be binary or mono-faceted, but rather conducted on multiple levels. We developed a framework illustrating the central and proximal natures of constructs as they relate to the decision-making process surrounding the use of prevention products. Health systems, structural, and individual level HIV prevention interventions for women should adopt a holistic approach. Interventions should attend to the ways in which HIV prevention products can serve to reduce

  19. Removal of NAPLs from the unsaturated zone using steam: prevention of downward migration by injecting mixtures of steam and air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, R.; Gudbjerg, Jacob; Sonnenborg, Torben Obel

    2002-01-01

    injection technology is presented, where a mixture of steam and air was injected. In twodimensional experiments with unsaturated porous medium contaminated with nonaqueous phase liquids, it was demonstrated how injection of pure steam lead to severe downward migration. Similar experiments, where steam......Steam injection for remediation of porous media contaminated by nonaqueous phase liquids has been shown to be a potentially efficient technology. There is, however, concern that the technique may lead to downward migration of separate phase contaminant. In this work, a modification of the steam...... and air were injected simultaneously, resulted in practically no downward migration and still rapid cleanup was achieved. The processes responsible for the prevention of downward migration when injecting steam–air mixtures were analyzed using a nonisothermal multiphase flow and transport model. Hereby...

  20. Interest of Supportive and Barrier Protective Skin Care Products in the Daily Prevention and Treatment of Cutaneous Toxicity During Radiotherapy for Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Antoine; Regueiro, Carlos; Hijal, Tarek; Pasquier, David; De La Fuente, Cristina; Le Tinier, Florence; Coche-Dequeant, Bernard; Lartigau, Eric; Moyal, Dominique; Seité, Sophie; Bensadoun, René-Jean

    2018-01-01

    As many as 50% of patients with cancer develop acute skin reactions to some degree with radiotherapy. Proactive skin care is often recommended to minimise these skin reactions and maintain the integrity of the epidermal barrier; nevertheless, no consensual guidelines are systematically used. This multicentre, observational, prospective study evaluated the tolerability and benefit of supportive and barrier protective skin care products in preventing radiotherapy-induced skin reactions in 253 women initiating radiotherapy (exclusive or adjuvant) for breast cancer. Patients received a kit of 5 commercially available skin care products before the first radiotherapy treatment. The following variables were assessed: cutaneous adverse events, investigator-assessed skin reactions (oedema, erythema, dryness, desquamation) before and after radiotherapy course, investigator, and patient opinion on products benefit. Results were analysed by frequency of product use (heavy versus low). Average age was 60 years (range: 34-85). Over 92% of patients reported good to excellent tolerance on irradiated skin for each product. During the 6-week radiotherapy period, we observed that heavy product users had less skin reactions than the low users, particularly within 10 days of radiotherapy initiation (8% versus 18%; p  = .031). Positive physician's opinion on product use was more frequent for high (66.6%) versus low (32%) users. Patient-assessed patient benefit index was generally >1, indicating relevant treatment benefit, with a tendency for better benefit in high versus low users. These results support recommendations to use skin care products to minimise the impact of secondary cutaneous reactions with radiotherapy cancer treatment.

  1. Barriers and facilitators for the implementation of primary prevention and health promotion activities in primary care: a synthesis through meta-ethnography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rubio-Valera

    Full Text Available Evidence supports the implementation of primary prevention and health promotion (PP&HP activities but primary care (PC professionals show resistance to implementing these activities. The aim was to synthesize the available qualitative research on barriers and facilitators identified by PC physicians and nurses in the implementation of PP&HP in adults.A systematic search of three databases was conducted and supported by manual searches. The 35 articles included were translated into each other and a new interpretation of the concepts extracted was generated. The factors affecting the implementation of PP&HP activities in PC according to professionals were fitted into a five-level ecological model: intrapersonal factors, interpersonal processes, institutional factors, community factors and public policy. At the intrapersonal level we find professionals' beliefs about PP&HP, experiences, skills and knowledge, and selfconcept. The attitudes and behavior towards PP&HP of patients, specialists, practice managers and colleagues (interpersonal factors affect the feasibility of implementing PP&HP. Institutional level: PC is perceived as well-placed to implement PP&HP but workload, lack of time and referral resources, and the predominance of the biomedical model (which prioritizes disease treatment hamper the implementation of PP&HP. The effectiveness of financial incentives and tools such as guidelines and alarms/reminders is conditioned by professionals' attitudes to them. Community factors include patients' social and cultural characteristics (religion, financial resources, etc., local referral resources, mass-media messages and pharmaceutical industry campaigns, and the importance given to PP&HP in the curriculum in university. Finally, policies affect the distribution of resources, thus affecting the implementation of PP&HP.Research on barriers and facilitators in the implementation of PP&HP activities in multirisk management is scarce. The conceptual

  2. Interest of Supportive and Barrier Protective Skin Care Products in the Daily Prevention and Treatment of Cutaneous Toxicity During Radiotherapy for Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Berger

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: As many as 50% of patients with cancer develop acute skin reactions to some degree with radiotherapy. Proactive skin care is often recommended to minimise these skin reactions and maintain the integrity of the epidermal barrier; nevertheless, no consensual guidelines are systematically used. This multicentre, observational, prospective study evaluated the tolerability and benefit of supportive and barrier protective skin care products in preventing radiotherapy-induced skin reactions in 253 women initiating radiotherapy (exclusive or adjuvant for breast cancer. Methods: Patients received a kit of 5 commercially available skin care products before the first radiotherapy treatment. The following variables were assessed: cutaneous adverse events, investigator-assessed skin reactions (oedema, erythema, dryness, desquamation before and after radiotherapy course, investigator, and patient opinion on products benefit. Results were analysed by frequency of product use (heavy versus low. Results: Average age was 60 years (range: 34-85. Over 92% of patients reported good to excellent tolerance on irradiated skin for each product. During the 6-week radiotherapy period, we observed that heavy product users had less skin reactions than the low users, particularly within 10 days of radiotherapy initiation (8% versus 18%; p  = .031. Positive physician’s opinion on product use was more frequent for high (66.6% versus low (32% users. Patient-assessed patient benefit index was generally >1, indicating relevant treatment benefit, with a tendency for better benefit in high versus low users. Conclusions: These results support recommendations to use skin care products to minimise the impact of secondary cutaneous reactions with radiotherapy cancer treatment.

  3. Barriers to the implementation of programs for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV: A cross-sectional survey in rural and urban Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajunirwe Francis

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Implementation of programs for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT of HIV faces a variety of barriers and challenges. The assessment of these challenges has generally been conducted in large urban health facilities. As programs expand into rural areas, the potential barriers that may be encountered there also need to be assessed. This study examines potential barriers that might affect the acceptability of interventions for PMTCT in rural and urban settings. Results Four hundred and four women at a large urban hospital and three rural clinics that had recently started implementing PMTCT were interviewed. Level of knowledge of MTCT and preference for rapid HIV testing were equally high in both areas, but rural women had a higher tendency to think that they should consult their husbands before testing, with borderline statistical significance (72% vs. 64% p = 0.09. Health facility-based deliveries were significantly lower among mothers in rural areas compared to those in the urban setting. Overall, significant predictors of willingness to test for HIV were post-primary education (OR = 3.1 95% CI 1.2, 7.7 and knowledge about rapid HIV tests (OR = 1.8, 95% CI 1.01, 3.4. The strongest predictor of willingness to accept an HIV test was the woman's perception that her husband would approve of her testing for HIV. Women who thought their husbands would approve were almost six times more likely to report a willingness to be tested compared to those who thought their husbands would not approve (OR = 5.6, 95% CI 2.8, 11.2. Conclusion Lessons learned in large urban hospitals can be generalized to rural facilities, but the lower proportion of facility-based deliveries in rural areas needs to be addressed. Same-day results are likely to ensure high uptake of HIV testing services but male spousal involvement should be considered, particularly for rural areas. Universal Primary Education will support the success of PMTCT

  4. Studies on the optimum conditions using acid-washed zero-valent iron/aluminum mixtures in permeable reactive barriers for the removal of different heavy metal ions from wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Weijiang [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); South China Institute of Environmental Science, MEP, Guangzhou 510655 (China); Fu, Fenglian, E-mail: fufenglian2006@163.com [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Cheng, Zihang; Tang, Bing; Wu, Shijiao [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2016-01-25

    Highlights: • Acid-washed zero-valent iron and zero-valent aluminum were used in PRBs. • The time that removal efficiencies of heavy metal were above 99.5% can keep 300 h. • Removal mechanism of Cr(VI), Cd{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, and Zn{sup 2+} was discussed. • Heavy metal ions were removed by reduction, adsorption, and co-precipitation. - Abstract: The method of permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) is considered as one of the most practicable approaches in treating heavy metals contaminated surface and groundwater. The mixture of acid-washed zero-valent iron (ZVI) and zero-valent aluminum (ZVAl) as reactive medium in PRBs to treat heavy metal wastewater containing Cr(VI), Cd{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, and Zn{sup 2+} was investigated. The performance of column filled with the mixture of acid-washed ZVI and ZVAl was much better than the column filled with ZVI or ZVAl alone. At initial pH 5.4 and flow rates of 1.0 mL/min, the time that the removal efficiencies of Cr(VI), Cd{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, and Zn{sup 2+} were all above 99.5% can keep about 300 h using 80 g/40 g acid-washed ZVI/ZVAl when treating wastewater containing each heavy metal ions (Cr(VI), Cd{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, and Zn{sup 2+}) concentration of 20.0 mg/L. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterize ZVI/ZVAl before and after reaction and the reaction mechanism of the heavy metal ions with ZVI/ZVAl was discussed.

  5. Studies on the optimum conditions using acid-washed zero-valent iron/aluminum mixtures in permeable reactive barriers for the removal of different heavy metal ions from wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Weijiang; Fu, Fenglian; Cheng, Zihang; Tang, Bing; Wu, Shijiao

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Acid-washed zero-valent iron and zero-valent aluminum were used in PRBs. • The time that removal efficiencies of heavy metal were above 99.5% can keep 300 h. • Removal mechanism of Cr(VI), Cd 2+ , Ni 2+ , Cu 2+ , and Zn 2+ was discussed. • Heavy metal ions were removed by reduction, adsorption, and co-precipitation. - Abstract: The method of permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) is considered as one of the most practicable approaches in treating heavy metals contaminated surface and groundwater. The mixture of acid-washed zero-valent iron (ZVI) and zero-valent aluminum (ZVAl) as reactive medium in PRBs to treat heavy metal wastewater containing Cr(VI), Cd 2+ , Ni 2+ , Cu 2+ , and Zn 2+ was investigated. The performance of column filled with the mixture of acid-washed ZVI and ZVAl was much better than the column filled with ZVI or ZVAl alone. At initial pH 5.4 and flow rates of 1.0 mL/min, the time that the removal efficiencies of Cr(VI), Cd 2+ , Ni 2+ , Cu 2+ , and Zn 2+ were all above 99.5% can keep about 300 h using 80 g/40 g acid-washed ZVI/ZVAl when treating wastewater containing each heavy metal ions (Cr(VI), Cd 2+ , Ni 2+ , Cu 2+ , and Zn 2+ ) concentration of 20.0 mg/L. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterize ZVI/ZVAl before and after reaction and the reaction mechanism of the heavy metal ions with ZVI/ZVAl was discussed.

  6. Removal of silver nanoparticles by coagulation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Qian; Li, Yan; Tang, Ting; Yuan, Zhihua; Yu, Chang-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • This study investigated the removal of AgNP suspensions by four regular coagulants. • The optimal removal efficiencies for the four coagulants were achieved at pH 7.5. • The removal efficiency of AgNPs was affected by the natural water characteristics. • TEM and XRD showed that AgNPs or silver-containing NPs were adsorbed onto the flocs. -- Abstract: Commercial use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) will lead to a potential route for human exposure via potable water. Coagulation followed by sedimentation, as a conventional technique in the drinking water treatment facilities, may become an important barrier to prevent human from AgNP exposures. This study investigated the removal of AgNP suspensions by four regular coagulants. In the aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride coagulation systems, the water parameters slightly affected the AgNP removal. However, in the poly aluminum chloride and polyferric sulfate coagulation systems, the optimal removal efficiencies were achieved at pH 7.5, while higher or lower of pH could reduce the AgNP removal. Besides, the increasing natural organic matter (NOM) would reduce the AgNP removal, while Ca 2+ and suspended solids concentrations would also affect the AgNP removal. In addition, results from the transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction showed AgNPs or silver-containing nanoparticles were adsorbed onto the flocs. Finally, natural water samples were used to validate AgNP removal by coagulation. This study suggests that in the case of release of AgNPs into the source water, the traditional water treatment process, coagulation/sedimentation, can remove AgNPs and minimize the silver ion concentration under the well-optimized conditions

  7. Bifidobacterium longum CCM 7952 Promotes Epithelial Barrier Function and Prevents Acute DSS-Induced Colitis in Strictly Strain-Specific Manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Srutkova

    Full Text Available Reduced microbial diversity has been associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD and probiotic bacteria have been proposed for its prevention and/or treatment. Nevertheless, comparative studies of strains of the same subspecies for specific health benefits are scarce. Here we compared two Bifidobacterium longum ssp. longum strains for their capacity to prevent experimental colitis.Immunomodulatory properties of nine probiotic bifidobacteria were assessed by stimulation of murine splenocytes. The immune responses to B. longum ssp. longum CCM 7952 (Bl 7952 and CCDM 372 (Bl 372 were further characterized by stimulation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cell, HEK293/TLR2 or HEK293/NOD2 cells. A mouse model of dextran sulphate sodium (DSS-induced colitis was used to compare their beneficial effects in vivo.The nine bifidobacteria exhibited strain-specific abilities to induce cytokine production. Bl 372 induced higher levels of both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in spleen and dendritic cell cultures compared to Bl 7952. Both strains engaged TLR2 and contain ligands for NOD2. In a mouse model of DSS-induced colitis, Bl 7952, but not Bl 372, reduced clinical symptoms and preserved expression of tight junction proteins. Importantly, Bl 7952 improved intestinal barrier function as demonstrated by reduced FITC-dextran levels in serum.We have shown that Bl 7952, but not Bl 372, protected mice from the development of experimental colitis. Our data suggest that although some immunomodulatory properties might be widespread among the genus Bifidobacterium, others may be rare and characteristic only for a specific strain. Therefore, careful selection might be crucial in providing beneficial outcome in clinical trials with probiotics in IBD.

  8. Navigating the risks of prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV services in Kibera, Kenya: Barriers to engaging and remaining in care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Kerry A; Telfer, Barbara; Opondo Awiti, Patricia; Munge, Jane; Ngunga, Mathew; Reid, Anthony

    2018-01-01

    Within the first year of implementation, 43% of women who tested HIV positive at their first antenatal care visit were no longer retained and being followed in the free prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV program offered by the Kenyan Ministry of Health and Médecins Sans Frontières in the informal settlement of Kibera, Nairobi. This study aimed to explore barriers to enrolling and remaining engaged in PMTCT services throughout the pregnancy and postpartum periods. Qualitative data from 31 focus group discussions and 35 in-depth interviews across six stakeholder groups that included women, men, and PMTCT service providers were analyzed. Using an inductive exploratory approach, four researchers coded the data and identified key themes. Five themes emerged from the data that may influence attrition from PMTCT service in this setting: 1) HIV in the context of Kibera, 2) knowledge of HIV status, 3) knowledge of PMTCT, 4) disclosure of HIV status, and 5) male partner support for PMTCT services. A new HIV diagnosis during pregnancy immediately triggered an ongoing risk assessment of perceived hazards in the home, community, and clinic environments that could occur as a result of female participation in PMTCT services. Male partners were a major influence in this risk assessment, but were generally unaware of PMTCT services. To preserve relationships with male partners, meet community expectations of womanhood, and maintain confidentiality while following recommendations of healthcare providers, women had to continuously weigh the risks and benefits of PMTCT services and interventions. Community-based HIV testing and PMTCT education, male involvement in antenatal care, and counseling customized to assist each woman in her own unique risk assessment, may improve uptake of and retention in care and optimize the HIV prevention benefit of PMTCT interventions.

  9. Operational issues and barriers to implementation of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) interventions in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizire, Jim; Fowler, Mary G; Coovadia, Hoosen M

    2013-03-01

    Over the past 10 years substantial progress has been made in the implementation of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) interventions in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). In spite of this, new pediatric infections remain unacceptably high, contributing the majority (>90%) of the estimated 390,000 infections globally in 2010; and yet prolonged breastfeeding remains the norm and crucial to overall infant survival. However, there is reason for optimism given the 2010 World Health Organization PMTCT recommendations: to start HIV infected pregnant women with CD4 cell counts less than 350 cells/mm(3) on lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART); and for mothers not eligible for ART to provide efficacious maternal and/or infant PMTCT antiretroviral (ARV) regimens to be taken during pregnancy, labor/delivery and through breastfeeding. Current attention is on whether to extend maternal ARVs for life once triple ARV PMTCT regimens are started. To dramatically reduce new pediatric infections, individual countries need to politically commit to rapid scale-up of a multi-pronged PMTCT effort: including primary prevention to reduce HIV incidence among women of reproductive age; increased access to family planning services; HIV screening of all pregnant and breastfeeding women followed by ART or ARVs for PMTCT; and comprehensive care for HIV affected families. Efforts to achieve population-level success in SSA need to critically address operational issues and challenges to implementation (health system) and utilization (social, economic and cultural barriers), at the country, health centre and client level that have led to the relatively slow progress in the scale-up of PMTCT strategies.

  10. Uranium Removal from Groundwater by Permeable Reactive Barrier with Zero-Valent Iron and Organic Carbon Mixtures: Laboratory and Field Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borys Kornilovych

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Zhovty Vody city, located in south-central Ukraine, has long been an important center for the Ukrainian uranium and iron industries. Uranium and iron mining and processing activities during the Cold War resulted in poorly managed sources of radionuclides and heavy metals. Widespread groundwater and surface water contamination has occurred, which creates a significant risk to drinking water supplies. Hydrogeologic and geochemical conditions near large uranium mine tailings storage facility (TSF were characterized to provide data to locate, design and install a permeable reactive barrier (PRB to treat groundwater contaminated by leachate infiltrating from the TSF. The effectiveness of three different permeable reactive materials was investigated: zero-valent iron (ZVI for reduction, sorption, and precipitation of redox-sensitive oxyanions; phosphate material to transform dissolved metals to less soluble phases; and organic carbon substrates to promote bioremediation processes. Batch and column experiments with Zhovty Vody site groundwater were conducted to evaluate reactivity of the materials. Reaction rates, residence time and comparison with site-specific clean-up standards were determined. Results of the study demonstrate the effectiveness of the use of the PRB for ground water protection near uranium mine TSF. The greatest decrease was obtained using ZVI-based reactive media and the combined media of ZVI/phosphate/organic carbon combinations.

  11. Strategies to overcome barriers to implementing osteoporosis and fracture prevention guidelines in long-term care: a qualitative analysis of action plans suggested by front line staff in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamri, Sultan H; Kennedy, Courtney C; Marr, Sharon; Lohfeld, Lynne; Skidmore, Carly J; Papaioannou, Alexandra

    2015-08-01

    Osteoporosis is a major global health problem, especially among long-term care (LTC) facilities. Despite the availability of effective clinical guidelines to prevent osteoporosis and bone fractures, few LTC homes actually adhere to these practical recommendations. The purpose of this study was to identify barriers to the implementation of evidence-based practices for osteoporosis and fracture prevention in LTC facilities and elicit practical strategies to address these barriers. We performed a qualitative analysis of action plans formulated by Professional Advisory Committee (PAC) teams at 12 LTC homes in the intervention arm of the Vitamin D and Osteoporosis Study (ViDOS) in Ontario, Canada. PAC teams were comprised of medical directors, administrators, directors of care, pharmacists, dietitians, and other staff. Thematic content analysis was performed to identify the key themes emerging from the action plans. LTC teams identified several barriers, including lack of educational information and resources prior to the ViDOS intervention, difficulty obtaining required patient information for fracture risk assessment, and inconsistent prescribing of vitamin D and calcium at the time of admission. The most frequently suggested recommendations was to establish and adhere to standard admission orders regarding vitamin D, calcium, and osteoporosis therapies, improve the use of electronic medical records for osteoporosis and fracture risk assessment, and require bone health as a topic at quarterly reviews and multidisciplinary conferences. This qualitative study identified several important barriers and practical recommendations for improving the implementation of osteoporosis and fracture prevention guidelines in LTC settings.

  12. Outbreaks where food workers have been implicated in the spread of foodborne disease. Part 8. Gloves as barriers to prevent contamination of food by workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Ewen C D; Michaels, Barry S; Greig, Judy D; Smith, Debra; Bartleson, Charles A

    2010-09-01

    The role played by food workers and other individuals in the contamination of food has been identified as an important contributing factor leading to foodborne outbreaks. To prevent direct bare hand contact with food and food surfaces, many jurisdictions have made glove use compulsory for food production and preparation. When properly used, gloves can substantially reduce opportunities for food contamination. However, gloves have limitations and may become a source of contamination if they are punctured or improperly used. Experiments conducted in clinical and dental settings have revealed pinhole leaks in gloves. Although such loss of glove integrity can lead to contamination of foods and surfaces, in the food industry improper use of gloves is more likely than leakage to lead to food contamination and outbreaks. Wearing jewelry (e.g., rings) and artificial nails is discouraged because these items can puncture gloves and allow accumulation of microbial populations under them. Occlusion of the skin during long-term glove use in food operations creates the warm, moist conditions necessary for microbial proliferation and can increase pathogen transfer onto foods through leaks or exposed skin or during glove removal. The most important issue is that glove use can create a false sense of security, resulting in more high-risk behaviors that can lead to cross-contamination when employees are not adequately trained.

  13. Cultural barriers to effective communication between Indigenous communities and health care providers in Northern Argentina: an anthropological contribution to Chagas disease prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Arciprete, Ana; Braunstein, José; Touris, Cecilia; Dinardi, Graciela; Llovet, Ignacio; Sosa-Estani, Sergio

    2014-01-29

    Ninety percent of the aboriginal communities of Argentina are located in areas of endemic vectorial transmission of Chagas disease. Control activities in these communities have not been effective. The goal of this research was to explore the role played by beliefs, habits, and practices of Pilaga and Wichi indigenous communities in their interaction with the local health system in the province of Formosa. This article contributes to the understanding of the cultural barriers that affect the communication process between indigenous peoples and their health care providers. Twenty-nine open ended interviews were carried out with members of four indigenous communities (Pilaga and Wichi) located in central Formosa. These interviews were used to describe and compare these communities' approach to health and disease as they pertain to Chagas as well as their perceptions of Western medicine and its incarnation in local health practice. Five key findings are presented: 1) members of these communities tend to see disease as caused by other people or by the person's violation of taboos instead of as a biological process; 2) while the Pilaga are more inclined to accept Western medicine, the Wichi often favour the indigenous approach to health care over the Western approach; 3) members of these communities do not associate the vector with the transmission of the disease and they have little awareness of the need for vector control activities; 4) indigenous individuals who undergo diagnostic tests and accept treatment often do so without full information and knowledge; 5) the clinical encounter is rife with conflict between the expectations of health care providers and those of members of these communities. Our analysis suggests that there is a need to consider the role of the cultural patterning of health and disease when developing interventions to prevent and control Chagas disease among indigenous communities in Northern Argentina. This is especially important when

  14. Restoration of impaired intestinal barrier function by the hydrolysed casein diet contributes to the prevention of type 1 diabetes in the diabetes-prone BioBreeding rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, J. T. J.; Lammers, K.; Hoogendijk, A.; Boer, M. W.; Brugman, S.; Beijer-Liefers, S.; Zandvoort, A.; Harmsen, H.; Welling, G.; Stellaard, F.; Bos, N. A.; Fasano, A.; Rozing, J.

    2010-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Impaired intestinal barrier function is observed in type I diabetes patients and animal models of the disease. Exposure to diabetogenic antigens from the intestinal milieu due to a compromised intestinal barrier is considered essential for induction of the autoimmune process leading

  15. Reactor for removing ammonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Weifang [Livermore, CA; Stewart, Kenneth D [Valley Springs, CA

    2009-11-17

    Disclosed is a device for removing trace amounts of ammonia from a stream of gas, particularly hydrogen gas, prepared by a reformation apparatus. The apparatus is used to prevent PEM "poisoning" in a fuel cell receiving the incoming hydrogen stream.

  16. Inhibitory effect of zirconium oxide nanoparticles on Candida albicans adhesion to repaired polymethyl methacrylate denture bases and interim removable prostheses: a new approach for denture stomatitis prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gad, Mohammed M; Al-Thobity, Ahmad M; Shahin, Suliman Y; Alsaqer, Badar T; Ali, Aiman A

    2017-01-01

    addition of zirconia nanoparticles to cold-cured acrylic resin is an effective method for reducing Candida adhesion to repaired polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) denture bases and cold-cured removable prosthesis. Based on the results of the current study, zirconia nanoparticles have an antifungal effect, which could be incorporated in the repair material for repairing denture bases and in PMMA removable prostheses as a possible approach for denture stomatitis prevention.

  17. Development of active barriers for removing heavy metals from mine water: Freiberg colliery, Sachsen; Entwicklung aktiver Barrieren fuer die Entfernung von Schwermetallen aus Grubenwaessern am Beispiel der Freiberger Grube, Sachsen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoumis, T.

    2003-07-01

    Mine water treatment is costly, difficult, and requires extensive surface installations. The author explains the development of geochemical ('active') barriers of low-cost materials. The materials investigated were industrial residues (red sludge, fly ash, tinder residues, porous concrete residues), natural materials (bark, zeolite, bentonite, hydroxyl apatite), and commercial products (GEH, Ratio Pur MF-S). Investigations focused on density, specific surface, grain size, and acid neutralization capacity. In the final stage, experiments were made on heavy metal removal from a model water. [German] Einen grossen Anteil an der Schwermetallbelastung in Fluessen haben toxische Abwaesser aus Bergbaugebieten (Grubenwaesser). Die Moeglichkeit der Behandlung sind sehr aufwendig, kostenintensiv und nur 'ueber Tage' durchfuehrbar. Die vorliegende Arbeit erlaeutert die Behandlung von Grubenwaessern mit geochemischen ('aktiven') Barrieren. Es werden aktive Barrieren entwickelt, die in einen Schacht eingebracht werden koennen, um eine Schwermetallausbreitung zu unterbinden. In diesem Zusammenhang werden kostenguenstige Materialien untersucht, die Schadstoffe durch chemische und/oder physikalische Mechanismen aus Wasser entfernen koennen. Untersucht wurden industrielle Reststoffe (Rotschlamm, Flugasche, Zunderrueckstaende, Porenbetonabfall), natuerliche Materialien (Baumrinde, Zeolith, Bentonit, Hydroxylapatit) und kommerzielle Produkte (GEH, Ratio Pur MF-S). Die Materialien werden hinsichtlich der Dichte, der spezifischen Oberflaeche, der Korngroesse und der Saeureneutralisationskapazitaet charakterisiert. Anschliessend wurden Versuche zur Schwermetallentfernung aus einem Modellwasser durchgefuehrt. (orig.)

  18. Design of engineered sorbent barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.O.; Freeman, H.D.

    1988-08-01

    A sorbent barrier uses sorbent material such as activated carbon or natural zeolites to prevent the migration of radionuclides from a low-level waste site to the aquifer. The sorbent barrier retards the movement of radioactive contaminants, thereby providing time for the radionuclides to decay. Sorbent barriers can be a simple, effective, and inexpensive method for reducing the migration of radionuclides to the environment. Designing a sorbent barrier consists of using soil and sorbent material properties and site conditions as input to a model which will determine the necessary sorbent barrier thickness to meet contaminant limits. The paper will cover the following areas: techniques for measuring sorption properties of barrier materials and underlying soils, use of a radionuclide transport model to determine the required barrier thickness and performance under a variety of site conditions, and cost estimates for applying the barrier. 8 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  19. Design of engineered sorbent barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.O.; Freeman, H.D.

    1988-01-01

    A sorbent barrier uses sorbent material such as activated carbon or natural zeolites to prevent the migration of radionuclides from a low-level waste site to the aquifer. The sorbent barrier retards the movement of radioactive contaminants, thereby providing time for the radionuclides to decay. Sorbent barriers can be a simple, effective, and inexpensive method for reducing the migration of radionuclides to the environment. Designing a sorbent barrier consists of using soil and sorbent material properties and site conditions as input to a model which will determine the necessary sorbent barrier thickness to meet contaminant limits. The paper covers the following areas: techniques for measuring sorption properties of barrier materials and underlying soils, use of a radionuclide transport model to determine the required barrier thickness and performance under a variety of site conditions, and cost estimates for applying the barrier

  20. Lack of knowledge of HIV status a major barrier to HIV prevention, care and treatment efforts in Kenya: results from a nationally representative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Cherutich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We analyzed HIV testing rates, prevalence of undiagnosed HIV, and predictors of testing in the Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey (KAIS 2007. METHODS: KAIS was a nationally representative sero-survey that included demographic and behavioral indicators and testing for HIV, HSV-2, syphilis, and CD4 cell counts in the population aged 15-64 years. We used gender-specific multivariable regression models to identify factors independently associated with HIV testing in sexually active persons. RESULTS: Of 19,840 eligible persons, 80% consented to interviews and blood specimen collection. National HIV prevalence was 7.1% (95% CI 6.5-7.7. Among ever sexually active persons, 27.4% (95% CI 25.6-29.2 of men and 44.2% (95% CI 42.5-46.0 of women reported previous HIV testing. Among HIV-infected persons, 83.6% (95% CI 76.2-91.0 were unaware of their HIV infection. Among sexually active women aged 15-49 years, 48.7% (95% CI 46.8-50.6 had their last HIV test during antenatal care (ANC. In multivariable analyses, the adjusted odds ratio (AOR for ever HIV testing in women ≥35 versus 15-19 years was 0.2 (95% CI: 0.1-0.3; p<0.0001. Other independent associations with ever HIV testing included urban residence (AOR 1.6, 95% CI: 1.2-2.0; p = 0.0005, women only, highest wealth index versus the four lower quintiles combined (AOR 1.8, 95% CI: 1.3-2.5; p = 0.0006, men only, and an increasing testing trend with higher levels of education. Missed opportunities for testing were identified during general or pregnancy-specific contacts with health facilities; 89% of adults said they would participate in home-based HIV testing. CONCLUSIONS: The vast majority of HIV-infected persons in Kenya are unaware of their HIV status, posing a major barrier to HIV prevention, care and treatment efforts. New approaches to HIV testing provision and education, including home-based testing, may increase coverage. Targeted interventions should involve sexually active men, sexually

  1. Exploring the Barriers to and Facilitators of Using Evidence-Based Drugs in the Secondary Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases: Findings From a Multistakeholder, Qualitative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Victoria; Nambiar, Lavanya; Saxena, Malvika; Leong, Darryl; Banerjee, Amitava; Werba, José Pablo; Faria Neto, Jose Rocha; Quinto, Katherine Curi; Moniruzzaman, Mohammed; Khandelwal, Shweta

    2018-03-01

    Health-system barriers and facilitators associated with cardiovascular medication adherence have seldom been studied, particularly in low- and middle-income countries where uptake rates are poorest. This study sought to explore the major obstacles and facilitators to the use of evidence-supported medications for secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease using qualitative analysis in 2 diverse countries across multiple levels of their health care systems. A qualitative descriptive study approach was implemented in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, and Delhi, India. A purposeful sample (n = 69) of 23 patients, 10 physicians, 2 nurse practitioners, 5 Department of Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, and Homoeopathy physicians, 11 pharmacists, 3 nurses, 4 hospital administrators, 1 social worker, 3 nongovernmental organization workers, 2 pharmaceutical company representatives, and 5 policy makers participated in interviews in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada (n = 21), and Delhi, India (n = 48). All interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed followed by directed content analysis to summarize and categorize the interviews. Themes that emerged across the stakeholder groups included: medication counseling; monitoring adherence; medication availability; medication affordability and drug coverage; time restrictions; and task shifting. The depth of verbal medication counseling provided varied substantially between countries, with prescribers in India unable to convey relevant information about drug treatments due to time constraint and high patient load. Canadian patients reported drug affordability as a common issue and very few patients were familiar with government subsidized drug programs. In India, patients purchased medications out-of-pocket from private, community pharmacies to avoid long commutes, lost wages, and unavailability of medications from hospitals formularies. Task shifting medication-refilling and titration to nonphysician health workers was

  2. Groundwater protection from cadmium contamination by permeable reactive barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Natale, F. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria chimica, Universita di Federico II, P.le Tecchio, 80-80125 Naples (Italy)], E-mail: fdinatal@unina.it; Di Natale, M.; Greco, R. [Centro Interdipartimentale di Ricerca in Ingegneria Ambientale (CIRIAM), Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Seconda Universita di Napoli, via Roma 29-81031 Aversa (Caserta) (Italy); Lancia, A. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria chimica, Universita di Federico II, P.le Tecchio, 80-80125 Naples (Italy); Laudante, C.; Musmarra, D. [Centro Interdipartimentale di Ricerca in Ingegneria Ambientale (CIRIAM), Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Seconda Universita di Napoli, via Roma 29-81031 Aversa (Caserta) (Italy)

    2008-12-30

    This work studies the reliability of an activated carbon permeable reactive barrier in removing cadmium from a contaminated shallow aquifer. Laboratory tests have been performed to characterize the equilibrium and kinetic adsorption properties of the activated carbon in cadmium-containing aqueous solutions. A 2D numerical model has been used to describe pollutant transport within a groundwater and the pollutant adsorption on the permeable adsorbing barrier (PRB). In particular, it has been considered the case of a permeable adsorbing barrier (PAB) used to protect a river from a Cd(II) contaminated groundwater. Numerical results show that the PAB can achieve a long-term efficiency by preventing river pollution for several months.

  3. Hair Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hair Removal KidsHealth / For Teens / Hair Removal What's in ... you need any of them? Different Types of Hair Before removing hair, it helps to know about ...

  4. Perceived Barriers and Facilitators to Integrating HIV Prevention and Treatment with Cross-Sex Hormone Therapy for Transgender Women in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisner, Sari L; Perez-Brumer, Amaya G; McLean, Sarah A; Lama, Javier R; Silva-Santisteban, Alfonso; Huerta, Leyla; Sanchez, Jorge; Clark, Jesse L; Mimiaga, Matthew J; Mayer, Kenneth H

    2017-12-01

    Transgender women (TW) represent a vulnerable population at increased risk for HIV infection in Peru. A mixed-methods study with 48 TW and 19 healthcare professionals was conducted between January and February 2015 to explore barriers and facilitators to implementing a model of care that integrates HIV services with gender-affirmative medical care (i.e., hormone therapy) in Lima, Peru. Perceived acceptability of the integrated care model was high among TW and healthcare professionals alike. Barriers included stigma, lack of provider training or Peruvian guidelines regarding optimal TW care, and service delivery obstacles (e.g., legal documents, spatial placement of clinics, hours of operation). The hiring of TW staff was identified as a key facilitator for engagement in health care. Working in partnership with local TW and healthcare provider organizations is critical to overcoming existing barriers to successful implementation of an integrated HIV services and gender-affirmative medical care model for this key population in Peru.

  5. Exploration of knowledge of, adherence to, attitude and barriers toward evidence-based guidelines (EBGs for prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP in healthcare workers of pediatric cardiac intensive care units (PCICUs: A Quali-Quantitative survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Jahansefat

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of evidence-based guidelines (EBGs is an effective measure for prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP. Appropriate knowledge, attitude and adherence of healthcare workers (HCWs to EBGs are necessary factors for implementation of EBGs. This study was conducted with objective of evaluation of knowledge, attitude, and adherence of HCWs to EBGs for prevention of VAP and exploration of the barriers of their implementation in clinical practice. Totally, a total number of 45 HCWs of two pediatric cardiac surgery ICU (PCICUs participated in this quali-quantitative survey. Knowledge, attitude and adherence of participants was evaluated by a validated multiple-choice questionnaire and barriers of implementation of EBGs was extracted from participants’ answer to an open-ended question of our self-made questionnaire. Knowledge of HCWs was poor and significantly different between nurse assistants (RAs, nurses (RNs, and physicians (MDs (respectively, 1.25±0.95, 4.53±1.73, and 5.54±2.01, P=0.001. Likewise, attit ude of HCWs is not positive and significantly different between NAs, RNs, and MDs (respectively, 32.96±2.42, 34.00±2.44, 36.81±4.35, P=0.003. The adherence of HCWs is not good and different between RAs, RNs, and MDs (respectively, 11.50±1.00, 13.13±1.83, and 17.18±6.06, P= 0.17. The Barriers of implementation of EBGs was categorized into four category of individual, organizational, social, and educational factors. Unsatisfying status of knowledge, attitude, and adherence of HCWs is a challenging concern of health-care system, especially in PICUs. In addition to these well-known factors, poor implementation of EBGs is related to many other barriers which should recognized and taken into consideration for designation of infection controlling programs.

  6. Studies of the disruption prevention by ECRH at plasma current rise stage in limiter discharges/Possibility of an internal transport barrier producing under dominating electron transport in the T-10 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alikaev, V.V.; Borshegovskij, A.A.; Chistyakov, V.V.

    2001-01-01

    'Studies of the Disruption Prevention by ECRH at Plasma Current Rise Stage in Limiter Discharges' - Studies of disruption prevention by means of ECRH in T-10 at the plasma current rise phase in limiter discharges with circular plasma cross-section were performed. Reliable disruption prevention by ECRH at HF power (P HF ) min level equal to 20% of ohmic heating power P OH was demonstrated. m/n=2/1 mode MHD-activity developed before disruption (with characteristic time ∼ 120 ms) can be considered as disruption precursor and can be used in a feedback system. 'Possibility of an Internal Transport Barrier Producing under Dominating Electron Transport in the T-10 Tokamak' - The reversed shear experiments were carried out on T-10 at the HF power up to 1MW. The reversed shear in the core was produced by on-axis ECCD in direction opposite to the plasma current. There are no obvious signs of Internal Transport Barriers formation under condition when high-k turbulence determines the electron transport. (author)

  7. Strategies to Overcome Barriers to Implementation of Alcohol Screening and Brief Intervention in General Practice: a Delphi Study Among Healthcare Professionals and Addiction Prevention Experts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Abidi; A. Oenema (Anke); P. Nilsen; P.D. Anderson (Peter); H. van de Mheen (Dike)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractDespite the evidence base, alcohol screening and brief intervention (ASBI) have rarely been integrated into routine clinical practice. The aim of this study is to identify strategies that could tackle barriers to ASBI implementation in general practice by involving primary healthcare

  8. Infection control in digital intraoral radiography: evaluation of microbiological contamination of photostimulable phosphor plates in barrier envelopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, David S; Waterfield, J Douglas

    2011-01-01

    The detectors (both solid-state sensors and photostimulable phosphor [PSP] plates) used for digital intraoral radiography cannot be autoclaved, and barriers are typically used to prevent the spread of infection. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a barrier envelope system for PSP plates. Disinfected PSP plates were aseptically inserted into barrier envelopes and placed in a periapical location. One PSP plate was placed in each of 28 patients, and 12 plates in each of 2 volunteers (D.S.M., J.D.W.). After retrieval, each PSP plate was removed from its barrier envelope, immersed in trypticase soy broth and aliquots were plated on trypticase soy agar. Bacterial colonies were counted 2 days later. Fifty-two PSP plates in barrier envelopes were evaluated for contamination. Quality assurance of the PSP plates before clinical placement revealed defects in the integrity of 4 barrier envelopes, caused by forceps-related damage or failure to achieve a uniform seal. These defects allowed substantial contamination. Contamination also occurred as a result of failure to extract the PSP plate from the barrier envelope cleanly. Of the 44 barriers with no obvious defects that were placed by either final-year dental students or a radiologist, only 3 allowed bacterial contamination of the PSP plate. Detectors contained in barrier envelopes remain a potential source of contamination. PSP plates must be disinfected between removal from a contaminated barrier envelope and placement in a new barrier envelope. In addition, placement into the barrier envelope should ideally be carried out under aseptic conditions. Finally, the integrity of each sealed barrier envelope must be verified visually before release to the clinic.

  9. TEMPORARY REMOVAL: Emergency Department Implementation of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Pediatric Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Guideline Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumba-Brown, Angela; Wright, David W; Sarmiento, Kelly; Houry, Debra

    2018-05-10

    The publisher regrets that this article has been temporarily removed. A replacement will appear as soon as possible in which the reason for the removal of the article will be specified, or the article will be reinstated. The full Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal can be found at https://www.elsevier.com/about/our-business/policies/article-withdrawal. Copyright © 2018 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Prevention of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Removing the threat of a nuclear war-as the General Assembly formally stated in the Final Document of its first special session devoted to disarmament, in 1978-is considered to be the task of the present day. In that Document, the General Assembly sought to establish principles, guidelines and procedures for preventing nuclear war. It declared that to that end, it was imperative to remove the threat of nuclear weapons, to halt and reverse the nuclear-arms race until the total elimination of nuclear weapons and their delivery systems had been achieved (see chapter iv), and to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons (see chapter VII). At the same time, it called for other measures designed to prevent the outbreak of nuclear war and to lessen the danger of the treat or use of nuclear weapons. The Assembly's clear call for action was dictated by the awareness that there was no insuperable barrier dividing peace from war and that, unless nations brought the spiralling nuclear-arms race to an end, the day might come when nuclear weapons would actually be used, with catastrophic consequences. In adopting the Final Document, the international community achieved, for the first time, a consensus on an international disarmament strategy having as its immediate goal the elimination of the danger of a nuclear war and the implementation of measures to halt and reverse the arms race. The General Assembly, at its second special session on disarmament, in 1982, reaffirmed the validity of the 1978 Final Document. This paper reports that nuclear issues and in particular the prevention of nuclear war remain, however, major concerns of all States. Undoubtedly, all nations have a vital interest in the negotiation of effective measures for her prevention of nuclear war, since nuclear weapons pose a unique threat to human survival. If nuclear war were to occur, its consequences would be global, not simple regional

  11. Barriers to, and facilitators of, the prevention of unintentional injury in children in the home: a systematic review and synthesis of qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithson, Janet; Garside, Ruth; Pearson, Mark

    2011-04-01

    This review considers barriers to, and facilitators of, success for interventions to reduce unintentional injury to children in the home through supply and/or installation of home safety equipment, and looks at risk assessments. A systematic review of qualitative research. Bibliographic databases were searched for studies on interventions to reduce unintentional child injury in the home, or on related attitudes and behaviours. Studies were quality appraised, findings extracted, and a conceptual framework was developed to assess factors affecting the success of interventions. Nine peer-reviewed journal articles were included. Barriers and facilitators were highlighted at organisational, environmental and personal levels. Effective provision of safety equipment involves ongoing support with installation and maintenance. Take up and success of interventions depends on adjusting interventions according to practical limitations and parents' cultural expectations. A particular barrier was parents' inability to modify rented or shared accommodation. The review highlights ways in which health inequalities affect the take up and success of home safety interventions, and how health workers can use this knowledge to facilitate future interventions.

  12. Preventing sight loss in older people. A qualitative study exploring barriers to the uptake of regular sight tests of older people living in socially deprived communities in South Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddyr, S; Jones, A

    2015-02-01

    This paper describes research findings that try to understand some of the reasons that prevent older people in deprived communities in South Wales from accessing NHS funded sight tests and leads to a discussion of suitable interventions that seek to improve access to primary eye care services and prevent avoidable sight loss. Data were collected from eight focus groups (n = 63) of mixed gender and ages (60-80+ years), of white origin living in deprived communities in South Wales. Individuals were recruited for the focus groups by extensively publicizing the project, with a range of health and older people's community services and groups such as sheltered housing complexes, stroke support groups and coffee morning groups. The study included people who attended optometry services and people not engaged with services. A purposive sampling technique summarizes the sampling approach taken, an approach which the team utilized to recruit 'information rich' cases, namely individuals, groups and organizations that provided the greatest insight into the research question. Focus groups were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data underwent thematic content analysis and subsequent interpretations were corroborated by expert advisors and a project steering group. Cost was perceived as a significant barrier to accessing sight tests, particularly in relation to purchasing glasses. Other barriers included the perceived pressure to buy glasses associated with visits to the optometrists; poor understanding of the purpose of a sight test in a health prevention context and acceptance of deteriorating sight loss due to the ageing process. Areas of improvement for the delivery of preventative eye health services to older people are identified, as are areas for reflection on the part of those who work within the eye health industry. Copyright © 2014 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Circularly polarized antennas for active holographic imaging through barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMakin, Douglas L [Richland, WA; Severtsen, Ronald H [Richland, WA; Lechelt, Wayne M [West Richland, WA; Prince, James M [Kennewick, WA

    2011-07-26

    Circularly-polarized antennas and their methods of use for active holographic imaging through barriers. The antennas are dielectrically loaded to optimally match the dielectric constant of the barrier through which images are to be produced. The dielectric loading helps to remove barrier-front surface reflections and to couple electromagnetic energy into the barrier.

  14. Is the metaphor of 'barriers to change' useful in understanding implementation? Evidence from general medical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checkland, Kath; Harrison, Stephen; Marshall, Martin

    2007-04-01

    To investigate how general medical practices in the UK react to bureaucratic initiatives, such as National Health Service (NHS) National Service Frameworks (NSFs), and to explore the value of the metaphor of 'barriers to change' for understanding this. Interviews, non-participant observation and documentary analysis within case studies of four practices in northern England. The practices had not actively implemented NSFs. At interview, various 'barriers' that had prevented implementation were listed, including the complexity of the documents and lack of time. Observation suggested that these barriers were constructions used by the participants to make sense of the situation in which they found themselves. The metaphor of 'removing barriers to change' was of limited use in a context where non-implementation of policy was an emergent property of underlying organizational realities, likely to be modifiable only if these realities were addressed.

  15. Barriers to Mammography among Inadequately Screened Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Carolyn R. T.; Roberts, Summer; Cheng, Meng-Ru; Crayton, Eloise V.; Jackson, Sherrill; Politi, Mary C.

    2015-01-01

    Mammography use has increased over the past 20 years, yet more than 30% of women remain inadequately screened. Structural barriers can deter individuals from screening, however, cognitive, emotional, and communication barriers may also prevent mammography use. This study sought to identify the impact of number and type of barriers on mammography…

  16. Efficacy of a high free iodine barrier teat disinfectant for the prevention of naturally occurring new intramammary infections and clinical mastitis in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, C M M R; Pinheiro, E S C; Gentilini, M; Benavides, M Lopez; Santos, M V

    2017-05-01

    Using a natural exposure trial design, the goal of our study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of an iodine teat disinfectant with barrier properties and a high level of free iodine relative to a conventional iodine teat disinfectant with no barrier properties and low levels of free iodine. During the 18 wk of the trial, quarter milk samples were collected every 2 wk from 385 dairy cows from 2 herds. Cows on both farms were assigned in a balanced way according to milk yield, number of lactation, days in milk, somatic cell count (SCC) and microbiology culture pretrial into one of following groups: nonbarrier post milking teat disinfectant (NBAR; n = 195 cows; 747 quarters) or barrier postmilking teat disinfectant (BAR; n = 190 cows; 728 quarters). Afterward, at each scoring date every 2 wk, milk SCC was quantified in samples from all mammary quarters and microbiologic culture was only performed on milk samples with SCC >200,000 cells/mL for multiparous cows and SCC >100,000 cells/mL for primiparous cows. A new intramammary infection (NIMI) was defined when a quarter had milk SCC 200,000 cells/mL for multiparous cows and >100,000 cells/mL for primiparous cows, and positive microorganism isolation. A quarter could have several NIMI, but only 1 case per specific pathogen was considered. The most frequently isolated microorganism group on both farms was Streptococcus spp. (6.25% of total mammary quarters), followed by coagulase-negative staphylococci (3.6%) and Corynebacterium spp. (1.5%). In the present study, an interaction occurred between treatment and week of trial on the incidence risk of NIMI. Quarters disinfected with BAR had 54 and 37% lower odds of NIMI than quarters disinfected with NBAR at 8 and 16 wk of the trial, respectively; whereas at other weeks of the study both products had similar incidence risks of NIMI. Overall, teats disinfected with BAR had 46% lower odds of acquiring a clinical mastitis than those disinfected with NBAR. We concluded that

  17. Lack of Sexual Minorities' Rights as a Barrier to HIV Prevention Among Men Who Have Sex with Men and Transgender Women in Asia: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James E; Kanters, Steve

    2015-03-01

    This study set out to assess the relationship between variation in human rights for sexual minorities in Asian countries and indicators of HIV prevention among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women. To quantitatively measure the relationship between variation in HIV prevention and variation in human rights for sexual minorities, this study developed the Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity (SOGI) Human Rights Index (an original index with scores ranging from 0.0 to 1.0). Subsequently, this study collected 237 epidemiological and behavioral studies from 22 Asian countries and performed a series of meta-analyses in order to calculate national averages for five indicators of HIV prevention: HIV prevalence, inconsistent condom use, recent HIV testing, adequate HIV knowledge, and exposure to HIV prevention services. A change of human rights for sexual minorities from a score of 0.0 to 1.0 as measured by the SOGI Human Rights Index was correlated with a decrease in unprotected anal intercourse by 25.5% (p=0.075), and increases in recent HIV testing by 42.9% (p=0.011), HIV knowledge by 29.5% (p=0.032), and exposure to HIV prevention services by 37.9% (p=0.119). The relationship between HIV prevalence and variation in human rights for sexual minorities was not statistically significant. Our study found correlations between human rights and indicators of HIV prevention, further supporting the need for increased rights among marginalized populations. The paucity of studies from many Asian countries as well as the disparity in how indicators of HIV prevention are measured reveals a need for increased coverage and standardization of MSM serological and behavioral data in order to better inform evidence-based policymaking.

  18. A Natural Cream-to-Powder Formulation Developed for the Prevention of Diaper Dermatitis in Diaper-Wearing Infants and Children: Barrier Property and In-Use Tolerance Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunt, Hemali B; Levy, Stanley B; Lutrario, Celeste A

    2018-05-01

    Diaper dermatitis is a common condition that develops in the diaper area due to factors such as elevated moisture, increased skin surface pH, and exposure to irritants from urine and feces. These factors suggest interventions to prevent or treat diaper dermatitis such as exposing the skin to air, frequent diaper changes, and thorough cleansing of the diaper area. Barrier creams and powders also have a role in preventing and treating diaper dermatitis. We developed a cream-to-powder product with a formula based on corn starch and other natural ingredients for use in the diaper area. Dye exclusion study: The barrier properties of the cream-to-powder product were assessed using a dye exclusion protocol. Skin color at treated and untreated forearm sites was measured at baseline and after exposure to crystal violet stain. The cream-to-powder product's ability to inhibit the water-soluble dye from reaching the skin was judged by comparing color changes at the treated and untreated sites. Tolerance-in-use study: The safety of the cream-to-powder product was assessed in a four-week tolerance-in-use study conducted in a group of 52 diaper-wearing infants and toddlers. Subjects' parents/guardians applied the cream-to-powder product at each diaper change. A pediatrician judged safety endpoints of erythema, dryness, and edema in the diaper area at baseline and at study end. Parents/guardians also completed a questionnaire at study end. These studies have complied with Good Clinical Practices (GCP/ICH). The cream-to-powder product prevented about 70% of the test dye from reaching the skin surface, demonstrating its ability to supplement the skin barrier. The tolerance-in-use study showed no statistically significant changes in any of the safety endpoints; there were no adverse events. Parents/guardians responses to the cream-to-powder product were overwhelmingly positive. Taken together, these results support that the cream-to-powder formulation is safe and effective for

  19. Barriers to Access and Adoption of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis for the Prevention of HIV Among Men Who Have Sex With Men (MSM) in a Relatively Rural State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubach, Randolph D; Currin, Joseph M; Sanders, Carissa A; Durham, André R; Kavanaugh, Katherine E; Wheeler, Denna L; Croff, Julie M

    2017-08-01

    Biomedical intervention approaches, including antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), have been demonstrated to reduce HIV incidence among several at-risk populations and to be cost effective. However, there is limited understanding of PrEP access and uptake among men who have sex with men (MSM) residing in relatively rural states. Twenty semistructured interviews were conducted (August-November 2016) to assess opinions of and perceived barriers to accessing and adopting PrEP among MSM residing in Oklahoma. Participants perceived substantial barriers to accessing PrEP including a stigmatizing environment and less access to quality, LGBT-sensitive medical care. Overall, geographic isolation limits access to health providers and resources that support sexual health for Oklahoma MSM. Addressing stigma situated across ecological levels in an effort to increase adoption of PrEP by MSM residing in rural states remains necessary. Without this, social determinants may continue to negatively influence PrEP adoption and sexual health outcomes.

  20. Exploring facilitating factors and barriers to the nationwide dissemination of a Dutch school-based obesity prevention program "DOiT": a study protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nassau, F.; Singh, A.S.; van Mechelen, W.; Paulussen, T.G.; Brug, J.; Chinapaw, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The evidence-based Dutch Obesity Intervention in Teenagers (DOiT) program is a school-based obesity prevention program for 12 to 14-year olds attending the first two years of prevocational education. This paper describes the study protocol applied to evaluate (a) the nationwide

  1. Water Distribution and Removal Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Y. Deng; N. Chipman; E.L. Hardin

    2005-01-01

    The design of the Yucca Mountain high level radioactive waste repository depends on the performance of the engineered barrier system (EBS). To support the total system performance assessment (TSPA), the Engineered Barrier System Degradation, Flow, and Transport Process Model Report (EBS PMR) is developed to describe the thermal, mechanical, chemical, hydrological, biological, and radionuclide transport processes within the emplacement drifts, which includes the following major analysis/model reports (AMRs): (1) EBS Water Distribution and Removal (WD and R) Model; (2) EBS Physical and Chemical Environment (P and CE) Model; (3) EBS Radionuclide Transport (EBS RNT) Model; and (4) EBS Multiscale Thermohydrologic (TH) Model. Technical information, including data, analyses, models, software, and supporting documents will be provided to defend the applicability of these models for their intended purpose of evaluating the postclosure performance of the Yucca Mountain repository system. The WD and R model ARM is important to the site recommendation. Water distribution and removal represents one component of the overall EBS. Under some conditions, liquid water will seep into emplacement drifts through fractures in the host rock and move generally downward, potentially contacting waste packages. After waste packages are breached by corrosion, some of this seepage water will contact the waste, dissolve or suspend radionuclides, and ultimately carry radionuclides through the EBS to the near-field host rock. Lateral diversion of liquid water within the drift will occur at the inner drift surface, and more significantly from the operation of engineered structures such as drip shields and the outer surface of waste packages. If most of the seepage flux can be diverted laterally and removed from the drifts before contacting the wastes, the release of radionuclides from the EBS can be controlled, resulting in a proportional reduction in dose release at the accessible environment

  2. Water Distribution and Removal Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. Deng; N. Chipman; E.L. Hardin

    2005-08-26

    The design of the Yucca Mountain high level radioactive waste repository depends on the performance of the engineered barrier system (EBS). To support the total system performance assessment (TSPA), the Engineered Barrier System Degradation, Flow, and Transport Process Model Report (EBS PMR) is developed to describe the thermal, mechanical, chemical, hydrological, biological, and radionuclide transport processes within the emplacement drifts, which includes the following major analysis/model reports (AMRs): (1) EBS Water Distribution and Removal (WD&R) Model; (2) EBS Physical and Chemical Environment (P&CE) Model; (3) EBS Radionuclide Transport (EBS RNT) Model; and (4) EBS Multiscale Thermohydrologic (TH) Model. Technical information, including data, analyses, models, software, and supporting documents will be provided to defend the applicability of these models for their intended purpose of evaluating the postclosure performance of the Yucca Mountain repository system. The WD&R model ARM is important to the site recommendation. Water distribution and removal represents one component of the overall EBS. Under some conditions, liquid water will seep into emplacement drifts through fractures in the host rock and move generally downward, potentially contacting waste packages. After waste packages are breached by corrosion, some of this seepage water will contact the waste, dissolve or suspend radionuclides, and ultimately carry radionuclides through the EBS to the near-field host rock. Lateral diversion of liquid water within the drift will occur at the inner drift surface, and more significantly from the operation of engineered structures such as drip shields and the outer surface of waste packages. If most of the seepage flux can be diverted laterally and removed from the drifts before contacting the wastes, the release of radionuclides from the EBS can be controlled, resulting in a proportional reduction in dose release at the accessible environment. The purposes

  3. Drivers and barriers among householders to managing domestic wastewater treatment systems in the Republic of Ireland; implications for risk prevention behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devitt, Catherine; O'Neill, Eoin; Waldron, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Septic systems that are malfunctioning, improperly sited or designed, present a contamination risk to drinking water sources, and subsequently, to human health. However, the international literature identifies gaps in householder knowledge regarding the function and maintenance requirements of septic systems, and also the potential health and environmental risk implications. Allied with householder fears related to the financial cost of risk management, these factors tend to reduce concern to recognise a malfunctioning system. In the Republic of Ireland, three-quarters of households in rural areas utilise an individual domestic wastewater treatment system (or septic system). Consequently, a significant portion of rural households that rely on groundwater sources via private-well use are at risk. Ireland reports one of the highest crude incidence rates of Verotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) infection in the European Union, and waterborne transmission related to contact with untreated or poorly treated water from private water sources is a factor in its transmission. Following recent Irish legislative change that places a duty of care on individual householders to ensure a proper system functioning, this exploratory study examines perceptions towards the risk management of septic systems among Irish householders. Using qualitative research methods, four focus groups selected on the basis of geographical variation, and two semi-structured interviews were conducted. While most householders agreed that poorly maintained septic systems represented a threat to the environment and to public health, none reported to having a regular maintenance routine in place. Thematic analysis revealed the drivers and barriers to septic system maintenance, and preferences of householders pertaining to communication on septic systems. The Health Belief Model is employed to help understand results. Results suggest that householder capacity to engage in regular risk management is reduced

  4. Barriers to women's participation in inter-conceptional care: a cross-sectional analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hogan Vijaya K

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We describe participation rates in a special interconceptional care program that addressed all commonly known barriers to care, and identify predictors of the observed levels of participation in this preventive care service. Methods A secondary analysis of data from women in the intervention arm of an interconceptional care clinical trial in Philadelphia (n = 442. Gelberg-Andersen Behavioral Model for Vulnerable Populations to Health Services (herein called Andersen model was used as a theoretical base. We used a multinomial logit model to analyze the factors influencing women's level of participation in this enhanced interconceptional care program. Results Although common barriers were addressed, there was variable participation in the interconceptional interventions. The Andersen model did not explain the variation in interconceptional care participation (Wald ch sq = 49, p = 0.45. Enabling factors (p = 0.058, older maternal age (p = 0.03 and smoking (p = were independently associated with participation. Conclusions Actively removing common barriers to care does not guarantee the long-term and consistent participation of vulnerable women in preventive care. There are unknown factors beyond known barriers that affect participation in interconceptional care. New paradigms are needed to identify the additional factors that serve as barriers to participation in preventive care for vulnerable women.

  5. Barriers and facilitators to the implementation of antenatal syphilis screening and treatment for the prevention of congenital syphilis in the Democratic Republic of Congo and Zambia: results of qualitative formative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkamba, Dalau; Mwenechanya, Musaku; Kilonga, Arlette Mavila; Cafferata, Maria Luisa; Berrueta, Amanda Mabel; Mazzoni, Agustina; Althabe, Fernando; Garcia-Elorrio, Ezequiel; Tshefu, Antoniette K; Chomba, Elwyn; Buekens, Pierre M; Belizan, Maria

    2017-08-14

    The impact of untreated syphilis during pregnancy on neonatal health remains a major public health threat worldwide. Given the high prevalence of syphilis during pregnancy in Zambia and Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), the Preventive Congenital Syphilis Trial (PCS Trial), a cluster randomized trial, was proposed to increase same-day screening and treatment of syphilis during antenatal care visits. To design an accepted and feasible intervention, we conducted a qualitative  formative research. Our objective was to identify context-specific  barriers and facilitators to the implementation of antenatal screening and treatment during pregnancy. Qualitative research included in-depth semi-structured interviews with clinic administrators, group interviews with health care providers, and focus groups with pregnant women in primary care clinics (PCCs) in Kinshasa (DRC) and Lusaka (Zambia). A total of 112 individuals participated in the interviews and focus groups. Barriers for the implementation of syphilis testing and treatment were identified at the a) system level: fragmentation of the health system, existence of ANC guidelines in conflict with proposed intervention, poor accessibility of clinics (geographical and functional), staff and product shortages at the PCCs; b) healthcare providers' level: lack of knowledge and training about evolving best practices, reservations regarding same-day screening and treatment; c) Pregnant women level: late enrollment in ANC, lack of knowledge about consequences and treatment of syphilis, and stigma. Based on these results, we developed recommendations for the design of the PCS Trial intervention. This research allowed us to identify barriers and facilitators to improve the feasibility and acceptability of a behavioral intervention. Formative research is a critical step in designing appropriate and effective interventions by closing the "know-do gap".

  6. Barriers to Adult Learning: Bridging the Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falasca, Marina

    2011-01-01

    A fundamental aspect of adult education is engaging adults in becoming lifelong learners. More often than not, this requires removing barriers to learning, especially those relating to the actual organisational or institutional learning process. This article explores some of the main barriers to adult learning discussed in the literature and…

  7. Barrier protective use of skin care to prevent chemotherapy-induced cutaneous symptoms and to maintain quality of life in patients with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wohlrab J

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Johannes Wohlrab,1 Nikola Bangemann,2 Anke Kleine-Tebbe,3 Marc Thill,4,5 Sherko Kümmel,6 Eva-Maria Grischke,7 Rainer Richter,8 Sophie Seite,9 Diana Lüftner10 1Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Halle (Saale, 2Interdisciplinary Breast Centre, University Hospital Charité Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Berlin, Germany, 3Breast Centre DRK Hospital, Berlin, 4Breast Centre University of Lübeck, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Lübeck, 5Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Agaplesion Markus Hospital, Frankfurt am Main, 6Breast Centre and Clinic of Senology, Hospital Essen-Mitte, Essen, 7Breast Centre University of Tübingen, Department of Gynaecology, Tübingen, 8L'Oréal, Deutschland GmbH, Düsseldorf, 9La Roche-Posay, Dermatological Laboratories, Asnières, France; 10University Hospital Charité Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Department of Hematology, Oncology and Tumour Immunology, Berlin, Germany Purpose: Chemotherapy with anthracyclines, taxanes, or alkylating agents often causes cutaneous side effects. Nonspecific inhibition of the proliferative activity of keratinocytes has antidifferentiation effects that lead to defects in the barrier function and, thus, to dry, itchy, and irritable skin. These cutaneous symptoms reduce the quality of life of the patients considerably. Conditioning with topical application of niacinamide uses the cytoprotective and barrier stabilizing effect of vitamin B3. Patients and methods: A multicenter randomized crossover study investigated the influence of the test preparation on the quality of life compared to standard care for 73 patients with breast cancer undergoing adjuvant or neoadjuvant cytostatic therapy. Primary target parameter was the Dermatology Life Quality Index with its respective subscales after 6 weeks of a twice-daily application of the respective preparations. Additionally, specific symptoms such as pruritus, dryness, and

  8. Barrier Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heteren, S. van

    2015-01-01

    Barrier-system dynamics are a function of antecedent topography and substrate lithology, Relative sea-level (RSL) changes, sediment availability and type, climate, vegetation type and cover, and various aero- and hydrodynamic processes during fair-weather conditions and extreme events. Global change

  9. Prevention of Filipino Youth Behavioral Health Disparities: Identifying Barriers and Facilitators to Participating in “Incredible Years,” an Evidence-Based Parenting Intervention, Los Angeles, California, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Nicole; Supan, Jocelyn; Kreutzer, Cary B.; Samson, Allan; Coffey, Dean M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Evidence-based interventions for training parents are proven to prevent onset and escalation of childhood mental health problems. However, participation in such programs is low, especially among hard-to-reach, underserved populations such as Filipino Americans. Filipinos, the largest Asian subgroup in California, have significant behavioral health disparities compared with non-Hispanic whites and other Asian subgroups. The purpose of this study was to learn about Filipinos’ barriers and facilitators to participating in “Incredible Years” (IY), a parenting program. Methods We conducted 4 focus groups in Los Angeles, California, in 2012; the groups consisted of 20 Filipino parents of children aged 6 to 12 years who recently completed the IY parenting program, which was offered as a prevention workshop. Three reviewers, including two co-authors (A.S., J.J.) and a research assistant used content analysis to independently code the interview transcripts and extract subthemes. Grounded theory analytic methods were used to analyze interview transcripts. Results Parents’ perceived benefits of participation in IY were learning more effective parenting techniques, networking with other parents, improved spousal relationships, and improvements in their children's behavior. Parents’ most common motivating factor for enrollment in IY was to improve their parenting skills and their relationships with their children. The most common barriers to participation were being uncomfortable sharing problems with others and the fear of being stigmatized by others judging their parenting skills. Participants said that parent testimonials would be the most effective way to promote IY. Many recommended outreach at schools, pediatricians’ offices, and churches. Conclusion Increasing Filipino American parent enrollment in IY in culturally relevant ways will reduce the incidence of mental health disorders among children in this growing population. PMID:26491813

  10. Barriers and Facilitators to the Implementation of Interventions to Prevent Youth Violence in Latin America: A Systematic Review and Qualitative Evidence Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atienzo, Erika E; Kaltenthaler, Eva; Baxter, Susan K

    2016-08-12

    Youth violence in Latin America is an important public health problem. However, the evidence from preventive programs within the region to address this problem is limited. Identifying context-specific factors that facilitate or hinder the success of interventions is necessary to guarantee the successful implementation of new preventive strategies. We present a systematic review and synthesis of qualitative studies to identify factors affecting the implementation of programs to prevent youth violence in Latin America. We searched 10 electronic databases and websites of international institutions. The quality of the studies was assessed using the critical appraisal skills program checklist, while the certainty of the findings of the synthesis was assessed using the certainty of the qualitative evidence approach. We included eight papers describing five programs in Argentina, Venezuela, Peru, El Salvador, and Mexico. Most of the factors affecting the implementation of programs were aspects related to features of the programs and social/political constraints. The synthesis suggests that future programs can benefit from having a multidisciplinary and/or multisectoral approach involving different key players. At the same time, potential strategies for avoiding problems related to such active engagement should be planned via promoting effective channels for communication and supervision. The review also suggests the importance of increasing awareness and motivation toward the problem of youth violence among relevant agencies and stakeholders. While the limited volume and quality of the literature impact on the ability to draw conclusions, the results could be useful for new programs being designed and the ones seeking to be adapted from other contexts. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Penetration through the Skin Barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Benfeldt, Eva; Holmgaard, Rikke

    2016-01-01

    The skin is a strong and flexible organ with barrier properties essential for maintaining homeostasis and thereby human life. Characterizing this barrier is the ability to prevent some chemicals from crossing the barrier while allowing others, including medicinal products, to pass at varying rates......-through diffusion cells) as well as in vivo methods (microdialysis and microperfusion). Then follows a discussion with examples of how different characteristics of the skin (age, site and integrity) and of the penetrants (size, solubility, ionization, logPow and vehicles) affect the kinetics of percutaneous...

  12. Vehicle barrier with access delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swahlan, David J; Wilke, Jason

    2013-09-03

    An access delay vehicle barrier for stopping unauthorized entry into secure areas by a vehicle ramming attack includes access delay features for preventing and/or delaying an adversary from defeating or compromising the barrier. A horizontally deployed barrier member can include an exterior steel casing, an interior steel reinforcing member and access delay members disposed within the casing and between the casing and the interior reinforcing member. Access delay members can include wooden structural lumber, concrete and/or polymeric members that in combination with the exterior casing and interior reinforcing member act cooperatively to impair an adversarial attach by thermal, mechanical and/or explosive tools.

  13. Performance of a sequential reactive barrier for bioremediation of coal tar contaminated groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oriol Gibert; Andrew S. Ferguson; Robert M. Kalin; Rory Doherty; Keith W. Dickson; Karen L. McGeough; Jamie Robinson; Russell Thomas [Queen' s University Belfast (United Kingdom). EERC, School of Planning Architecture and Civil Engineering

    2007-10-01

    Following a thorough site investigation, a biological Sequential Reactive Barrier (SEREBAR), designed to remove polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene (BTEX) compounds was installed at a former manufactured gas pPlant (FMGP) site currently used for gas storage and distribution within the UK. The novel design of the barrier comprises, in series, an interceptor and six reactive chambers. The first four chambers (2 nonaerated-2 aerated) were filled with sand to encourage microbial colonization. Sorbant granular activated carbon (GAC) was present in the final two chambers in order to remove any recalcitrant compounds. The SEREBAR has been in continuous operation for 2 years at different operational flow rates (ranging from 320 L/d to 4000 L/d, with corresponding residence times in each chamber of 19 days and 1.5 days, respectively). Under low flow rate conditions (320-520 L/d) the majority of contaminant removal ({gt}93%) occurred biotically within the interceptor and the aerated chambers. Under high flow rates (1000-4000 L/d) and following the installation of a new interceptor to prevent passive aeration, the majority of contaminant removal ({gt}80%) again occurred biotically within the aerated chambers. The sorption zone (GAC) proved to be an effective polishing step, removing any remaining contaminants to acceptable concentrations before discharge down-gradient of the SEREBAR (overall removals {gt}95%). 22 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Pollution prevention constraints within DOE facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walzer, A.E.

    1992-01-01

    The signing of the Pollution Prevention Act of 1990, has marked a new environmental era. The 1990s environmental movement is shifting from ''end of the pipe'' treatment towards a philosophy of source reduction (predicated by the Pollution Prevention Act), where engineering solutions and materials substitution are sought to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste. This change comes after 20 years of treatment legislation, where in many cases the location or media in which our pollution is deposited was merely changed. This problem is exemplified by the enormous environmental problems created by waste sites. Our inability to deal with the substantial waste generated has produced the environmental legacy on the Department of Energy (DOE) sites, a legacy that will cost billions of dollars to remediate. How then do we solve our waste problems and avoid future legacies? This paper outlines some of the obstacles to pollution prevention within the DOE system and explores opportunities to remove these barriers. Industry, whose foundation is economics, has found it attractive to reduce their wastes, particularly in the wake of escalating waste disposal costs. However, within federal facilities where basic economic principles do not prevail, incentives towards pollution prevention need to be evaluated. Our current system of segregated DOE programs creates obstacles for waste generators to work productively with other programs. Certain policies and practices also limit the generators' responsibility and costs for their waste, which is counter productive to waste minimization and pollution prevention. To meet new environmental challenges and to be proactive in pollution prevention we must evaluate our systems and remove barriers that impede progress toward pollution prevention

  15. Barriers to access prevention of mother-to-child transmission for HIV positive women in a well-resourced setting in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wright Pamela

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background According to Vietnamese policy, HIV-infected women should have access at least to HIV testing and Nevirapine prophylaxis, or where available, to adequate counselling, HIV infection staging, ARV prophylaxis, and infant formula. Many studies in high HIV prevalence settings have reported low coverage of PMTCT services, but there have been few reports from low HIV prevalence settings, such as Asian countries. We investigated the access of HIV-infected pregnant women to PMTCT services in the well-resourced setting of the capital city, Hanoi. Methods Fifty-two HIV positive women enrolled in a self-help group in Hanoi were consulted, through in-depth interviews and bi-weekly meetings, about their experiences in accessing PMTCT services. Results Only 44% and 20% of the women had received minimal and comprehensive PMTCT services, respectively. Nine women did not receive any services. Twenty-two women received no counselling. The women reported being limited by lack of knowledge and information due to poor counselling, gaps in PMTCT services, and fear of stigma and discrimination. HIV testing was done too late for optimal interventions and poor quality of care by health staff was frequently mentioned. Conclusion In a setting where PMTCT is available, HIV-infected women and children did not receive adequate care because of barriers to accessing those services. The results suggest key improvements would be improving quality of counselling and making PMTCT guidelines available to health services. Women should receive early HIV testing with adequate counselling, safe care and prophylaxis in a positive atmosphere towards HIV-infected women.

  16. Piezoelectric-assisted removal of a benign fibrous histiocytoma of the mandible: An innovative technique for prevention of dentoalveolar nerve injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we present our experience with a piezoelectric-assisted surgical device by resection of a benign fibrous histiocytoma of the mandible. A 41 year-old male was admitted to our hospital because of slowly progressive right buccal swelling. After further radiographic diagnosis surgical removal of the yellowish-white mass was performed. Histologic analysis showed proliferating histiocytic cells with foamy, granular cytoplasm and no signs of malignancy. The tumor was positive for CD68 and vimentin in immunohistochemical staining. Therefore the tumor was diagnosed as primary benign fibrous histiocytoma. This work provides a new treatment device for benign mandibular tumour disease. By using a novel piezoelectric-assisted cutting device, protection of the dentoalveolar nerve could be achieved. PMID:22040611

  17. Piezoelectric-assisted removal of a benign fibrous histiocytoma of the mandible: An innovative technique for prevention of dentoalveolar nerve injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokemueller Horst

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article, we present our experience with a piezoelectric-assisted surgical device by resection of a benign fibrous histiocytoma of the mandible. A 41 year-old male was admitted to our hospital because of slowly progressive right buccal swelling. After further radiographic diagnosis surgical removal of the yellowish-white mass was performed. Histologic analysis showed proliferating histiocytic cells with foamy, granular cytoplasm and no signs of malignancy. The tumor was positive for CD68 and vimentin in immunohistochemical staining. Therefore the tumor was diagnosed as primary benign fibrous histiocytoma. This work provides a new treatment device for benign mandibular tumour disease. By using a novel piezoelectric-assisted cutting device, protection of the dentoalveolar nerve could be achieved.

  18. Investigación de accidentes y análisis de fallas de barreras preventivas; Accident’s Investigation and Preventive Barriers flaws analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacinto B Hernández Lavín

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available En Cuba, como en el resto del mundo,  la existencia de leyes y regulaciones estatales, obligan a que lasempresas productivas y de servicios cuenten con un sistema de prevención de accidentes y enfermedadesprofesionales que, a partir del control de los riesgos existentes en cada puesto de trabajo, permita laboraren un ambiente seguro. En este artículo se explican las técnicas y procedimientos establecidos en la UNEpara la investigación de accidentes laborales. In Cuba, like in the rest of the world, the existence of Laws and state Regulations, they force to productivecompanies and services, they have a prevention system to avoid the accidents and professional illnessesthat, starting from the control of the existent risks in each work position, allow working in a sure atmosphere.In this article the techniques and procedures are explained, applied in the Electric Union (UNE, for thelabor accident investigation.

  19. Biodegradable and thermosensitive monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactic acid) hydrogel as a barrier for prevention of post-operative abdominal adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Shao Zhi; Li, Zhi; Fan, Jun Ming; Meng, Xiao Hang; Shi, Kun; Qu, Ying; Yang, Ling Lin; Wu, Jing Bo; Fan, Juan; Luot, Feng; Qian, Zhi Yong

    2014-03-01

    Post-operative peritoneal adhesions are serious consequences of abdominal or pelvic surgery and cause severe bowel obstruction, chronic pelvic pain and infertility. In this study, a novel nano-hydrogel system based on a monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactic acid) (MPEG-PLA) di-block copolymer was studied for its ability to prevent abdominal adhesion in rats. The MPEG-PLA hydrogel at a concentration of 40% (w/v) was injected and was able to adhere to defect sites at body temperature. The ability of the hydrogel to inhibit adhesion of post-operative tissues was evaluated by utilizing a rat model of abdominal sidewall-cecum abrasion. It was possible to heal wounded tissue through regeneration of neo-peritoneal tissues ten days after surgery. Our data showed that this hydrogel system is equally as effective as current commercialized anti-adhesive products.

  20. Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) supplemented probiotic lassi prevents Shigella infiltration from epithelial barrier into systemic blood flow in mice model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Shaik Abdul; Patil, Girdhari Ramdas; Reddi, Srinu; Yadav, Vidhu; Pothuraju, Ramesh; Singh, Ram Ran Bijoy; Kapila, Suman

    2017-01-01

    The aim of present work was to investigate preventive role of orally administered Aloe vera supplemented probiotic lassi (APL) on Shigella dysenteriae infection in mice. At the end of experimental period (2, 5 and 7 days of challenging), different organs such as spleen, liver, small intestine, large intestine, and peritoneal fluid were collected and assessed for Shigella colonization. Secretary IgA was estimated in intestinal fluid. Blood was collected in heparinized tubes for various haematological studies. Oral administration of APL showed a significant (p Shigella counts (log cfu/mL) in all organs as compared to other treatment groups at different intervals after post feeding. Similarly, secretary IgA antibody levels (μg/mL) in intestinal fluid were significantly (p Shigella dysenteriae induced infection in mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Spleen removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... spleen. Sickle cell anemia . Splenic artery aneurysm (rare). Trauma to the spleen. Risks Risks for anesthesia and surgery in general ... removal - series References Brandow AM, Camitta BM. Hyposplenism, splenic trauma, and splenectomy. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. ...

  2. Floating barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1968-05-06

    This floating barrier consists of relatively long elements which can be connected to form a practically continuous assembly. Each element consists of an inflatable tube with an apron of certain height, made of impregnated fabric which is resistant to ocean water and also to hydrocarbons. Means for connecting one element to the following one, and means for attaching ballast to the apron are also provided.

  3. Oct4 Methylation-Mediated Silencing As an Epigenetic Barrier Preventing Müller Glia Dedifferentiation in a Murine Model of Retinal Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Aguirre, Luis I; Lamas, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Müller glia (MG) is the most abundant glial type in the vertebrate retina. Among its many functions, it is capable of responding to injury by dedifferentiating, proliferating, and differentiating into every cell types lost to damage. This regenerative ability is notoriously absent in mammals. We have previously reported that cultured mammalian MG undergoes a partial dedifferentiation, but fails to fully acquire a progenitor phenotype and differentiate into neurons. This might be explained by a mnemonic mechanism comprised by epigenetic traits, such as DNA methylation. To achieve a better understanding of this epigenetic memory, we studied the expression of pluripotency-associated genes, such as Oct4, Nanog , and Lin28 , which have been reported as necessary for regeneration in fish, at early times after NMDA-induced retinal injury in a mouse experimental model. We found that although Oct4 is expressed rapidly after damage (4 hpi), it is silenced at 24 hpi. This correlates with a significant decrease in the DNA methyltransferase Dnmt3b expression, which returns to basal levels at 24 hpi. By MS-PCR, we observed a decrease in Oct4 methylation levels at 4 and 12 hpi, before returning to a fully methylated state at 24 hpi. To demonstrate that these changes are restricted to MG, we separated these cells using a GLAST antibody coupled with magnetic beads. Finally, intravitreous administration of the DNA-methyltransferase inhibitor SGI-1027 induced Oct4 expression at 24 hpi in MG. Our results suggest that mammalian MG injury-induced dedifferentiation could be restricted by DNA methylation, which rapidly silences Oct4 expression, preventing multipotency acquisition.

  4. Smart parking barrier

    KAUST Repository

    Alharbi, Abdulrazaq M.

    2016-01-01

    positioning of the movable parking barrier, and a parking controller configured to initiate movement of the parking barrier, via the barrier drive. The movable parking barrier can be positioned between a first position that restricts access to the parking

  5. Hair Removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hædersdal, Merete

    2011-01-01

    Hair removal with optical devices has become a popular mainstream treatment that today is considered the most efficient method for the reduction of unwanted hair. Photothermal destruction of hair follicles constitutes the fundamental concept of hair removal with red and near-infrared wavelengths...... suitable for targeting follicular and hair shaft melanin: normal mode ruby laser (694 nm), normal mode alexandrite laser (755 nm), pulsed diode lasers (800, 810 nm), long-pulse Nd:YAG laser (1,064 nm), and intense pulsed light (IPL) sources (590-1,200 nm). The ideal patient has thick dark terminal hair......, white skin, and a normal hormonal status. Currently, no method of lifelong permanent hair eradication is available, and it is important that patients have realistic expectations. Substantial evidence has been found for short-term hair removal efficacy of up to 6 months after treatment with the available...

  6. Hair removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haedersdal, Merete; Haak, Christina S

    2011-01-01

    Hair removal with optical devices has become a popular mainstream treatment that today is considered the most efficient method for the reduction of unwanted hair. Photothermal destruction of hair follicles constitutes the fundamental concept of hair removal with red and near-infrared wavelengths...... suitable for targeting follicular and hair shaft melanin: normal mode ruby laser (694 nm), normal mode alexandrite laser (755 nm), pulsed diode lasers (800, 810 nm), long-pulse Nd:YAG laser (1,064 nm), and intense pulsed light (IPL) sources (590-1,200 nm). The ideal patient has thick dark terminal hair......, white skin, and a normal hormonal status. Currently, no method of lifelong permanent hair eradication is available, and it is important that patients have realistic expectations. Substantial evidence has been found for short-term hair removal efficacy of up to 6 months after treatment with the available...

  7. BREASTFEEDING AND SOCIAL, CULTURAL, GEOPOLITICAL EMBODIED BARRIERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Castaldo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study in medical anthropology was conducted at the National Institute for Health, Migration and Poverty (INMP, in Rome, Italy, and was carried out in 2013-2014 as part of the project “Clinical and social evaluation of medical practices in the treatment of infectious diseases in paediatrics for children of vulnerable populations”. At the end of the project, it was possible to ensure diagnostic accuracy, the proper prescription of antibiotic therapy and improve family care of children affected by pharyngotonsillitis. In addition, it was possible to acquire knowledge of the health of children with respect for certain social determinants. The anthropological research targeted mother’s of children and adolescents from the age of 3 to the age of 17 immigrated to Rome from Africa: sub-Saharan and North; furthermore from Asia: Indian subcontinent, West Asia, Eurasia, Middle East, Arabian peninsula; South-East Europe; Centre and South America. In this article we’ll consider only mother’s of 39 children and adolescents from Latin America (Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Peru, Dominican Republic, Uruguay and Venezuela. The study aimed at analysing the formation and the socio-cultural representation, which emerged from interviews of women regarding barriers to breastfeeding; the effects of breastfeeding on the psychological and physical health of infants; the social and domestic consequences, which affect women who did not stop breastfeeding when they feel they should have. In Italy, as in other destination countries for global migrations, barriers that prevent the access to the healthcare system must be removed, barriers that are accentuated by linguistic and cultural incomprehension, through adequate multidisciplinary healthcare settings such as the one we are presenting, composed of a medical doctor, an anthropologist and a cultural mediator.

  8. Functional barriers: Properties and evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feigenbaum, A.; Dole, P.; Aucejo, S.; Dainelli, D.; Cruz Garcia, C. de la; Hankemeier, T.; N'Gono, Y.; Papaspyrides, C.D.; Paseiro, P.; Pastorelli, S.; Pavlidou, S.; Pennarun, P.Y.; Saillard, P.; Vidal, L.; Vitrac, O.; Voulzatis, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Functional barriers are multilayer structures deemed to prevent migration of some chemicals released by food-contact materials into food. In the area of plastics packaging, different migration behaviours of mono- and multilayer structures are assessed in terms of lag time and of their influence of

  9. Overcoming Barriers: Women in Superintendency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Claire M.

    2009-01-01

    Women currently represent the largest number of teachers in the United States but remain underrepresented in the superintendent position. This suggests that the superintendency has been influenced by patriarchy. If women are to break through the barriers that prevent them from attaining a superintendency, we will need to understand the social…

  10. Magnetized advective accretion flows: formation of magnetic barriers in magnetically arrested discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Tushar; Mukhopadhyay, Banibrata

    2018-05-01

    We discuss the importance of large-scale strong magnetic field in the removal of angular momentum outward, as well as the possible origin of different kinds of magnetic barrier in advective, geometrically thick, sub-Keplerian accretion flows around black holes. The origin of this large-scale strong magnetic field near the event horizon is due to the advection of the magnetic flux by the accreting gas from the environment, say, the interstellar medium or a companion star, because of flux freezing. In this simplest vertically averaged, 1.5-dimensional disc model, we choose the maximum upper limit of the magnetic field, which the disc around a black hole can sustain. In this so called magnetically arrested disc model, the accreting gas either decelerates or faces the magnetic barrier near the event horizon by the accumulated magnetic field depending on the geometry. The magnetic barrier may knock the matter to infinity. We suggest that these types of flow are the building block to produce jets and outflows in the accreting system. We also find that in some cases, when matter is trying to go back to infinity after knocking the barrier, matter is prevented being escaped by the cumulative action of strong gravity and the magnetic tension, hence by another barrier. In this way, magnetic field can lock the matter in between these two barriers and it might be a possible explanation for the formation of episodic jet.

  11. A small-scale study investigating staff and student perceptions of the barriers to a preventative approach for adolescent self-harm in secondary schools in Wales-a grounded theory model of stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Rachel

    2018-06-01

    Grounded theory analysis of secondary school staff and pupil perceptions about the barriers to preventative work for adolescent self-harm within the secondary school setting in Wales. Qualitative and grounded theory. Two secondary schools in Wales were purposefully sampled for variation. Four group interviews took place using qualitative research methods (Participatory Rapid Appraisal) with six school-based professionals and six students aged more than 16 years. Three pupil participants had long-term experience themselves of self-harming behaviours; all the remaining participants had encountered pupils who self-harmed. The research interviews were transcribed verbatim, generating school context-dependent information. This was analysed through the logic of abduction using the constant comparative grounded theory method because of its ability to focus on axial coding for context. The ontology that shaped this work was critical realism within a public health paradigm. A theoretical model of stigma resulted from the grounded theory analytical process, specifically in relation to staff and student perceptions about adolescent self-harm within the institutional context. This meant that social-based behaviours in the secondary school setting centred on the topic and behaviour of adolescent self-harm were structured by stigma. The findings of this study offer an explanation on the exclusion of adolescent self-harm from preventative work in secondary schools. The stigma model demonstrates that adolescent self-harm is excluded from the socio-cultural norms of the institutional setting. Applying the UK Equality Act (2010), this is discrimination. Further research on the institutional-level factors impacting adolescent self-harm in the secondary school context in England and Wales is now urgently needed. Copyright © 2018 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Removing Bureaucracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    11 Defense AT&L: July–August 2015 Removing Bureaucracy Katharina G. McFarland McFarland is Assistant Secretary of Defense for Acquisition. I once...involvement from all of the Service warfighting areas came together to scrub the program requirements due to concern over the “ bureaucracy ” and... Bureaucracy ” that focuses on reducing cycle time, staffing time and all forms of inefficiencies. This includes review of those burdens that Congress

  13. Hanford Site Protective Barrier Development Program: Fiscal year 1990 highlights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwell, L.L.

    1991-09-01

    The Hanford Site Protective Barrier Development Program was jointly developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to design and test an earthen cover system(s) that can be used to inhibit water infiltration; plant, animal, and human intrusion; and wind and water erosion. The joint PNL/WHC program was initiated in FY 1986. To date, research findings support the initial concepts of barrier designs for the Hanford Site. A fine-soil surface is planned to partition surface water into runoff and temporary storage. Transpiration by vegetation that grows in the fine-soil layer will return stored water to the atmosphere as will surface evaporation. A capillary break created by the interface of the fine-soil layer and coarser textured materials below will further limit the downward migration of surface water, making it available over a longer period of time for cycling to the atmosphere. Should water pass the interface, it will drain laterally through a coarse textured sand/gravel layer. Tested barrier designs appear to work adequately to prevent drainage under current and postulated wetter-climate (added precipitation) conditions. Wind and water erosion tasks are developing data to predict the extent of erosion on barrier surfaces. Data collected during the last year confirm the effectiveness of small burrowing animals in removing surface water. Water infiltrating through burrows of larger mammals was subsequently lost by natural processes. Natural analog and climate change studies are under way to provide credibility for modeling the performance of barrier designs over a long period of time and under shifts in climate. 10 refs., 30 figs

  14. Verification of the integrity of barriers using gas diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, D.B.; Williams, C.V.

    1997-06-01

    In-situ barrier materials and designs are being developed for containment of high risk contamination as an alternative to immediate removal or remediation. The intent of these designs is to prevent the movement of contaminants in either the liquid or vapor phase by long-term containment, essentially buying time until the contaminant depletes naturally or a remediation can be implemented. The integrity of the resultant soil-binder mixture is typically assessed by a number of destructive laboratory tests (leaching, compressive strength, mechanical stability with respect to wetting and freeze-thaw cycles) which as a group are used to infer the likelihood of favorable long-term performance of the barrier. The need exists for a minimally intrusive yet quantifiable methods for assessment of a barrier's integrity after emplacement, and monitoring of the barrier's performance over its lifetime. Here, the authors evaluate non-destructive measurements of inert-gas diffusion (specifically, SF 6 ) as an indicator of waste-form integrity. The goals of this project are to show that diffusivity can be measured in core samples of soil jet-grouted with Portland cement, validate the experimental method through measurements on samples, and to calculate aqueous diffusivities from a series of diffusion measurements. This study shows that it is practical to measure SF 6 diffusion rates in the laboratory on samples of grout (Portland cement and soil) typical of what might be used in a barrier. Diffusion of SF 6 through grout (Portland cement and soil) is at least an order of magnitude slower than through air. The use of this tracer should be sensitive to the presence of fractures, voids, or other discontinuities in the grout/soil structure. Field-scale measurements should be practical on time-scales of a few days

  15. Hanford Site Protective Barrier Development Program: Fiscal year 1990 highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwell, L.L. (ed.)

    1991-09-01

    The Hanford Site Protective Barrier Development Program was jointly developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to design and test an earthen cover system(s) that can be used to inhibit water infiltration; plant, animal, and human intrusion; and wind and water erosion. The joint PNL/WHC program was initiated in FY 1986. To date, research findings support the initial concepts of barrier designs for the Hanford Site. A fine-soil surface is planned to partition surface water into runoff and temporary storage. Transpiration by vegetation that grows in the fine-soil layer will return stored water to the atmosphere as will surface evaporation. A capillary break created by the interface of the fine-soil layer and coarser textured materials below will further limit the downward migration of surface water, making it available over a longer period of time for cycling to the atmosphere. Should water pass the interface, it will drain laterally through a coarse textured sand/gravel layer. Tested barrier designs appear to work adequately to prevent drainage under current and postulated wetter-climate (added precipitation) conditions. Wind and water erosion tasks are developing data to predict the extent of erosion on barrier surfaces. Data collected during the last year confirm the effectiveness of small burrowing animals in removing surface water. Water infiltrating through burrows of larger mammals was subsequently lost by natural processes. Natural analog and climate change studies are under way to provide credibility for modeling the performance of barrier designs over a long period of time and under shifts in climate. 10 refs., 30 figs.

  16. Chemical barriers for controlling groundwater contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, S.J.; Spangler, R.R.

    1993-01-01

    Chemical barriers are being explored as a low-cost means of controlling groundwater contamination. The barrier can intercept a contaminant plume and prevent migration by transferring contaminants from the groundwater to immobile solids. A chemical barrier can be emplaced in a landfill liner or in an aquifer cutoff wall or can be injected into a contaminant plume. Chemical barriers can be classified as either precipitation barriers or sorption barriers depending upon the dominant mode of contaminant extraction. In a precipitation barrier, contaminants are bound in the structures of newly formed phases; whereas, in a sorption barrier, contaminants attach to the surfaces of preexisting solids by adsorption or some other surface mechanism. Sorption of contaminants is pH dependent. A precipitation barrier can control the pH of the system, but alkaline groundwater may dominate the pH in a sorption barrier. A comparison is made of the characteristics of precipitation and sorption barriers. Experimental data on the extraction of uranium and molybdenum from simulated groundwater are used to demonstrate these concepts. 10 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  17. Barriers Preventing Food Security in Israel, 2050

    OpenAIRE

    Yoav Gal

    2013-01-01

    The article highlights the benefits of adopting the practice of long-term planning with the aim of helping decision makers and politicians to include scenario thinking in the process of determining food security in Israel, 2050. This study addresses the question of food security, a step that is in contrast with agricultural planning considerations of the past that have mainly focused on maximizing profits or relied on a closed mathematical model. Two teams of experts identified production lim...

  18. Barriers preventing food security in Israel, 2050:

    OpenAIRE

    Gal, Yoav; Hadas, Efrat

    2014-01-01

    The article highlights the benefits of adopting the practice of long-term planning with the aim of helping decision makers and politicians to include scenario thinking in the process of determining food security in Israel, 2050. This study addresses the question of food security, a step that is in contrast with agricultural planning considerations of the past that have mainly focused on maximizing profits or relied on a closed mathematical model. Two teams of experts identified production lim...

  19. Barriers Preventing Food Security in Israel, 2050

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoav Gal

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the benefits of adopting the practice of long-term planning with the aim of helping decision makers and politicians to include scenario thinking in the process of determining food security in Israel, 2050. This study addresses the question of food security, a step that is in contrast with agricultural planning considerations of the past that have mainly focused on maximizing profits or relied on a closed mathematical model. Two teams of experts identified production limitations affecting long-term planning and the ability to ensure food security under these conditions. It was found that there are five key factors important for the decision process: population, land, water, technology and international trade. The data show that today Israel imports a very large scale of virtual land and virtual water in terms of agricultural products. This means that the attention of the decision makers must be diverted from considerations of short-term profit to long-term food security.

  20. Milk removal

    OpenAIRE

    Ferneborg, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Milk from dairy cows is a staple dietary component for humans all over the world. Regardless of whether milk is consumed in its purest, unaltered form or as high-end products such as fine cheese or ice cream, it needs to be of high quality when taken from the cow, produced at a low price and produced in a system that consider aspects such as animal health, animal welfare and sustainability. This thesis investigated the role of milk removal and the importance of residual milk on milk yield...

  1. Removal of alachlor, diuron and isoproturon in water in a falling film dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor combined with adsorption on activated carbon textile: Reaction mechanisms and oxidation by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanraes, Patrick; Wardenier, Niels; Surmont, Pieter; Lynen, Frederic; Nikiforov, Anton; Van Hulle, Stijn W H; Leys, Christophe; Bogaerts, Annemie

    2018-05-03

    A falling film dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma reactor combined with adsorption on activated carbon textile material was optimized to minimize the formation of hazardous oxidation by-products from the treatment of persistent pesticides (alachlor, diuron and isoproturon) in water. The formation of by-products and the reaction mechanism was investigated by HPLC-TOF-MS. The maximum concentration of each by-product was at least two orders of magnitude below the initial pesticide concentration, during the first 10 min of treatment. After 30 min of treatment, the individual by-product concentrations had decreased to values of at least three orders of magnitude below the initial pesticide concentration. The proposed oxidation pathways revealed five main oxidation steps: dechlorination, dealkylation, hydroxylation, addition of a double-bonded oxygen and nitrification. The latter is one of the main oxidation mechanisms of diuron and isoproturon for air plasma treatment. To our knowledge, this is the first time that the formation of nitrificated intermediates is reported for the plasma treatment of non-phenolic compounds. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Psychology of Success: Overcoming Barriers to Pursuing Further Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Stanford T.; Martin, Connie

    2009-01-01

    Of the many barriers that prevent adults from continuing their education, psychological barriers are least often addressed by educators. This is an important area of concern because psychological factors influence how prospective students respond to other barriers. This qualitative study was conducted to describe how adults negotiate…

  3. Sprache als Barriere (Language as a Barrier)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattheier, Klaus

    1974-01-01

    The concept of language barrier has its derivations in the fields of dialectology, sociology and psychology. In contemporary usage however, the concept has two meanings i.e. regional-cultural barrier and socio-cultural barrier. (Text is in German.) (DS)

  4. Psychological barriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skinner, T. C.

    2004-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes treatment outcomes ultimately depend on patients and their ability to make long-term behavioural changes that support good self-care and metabolic control. Patients' perceptions about diabetes and diabetes-related complications can have a strong influence on their emotional well...... of lifestyle changes and pharmacological therapy in preventing future complications. Negative emotions and preconceptions about treatment can also discourage adherence to treatment plans. 'Psychological Insulin resistance' caused by fear and concerns about insulin and daily insulin injections can discourage...... many patients from starting insulin therapy, even if oral agents have failed. Depression, stress and anxiety represent further obstacles to optimum self-care and the attainment of glucose goals. Healthcare professionals should endeavour to understand and accommodate these issues when setting personal...

  5. Barrier experiment: Shock initiation under complex loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-01-12

    The barrier experiments are a variant of the gap test; a detonation wave in a donor HE impacts a barrier and drives a shock wave into an acceptor HE. The question we ask is: What is the trade-off between the barrier material and threshold barrier thickness to prevent the acceptor from detonating. This can be viewed from the perspective of shock initiation of the acceptor subject to a complex pressure drive condition. Here we consider key factors which affect whether or not the acceptor undergoes a shock-to-detonation transition. These include the following: shock impedance matches for the donor detonation wave into the barrier and then the barrier shock into the acceptor, the pressure gradient behind the donor detonation wave, and the curvature of detonation front in the donor. Numerical simulations are used to illustrate how these factors affect the reaction in the acceptor.

  6. Development of dry barriers for containment and remediation at waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, B.M.; Morris, C.E.; Ankeny, M.D.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a concept in which dry air is injected into an unsaturated formation to reduce the soil moisture content, referred to here as a dry (or sometimes tensiometric) barrier. The objective is to reduce the hydraulic conductivity of the unsaturated media to the point where liquid phase transport becomes negligible, thereby achieving containment. The concept could be applied in subsurface formations to provide containment from a leaking facility, or it could be incorporated into a cover design to provide redundancy for a capillary barrier. The air injection process could in principle be coupled with a vacuum extraction system to recover soil vapors, which would then provide a remediation process that would be appropriate if volatile organic compounds were present. Work to date has consisted of a combined theoretical, laboratory, and field research investigation. The objective of this research was to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the dry barrier concept by identifying the parameters which determine its effectiveness. Based on the results obtained for the experimental and theoretical studies, feasibility analyses were prepared for as a modification for a landfill cover design to prevent infiltration from atmospheric precipitation and for potential application of dry barriers to achieve subsurface containment and removal of volatile constituents. These analyses considered the technical as well as the economic aspects of the dry barrier concept

  7. Barriers to evidence-based medicine: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Tabrizi, Jafar Sadegh; Azami-Aghdash, Saber

    2014-12-01

    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) has emerged as an effective strategy to improve health care quality. The aim of this study was to systematically review and carry out an analysis on the barriers to EBM. Different database searching methods and also manual search were employed in this study using the search words ('evidence-based' or 'evidence-based medicine' or 'evidence-based practice' or 'evidence-based guidelines' or 'research utilization') and (barrier* or challenge or hinder) in the following databases: PubMed, Scopus, Web of Knowledge, Cochrane library, Pro Quest, Magiran, SID. Out of 2592 articles, 106 articles were finally identified for study. Research barriers, lack of resources, lack of time, inadequate skills, and inadequate access, lack of knowledge and financial barriers were found to be the most common barriers to EBM. Examples of these barriers were found in primary care, hospital/specialist care, rehabilitation care, medical education, management and decision making. The most common barriers to research utilization were research barriers, cooperation barriers and changing barriers. Lack of resources was the most common barrier to implementation of guidelines. The result of this study shows that there are many barriers to the implementation and use of EBM. Identifying barriers is just the first step to removing barriers to the use of EBM. Extra resources will be needed if these barriers are to be tackled. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Barriers to investment in emerging power markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beardsworth, Jr, J J [Hunton and Williams, Richmond, VA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Investing in private power projects in developing countries is a very different issue from investment in the US or the UK. There are many investment barriers not present in developed nations. Firstly investment barriers need to be identified. Trouble may be encountered with legal authorization; the regulatory framework; government guarantees; fuel supply security; lender protection; labour laws and local commercial restrictions such as profits repatriation, currency convertibility, and taxes. Political barriers may also be encountered in the form of: government commitments and support; funding sources; political unrest; religion; and relationships with other countries. Investment barriers may be minimised by persuading the government to remove any legal barriers; the contract has then to be agreed. Factors in a successful contract include: power purchase agreements; fuel agreements; and implementation agreements. It is vital to have a source of information on local rules and customs, by working with local companies and employing local attorneys.

  9. Psychological Barriers to Behavior Change: How to indentify the barriers that inhibit change

    OpenAIRE

    Olson, James M.

    1992-01-01

    Adopting a healthy lifestyle often requires changing patterns of behavior. This article describes three categories of psychological barriers to behavior change: those that prevent the admission of a problem, those that interfere with initial attempts to change behavior, and those that make long-term change difficult. Strategies are identified that family physicians can use to overcome the barriers.

  10. Removal of geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol during managed aquifer recharge: Batch and column studies

    KAUST Repository

    Maeng, Sungkyu; Abel, Chol D T; Sharma, Saroj K.; Park, Nosuk; Amy, Gary L.

    2012-01-01

    Managed aquifer recharge is a robust barrier in the multi-barrier approach to supply safe drinking water. The removal performance of gesomin and 2-methylisoborneol through managed aquifer recharge was investigated using batch and column experiments

  11. Personnel decontamination and preventive skin care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, Klaus; Gojowczyk, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Skin contamination arises from contact with contaminated aqueous solutions and from transmission of radioactively contaminated dirt particles. As long as the surface of the skin is neither inflamed nor showing any lesions, normally only a limited part of the top layer (epidermis), i.e. the upper layers of the stratum corneum, is contaminated. The intact horny layer has a barrier function protecting against the penetration of chemicals and dirt particles. The horny layer can be damaged by water, solvents, alkaline substances, and acids. In general, it is safe to say that the horny layer acts as a natural barrier to the penetration of liquid and particulate impurities into lower layers of the skin. As long as the horny layer is intact and free from lesions, the risk of incorporation can be considered low. When decontaminating and cleansing the skin, also in daily skin cleansing, care must be taken to prevent the acid protective layer and the horny layer from being compromised. Daily cleansing and cleansing for decontamination must be carried out with a mild, weakly acidic detergent. In addition, prevention should be achieved daily by applying a non-greasy skin lotion to protect the skin. Following a systematic regular regimen in skin cleansing and preventive skin care as well as a specific approach in skin decontamination and cleansing will avoid damage to the skin and remove any contamination incurred. This approach comprises a three-pronged concept, namely skin protection, cleansing and care. (orig.)

  12. Lead Poisoning Prevention Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or removed safely. How are children exposed to lead? Lead-based paint and lead contaminated dust are ... What can be done to prevent exposure to lead? It is important to determine the construction year ...

  13. Identifying barriers to emergency care services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannoodt, Luk; Mock, Charles; Bucagu, Maurice

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to present a review of published evidence of barriers to emergency care, with attention towards both financial and other barriers. With the keywords (financial) accessibility, barriers and emergency care services, citations in PubMed were searched and further selected in the context of the objective of this article. Forty articles, published over a period of 15 years, showed evidence of significant barriers to emergency care. These barriers often tend to persist, despite the fact that the evidence was published many years ago. Several publications stressed the importance of the financial barriers in foregoing or delaying potentially life-saving emergency services, both in poor and rich countries. Other publications report non-financial barriers that prevent patients in need of emergency care (pre-hospital and in-patient care) from seeking care, from arriving in the proper emergency department without undue delay or from receiving proper treatment when they do arrive in these departments. It is clear that timely access to life-saving and disability-preventing emergency care is problematic in many settings. Yet, low-cost measures can likely be taken to significantly reduce these barriers. It is time to make an inventory of these measures and to implement the most cost-effective ones worldwide. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Phosphate Barriers for Immobilization of Uranium Plumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, Peter C.

    2004-01-01

    Uranium contamination of the subsurface remains a persistent problem plaguing remedial design at sites across the U.S. that were involved with production, handling, storage, milling, and reprocessing of uranium for both civilian and defense related purposes. Remediation efforts to date have relied upon excavation, pump-and-treat, or passive remediation barriers (PRB?s) to remove or attenuate uranium mobility. Documented cases convincingly demonstrate that excavation and pump-and-treat methods are ineffective for a number of highly contaminated sites. There is growing concern that use of conventional PRB?s, such as zero-valent iron, may be a temporary solution to a problem that will persist for thousands of years. Alternatives to the standard treatment methods are therefore warranted. The core objective of our research is to demonstrate that a phosphorus amendment strategy will result in a reduction of dissolved uranium to below the proposed drinking water standard. Our hypothesis is that long-chain sodium polyphosphate compounds forestall precipitation of sparingly soluble uranyl phosphate compounds, which is paramount to preventing fouling of wells at the point of injection

  15. Phosphate Barriers for Immobilization of Uranium Plumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Icenhower, Jonathan P.; Burns, Peter C.

    2005-01-01

    Uranium contamination of the subsurface remains a persistent problem plaguing remedial design at sites across the U.S. that were involved with production, handling, storage, milling, and reprocessing of uranium for both civilian and defense related purposes. Remediation efforts to date have relied upon excavation, pump-and-treat, or passive remediation barriers (PRB?s) to remove or attenuate uranium mobility. Documented cases convincingly demonstrate that excavation and pump-and-treat methods are ineffective for a number of highly contaminated sites. There is growing concern that use of conventional PRB's, such as zero-valent iron, may be a temporary solution to a problem that will persist for thousands of years. Alternatives to the standard treatment methods are therefore warranted. The core objective of our research is to demonstrate that a phosphorous amendment strategy will result in a reduction of dissolved uranium to below the proposed drinking water standard. Our hypothesis is that long-chain sodium polyphosphate compounds forestall precipitation of sparingly soluble uranyl phosphate compounds, which is paramount to preventing fouling of wells at the point of injection

  16. Implementation status and barriers of good manufacturing practice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Removal of implementation barriers could be considered, including strengthening personnel competence, improving the quality management system and enhancing the international communication with advanced GMP regulators. Keywords: good manufacturing practice, GMP, Chinese patent medicine, traditional Chinese ...

  17. Field applications of a radon barrier to reduce indoor airborne progeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culot, M.V.J.; Olson, H.G.; Schiager, K.J.

    1978-01-01

    The use of uranium mill tailings in the foundations of dwellings has resulted in indoor radon progeny concentrations and gamma exposures in excess of levels presently allowed for the general public. An account is given of the applications of an epoxy coating on the indoor faces of the concrete foundations of three buildings in Grand Junction, Colorado. Epoxy barriers were shown to be effective for preventing radon influx into structures. Gamma exposure rates must be analyzed to ensure that buildup behind the barrier will not introduce an unacceptable gamma exposure level. The use of a sealant is especially economical in situations where structural integrity may be jeopardized by physical removal of uranium mill tailings. (author)

  18. Development of tensiometric barriers for containment and remediation at waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, B.M.; Stormont, J.C.; Morris, C.E.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes a concept in which dry air is injected into an unsaturated formation to reduce the soil moisture content, referred to here as a tensiometric (or sometimes dry) barrier. The objective is to reduce the hydraulic conductivity of the unsaturated media to the point where liquid phase transport becomes negligible, thereby achieving containment. The concept could be applied in subsurface formations to provide containment from a leaking facility, or it could be incorporated into a cover design to provide redundancy for a capillary barrier. The air injection process could in principle be coupled with a vacuum extraction system to recover soil vapors, which would then provide a remediation process that would be appropriate if volatile organic compounds were present. Work to date has consisted of a combined theoretical, laboratory, and field research investigation. The objective of this research was to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the tensiometric barrier concept by identifying the parameters which determine its effectiveness. Based on the results obtained for the experimental and theoretical studies, feasibility analyses were prepared as a modification for a landfill cover design to prevent infiltration from atmospheric precipitation and for potential application of tensiometric barriers to achieve subsurface containment of mobile pollutants and removal of volatile constituents. These analyses considered the technical as well as the economic aspects of the tensiometric barrier concept, and found that a properly designed and operated tensiometric barrier is competitive with conventional containment methods. In addition, they benefit from being able to recover from failure by circulating additional dry air through the formation to re-establish the barrier phenomena. (author) 10 figs., 4 tabs., 17 refs

  19. Smart parking barrier

    KAUST Repository

    Alharbi, Abdulrazaq M.

    2016-05-06

    Various methods and systems are provided for smart parking barriers. In one example, among others, a smart parking barrier system includes a movable parking barrier located at one end of a parking space, a barrier drive configured to control positioning of the movable parking barrier, and a parking controller configured to initiate movement of the parking barrier, via the barrier drive. The movable parking barrier can be positioned between a first position that restricts access to the parking space and a second position that allows access to the parking space. The parking controller can initiate movement of the movable parking barrier in response to a positive identification of an individual allowed to use the parking space. The parking controller can identify the individual through, e.g., a RFID tag, a mobile device (e.g., a remote control, smartphone, tablet, etc.), an access card, biometric information, or other appropriate identifier.

  20. Barriers to physical activity among working mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrowski, Jill J

    2011-04-01

    Working mothers experience several barriers to physical activity. If these barriers can be identified by occupational health nurses and they can partner with working mothers to reduce these perceived barriers, the health of these workers can be improved and chronic disease risk prevented. The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of self-regulatory efficacy on physical activity among working mothers and to describe specific barriers to physical activity. The Barriers Specific Self-Efficacy Scale (BARSE) and the Kaiser Physical Activity Survey (KPAS) were used to measure the variables. Self-regulatory efficacy was found to be a strong predictor of physical activity in a diverse sample of working mothers who did not meet current recommendations for physical activity. Occupational health nurses can use these findings to design programs for groups and for counseling individuals. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  1. Alternative geochemical barrier materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    Previous investigations of the effects of neutralization and reduction on uranium mill tailings pore fluids by the Technical Support Contractor indicated that arsenic, selenium, and molybdenum continue to remain in solution in all but reducing conditions. These hazardous constituents are present in groundwaters as oxyanions and, therefore, are not expected to be removed by adsorption into clays and most other soil constituents. It was decided to investigate the attenuation capacity of two commonly available crystalline iron oxides, taconite and scoria, and a zeolite, a network aluminosilicate with a cage structure. Columns of the candidate materials were exposed to solutions of individual constituents, including arsenic, molybdenum, selenium, and, uranium, and to the spiked tailings pore fluid from the Bodo Canyon disposal cell near Durango, Colorado. In addition to the single material columns, a homogeneous blend of the three materials and layers of the materials were exposed to spiked tailings pore fluids. The results of these experiments indicate that with the exception of molybdenum, the constituents of concern are attenuated by the taconite; however, they are not sufficiently attenuated to meet the groundwater protection standards applicable to the UMTRA Project. Therefore, the candidate barrier materials did not prove to be useful to the UMTRA Project for the cleanup of groundwaters

  2. Model assessment of protective barrier designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayer, M.J.; Conbere, W.; Heller, P.R.; Gee, G.W.

    1985-11-01

    A protective barrier is being considered for use at the Hanford site to enhance the isolation of previously disposed radioactive wastes from infiltrating water, and plant and animal intrusion. This study is part of a research and development effort to design barriers and evaluate their performance in preventing drainage. A fine-textured soil (the Composite) was located on the Hanford site in sufficient quantity for use as the top layer of the protective barrier. A number of simulations were performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory to analyze different designs of the barrier using the Composite soil as well as the finer-textured Ritzville silt loam and a slightly coarser soil (Coarse). Design variations included two rainfall rates (16.0 and 30.1 cm/y), the presence of plants, gravel mixed into the surface of the topsoil, an impermeable boundary under the topsoil, and moving the waste form from 10 to 20 m from the barrier edge. The final decision to use barriers for enhanced isolation of previously disposed wastes will be subject to decisions resulting from the completion of the Hanford Defense Waste Environmental Impact Statement, which addresses disposal of Hanford defense high-level and transuranic wastes. The one-dimensional simulation results indicate that each of the three soils, when used as the top layer of the protective barrier, can prevent drainage provided plants are present. Gravel amendments to the upper 30 cm of soil (without plants) reduced evaporation and allowed more water to drain

  3. 49 CFR 193.2173 - Water removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Water removal. 193.2173 Section 193.2173...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Design Impoundment Design and Capacity § 193.2173 Water removal. (a) Impoundment areas must be constructed such that all areas drain completely to prevent water collection. Drainage...

  4. Combining Nitrilotriacetic Acid and Permeable Barriers for Enhanced Phytoextraction of Heavy Metals from Municipal Solid Waste Compost by and Reduced Metal Leaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shulan; Jia, Lina; Duo, Lian

    2016-05-01

    Phytoextraction has the potential to remove heavy metals from contaminated soil, and chelants can be used to improve the capabilities of phytoextraction. However, environmentally persistent chelants can cause metal leaching and groundwater pollution. A column experiment was conducted to evaluate the viability of biodegradable nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) to increase the uptake of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Cu, and Zn) by L. in municipal solid waste (MSW) compost and to evaluate the effect of two permeable barrier materials, bone meal and crab shell, on metal leaching. The application of NTA significantly increased the concentrations and uptake of heavy metals in . The enhancement was more pronounced at higher dosages of NTA. In the 15 mmol kg NTA treatment using a crab shell barrier, the Cr and Ni concentrations in the plant shoots increased by approximately 8- and 10-fold, respectively, relative to the control. However, the addition of NTA also caused significant heavy metal leaching from the MSW compost. Bone meal and crab shell barriers positioned between the compost and the subsoil were effective in preventing metal leaching down through the soil profile by the retention of metals in the barrier. The application of a biodegradable chelant and the use of permeable barriers is a viable form of enhanced phytoextraction to increase the removal of metals and to reduce possible leaching. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  5. Barriers to initiating tuberculosis treatment in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review focused on children and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Brittney J; Esmaili, B Emily; Cunningham, Coleen K

    2017-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is the deadliest infectious disease globally, with 10.4 million people infected and more than 1.8 million deaths in 2015. TB is a preventable, treatable, and curable disease, yet there are numerous barriers to initiating treatment. These barriers to treatment are exacerbated in low-resource settings and may be compounded by factors related to childhood. Timely initiation of tuberculosis (TB) treatment is critical to reducing disease transmission and improving patient outcomes. The aim of this paper is to describe patient- and system-level barriers to TB treatment initiation specifically for children and youth in sub-Saharan Africa through systematic review of the literature. This review was conducted in October 2015 in accordance with preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Six databases were searched to identify studies where primary or secondary objectives were related to barriers to TB treatment initiation and which included children or youth 0-24 years of age. A total of 1490 manuscripts met screening criteria; 152 met criteria for full-text review and 47 for analysis. Patient-level barriers included limited knowledge, attitudes and beliefs regarding TB, and economic burdens. System-level barriers included centralization of services, health system delays, and geographical access to healthcare. Of the 47 studies included, 7 evaluated cost, 19 health-seeking behaviors, and 29 health system infrastructure. Only 4 studies primarily assessed pediatric cohorts yet all 47 studies were inclusive of children. Recognizing and removing barriers to treatment initiation for pediatric TB in sub-Saharan Africa are critical. Both patient- and system-level barriers must be better researched in order to improve patient outcomes.

  6. Breastfeeding: What are the Barriers? Why Women Struggle to Achieve Their Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriraman, Natasha K; Kellams, Ann

    2016-07-01

    Despite recognized health benefits for both mothers and infants, significant disparities still exist in the rates of breastfeeding in the United States. Major organizations representing the health of women and children (including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], American Academy of Pediatrics [AAP], American Congress of Obstetrics and Gynecology [ACOG], American Academy of Family Physicians [AAFP], United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF), the World Health Organization [WHO], and the United States Public Health Service [PHS]) recommend exclusive breastfeeding, but statistics show that although many women initiate breastfeeding, few meet the recommended goals for duration and exclusivity. This article reviews the evidence related to barriers (prenatal, medical, societal, hospital, and sociocultural) that many mothers face, and explore the known barriers and the impact they have on a woman's ability to breastfeed her infant. Strategies will be discussed to address (and potentially overcome) some of the most common barriers women face along with a list of resources that can be useful in this effort. Gaps in care and areas that need further research will be noted. This article is targeted toward physicians and other healthcare providers who work with women and who can assist with and advocate for the removal of barriers and thereby improve the health of women and children by increasing the rates of breastfeeding initiation, duration, and exclusivity in the United States.

  7. Therapeutic benefits of enhancing permeability barrier for atopic eczema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Man

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The regulatory role of epidermal permeability barrier function in cutaneous inflammation has been well appreciated. While barrier disruption induces cutaneous inflammation, improvement of permeability barrier function alleviates inflammation. Studies have demonstrated that improvement of epidermal permeability barrier function not only prevents the development of atopic eczema, but also delays the relapse of these diseases. Moreover, enhancing the epidermal permeability barrier also alleviates atopic eczema. Furthermore, co-applications of barrier enhancing products with glucocorticoids can increase the therapeutic efficacy and reduce the adverse effects of glucocorticoids in the treatment of atopic eczema. Therefore, utilization of permeability barrier enhancing products alone or in combination with glucocorticoids could be a valuable approach in the treatment of atopic eczema. In this review, we discuss the benefits of improving the epidermal permeability barrier in the management of atopic eczema.

  8. Application of dielectric surface barrier discharge for food storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yassine BELLEBNA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ozone (O3 is a powerful oxidizer and has much higher disinfection potential than chlorine and other disinfectants. Ozone finds its application mainly in water treatment and air purification Dielectric barrier discharge (DBD method has proved to be the best method to produce ozone. Dried air or oxygen is forced to pass through a 1-2 mm gap. The aim of this study was to show that disinfection system using ozone generated by dielectric barrier discharge (DBD is an effective alternative to be used in food industry and ensures a safe quality of air for optimum preservation of fruits and vegetables. The DBDs are specific kind of discharges because one (or sometimes both electrodes is covered by a dielectric material, thereby preventing the discharge to move towards electrical breakdown. A succession of microdischarges occurs rapidly; their "lifetime" is in the range of a few nanoseconds. One of their most important applications is the production of ozone for air treatment, used mainly in the area of food industry, for extending the storage life of foods. After the achievement of a surface DBD reactor of cylindrical shape and its electrical characterization, it was then used as an ozone generator for air disinfection. Obtained results have shown that this reactor used as an ozone generator is effective for disinfection of air by removing viruses, bacteria and pathogens, causing the slowdown of the ripening process of fruits and vegetables.

  9. Barrier cell sheath formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesner, J.

    1980-04-01

    The solution for electrostatic potential within a simply modeled tandem mirror thermal barrier is seen to exhibit a sheath at each edge of the cell. The formation of the sheath requires ion collisionality and the analysis assmes that the collisional trapping rate into the barrier is considerably slower than the barrier pump rate

  10. Permeability Barrier Generation in the Martian Lithosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schools, Joe; Montési, Laurent

    2015-11-01

    barrier likely changed the character of volcanism on Mars, maybe preventing the formation of new localized volcanic edifices in the Amazonian.

  11. Permeable bio-reactive barriers for hydrocarbon remediation in Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mumford, K.A.; Stevens, G.W.; Gore, D.B. [Melbourne Univ., Victoria (Australia). Dept. of Chemical and Biomoleculuar Engineering, Particulate Fluids Processing Centre; Snape, I.; Rayner, J.L. [Australian Antarctic Div., Kingston, Tasmania (Australia); Gore, D.B. [Macquarie Univ., Sydney, NSW (Australia). Dept. of Environmental Science

    2010-07-01

    This study assessed the performance of a permeable bio-reactive barrier designed to treat contaminated water. The bio-reactive barrier was installed at a fuel spill site located in the Windmill Islands, Antarctica. A funnel and gate design was used to prevent contaminant migration beyond the barrier location as well as to ensure controlled nutrient delivery. The study also investigated the performance of the bio-reactive barrier in regions with freeze-thaw conditions. The 4-year project was also conducted to assess optimal conditions for enhancing the barrier's ability to degrade hydrocarbons.

  12. New Way to Break Down Barriers to Higher Education: Build "Financial Capabilities"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Sarah; Graves, Erin M.

    2015-01-01

    Community colleges have traditionally responded to the financial needs of their students by removing or minimizing financial barriers to attending. Efforts to make community college tuition free fit with this philosophy, but where efforts to minimize or remove financial barriers to attending community college fall short is in empowering students…

  13. Removing Hair Safely

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Removing Hair Safely Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... related to common methods of hair removal. Laser Hair Removal In this method, a laser destroys hair ...

  14. Barriers to fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berriman, A.C.; Butt, R.D.; Dasgupta, M.; Hinde, D.J.; Morton, C.R.; Newton, J.O.

    1999-01-01

    The fusion barrier is formed by the combination of the repulsive Coulomb and attractive nuclear forces. Recent research at the Australian National University has shown that when heavy nuclei collide, instead of a single fusion barrier, there is a set of fusion barriers. These arise due to intrinsic properties of the interacting nuclei such deformation, rotations and vibrations. Thus the range of barrier energies depends on the properties of both nuclei. The transfer of matter between nuclei, forming a neck, can also affect the fusion process. High precision data have been used to determine fusion barrier distributions for many nuclear reactions, leading to new insights into the fusion process

  15. Extremal surface barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelhardt, Netta; Wall, Aron C.

    2014-01-01

    We present a generic condition for Lorentzian manifolds to have a barrier that limits the reach of boundary-anchored extremal surfaces of arbitrary dimension. We show that any surface with nonpositive extrinsic curvature is a barrier, in the sense that extremal surfaces cannot be continuously deformed past it. Furthermore, the outermost barrier surface has nonnegative extrinsic curvature. Under certain conditions, we show that the existence of trapped surfaces implies a barrier, and conversely. In the context of AdS/CFT, these barriers imply that it is impossible to reconstruct the entire bulk using extremal surfaces. We comment on the implications for the firewall controversy

  16. Safety- barrier diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duijm, Nijs Jan

    2008-01-01

    Safety-barrier diagrams and the related so-called 'bow-tie' diagrams have become popular methods in risk analysis. This paper describes the syntax and principles for constructing consistent and valid safety-barrier diagrams. The relation of safety-barrier diagrams to other methods such as fault...... trees and Bayesian networks is discussed. A simple method for quantification of safety-barrier diagrams is proposed. It is concluded that safety-barrier diagrams provide a useful framework for an electronic data structure that integrates information from risk analysis with operational safety management....

  17. Safety-barrier diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duijm, Nijs Jan

    2007-01-01

    Safety-barrier diagrams and the related so-called "bow-tie" diagrams have become popular methods in risk analysis. This paper describes the syntax and principles for constructing consistent and valid safety-barrier diagrams. The relation with other methods such as fault trees and Bayesian networks...... are discussed. A simple method for quantification of safety-barrier diagrams is proposed, including situations where safety barriers depend on shared common elements. It is concluded that safety-barrier diagrams provide a useful framework for an electronic data structure that integrates information from risk...... analysis with operational safety management....

  18. 28 CFR 36.305 - Alternatives to barrier removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... shelves or racks; (3) Relocating activities to accessible locations; (c) Multiscreen cinemas. If it is not... theaters of a multiscreen cinema, the cinema shall establish a film rotation schedule that provides...

  19. Removing cost barriers — lessons from West Africa | CRDI - Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    10 juin 2016 ... Despite recent progress, as a region, sub-Saharan Africa has the highest rates of maternal, infant, and child mortality in the world. From 2009 to 2012, researchers led by Niger's Laboratoire d'études et de recherches sur les dynamiques sociales et le développement local (LASDEL) analyzed government ...

  20. 24 CFR 570.614 - Architectural Barriers Act and the Americans with Disabilities Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... with disabilities. Further, the ADA requires the removal of architectural barriers and communication... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Architectural Barriers Act and the... GRANTS Other Program Requirements § 570.614 Architectural Barriers Act and the Americans with...

  1. Cross-cultural barriers to health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidaeff, Alex C; Kerrigan, Anthony J; Monga, Manju

    2015-01-01

    Culturally sensitive health care represents a real ethical and practical need in a Western healthcare system increasingly serving a multiethnic society. This review focuses on cross-cultural barriers to health care and incongruent aspects from a cultural perspective in the provision of health care. To overcome difficulties in culturally dissimilar interactions and eventually remove cross-cultural barriers to health care, a culturally sensitive physician considers his or her own identity, values, and beliefs; recognizes the similarities and differences among cultures; understands what those similarities and differences mean; and is able to bridge the differences to accomplish clear and effective communication.

  2. Floating convection barrier for evaporation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    A floating matrix of titanium in an uranium evaporation source, melted by an electron beam, serves as a barrier for preventing cooler material from reaching the evaporation area. This construction allows a big volume of melted uranium to be present and new uranium to be furnished in regulated intervals without manual intervention

  3. Overcoming natural replication barriers: differential helicase requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Ranjith P; Shah, Kartik A; Niu, Hengyao; Sung, Patrick; Mirkin, Sergei M; Freudenreich, Catherine H

    2012-02-01

    DNA sequences that form secondary structures or bind protein complexes are known barriers to replication and potential inducers of genome instability. In order to determine which helicases facilitate DNA replication across these barriers, we analyzed fork progression through them in wild-type and mutant yeast cells, using 2-dimensional gel-electrophoretic analysis of the replication intermediates. We show that the Srs2 protein facilitates replication of hairpin-forming CGG/CCG repeats and prevents chromosome fragility at the repeat, whereas it does not affect replication of G-quadruplex forming sequences or a protein-bound repeat. Srs2 helicase activity is required for hairpin unwinding and fork progression. Also, the PCNA binding domain of Srs2 is required for its in vivo role of replication through hairpins. In contrast, the absence of Sgs1 or Pif1 helicases did not inhibit replication through structural barriers, though Pif1 did facilitate replication of a telomeric protein barrier. Interestingly, replication through a protein barrier but not a DNA structure barrier was modulated by nucleotide pool levels, illuminating a different mechanism by which cells can regulate fork progression through protein-mediated stall sites. Our analyses reveal fundamental differences in the replication of DNA structural versus protein barriers, with Srs2 helicase activity exclusively required for fork progression through hairpin structures.

  4. 200-BP-1 Prototype Hanford Barrier - 15 Years of Performance Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, Anderson L.; Link, Steven O.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Clayton, Ray E.

    2009-01-01

    Engineered surface barriers are recognized as a remedial alternative to the removal, treatment and disposal of near-surface contaminants at a variety of waste sites within the DOE complex. One issue impacting their acceptance by stakeholders the use of limited data to predict long-term performance. In 1994, a 2-ha multi-component barrier was constructed over an existing waste disposal site at Hanford using natural materials. Monitoring has been almost continuous for the last 15 yrs and has focused on barrier stability, vegetative cover, plant and animal intrusion, and the components of the water balance, including precipitation, runoff, storage, drainage, and percolation. The total precipitation received from October 1994 through August 2008 was 3311 mm on the northern half (formerly irrigated), and 2638 mm on the southern, non-irrigated half. Water storage in the fine-soil layer shows a cyclic pattern, increasing in the winter and decreasing in the spring and summer to a lower limit of around 100 mm, regardless of precipitation, in response to evapotranspiration. Topographic surveys show the barrier and side slopes to be stable and the pea-gravel admix has proven effective in minimizing erosion through the creation of a desert pavement during deflationary periods. Three runoff events have been observed but the 600-mm design storage capacity has never been exceeded. Total percolation ranged from near zero amounts under the soil-covered plots to over 600 mm under the side slopes. The asphaltic concrete prevented any of this water from reaching the buried waste thereby eliminating the driving force for the contaminant remobilization. Plant surveys show a relatively high coverage of native plants still persists after the initial revegetation although the number of species decreased from 35 in 1994 to 10 in 2009. Ample evidence of insect and small mammal use suggests that the barrier is behaving like a recovering ecosystem. In September 2008, the north half of the

  5. 200-BP-1 Prototype Hanford Barrier - 15 Years of Performance Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Anderson L.; Link, Steven O.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Clayton, Ray E.

    2009-09-01

    Engineered surface barriers are recognized as a remedial alternative to the removal, treatment and disposal of near-surface contaminants at a variety of waste sites within the DOE complex. One issue impacting their acceptance by stakeholders the use of limited data to predict long-term performance. In 1994, a 2-ha multi-component barrier was constructed over an existing waste disposal site at Hanford using natural materials. Monitoring has been almost continuous for the last 15 yrs and has focused on barrier stability, vegetative cover, plant and animal intrusion, and the components of the water balance, including precipitation, runoff, storage, drainage, and percolation. The total precipitation received from October 1994 through August 2008 was 3311 mm on the northern half (formerly irrigated), and 2638 mm on the southern, non-irrigated half. Water storage in the fine-soil layer shows a cyclic pattern, increasing in the winter and decreasing in the spring and summer to a lower limit of around 100 mm, regardless of precipitation, in response to evapotranspiration. Topographic surveys show the barrier and side slopes to be stable and the pea-gravel admix has proven effective in minimizing erosion through the creation of a desert pavement during deflationary periods. Three runoff events have been observed but the 600-mm design storage capacity has never been exceeded. Total percolation ranged from near zero amounts under the soil-covered plots to over 600 mm under the side slopes. The asphaltic concrete prevented any of this water from reaching the buried waste thereby eliminating the driving force for the contaminant remobilization. Plant surveys show a relatively high coverage of native plants still persists after the initial revegetation although the number of species decreased from 35 in 1994 to 10 in 2009. Ample evidence of insect and small mammal use suggests that the barrier is behaving like a recovering ecosystem. In September 2008, the north half of the

  6. Control of Internal Transport Barriers in Magnetically Confined Fusion Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panta, Soma; Newman, David; Sanchez, Raul; Terry, Paul

    2016-10-01

    In magnetic confinement fusion devices the best performance often involves some sort of transport barriers to reduce the energy and particle flow from core to edge. Those barriers create gradients in the temperature and density profiles. If gradients in the profiles are too steep that can lead to instabilities and the system collapses. Control of these barriers is therefore an important challenge for fusion devices (burning plasmas). In this work we focus on the dynamics of internal transport barriers. Using a simple 7 field transport model, extensively used for barrier dynamics and control studies, we explore the use of RF heating to control the local gradients and therefore the growth rates and shearing rates for barrier initiation and control in self-heated fusion plasmas. Ion channel barriers can be formed in self-heated plasmas with some NBI heating but electron channel barriers are very sensitive. They can be formed in self-heated plasmas with additional auxiliary heating i.e. NBI and radio-frequency(RF). Using RF heating on both electrons and ions at proper locations, electron channel barriers along with ion channel barriers can be formed and removed demonstrating a control technique. Investigating the role of pellet injection in controlling the barriers is our next goal. Work supported by DOE Grant DE-FG02-04ER54741.

  7. Review of potential subsurface permeable barrier emplacement and monitoring technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riggsbee, W.H.; Treat, R.L.; Stansfield, H.J.; Schwarz, R.M.; Cantrell, K.J.; Phillips, S.J.

    1994-02-01

    This report focuses on subsurface permeable barrier technologies potentially applicable to existing waste disposal sites. This report describes candidate subsurface permeable barriers, methods for emplacing these barriers, and methods used to monitor the barrier performance. Two types of subsurface barrier systems are described: those that apply to contamination.in the unsaturated zone, and those that apply to groundwater and to mobile contamination near the groundwater table. These barriers may be emplaced either horizontally or vertically depending on waste and site characteristics. Materials for creating permeable subsurface barriers are emplaced using one of three basic methods: injection, in situ mechanical mixing, or excavation-insertion. Injection is the emplacement of dissolved reagents or colloidal suspensions into the soil at elevated pressures. In situ mechanical mixing is the physical blending of the soil and the barrier material underground. Excavation-insertion is the removal of a soil volume and adding barrier materials to the space created. Major vertical barrier emplacement technologies include trenching-backfilling; slurry trenching; and vertical drilling and injection, including boring (earth augering), cable tool drilling, rotary drilling, sonic drilling, jetting methods, injection-mixing in drilled holes, and deep soil mixing. Major horizontal barrier emplacement technologies include horizontal drilling, microtunneling, compaction boring, horizontal emplacement, longwall mining, hydraulic fracturing, and jetting methods

  8. Multilayer moisture barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankow, Joel W; Jorgensen, Gary J; Terwilliger, Kent M; Glick, Stephen H; Isomaki, Nora; Harkonen, Kari; Turkulainen, Tommy

    2015-04-21

    A moisture barrier, device or product having a moisture barrier or a method of fabricating a moisture barrier having at least a polymer layer, and interfacial layer, and a barrier layer. The polymer layer may be fabricated from any suitable polymer including, but not limited to, fluoropolymers such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET) or polyethylene naphthalate (PEN), or ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE). The interfacial layer may be formed by atomic layer deposition (ALD). In embodiments featuring an ALD interfacial layer, the deposited interfacial substance may be, but is not limited to, Al.sub.2O.sub.3, AlSiO.sub.x, TiO.sub.2, and an Al.sub.2O.sub.3/TiO.sub.2 laminate. The barrier layer associated with the interfacial layer may be deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). The barrier layer may be a SiO.sub.xN.sub.y film.

  9. Dielectric barrier discharge processing of aerospace materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, S J; Figgures, C C; Dixon, D G

    2004-01-01

    We report the use of atmospheric pressure, air based, dielectric barrier discharges (DBD) to treat materials commonly used in the aerospace industries. The material samples were processed using a test-bed of a conventional DBD configuration in which the sample formed one of the electrodes and was placed in close proximity to a ceramic electrode. The discharges generated a powerful, cold oxidizing environment which was able to remove organic contaminants, etch primer and paint layers, oxidize aluminium and roughen carbon fibre composites by the selective removal of resin

  10. Summary report on geochemical barrier special study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    Long-term management of uranium mill tailings must provide assurance that soluble contaminants will not migrate beyond the Point of Compliance. Conventional management alternatives provide containment through the use of physical barriers which are designed to prevent migration of water through the tailings pile. An alternative is to geochemically modify the tailings to immobilize the contaminants. This investigation examined three potential geochemical modifiers to determine their ability to immobilize inorganic groundwater contaminants found in uranium mill tailings. These modifiers were hydrated lime (Ca(OH) 2 ), limestone (CaCO 3 ), and a sphaegnum peat moss. This investigation focused on both the geochemical interactions between the tailings and the modifiers, and the effects the modifiers had on the physical strength of the tailings. The geochemical investigations began with characterization of the tailings by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. This was followed by batch leaching experiments in which various concentrations of each modifier were added to tailings in shaker flasks and allowed to come to equilibrium. Finally, column experiments were conducted to simulate flow through a tailings pile. The results show that all of the modifiers were at least moderately effective at immobilizing most of the groundwater contaminants of concern at uranium mill tailings sites. Hydrated lime was able to achieve 90 percent concentration reduction of arsenic, cadmium, selenium, uranium, and sulfate when added at a two percent concentration. Limestone was somewhat less effective and peat removed greater than 90 percent of arsenic, lead, uranium, and sulfate at a one percent concentration. The column tests showed that kinetic and/or mass transfer limitations are important and that sufficient time must be allowed for the immobilization reactions to occur

  11. Phosphate Barriers for Immobilization of Uranium Plumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, Peter C.

    2005-01-01

    Uranium contamination of the subsurface has remained a persistent problem plaguing remedial design at sites across the U.S. that were involved with production, handling, storage, milling, and reprocessing of fissile uranium for both civilian and defense related purposes. Remediation efforts to date have relied upon excavation, pump-and-treat, or passive remediation barriers (PRB's) to remove or attenuate uranium mobility. Documented cases convincingly demonstrate that excavation and pump-and-treat methods are ineffective for a number of highly contaminated sites. There is growing concern that use of conventional PRB?s, such as zero-valent iron, are a temporary solution to a problem that will persist for thousands of years. Alternatives to the standard treatment methods are therefore warranted. The core objective of our research is to demonstrate that a phosphorus amendment strategy will result in a reduction of dissolved uranium to below the proposed drinking water standard. Our hypothesis is that long-chain polyphosphate compounds forestall precipitation of sparingly soluble uranyl phosphate compounds, which is key to preventing fouling of wells at the point of injection. Our other fundamental objective is to synthesize and correctly characterize the uranyl phosphate phases that form in the geochemical conditions under consideration. This report summarizes work conducted at the University of Notre Dame through November of 2003 under DOE grant DE-FG07-02ER63489, which has been funded since September, 2002. The objectives at Notre Dame are development of synthesis techniques for uranyl phosphate phases, together with detailed structural and chemical characterization of the myriad of uranyl phosphate phases that may form under geochemical conditions under consideration

  12. Barrier penetration database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fainberg, A.; Bieber, A.M. Jr.

    1978-11-01

    This document is intended to supply the NRC and nuclear power plant licensees with basic data on the times required to penetrate forcibly the types of barriers commonly found in nuclear plants. These times are necessary for design and evaluation of the physical protection system required under 10CFR73.55. Each barrier listed is described in detail. Minor variations in basic barrier construction that result in the same penetration time, are also described

  13. Performance evaluation of cable median barrier systems in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    Since 2003, the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) has embarked on an aggressive campaign to install : median barriers to prevent cross-median crashes on freeway facilities statewide. In the few years prior to 2003, : virtually all fatalities...

  14. Development of guidelines for cable median barrier systems in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Since 2003, the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) has embarked on an aggressive campaign to install : median barriers to prevent cross-median crashes on freeway facilities statewide. In the few years prior to 2003, : virtually all fatalities...

  15. Non-statutory barriers and incentives to stakeholder participation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Non-statutory barriers and incentives to stakeholder participation in reducing water pollution: A South African case study. ... were found to be the major impediments preventing staff at government agencies and parastatals from motivating other ...

  16. Nutrition knowledge and food consumption practices and barriers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and barriers in rural Ghana: The case of foods for preventing vitamin A and iron deficiencies. ... of the occurrence of iron deficiency anaemia especially in pregnant women; however, only 8 FGs had knowledge of the causes of anaemia.

  17. Erosion and foreign object damage of thermal barrier coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholls, J.R.; Jaslier, Y.; Rickerby, D.S.

    1997-01-01

    Thermal barrier coating technology is used in the hot sections of gas turbines to extend component life. To maximise these benefits, the thermal barrier coating has to remain intact throughout the life of the turbine. High velocity ballistic damage can lead to total thermal barrier removal, while erosion may lead to progressive loss of thickness during operation. This paper particularly addresses the erosion resistance and resistance to foreign object damage of thermal barrier coatings. It was found that EB-PVD thermal barriers are significantly more erosion resistant when impacted with alumina or silica, than the equivalent plasma spray coating, both at room temperature and 910 C. Examination of tested hardware, reveals that cracking occurs within the near surface region of the columns for EB-PVD ceramic and that erosion occurs by removal of these small blocks of material. In stark contrast, removal of material for plasma sprayed ceramic occurs through poorly bonded splat boundaries. Large particle impact results in severe damage to the EB-PVD thermal barrier, with cracks penetrating through the ceramic coating to the ceramic/bond coat interface. Material removal, per particle impact, increases with increased particle size. (orig.)

  18. Transport barriers in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldas, I L; Szezech, J D Jr; Kroetz, T; Marcus, F A; Roberto, M; Viana, R L; Lopes, S R

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the creation of transport barriers in magnetically confined plasmas with non monotonic equilibrium radial profiles. These barriers reduce the transport in the shearless region (i.e., where the twist condition does not hold). For the chaotic motion of particles in an equilibrium electric field with a nonmonotonic radial profile, perturbed by electrostatic waves, we show that a nontwist transport barrier can be created in the plasma by modifying the electric field radial profile. We also show non twist barriers in chaotic magnetic field line transport in the plasma near to the tokamak wall with resonant modes due to electric currents in external coils.

  19. Estimating the Economic Effects of Reducing Non-Tariff Barriers in the EEU

    OpenAIRE

    Vinokurov, Evgeny; Demidenko, Mikhail; Pelipas, Igor; Tochitskaya, Irina; Shymanovich, Gleb; Lipin, Andrey; Movchan, Veronika

    2015-01-01

    The report provides the first comprehensive assessment of the effects of non-tariff barriers on mutual trade in the EEU and gives recommendations as to how to remove them. It is based on a poll of 530 Russian, Kazakh and Belarusian exporters. In the research non-tariff barriers are divided into two groups. The first group includes non-tariff barriers such as sanitary and phytosanitary measures, technical barriers to trade, quotas, prohibitions, and quantitative controls. The second group comp...

  20. Prevention of catheter-related blood stream infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Matthew C; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2007-08-01

    Catheter-related blood stream infections are a morbid complication of central venous catheters. This review will highlight a comprehensive approach demonstrated to prevent catheter-related blood stream infections. Elements of prevention important to inserting a central venous catheter include proper hand hygiene, use of full barrier precautions, appropriate skin preparation with 2% chlorhexidine, and using the subclavian vein as the preferred anatomic site. Rigorous attention needs to be given to dressing care, and there should be daily assessment of the need for central venous catheters, with prompt removal as soon as is practicable. Healthcare workers should be educated routinely on methods to prevent catheter-related blood stream infections. If rates remain higher than benchmark levels despite proper bedside practice, antiseptic or antibiotic-impregnated catheters can also prevent infections effectively. A recent program utilizing these practices in 103 ICUs in Michigan resulted in a 66% decrease in infection rates. There is increasing recognition that a comprehensive strategy to prevent catheter-related blood stream infections can prevent most infections, if not all. This suggests that thousands of infections can potentially be averted if the simple practices outlined herein are followed.

  1. Barriers to student success in engineering education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boles, Wageeh; Whelan, Karen

    2017-07-01

    In the UK, the USA and Australia, there have been calls for an increase in the number of engineering graduates to meet the needs of current global challenges. Universities around the world have been grappling with how to both attract more engineering students and to then retain them. Attrition from engineering programmes is disturbingly high. This paper reports on an element of research undertaken through an Australian Learning and Teaching Council-funded Fellowship that investigated the factors leading to student attrition in engineering programmes, by identifying barriers to student success. Here, we contrast a review of the literature related to student barriers and success with student perceptions, gathered through a series of focus groups and interviews at three Australian universities. We also present recommendations for action to try to remove barriers to student success.

  2. ARSENIC REMOVAL BY IRON REMOVAL PROCESSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presentation will discuss the removal of arsenic from drinking water using iron removal processes that include oxidation/filtration and the manganese greensand processes. Presentation includes results of U.S. EPA field studies conducted in Michigan and Ohio on existing iron remo...

  3. Specifics of fire-preventing arrangements in the forests of Baikal region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Evdokimenko

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Fire risk in major forest types and concomitant vegetation complexes across all altitudinal belts has been analyzed. High fire risk in woodlands is determined by domination of light needle coniferous stands in their structure and specific climate with continuous spring-summer droughts. Thus, the risk of landscape wildfires is high. The most drastic situations occur in very dry years of climatic cycles during forest pyrogenic anomalies when fire spreads across the main landscapes in several nature areas. Current fire-frequency is incompatible with high biosphere status of nature complex of Lake Baikal as an object of the World nature heritage. Extensive forest exploitation is unacceptable as well. Fire-prevention measures in the area require modernization. According to the results of many years of comparative studies of fire risk in phytocenoses with different species composition and structure of tree layers, the techniques of making fire stopping barriers were developed. The scheme of dividing the managed forests into isolated cells separated by special obstacles and fire-resistant forest borders combined with commonly used fire barriers is suggested. Fire-resistant barriers should be formed on both sides of main roads, passing through the intensively exploited woodlands dominating with common pine Pinus sylvestris L., Siberian stone pine Pinus sibirica Du Tour, Siberian spruce Picea obovata Ledeb., and Siberian fir Abies sibirica Ledeb. tree species. Such barriers are intended to stop the fire front of crown fires. The barrier width is determined by the cell order. The barriers are bordered with clearings with scarified soil strips of 3–4 meters in width. Trees and shrubs damaged in the process are removed during clutter cleaning. In places where the barrier passes through coniferous tree stands longitudinal corridors with scarified soil strips every 20–30 meters should be made. Reforestation and thinning are supposed to be combined with

  4. Converse Barrier Certificate Theorems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafael; Sloth, Christoffer

    2016-01-01

    This paper shows that a barrier certificate exists for any safe dynamical system. Specifically, we prove converse barrier certificate theorems for a class of structurally stable dynamical systems. Other authors have developed a related result by assuming that the dynamical system has neither...

  5. Skin barrier function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    Renowned experts present the latest knowledge Although a very fragile structure, the skin barrier is probably one of the most important organs of the body. Inward/out it is responsible for body integrity and outward/in for keeping microbes, chemicals, and allergens from penetrating the skin. Since...... the role of barrier integrity in atopic dermatitis and the relationship to filaggrin mutations was discovered a decade ago, research focus has been on the skin barrier, and numerous new publications have become available. This book is an interdisciplinary update offering a wide range of information...... on the subject. It covers new basic research on skin markers, including results on filaggrin and on methods for the assessment of the barrier function. Biological variation and aspects of skin barrier function restoration are discussed as well. Further sections are dedicated to clinical implications of skin...

  6. Barriers to the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massey, C T

    1986-09-01

    Opportunities for the British coal industry seem vast yet there are still barriers to progress. Seven areas are identified and discussed: mining mobility (for example, longwall mining systems are rigid and inflexible compared with American stall and pillar working); mine structure (many mines are more suitable to pit ponies than to large pieces of equipment); financial barriers (Government requires the industry to break even in 1987/88); personnel barriers (less specialization, better use of skills); safety barriers (increased use of remote control, ergonomics and robotics to protect workers); microelectronic management (nationalization has cushioned management from the market place; there is a need for a more multidisciplinary approach to the industry); and legal barriers (most legislation in the past has been in response to accidents; legislation external to the industry but affecting it is more fundamental).

  7. Barriers to energy efficiency: International case studies on successful barrier removal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worrell, E.

    2011-01-01

    Industry uses nearly 40 percent of worldwide energy to produce materials and products consumed by us all on a daily basis. In the process it contributes almost 37 percent of global greenhouse gas emissions (GHG). Globally, and in most countries, CO2 accounts for more than 90 percent of CO2-eq GHG

  8. Possibilities of hydrogen removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langer, G.; Koehling, A.; Nikodem, H.

    1982-12-01

    In the event of hypothetical severe accidents in light-water reactors, considerable amounts of hydrogen may be produced and released into the containment. Combustion of the hydrogen may jeopardize the integrity of the containment. The study reported here aimed to identify methods to mitigate the hydrogen problem. These methods should either prevent hydrogen combustion, or limit its effects. The following methods have been investigated: pre-inerting; chemical oxygen absorption; removal of oxygen by combustion; post-inerting with N 2 , CO 2 , or halon; aqueous foam; water fog; deliberate ignition; containment purging; and containment venting. The present state of the art in both nuclear and non-nuclear facilities, has been identified. The assessment of the methods was based on accident scenarios assuming significant release of hydrogen and the spectrum of requirements derived from these scenarios was used to determine the advantages and drawbacks of the various methods, assuming their application in a pressurized-water reactor of German design. (orig.) [de

  9. Spider Vein Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spider veins: How are they removed? I have spider veins on my legs. What options are available ... M.D. Several options are available to remove spider veins — thin red lines or weblike networks of ...

  10. Blood brain barrier permeability of (−-epigallocatechin gallate, its proliferation-enhancing activity of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, and its preventive effect on age-related cognitive dysfunction in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monira Pervin

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: Cognitive dysfunction in mice is suppressed after ingesting GTCs when a low concentration of EGCG is incorporated into the brain parenchyma via the BBB. Nerve cell proliferation/differentiation was enhanced by a low concentration of EGCG. Furthermore, the additive effect of EGC and GA suggests that EGCG sustains a preventive effect after the hydrolysis to EGC and GA.

  11. Predicting recolonization patterns and interactions between potamodromous and anadromous salmonids in response to dam removal in the Elwha River, Washington State, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenkman, S.J.; Pess, G.R.; Torgersen, C.E.; Kloehn, K.K.; Duda, J.J.; Corbett, S.C.

    2008-01-01

    The restoration of salmonids in the Elwha River following dam removal will cause interactions between anadromous and potamodromous forms as recolonization occurs in upstream and downstream directions. Anadromous salmonids are expected to recolonize historic habitats, and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) isolated above the dams for 90 years are expected to reestablish anadromy. We summarized the distribution and abundance of potamodromous salmonids, determined locations of spawning areas, and mapped natural barriers to fish migration at the watershed scale based on data collected from 1993 to 2006. Rainbow trout were far more abundant than bull trout throughout the watershed and both species were distributed up to river km 71. Spawning locations for bull trout and rainbow trout occurred in areas where we anticipate returning anadromous fish to spawn. Nonnative brook trout were confined to areas between and below the dams, and seasonal velocity barriers are expected to prevent their upstream movements. We hypothesize that the extent of interaction between potamodromous and anadromous salmonids will vary spatially due to natural barriers that will limit upstream-directed recolonization for some species of salmonids. Consequently, most competitive interactions will occur in the main stem and floodplain downstream of river km 25 and in larger tributaries. Understanding future responses of Pacific salmonids after dam removal in the Elwha River depends upon an understanding of existing conditions of the salmonid community upstream of the dams prior to dam removal.

  12. Method and apparatus for removal of residual sludge from a nuclear steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahoda, E.J.; Echardt, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a method for removing sludge deposits from the tube sheet of a nuclear steam generator vessel to which is connected a bundle of parallel heat exchange tubes arranged in parallel rows separated by lanes and parallel columns separated by channels. The method includes the steps of: directing a cleaning stream of sequentially advancing a lance past the channels one channel at a time, fluid along a first channel for dislodging sludge deposits and moving them toward the periphery of the bundle of tubes, substantially simultaneously directing a barrier stream of fluid from the lance in substantially the same direction as the cleaning stream. Stream continues along a second channel spaced from the first channel by at least two columns of tubes with no streams directed from the lance along any other channel between the first and second channels to prevent the dislodged sludge from being moved past the barrier stream into previously cleaned channels. Each of the streams has an axis immovable with respect to the other stream in directions parallel to the tube sheet and having a width in directions perpendicular to the axis and parallel to the tube sheet less than the width of the associated channel along which the stream is directed. This removes sludge-loaded fluid from the periphery of the bundle of tubes

  13. Vehicle barrier systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sena, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    The ground vehicle is one of the most effective tools available to an adversary force. Vehicles can be used to penetrate many types of perimeter barriers, transport equipment and personnel rapidly over long distances, and deliver large amounts of explosives directly to facilities in suicide missions. The function of a vehicle barrier system is to detain or disable a defined threat vehicle at a selected distance from a protected facility. Numerous facilities are installing, or planning to install, vehicle barrier systems and many of these facilities are requesting guidance to do so adequately. Therefore, vehicle barriers are being evaluated to determine their stopping capabilities so that systems can be designed that are both balanced and capable of providing a desired degree of protection. Equally important, many of the considerations that should be taken into account when establishing a vehicle barrier system have been identified. These considerations which pertain to site preparation, barrier selection, system integration and operation, and vehicle/barrier interaction, are discussed in this paper

  14. PLANNING YOUR REMOVALS

    CERN Multimedia

    Service déménagement; ST Division

    1999-01-01

    To give you better service and avoid lengthy delays, the Removals Service advises you to refrain from programming moves between 26 July and 3 September, as large-scale removals are already planned during this summer period.Thanking you in advance for your co-operation and understanding.Removals Service STTel. 74185 / Mobile 164017

  15. PROGRAMMING OFFICE REMOVALS

    CERN Multimedia

    Groupe ST-HM

    2000-01-01

    The Removals Service recommends you to plan your removals well in advance, taking into account the fact that the Transport and Handling Group’s main priority remains the dismantling of LEP and the installation of the LHC. The requests can be made by: http://st.web.cern.ch/st/hm/removal/DEMEE.HTM Thank you for your cooperation.

  16. Review of PCB monitoring and their results in the Zemplin region for the purpose of the project. Demonstrate the viability and removal of barriers which inhibit adoption and successful implementation of available, non-combustion technologies for destroying persistent organic pollutants (POPs)in the Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilvanova, A.

    2007-02-01

    In Slovakia, the Chemko Chemical Company based in Strazske, in the Michalovce district, produced PCBs between 1959 and 1984, in the amount of 21,000 tons of commercial mixtures (Delor 103, 104, 105, 106, Delotherm DK and DH, Hydelor 137). Improper disposal from the Chemko plant via release of effluent directly into the Laborec River resulted in long-term contamination of sediment. As a result eastern Slovakia, the Michalovce district in particular, is recognized as one of the areas all over the world most heavily polluted with PCBs. Current data indicate that persons who eat locally raised food - pork, beef, poultry, eggs - in this district have elevated serum concentrations of PCBs. This monitoring preview was prepared in the frame of the Project that is a part of a global Program to Demonstrate the Viability and Removal of Barriers that Impede Adoption and Successful Implementation of Available, Non- Combustion Technologies for Destroying Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). The objective of this report is to present the results of the monitoring activities carried out by the state agencies and other institutions related to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their metabolites in Zemplin region and to identify the gaps in this system and fill them up with supplementary targeted monitoring activities that will lead to preparation of the decontamination strategy for the polluted region. The preview indicates there is no monitoring program focused specifically on PCB in the region. Despite this, PCBs are monitored in practically all environmental compartments and living organisms including humans, as well as in foodstuff, but in an uncoordinated manner. The monitoring preview presents results from water (drinking, underground, surface and waste), sediments, food, wildlife animals, fish and humans (blood serum). Highest levels of PCB content were detected in human population. Relatively high PCB levels were recorded also in fish. From the environmental compartments

  17. Chloride removal from plutonium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holcomb, H.P.

    1983-01-01

    SRP is evaluating a program to recover plutonium from a metallic alloy that will contain chloride salt impurities. Removal of chloride to sufficiently low levels to prevent damaging corrosion to canyon equipment is feasible as a head-end step following dissolution. Silver nitrate and mercurous nitrate were each successfully used in laboratory tests to remove chloride from simulated alloy dissolver solution containing plutonium. Levels less than 10 ppM chloride were achieved in the supernates over the precipitated and centrifuged insoluble salts. Also, less than 0.05% loss of plutonium in the +3, +4, or +6 oxidation states was incurred via precipitate carrying. These results provide impetus for further study and development of a plant-scale process to recover plutonium from metal alloy at SRP

  18. After-heat removal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Michiyoshi; Mitani, Shinji.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent contamination of suppression pool water and intrusion of corrosion products into a nuclear reactor. Constitution: Upon stop of an after-heat removing system, reactor water contained in pipelines is drained out to a radioactive wastes processing facility at the time the cooling operation mode has been completed. At the same time, water is injected from a pure water supply system to the after-heat removing system to discharge corrosion product and activated materials while cleaning the inside of the pipelines. Then, pure water is held in the pipelines and it is discharged again and replaced with pure water before entering the cooling mode operation. Thereafter, the cooling mode operation upon reactor shutdown is performed. (Yoshino, Y.)

  19. Converse Barrier Certificate Theorem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafael; Sloth, Christoffer

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a converse barrier certificate theorem for a generic dynamical system.We show that a barrier certificate exists for any safe dynamical system defined on a compact manifold. Other authors have developed a related result, by assuming that the dynamical system has no singular...... points in the considered subset of the state space. In this paper, we redefine the standard notion of safety to comply with generic dynamical systems with multiple singularities. Afterwards, we prove the converse barrier certificate theorem and illustrate the differences between ours and previous work...

  20. Implementation of a Non-Metallic Barrier in an Electric Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    M'Sadoques, George A. (Inventor); Carra, Michael R. (Inventor); Beringer, Durwood M. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A motor for use in a volatile environment includes a rotor exposed to the volatile environment, electronics for rotating the rotor, an impervious ceramic barrier separating the electronics and the rotor, and a flexible seal for preventing the volatile environment from contacting the electronics and for minimizing vibratory and twisting loads upon the barrier to minimize damage to the barrier.

  1. Targeted liposomes for drug delivery across the blood-brain barrier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooy, I.

    2011-01-01

    Our brain is protected by the blood-brain barrier (BBB). This barrier is formed by specialized endothelial cells of the brain vasculature and prevents toxic substances from entering the brain. The downside of this barrier is that many drugs that have been developed to cure brain diseases cannot

  2. Composite of microgels and lipids as biofilm to restore skin barrier function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudshoorn, M.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    The mature epidermis is an effective barrier which prevents the body from dehydration and protects it against various environmental influences. If the natural barrier is immature or damaged, the skin barrier is impaired and desiccation occurs. Hence, the regeneration of impaired skin is an essential

  3. An audit of tuberculosis health services in prisons and immigration removal centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehay, Anita; Raj, Thara; Altass, Lynn; Newton, Autilia; O'Moore, Eamonn; Railton, Cathie; Tan, Hong; Story, Al; Frater, Alison

    2017-06-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is the second leading cause of death worldwide due to a single infectious agent. Rates of active TB in places of prescribed detention (PPD), which include Prisons, Young Offender Institutions and Immigration Removal Centres, are high compared with the general population. PPD therefore present an opportunity to develop targeted health programmes for TB control. This audit aims to assess current service provisions and identify barriers to achieving best practice standards in PPD across London. Twelve healthcare teams within PPD commissioned by NHS England (London Region) were included in the audit. Services were evaluated against the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence standards for TB best practice. None of the health providers with a digital X-ray machine were conducting active case finding in new prisoners and no health providers routinely conduct Latent TB infection testing and preventative treatment. Barriers to implementing standards include the lack of staff skills and staff skills mix, structural and technical barriers, and demands of custodial and health services. This audit restates the importance of national public health TB strategies to consider healthcare provisions across PPD. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Herbal medicines that benefit epidermal permeability barrier function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizhi Hu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Epidermal permeability barrier function plays a critical role in regulating cutaneous functions. Hence, researchers have been searching for effective and affordable regimens to enhance epidermal permeability barrier function. In addition to topical stratum corneum lipids, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, and liver X receptor ligands, herbal medicines have been proven to benefit epidermal permeability barrier function in both normal and diseased skin, including atopic dermatitis, glucocorticoid-induced skin damage, and UVB-damaged skin. The potential mechanisms by which herbal medicines improve the permeability barrier include stimulation of epidermal differentiation, lipid production, antimicrobial peptide expression, and antioxidation. Therefore, utilization of herbal medicines could be a valuable alternative approach to enhance epidermal permeability barrier function in order to prevent and/or treat skin disorders associated with permeability barrier abnormalities.

  5. Perceived competency towards preventive dentistry among dental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A previous study has shown that dental practitioners in Benghazi believed that the less prevention-oriented education system is one of the barriers to applying preventive dentistry. Objective: To assess attitudes and perceived competence of the dental graduates in Benghazi towards prevention and early ...

  6. Information barriers and authentication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacArthur, D.W.; Wolford, J.K.

    2001-01-01

    Acceptance of nuclear materials into a monitoring regime is complicated if the materials are in classified shapes or have classified composition. An attribute measurement system with an information barrier can be emplo,yed to generate an unclassified display from classified measurements. This information barrier must meet two criteria: (1) classified information cannot be released to the monitoring party, and (2) the monitoring party must be convinced that the unclassified output accurately represents the classified input. Criterion 1 is critical to the host country to protect the classified information. Criterion 2 is critical to the monitoring party and is often termed the 'authentication problem.' Thus, the necessity for authentication of a measurement system with an information barrier stems directly from the description of a useful information barrier. Authentication issues must be continually addressed during the entire development lifecycle of the measurement system as opposed to being applied only after the system is built.

  7. Barrier Infrared Detector (BIRD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A recent breakthrough in MWIR detector design, has resulted in a high operating temperature (HOT) barrier infrared detector (BIRD) that is capable of spectral...

  8. Protective barrier development: Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wing, N.R.; Gee, G.W.

    1990-01-01

    Protective barrier and warning marker systems are being developed to isolate wastes disposed of near the earth's surface at the Hanford Site. The barrier is designed to function in an arid to semiarid climate, to limit infiltration and percolation of water through the waste zone to near-zero, to be maintenance free, and to last up to 10,000 yr. Natural materials (e.g., fine soil, sand, gravel, riprap, clay, asphalt) have been selected to optimize barrier performance and longevity and to create an integrated structure with redundant features. These materials isolate wastes by limiting water drainage; reducing the likelihood of plant, animal, and human intrusion; controlling emission of noxious gases; and minimizing erosion. Westinghouse Hanford Company and Pacific Northwest Laboratory efforts to assess the performance of various barrier and marker designs will be discussed

  9. Engineered barriers: current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, A.; Marsh, G.P.

    1988-01-01

    This report summarises the current state of research relevant to assessing the performance of engineered barriers made of steel and concrete in radioactive waste repositories. The objective of these barriers is to contain the radionuclides within them by providing both physical and chemical impediment to their release. The physical barriers are of most value for highly soluble isotopes with relatively short half-lives (eg 137 Cs), since they can provide containment until a large fraction of the activity has decayed. In addition they can facilitate retrievability for some period after disposal. The chemical barriers operate by beneficial conditioning of the near field groundwater and providing sites for sorption of radionuclides. Both of these reduce the aqueous concentration of radionuclides in the near field. (author)

  10. Approaches to formalization of the informal waste sector into municipal solid waste management systems in low- and middle-income countries: Review of barriers and success factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparcana, Sandra

    2017-03-01

    The Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) sector represents a major challenge for low-and middle-income countries due to significant environmental and socioeconomic issues involving rapid urbanization, their MSWM systems, and the existence of the informal waste sector. Recognizing its role, several countries have implemented various formalization measures, aiming to address the social problems linked to this sector. However, regardless of these initiatives, not all attempts at formalization have proved successful due to the existence of barriers preventing their implementation in the long term. Along with this, there is a frequent lack of knowledge or understanding regarding these barriers and the kind of measures that may enable formalization, thereby attaining a win-win situation for all the stakeholders involved. In this context, policy- and decision-makers in the public and private sectors are frequently confronted with the dilemma of finding workable approaches to formalization, adjusted to their particular MSWM contexts. Building on the review of frequently implemented approaches to formalization, including an analysis of the barriers to and enabling measures for formalization, this paper aims to address this gap by explaining to policy- and decision-makers, and to waste managers in the private sector, certain dynamics that can be observed and that should be taken into account when designing formalization strategies that are adapted to their particular socioeconomic and political-institutional context. This includes possible links between formalization approaches and barriers, the kinds of barriers that need to be removed, and enabling measures leading to successful formalization in the long term. This paper involved a literature review of common approaches to formalization, which were classified into three categories: (1) informal waste workers organized in associations or cooperatives; (2) organized in CBOs or MSEs; and (3) contracted as individual

  11. Efectividad de la Película Barrera No Irritante en la prevención de lesiones de piel: Revisión sistemática Effectiveness of No Sting Barrier Film for preventing skin damage: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Pedro García-Fernández

    2009-03-01

    proposed by the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation Working Group (GRADE. As a measure of the effect size we used the Relative Risk with the 95% Confidence Interval. Meta-analysis was not performed because high clinical heterogeneity between studies was detected. Results: Thirty studies on NSBF use have been identified, but 19 have not been included in this review by several reasons (14 were not comparative studies; 3 by poor methodological quality and 2 by very low quality of evidence: Results can be grouping into 4 groups, according to the type of skin damage: skin irritation prevention (1 study; radiodermitis (2; perilesional skin in venous ulcers (4 and incontinence ulcers (4. These studies compare NSBF with barrier creams, petrolatum, glycerol or moisturizing creams. Additionally 4 cost-effectiveness studies have been selected. These studies found a reduction in the cost per case when using NSBF instead of others skin care products. Conclusions: The use of NSBF reduces significantly the erythema extent in the edges of exudative venous ulcers (evidence: high, with an overall clinical effectiveness similar to zinc oxide creams (moderate. NSBF is easier to apply and remove than zinc oxide creams (moderate. In patients with incontinence ulcers, the use of NSBF reduces the extent of dermatitis better than usuallyused moisturizing creams (NNT= 5 (moderate and have equal effectiveness in dermatitis prevention as zinc oxide creams or petrolatum (high, but with better effect in decreasing redness and denudation areas (high. In radiotherapy treated patients, the NSBF reduce both the area and severity of radiodermitis (moderate. The use of NSBF have a cost per case, including nursing time costs, significantly lower than the use of zinc oxide creams (high.

  12. Skin barrier composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osburn, F.G.

    1985-01-01

    A skin barrier composition comprises a mixture of a copolymer resin of ethylene and vinyl acetate (EVA), and a water-insoluble dry tack-providing elastomer such as polyisobutylene. The composition after mixing and molding, is subjected to ionizing irradiation to form cross-linked polymer networks of the EVA. The compositions have exceptional properties for use as barrier sheets, rings, or strips in ostomy, wound drainage, and incontinence devices. (author)

  13. Skin barrier composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osburn, F G

    1985-06-12

    A skin barrier composition comprises a mixture of a copolymer resin of ethylene and vinyl acetate (EVA), and a water-insoluble dry tack-providing elastomer such as polyisobutylene. The composition after mixing and molding, is subjected to ionizing irradiation to form cross-linked polymer networks of the EVA. The compositions have exceptional properties for use as barrier sheets, rings, or strips in ostomy, wound drainage, and incontinence devices.

  14. Physician variation in perceived barriers to personal health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubenfire M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adam RB Kosteva1, Brian M Salata1, Sangeetha Mahadevan Krishnan2, Michael Howe3, Alissa Weber3, Melvyn Rubenfire2,3, Elizabeth A Jackson2,31Michigan Cardiovascular Research and Reporting Program, 2Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, 3Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI, USAObjective: Physicians’ personal health habits are associated with their counseling habits regarding physical activity. We sought to examine physicians’ own barriers to a healthy lifestyle by level of training and gender.Methods: Physicians at a major teaching hospital were surveyed regarding their lifestyle habits and barriers to healthy habits. The frequency of reported barriers was examined by years in practice (trainees vs staff physicians and gender.Results: 183 total responses were received. Over 20% of respondents were overweight. Work schedule was cited as the greatest barrier to regular exercise in 70.5% of respondents. Trainees were more likely to cite time constraints or cost as a barrier to a healthy diet compared to staff physicians. Staff physicians were more likely to report the time to prepare healthy foods as a barrier. For both trainees and staff physicians, time was a barrier to regular exercise. For trainees work schedule was a barrier, while both work schedule and family commitments were top barriers cited by staff physicians. Women were more likely to report family commitments as a barrier than men. Respondents suggested healthier options in vending machines and the hospital cafeteria, healthy recipes, and time and/or facilities for exercise at work as options to help overcome these barriers.Conclusion: Work schedules and family commitments are frequently reported by providers as barriers to healthy lifestyle. Efforts to reduce such barriers may lead to improved health habits among providers.Keywords: diet, exercise, counseling, prevention, gender, barriers, health

  15. Tritium permeation barriers for fusion technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perujo, A.; Forcey, K.

    1994-01-01

    An important issue concerning the safety, feasibility and fueling (i.e., tritium breeding ratio and recovery from the breeding blanket) of a fusion reactor is the possible tritium leakages through the structural materials and in particular through those operating at high temperatures. The control of tritium permeation could be a critical factor in determining the viability of a future fusion power reactor. The formation of tritium permeation barriers to prevent the loss of tritium to the coolant by diffusion though the structural material seems to be the most practical method to minimize such losses. Many authors have discussed the formation of permeation barriers to reduce the leakage of hydrogen isotopes through proposed first wall and structural materials. In general, there are two routes for the formation of such a barrier, namely: the growth of oxide layers (e.g., Cr 2 O 3 , Al 2 O 3 , etc.) or the application of surface coatings. Non-metals are the most promising materials from the point of view of the formation of permeation barriers. Oxides such as Al 2 O 3 or Cr 2 O 3 or carbides such as SiC or TiC have been proposed. Amongst the metals only tungsten or gold are sufficiently less permeable than steel to warrant investigation as candidate materials for permeation barriers. It is of course possible to grow oxide layers on steel directly by heating in the atmosphere or under a variety of conditions (first route above). The direct oxidizing is normally done in an environment of open-quotes wet hydrogenclose quotes to promote the growth of chromia on, for example, nickel steels or ternary oxides on 316L to prevent corrosion. The application of surface layers (second route above), offers a greater range of materials for the formation of permeation barriers. In addition to reducing permeation, such layers should be adhesive, resistant to attack by corrosive breeder materials and should not crack during thermal cycling

  16. Factors Associated with Tick Bite Preventive Practices among Farmworkers in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Li Ping; Tay, Sun Tee; Bulgiba, Awang; Zandi, Keivan; Kho, Kai Ling; Koh, Fui Xian; Ong, Bee Lee; Jaafar, Tariq; Hassan Nizam, Quaza Nizamuddin

    2016-01-01

    Background Farmworkers are at high-risk for tick bites, which potentially transmit various tick-borne diseases. Previous studies show that personal prevention against tick bites is key, and certain factors namely, knowledge, experience of tick bites, and health beliefs influence compliance with tick bites preventive behaviour. This study aimed to assess these factors and their associations with tick bite preventive practices among Malaysian farmworkers. Methods A total of eight cattle, goat and sheep farms in six states in Peninsular Malaysia participated in a cross-sectional survey between August and October 2013 Results A total of 151 (72.2%) out of 209 farmworkers answered the questionnaire. More than half of the farmworkers (n = 91) reported an experience of tick bites. Farms with monthly acaricide treatment had significantly (P<0.05) a low report of tick bites. Tick bite exposure rates did not differ significantly among field workers and administrative workers. The mean total knowledge score of ticks for the overall farmworkers was 13.6 (SD±3.2) from 20. The mean total tick bite preventive practices score for all farmworkers was 8.3 (SD±3.1) from 15. Fixed effect model showed the effects of four factors on tick bite prevention: (1) farms, (2) job categories (administrative workers vs. field workers), (3) perceived severity of tick bites, and (4) perceived barriers to tick bite prevention. Conclusions A high proportion of farmworkers, including administrative workers, reported an experience of tick bites. The effectiveness of monthly acaricide treatment was declared by low reports of tick bites on these farms. Tick bite preventive practices were insufficient, particularly in certain farms and for administrative workers. Our findings emphasise the need to have education programmes for all farmworkers and targeting farms with low prevention practices. Education and health programmes should increase the perception of the risk of tick bites and remove perceived

  17. Dam removal: Listening in

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, M. M.; Bellmore, J. R.; O'Connor, J. E.; Duda, J. J.; East, A. E.; Grant, G. E.; Anderson, C. W.; Bountry, J. A.; Collins, M. J.; Connolly, P. J.; Craig, L. S.; Evans, J. E.; Greene, S. L.; Magilligan, F. J.; Magirl, C. S.; Major, J. J.; Pess, G. R.; Randle, T. J.; Shafroth, P. B.; Torgersen, C. E.; Tullos, D.; Wilcox, A. C.

    2017-07-01

    Dam removal is widely used as an approach for river restoration in the United States. The increase in dam removals—particularly large dams—and associated dam-removal studies over the last few decades motivated a working group at the USGS John Wesley Powell Center for Analysis and Synthesis to review and synthesize available studies of dam removals and their findings. Based on dam removals thus far, some general conclusions have emerged: (1) physical responses are typically fast, with the rate of sediment erosion largely dependent on sediment characteristics and dam-removal strategy; (2) ecological responses to dam removal differ among the affected upstream, downstream, and reservoir reaches; (3) dam removal tends to quickly reestablish connectivity, restoring the movement of material and organisms between upstream and downstream river reaches; (4) geographic context, river history, and land use significantly influence river restoration trajectories and recovery potential because they control broader physical and ecological processes and conditions; and (5) quantitative modeling capability is improving, particularly for physical and broad-scale ecological effects, and gives managers information needed to understand and predict long-term effects of dam removal on riverine ecosystems. Although these studies collectively enhance our understanding of how riverine ecosystems respond to dam removal, knowledge gaps remain because most studies have been short (< 5 years) and do not adequately represent the diversity of dam types, watershed conditions, and dam-removal methods in the U.S.

  18. Efficacy of Poly(D,L-Lactic Acid-co-Glycolic acid)-Poly(Ethylene Glycol)-Poly(D,L-Lactic Acid-co-Glycolic Acid) Thermogel As a Barrier to Prevent Spinal Epidural Fibrosis in a Postlaminectomy Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangqian; Chen, Lin; Lin, Hong; Cao, Luping; Cheng, Ji'an; Dong, Jian; Yu, Lin; Ding, Jiandong

    2017-04-01

    Experimental animal study. The authors conducted a study to determine the efficacy and safety of the poly(D,L-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(D,L-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA-PEG-PLGA) thermogel to prevent peridural fibrosis in an adult rat laminectomy model. Peridural fibrosis often occurs after spinal laminectomy. It might cause persistent back and/or leg pain postoperatively and make a reoperation more difficult and dangerous. Various materials have been used to prevent epidural fibrosis, but only limited success has been achieved. The PLGA-PEG-PLGA thermogel was synthesized by us. Total L3 laminectomies were performed on 24 rats. The PLGA-PEG-PLGA thermogel or chitosan (CHS) gel (a positive control group) was applied to the operative sites in a blinded manner. In the control group, the L3 laminectomy was performed and the defect was irrigated with the NS solution 3 times. All the rats were killed 4 weeks after the surgery. The cytotoxicity of this thermogel was evaluated in vitro and the result demonstrated that no evidence of cytotoxicity was observed. The extent of epidural fibrosis, the area of epidural fibrosis, and the density of the fibroblasts and blood vessel were evaluated histologically. There were statistical differences among the PLGA-PEG-PLGA thermogel or CHS gel group compared with the control group. Although there was no difference between the PLGA-PEG-PLGA thermogel and CHS gel, the efficiency of the PLGA-PEG-PLGA thermogel was shown to be slightly improved compared with the CHS gel. The biocompatibility of the PLGA-PEG-PLGA thermogel was proven well. The application of this thermogel effectively reduced epidural scarring and prevented the subsequent adhesion to the dura mater. No side effects were noted in the rats.

  19. Barriers to Sexuality for Individuals with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, James; Unruh, Deanne; Lindstrom, Lauren; Scanlon, David

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (ID/DD) experience multiple barriers that may prevent them from understanding and exploring their own sexuality. These barriers prevent them from achieving the same autonomy and quality of life as their peers. This research synthesis focuses on 13 articles published between 2000 and 2013…

  20. Compliance with removable orthodontic appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nirmal

    2017-12-22

    Data sourcesMedline via OVID, PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science Core Collection, LILACS and BBO databases. Unpublished clinical trials accessed using ClinicalTrials.gov, National Research Register, ProQuest Dissertation and Thesis database.Study selectionTwo authors searched studies from inception until May 2016 without language restrictions. Quantitative and qualitative studies incorporating objective data on compliance with removable appliances, barriers to appliance wear compliance, and interventions to improve compliance were included.Data extraction and synthesisQuality of research was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration's risk of bias tool, the risk of bias in non-randomised studies of interventions (ROBINS-I), and the mixed methods appraisal tool. Statistical heterogeneity was investigated by examining a graphic display of the estimated compliance levels in conjunction with 95% confidence intervals and quantified using the I-squared statistic. A weighted estimate of objective compliance levels for different appliances in relation to stipulated wear and self-reported levels was also calculated. Risk of publication bias was assessed using funnel plots. Meta-regression was undertaken to assess the relative effects of appliance type on compliance levels.ResultsTwenty-four studies met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 11 were included in the quantitative synthesis. The mean duration of objectively measured wear was considerably lower than stipulated wear time amongst all appliances. Headgear had the greatest discrepancy (5.81 hours, 95% confidence interval, 4.98, 6.64). Self-reported wear time was consistently higher than objectively measured wear time amongst all appliances. Headgear had the greatest discrepancy (5.02 hours, 95% confidence interval, 3.64, 6.40). Two studies found an increase in compliance with headgear and Hawley retainers when patients were aware of monitoring. Five studies found younger age groups to

  1. Optical Diagnostics of Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewski, Mark Steven

    The high temperature properties of ceramic materials make them suitable for the extreme environments of gas combustion powered turbines. They are instrumental in providing thermal insulation for the metallic turbine components from the combustion products. Also, the addition of specific rare earth elements to ceramics creates materials with temperature diagnostic applications. Laser based methods have been applied to these ceramic coatings to predict their remaining thermal insulation service life and to explore their high temperature diagnostic capabilities. A method for cleaning thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) contaminated during engine operation has been developed using laser ablation. Surface contamination on the turbine blades hinders nondestructive remaining life prediction using photo luminescence piezospectroscopy (PLPS). Real time monitoring of the removed material is employed to prevent damage to the underlying coating. This method relies on laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to compute the cross correlation coefficient between the spectral emissions of a sample TBC that is contaminated and a reference clean TBC. It is possible to remove targeted contaminants and cease ablation when the top surface of the TBC has been reached. In collaboration with this work, Kelley's thesis [1] presents microscopy images and PLPS measurements indicating the integrity of the TBC has been maintained during the removal of surface contaminants. Thermographic phosphors (TGP) have optical emission properties when excited by a laser that are temperature dependent. These spectral and temporal properties have been investigated and utilized for temperature measurement schemes by many previous researchers. The compounds presented in this dissertation consist of various rare earth (Lanthanide) elements doped into a host crystal lattice. As the temperature of the lattice changes, both the time scale for vibrational quenching and the distribution of energy among atomic energy

  2. Hair removal in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Pereira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Due to hormonal stimulation during puberty, changes occur in hair type and distribution. In both sexes, body and facial unwanted hair may have a negative psychological impact on the teenager. There are several available methods of hair removal, but the choice of the most suitable one for each individual can raise doubts. Objective: To review the main methods of hair removal and clarify their indications, advantages and disadvantages. Development: There are several removal methods currently available. Shaving and depilation with chemicals products are temporary methods, that need frequent repetition, because hair removal is next to the cutaneous surface. The epilating methods in which there is full hair extraction include: epilation with wax, thread, tweezers, epilating machines, laser, intense pulsed light, and electrolysis. Conclusions: The age of beginning hair removal and the method choice must be individualized and take into consideration the skin and hair type, location, dermatological and endocrine problems, removal frequency, cost and personal preferences.

  3. A review of phosphorus removal structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penn, Chad; Chagas, Isis; Klimeski, Aleksandar

    2017-01-01

    Controlling dissolved phosphorus (P) losses to surface waters is challenging as most conservation practices are only effective at preventing particulate P losses. As a result, P removal structures were developed to filter dissolved P from drainage water before reaching a water body. While many P ...

  4. Mechanically controlled moisture removal from greenhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campen, J.B.; Kempkes, F.L.K.; Bot, G.P.A.

    2009-01-01

    The object of this study was to design and test a system capable of dehumidifying air in a greenhouse when a thermal screen is in use. Dehumidification is required to reduce the risk of fungal diseases and prevent physiological disorders. The most common procedure used to remove moisture from a

  5. Particle adhesion and removal

    CERN Document Server

    Mittal, K L

    2015-01-01

    The book provides a comprehensive and easily accessible reference source covering all important aspects of particle adhesion and removal.  The core objective is to cover both fundamental and applied aspects of particle adhesion and removal with emphasis on recent developments.  Among the topics to be covered include: 1. Fundamentals of surface forces in particle adhesion and removal.2. Mechanisms of particle adhesion and removal.3. Experimental methods (e.g. AFM, SFA,SFM,IFM, etc.) to understand  particle-particle and particle-substrate interactions.4. Mechanics of adhesion of micro- and  n

  6. Barriers to investments in energy saving technologies. Case study for the industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masselink, Dirk Jan

    2007-01-01

    To realise future energy saving targets, the government needs to increase energy reduction rates. One option to increase energy savings is found in removing barriers to investments in cost-effective energy saving technologies. Many technologies save energ

  7. Fuzzy barrier distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piasecki, E.

    2009-01-01

    Heavy-ion collisions often produce a fusion barrier distribution with structures displaying a fingerprint of couplings to highly collective excitations [1]. Basically the same distribution can be obtained from large-angle quasi-elastic scattering, though here the role of the many weak direct-reaction channels is unclear. For 2 0N e + 9 0Z r we have observed the barrier structures expected for the highly deformed neon projectile, but for 2 0N e + 9 2Z r we find completely smooth distribution (see Fig.1). We find that transfer channels in these systems are of similar strength but single particle excitations are significantly stronger in the latter case. They apparently reduce the 'resolving power' of the quasi-elastic channel, what leads to smeared out, or 'fuzzy' barrier distribution. This is the first case when such a phenomenon has been observed.(author)

  8. Health Barriers to Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delaney Gracy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article summarizes the results from a 2013 online survey with 408 principals and assistant principals in New York City public elementary and middle schools. The survey assessed three primary areas: health issues in the school, health issues perceived as barriers to learning for affected students, and resources needed to address these barriers. Eighteen of the 22 health conditions listed in the survey were considered a moderate or serious issue within their schools by at least 10% of respondents. All 22 of the health issues were perceived as a barrier to learning by between 12% and 87% of the respondents. Representatives from schools that serve a higher percentage of low-income students reported significantly higher levels of concern about the extent of health issues and their impact on learning. Respondents most often said they need linkages with organizations that can provide additional services and resources at the school, especially for mental health.

  9. Direct access tariffs and barriers to choice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levson, D.

    1999-01-01

    The current situation of the power market in Alberta was reviewed. Based on this review is was concluded that the province is a long way from being a competitive, liquid power market. Further, it was predicted that unless large power purchasers get actively involved in managing their options, identify realistic and competitive supply options and actively campaign for the removal of barriers to choice, they will experience significant cost increases in the year 2001 and beyond, due in large measure to the market power exercised by the four major utilities (TAU, EPCOR, APL and Powerex). Barriers to new supply such as the high cost of standby, uncertainties about transmission and natural gas prices, the delays to cogeneration caused by low oil prices, and the design of direct access tariffs by utilities, were also explored. The cumulative contribution of these factors to uncertainties in pool price, fixed price and transmission and distribution costs were outlined

  10. Renewable energy costs, potentials, barriers: Conceptual issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbruggen, Aviel; Fischedick, Manfred; Moomaw, William; Weir, Tony; Nadai, Alain; Nilsson, Lars J.; Nyboer, John; Sathaye, Jayant

    2010-01-01

    Renewable energy can become the major energy supply option in low-carbon energy economies. Disruptive transformations in all energy systems are necessary for tapping widely available renewable energy resources. Organizing the energy transition from non-sustainable to renewable energy is often described as the major challenge of the first half of the 21st century. Technological innovation, the economy (costs and prices) and policies have to be aligned to achieve full renewable energy potentials, and barriers impeding that growth need to be removed. These issues are also covered by IPCC's special report on renewable energy and climate change to be completed in 2010. This article focuses on the interrelations among the drivers. It clarifies definitions of costs and prices, and of barriers. After reviewing how the third and fourth assessment reports of IPCC cover mitigation potentials and commenting on definitions of renewable energy potentials in the literature, we propose a consistent set of potentials of renewable energy supplies.

  11. Studying Executive Barriers on Rationalizing the Size of Iranian Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hussein Rahmati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To rationalize the size of government, Act on adjusting a part of government‟s financial rules is approved and the government is obliged to assign a part of its activities through (1 services by nonpublic sector, (2 partnership with nonpublic sector, and (3 assigning the management to nonpublic sector. There are many barriers in executing this law. The present study derived from a field study tries to provide a report on the performance of various organs in Qom province on executing this law and identifies the executive barriers and provides practical proposals to remove them.Overall, seventeen organs in Qom are subjected to this law of which five organs are selected as our sample. In this respect, different documents were studied, ten interviews were conducted and one hundred and four executive barriers and forty seven operational proposals including twenty three barriers and eleven proposals in organization and structure area, sixteen barriers and five proposals in administrative technology and working processes area, thirty two barriers and twelve proposals in human resources area, twenty one barriers and eight proposals in laws and regulations area and twelve barriers and eleven proposals in management area have been analyzed and summarized regarding their contents.

  12. Skin lesion removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... likely to be done when there is a concern about a skin cancer. Most often, an area the shape of an ellipse is removed, as this makes it easier to close with stitches. The entire lesion is removed, going as deep as the fat, if needed, to ...

  13. Microleakage comparison of glass-ionomer and white mineral trioxide aggregate used as a coronal barrier in nonvital bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosoughhosseini, Sepideh; Lotfi, Mehrdad; Shahmoradi, Kaveh; Saghiri, Mohammad-Ali; Zand, Vahid; Mehdipour, Masoumeh; Ranjkesh, Bahram; Mokhtari, Hadi; Salemmilani, Amin; Doosti, Sirvan

    2011-11-01

    There is some evidence that the pH at the root surface is reduced by intracoronal placement of bleaching pastes, which is known to enhance osteoclastic activity. Therefore, it is recommended that a protective barrier be used over the canal filling to prevent leakage of bleaching agents. Glass-ionomer (GI) is commonly used as a coronal barrier before nonvital bleaching. Because mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) creates high alkalinity after mixing with water, using MTA as a protective barrier over the canal filling may not only prevent leakage of bleaching agents and microorganisms, but may prevent cervical resorption. The aim of this study was to evaluate sealing ability of white mineral trioxide aggregate (WMTA) as a coronal barrier before nonvital bleaching. Root canals of one hundred thirty human maxillary incisors were instrumented and filled with gutta-percha without sealer. Gutta-percha was removed up to 3 mm below the cementoenamel junction (CEJ). The teeth were randomly divided into six experimental groups of 20 teeth each and two control groups of 5. In three experimental groups, WMTA was packed into the canal to the level of CEJ. In the remaining experimental groups, glass-ionomer (GI) was used as a coronal barrier. After a 24-hour incubation period, one of the following three bleaching agents was placed in the access cavity of each of the WMTA or GI groups. These three bleaching agents were 30% hydrogen peroxide, sodium perborate mixed with 30% hydrogen peroxide, and sodium perborate mixed with distilled water. The bleaching agents were replaced every 3 days for three times. In the positive controls, no coronal barrier was used. In the negative controls, all the tooth surfaces were covered by two layers of nail varnish. Microleakage was evaluated using protein leakage test. Statistical analyses were performed with the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. The experimental groups showed minimum leakage which was not significantly more than tha in the

  14. Concrete road barriers subjected to impact loads: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Fauzi Bin Mohd. Zain

    Full Text Available Abstract Concrete barriers prevent vehicles from entering the opposite lane and going off the road. An important factor in the design of concrete barriers is impact load, which a vehicle exerts upon collision with a concrete barrier. This study suggests that a height of 813 mm, a base width of 600 mm, and a top width of 240 mm are optimum dimensions for a concrete barrier. These dimensions ensure the stability of concrete barriers during vehicle collisions. An analytical and experimental model is used to analyze the concrete barrier design. The LS-DYNA software is utilized to create the analytical models because it can effectively simulate vehicle impact on concrete barriers. Field tests are conducted with a vehicle, whereas laboratory tests are conducted with machines that simulate collisions. Full-scale tests allow the actual simulation of vehicle collisions with concrete barriers. In the vehicle tests, a collision angle of 25°, collision speeds of 100 km per hour, and a vehicle weighing more than 2 t are considered in the reviewed studies. Laboratory tests are performed to test bridge concrete barriers in static condition.

  15. Use of vegetable oil in a pilot-scale denitrifying barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, William J.

    2001-12-01

    Nitrate in drinking water is a hazard to both humans and animals. Contaminated water can cause methemoglobinemia and may pose a cancer risk. Permeable barriers containing innocuous oils, which stimulate denitrification, can remove nitrate from flowing groundwater. For this study, a sand tank (1.1×2.0×0.085 m in size) containing sand was used as a one-dimensional open-top scale model of an aquifer. A meter-long area near the center of the tank contained sand coated with soybean oil. This region served as a permeable denitrifying barrier. Water containing 20 mg l -1 nitrate-N was pumped through the barrier at a high flow rate, 1112 l week -1, for 30 weeks. During the 30-week study, the barrier removed 39% of the total nitrate-N present in the water. The barrier was most efficient during the first 10 weeks of the study when almost all of the nitrate and nitrogen was removed. Efficiency declined with time so that by week 30 almost no nitrate was removed by the system. Nitrite levels in the effluent water remained low throughout the study. Barriers could be used to protect groundwater from nitrate contamination or for the in situ treatment of contaminated water. At the low flow rates that exist in most aquifers, such barriers should be effective at removing nitrate from groundwater for a much longer period of time.

  16. Agricultural Trade Barriers 10 years later Uruguay Round Trade Agreement Signature

    OpenAIRE

    Mahia, R.; Arce, Rafael de; Escribano, Gonzalo

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, an analysis of current state of agricultural trade barriers is carried out alter ten years of Uruguay Round Agricultural Trade Agreement Signature The descriptive analysis showed that small advances in trade barriers removing have been taken out. About the heterogeneity in tariff applications, tariff progresivity and peak tariffs, the same situation is pointed out.

  17. Prevention of Graves' ophthalmopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartalena, Luigi

    2012-06-01

    Smoking is the most important risk factor for the occurrence/progression of Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO), as well as for its lower/slower response to immunosuppression. Accordingly, refrain from smoking should be urged, both as primary prevention (removal of risk factors in Graves' patients without GO), secondary prevention (early detection and treatment of asymptomatic/very mild GO) and tertiary prevention (reduction of complications/disability of overt GO). A 6-month course of 200 μg/day sodium selenite can prevent progression of mild GO to more severe GO and is, therefore, a form of secondary prevention and, probably, primary prevention. Correction of thyroid dysfunction and stable maintenance of euthyroidism are important preventive measures. The optimal treatment for hyperthyroidism in patients with GO is uncertain, because evidence demonstrating the superiority of antithyroid drugs over thyroid ablation (radioiodine, thyroidectomy, or both) is lacking. If radioiodine is used, low-dose steroid prophylaxis is recommended, particularly in smokers, to prevent radioiodine-associated GO progression. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Horizontal Acoustic Barriers for Protection from Seismic Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Kuznetsov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic idea of a seismic barrier is to protect an area occupied by a building or a group of buildings from seismic waves. Depending on nature of seismic waves that are most probable in a specific region, different kinds of seismic barriers can be suggested. Herein, we consider a kind of a seismic barrier that represents a relatively thin surface layer that prevents surface seismic waves from propagating. The ideas for these barriers are based on one Chadwick's result concerning nonpropagation condition for Rayleigh waves in a clamped half-space, and Love's theorem that describes condition of nonexistence for Love waves. The numerical simulations reveal that to be effective the length of the horizontal barriers should be comparable to the typical wavelength.

  19. Standards for the Protection of Skin Barrier Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez-Arnau, Ana

    2016-01-01

    The skin is a vital organ, and through our skin we are in close contact with the entire environment. If we lose our skin we lose our life. The barrier function of the skin is mainly driven by the sophisticated epidermis in close relationship with the dermis. The epidermal epithelium is a mechanically, chemically, biologically and immunologically active barrier submitted to continuous turnover. The barrier function of the skin needs to be protected and restored. Its own physiology allows its recovery, but many times this is not sufficient. This chapter is focused on the standards to restore, treat and prevent barrier function disruption. These standards were developed from a scientific, academic and clinical point of view. There is a lack of standardized administrative recommendations. Still, there is a walk to do that will help to reduce the social and economic burden of diseases characterized by an abnormal skin barrier function. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Assessing implementation of evidence-based childhood obesity prevention strategies in schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine M.W. Totura

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Obesity prevention strategy implementation relies on the supportiveness and structure of school climates. Barriers to prevention can impede efforts despite school commitment toward prevention, while stakeholder collaboration can enhance the likelihood that practices are in place.

  1. Barriers to medication error reporting among hospital nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Dana N; Retrosi, Tina; Ostrowski, Gary

    2018-03-01

    The study purpose was to report medication error reporting barriers among hospital nurses, and to determine validity and reliability of an existing medication error reporting barriers questionnaire. Hospital medication errors typically occur between ordering of a medication to its receipt by the patient with subsequent staff monitoring. To decrease medication errors, factors surrounding medication errors must be understood; this requires reporting by employees. Under-reporting can compromise patient safety by disabling improvement efforts. This 2017 descriptive study was part of a larger workforce engagement study at a faith-based Magnet ® -accredited community hospital in California (United States). Registered nurses (~1,000) were invited to participate in the online survey via email. Reported here are sample demographics (n = 357) and responses to the 20-item medication error reporting barriers questionnaire. Using factor analysis, four factors that accounted for 67.5% of the variance were extracted. These factors (subscales) were labelled Fear, Cultural Barriers, Lack of Knowledge/Feedback and Practical/Utility Barriers; each demonstrated excellent internal consistency. The medication error reporting barriers questionnaire, originally developed in long-term care, demonstrated good validity and excellent reliability among hospital nurses. Substantial proportions of American hospital nurses (11%-48%) considered specific factors as likely reporting barriers. Average scores on most barrier items were categorised "somewhat unlikely." The highest six included two barriers concerning the time-consuming nature of medication error reporting and four related to nurses' fear of repercussions. Hospitals need to determine the presence of perceived barriers among nurses using questionnaires such as the medication error reporting barriers and work to encourage better reporting. Barriers to medication error reporting make it less likely that nurses will report medication

  2. Toxic Gas Removal by Dielectric Discharge with Corona Effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, H.; Pacheco, M.; Mercado, A.; Cruz, A.; Pacheco, J.; Yousfi, M.; Eichwald, O.; Benhenni, M.

    2006-01-01

    In this work, a theoretical and experimental study on SO2 and NOx removal by non-thermal plasma technology, more specifically a dielectric barrier (DBD) discharge combined with the Corona effect, is presented. Results obtained from a theoretical study describe the chemical kinetic model of SO2 and NOx removal processes; the effect of OH radicals in removal of both gases is noteworthy. Experimental results of de-SO2 process are reported. Also, optical emission spectroscopy study was applied on some atomic helium lines to obtain temperature of electrons in the non-thermal plasma

  3. Facilitators and barriers to medication adherence in an HIV prevention study among men who have sex with men in the iPrEx study in Chiang Mai, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangmunkongvorakul, Arunrat; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Amico, K Rivet; Saokhieo, Pongpun; Wannalak, Vorawan; Sangangamsakun, Thirayut; Goicochea, Pedro; Grant, Robert

    2013-08-01

    In 2008, the Pre-exposure Prophylaxis Initiative (iPrEx) study expanded to include men who have sex with men (MSM) in Chiang Mai, Thailand. In full, 114 participants from Chiang Mai joined this international double-blinded trial of daily FTC-TDF (Truvada®) or placebo as a pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) HIV prevention strategy. To better understand the characteristics of iPrEx participants specifically from this underserved population in Thailand, and gain insights into their experiences of trying to take a daily tablet as part of this blinded PrEP trial, we conducted a qualitative study. In 2010, 32 MSM iPrEx participants provided in-depth interviews and an additional 14 joined focus group discussions. Results of the qualitative analyzes suggested that participants held generally positive attitudes toward the iPrEx study and study medication and related this to high rates of adherence to the daily regimen. Participants also reflected on the provision of quality health care as part of participation in the trial, as well as support from clinical research staff, family and friends as helpful in supporting high rates of study medication adherence. Discourse concerning challenges to adherence included medication taking behavior, which was contextualized by lifestyle, living arrangement, social life, social stigma in terms of being mistakenly identified as HIV positive or unintentional disclosure of sexual identity to family and friends, and relationship conflicts with partners. The results provide broader perspectives of participant experiences of the study medication and daily adherence in the larger contexts of the MSM community, close relationships, and the study climate, and can be leveraged in constructing PrEP adherence support approaches within these communities.

  4. Evaluation of a barrier net used to mitigate fish impingement at a Hudson River power plant intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchison, J.B.; Matousek, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    A multifilament nylon net of 0.95-cm bar mesh was deployed as a physical barrier to fish in front of the Bowline Point power plant cooling water intake on the Hudson River from 1976 to 1985. The barrier net was deployed during the historical peak impingement months of October-May. The primary species impinged on the intake screens during this period were young-of-year and yearling white perch, striped bass, rainbow smelt, alewife, blue-back herring, and American shad, generally ranging from 5 to 10 cm in total length. When the barrier net was deployed, median impingement of all fish was 91% lower than during comparable periods before the net was installed. A mark-recapture population estimate indicated that 230,000 yearling striped bass and white perch were in the embayment outside the net in April 1982; over a 9-d study period, only 1.6% of this estimated population was impinged. Concurrent survival probability studies of fish marked and released at locations inside and outside the barrier net showed that fish released inside had 72% lower survival (P barrier-net deployment, including changes in the anchoring system, use of a debris boom, installation of an air-bubbler system to prevent ice accumulation, and sectioning of the net to facilitate removal and cleaning. 10 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  5. The Influence of Low-Barrier and Voluntary Service Policies on Survivor Empowerment in a Domestic Violence Housing Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnawulezi, Nkiru; Godsay, Surbhi; Sullivan, Cris M; Marcus, Suzanne; Hacskaylo, Margaret

    2018-01-18

    The purpose of community-based domestic violence crisis housing programs (e.g., shelters) is to provide a safe setting that promotes empowerment for survivors of intimate partner violence. For staff to reach this aim, the program must have formal structures and processes in place to support such efforts. This study explored how low-barrier and voluntary service policies influenced staff practices and survivor empowerment. Low-barrier policies require that programs remove barriers that prevent survivors, particularly those who have mental health concerns and/or addictions, from being able to access services. A voluntary service policy states that survivors have the right to choose which services, if any, they would like to engage in during their stay at the program. Survivors' ability to stay at the housing program is not contingent on their participation in program services. This exploratory-sequential (QUAL→ quan) mixed-method study examined how low-barrier and voluntary service policies influenced staff behavior and how these behaviors then related to survivor empowerment. Qualitative results revealed that low-barrier and voluntary service were guided by cultural values of justice and access, encouraged survivor-centered practices among staff, and were believed to promote survivor autonomy. Quantitative results suggested that when survivors perceived they had a choice to engage in program services or meet with an advocate, their empowerment increased. This study has implications for domestic violence organizational practice and provides evidence about the contextual factors that support individual empowerment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Barrier Data Base user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worrell, R.B.; Gould, D.J.; Wall, D.W.

    1977-06-01

    A special purpose data base for physical security barriers has been developed. In addition to barriers, the entities accommodated by the Barrier Data Base (BDB) include threats and references. A threat is established as a configuration of people and equipment which has been employed to penetrate (or attempt to penetrate) a barrier. References are used to cite publications pertinent to the barriers and threats in the data base. Utilization and maintenance of the Barrier Data Base is achieved with LIST, QUERY, ENTER, DELETE, and CHANGE commands which are used to manipulate the data base entities

  7. Device for removing fur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanawa, Minoru; Nakagawa, Takao; Sakuma, Toyoo; Yonemura, Eizo.

    1976-01-01

    Purpose: To effectively remove fur adhered to fuel rods and to increase working efficiency without use of a lengthy hose. Constitution: In the fur removing device of the present invention, brushes rotated by gears are provided within a casing so that fur adhered to the fuel rods are removed by the brushes and water is rotatably moved by blades housed therein to outwardly blow fur floating in water by means of a centrifugal force. Then, the fur is filtered by a filter outwardly provided. In this way, the fur may be collected within the device to avoid contamination to others. (Kamimura, M.)

  8. Clusterin Seals the Ocular Surface Barrier in Mouse Dry Eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauskar, Aditi; Mack, Wendy J; Mauris, Jerome; Argüeso, Pablo; Heur, Martin; Nagel, Barbara A; Kolar, Grant R; Gleave, Martin E; Nakamura, Takahiro; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Moradian-Oldak, Janet; Panjwani, Noorjahan; Pflugfelder, Stephen C; Wilson, Mark R; Fini, M Elizabeth; Jeong, Shinwu

    2015-01-01

    Dry eye is a common disorder caused by inadequate hydration of the ocular surface that results in disruption of barrier function. The homeostatic protein clusterin (CLU) is prominent at fluid-tissue interfaces throughout the body. CLU levels are reduced at the ocular surface in human inflammatory disorders that manifest as severe dry eye, as well as in a preclinical mouse model for desiccating stress that mimics dry eye. Using this mouse model, we show here that CLU prevents and ameliorates ocular surface barrier disruption by a remarkable sealing mechanism dependent on attainment of a critical all-or-none concentration. When the CLU level drops below the critical all-or-none threshold, the barrier becomes vulnerable to desiccating stress. CLU binds selectively to the ocular surface subjected to desiccating stress in vivo, and in vitro to the galectin LGALS3, a key barrier component. Positioned in this way, CLU not only physically seals the ocular surface barrier, but it also protects the barrier cells and prevents further damage to barrier structure. These findings define a fundamentally new mechanism for ocular surface protection and suggest CLU as a biotherapeutic for dry eye.

  9. Clusterin Seals the Ocular Surface Barrier in Mouse Dry Eye.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi Bauskar

    Full Text Available Dry eye is a common disorder caused by inadequate hydration of the ocular surface that results in disruption of barrier function. The homeostatic protein clusterin (CLU is prominent at fluid-tissue interfaces throughout the body. CLU levels are reduced at the ocular surface in human inflammatory disorders that manifest as severe dry eye, as well as in a preclinical mouse model for desiccating stress that mimics dry eye. Using this mouse model, we show here that CLU prevents and ameliorates ocular surface barrier disruption by a remarkable sealing mechanism dependent on attainment of a critical all-or-none concentration. When the CLU level drops below the critical all-or-none threshold, the barrier becomes vulnerable to desiccating stress. CLU binds selectively to the ocular surface subjected to desiccating stress in vivo, and in vitro to the galectin LGALS3, a key barrier component. Positioned in this way, CLU not only physically seals the ocular surface barrier, but it also protects the barrier cells and prevents further damage to barrier structure. These findings define a fundamentally new mechanism for ocular surface protection and suggest CLU as a biotherapeutic for dry eye.

  10. Barriers to implement green supply chain management in automobile industry using interpretive structural modeling technique: An Indian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Luthra

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM has received growing attention in the last few years. Most of the automobile industries are setting up their own manufacturing plants in competitive Indian market. Due to public awareness, economic, environmental or legislative reasons, the requirement of GSCM has increased.  In this context, this study aims to develop a structural model of the barriers to implement GSCM in Indian automobile industry.Design/methodology/approach: We have identified various barriers and contextual relationships among the identified barriers. Classification of barriers has been carried out based upon dependence and driving power with the help of MICMAC analysis. In addition to this, a structural model of barriers to implement GSCM in Indian automobile industry has also been put forward using Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM technique. Findings: Eleven numbers of relevant barriers have been identified from literature and subsequent discussions with experts from academia and industry. Out of which, five numbers of barriers have been identified as dependent variables; three number of barriers have been identified as the driver variables and three number of barriers have been identified as the linkage variables. No barrier has been identified as autonomous variable. Four barriers have been identified as top level barriers and one bottom level barrier. Removal of these barriers has also been discussed.Research limitations/implications: A hypothetical model of these barriers has been developed based upon experts’ opinions. The conclusions so drawn may be further modified to apply in real situation problem. Practical implications: Clear understanding of these barriers will help organizations to prioritize better and manage their resources in an efficient and effective way.Originality/value: Through this paper we contribute to identify the barriers to implement GSCM in Indian automobile industry and to prioritize them

  11. Geophysical characterization of subsurface barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borns, D.J.

    1995-08-01

    An option for controlling contaminant migration from plumes and buried waste sites is to construct a subsurface barrier of a low-permeability material. The successful application of subsurface barriers requires processes to verify the emplacement and effectiveness of barrier and to monitor the performance of a barrier after emplacement. Non destructive and remote sensing techniques, such as geophysical methods, are possible technologies to address these needs. The changes in mechanical, hydrologic and chemical properties associated with the emplacement of an engineered barrier will affect geophysical properties such a seismic velocity, electrical conductivity, and dielectric constant. Also, the barrier, once emplaced and interacting with the in situ geologic system, may affect the paths along which electrical current flows in the subsurface. These changes in properties and processes facilitate the detection and monitoring of the barrier. The approaches to characterizing and monitoring engineered barriers can be divided between (1) methods that directly image the barrier using the contrasts in physical properties between the barrier and the host soil or rock and (2) methods that reflect flow processes around or through the barrier. For example, seismic methods that delineate the changes in density and stiffness associated with the barrier represents a direct imaging method. Electrical self potential methods and flow probes based on heat flow methods represent techniques that can delineate the flow path or flow processes around and through a barrier

  12. Public education in cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Parijs, L G

    1986-01-01

    Life-style is now recognized as a main determinant of cancer risk. Public education is an important component of cancer control programmes and has been shown to be effective in leading to life-style changes. Four basic types of education programmes are reviewed: for increasing the public's awareness of cancer, for changing specific risk behaviour (such as stopping smoking), for learning self-examination skills (such as breast self-examination), and for promoting early cancer detection in the community.To change human behaviour it is best to approach the risk habit through the same forces that develop and sustain the habit. Simply giving information of an association between specific habits and cancer, even if repeated several times, will lead to increased public awareness and encourage some to make a minimal effort to change their behaviour, but in general the new habit does not persist and continuing and intensifying this approach are ineffective. An alternative strategy utilizes socially active forces to support the prevention practice and remove possible barriers to action. For example, an antismoking programme should create a favourable social image of the non-smoker. Although a culturally and socially relevant mass media campaign can influence knowledge and beliefs and induce people to participate in a screening activity, this needs to be supplemented over a period of time by personal contact methods, such as group discussions, telephone conversations and home visits, in order to promote a regular screening habit. Contrary to popular opinion, mass communication methods can be expensive on a per person cost-effectiveness basis because of low participation rates and weakness in sustaining healthy behaviour.

  13. Chaotic correlations in barrier billiards with arbitrary barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osbaldestin, A H; Adamson, L N C

    2013-01-01

    We study autocorrelation functions in symmetric barrier billiards for golden mean trajectories with arbitrary barriers. Renormalization analysis reveals the presence of a chaotic invariant set and thus that, for a typical barrier, there are chaotic correlations. The chaotic renormalization set is the analogue of the so-called orchid that arises in a generalized Harper equation. (paper)

  14. Bridge removal plan requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    This report provides resources that detail specifications and guidelines related to bridge removal plans across the : United States. We have organized the information into three sections: : ! National Guidance : Includes language from AASHTO specific...

  15. Optical hair removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ort, R J; Anderson, R R

    1999-06-01

    Traditional methods of hair removal have proven unsatisfactory for many individuals with excessive or unwanted hair. In the last few years, several lasers and xenon flashlamps have been developed that promise to fulfill the need for a practical, safe, and long-lasting method of hair removal. Aggressive marketing of these has contributed to their popularity among patients and physicians. However, significant controversy and confusion surrounds this field. This article provides a detailed explanation of the scientific underpinnings for optical hair removal and explores the advantages and disadvantages of the various devices currently available (Nd:YAG, ruby, alexandrite, diode lasers, and xenon flashlamp). Treatment and safety guidelines are provided to assist the practitioner in the use of these devices. Although the field of optical hair removal is still in its infancy, initial reports of long-term efficacy are encouraging.

  16. Laparoscopic Spleen Removal (Splenectomy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Affairs and Humanitarian Efforts Login Laparoscopic Spleen Removal (Splenectomy) Patient Information from SAGES Download PDF Find a ... are suspected. What are the Advantages of Laparoscopic Splenectomy? Individual results may vary depending on your overall ...

  17. Prevention of Device-Related Healthcare-Associated Infections [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward J. Septimus

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. Up to 15% of patients develop an infection while hospitalized in the United States, which accounts for approximately 1.7 million HAIs, 99,000 deaths annually and over 10 billion dollars in costs per year. A significant percentage of HAIs are preventable using evidenced-based strategies. In terms of device-related HAIs it is estimated that 65-70% of catheter-line associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs and catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs are preventable. To prevent CLABSIs a bundle which includes hand hygiene prior to insertion and catheter manipulation, use of chlorhexidene alcohol for site preparation and maintenance, use of maximum barrier for catheter insertion, site selection, removing nonessential lines, disinfect catheter hubs before assessing line, and dressing changes are essential elements of basic practices. To prevent CAUTIs a bundle that includes hand hygiene for insertion and catheter or bag manipulation, inserting catheters for appropriate indications, insert using aseptic technique, remove catheters when no longer needed, maintain a close system keeping bag and tubing below the bladder are the key components of basic practices.

  18. Provision of relapse prevention interventions in UK NHS Stop Smoking Services: a survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McEwen Andy

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background UK NHS Stop Smoking Services provide cost effective smoking cessation interventions but, as yet, there has been no assessment of their provision of relapse prevention interventions. Methods Electronic questionnaire survey of 185 UK Stop Smoking Services Managers. Results Ninety six Stop Smoking Service managers returned completed questionnaires (52% response rate. Of these, 58.3% (n = 56 ran NHS Stop Smoking Services which provided relapse prevention interventions for clients with the most commonly provided interventions being behavioural support: telephone (77%, group (73%, and individual (54%. Just under half (48%, n = 27 offered nicotine replacement therapy (NRT, 21.4% (n = 12 bupropion; 19.6% (n = 11 varenicline. Over 80% of those providing relapse prevention interventions do so for over six months. Nearly two thirds of all respondents thought it was likely that they would either continue to provide or commence provision of relapse prevention interventions in their services. Of the remaining respondents, 66.7% (n = 22 believed that the government focus on four-week quit rates, and 42.9% (14 services believed that inadequate funding for provision of relapse prevention interventions, were major barriers to introducing these interventions into routine care. Conclusions Just over half of UK managers of NHS Stop Smoking Services who responded to the questionnaire reported that, in their services, relapse prevention interventions were currently provided for clients, despite, at that time, there being a weak evidence base for their effectiveness. The most commonly provided relapse prevention interventions were those for which there was least evidence. If these interventions are found to be effective, barriers would need to be removed before they would become part of routine care.

  19. Autolysis: mechanisms of action in the removal of devitalised tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkin, Leanne; Rippon, Mark

    2016-11-10

    Chronic wounds affect millions of people worldwide. In the UK alone, the cost of their treatment is estimated to be between £4.5bn and £5.1bn. The implementation of wound-bed preparation strategies remove the barriers to healing and wound debridement is a key component in preparing the wound bed for wound progression. This article aims to review one of the several debridement methods available to clinicians: autolytic debridement. Autolysis (i.e. autolytic debridement) uses the body's own enzymatic mechanisms to remove devitalised tissue in order to remove the barriers to healing. This review aims to provide clinicians working in wound care with a better understanding of the mechanisms and implications of autolytic debridement.

  20. Shottky-barrier formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guines, F.; Sanchez-Dehesa, J.; Flores, F.

    1983-01-01

    In this paper a realistic selfconsistent calculation of an abrupt metal-semiconductor junction is presented by means of a tight-binding approach. A specific Si-Ag junction has been considered, and the charge neutrality level as well as the barrier height have been determined in good agreement with experiments. For a generaljunction it is shown that the interface properties depend essentially on the characteristics of the first metal layer and its interaction with the semiconductor. (Author) [pt

  1. Energy barrier to decoherence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizel, Ari; Mitchell, M. W.; Cohen, Marvin L.

    2001-01-01

    We propose a ground-state approach to realizing quantum computers. This scheme is time-independent and inherently defends against decoherence by possessing an energy barrier to excitation. We prove that our time-independent qubits can perform the same algorithms as their time-dependent counterparts. Advantages and disadvantages of the time-independent approach are described. A model involving quantum dots is provided for illustration

  2. [Do organizational barriers to pneumococcal and influenza vaccine access exist?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Louise; Guay, Maryse; Archambault, Denis; El m'ala, Zahra; Abdelaziz, Nadia

    2007-01-01

    Despite the implementation of a Quebec immunization program against influenza and pneumococcal disease (PQIIP), vaccine coverage has remained low. There have been many studies on personal barriers to vaccination, but few have explored other kinds of barriers. To explore the presence of barriers in relation to the organization of the health care system and to propose recommendations for increasing vaccine coverage. Within a mixed protocol, a phone survey of 996 people in the target population and a case study implicating the follow-up of the PQIIP with all the site and actor categories via 43 semistructured interviews and 4 focus groups were realized. Survey data underwent a descriptive statistical analysis. Qualitative analysis followed the Miles and Huberman approach. The results indicate the presence of barriers with regard to information accessibility. These include access to: the physicians' recommendation, knowledge of the efficacy or the security of vaccines, and admissibility of clients to the PQIIP. Organizational barriers were also found to limit access to vaccination, especially in terms of restricted choices of time and location. Coordination and incentives mechanisms are not optimal. Removal of organizational barriers depends more on strategic rather than structural factors. Addressing organizational barriers should be an important component of strategies aimed at improving vaccine coverage. Public health authorities should focus on strategic management of the information and inter-organizational environment.

  3. Natural and Synthetic Barriers to Immobilize Radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Um, W.

    2011-01-01

    The experiments of weathering of glass waste form and the reacted sediments with simulated glass leachates show that radionuclide sequestration can be significantly enhanced by promoting the formation of secondary precipitates. In addition, synthetic phosphate-bearing nanoporous material exhibits high stability at temperature and has a very high K d value for U(VI) removal. Both natural and synthetic barrier materials can be used as additional efficient adsorbents for retarding transport of radionuclides for various contaminated waste streams and waste forms present at U. S. Department of Energy clean-up sites and the proposed geologic radioactive waste disposal facility. In the radioactive waste repository facility, natural or synthetic materials are planned to be used as a barrier material to immobilize and retard radionuclide release. The getter material can be used to selectively scavenge the radionuclide of interest from a liquid waste stream and subsequently incorporate the loaded getters in a cementitious or various monolithic waste forms. Also, the getter material is to reduce the release of radionuclides from monolithic waste forms. Also, the getter material is to reduce the release of radionuclides from monolithic waste forms. Also, the getter material is to reduce the release of radionuclides form monolithic waste forms by being emplaced as a backfill barrier material around the wastes or waste form to minimize the potential around the wastes or waste form to minimize the potential hazard of leached radioactive wastes. The barrier material should be highly efficient to sequester radionuclides and possess physical and chemical stability for long-term exposure to severe weathering conditions. Because potential leaching of radionuclides depends on various environmental and weathering conditions of the near-field repository, the barrier materials must be durable and not disintegrate under a range of moisture, temperature, pressure, radiation, Eh, ph. and

  4. Heavy metal uptake and leaching from polluted soil using permeable barrier in DTPA-assisted phytoextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shulan; Shen, Zhiping; Duo, Lian

    2015-04-01

    Application of sewage sludge (SS) in agriculture is an alternative technique of disposing this waste. But unreasonable application of SS leads to excessive accumulation of heavy metals in soils. A column experiment was conducted to test the availability of heavy metals to Lolium perenne grown in SS-treated soils following diethylene triamine penta acetic acid (DTPA) application at rates of 0, 10 and 20 mmol kg(-1) soil. In order to prevent metal leaching in DTPA-assisted phytoextraction process, a horizontal permeable barrier was placed below the treated soil, and its effectiveness was also assessed. Results showed that DTPA addition significantly increased metal uptake by L. perenne shoots and metal leaching. Permeable barriers increased metal concentrations in plant shoots and effectively decreased metal leaching from the treated soil. Heavy metals in SS-treated soils could be gradually removed by harvesting L. perenne many times in 1 year and adding low dosage of DTPA days before each harvest.

  5. CSAR 81-001 addendum 2: Use of a plexiglass contamination barrier in HC-227-T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiao, T.

    1994-01-01

    Plutonium Finish Plant (PFP) Engineering requested a criticality safety evaluation (Appendix 1) to support a revision of Criticality Prevention Specification CPS-Z-165-80601 allowing a plexiglass enclosure (PGE) to be placed inside the HC-227T hood as a contamination barrier. The HC-227T hood is the receiving/transfer enclosure for Pu nitrate solution contained in Product Removal containers (PR Cans), L10 Containers (L10, Fl-10, 10 L) or L-3 Containers. Within the HC-227T, a 1.349 square meter (15 square foot) enclosure, PGE, has been created to provide contamination control around the weighing scale. Two or more standard criticality drains shall be installed on this enclosure prior to beneficial usage. The evaluation considered the normal process, spillage scenarios, waste/container accumulations within the enclosure, and interactions of Pu within the enclosure as well as other containers external to the enclosure. The results from the criticality safety analysis by CRA shows that such as contamination barrier can be placed inside the HC-227T Hood if the PGE is equipped with adequate criticality drains. In addition, other limits as well as administrative controls listed in CPS-Z-165-80601 Rev./Mod. B/0 and CPS-Z-165-80010 Rev./Mod. C/1 shall also apply

  6. Performance of engineered barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajaram, V.; Dean, P.V.; McLellan, S.A.

    1997-01-01

    Engineered barriers, both vertical and horizontal, have been used to isolate hazardous wastes from contact, precipitation, surface water and groundwater. The primary objective of this study was to determine the performance of subsurface barriers installed throughout the U.S. over the past 20 years to contain hazardous wastes. Evaluation of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Subtitle C or equivalent caps was a secondary objective. A nationwide search was launched to select hazardous waste sites at which vertical barrier walls and/or caps had been used as the containment method. None of the sites selected had an engineered floor. From an initial list of 130 sites, 34 sites were selected on the basis of availability of monitoring data for detailed analysis of actual field performance. This paper will briefly discuss preliminary findings regarding the design, construction quality assurance/construction quality control (CQA/CQC), and monitoring at the 34 sites. In addition, the short-term performance of these sites (less than 5 years) is presented since very little long-term performance data was available

  7. Fluctuations in Schottky barrier heights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahan, G.D.

    1984-01-01

    A double Schottky barrier is often formed at the grain boundary in polycrystalline semiconductors. The barrier height is shown to fluctuate in value due to the random nature of the impurity positions. The magnitude of the fluctuations is 0.1 eV, and the fluctuations cause the barrier height measured by capacitance to differ from the one measured by electrical conductivity

  8. Decontamination systems information and research program -- Literature review in support of development of standard test protocols and barrier design models for in situ formed barriers project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    The US Department of Energy is responsible for approximately 3,000 sites in which contaminants such as carbon tetrachloride, trichlorethylene, perchlorethylene, non-volatile and soluble organic and insoluble organics (PCBs and pesticides) are encountered. In specific areas of these sites radioactive contaminants are stored in underground storage tanks which were originally designed and constructed with a 30-year projected life. Many of these tanks are now 10 years beyond the design life and failures have occurred allowing the basic liquids (ph of 8 to 9) to leak into the unconsolidated soils below. Nearly one half of the storage tanks located at the Hanford Washington Reservation are suspected of leaking and contaminating the soils beneath them. The Hanford site is located in a semi-arid climate region with rainfall of less than 6 inches annually, and studies have indicated that very little of this water finds its way to the groundwater to move the water down gradient toward the Columbia River. This provides the government with time to develop a barrier system to prevent further contamination of the groundwater, and to develop and test remediation systems to stabilize or remove the contaminant materials. In parallel to remediation efforts, confinement and containment technologies are needed to retard or prevent the advancement of contamination plumes through the environment until the implementation of remediation technology efforts are completed. This project examines the various confinement and containment technologies and protocols for testing the materials in relation to their function in-situ

  9. Pollution prevention and air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuentes Hector; Tsihrintzis Vassilios

    1997-01-01

    Pollution prevention (P2) results from the combined effect of the public opinion, a new environmental value system, government regulation, but above all, the search for an economic development within the context of environmental protection. The reasons for prevention are fundamental: profit from a new economic frontier; reduced potential for civil and criminal liability; and the effective and economic protection of the environment. This paper addresses, among other relevant issues, the following topics: justification and objective of pollution prevention; strategy and methodology for its implementation; examples of successes and tools; benefits and barriers and some recommendation

  10. Protection against malevolent use of vehicles at Nuclear Power Plants. Vehicle barrier system selection guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nebuda, D.T.

    1994-08-01

    This manual provides a simplified procedure for selecting land vehicle barriers that will stop the design basis vehicle threat adopted by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Proper selection and construction of vehicle barriers should prevent intrusion of the design basis vehicle. In addition, vital safety related equipment should survive a design basis vehicle bomb attack when vehicle barriers are properly selected, sited, and constructed. This manual addresses passive vehicle barriers, active vehicle barriers, and site design features that can be used to reduce vehicle impact velocity

  11. A calcite permeable reactive barrier for the remediation of Fluoride from spent potliner (SPL) contaminated groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turner, B.D.; Binning, Philip John; Sloan, S.W.

    2008-01-01

    The use of calcite (CaCO3) as a substrate for a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) for removing fluoride from contaminated groundwater is proposed and is illustrated by application to groundwater contaminated by spent potliner leachate (SPL), a waste derived from the aluminium smelting process...... leachate indicate that the complex chemical matrix of the SPL leachate can impact fluoride removal significantly. For SPL contaminant mixtures, fluoride removal is initially less than expected from idealized, pure, solutions. However, with time, the effect of other contaminants on fluoride removal...... diminishes. Column tests also show that pH control is important for optimizing fluoride removal with the mass removed increasing with decreasing pH. Barrier pH can be regulated by CO2 addition with the point of injection being critical for optimising the remediation performance. Experimental and model...

  12. Fire barrier problems-part 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verna, B.J.

    1993-01-01

    This article deals with problems associated with a thermal barrier material called Thermo-Lag 330. Typically in nuclear applications this material is used to provide either 1 hour (1/2 inch thick) or 3 hour (1 inch thick) barriers to prevent the spread of fires between redundant safety systems, and to protect cable trays and conduit. The article reviews concerns within the nuclear industry as to the proper handling of the material, how to interpret the data available on the material, the apparant conflicting assessments of the material when tested by different groups, etc. Research is ongoing on the suitability of the material, but the article points out that the manufacturer feels it should be installed by properly trained installers, the joints sealed with a grouting material, properly bundled to maintain its integrity, have a complete stress skin, and not be walked on after installation in order to function properly

  13. BARRIERS TO PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN THE ELDERLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Matias

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The population awareness of the physical exercise’s benefits is widely diffused. These benefits are particularly important in the elderly because, with increasing age, there is a decline of the musculoskeletal system and the maximum oxygen consumption which reduces the functional fitness of the elderly and can often lead to a significant decline in the quality of life. Despite this awareness, a large part of the population remains sedentary. It is important to know what the barriers are, so they can be circumvented in order to increase the engagement of the elderly population in existing physical activity programs.Objectives: This study aims to identify some of the personal, behavioral and environmental barriers that prevent older adults to be physically active.

  14. 77 FR 76861 - Removal of Job Training Partnership Act Implementing Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ..., 633, 634, 636, 637, and 638 RIN 1205-AB68 Removal of Job Training Partnership Act Implementing...=FR . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Direct Final Rule Procedure Since removal of the Job Training... barriers to employment for participation in the labor force by providing job training and other services...

  15. Tube plug removal machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    In a nuclear steam generator wherein some faulty tubes have been isolated by mechanical plugging, to remove a selected plug without damaging the associated tube, a plug removal machine is used. The machine drills into a plug portion with a tap drill bit having a drill portion a tap portion and a threaded portion, engaging that plug portion with the threaded portion after the drilled hole has been threaded by the tap portion thereof, and removing a portion of the plug in the tube with a counterbore drill bit mounted concentrically about the tap drill bit. A trip pin and trip spline disengage the tap drill bit from the motor. The counterbore drill bit is thereafter self-centered with respect to the tube and plug about the now stationary tap drill bit. After a portion of the plug has been removed by the counterbore drill bit, pulling on the top drill bit by grippers on slots will remove the remaining plug portion from the tube. (author)

  16. Salmonella Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and in vegetable and fruit harvesting and packing operations may help prevent salmonellosis caused by contaminated foods. Better education of food industry workers in basic food safety and restaurant inspection procedures may prevent cross-contamination and other ...

  17. [Fluorescence control of dental calculus removal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhmutov, D N; Gonchukov, S A; Lonkina, T V; Sukhinina, A V

    2012-01-01

    The main condition of periodontitis prevention is the full calculus removal from the teeth surface. This procedure should be fulfilled without harming adjacent unaffected tooth tissues. Nevertheless the problem of sensitive and precise estimating of tooth-calculus interface exists and potential risk of hard tissue damage remains. In the frames of this work it was shown that fluorescence diagnostics during calculus removal can be successfully used for precise detection of tooth-calculus interface. In so doing the simple implementation of this method free from the necessity of spectrometer using can be employed. Such a simple implementation of calculus detection set-up can be aggregated with the devices of calculus removing (as ultrasonic or laser devices).

  18. Barrier mechanisms in the Drosophila blood-brain barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Jane Hindle

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The invertebrate blood-brain barrier field is growing at a rapid pace and, in recent years, studies have shown a physiologic and molecular complexity that has begun to rival its vertebrate counterpart. Novel mechanisms of paracellular barrier maintenance through GPCR signaling were the first demonstrations of the complex adaptive mechanisms of barrier physiology. Building upon this work, the integrity of the invertebrate blood-brain barrier has recently been shown to require coordinated function of all layers of the compound barrier structure, analogous to signaling between the layers of the vertebrate neurovascular unit. These findings strengthen the notion that many blood-brain barrier mechanisms are conserved between vertebrates and invertebrates, and suggest that novel findings in invertebrate model organisms will have a significant impact on the understanding of vertebrate BBB functions. In this vein, important roles in coordinating localized and systemic signaling to dictate organism development and growth are beginning to show how the blood-brain barrier can govern whole animal physiologies. This includes novel functions of blood-brain barrier gap junctions in orchestrating synchronized neuroblast proliferation, and of blood-brain barrier secreted antagonists of insulin receptor signaling. These advancements and others are pushing the field forward in exciting new directions. In this review, we provide a synopsis of invertebrate blood-brain barrier anatomy and physiology, with a focus on insights from the past 5 years, and highlight important areas for future study.

  19. Optimising laser tattoo removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabir Sardana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lasers are the standard modality for tattoo removal. Though there are various factors that determine the results, we have divided them into three logical headings, laser dependant factors such as type of laser and beam modifications, tattoo dependent factors like size and depth, colour of pigment and lastly host dependent factors, which includes primarily the presence of a robust immune response. Modifications in the existing techniques may help in better clinical outcome with minimal risk of complications. This article provides an insight into some of these techniques along with a detailed account of the factors involved in tattoo removal.

  20. Successful removable partial dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Christopher D

    2012-03-01

    Removable partial dentures (RPDs) remain a mainstay of prosthodontic care for partially dentate patients. Appropriately designed, they can restore masticatory efficiency, improve aesthetics and speech, and help secure overall oral health. However, challenges remain in providing such treatments, including maintaining adequate plaque control, achieving adequate retention, and facilitating patient tolerance. The aim of this paper is to review the successful provision of RPDs. Removable partial dentures are a successful form of treatment for replacing missing teeth, and can be successfully provided with appropriate design and fabrication concepts in mind.

  1. Optimising Laser Tattoo Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardana, Kabir; Ranjan, Rashmi; Ghunawat, Sneha

    2015-01-01

    Lasers are the standard modality for tattoo removal. Though there are various factors that determine the results, we have divided them into three logical headings, laser dependant factors such as type of laser and beam modifications, tattoo dependent factors like size and depth, colour of pigment and lastly host dependent factors, which includes primarily the presence of a robust immune response. Modifications in the existing techniques may help in better clinical outcome with minimal risk of complications. This article provides an insight into some of these techniques along with a detailed account of the factors involved in tattoo removal. PMID:25949018

  2. Laparoscopic Removal of Gossypiboma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeki Özsoy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gossypiboma is defined as a mass caused by foreign body reaction developed around the retained surgical item in the operative area. When diagnosed, it should be removed in symptomatic patients. Minimal invasive surgery should be planned for the removal of the retained item. The number of cases treated by laparoscopic approach is rare in the literature. We present a case of forty-year-old woman referred to emergency room with acute abdomen diagnosed as gossypiboma and treated successfully with laparoscopic surgery.

  3. Barriers to accessing urethroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consolo, Michael J; Syed, Kirin K; Robison, Christopher; McFadden, Jacob; Shalowitz, David I; Brown, Gordon A; Sussman, David O; Figler, Bradley D

    2016-01-01

    Urethroplasty is an effective treatment for men with anterior urethral strictures, but is utilized less frequently than ineffective treatments such as internal urethrotomy. We sought to identify provider-level barriers to urethroplasty. An anonymous online survey was emailed to all Mid-Atlantic American Urological Association members. Six scenarios in which urethroplasty was the most appropriate treatment were presented. Primary outcome was recommendation for urethroplasty in ≥ three clinical scenarios. Other factors measured include practice zip code, urethroplasty training, and proximity to a urethroplasty surgeon. Multivariate logistic regression identified factors associated with increased likelihood of urethroplasty recommendation. Of 670 members emailed, 109 (16%) completed the survey. Final analysis included 88 respondents. Mean years in practice was 17.2. Most respondents received formal training in urethroplasty: 43 (49%) in residency, 5 (6%) in fellowship, and 10 (11%) in both; 48 respondents (55%) had a urethroplasty surgeon in their practice, whereas 18 (20%) had a urethroplasty surgeon within 45 minutes of his or her primary practice location. The only covariate that was associated with an increased likelihood of recommending urethroplasty in ≥ three scenarios was formal urethroplasty training. Most members (68%) reported no barriers to referring patients for urethroplasty; the most common barriers cited were long distance to urethroplasty surgeon (n 5 13, 15%) and concern about complications (n 5 8, 9%). Urethroplasty continues to be underutilized in men with anterior urethral strictures, potentially due to lack of knowledge dissemination and access to a urethroplasty surgeon. Appropriate urethroplasty utilization may increase with greater exposure to urethroplasty in training.

  4. Enfermeiros com cargos de chefia e medidas preventivas à exposição ocupacional: facilidades e barreiras Enfermeros con cargos de jefe y medidas preventivas a la exposición ocupacional: facilidades y barreras Nurses in leading positions and measures to prevent occupational exposure: facilities and barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silmara Elaine Malaguti

    2008-09-01

    motivadoras para la adhesión al uso del equipamiento de protección individual en sus sectores de trabajo.This descriptive study aimed to assess the facilities and barriers that nurses in leading positions endure with respect to the nursing team's compliance to measures for preventing occupational exposure involving biological materials, based on Rosenstock's Health Belief Model. The study was carried out with 87 nurses of a university hospital in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in the year of 2006. Data were collected through a semistructured form with open and closed questions and analyzed through Content Analysis. Individual protection equipment was mentioned as the greatest form for preventing accidents, but lack of compliance to usage and incorrect use were indicated as barriers to accident prevention and as the main reasons for their occurrence. It is important for these nurses to be prepared to develop individualized and motivating strategies focused on compliance to the use of individual protection equipment in their work sectors.

  5. Racial Trade Barriers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Jacob Halvas

    . This paper analyzes the racial policies pursued in the foreign trade and argues that we need to recognize Aryanization as a world-wide policy in order to fully understand its character and possible consequences. I focus on the pre-war period and analyze the case of Denmark from three different perspectives......: perpetrators, victims and bystanders. The analysis will show that race, economy and foreign trade were combined in an attempt to raise racial trade barriers. This forced the question of German racial policies on the Danish government, Danish-Jewish businesses, and German companies involved in foreign trade...

  6. Support or Barrier?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum; Lønsmann, Dorte

    This study offers a critical look at how corporate-level language management influences front-line language practices among employees in three multinational corporations (MNCs) headquartered in Scandinavia. Based on interview and document data, we examine, firstly, what front-line practices...... employees use to cross language boundaries in their everyday work, and, secondly, how these practices relate to top-down language management in the case companies. Our findings show that employees are often dependent on ad hoc and informal solutions in cross- language situations, which leads us...... to a discussion of how a company’s language policy may be seen as both support and a barrier....

  7. Can atopic dermatitis be prevented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-de la Fuente, E

    2015-05-01

    Atopic dermatitis has become a health problem in our setting due to its rising prevalence, impact on quality of life, associated costs, and role in the progression to other atopic diseases. Furthermore, atopic dermatitis has no definitive cure and therefore preventive measures are important. In this article, we review the latest advances in both primary prevention (reduction of the incidence of atopic dermatitis) and secondary prevention (reduction of associated morbidity and reduction of the atopic march). We analyze the different preventive strategies available, including modification of the immune system through microbial exposure, induction of immune tolerance through antigen exposure, and restoration of skin barrier function to halt the atopic march. Dermatologists need to be familiar with these strategies in order to apply them where necessary and to accurately inform patients and their relatives to prevent misguided or inappropriate actions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  8. A cross-cultural investigation into the dimensional structure and stability of the Barriers to Research and Utilization Scale (BARRIERS Scale).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brett; Brown, Ted; Costello, Shane

    2015-10-24

    It is important that scales exhibit strong measurement properties including those related to the investigation of issues that impact evidence-based practice. The validity of the Barriers to Research Utilization Scale (BARRIERS Scale) has recently been questioned in a systematic review. This study investigated the dimensional structure and stability of the 28 item BARRIERS Scale when completed by three groups of participants from three different cross-cultural environments. Data from the BARRIERS Scale completed by 696 occupational therapists from Australia (n = 137), Taiwan (n = 413), and the United Kingdom (n = 144) were analysed using principal components analysis, followed by Procrustes Transformation. Poorly fitting items were identified by low communalities, cross-loading, and theoretically inconsistent primary loadings, and were systematically removed until good fit was achieved. The cross-cultural stability of the component structure of the BARRIERS Scale was examined. A four component, 19 item version of the BARRIERS Scale emerged that demonstrated an improved dimensional fit and stability across the three participant groups. The resulting four components were consistent with the BARRIERS Scale as originally conceptualised. Findings from the study suggest that the four component, 19 item version of the BARRIERS Scale is a robust and valid measure for identifying barriers to research utilization for occupational therapists in paediatric health care settings across Australia, United Kingdom, and Taiwan. The four component 19 item version of the BARRIERS Scale exhibited good dimensional structure, internal consistency, and stability.

  9. Services for people with communication disability in Fiji: barriers and drivers of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopf, Suzanne C; McLeod, Sharynne

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organization's World report on disability calls upon all nations to 'remove the barriers which prevent [people with disabilities] from participating in their communities; getting a quality education, finding decent work, and having their voices heard' (p. 5). People with communication disability (PWCD), as a consequence of their atypical communication, may be more likely to be excluded from society, and denied their basic human rights, than other people with disability. Fiji, a multicultural and multilingual nation in the south-western Pacific Ocean, has limited services for PWCD. Service providers in Fiji include disability care workers, special education teachers, traditional healers, and a small number of visiting volunteer speech-language pathologists. This paper outlines the historical and current barriers to, and drivers of change for, service development for PWCD in Fiji. Five barriers to service development for PWCD in Fiji were identified. (1) A major structural barrier is the small population size to develop appropriate infrastructure including professional education programs. (2) Geographical barriers include the dispersed geography across 300 islands, low population density, the rural-urban divide, and risk of disaster from cyclones and flooding. (3) Linguistic diversity, while culturally important, can present a barrier to the provision of quality services that are available in the languages spoken by PWCD. (4) Cultural barriers include historical political instability, although Fiji has become more stable due to the recent democratic elections. The social climate affects development of services that are appropriate for different dominant cultural groups. (5) Financial barriers include low gross domestic product, low financial security and low human development index; however, the financial outlook for Fiji is steadily improving due to the change in political stability. Three levels of drivers of change were identified. Macro

  10. Colorectal Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorectal cancer prevention strategies can include avoiding known risk factors, having a healthy lifestyle, taking aspirin, and removing polyps. Learn more about preventing colorectal cancer in this expert-reviewed summary.

  11. Colorectal Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) prevention strategies include avoiding known risk factors, adopting a healthy lifestyle, polyp removal, and aspirin. Get detailed information about risk factors for CRC and potential interventions for prevention in this summary for clinicians.

  12. Removable pipeline plug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassalotti, M.; Anastasi, F.

    1984-01-01

    A removable plugging device for a pipeline, and particularly for pressure testing a steam pipeline in a boiling water reactor, wherein an inflatable annular sealing member seals off the pipeline and characterized by radially movable shoes for holding the plug in place, each shoe being pivotally mounted for self-adjusting engagement with even an out-of-round pipeline interior

  13. Kidney removal - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100069.htm Kidney removal (nephrectomy) - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Go to slide 1 out of 5 Go to slide 2 out of ... to slide 5 out of 5 Overview The kidneys are paired organs that lie posterior to the ...

  14. Implementation of renewable technologies - Opportunities and barriers. Zimbabwe country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Renewable Energy Technologies (RETS) have over the years become an integral part of the energy supply chain in most developed countries. Recent projections show that 13.5% of the world's primary energy supply comes from renewable and this figure has an aggregated annual growth rate of 16%. Wind has the highest annual growth rate of 22% while the least annual growth rate of 2% is for hydropower. The main push for renewable like wind in the OECD countries are environmental concerns and the business aspect in power generation. The situation is however completely different in Africa, where the thrust for RETs is developmental based. Although the continent has abundant renewable energy resources like solar, biomass, wind and hydro potential, they have remained largely unexploited. Several efforts have been made to help African countries like Zimbabwe to exploit such resources. The main objectives of this country study included review of Zimbabwe's development of past RETs, establish barriers related lessons learnt from such projects and currently running RETs projects, identify barriers experienced by other projects and then select a few barrier removal projects and then develop them with the help of all stake holders in the country. The methodology of this study involved a review of past RETs projects to establish barriers faced and barriers related lessons learnt. An examination of the policy instruments related to RETs was done to establish how they promote the dissemination of the technologies as well as their adequacy. A survey of all possible RETs projects in the country was carried out and in this survey the end-users were visited and interviewed by the research team. An initial workshop, which was attended by all stake holders, was held in November 1999. An Advisory committee on RETs in Zimbabwe was then set up comprising of various stake holders from government, the private sector, research institutions, interviewed end-users and the NGO community

  15. Barriers to Medical Error Reporting for Physicians and Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soydemir, Dilek; Seren Intepeler, Seyda; Mert, Hatice

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine what barriers to error reporting exist for physicians and nurses. The study, of descriptive qualitative design, was conducted with physicians and nurses working at a training and research hospital. In-depth interviews were held with eight physicians and 15 nurses, a total of 23 participants. Physicians and nurses do not choose to report medical errors that they experience or witness. When barriers to error reporting were examined, it was seen that there were four main themes involved: fear, the attitude of administration, barriers related to the system, and the employees' perceptions of error. It is important in terms of preventing medical errors to identify the barriers that keep physicians and nurses from reporting errors.

  16. The barriers preventing effective treatment of South African patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Consumer research was last conducted among South African patients with mental health problems in 1997/8 by GAMAIN (The Global Alliance of Mental Health and Advocacy Networks). Respondents at the time suffered primarily from anxiety and/or unipolar depression.1 Updated consumer research was ...

  17. Work zone safety : physical and behavioral barriers in accident prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    This report discusses the usefulness of creating a work zone traffic safety culture as a methodology to improve the overall : safety of both work zone personnel and the traveling public in Missouri. As part of this research, the existing MoDOT : w : ...

  18. The barriers preventing effective treatment of South African patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    The impact of mental health problems in the workplace and on ... With these illnesses, the ratio of men to women is approximately 1:1.8. Diagnoses (Table II) ..... respondents as having played no role at all in the understanding of their illness.

  19. Crossing the Barriers: An Analysis of Land Access Barriers to Geothermal Development and Potential Improvement Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Aaron L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Young, Katherine R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-04

    Developers have identified many non-technical barriers to geothermal power development, including access to land. Activities required for accessing land, such as environmental review and private and public leasing can take a considerable amount of time and can delay or prevent project development. This paper discusses the impacts to available geothermal resources and deployment caused by land access challenges, including tribal and cultural resources, environmentally sensitive areas, biological resources, land ownership, federal and state lease queues,