WorldWideScience

Sample records for prevention project measure

  1. Advancing a smart air cushion system for preventing pressure ulcers using projection Moiré for large deformation measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Sheng-Lin; Tsai, Tsung-Heng; Lee, Carina Jean-Tien; Hsu, Yu-Hsiang; Lee, Chih-Kung

    2016-03-01

    A pressure ulcer is one of the most important concerns for wheelchair bound patients with spinal cord injuries. A pressure ulcer is a localized injury near the buttocks that bear ischial tuberosity oppression over a long period of time. Due to elevated compression to blood vessels, the surrounding tissues suffer from a lack of oxygen and nutrition. The ulcers eventually lead to skin damage followed by tissue necrosis. The current medical strategy is to minimize the occurrence of pressure ulcers by regularly helping patients change their posture. However, these methods do not always work effectively or well. As a solution to fundamentally prevent pressure ulcers, a smart air cushion system was developed to detect and control pressure actively. The air cushion works by automatically adjusting a patient's sitting posture to effectively relieve the buttock pressure. To analyze the correlation between the dynamic pressure profiles of an air cell with a patient's weight, a projection Moiré system was adopted to measure the deformation of an air cell and its associated stress distribution. Combining a full-field deformation imaging with air pressure measured within an air cell, the patient's weight and the stress distribution can be simultaneously obtained. By integrating a full-field optical metrology with a time varying pressure sensor output coupled with different active air control algorithms for various designs, we can tailor the ratio of the air cells. Our preliminary data suggests that this newly developed smart air cushion has the potential to selectively reduce localized compression on the tissues at the buttocks. Furthermore, it can take a patient's weight which is an additional benefit so that medical personnel can reference it to prescribe the correct drug dosages.

  2. Measuring pollution prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephan, D.G.; Bridges, J.S.

    1992-01-01

    To assess progress in pollution prevention, estimates or measurements of the amounts of pollution actually prevented have to be made. Such estimates or measurements tell us how far we have come and, possibly, how much farther there is to go in utilizing pollution prevention as a tool for improving environmental quality. They can, theoretically, be used to assess progress on a scale ranging from the individual facility or even the individual process or activity generation wastes to scale as large as a geographical area such as a county, a state or even the United States as a whole. 3 refs

  3. The Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study Prevention Instrument Project: Longitudinal Outcome of Behavioral Measures as Predictors of Cognitive Decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Jane Banks

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Methods: The Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study Prevention Instrument Project is a longitudinal study that recruited 644 cognitively healthy older subjects (aged between 75 and 93 years, 58% women at baseline and evaluated their cognitive change over 4 years. The study was structured like a clinical trial to anticipate a prevention trial and to determine the performance of novel trial instruments in a longitudinal non-interventional trial framework. Behavioral symptoms were assessed at baseline. Results: The existence of participant-reported behavioral symptoms at baseline predicted conversion to Clinical Dementia Rating scale score ≥0.5 over the 4-year period. Conclusions: The results imply that early anxiety and depression may be harbingers of future cognitive decline, and that patients exhibiting such symptoms, even in the absence of co-occurring cognitive symptoms, should be closely followed over time.

  4. Health System Measurement Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Health System Measurement Project tracks government data on critical U.S. health system indicators. The website presents national trend data as well as detailed...

  5. Prevention of oiled wildlife project (POW)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, T.C.

    1998-01-01

    The establishment of a project to analyse the nature and extent of the problem of marine oil spills and their impact on the wildlife in coastal Newfoundland was described. Pelagic seabirds were identified as the marine wildlife most affected by oil released into the ocean. The Prevention of Oiled Wildlife (POW) project was initiated by the Canadian Coast Guard, the lead agency for oil spills of unknown origin. Details of the POW project were provided. It was shown that the project serves as an interdepartmental approach to: (1) identifying past occurrences, probable sources, causes, effects and possible releases of oil into the marine environment, (2) identifying remedial measures undertaken to date to curb the release of oil, and (3) establishing a plan of action through legislation, education, detection, prosecution or any other means, to eliminate the release of oil. 14 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs

  6. Measures to prevent global warming, and NEDO's energy-saving model projects; Chikyu ondanka boshi taisaku to NEDO sho energy model jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    Described herein are United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the world AIJ (Activities Implemented Jointly) projects, and the Japan's measures and NEDO's energy-saving model projects therefor. NEDO has been inviting the public to join the contests for the projects to be implemented as part of the AIJ Japan program for the first time since April 1996. A total of 11 projects were adopted in July, including the model project for recovering heat from red-hot coke with inert gas, to be implemented by NEDO in China. After the first invitation, an individual proposal will be accepted and examined for which no time limit is set. The NEDO's model projects approved so far include demonstration studies on facilities for effective utilization of paper-making sludge, waste heat recovery at steel furnaces, energy-saving at electric furnaces for alloys, effective utilization of waste heat at garbage incinerators, and power saving at cement kilns. (NEDO)

  7. A critical care network pressure ulcer prevention quality improvement project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Joanna; Richardson, Annette

    2015-03-30

    Pressure ulcer prevention is an important safety issue, often underrated and an extremely painful event harming patients. Critically ill patients are one of the highest risk groups in hospital. The impact of pressure ulcers are wide ranging, and they can result in increased critical care and the hospital length of stay, significant interference with functional recovery and rehabilitation and increase cost. This quality improvement project had four aims: (1) to establish a critical care network pressure ulcer prevention group; (2) to establish baseline pressure ulcer prevention practices; (3) to measure, compare and monitor pressure ulcers prevalence; (4) to develop network pressure ulcer prevention standards. The approach used to improve quality included strong critical care nursing leadership to develop a cross-organisational pressure ulcer prevention group and a benchmarking exercise of current practices across a well-established critical care Network in the North of England. The National Safety Thermometer tool was used to measure pressure ulcer prevalence in 23 critical care units, and best available evidence, local consensus and another Critical Care Networks' bundle of interventions were used to develop a local pressure ulcer prevention standards document. The aims of the quality improvement project were achieved. This project was driven by successful leadership and had an agreed common goal. The National Safety Thermometer tool was an innovative approach to measure and compare pressure ulcer prevalence rates at a regional level. A limitation was the exclusion of moisture lesions. The project showed excellent engagement and collaborate working in the quest to prevent pressure ulcers from many critical care nurses with the North of England Critical Care Network. A concise set of Network standards was developed for use in conjunction with local guidelines to enhance pressure ulcer prevention. © 2015 British Association of Critical Care Nurses.

  8. The Esperance primary prevention of suicide project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaven, Janine; Kisely, Stephen

    2002-10-01

    Suicide has been a major community concern in Esperance, a geographically isolated port on the south coast of Western Australia. To evaluate the effect of three evidence-based initiatives for the primary prevention of suicide: (i) providing suicide awareness sessions for staff members in health, education and social services; (ii) limiting the sale of over the counter analgesics (aspirin and paracetamol) to packets containing less than the minimum lethal dose; and (iii) implementing Commonwealth media guidelines in the reporting of suicides by media. Changes in knowledge, awareness, attitudes, comfort and use, before and after each intervention were assessed using standardized instruments and pro forma derived from previous work, such as the Youth Suicide Prevention Training Manual and Suicide Intervention Beliefs Scale. Percentage changes in the number of retail outlets selling over the counter analgesics to less than potentially lethal quantities (less than 8 g of paracetamol or aspirin) were also measured. Media representatives were interviewed to gain their perceptions of Commonwealth Guidelines for the reporting of suicide, and encouraged to consult the project team before reporting suicide related issues. The baseline survey illustrated that mental health staff and general practitioners were more aware of suicide issues, risk factors for suicide and awareness of professional and ethical responses than staff from other services, and were more willing to raise the issue with a person at risk. Thirty-three subjects participated in suicide awareness training of whom 21 (66%) returned questionnaires. There were significant increases in awareness of suicide-related issues and risk factors, as well as reported levels of knowledge of professional and ethical responses and comfort, competence and confidence levels when assisting a person at risk. Only three media representatives were aware of the Commonwealth Health Department Guidelines for reporting suicide and only

  9. Development of Preventive Measures to Prevent School Absenteeism in Twente

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Liere, Annette; Ritzen, Henk; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia

    2011-01-01

    Van Liere, A., Ritzen, H., & Brand-Gruwel, S. (2011, August). Development of Preventive Measures to Prevent School Absenteeism in Twente. Paper presented at 14th Biennial Conference for Research on Learning and Instruction of EARLI, Exeter, England.

  10. [How do Prevention Projects Reach their Target Groups? Results of a Survey with Prevention Projects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, T; Böttcher, S; Jahn, I

    2015-12-01

     The aim of this study was to assess methods used to access target groups in prevention projects funded within the prevention research framework by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research.  A survey with prevention projects was conducted. Access strategies, communication channels, incentives, programme reach, and successful practical recruitment strategies were explored.  38 out of 60 projects took part in the survey. Most projects accessed their target group within structured settings (e. g., child day-care centers, schools, workplaces). Multiple communication channels and incentives were used, with written information and monetary incentives being used most frequently. Only few projects were able to report their programme reach adequately; programme reach was highest for programmes accessing the target groups in structured settings. The respondents viewed active recruitment via personal communication with the target group and key persons in the settings as the most successful strategy.  The paper provides an overview on recruitment strategies used in current preven-tion projects. More systematic research on programme reach is necessary. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. The Pacific Obesity Prevention in Communities project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swinburn, B A; Millar, L; Utter, J

    2011-01-01

    , Tonga, New Zealand and Australia) designed to prevent adolescent obesity. This paper overviews the project and the methods common to the four countries. Each country implemented a community-based intervention programme promoting healthy eating, physical activity and healthy weight in adolescents....... A community capacity-building approach was used, with common processes employed but with contextualized interventions within each country. Changes in anthropometric, behavioural and perception outcomes were evaluated at the individual level and school environments and community capacity at the settings level...

  12. Middle Urals` pollution prevention priorities assessment project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, M.; Ott, R.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Chukanov, V. [Institute of Industrial Ecology, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1995-09-13

    The Middle Urals is an important Russian industrial region. The key industries are also the most environmentally damaging: mining, metallurgical and chemical industries. There are some 600 large-sized and medium-sized enterprises located within the Middle Urals` region. Their annual solid and gaseous chemical releases have led to exceeding some maximum permissible contaminant concentrations by factors of tens and hundreds. The environmental problems of the Middle Urals are of such magnitude, seriousness, and urgency that the limited available resources can be applied only to the problems of the highest priority in the most cost-effective way. By the combined efforts of scientists from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (USA), Institute of Industrial Ecology (Ekaterinburg, Russia) and Russian Federal Nuclear Center (Snezhinsk, Russia) the project on Environmental Priorities Assessment was initiated in 1993. Because the project will cut across a spectrum of Russian environmental, social, and political issues, it has been established as a genuine Russian effort led by Russian principals. Russian participants are the prime movers and decision-makers, and LLNL participants are advisors. A preliminary project has been completed to gather relevant environmental data and to develop a formal proposal for the full priorities assessment project for submittal to the International Science and Technology Center. The proposed priorities assessment methodology will be described in this paper. The specific objectives of this project are to develop and to implement a methodology to establish Russian priorities for future pollution prevention efforts in a limited geographic region of the Middle Urals (a part of Chelyabinsk and Sverdlovsk Oblasts). This methodology will be developed on two geographic levels: local (town scale) and regional (region scale). Detailed environmental analysis will be performed on a local scale and extrapolated to the regional scale.

  13. Comparative effectiveness of malaria preventive measures on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The burden of malaria and its associated problems in pregnancy can be reduced by the use of different malaria preventive measures. This study was conducted to determine the comparative effectiveness of three different malaria preventive measures on populations of parturient in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria.

  14. Patient outcomes and preventive measures

    OpenAIRE

    Wilborn, Doris

    2011-01-01

    National as well as international, the occurrence of pressure ulcers is regarded as a serious problem of the health service of patients and residents in health care facilities. The prevalence of pressure ulcers in European hospitals varies from 23% to 8.3% (Vanderwee et al. 2007); in Germany the prevalence of pressure ulcers in hospitals is about 7.1% (Dassen et al. 2009). In German nursing homes the prevalence is about 4.3% (Dassen et al. 2009). International projects like the European Press...

  15. Evaluation of an institutional project to improve venous thromboembolism prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Christina A; Yang, Anthony D; Ju, Mila; Culver, Eckford; Seifert, Kathryn; Kreutzer, Lindsey; Halverson, Terri; O'Leary, Kevin J; Bilimoria, Karl Y

    2016-12-01

    Northwestern Memorial Hospital (NMH) was historically a poor performer on the venous thromboembolism (VTE) outcome measure. As this measure has been shown to be flawed by surveillance bias, NMH embraced process-of-care measures to ensure appropriate VTE prophylaxis to assess healthcare-associated VTE prevention efforts. To evaluate the impact of an institution-wide project aimed at improving hospital performance on VTE prophylaxis measures. A retrospective observational study. NMH, an 885-bed academic medical center in Chicago, Illinois PATIENTS: Inpatients admitted to NMH from January 1, 2013 to May 1, 2013 and from October 1, 2014 to April 1, 2015 were eligible for evaluation. Using the define-measure-analyze-improve-control (DMAIC) process-improvement methodology, a multidisciplinary team implemented and iteratively improved 15 data-driven interventions in 4 broad areas: (1) electronic medical record (EMR) alerts, (2) education initiatives, (3) new EMR order sets, and (4) other EMR changes. The Joint Commission's 6 core measures and the Surgical Care Improvement Project (SCIP) SCIP-VTE-2 measure. Based on 3103 observations (1679 from January 1, 2013 to May 1, 2013, and 1424 from October 1, 2014 to April 1, 2015), performance on the core measures improved. Performance on measure 1 (chemoprophylaxis) improved from 82.5% to 90.2% on medicine services, and from 94.4% to 97.6% on surgical services. The largest improvements were seen in measure 4 (platelet monitoring), with a performance increase from 76.7% adherence to 100%, and measure 5 (warfarin discharge instructions), with a performance increase from 27.4% to 88.8%. A systematic hospital-wide DMAIC project improved VTE prophylaxis measure performance. Sustained performance has been observed, and novel control mechanisms for continued performance surveillance have been embedded in the hospital system. Journal of Hospital Medicine 2016;11:S29-S37. © 2016 Society of Hospital Medicine. © 2016 Society of Hospital

  16. HARD CHROME POLLUTION PREVENTION DEMONSTRATION PROJECT - INTERIM REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the project, five chromium emission prevention/control devices were tested tha cover the spectrum of prevention/control techniques currently in use in small- and large-size hard chromium electroplating job shops. The Project results show that some of the tested devices had ch...

  17. AIDS prevention project among women in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesce, L

    1993-01-01

    The recommendations of a staff member of the Paulina Luisi Movement and member of the Women's Global Network for Reproductive Rights were six-fold. Being a woman was considered a risk factor for AIDS. AIDS and HIV infection prevention must concentrate on prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). 1) Women's organizations have the responsibility for sensitizing health professionals about STDs and AIDS and break the "culture of silence." 2) Women's health focus must actively include prevention of AIDS/HIV. 3) The Pap test must be included routinely as part of public and individual health services and conducted with high quality standards. 4) The flow of communication about women's health issues must be initiated between health professionals and women advocates with the objective of changing concepts and attitudes and of developing complementary strategies. 5) The strategy of promoting condom use and quality information does not address the larger issue of discrimination against women. Gender relations between spouses and between patient and doctor must be based on responsibility, reciprocity, and autonomy. Strategies must aim to combat the negativity in society that prevents responsible gender relations. 6) Professional women who have an awareness of gender issues must be engaged in international and governmental institutions with decision making power. Sex and women's health have been lesser priorities. The health system has responded to women as "objects" rather than subjects of attention. Women's position sexually and socially makes them more vulnerable to AIDS and HIV infections, which may be transmitted through a single sexual contact. STDs increase the risk of AIDS. Latin American women feel shame about STDS, while men respond to STDs as a condition of their sexual virility or potency. Treatment of STDS, much less AIDS prevention, is inadequate. The health system must stop treating women as objects and give them their right to health.

  18. Facilities projects performance measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erben, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    The two DOE-owned facilities at Hanford, the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF), and the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Facility (FMIT), are described. The performance measurement systems used at these two facilities are next described

  19. Elastic/Inelastic Measurement Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yates, Steven [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Hicks, Sally [Univ. of Dallas, TX (United States); Vanhoy, Jeffrey [U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD (United States); McEllistrem, Marcus [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The work scope involves the measurement of neutron scattering from natural sodium (23Na) and two isotopes of iron, 56Fe and 54Fe. Angular distributions, i.e., differential cross sections, of the scattered neutrons will be measured for 5 to 10 incident neutron energies per year. The work of the first year concentrates on 23Na, while the enriched iron samples are procured. Differential neutron scattering cross sections provide information to guide nuclear reaction model calculations in the low-­energy (few MeV) fast-­neutron region. This region lies just above the isolated resonance region, which in general is well studied; however, model calculations are difficult in this region because overlapping resonance structure is evident and direct nuclear reactions are becoming important. The standard optical model treatment exhibits good predictive ability for the wide-­region average cross sections but cannot treat the overlapping resonance features. In addition, models that do predict the direct reaction component must be guided by measurements to describe correctly the strength of the direct component, e.g., β2 must be known to describe the direct component of the scattering to the first excited state. Measurements of the elastic scattering differential cross sections guide the optical model calculations, while inelastic differential cross sections provide the crucial information for correctly describing the direct component. Activities occurring during the performance period are described.

  20. Elastic/Inelastic Measurement Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yates, Steven; Hicks, Sally; Vanhoy, Jeffrey; McEllistrem, Marcus

    2015-12-01

    The work scope involves the measurement of neutron scattering from natural sodium ( 23 Na) and two isotopes of iron, 56 Fe and 54 Fe. Angular distributions, i.e., differential cross sections, of the scattered neutrons will be measured for 5 to 10 incident neutron energies per year. The work of the first year concentrates on 23 Na, while the enriched iron samples are procured. Differential neutron scattering cross sections provide information to guide nuclear reaction model calculations in the low-@@energy (few MeV) fast-@@neutron region. This region lies just above the isolated resonance region, which in general is well studied; however, model calculations are difficult in this region because overlapping resonance structure is evident and direct nuclear reactions are becoming important. The standard optical model treatment exhibits good predictive ability for the wide-@@region average cross sections but cannot treat the overlapping resonance features. In addition, models that do predict the direct reaction component must be guided by measurements to describe correctly the strength of the direct component, e.g., @@ 2 must be known to describe the direct component of the scattering to the first excited state. Measurements of the elastic scattering differential cross sections guide the optical model calculations, while inelastic differential cross sections provide the crucial information for correctly describing the direct component. Activities occurring during the performance period are described.

  1. Danish preventive measures and deradicalization strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Preben

    2015-01-01

    The Danish anti- and de-radicalization strategy involves three interwoven elements: (a) an early prevention and exit programme, (b) prosecution of radicalized persons who have committed violent crimes (in Denmark or in a foreign country), including measures such as confiscation of passport, and (c...

  2. Internationalization Measures in Large Scale Research Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeding, Emanuel; Smith, Nancy

    2017-04-01

    Internationalization measures in Large Scale Research Projects Large scale research projects (LSRP) often serve as flagships used by universities or research institutions to demonstrate their performance and capability to stakeholders and other interested parties. As the global competition among universities for the recruitment of the brightest brains has increased, effective internationalization measures have become hot topics for universities and LSRP alike. Nevertheless, most projects and universities are challenged with little experience on how to conduct these measures and make internationalization an cost efficient and useful activity. Furthermore, those undertakings permanently have to be justified with the Project PIs as important, valuable tools to improve the capacity of the project and the research location. There are a variety of measures, suited to support universities in international recruitment. These include e.g. institutional partnerships, research marketing, a welcome culture, support for science mobility and an effective alumni strategy. These activities, although often conducted by different university entities, are interlocked and can be very powerful measures if interfaced in an effective way. On this poster we display a number of internationalization measures for various target groups, identify interfaces between project management, university administration, researchers and international partners to work together, exchange information and improve processes in order to be able to recruit, support and keep the brightest heads to your project.

  3. Measurements and von Neumann projection/collapse

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    based treatment of quantum measurements, an unambiguous treatment of the apparatus as a quantum system approximated well by a ... leading eventually to the projection/collapse rule postulated in von Neumann's treatment of measurements [3]. ... of Hilbert's sixth problem measurement leaves it in the same state.' In this ...

  4. Miniature Sensor for Aerosol Mass Measurements Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR project seeks to develop a miniature sensor for mass measurement of size-classified aerosols. A cascade impactor will be used to classify aerosol sample...

  5. Practitioners' forum: public health and the primary prevention of adolescent violence--the violence prevention project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivak, H; Hausman, A J; Prothrow-Stith, D

    1989-01-01

    The Violence Prevention Project is a community-based outreach and education project directed toward reducing the negative social and medical outcomes of violence among adolescents. Community agency personnel are trained to work with youth on issues of anger and conflict resolution. A mass media campaign advertises the issue to the broader population. Interventions, such as the Violence Prevention Project, can use the public health strategies to increase awareness of the problem and associated risk factors, provide alternative conflict resolution techniques, and generate a new community ethos around violence. This approach holds great promise in an area in which after-the-fact legislative and punitive interventions have not worked.

  6. Evaluation of Digital Shadow Economy Prevention Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remeikiene Rita

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Although during the past few years the scopes of shadow economy in Lithuania have slightly decreased, different forms of this phenomenon, in particular digital shadow activities, still generate a significant part of the overall value added. As no constant estimations of the scope of digital shadow economy have been made in Lithuania, alleviation of this problem is based on consequence fighting rather than reason elimination. Digital shadow economy poses a significant challenge for law enforcement agencies concerning its investigation and prevention. Hence, it is purposeful to research both theoretical and practical aspects of digital shadow economy prevention in order to identify the measures that could be used for the efficient reduction of the scope of this phenomenon. The aim of this research is to identify the measures of digital shadow economy prevention and compare the attitudes of governmental institutions and consumers towards the efficiency of these measures. The results of the empirical research showed that both consumers and experts agree that the level of tax morale has to be raised not only by using the measures of self-education but also by introducing long-term educational programmes; second, public authorities should ensure business friendly environment, actively implement the principles of justice and officially acknowledge and announce the concept of digital shadow economy; finally, for more efficient detection of the cases of digital shadow activities, it is necessary to reinforce current labour resources that should be specially trained to be able to disclose revenue hiding and tax evasion schemes, employed in e-trade.

  7. Measurements and von Neumann projection/collapse

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    unwanted superpositions of (system + apparatus)-states can be shown to be suppressed, leading eventually to the projection/collapse rule postulated in von Neumann's treatment of measurements [3]. In the next section, the measurement problem in quantum mechanics (QM) is recalled. In §3, some proposed improvements ...

  8. Damage preventing measures for wind turbines. Phase 1- Reliability data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Fredrik; Eriksson, Emil; Dahlberg, Magnus

    2010-08-15

    The state of existing reliability and failure data in the public sources has been investigated. The prime goal has been to evaluate the data's usefulness for developing damage preventing measures. Some publicly available databases exist, and the data has been presented in several papers in the literature. The results from the investigation can seem quite negative. Detailed data are lacking and the level of detailed reporting has even been decreasing in recent years. Information on the impact of load condition on failures, which is an important question, are lacking throughout in the statistics. Some components dominate the failure statistics. These are for example the gearboxes, where failures lead to long down times. Failures of the electrical system lead to considerably shorter down times but the failure rate is much higher. Severe rotor failures seem to be rare, but they occur and the consequences can be dramatic. Operators and insurance companies are demanding improved insight in damage collection, maintenance and overall damage preventing measures. Closer cooperation with these parties could be a fruitful way of gathering more useful data. Improvements for future databases are suggested. A structure for damage collection is proposed. Comparing experience of damage preventing measures from other industries, knowledge about the nature of the damage mechanism and current practice in the wind industry will be an important tool in the evaluation of different damage preventing measures. This will be done in the following phases of this project

  9. Airlie House Pollution Prevention Technology Transfer pilot projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thuot, J.R.; Myron, H.; Gatrone, R.; McHenry, J.

    1996-08-01

    The projects were a series of pilot projects developed for DOE with the intention of transferring pollution prevention technology to private industry. The concept was to develop small technology transfer initiatives in partnership with the private sector. Argonne National Laboratory developed three projects: the microscale chemistry in education program, the microscale cost benefit study, and the Bethel New Life recycling trainee program. The two microscale chemistry projects focused on introducing microscale chemistry technologies to secondary and college education. These programs were inexpensive to develop and received excellent evaluations from participants and regulators. The recycle trainee project provided training for two participants and identified recycling and source reduction opportunities in Argonne`s solid waste stream. The pilot projects demonstrated that technology transfer initiatives can be developed and implemented with a small budget and within a short period of time. The essential components of the pilot projects were identification of target technologies that were already available, identification of target audiences, and a focus of effort to achieve a limited but defined objective.

  10. Measurement of Software Project Management Effectiveness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Demir, Kadir A

    2008-01-01

    .... The metric may be used to evaluate and monitor project management effectiveness in software projects by project managers, technical managers, executive managers, project team leaders and various...

  11. Measures to improve nuclear power project management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Xinchao

    2012-01-01

    Focusing on correct application of ability level principle in setting organizational structure, the effective management system has been established, and 8 practical management regimes have been developed. Personnel training and management work shall be well done and enhanced. Experience feedback in construction management shall be well done for all systems. Exchange of construction and management techniques shall be actively carried out. All staff shall participate in safety management. KPI system is adopted for assessing stakeholders' project management method, and PDCA cycle is adopted for continued improved. Management level upgrading measures are proposed to ensure the smooth construction of nuclear power project. Setting forth and popularizing management theory can provide reference for and promote the smooth progress of various nuclear power projects. (author)

  12. Quantum theory of successive projective measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, Lars M.

    2007-01-01

    We show that a quantum state may be represented as the sum of a joint probability and a complex quantum modification term. The joint probability and the modification term can both be observed in successive projective measurements. The complex modification term is a measure of measurement disturbance. A selective phase rotation is needed to obtain the imaginary part. This leads to a complex quasiprobability: The Kirkwood distribution. We show that the Kirkwood distribution contains full information about the state if the two observables are maximal and complementary. The Kirkwood distribution gives another picture of state reduction. In a nonselective measurement, the modification term vanishes. A selective measurement leads to a quantum state as a non-negative conditional probability. We demonstrate the special significance of the Schwinger basis

  13. 21 CFR 118.4 - Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevention measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevention measures. 118.4 Section 118.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN....4 Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevention measures. You must follow the SE prevention measures set...

  14. Measured Success: The Microgravity Measurement and Analysis Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLombard, Richard; Sedlak, Deborah A.

    1997-01-01

    In microgravity, even minute forces can affect experiments: therefore, investigators need to know the precise strength of the gravitational levels and vibrations affecting their experiments to interpret results correctly and to develop an understanding of the effects caused by these forces. The Microgravity Measurement and Analysis Project (MMAP) at the NASA Lewis Research Center was established to provide a single source for measuring the microgravity environment on various orbiting spacecraft, providing support for scientists, and microgravity environment data. As part of this project, the Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS) and the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE) have supported 15 shuttle missions. In addition, one SAMS unit has been operated on Russia's Mir Space Station since September 1994.

  15. Development of measures to evaluate youth advocacy for obesity prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millstein, Rachel A; Woodruff, Susan I; Linton, Leslie S; Edwards, Christine C; Sallis, James F

    2016-07-26

    Youth advocacy has been successfully used in substance use prevention but is a novel strategy in obesity prevention. As a precondition for building an evidence base for youth advocacy for obesity prevention, the present study aimed to develop and evaluate measures of youth advocacy mediator, process, and outcome variables. The Youth Engagement and Action for Health (YEAH!) program (San Diego County, CA) engaged youth and adult group leaders in advocacy for school and neighborhood improvements to nutrition and physical activity environments. Based on a model of youth advocacy, scales were developed to assess mediators, intervention processes, and proximal outcomes of youth advocacy for obesity prevention. Youth (baseline n = 136) and adult group leaders (baseline n = 47) completed surveys before and after advocacy projects. With baseline data, we created youth advocacy and adult leadership subscales using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and described their psychometric properties. Youth came from 21 groups, were ages 9-22, and most were female. Most youth were non-White, and the largest ethnic group was Hispanic/Latino (35.6%). The proposed factor structure held for most (14/20 youth and 1/2 adult) subscales. Modifications were necessary for 6 of the originally proposed 20 youth and 1 of the 2 adult multi-item subscales, which involved splitting larger subscales into two components and dropping low-performing items. Internally consistent scales to assess mediators, intervention processes, and proximal outcomes of youth advocacy for obesity prevention were developed. The resulting scales can be used in future studies to evaluate youth advocacy programs.

  16. Fleet equipment performance measure preventive maintenance model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    The Texas Department of Transportation : (TxDOT) operates a large fleet of on-road and : off-road equipment. Consequently, fleet : maintenance procedures (specifically preventive : maintenance such as oil changes) represent a : significant cost to th...

  17. Measures of Knowledge and Attitude Toward Preventive Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allred, Charlene A.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    The development and validation of an inventory of preventive cardiology at the University of Virginia is described. The inventory contains two instruments designed to measure medical students' preinstructional and postinstructional knowledge of and attitude toward preventive cardiology. (Author/MLW)

  18. Orthogonality Measurement for Homogenous Projects-Bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivan, Ion; Sandu, Andrei; Popa, Marius

    2009-01-01

    The homogenous projects-base concept is defined. Next, the necessary steps to create a homogenous projects-base are presented. A metric system is built, which then will be used for analyzing projects. The indicators which are meaningful for analyzing a homogenous projects-base are selected. The given hypothesis is experimentally verified. The…

  19. Measurement of software project management effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Demir, Kadir Alpaslan

    2008-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Evaluating, monitoring, and improving the effectiveness of project management can contribute to successful acquisition of software systems. In this dissertation, we introduce a quantitative metric for gauging the effectiveness of managing a software-development project. The metric may be used to evaluate and monitor project management effectiveness in software projects by project managers, technical managers, executive man...

  20. Environmental measures for Escuintla No. 3 unit thermal power project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quisquinay, Carlos; Fabian Rosales, Alejandro [Instituto Nacional de Electrificacion, (Guatemala)

    1996-12-31

    The environmental measures in relation to the project implementation was studied with reference to the Japanese Standards and incorporated in the Implementation Program. This report is prepared however, to review the environmental measures for the project in more detail as to the allowable standards and regulations concerning the measures for the environmental pollution. The authors present the environmental conditions around the Escuintla Power Station in Guatemala; the measures for environmental pollution and evaluation; the measures for prevention of air pollution and diffusion calculations (estimation and assessment of environmental impacts) [Espanol] Las medidas ambientales con relacion a la consolidacion del proyecto, se estudiaron con referencia a los Estandares Japoneses e incorporados en el Programa de Consolidacion. Sin embargo, este reporte ha sido preparado para revisar las medidas ambientales para el proyecto mas detalladamente, con relacion a los estandares y reglamentaciones admisibles concernientes a las medidas de contaminacion ambiental. Los autores presentan las condiciones ambientales en los alrededores de la Central Termoelectrica de Escuintla de Guatemala; las medidas para la prevencion de la contaminacion del aire y los calculos de difusion (estimacion y evaluacion del impacto ambiental)

  1. Measuring endoscopic performance for colorectal cancer prevention quality improvement in a gastroenterology practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hande, Karen A

    2014-03-01

    A gastroenterology practice lacked quality measures to evaluate the practice's colorectal cancer prevention efforts. Colonoscopy performance data were gathered from a retrospective review of 90 charts using a modified Colorectal Cancer Prevention Data Collection Form. Practice stakeholders and project leader reviewed the data, identified practice deficiencies, conducted root cause analysis, and developed practice changes. Implementing the prioritized recommendations and routinely benchmarking care were warranted to ensure effective practice to improve outcomes for colorectal cancer prevention. Achieving higher-value care has led to increased efforts to improve systems for measuring care, using these measures for quality improvement and directly linking quality outcomes to reimbursement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Suicide Prevention and Mental Health Measures for Japanese University Students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Masaru; Koyama, Shihomi; Senoo, Akiko; Kawahara, Hiroko; Shimizu, Yukito

    2016-01-01

    According to the nationwide survey of the National University students in Japan, the annual suicide rate in 2012 was 15.7 per 100,000 undergraduate students. In many universities, suicide prevention is an important issue regarding mental health measures, and each university is actively examining this. The current situation concerning measures for suicide prevention in the Japanese National Universities was investigated in 2009. In 2010, the "college student's suicide prevention measures guideline, 2010" was established based on the results of this investigation. This guideline refers to the basic philosophy of suicide prevention in Chapter 1, risk factors for suicide in Chapter 2, and systems and activities for suicide prevention in Chapter 3. The Health Service Center, Okayama University plays central roles in mental health and suicide prevention measures on the Medical Campus. The primary prevention includes a mini-lecture on mental health, classes on mental health, and periodic workshops and lectures for freshmen. The secondary prevention includes interviews with students with mental health disorders by a psychiatrist during periodic health check-ups and introducing them to a hospital outside the university. The tertiary prevention includes support for students taking a leave of absence to return to school, periodic consultation with such students with mental disorders, and postvention following a suicide. We believe that for mental health measures on the university campus, it is important to efficiently make use of limited resources, and that these efforts will eventually lead to suicide prevention.

  3. Knowledge and utilization of preventive measures in the control of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The burden of neonatal malaria remains a major public health problem in Nigeria receiving less attention. Knowledge and awareness of preventive measures of neonatal malaria is still very low. This study aimed at assessing the Knowledge and utilization of preventive measures in the control of neonatal ...

  4. Preventive Measures Adopted by Nigerian Farmers for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the adoption of environmental hazards preventive measures among cocoa farmers in Nigeria. It specifically identified and evaluated the preventive measures adopted by the farmers against environmental hazards associated with cocoa farming. A multistage sampling procedure was used in selecting ...

  5. Allowing for MSD prevention during facilities planning for a public service: an a posteriori analysis of 10 library design projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellemare, Marie; Trudel, Louis; Ledoux, Elise; Montreuil, Sylvie; Marier, Micheline; Laberge, Marie; Vincent, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    Research was conducted to identify an ergonomics-based intervention model designed to factor in musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) prevention when library projects are being designed. The first stage of the research involved an a posteriori analysis of 10 recent redesign projects. The purpose of the analysis was to document perceptions about the attention given to MSD prevention measures over the course of a project on the part of 2 categories of employees: librarians responsible for such projects and personnel working in the libraries before and after changes. Subjects were interviewed in focus groups. Outcomes of the analysis can guide our ergonomic assessment of current situations and contribute to a better understanding of the way inclusion or improvement of prevention measures can support the workplace design process.

  6. [Reducing inequality by improving preventing measures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valsecchi, M

    2014-01-01

    Terms of inequalities issue in health service are defined and the consolidated scientific acquisitions are recalled. Three prioritary areas of action are defined and described, that Prevention Departments are suggested to activate through focused programs in order to reduce specific inequalities. First area of action: includes three types of vital interventions: vaccinations, contrasting of tuberculosis infection and oncological screening that have to be granted to specific disadvantaged groups of population as Rom communities, immigrant women, prisoners e psychiatric patients. Second area of action: actions on focused urban planning aiming to improve conditions of social housing (with a special focus on thermal insulation, minimal distances to be kept towards streets of havy traffic), increase of increase of urban green spaces enjoyed by the population and contrasting degradation of housing (with particular attention to poisoning by carbon monoxide). Third area of action: actions contrasting cardiovascular diseases, that is the leading cause of death and inequalities in health for the working class population. A coordinated intervention directly in the workplace is proposed, where a particularly high percentage of individuals exposed to specific risk factors is present.

  7. Approaches for measuring the management effectiveness of software projects

    OpenAIRE

    Michael, James Bret; Osmundson, John S.

    2008-01-01

    Effective software project management is a key element in achieving software project success. In order to improve the quality of the management and focus our efforts on the right issues, it is essential to measure software project management effectiveness first. In this report, we introduce four alternative approaches for guiding the development of project management metrics.

  8. Development of measures to evaluate youth advocacy for obesity prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Millstein, Rachel A.; Woodruff, Susan I.; Linton, Leslie S.; Edwards, Christine C.; Sallis, James F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Youth advocacy has been successfully used in substance use prevention but is a novel strategy in obesity prevention. As a precondition for building an evidence base for youth advocacy for obesity prevention, the present study aimed to develop and evaluate measures of youth advocacy mediator, process, and outcome variables. Methods The Youth Engagement and Action for Health (YEAH!) program (San Diego County, CA) engaged youth and adult group leaders in advocacy for school and neighb...

  9. Study Of Rust Preventive Characteristics Of Rust Preventive Oil From Polarization Curve Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwashima D.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fe-Cu-C sintered steels are widely used as powder materials, because of its small volumetric shrinkage. However, Cu, which acts as cathode enhance formation of rust Fe2O3·xH2O during fabrication. To prevent formation of Fe2O3·xH2O rust preventive oils are widely used. High viscosity of those rust preventive oils decrease workability. While, low viscosity degrade rust preventive performance. Therefore, it is necessary to develop new rust preventive oils with contradictory properties of low viscosity and superior rust prevention. In this study, we developed technique to quantitatively evaluate rust prevention ability by measuring polarization curve through thin corrosive solution on Fe-Cu-C sintered steels coated with rust preventive oils. The electrochemical measurements were carried out in corrosive solution of 0.35 mass % NaCl. Using a double capillary was added dropwise to the specimen. From the experimental, it is possible to evaluate the corrosion rate quantitatively in the surface of specimen, which was coated with rust preventive oil through thin corrosive solution. From the measurement results, Corrosion rate is reduced by coating the rust preventive oil. Especially, corrosion rate of the specimen coated with oil that showed best performance indicated 10000 times better than that of without oil ones. Zn addition negative correlation between corrosion rate and period of potential oscillation.

  10. Adding Shareholder Value through Project Performance Measurement, Monitoring & Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Akalu; J.R. Turner (Rodney)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractWe present the various views and methods of measuring and controlling project performance, and factors affecting a project. The review indicates that there is a shift in the type and understanding of factors of project success or failure. However, the presence of various measurement

  11. Aspirin for Stroke Prevention in Elderly Patients With Vascular Risk Factors: Japanese Primary Prevention Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Shinichiro; Ishizuka, Naoki; Shimada, Kazuyuki; Teramoto, Tamio; Yamazaki, Tsutomu; Oikawa, Shinichi; Sugawara, Masahiro; Ando, Katsuyuki; Murata, Mitsuru; Yokoyama, Kenji; Minematsu, Kazuo; Matsumoto, Masayasu; Ikeda, Yasuo

    2016-06-01

    The effect of aspirin in primary prevention of stroke is controversial among clinical trials conducted in Western countries, and no data are available for Asian populations with a high risk of intracranial hemorrhage. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of aspirin on the risk of stroke and intracranial hemorrhage in the Japanese Primary Prevention Project (JPPP). A total of 14 464 patients (age, 60-85 years) with hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes mellitus participated and were randomized into 2 treatment groups: 100 mg of aspirin or no aspirin. The median follow-up period was 5.02 years. The cumulative rate of fatal or nonfatal stroke was similar for the aspirin (2.068%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.750-2.443) and no aspirin (2.299%; 95% CI, 1.963-2.692) groups at 5 years; the estimated hazard ratio was 0.927 (95% CI, 0.741-1.160; P=0.509). Aspirin nonsignificantly reduced the risk of ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (hazard ratio, 0.783; 95% CI, 0.606-1.012; P=0.061) and nonsignificantly increased the risk of intracranial hemorrhage (hazard ratio, 1.463; 95% CI; 0.956-2.237; P=0.078). A Cox regression adjusted by the risk factors for all stroke, which were age >70 years, smoking, and diabetes mellitus, supported the above result. Aspirin did not show any net benefit for the primary prevention of stroke in elderly Japanese patients with risk factors for stroke, whereas age >70 years, smoking, and diabetes mellitus were risk factors for stroke regardless of aspirin treatment. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00225849. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. The surgical care improvement project and prevention of post-operative infection, including surgical site infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberger, Laura H; Politano, Amani D; Sawyer, Robert G

    2011-06-01

    In response to inconsistent compliance with infection prevention measures, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services collaborated with the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention on the Surgical Infection Prevention (SIP) project, introduced in 2002. Quality improvement measures were developed to standardize processes to increase compliance. In 2006, the Surgical Care Improvement Project (SCIP) developed out of the SIP project and its process measures. These initiatives, published in the Specifications Manual for National Inpatient Quality Measures, outline process and outcome measures. This continually evolving manual is intended to provide standard quality measures to unify documentation and track standards of care. Seven of the SCIP initiatives apply to the peri-operative period: Prophylactic antibiotics should be received within 1 h prior to surgical incision (1), be selected for activity against the most probable antimicrobial contaminants (2), and be discontinued within 24 h after the surgery end-time (3); (4) euglycemia should be maintained, with well-controlled morning blood glucose concentrations on the first two post-operative days, especially in cardiac surgery patients; (6) hair at the surgical site should be removed with clippers or by depilatory methods, not with a blade; (9) urinary catheters are to be removed within the first two post-operative days; and (10) normothermia should be maintained peri-operatively. There is strong evidence that implementation of protocols that standardize practices reduce the risk of surgical infection. The SCIP initiative targets complications that account for a significant portion of preventable morbidity as well as cost. One of the goals of the SCIP guidelines was a 25% reduction in the incidence of surgical site infections from implementation through 2010. Process measures are becoming routine, and as we practice more evidence-based medicine, it falls to us, the surgeons and scientists, to be active

  13. Projective measurements in quantum and classical optical systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, FS

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available equally well to both classical and quantum optical systems. A projective measurement, in the context of quantum mechanics, is understood to be the process where a projection operator operates on some input state. Often this projection operator is composed...) Projective measurements in quantum and classical optical systems Filippus S. Roux* and Yingwen Zhang CSIR National Laser Centre, P.O. Box 395, Pretoria 0001, South Africa (Received 3 July 2014; published 22 September 2014) Experimental setups for the optical...

  14. Organised Crime Prevention in the Netherlands: Exposing the Effectiveness of Preventive Measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.R.A. van der Schoot

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThe preventive approach against organised crime has gained much attention since the early 1990s. On an international level as well as on a national one various preventive measures against organised crime have been developed. This is certainly true in the European Union and the

  15. Pressure ulcer prevention is everyone's business: the PUPS project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blenman, Juliet; Marks-Maran, Di

    2017-03-23

    Prevention of pressure ulcers is one of the greatest healthcare challenges in terms of reducing patient harm. The literature shows that although numerous reports and policy documents have been published, pressure ulcer prevention remains an ongoing challenge. A number of innovations have been published offering practising nurses and managers ideas for raising awareness of skin care and preventing pressure ulcers. The majority of these have focused on patients in hospital settings with very little in the literature related to care-home and community initiatives. This article reports on an innovative approach to education for pressure ulcer prevention through collaboration between patients, carers and health and social care professionals.

  16. Exercise Load Measurement Insole (ELMI) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Exercise Load Measurement Insole (ELMI) is a system that is designed to measure normal and shear foot forces during exercise. The ELMI system is lightweight,...

  17. Effectiveness and reliability analysis of emergency measures for flood prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lendering, K.T.; Jonkman, S.N.; Kok, M.

    2014-01-01

    During flood events emergency measures are used to prevent breaches in flood defences. However, there is still limited insight in their reliability and effectiveness. The objective of this paper is to develop a method to determine the reliability and effectiveness of emergency measures for flood

  18. Experiences and challenges in implementing complex community-based research project: the Pacific Obesity Prevention in Communities project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, J T; Moodie, M; Mavoa, H; Utter, J; Snowdon, W; McCabe, M P; Millar, L; Kremer, P; Swinburn, B A

    2011-11-01

    Policy makers throughout the world are struggling to find effective ways to prevent the rising trend of obesity globally, particularly among children. The Pacific Obesity Prevention in Communities project was the first large-scale, intervention research project conducted in the Pacific aiming to prevent obesity in adolescents. The project spanned four countries: Australia, New Zealand, Fiji and Tonga. This paper reports on the strengths and challenges experienced from this complex study implemented from 2004 to 2009 across eight cultural groups in different community settings. The key strengths of the project were its holistic collaborative approach, participatory processes and capacity building. The challenges inherent in such a large complex project were underestimated during the project's development. These related to the scale, complexity, duration, low research capacity in some sites and overall coordination across four different countries. Our experiences included the need for a longer lead-in time prior to intervention for training and up-skilling of staff in Fiji and Tonga, investment in overall coordination, data quality management across all sites and the need for realistic capacity building requirements for research staff. The enhanced research capacity and skills across all sites include the development and strengthening of research centres, knowledge translation and new obesity prevention projects. © 2011 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2011 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  19. A Nanocomposite Approach to Microcrack Prevention in Composite Cryotanks Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Nanomaterials and nanocomposites offer great potential for improvement in many applications. One such NASA application is the prevention of microcracking as well as...

  20. ESRD - Clinical Performance Measures (CPM) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Section 4558 (b) of the Balanced Budget Act (BBA) requires CMS to develop and implement by January 1, 2000, a method to measure and report the quality of renal...

  1. Energy Based Acoustic Measurement Senors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This research focuses on fully developing energy density sensors that will yield a significant benefit both for measurements of interest to NASA, as well as for...

  2. Projective limits of complex measures and martingale convergence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, EGF

    In this paper we prove, for signed or complex Radon measures on completely regular spaces, the analogue of Prokhorov's criterion on the existence of the projective limit of a compatible system of measures. Because of loss of mass under projections this cannot be reduced to the case of positive

  3. AUDITORS‘ PERCEPTION OF FRAUD PREVENTION MEASURES: EVIDENCE FROM TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    Evren Dilek Sengur

    2012-01-01

    The study has been carried out to identify auditors‘ perception regarding fraudprevention measures. In particular, the research focuses on the differences in perception ofthe effectiveness of fraud prevention measures among three categories of fraud: fraudulentfinancial statement, misappropriation of assets and corruption. In the analysis Friedman testand Wilcoxon test were used to examine differences in perception of the effectiveness of fraudprevention measures. The results of the analysis ...

  4. Measuring Income and Projecting Energy Use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitcher, Hugh M.

    2009-01-01

    Energy is a key requirement for a healthy, productive life and a major driver of the emissions leading to an increasingly warm planet. The implications of a doubling and redoubling of per capita incomes over the remainder of this century for energy use are a critical input into understanding the magnitude of the carbon management problem. A substantial controversy about how the Special Report on Emssions Scenarios (SRES) measured income and the potential implications of how income was measured for long term levels of energy use is revisited again in the McKibbin, Pearce and Stegman article appearing elsewhere in this issue. The recent release of a new set of purchasing power estimates of national income, and the preparations for creating new scenarios to support the IPCC's fifth assessment highlight the importance of the issues which have arisen surrounding income and energy use. Comparing the 1993 and 2005 ICP results on Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) based measures of income reveals that not only do the 2005 ICP estimates share the same issue of common growth rates for real income as measured by PPP and US $, but the lack of coherence in the estimates of PPP incomes, especially for developing countries raises yet another obstacle to resolving the best way to measure income. Further, the common use of an income term to mediate energy demand (as in the Kaya identity) obscures an underlying reality about per capita energy demands, leading to unreasonable estimates of the impact of changing income measures and of the recent high GDP growth rates in India and China. Significant new research is required to create both a reasonable set of GDP growth rates and long term levels of energy use.

  5. Upset Prevention and Recovery for Unimpaired and Impaired Aircraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the project is the development of an on-board envelope estimation, protection and upset recovery tool to address loss of control incidents in...

  6. [Multicenter investigation of preventive measures against FOLFOX-induced neurotoxicity-a project of the 4th Chapter of the Oncology Research Group, Aichi Prefectural Society of Hospital Pharmacists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakakibara, Takashi; Matsuyoshi, Koji; Yuki, Kanematsu; Yokota, Manabu; Itakura, Yukari; Adachi, Mamoru; Saito, Hiroko

    2009-08-01

    FOLFOX therapy is associated with a high incidence of neurotoxicity that is specific to oxaliplatin and liable to lead to marked deterioration in the patient's quality of life (QOL). Therefore, we conducted a survey on whether any prophylactic measures were taken to guard against the development of such neurotoxicity, and we investigated the incidence of the neurotoxicity and the efficacy of glutathione and Ca/Mg administration. The results of the survey indicated that 5 among 17 medical facilities engaged in prophylactic measures. The timing of the initial development of neurotoxicity was after 2.9 courses of FOLFOX therapy for those without prophylaxis, after 7.5 courses for those treated with glutathione, and 6.4 courses for those on Ca/Mg treatment. The glutathione or Ca/Mg treatment significantly delayed development of the neurotoxicity. The mean total number of cycles that had been given by the completion of FOLFOX therapy was 5, 9, 11.3 and 8.5, respectively, for no prophylactic treatment, treatment with glutathione and Ca/Mg, indicating that these prophylactic measures allow increases in the number of cycles of FOLFOX therapy given. It was concluded that glutathione or Ca/Mg administered with FOLFOX therapy can delay the development of neurotoxicity, thus contributing to an improvement in the patient's QOL.

  7. Measuring beam losses in the THI project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, L.; Duneau, P.; Lecorche, E.; Lermine, P.; Lemaitre, E.; Ulrich, M.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of the THI project (High Intensity Transport) is to upgrade the GANIL facilities by increasing the beam by a factor of 15, at least for light ions. This higher intensity is required by the radioactive beam facility SPIRAL starting in September 1997, to generate the new nuclear species in the solid target-source (ISOL method). For the control system, the most important issues are now to tune the accelerators while minimizing the beam losses at each stage of acceleration and when not possible, to have a fast beam loss detection signal. This system is composed of probes which deliver a signal to stop the beam when there's too much intensity lost and when not, a logarithmic value of the beam intensity. These probes are linked to a front end VME crate on the network, and in the control room, on the workstations, a graphical user interface program displays the beam variations using logarithmic scales. This program is also used to center the beam while injecting in or ejecting from the main cyclotrons by tuning the steerers, the magnetic elements inside, and the electrostatic deflector to be able to separate and extract the last beam turn. (author)

  8. The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarbarzin, Ardeshir; Carlisle, Candace

    2010-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GP!v1) mission is an international cooperative effort to advance the understanding of the physics of the Earth's water and energy cycle. Accurate and timely knowledge of global precipitation is essential for understanding the weather/climate/ecological system, for improving our ability to manage freshwater resources, and for predicting high-impact natural hazard events including floods, droughts, extreme weather events, and landslides. The GPM Core Observatory will be a reference standard to uniformly calibrate data from a constellation of spacecraft with passive microwave sensors. GPM is being developed under a partnership between the United States (US) National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Japanese Aerospace and Exploration Agency (JAXA). NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), in Greenbelt, MD is developing the Core Observatory, two GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) instruments, Ground Validation System and Precipitation Processing System for the GPM mission. JAXA will provide a Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) for installation on the Core satellite and launch services for the Core Observatory. The second GMI instrument will be flown on a partner-provided spacecraft. Other US agencies and international partners contribute to the GPM mission by providing precipitation measurements obtained from their own spacecraft and/or providing ground-based precipitation measurements to support ground validation activities. The Precipitation Processing System will provide standard data products for the mission.

  9. Community Awareness on Rabies Prevention and Control in Bicol, Philippines: Pre- and Post-Project Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni Rose M. Barroga

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is endemic in the Philippines. To support the rabies campaign in the Bicol region at the southeastern part of Luzon, the BAI-OIE Stop Transboundary Animal Diseases and Zoonoses (STANDZ Rabies project was implemented in the pilot provinces of Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, Albay, and Masbate. A community awareness survey was conducted with the residents of these provinces to determine their knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP on rabies during the start and end of the project. Qualitative, descriptive research was done with a structured KAP questionnaire. Pet owners in the pilot provinces were chosen as respondents. Results showed that respondents know that they can acquire rabies in animals through the bite of a rabid dog (pre-project implementation (PRI: 19.6%, post-project implementation (POI: 38.0%. Vaccination was the top rabies preventive measure (PRI: 61.8%, POI: 92.8%. Biting incidents were noted in some respondents, and observing the dog and killing it immediately were some of the actions taken by bite victims. If a supposed rabid dog was seen, respondents would either: immediately kill the dog (PRI: 20.3%, POI: 13.7%, report it to authorities (PRI: 26.3%, POI: 63.1%, and capture and observe the dog concerned (PRI: 13.5%, POI: 6.0%. Pet owners increased their KAP about rabies prevention and control as compared to the pre-implementation study. However, certain gaps in their KAP need to be given attention; thus continuous education of pet owners must be done.

  10. Environmental Restoration Program pollution prevention checklist guide for the feasibility study project phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    Feasibility studies (FS) determine what remedial alternatives are presented to regulators for site cleanup. A key consideration in this process is the waste to be generated. Minimizing the volume and toxicity of this waste will ultimately contribute to the selection of the best remedial option. The purpose of this checklist guide is to assist the user in incorporating pollution prevention/waste minimization (PP/WM) in all FS phase projects of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program. This guide will help users document PP/WM activities for technology transfer and reporting requirements. Automated computer screens will be created from the checklist data to assist users with implementing and evaluating waste reduction. Users can then establish numerical performance measures to measure progress in planning, training, self-assessments, field implementation, documentation, and technology transfer. Cost savings result as users train and assess themselves and perform preliminary waste assessments

  11. Awareness And Preventive Measures Against Hepatitis B Virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the awareness of Hepatitis B Virus(HBV) infection among Dental Surgeons in Lagos state and to identify preventive measures adopted against HBV infection. Materials and Methods: 220 structured self-administered questionnaires about knowledge of HBV and infection ...

  12. Evaluation of certain preventive measures to malaria infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study provides information on the infectivity rate of Plasmodium falciparum on subjects attending University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital (UITH), Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria. Information on the use of certain preventive measures to control malaria transmission and also the need to keep a clean environment for more ...

  13. Knowledge, Beliefs, and Practices of Malaria Preventive Measures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Treatment choices of malaria amongst the women were oral drugs 123 (49.4%), injections 116 (46.6%) herbs 5 (2.0%) and unspecified 5(2.0%). In the event of ... Sustained health education especially to less educated women is strongly advocated to enhance to knowledge of malaria and practice of preventive measures.

  14. Knowledge of Risk Factors and Preventive Measures of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the study was to elicit the knowledge of risk factors and preventive measures of hypertension among Child Bearing Mothers (CBMs) in Udenu Local Government Area of Enugu State, Nigeria. The study adopted the descriptive research design. Specifically, three objectives with three corresponding research ...

  15. Project Healthy Bones: An Osteoporosis Prevention Program for Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotzbach-Shimomura, Kathleen

    2001-01-01

    Project Healthy Bones is a 24-week exercise and education program for older women and men at risk for or who have osteoporosis. The exercise component is designed to improve strength, balance, and flexibility. The education curriculum stresses the importance of exercise, nutrition, safety, drug therapy, and lifestyle factors. (SK)

  16. Measures and programs for preventing violence in school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gašić-Pavišić Slobodanka Ž.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In many countries across the world schools are no longer a safe place for both students and school staff. Violence in school is an issue scarcely studied in Serbia and there are few articles in domestic professional literature. At national and local level there are not developed strategies nor programs for preventing violence among students in our schools. There are no data about planned, systematic and organized prevention of violence in the practice of our schools. The data obtained by investigations indicate that it is necessary to apply adequate programs for preventing violence among students in our schools, despite the finding that violence in school is not that much conspicuous and serious problem like in other countries (USA Israel, Japan, Austria, Germany. On the basis of relevant literature review the present paper high­lights some very popular and less notorious measures and prevention programs applied in various countries. The aim of the paper is to transmit basic and essential pieces of information so as to gain insight into diverse existing approaches to prevention of violent behavior in school hopefully to encourage our schools to pay more attention to preventing violence in school as soon as possible before it is too late.

  17. The Langley Tobacco Prevention Project: "a model of school and community partnerships": executive summary

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morrow, Karina

    1996-01-01

    "The objective [of this project] was to provide children, parents and school personnel with tobacco prevention education and skill training in order for these groups of individuals to create a smoke-free school community...

  18. Rock stress measurements. Preparatory stage of the equipment development project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mononen, S.; Hakala, M.; Mikkola, P.

    2002-01-01

    In recent years the rock stress measurement methods used in Finland have been overcoring and hydraulic fracturing. There have been mainly two companies involved in these measurements, namely Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) and SwedPower AB. Smoy has done measurements for mines and for rock engineering projects, whereas SwedPower AB has mainly been involved in nuclear waste disposal investigations and conducted hydraulic fracturing measurements in deep boreholes. Smoy together with its partners started in February 2001 a project named JTM, which was a preliminary stage for a future project, which aims to develop a device most suitable for rock stress measurements in Finland. The partners in the project were HUT Rock Engineering, Posiva Oy, Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Gridpoint Finland Oy and Geopros Oy. Tekes, the National Technology Agency, provided almost half of the project funding. In the management group of the project were Pekka Mikkola (chairman) and Tero Laurila from Smoy, Pekka Saerkkae and Sakari Mononen (full-time researcher) from HUT, Aimo Hautojaervi (Posiva Oy), Erik Johansson (Saanio and Riekkola Oy), Matti Hakala (Gridpoint Finland Oy) and Heikki Haemaelaeinen (Geopros Oy). The aim of the JTM-project was to find out the needs for the development of a device most suitable for rock stress measurements in Finnish mines and rock engineering projects. During the project work was done to find out the range of rock stress measurement devices available, to find out the needs for measurements, and to get acquainted to the measurements done in Scandinavia. Also a report of the most suitable methods for Finnish rock conditions was done based on literature and on interviews of rock stress experts. Based on all the information collected during the project a clear picture of the needs for rock stress measurements in Finland could be formed and a preliminary plan of a future project was done. The aim of the suggested project is to build a device based on hydraulic fracturing

  19. Knowledge and prevention measures against dengue in southern Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswas Neupane

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To ascertain the knowledge and prevention measures against dengue among selected adult population in southern Nepal. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in Rapti Zonal Hospital, Dang and Bharatpur Hospital, Chitwan during August-November, 2011. A total of 212 patients were interviewed regarding their knowledge and practices about dengue fever. Serum samples were collected and investigated for the presence of anti-dengue IgM antibodies by IgM-ELISA. Results: Data from 156 patients greater than 15 years were analyzed. Among them, 21 samples were found to possess anti-dengue IgM antibodies by ELISA. Females, economically active people, farmers, unemployed and housewives were more frequently affected by dengue. Of the total, 118 (76% were reported to know the disease dengue. Fever, headache and myalgia were the most known symptoms and house drains and kitchen garden were known as the most common breeding sites of mosquitoes. Garbage disposal, use of mosquito nets and covering water containers were the best known preventive measures. Conclusions: The overall knowledge of dengue was high, but females, old persons, unemployed and housewives had relatively little knowledge of dengue. Therefore, these groups may need special attention in future dengue education programs. Persons with knowledge of the disease more frequently reported the use of preventive measures, indicating the value of education programs as a tool in dengue prevention.

  20. Measures to prevent nosocomial infections during mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Paula; Bassi, Gianluigi L; Torres, Antonio

    2012-02-01

    Endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation are lifesaving measures in critically ill patients. However, these interventions increase the risk of respiratory infections, particularly ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). VAP constitutes a serious burden for the healthcare system and worsens the patient's outcomes; thus, several preventive strategies have been implemented. This communication reviews the current knowledge on VAP pathogenesis and the latest preventive measures. Pathogen-laden oropharyngeal secretions leak across the endotracheal tube (ETT) cuff; thus, a continuous control of the internal cuff pressure and cuffs made of polyurethane improve sealing effectiveness and associated risks of infections. Subglottic secretions aspiration prevents VAP, and the latest evidence demonstrated a reduction in the incidence of late-onset VAP. The role of ETT biofilm in the pathogenesis of VAP is not fully elucidated. Nevertheless, antimicrobial-coated ETTs have showed beneficial effects in VAP incidence. Recent experimental evidence has challenged the benefits associated with the use of the semirecumbent position; yet, these findings need to be corroborated in clinical trials. The latest results from trials testing the effects of selective digestive decontamination (SDD) showed beneficial effects on patients' outcomes, but concerns remain regarding the emergence of bacterial resistance, specifically upon digestive tract re-colonization. The use of oropharyngeal decontamination with antiseptics and the use of probiotics are potential alternatives to SDD. There is consistent evidence that strategies affecting the primary mechanisms of VAP pathogenesis efficiently reduce the occurrence of the disease. Preventive measures should be implemented grouped into bundles to improve overall efficacy.

  1. TRIM timber projections: an evaluation based on forest inventory measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Mills

    1989-01-01

    Two consecutive timberland inventories collected from permanent plots in the natural pine type in North Carolina were used to evaluate the timber resource inventory model (TRIM). This study compares model predictions with field measurements and examines the effect of inventory data aggregation on the accuracy of projections. Projections were repeated for two geographic...

  2. Prevention at school level. UNESCO and WHO: six pilot projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) and the World Health Organization (WHO) are jointly undertaking six pilot projects in Asia and the Pacific, Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean to develop innovative approaches for AIDS education in schools, with the long-term objective of integrating successful educational strategies into school curricula. The projects are being carried out through workshops for the production of educative materials and teacher training workshops. The overall goal is to help young people of school age behave responsibly, giving rightful importance to self-esteem and mutual respect. In line with the program's objective of focusing on technical leadership and support to help countries plan and implement effective AIDS control, plans are underway to organize regional training courses for decision makers on AIDS education in school. full text

  3. The Radon Book. Preventive measures in new buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clavensjoe, Bertil; Aakerblom, Gustav

    2004-01-01

    This book describes in text and picture how one can prevent that the radon concentrations in new buildings become to high. The book's centre of gravity lies on how to build in order to prevent that radon gas from the ground enters the building. The book contains extensive information about ground radon and how to examine the ground before constructing a new building. Release of radon from ground water and construction material is treated, as well as technology for measurement of radon and gamma radiation. The book presents current threshold values/recommended values for radon and the authorities' regulations and recommendations. The book is directed to persons who professionally need knowledge about radon and how to prevent that radon is accumulated in new buildings

  4. Current Situation of the Educational Project on Disaster Prevention in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C.-P.; Chen, Y.-A.; Hsu, T.-H.

    2011-09-01

    The Taiwan government has invested much effort in developing and promoting disaster relief and prevention by following out many research projects after the 1999 Chichi earthquake. "Experiment and Development Project on Implementation and Introspection of Disaster Prevention Education" is one of the most important among these projects. This project includes five major areas such as, 1) "operation and supporting mechanism build-up"; 2) "curriculum development and popularization experiment"; 3) "teachers' training programs on disaster prevention education"; 4) "promotion and popularization of experiment and e-learning"; and 5) "establishment of evaluation system". Furthermore, The Ministry of Education has promoted actively for the participation of local government since 2007. Depending upon the requirements and characteristics of different areas, different projects are set up and some involved the teachers and students senior high schools and event under to participate. Through this project, most primary and secondary schools in Taiwan have participated the evacuation training during the large earthquake in the campus and have developed the disaster prevention project for their selves. These implementations are still of the early stage, most of the schools still lack experience and need to be more relevant for disaster prevention and relief exercises. In the future more executive powers and supports from the Ministry of Education and from the local government works will largely help the schools and general public at all levels to reduce the occurrence of disaster events on campus.

  5. Measuring quality of dental care: Caries prevention services for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndon, Jill Boylston; Tomar, Scott L; Catalanotto, Frank A; Rudner, Nancy; Huang, I-Chan; Aravamudhan, Krishna; Shenkman, Elizabeth A; Crall, James J

    2015-08-01

    The authors conducted a study to validate the following 3 evidence-based, process-of-care quality measures focused on dental caries prevention for children with an elevated risk of experiencing caries: sealants for 6- to 9-year-olds, sealants for 10- to 14-year-olds, and topical fluoride. Using evidence-based guidelines, the Dental Quality Alliance developed measures for implementation with administrative data at the plan and program levels. To validate the measures, the authors used data from the Florida and Texas Medicaid programs and Children's Health Insurance Programs and from national commercial dental benefit plans. Data were extracted from 414 randomly selected dental office records to validate the use of administrative data to accurately calculate the measures. The authors also assessed statistically significant variations in overall measure performance. Agreement between administrative data and dental records was 95% for sealants (κ = 0.82) and 90% for topical fluoride (κ = 0.78). Sensitivity and specificity were 90.7% and 88.5% for topical fluoride and 77.8% and 98.8% for sealants, respectively. Variation in overall measure performance was greatest for topical fluoride (χ(2) = 5,887.1; P caries received at least 2 topical fluoride applications during the reporting year. Although there was greater variation in performance for sealants for 6- to 9-year-olds (range, 21.0-31.3%; χ(2) = 548.6; P caries prevention process-of-care quality measures can be implemented feasibly and validly using administrative claims data. The measures can be used to assess, monitor, and improve the proportion of children with an elevated risk of experiencing dental caries who receive evidence-based caries prevention services. Copyright © 2015 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. OECD Health Care Quality Indicator Project. The expert panel on primary care prevention and health promotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marshall, Martin; Klazinga, Niek; Leatherman, Sheila; Hardy, Charlie; Bergmann, Eckhard; Pisco, Luis; Mattke, Soeren; Mainz, Jan

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: This article describes a project undertaken as part of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)'s Healthcare Quality Indicator (HCQI) Project, which aimed to develop a set of quality indicators representing the domains of primary care, prevention and health

  7. Proposing methodology pattern for measuring public value of IT projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinko Kancijan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of the acceptability and the value of IT projects in the public sector, especially when the projects feature the qualitative value along with the monetary one, is a complex problem. There are certain methodologies in the world though that help various organizations in decision-making process when projects are being chosen. The paper surveys the three IT projects public value assessing methodologies: the American Value Measuring Methodology, the French MAREVA, and the German WiBe. A comparison of the approaches to solving the problem of assessing public value of IT projects was thus made. The Analytic Hierarchy Process – a method of a multicriteria analysis of alternatives-was briefly presented. By the use of the Hierarchy Criteria Model in the way that respects all the basic characteristics that a methodology of the kind should feature in accordance with Gartner, a proposition of an IT project public value measurement methodology pattern was presented. The selection of projects with little value contribution if compared to the existing situation, the assessment of the acceptability of risk through the hierarchy structure of the value of a project and the aggregation of the value of separate PVIT dimensions is a contribution related to the methodology patterns that were surveyed.

  8. A Validity Study of Two Projective Object Representations Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbard, Stephen; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Two projective measures of object representations, the Concept of the Object on the Rorschach and the Social Cognition and Object Relations Scales, were compared with each other and measures of intelligence and pathology with 15 children and 94 adult patients. Results support the construct validity of object representations. (SLD)

  9. Prevention of homicidal violence in schools in Germany: the Berlin Leaking Project and the Networks Against School Shootings Project (NETWASS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuschner, Vincenz; Bondü, Rebecca; Schroer-Hippel, Miriam; Panno, Jennifer; Neumetzler, Katharina; Fisch, Sarah; Scholl, Johanna; Scheithauer, Herbert

    2011-01-01

    Since 1999, Germany has experienced at least twelve serious cases of targeted school violence. This article describes two projects designed to fill the gap between universal prevention and emergency response in preventing severe forms of school violence in Germany. The Berlin Leaking Project examined the viability of preventive efforts based on early identification of leaking behavior that often precedes targeted school attacks. Leaking refers to any behavior or communication that indicates a student is preparing to carry out a violent attack. This would include explicit or implied threats of violence, apparent fascination with prior acts of violence such as Columbine, and any evidence of planning or preparation to carry out an attack. The NETWASS project will test a training program and intervention strategy based on those findings, examining the usefulness of a threat assessment approach to prevent violence by training teachers to recognize leaking behavior by students. This approach is extended by training teachers on a larger scale to identify leaking and then having a school-based team evaluate the student and initiate appropriate interventions, such as mental health services, and in some cases, law enforcement action. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  10. Lapses in measures recommended for preventing hospital-acquired infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, P N; Milind, K

    2001-03-01

    This study was carried out in a rural tertiary care referral hospital in central India, to ascertain lapses made by people caring for neonates in measures recommended for preventing hospital-acquired infections. Unobtrusive observation of the healthcare personnel (doctors, nurses, mothers and hospital attendants) during care of the newborn was undertaken. Lapse in handwashing by healthcare personnel was observed around 41% of the time, although mothers practiced their instructions meticulously. Lapses in methods of hand drying were seen around 7-8% of the time, in those who did wash their hands. Gloves were not used around 21% of the time, when they should have been; and of those using gloves, they were unsterile in around 22% cases. At delivery babies were received unhygienically on approximately 67% of occasions observed. Lapses during cord care ranged from 14.2% to 28.6% and during resuscitation from 16.6% to 60% of occasions. An uncleaned stethoscope was used 75% of the time. The practice of putting a finger in the baby's mouth was observed on 18 occasions. Considerable lapses by all, in every measure recommended for the prevention of hospital-acquired infections were observed. It is concluded that nothing other than an individual's commitment is likely to be successful in preventing hospital-acquired infections. Copyright 2001 The Hospital Infection Society.

  11. Waste minimization and pollution prevention technology transfer : the Airlie House Projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatrone, R.; McHenry, J.; Myron, H.; Thout, J. R.

    1998-01-01

    The Airlie House Pollution Prevention Technology Transfer Projects were a series of pilot projects developed for the US Department of Energy with the intention of transferring pollution prevention technology to the private sector. The concept was to develop small technology transfer initiatives in partnership with the private sector. Argonne National Laboratory developed three projects: the microscale chemistry in education project, the microscale cost benefit study project, and the Bethel New Life recycling trainee project. The two microscale chemistry projects focused on introducing microscale chemistry technologies to secondary and college education. These programs were inexpensive to develop and received excellent evaluations from participants and regulators. The Bethel New Life recycling trainee project provided training for two participants who helped identify recycling and source reduction opportunities in Argonne National Laboratory's solid waste stream. The pilot projects demonstrated that technology transfer initiatives can be developed and implemented with a small budget and within a short period of time. The essential components of the pilot projects were identifying target technologies that were already available, identifying target audiences, and focusing on achieving a limited but defined objective

  12. Formative evaluation of the telecare fall prevention project for older veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saliba Debra

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fall prevention interventions for community-dwelling older adults have been found to reduce falls in some research studies. However, wider implementation of fall prevention activities in routine care has yielded mixed results. We implemented a theory-driven program to improve care for falls at our Veterans Affairs healthcare facility. The first project arising from this program used a nurse advice telephone line to identify patients' risk factors for falls and to triage patients to appropriate services. Here we report the formative evaluation of this project. Methods To evaluate the intervention we: 1 interviewed patient and employee stakeholders, 2 reviewed participating patients' electronic health record data and 3 abstracted information from meeting minutes. We describe the implementation process, including whether the project was implemented according to plan; identify barriers and facilitators to implementation; and assess the incremental benefit to the quality of health care for fall prevention received by patients in the project. We also estimate the cost of developing the pilot project. Results The project underwent multiple changes over its life span, including the addition of an option to mail patients educational materials about falls. During the project's lifespan, 113 patients were considered for inclusion and 35 participated. Patient and employee interviews suggested support for the project, but revealed that transportation to medical care was a major barrier in following up on fall risks identified by nurse telephone triage. Medical record review showed that the project enhanced usual medical care with respect to home safety counseling. We discontinued the program after 18 months due to staffing limitations and competing priorities. We estimated a cost of $9194 for meeting time to develop the project. Conclusions The project appeared feasible at its outset but could not be sustained past the first cycle of

  13. Formative evaluation of the telecare fall prevention project for older veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miake-Lye, Isomi M; Amulis, Angel; Saliba, Debra; Shekelle, Paul G; Volkman, Linda K; Ganz, David A

    2011-05-23

    Fall prevention interventions for community-dwelling older adults have been found to reduce falls in some research studies. However, wider implementation of fall prevention activities in routine care has yielded mixed results. We implemented a theory-driven program to improve care for falls at our Veterans Affairs healthcare facility. The first project arising from this program used a nurse advice telephone line to identify patients' risk factors for falls and to triage patients to appropriate services. Here we report the formative evaluation of this project. To evaluate the intervention we: 1) interviewed patient and employee stakeholders, 2) reviewed participating patients' electronic health record data and 3) abstracted information from meeting minutes. We describe the implementation process, including whether the project was implemented according to plan; identify barriers and facilitators to implementation; and assess the incremental benefit to the quality of health care for fall prevention received by patients in the project. We also estimate the cost of developing the pilot project. The project underwent multiple changes over its life span, including the addition of an option to mail patients educational materials about falls. During the project's lifespan, 113 patients were considered for inclusion and 35 participated. Patient and employee interviews suggested support for the project, but revealed that transportation to medical care was a major barrier in following up on fall risks identified by nurse telephone triage. Medical record review showed that the project enhanced usual medical care with respect to home safety counseling. We discontinued the program after 18 months due to staffing limitations and competing priorities. We estimated a cost of $9194 for meeting time to develop the project. The project appeared feasible at its outset but could not be sustained past the first cycle of evaluation due to insufficient resources and a waning of local

  14. Risk and direct protective factors for youth violence: results from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Multisite Violence Prevention Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, David B; Tolan, Patrick H; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Schoeny, Michael E

    2012-08-01

    This study was conducted as part of a multisite effort to examine risk and direct protective factors for youth violence. The goal was to identify those factors in the lives of young people that increase or decrease the risk of violence. These analyses fill an important gap in the literature, as few studies have examined risk and direct protective factors for youth violence across multiple studies. Data on 4432 middle-school youth, from the CDC Multisite Violence Prevention Project were used. Evaluations were made of effects of variables coded as risk and direct protective factors in the fall of 6th grade on violence measured in spring of 7th and 8th grades. Factors tested included depression, delinquency, alcohol and drug involvement, involvement in family activities, academic achievement, attitudes toward school, truancy, and peer deviance. Most variables were coded with two sets of dummy variables indicating risk and protective directions of effects. Results showed that higher teacher-rated study skills were associated with lower subsequent violence across genders and ethnic groups. Affiliation with deviant peers was significantly associated with increased subsequent violence among youth reporting their race/ethnicity as white or other, marginally associated with increased violence among African-American youth, and unrelated among Latino youth. This study identified some factors than should be areas of interest for effective prevention programs. Some ethnic differences also should be considered in planning of prevention. The CDC Multisite Violence Prevention Project completed enrollment prior to July 2005. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Categorization of fragrance contact allergens for prioritization of preventive measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uter, Wolfgang; Johansen, Jeanne D; Börje, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Contact allergy to fragrances is still relatively common, affecting ∼ 16% of patients patch tested for suspected allergic contact dermatitis, considering all current screening allergens. The objective of the review is to systematically retrieve, evaluate and classify evidence on contact allergy...... to fragrances, in order to arrive at recommendations for targeting of primary and secondary prevention. Besides published evidence on contact allergy in humans, animal data (local lymph node assay), annual use volumes and structure-activity relationships (SARs) were considered for an algorithmic categorization...... to the categorization of a further 26 substances as likely contact allergens. In conclusion, the presence of 127 single fragrance substances and natural mixtures should, owing to their skin sensitizing properties, be disclosed, for example on the label. As an additional preventive measure, the maximum use concentration...

  16. The Leadership Program’s Violence Prevention Project: Infusing the Arts into Conflict Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M. Chauveron

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available While the demand for youth violence prevention programs increases, the ability of the traditional school day schedule to accommodate violence prevention program time requirements has diminished. School reforms, such as No Child Left Behind, have pressed schools to focus more tightly on academics, often to the exclusion of subjects such as physical education and the arts. Viable violence prevention programs must offer components that supplement classroom curriculum as well as reduce violence and strike a balance between brevity and effectiveness. The Leadership Program’s (TLP universal Violence Prevention Project (VPP meets this call with a conflict resolution model for students in urban schools. The curriculum is based on a conceptual framework derived from prevention science and positive youth development delivered through the vehicle of the arts. Utilizing an engaging hybrid prevention program, this high quality 12 session model melds fidelity and adaptation to yield effective evaluation outcomes.

  17. Preventive measures to eliminate asbestos-related diseases in singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, John Wah; Koh, David; Khim, Judy Sng Gek; Le, Giang Vinh; Takahashi, Ken

    2011-09-01

    The incidence of asbestos-related diseases (ARD) has increased in the last four decades. In view of the historical use of asbestos in Singapore since the country started banning it in phases in 1989 and the long latency of the disease, the incidence of ARD can be expected to increase further. As occupational exposure to asbestos still occurs, preventive measures to eliminate ARD continue to be required to protect the health of both workers and the public from asbestos exposure. The majority of occupational exposures to asbestos at present occur during the removal of old buildings. Preventive measures have been utilized by different government ministries and agencies in eliminating ARD in Singapore over the past 40 years. These measures have included the enforcement of legislation, substitution with safer materials, and engineering controls during asbestos removal as well as improvements in personal hygiene and the use of personal protective equipment. The existing Workman's Compensation System for ARD should be further refined, given that is currently stipulates that claims for asbestosis and malignant mesothelioma be made within 36 and 12 months after ceasing employment.

  18. Preventive Measures to Eliminate Asbestos-Related Diseases in Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Wah Lim

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of asbestos-related diseases (ARD has increased in the last four decades. In view of the historical use of asbestos in Singapore since the country started banning it in phases in 1989 and the long latency of the disease, the incidence of ARD can be expected to increase further. As occupational exposure to asbestos still occurs, preventive measures to eliminate ARD continue to be required to protect the health of both workers and the public from asbestos exposure. The majority of occupational exposures to asbestos at present occur during the removal of old buildings. Preventive measures have been utilized by different government ministries and agencies in eliminating ARD in Singapore over the past 40 years. These measures have included the enforcement of legislation, substitution with safer materials, and engineering controls during asbestos removal as well as improvements in personal hygiene and the use of personal protective equipment. The existing Workman’s Compensation System for ARD should be further refined, given that is currently stipulates that claims for asbestosis and malignant mesothelioma be made within 36 and 12 months after ceasing employment.

  19. [Type 2 diabetes and frecuency of prevention and control measures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Corona, Aída; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Rojas-Martínez, Rosalba; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    To determine the frequency of application of prevention and control measures for type 2 diabetes in Mexican population. ENSANUT 2012 is a nationally and by-state representative survey. Sample design was probabilistic, multistage, stratified and clustered. The information of 46 277 adults≥20 was used for this analysis. A weighted analysis was performed using Stata 12. Prevalence of diabetes by previous diagnosis was 9.2% (6.4 millions) in ENSANUT 2012, 7.3% (3.7 millions) in 2006 and 4.6% (2.1 millions) in 2000. In 2012, the mean of medical examinations in the previous year related to diabetes control was 7.3. However, the percentage of cases in which preventive actions for chronic complications were performed (such as foot care [14.6%], ophthalmology [8.6%] and determination of HbA1c [9.6%]) was low. Patients with diabetes have frequent access to medical services. However, preventive actions are applied insufficiently both in quality and quantity.

  20. Community-based efforts to prevent obesity: Australia-wide survey of projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Melanie S; Reynolds, Rebecca C; Waters, Elizabeth; Gill, Timothy; King, Lesley; Swinburn, Boyd A; Allender, Steven

    2013-08-01

    Community-based programs that affect healthy environments and policies have emerged as an effective response to high obesity levels in populations. Apart from limited individual reports, little is currently known about these programs, limiting the potential to provide effective support, to promote effective practice, prevent adverse outcomes and disseminate intervention results and experience. The aim of the present study was to identify the size and reach of current community-based obesity prevention projects in Australia and to examine their characteristics, program features (e.g. intervention setting), capacity and approach to obesity prevention. Detailed survey completed by representatives from community-based obesity prevention initiatives in Australia. There was wide variation in funding, capacity and approach to obesity prevention among the 78 participating projects. Median annual funding was Au$94900 (range Au$2500-$4.46 million). The most common intervention settings were schools (39%). Forty per cent of programs focused on a population group of ≥50000 people. A large proportion of respondents felt that they did not have sufficient resources or staff training to achieve project objectives. Community-based projects currently represent a very large investment by both government and non-government sectors for the prevention of obesity. Existing projects are diverse in size and scope, and reach large segments of the population. Further work is needed to identify the full extent of existing community actions and to monitor their reach and future 'scale up' to ensure that future activities aim for effective integration into systems, policies and environments. SO WHAT? Community-based programs make a substantial contribution to the prevention of obesity and promotion of healthy lifestyles in Australia. A risk of the current intervention landscape is that effective approaches may go unrecognised due to lack of effective evaluations or limitations in program

  1. Formative evaluation of the telecare fall prevention project for older veterans

    OpenAIRE

    Miake-Lye, Isomi M; Amulis, Angel; Saliba, Debra; Shekelle, Paul G; Volkman, Linda K; Ganz, David A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Fall prevention interventions for community-dwelling older adults have been found to reduce falls in some research studies. However, wider implementation of fall prevention activities in routine care has yielded mixed results. We implemented a theory-driven program to improve care for falls at our Veterans Affairs healthcare facility. The first project arising from this program used a nurse advice telephone line to identify patients' risk factors for falls and to triage pa...

  2. Error begat error: design error analysis and prevention in social infrastructure projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Peter E D; Lopez, Robert; Edwards, David J; Goh, Yang M

    2012-09-01

    Design errors contribute significantly to cost and schedule growth in social infrastructure projects and to engineering failures, which can result in accidents and loss of life. Despite considerable research that has addressed their error causation in construction projects they still remain prevalent. This paper identifies the underlying conditions that contribute to design errors in social infrastructure projects (e.g. hospitals, education, law and order type buildings). A systemic model of error causation is propagated and subsequently used to develop a learning framework for design error prevention. The research suggests that a multitude of strategies should be adopted in congruence to prevent design errors from occurring and so ensure that safety and project performance are ameliorated. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Rescue the problem project: a complete guide to identifying, preventing, and recovering from project failure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Todd C

    2011-01-01

    ... vii American Management Association www.amanet.orgviii Contents Creating the Assignment's Statement of Work Defining the Responsibilities by Phase in the SOW Establishing the Recovery Manager's Authority Accepting the Role as a Recovery Manager Creating an Outline of the Recovery Chapter Takeaway 24 25 28 28 29 30 PART II Auditing the Project: Unde...

  4. From mission to measures: performance measure development for a Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farb, Amy Feldman; Burrus, Barri; Wallace, Ina F; Wilson, Ellen K; Peele, John E

    2014-03-01

    The Office of Adolescent Health (OAH) sought to create a comprehensive set of performance measures to capture the performance of the Teen Pregnancy Prevention (TPP) program. This performance measurement system needed to provide measures that could be used internally (by both OAH and the TPP grantees) for management and program improvement as well as externally to communicate the program's progress to other interested stakeholders and Congress. This article describes the selected measures and outlines the considerations behind the TPP measurement development process. Issues faced, challenges encountered, and lessons learned have broad applicability for other federal agencies and, specifically, for TPP programs interested in assessing their own performance and progress. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Environmental restoration program pollution prevention checklist guide for the evaluation of alternatives project phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    Evaluation of alternative studies determine what decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) alternatives are presented to regulators for facility and site cleanup. A key consideration in this process is the waste to be generated. Minimizing the volume and toxicity of this waste will ultimately contribute to the selection of the best clean-up option. The purpose of this checklist guide is to assist the user with incorporating pollution prevention/waste minimization (PP/WM) in all Evaluation of Alternatives (EV) phase projects of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program. This guide will assist users with documenting PP/WM activities for technology transfer and reporting requirements. Automated computer screens will be created from the checklist data to help users implement and evaluate waste reduction. Users can then establish numerical performance measures to measure progress in planning, training, self-assessments, field implementation, documentation, and technology transfer. Cost savings result as users train and assess themselves, eliminating expensive process waste assessments and audit teams

  6. Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study (DPPOS) Phase 3 – Research Project | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abnormal regulation of glycemia ("dysglycemia") has a very long time course, from its earliest stage, labeled pre-diabetes, to the onset of Type 2 diabetes (T2D), to the development of clinically detectable microvascular changes and measurable atherosclerosis, to clinically manifest complications with attendant morbidity and mortality. |

  7. 77 FR 30292 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Project (SIP): Initial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ..., Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Project (SIP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Identifying Barriers to Receiving Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening Among Muslim... ``Identifying Barriers to Receiving Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening Among Muslim Women Living in the United...

  8. 77 FR 31358 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Initial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ..., Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Initial Review The meeting...-Management Intervention Research, SIP12-057, Panel E, initial review. In accordance with Section 10(a)(2) of... Epilepsy Well (MEW) Collaborating Center for Epilepsy Self-Management Intervention Research, SIP12-057...

  9. 75 FR 32190 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): SIP 10...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-07

    ..., Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): SIP 10-033, Innovative... Start Times on the Health and Academic Performance of High School Students, Initial Review In accordance... Populations & SIP 10-035, Impact of High School Start Times on the Health and Academic Performance of High...

  10. Reconstructing Masculinity in the Locker Room: The Mentors in Violence Prevention Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Jackson

    1995-01-01

    The Mentors in Violence Prevention Project seeks to reduce violence against women by inspiring male athletes and other models of traditional masculinity to challenge norms that equate strength in men with dominance over women and to use their influence for positive behavior change. (SK)

  11. Infectious disease-related laws: prevention and control measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijeong Park

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES This study examines recently revised Korean government legislation addressing global infectious disease control for public health emergency situations, with the aim of proposing more rational, effective and realistic interpretations and applications for improvement of law. METHODS The Korea reported its first laboratory-confirmed case of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS coronavirus on May 20, 2015. Since the first indexed case, Korean public health authorities enforced many public health measures that were not authorized in the law; the scope of the current law was too limited to cover MERS. Korea has three levels of government: the central government, special self-governing provinces, and si/gun/gu. Unfortunately, the Infectious Disease Control and Prevention Act does not designate the specific roles of each level of government, and does not state how these governmental branches should be vertically integrated in a state of emergency. RESULTS When thinking about these policy questions, we should be especially concerned about introducing a new act that deals with all matters relevant to emerging infectious diseases. The aim would be to develop a structure that specifies the roles of each level of government, and facilitates the close collaboration among them, then enacting this in law for the prevention and response of infectious disease. CONCLUSIONS To address this problem, after analyzing the national healthcare infrastructure along with the characteristics of emerging infectious diseases, we propose the revision of the relevant law(s in terms of governance aspects, emergency medical countermeasure aspects, and the human rights aspect.

  12. Infectious disease-related laws: prevention and control measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mijeong

    2017-01-01

    This study examines recently revised Korean government legislation addressing global infectious disease control for public health emergency situations, with the aim of proposing more rational, effective and realistic interpretations and applications for improvement of law. The Korea reported its first laboratory-confirmed case of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) coronavirus on May 20, 2015. Since the first indexed case, Korean public health authorities enforced many public health measures that were not authorized in the law; the scope of the current law was too limited to cover MERS. Korea has three levels of government: the central government, special self-governing provinces, and si/gun/gu. Unfortunately, the Infectious Disease Control and Prevention Act does not designate the specific roles of each level of government, and does not state how these governmental branches should be vertically integrated in a state of emergency. When thinking about these policy questions, we should be especially concerned about introducing a new act that deals with all matters relevant to emerging infectious diseases. The aim would be to develop a structure that specifies the roles of each level of government, and facilitates the close collaboration among them, then enacting this in law for the prevention and response of infectious disease. To address this problem, after analyzing the national healthcare infrastructure along with the characteristics of emerging infectious diseases, we propose the revision of the relevant law(s) in terms of governance aspects, emergency medical countermeasure aspects, and the human rights aspect.

  13. "Just dreaming of them": The Berlin Project for Primary Prevention of Child Sexual Abuse by Juveniles (PPJ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, Klaus M; Oezdemir, Umut C; Schlinzig, Eliza; Groll, Anna; Hupp, Elena; Hellenschmidt, Tobias

    2016-02-01

    The Berlin Project for Primary Prevention of Child Sexual Abuse by Juveniles (PPJ) offers diagnostic and therapeutic help to 12-to-18-year-old juveniles with a sexual preference for the prepubescent and/or early pubescent body of children and who apply for treatment on a voluntary basis. The project goal is to prevent primary or recurrent child sexual abuse as well as primary or recurrent use of child abuse images. Treatment aims to enable affected juveniles to obtain control over their conflictual sexual behaviors. In the present article, the origin of the PPJ; its main approach, including the conception of a media campaign; as well as results from the first year of a three-year study are presented. Further, initial characterizations of juveniles taking part in the project for the first 12 months are provided. The results confirmed that the group of 12-to-18-year-old juveniles with a sexual preference for prepubescent and/or early pubescent minors exists as a target group for primary preventive measures and that they can be assessed for their sexual preferences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A European Seal of Approval for 'gay' businesses: findings from an HIV-prevention pilot project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherriff, Nigel; Gugglberger, Lisa

    2014-05-01

    'Gay' businesses can be important settings through which to deliver health promotion interventions to vulnerable populations, such as men who have sex with men (MSM) regarding HIV prevention. This article draws on data from the European Everywhere project, which represents the first scheme to develop and pre-test a common framework for HIV/STI prevention in 'gay' businesses across eight European countries. The scientific basis of the Everywhere framework was developed using a comprehensive consensus-building process over 30 months. This process included: formative scoping research; interviews with 54 'gay' businesses; meetings/workshops with representatives from project partners, 'gay' businesses, public health administrations and external experts; 15 interviews and three focus groups with project partners; a five-month pilot action phase in eight countries, together with support from the project's Advisory Group; and all Everywhere project partners including the Scientific Steering Committee. A voluntary European code setting out differentiated HIV/STI-prevention standards for 'gay' businesses (including sex venues, 'gay' and 'gay' friendly social spaces, travel agencies, hotels, dating websites) was developed and piloted in eight European cities. During a five-month pilot action, 83 'gay' businesses were certified with the Everywhere Seal of Approval representing a considerable increase on the expected pilot target of 30. Everywhere offers a major contribution to the public health and/or health promotion field in the form of a practical, policy-relevant, settings-based HIV-prevention framework for 'gay' businesses that is common across eight European countries. Findings suggest that a European-wide model of prevention is acceptable and feasible to businesses.

  15. Amoco-US Environmental Protection Agency, pollution prevention project, Yorktown, Virginia: Project peer review. Report of the Peer Review Committee of the Amoco/EPA Pollution Prevention Project at the Yorktown, Virginia refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klee, H.; Podar, M.

    1991-01-01

    The Amoco/EPA Pollution Prevention Project involved a number of representatives from federal and Virginia regulatory agencies, and Amoco's refining business. Participants believed that the Project could benefit from a broader perspective than these organizations along might provide. The Project Work Group selected an independent Peer Review Process which was conducted by Resource for the Future (RFF), a Washington DC think tank. A group of technical, policy and environmental experts from diverse backgrounds served as Peer Review members. The Peer Review Committee met on three occasions to discuss (1) the Project Work Plan (2) sampling data and interpretation and (3) project conclusions and recommendations. The focus of the meeting was on the general scope and content of the project

  16. Advances in surveillance of periodontitis: the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention periodontal disease surveillance project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eke, Paul I; Thornton-Evans, Gina; Dye, Bruce; Genco, Robert

    2012-11-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has as one of its strategic goals to support and improve surveillance of periodontal disease. In 2003, the CDC initiated the CDC Periodontal Disease Surveillance Project in collaboration with the American Academy of Periodontology to address population-based surveillance of periodontal disease at the local, state, and national levels. This initiative has made significant advancements toward the goal of improved surveillance, including developing valid self-reported measures that can be obtained from interview-based surveys to predict prevalence of periodontitis in populations. This will allow surveillance of periodontitis at the state and local levels and in countries where clinical resources for surveillance are scarce. This work has produced standard case definitions for surveillance of periodontitis that are now widely recognized and applied in population studies and research. At the national level, this initiative has evaluated the validity of previous clinical examination protocols and tested new protocols on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), recommending and supporting funding for the gold-standard full-mouth periodontal examination in NHANES 2009 to 2012. These examinations will generate accurate estimates of the prevalence of periodontitis in the US adult population and provide a superior dataset for surveillance and research. Also, this data will be used to generate the necessary coefficients for our self-report questions for use in subsets of the total US population. The impact of these findings on population-based surveillance of periodontitis and future directions of the project are discussed along with plans for dissemination and translation efforts for broader public health use.

  17. The television, school, and family smoking prevention and cessation project. VIII. Student outcomes and mediating variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flay, B R; Miller, T Q; Hedeker, D; Siddiqui, O; Britton, C F; Brannon, B R; Johnson, C A; Hansen, W B; Sussman, S; Dent, C

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the student outcomes of a large-scale, social-influences-based, school and media-based tobacco use prevention and cessation project in Southern California. The study provided an experimental comparison of classroom delivery with television delivery and the combination of the two in a 2 x 2 plus 1 design. Schools were randomly assigned to conditions. Control groups included "treatment as usual" and an "attention control" with the same outcome expectancies as the treatment conditions. Students were surveyed twice in grade 7 and once in each of grades 8 and 9. The interventions occurred during grade 7. We observed significant effects on mediating variables such as knowledge and prevalence estimates, and coping effort. The knowledge and prevalence estimates effects decayed partially but remained significant up to a 2-year follow-up. The coping effort effect did not persist at follow-ups. There were significant main effects of both classroom training and TV programming on knowledge and prevalence estimates and significant interactions of classroom and TV programming on knowledge (negative), disapproval of parental smoking, and coping effort. There were no consistent program effects on refusal/self-efficacy, smoking intentions, or behavior. Previous reports demonstrated successful development and pilot testing of program components and measures and high acceptance of the program by students and parents. The lack of behavioral effects may have been the result of imperfect program implementation or low base rates of intentions and behavior.

  18. [Preventive measures against tuberculosis in working facilities and companies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kiminori; Satou, Ken

    2007-03-01

    The health care program in working facilities and companies have played a significant part in prevention of tuberculosis. However, the ordinary national tuberculosis survey policy was abolished in April, 2005 and the tuberculosis survey for salary-earners is on the brink of drastic change. In this symposium the current status of the prevailing survey of tuberculosis in working facilities and companies was reviewed and the future direction of the tuberculosis survey in comparison to that in lung cancer survey was discussed. 1. Epidemiological trends of tuberculosis from the tuberculosis surveillance data: Masako OHMORI (Research Institute of Tuberculosis, Japan Anti-Tuberculosis Association). The estimated rate of tuberculosis case discovery by periodical mass screening in the working facilities was 0.033% and it was higher than that in general adult population. The detection rate of tuberculosis in nurses who suffered from tuberculosis reached 40.4% by an aid of mass X-ray screening and 8.7% by contact tracing. The risk of onset of the disease was 4.3 times higher nurses than in general at the same years of age. The importance of infection control measures in the medical facilities was emphasized. 2. Current status and problems in tuberculosis control in a large-sized company: Yusuke NAKAOKA (Department of Occupational Health, Osaka Railway Hospital, West Japan Railway Company). Some preventive modalities against TB such as periodical medical check-up and awareness programs have been done for the purpose of prevention in our company. The prevalence of the disease has significantly reduced in number. The specific circumstances in large-sized company should be taken into consideration, and it is important for company workers and health professionals to recognize their roles in preventing the infectious disease. 3. Are there any differences between clinical cases and control people working for small-sized companies in the onset of tuberculosis?: Osamu NAKASHIMA, Kohei

  19. An innovative approach to multimedia waste reduction: Measuring performance for environmental cleanup projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phifer, B.E. Jr.; George, S.M.

    1993-04-01

    One of the greatest challenges we now face in environmental cleanup is measuring the progress of minimizing multimedia transfer releases and achieving waste reduction. Briefly, multimedia transfer refers to the air, land, and water where pollution is not controlled, concentrated, and moved from one medium to another. An example of multimedia transfer would be heavy metals in wastewater sludges moved from water to land disposal. Over $2 billion has been budgeted for environmental restoration site cleanups by the Department of Energy (DOE) for FY 1994. Unless we reduce the huge waste volumes projected to be generated in the near future, then we will devote more and more resources to the management and disposal of these wastes. To meet this challenge, the Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge Environmental Restoration (ER) Program has explored the value of a multimedia approach by designing an innovative Pollution Prevention Life-Cycle Model. The model consists of several fundamental elements (Fig. 1) and addresses the two major objectives of data gathering and establishing performance measures. Because the majority of projects are in the remedial investigation phase, the focus is on the prevention of unnecessary generation of investigation-derived waste and multimedia transfers at the source. A state-of-the-art tool developed to support the life-cycle model for meeting these objectives is the Numerical Scoring System (NSS), which is a computerized, user-friendly data base system for information management, designed to measure the effectiveness of pollution prevention activities in each phase of the ER Program. This report contains a discussion of the development of the Pollution Prevention Life-Cycle Model and the role the NSS will play in the pollution prevention programs in the remedial investigation phase of the ER Program at facilities managed by Energy Systems for DOE

  20. Cancer in numbers: Do preventive measures for colorectal cancer apply?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro J. Tárraga López

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Introduction: Cancer is a global problem as it will affect one in three men and one in four women during their lifetime. Colorectal cancer (CRC is the second most common cancer in men, after lung cancer, and is the second most common cancer in women after breast cancer. It is also the second leading cause of death in men and women separately, and is the second most common cause of cancer death if both genders are considered together. CRC accounts for approximately 10% of cancer deaths. Modifiable risk factors for CRC include smoking, physical inactivity, overweight and obesity, processed meat consumption, and excessive alcohol consumption. CRC screening programs are possible in economically developed countries. However, attention should be paid in the future to geographically populated areas and western lifestyles. Objective: To evaluate the effect on the incidence and mortality of diet and lifestyle of CRC and to determine the effect of secondary prevention through the early diagnosis of CRC. Methodology: An exhaustive search of Medline and Pubmed articles related to primary and secondary prevention of CRC is carried out and a meta-analysis of the same blocks is carried out. Results: 301 items related to primary or secondary prevention of CRC were recovered. Of these, 177 were considered valid in the meta-analysis: 12 in epidemiology, 56 in diet and lifestyle, and over 77 different projections for the early detection of CRC. Cancer is a global problem as it will affect one in three men and one in four women during their lifetime. There is no question of which environmental factors, probably diet, may explain these cancer rates. Excessive consumption of alcohol and high cholesterol diet are associated with a high risk of colon cancer. A diet low in folic acid and vitamin B6 is also associated with an increased risk of developing colon cancer with overexpression of p53. Eating pulses at least three times a week reduces the risk of

  1. The cost-effectiveness of remedial and preventative measures against radon in Norwegian dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, T.; Aanestad, K.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The indoor radon concentrations in Norway are among the highest in Europe. This is partly explained by the geology due to the large occurrences of radium rich soil and bedrock (e.g. alum shale and uranium rich granites), large occurrences of highly permeable unconsolidated sediments (e.g. moraines and eskers), and the construction of buildings due to the cold climate. An additional factor is the extensive use of highly permeable light expanded clay aggregates in the foundation construction. Entry of radon from the building ground is the dominant source of indoor radon in Norway. Based on the results of nation-wide surveys it has been concluded that most homes with high levels of radon are located on highly permeable sediments, and some of the homes on are sometimes very difficult and expensive to mitigate. In order to limit the mitigation costs it is therefore important the cost -effectiveness of measures is optimised. In this paper, the results of a Norwegian analysis of the cost -effectiveness of remedial measures in existing dwellings and preventative measures in new buildings will be presented. The analysis on measures in existing dwellings is based on data from approximately 1100 buildings which were mitigated by grants from the Government during the National Action Plan against Cancer between 1999 and 2003. The results show that the mitigation costs are significantly higher than earlier estimates based on controlled experiments in research projects, and it seem as though the mitigation costs have been significantly underestimated in earlier cost-effect analysis. There are several factor that have contributed to an increase of the mitigation costs and some of these factors will be discusses in more detail in this paper. The upper level for new dwellings is 200 Bq/m 3 and it is generally recommended by the Norwegian authorities that preventative measures are implemented in all new dwellings. By this strategy the costs of

  2. Energy Efficiency Measures to Incorporate into Remodeling Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liaukus, C. [Building America Research Alliance, Kent, WA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Energy improvements in a home are often approached as one concerted effort, beginning with a simple walk-through assessment or more in-depth energy audit and followed by the installation of recommended energy measures. While this approach allows for systems thinking to guide the efforts, comprehensive energy improvements of this nature are undertaken by a relatively small number of U.S. households compared to piecemeal remodeling efforts. In this report, the U.S Department of Energy Building America Retrofit Alliance research team examines the improvement of a home’s energy performance in an opportunistic way by examining what can be done to incorporate energy efficiency measures into general remodeling work and home repair projects. This allows for energy efficiency upgrades to occur at the same time as remodeling proejcts. There are challenges to this approach, not the least of which being that the work will take place over time in potentially many separate projects. The opportunity to improve a home’s energy efficiency at one time expands or contracts with the scope of the remodel. As such, guidance on how to do each piece thoughtfully and with consideration for potential future projects, is critical.

  3. A home-based prevention program for sixth-grade alcohol use: Results from project Northland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C L; Perry, C L; Dudovitz, B; Veblen-Mortenson, S; Anstine, P S; Komro, K A; Toomey, T L

    1995-12-01

    Project Northland is designed to prevent alcohol use among young adolescents. The project is ongoing in 24 school districts, randomly assigned to intervention or reference conditions. Multiple interventions begin with sixth graders and continue through eighth grade. The reference districts offer their standard health curricula. Evaluation consists of school surveys with the cohort (N = 2201) and telephone surveys of half their parents. This article describes the sixth-grade home-based intervention, the Slick Tracy Home Team. Findings of broad-based participation across sex, race, and risk status were documented, as well as some increases in knowledge and family communication about alcohol use.

  4. Measuring Brand Image Effects of Flagship Projects for Place Brands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zenker, Sebastian; Beckmann, Suzanne C.

    2013-01-01

    , which was originally developed for product brands. An experimental design was used to first measure the Hamburg brand as such and then the changes in the brand perceptions after priming the participants (N=209) for one of the three different flagship projects. The findings reveal several important......Cities invest large sums of money in ‘flagship projects’, with the aim of not only developing the city as such, but also changing the perceptions of the city brand towards a desired image. The city of Hamburg, Germany, is currently investing euro575 million in order to build a new symphony hall...... (Elbphilharmonie), euro400 million to develop the ‘International Architectural Fair’ and it is also considering candidature again for the ‘Olympic Games’ in 2024/2028. As assessing the image effects of such projects is rather difficult, this article introduces an improved version of the Brand Concept Map approach...

  5. 77 FR 31358 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Initial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... announced below concerns Research to Enhance Community- Based Fall Prevention among Older Adults, SIP12-058, and Developing a Compendium of Measures and Questions to Assess Mobility: A Focus on Older Adult... Older Adults, SIP12-058, and Developing a Compendium of Measures and Questions to Assess Mobility: A...

  6. A life-cycle model approach to multimedia waste reduction measuring performance for environmental cleanup projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phifer, B.E. Jr.; George, S.M.

    1993-01-01

    The Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), Environmental Restoration (ER) Program adopted a Pollution Prevention Program in March 1991. The program's mission is to minimize waste and prevent pollution in remedial investigations (RIs), feasibility studies, decontamination and decommissioning, and surveillance and maintenance site program activities. Mission success will result in volume and/or toxicity reduction of generated waste. The ER Program waste generation rates are projected to steadily increase through the year 2005 for all waste categories. Standard production units utilized to measure waste minimization apply to production/manufacturing facilities. Since ER inherited contaminated waste from previous production processes, no historical production data can be applied. Therefore, a more accurate measure for pollution prevention was identified as a need for the ER Program. The Energy Systems ER Program adopted a life-cycle model approach and implemented the concept of numerically scoring their waste generators to measure the effectiveness of pollution prevention/waste minimization programs and elected to develop a numerical scoring system (NSS) to accomplish these measurements. The prototype NSS, a computerized, user-friendly information management database system, was designed to be utilized in each phase of the ER Program. The NSS was designed to measure a generator's success in incorporating pollution prevention in their work plans and reducing investigation-derived waste (IDW) during RIs. Energy Systems is producing a fully developed NSS and actually scoring the generators of IDW at six ER Program sites. Once RI waste generators are scored utilizing the NSS, the numerical scores are distributed into six performance categories: training, self-assessment, field implementation, documentation, technology transfer, and planning

  7. Uranium Mill Tailings remedial action project waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    The purpose of this plan is to establish a waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness (WM/PPA) program for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The program satisfies DOE requirements mandated by DOE Order 5400.1. This plan establishes planning objectives and strategies for conserving resources and reducing the quantity and toxicity of wastes and other environmental releases

  8. Evaluation of DELTA PREP: A Project Aimed at Integrating Primary Prevention of Intimate Partner Violence within State Domestic Violence Coalitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Kimberley E.; Zakocs, Ronda; Le, Brenda; Hill, Jessica A.; Brown, Pamela; Wheaton, Jocelyn

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been recognized as a public health problem since the late 20th century. To spur IPV prevention efforts nationwide, the DELTA PREP Project selected 19 state domestic violence coalitions to build organizational prevention capacity and catalyze IPV primary prevention strategies within their states.…

  9. Development of interventions for the secondary prevention of Alzheimer's dementia: the European Prevention of Alzheimer's Dementia (EPAD) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Craig W; Molinuevo, José Luis; Truyen, Luc; Satlin, Andrew; Van der Geyten, Serge; Lovestone, Simon

    2016-02-01

    Alzheimer's dementia affects more than 40 million people worldwide with substantial increases in prevalence anticipated. Interventions that either modify risk or reduce the development of early disease could delay the onset of dementia or reduce the rate of cognitive and functional decline. The European Prevention of Alzheimer's Dementia (EPAD) is a public-private consortium, funded by the Innovative Medicines Initiative, designed to increase the likelihood of successful development of new treatments for the secondary prevention of Alzheimer's dementia. EPAD will help with testing of different agents in this pre-dementia population through four components: improvement of access to existing cohorts and registries, development of the EPAD Registry of approximately 24,000 people who might be at increased risk of developing Alzheimer's dementia, establishment of the EPAD Longitudinal Cohort Study of 6000 people at any one time, and establishment of an adaptive, proof-of-concept trial including 1500 participants at any given time. The need for EPAD and its key design elements are described, and we discuss EPAD in relation to similar projects in progress. These parallel efforts reflect the need for a coordinated, worldwide battle against dementia, in which EPAD will play a crucial role. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Project EX-India: A classroom-based tobacco use prevention and cessation intervention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, Anupreet Kaur; Sussman, Steve; Tewari, Abha; Bassi, Shalini; Arora, Monika

    2016-02-01

    Tobacco use experimentation is most frequent between the ages of 15–24 in India. Therefore, programming to counteract tobacco use among adolescents is needed. There is a lack of evidence-based teen tobacco use prevention and cessation programs. The current study provides an outcome evaluation of the Project EX tobacco use prevention and cessation program among Indian adolescents (16–18 years). An eight-session classroom-based curriculum was adapted to the Indian context and translated from English to Hindi (local language). Next, it was tested using a quasi-experimental design with 624 Indian students at baseline, involving two program and two control schools, with a three-month post-program follow-up. Project EX involves motivation enhancement (e.g., talk shows and games) and coping skills (e.g., complementary and alternative medicine) components. Program participants rated complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) activities like meditation, yoga and healthy breathing higher than talk shows and games. Compared to the standard care control condition, the program condition revealed a prevention effect, but not a cessation effect. Implications for prevention/cessation programming among Indian teens are discussed. This study was approved by the Independent Ethics Committee, Mumbai.

  11. Operator algebras generated by commuting projections a vector measure approach

    CERN Document Server

    Ricker, Werner

    1999-01-01

    This book presents a systematic investigation of the theory of those commutative, unital subalgebras (of bounded linear operators acting in a Banach space) which are closed for some given topology and are generated by a uniformly bounded Boolean algebra of projections. One of the main aims is to employ the methods of vector measures and integration as a unifying theme throughout. This yields proofs of several classical results which are quite different to the classical ones. This book is directed to both those wishing to learn this topic for the first time and to current experts in the field.

  12. Measuring Carbon Footprint of Flexible Pavement Construction Project in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatmoko, Jati Utomo Dwi; Hidayat, Arif; Setiawati, Apsari; Prasetyo, Stefanus Catur Adi

    2018-02-01

    Road infrastructure in Indonesia is mainly dominated by flexible pavement type. Its construction process, however, has raised concerns in terms of its environment impacts. This study aims to track and measure the carbon footprint of flexible pavement. The objectives are to map the construction process in relation to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, to quantify them in terms of carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e) as generated by the process of production and transportation of raw materials, and the operation of plant off-site and on-site project. Data collection was done by having site observations and interviews with project stakeholders. The results show a total emissions of 70.888 tonnes CO2e, consisting of 34.248 tonnes CO2e (48.31%) off-site activities and 36.640 tonnes CO2e (51.687%) on-site activities. The two highest CO2e emissions were generated by the use of plant for asphalt concrete laying activities accounted 34.827 tonnes CO2e (49.130%), and material transportation accounted 24.921 (35.155%). These findings provide a new perspective of the carbon footprint in flexible pavement and suggest the urgent need for the use of more efficient and environmentally friendly plant in construction process as it shows the most significant contribution on the CO2e. This study provides valuable understanding on the environmental impact of typical flexible pavement projects in Indonesia, and further can be used for developing green road framework.

  13. Development of a student engagement approach to alcohol prevention: the Pragmatics Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buettner, Cynthia K; Andrews, David W; Glassman, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Significant involvement of students in the development and implementation of college alcohol prevention strategies is largely untested, despite recommendations by the National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and others. The purpose of the Pragmatics Project was to test a student engagement model for developing and implementing alcohol intervention strategies. The Pragmatics Project involved 89 undergraduate students on a large Midwestern university campus in the design and implementation of projects focused on reducing harm associated with high-risk drinking and off-campus parties. The engagement model used an innovative course piloted in the Human Development and Family Science department. The course successfully involved both students and the community in addressing local alcohol issues. The course design described would fit well into a Master of Public Health, Community Psychology, Health Psychology, or interdisciplinary curricula as well as the service learning model, and it is applicable in addressing other health risk behaviors.

  14. Energy Efficiency Measures to Incorporate into Remodeling Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liaukus, C.

    2014-12-01

    Energy improvements in a home are often approached as one concerted effort, beginning with a simple walk-through assessment or more in-depth energy audit and followed by the installation of recommended energy measures. While this approach allows for systems thinking to guide the efforts, comprehensive energy improvements of this nature are undertaken by a relatively small number of the households in our nation compared to more piecemeal remodeling efforts. Even when programs like the Weatherization Assistance Program and Home Performance with ENERGY STAR are considered, homes that have had a comprehensive energy makeover still represent a small fraction of the 111.1 million households. In this report, the U.S Department of Energy Building America Retrofit Alliance research team looks at the improvement of a home's energy performance in an opportunistic way: it examines what can be done to incorporate energy efficiency measures into general remodeling work and home repair projects. This allows for the possibility for people who would not normally pursue energy efficiency but will remodel their kitchen or re-side their home to improve their home's performance at the same time. There are challenges to this approach, not the least of which being that the work will take place over time in potentially many separate projects. The opportunity to improve a home's energy efficiency at one time expands or contracts with the scope of the remodel. As such, guidance on how to do each piece thoughtfully and with consideration for potential future projects, is critical.

  15. Fleet equipment performance measurement preventive maintenance model : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The concept of preventive maintenance is very important in the effective management and deployment of : vehicle fleets. The Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) operates a large fleet of on-road and offroad : equipment. Newer engines and vehicl...

  16. Prevention measures of flooding inside building at Hamaoka NPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kani, Naoya; Wakunaga, Takao; Ishida, Takahisa; Yasuda, Mitsuhiro; Kawabata, Tatsuo

    2013-01-01

    As the lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident, we will implement installing the sea wall in order to block direct intrusion of tsunami on Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station. In addition, assuming a tsunami higher than the sea wall, we will implement countermeasures to prevent flooding inside the building and the important equipment containment room. In this paper, we present countermeasures to prevent flooding for penetrations and openings of ventilation. (author)

  17. Comparison of maximum intensity projection and digitally reconstructed radiographic projection for carotid artery stenosis measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyde, Derek E.; Habets, Damiaan F.; Fox, Allan J.; Gulka, Irene; Kalapos, Paul; Lee, Don H.; Pelz, David M.; Holdsworth, David W.

    2007-01-01

    Digital subtraction angiography is being supplanted by three-dimensional imaging techniques in many clinical applications, leading to extensive use of maximum intensity projection (MIP) images to depict volumetric vascular data. The MIP algorithm produces intensity profiles that are different than conventional angiograms, and can also increase the vessel-to-tissue contrast-to-noise ratio. We evaluated the effect of the MIP algorithm in a clinical application where quantitative vessel measurement is important: internal carotid artery stenosis grading. Three-dimensional computed rotational angiography (CRA) was performed on 26 consecutive symptomatic patients to verify an internal carotid artery stenosis originally found using duplex ultrasound. These volumes of data were visualized using two different postprocessing projection techniques: MIP and digitally reconstructed radiographic (DRR) projection. A DRR is a radiographic image simulating a conventional digitally subtracted angiogram, but it is derived computationally from the same CRA dataset as the MIP. By visualizing a single volume with two different projection techniques, the postprocessing effect of the MIP algorithm is isolated. Vessel measurements were made, according to the NASCET guidelines, and percentage stenosis grades were calculated. The paired t-test was used to determine if the measurement difference between the two techniques was statistically significant. The CRA technique provided an isotropic voxel spacing of 0.38 mm. The MIPs and DRRs had a mean signal-difference-to-noise-ratio of 30:1 and 26:1, respectively. Vessel measurements from MIPs were, on average, 0.17 mm larger than those from DRRs (P<0.0001). The NASCET-type stenosis grades tended to be underestimated on average by 2.4% with the MIP algorithm, although this was not statistically significant (P=0.09). The mean interobserver variability (standard deviation) of both the MIP and DRR images was 0.35 mm. It was concluded that the MIP

  18. Finding a voice: participatory research with street-involved youth in the youth injection prevention project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coser, Larissa Rodrigues; Tozer, Kira; Van Borek, Natasha; Tzemis, Despina; Taylor, Darlene; Saewyc, Elizabeth; Buxton, Jane A

    2014-09-01

    This article uses a Positive Youth Development framework to explore the experiences of six experiential youth coresearchers (YCs) in the Youth Injection Prevention (YIP) participatory research project, and the parallel track process of empowerment and capacity building that developed. The YIP project was conducted in Metro Vancouver at the BC Centre for Disease Control and community organizations serving street-involved youth. A process evaluation was conducted to explore themes in the YCs experience in the project, as well as process strengths and challenges. Semistructured interviews with the YCs, researcher field notes, and team meeting and debrief session minutes were analyzed. The YIP project appears to have exerted a positive influence on the YCs. Positive self-identities, sense of purpose, reconceptualization of intellectual ability, new knowledge and skills, supportive relationships, finding a voice, and social and self-awareness were among the positive impacts. Process strengths included team-building activities, team check-in and checkout sessions, and professional networking opportunities. Process challenges included the time required to help YCs overcome personal barriers to participation. The YIP project demonstrates that participatory research with street-involved youth is a viable research option that contributes to positive youth development and empowerment. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  19. Design, Implementation, and Evaluation of the Adolescents and Surveillance System for the Obesity Prevention Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabacchi, Garden; Bianco, Antonino; Alessi, Nicola; Filippi, Anna Rita; Napoli, Giuseppe; Jemni, Monèm; Censi, Laura; Breda, João; Schumann, Nathali Lehmann; Firenze, Alberto; Vitale, Francesco; Mammina, Caterina

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Adolescents Surveillance System for Obesity prevention (ASSO) Project aimed at developing standardized and web-based tools for collecting data on adolescents’ obesity and its potential determinants. This has been implemented and piloted in the local area of Palermo city, Italy. The aim of the present study is to provide an overview of the Project's design, implementation, and evaluation, highlighting all the aspects for a potential scale-up of the surveillance system on the whole national territory and abroad, as a sustainable and effective source of data. The overall structure and management, the ASSO-toolkit, the ASSO-NutFit software, and all developed and used procedures for recruiting, training, and data collecting/analyzing are addressed. An interim evaluation has been performed through a feasibility study; a final Project evaluation has been performed reporting the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) and the attributes that a surveillance system should have. This article provides a detailed overview of the Project and highlights that ASSO can be considered a valid, logical, coherent, efficient, and sustainable surveillance system that is consistent with countries’ needs and priorities. The system developed by the ASSO Project provides high-quality data and complies with several characteristics typical of a suitable surveillance system. It has a potential of being adopted within the National Health Service and other countries’ Health Services for monitoring adolescents’ obesity and its determinants, such as food intakes, behaviors, physical activity, and fitness profiles. PMID:27015195

  20. Design, Implementation, and Evaluation of the Adolescents and Surveillance System for the Obesity Prevention Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabacchi, Garden; Bianco, Antonino; Alessi, Nicola; Filippi, Anna Rita; Napoli, Giuseppe; Jemni, Monèm; Censi, Laura; Breda, João; Schumann, Nathali Lehmann; Firenze, Alberto; Vitale, Francesco; Mammina, Caterina

    2016-03-01

    The Adolescents Surveillance System for Obesity prevention (ASSO) Project aimed at developing standardized and web-based tools for collecting data on adolescents' obesity and its potential determinants. This has been implemented and piloted in the local area of Palermo city, Italy. The aim of the present study is to provide an overview of the Project's design, implementation, and evaluation, highlighting all the aspects for a potential scale-up of the surveillance system on the whole national territory and abroad, as a sustainable and effective source of data.The overall structure and management, the ASSO-toolkit, the ASSO-NutFit software, and all developed and used procedures for recruiting, training, and data collecting/analyzing are addressed. An interim evaluation has been performed through a feasibility study; a final Project evaluation has been performed reporting the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) and the attributes that a surveillance system should have.This article provides a detailed overview of the Project and highlights that ASSO can be considered a valid, logical, coherent, efficient, and sustainable surveillance system that is consistent with countries' needs and priorities.The system developed by the ASSO Project provides high-quality data and complies with several characteristics typical of a suitable surveillance system. It has a potential of being adopted within the National Health Service and other countries' Health Services for monitoring adolescents' obesity and its determinants, such as food intakes, behaviors, physical activity, and fitness profiles.

  1. Measuring Carbon Footprint of Flexible Pavement Construction Project in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utomo Dwi Hatmoko Jati

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Road infrastructure in Indonesia is mainly dominated by flexible pavement type. Its construction process, however, has raised concerns in terms of its environment impacts. This study aims to track and measure the carbon footprint of flexible pavement. The objectives are to map the construction process in relation to greenhouse gas (GHG emissions, to quantify them in terms of carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e as generated by the process of production and transportation of raw materials, and the operation of plant off-site and on-site project. Data collection was done by having site observations and interviews with project stakeholders. The results show a total emissions of 70.888 tonnes CO2e, consisting of 34.248 tonnes CO2e (48.31% off-site activities and 36.640 tonnes CO2e (51.687% on-site activities. The two highest CO2e emissions were generated by the use of plant for asphalt concrete laying activities accounted 34.827 tonnes CO2e (49.130%, and material transportation accounted 24.921 (35.155%. These findings provide a new perspective of the carbon footprint in flexible pavement and suggest the urgent need for the use of more efficient and environmentally friendly plant in construction process as it shows the most significant contribution on the CO2e. This study provides valuable understanding on the environmental impact of typical flexible pavement projects in Indonesia, and further can be used for developing green road framework.

  2. EMF Rapid Program Engineering Projects, Project 1, Development of Recommendations for Guidelines for Field Source Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Electric Research and Management, Inc.

    1997-03-11

    The goal of this project is to develop a protocol for measuring the electric and magnetic fields around sources. Data from these measurements may help direct future biological effects research by better defining the complexity of magnetic and electric fields to which humanity is exposed, as well asprovide the basis for rigorous field exposure analysis and risk assessment once the relationship between field exposure and biological response. is better understood. The data base also should have sufficient spatial and temporal characteristics to guide electric and magnetic field management. The goal of Task A is to construct a set of characteristics that would be ideal to have for guiding and interpreting biological studies and for focusing any future effort at field management. This ideal set will then be quantified and reduced according to the availability (or possible development of) instrumentation to measure the desired characteristics. Factors that also will be used to define pragmatic data sets will be the cost of collecting the data, the cost of developing an adequate data base, and the needed precision in measuring specific characteristics. A field, electric or magnetic, will always be ,some function of time and space. The first step in this section of the protocol development will be to determine what span of time and what portion of space are required to quantify the electric and magnetic fields around sources such as appliances and electrical apparatus. Constraints on time will be set by examining measurement limitations and biological data requirements.

  3. Estimating unbiased economies of scale of HIV prevention projects: a case study of Avahan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lépine, Aurélia; Vassall, Anna; Chandrashekar, Sudha; Blanc, Elodie; Le Nestour, Alexis

    2015-04-01

    Governments and donors are investing considerable resources on HIV prevention in order to scale up these services rapidly. Given the current economic climate, providers of HIV prevention services increasingly need to demonstrate that these investments offer good 'value for money'. One of the primary routes to achieve efficiency is to take advantage of economies of scale (a reduction in the average cost of a health service as provision scales-up), yet empirical evidence on economies of scale is scarce. Methodologically, the estimation of economies of scale is hampered by several statistical issues preventing causal inference and thus making the estimation of economies of scale complex. In order to estimate unbiased economies of scale when scaling up HIV prevention services, we apply our analysis to one of the few HIV prevention programmes globally delivered at a large scale: the Indian Avahan initiative. We costed the project by collecting data from the 138 Avahan NGOs and the supporting partners in the first four years of its scale-up, between 2004 and 2007. We develop a parsimonious empirical model and apply a system Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) and fixed-effects Instrumental Variable (IV) estimators to estimate unbiased economies of scale. At the programme level, we find that, after controlling for the endogeneity of scale, the scale-up of Avahan has generated high economies of scale. Our findings suggest that average cost reductions per person reached are achievable when scaling-up HIV prevention in low and middle income countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Accuracy and reliability of gyro measurements at today's tunnelling projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heunecke, Otto; Liebl, Wolfgang

    2018-01-01

    Gyro theodolites - briefly gyros - allow the orientation transfer from a reference line to another line without need for a connecting geodetic network. They are routinely used for orientation control of networks in tunnelling projects. This is currently the only way to stabilize accuracy and reliability in tunnelling networks and is indispensable with respect of today's requirements for excavation and breakthrough accuracy. In order to archive a reliable assessment of correctness, the measuring method has to be planned in a way that systematic influences in the determination of an underground directional angle are minimized. For this purpose, the principle of differential measurements is used for an azimuth determination both in terms of time as well as in space. All required corrections and reductions must be considered correctly to obtain the directional angle of interest with a measurement uncertainty less than 1 mgon ({\\wedge }=3.3^''). Some accuracy considerations obtained from own experiences are discussed to state whether the specified standard deviations of the used gyros according to DIN 18723-7 can be confirmed.

  5. The patient satisfaction questionnaire of EUprimecare project: measurement properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimas, Marta; Ayala, Alba; García-Pérez, Sonia; Sarria-Santamera, Antonio; Forjaz, Maria João

    2016-06-01

    The measurement of patient satisfaction is considered an essential outcome indicator to evaluate health care quality. Patient satisfaction is considered a multi-dimensional construct, which would include a variety of domains. Although a large number of studies have proposed scales to measure patient satisfaction, there is a lack of psychometric information on them. This study aims to describe the psychometric properties of the Primary Care Satisfaction Scale (PCSS) of the EUprimecare project. A cross-sectional survey of patient satisfaction with primary care was carried out by telephone interview. Primary care services of Estonia, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Lithuania, Italy and Spain. A total of 3020 adult patients aged 18-65 years old attending primary care services. Classic psychometric properties were analysed and Rasch analysis was used to assess the following measurement properties: fit to the Rasch model; uni-dimensionality; reliability; differential item functioning (DIF) by gender, age, civil status, area of residency and country; local independency; adequacy of response scale; and scale targeting. To achieve good fit to the Rasch model, the original response scales of three items (1, 2 and 6) were rescored and Item 3 (waiting time in the room) was removed. The scale was uni-dimensional and Person Separation Index was 0.79, indicating a good reliability. All items were free from bias. PCSS linear measure displayed satisfactory convergent validity with overall satisfaction with primary care. PCSS, as a reliable and valid scale, could be used to measure patient satisfaction in primary care in Europe. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care; all rights reserved.

  6. Project 'European Research Center for Air Pollution Abatement Measures'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-04-01

    During the 5-7th of March 1985 the first status report of the project 'European Research Center for Air Pollution Control Measures' took place in the Nuclear Research Center, Karlsruhe. Progress reports on the following topics assessment and analysis of the impacts of airborne pollutants on forest trees; distinction from other potential causes of recent forest dieback, research into atmospheric dispersion, conversion and deposition of airborne pollutants, development and optimization of industrial-technical processes to reduce or avoid emissions and providing instruments and making recommendations to the industrial and political sectors were presented. This volume is a collection of the work reported there. 42 papers were entered separately. (orig./MG) [de

  7. Multimode model for projective photon-counting measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tualle-Brouri, Rosa; Ourjoumtsev, Alexei; Dantan, Aurelien; Grangier, Philippe; Wubs, Martijn; Soerensen, Anders S.

    2009-01-01

    We present a general model to account for the multimode nature of the quantum electromagnetic field in projective photon-counting measurements. We focus on photon-subtraction experiments, where non-Gaussian states are produced conditionally. These are useful states for continuous-variable quantum-information processing. We present a general method called mode reduction that reduces the multimode model to an effective two-mode problem. We apply this method to a multimode model describing broadband parametric down-conversion, thereby improving the analysis of existing experimental results. The main improvement is that spatial and frequency filters before the photon detector are taken into account explicitly. We find excellent agreement with previously published experimental results, using fewer free parameters than before, and discuss the implications of our analysis for the optimized production of states with negative Wigner functions.

  8. Measuring Promotion and Prevention Orientations of Secondary School Students: It Is More Than Meets the Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodis, Flaviu A.; Hattie, John A. C.; Hodis, Georgeta M.

    2016-01-01

    The General Regulatory Focus Measure has been used extensively in psychological research to gauge promotion and prevention orientations. Findings of this research show that for New Zealand secondary school students, the General Regulatory Focus Measure does not measure promotion and prevention as theoretically independent constructs.

  9. Simple measures to prevent a massive upper gastrointestinal bleed

    OpenAIRE

    Bansal, Raghav; Vyas, Neil; Companioni, Rafael Antonio Ching; Rajnish, Ishita; Salehi, Ilnaz

    2017-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Nasogastric (NG) tube is frequently used in clinical practice for a variety of indications; however, NG tubes are not without risks, and there are a multitude of gastrointestinal complications that are associated with their use. Simple precautions can help prevent these NG tube?related injuries.

  10. Simple measures to prevent a massive upper gastrointestinal bleed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Raghav; Vyas, Neil; Companioni, Rafael Antonio Ching; Rajnish, Ishita; Salehi, Ilnaz

    2017-08-01

    Nasogastric (NG) tube is frequently used in clinical practice for a variety of indications; however, NG tubes are not without risks, and there are a multitude of gastrointestinal complications that are associated with their use. Simple precautions can help prevent these NG tube-related injuries.

  11. Pneumococcal meningitis post-cochlear implantation: preventative measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Benjamin P C; Shepherd, Robert K; Robins-Browne, Roy M; Clark, Graeme M; O'Leary, Stephen J

    2010-11-01

    Both clinical data and laboratory studies demonstrated the risk of pneumococcal meningitis post-cochlear implantation. This review examines strategies to prevent post-implant meningitis. Medline/PubMed database; English articles after 1980. Search terms: cochlear implants, pneumococcus meningitis, streptococcus pneumonia, immunization, prevention. Narrative review. All articles relating to post-implant meningitis without any restriction in study designs were assessed and information extracted. The presence of inner ear trauma as a result of surgical technique or cochlear implant electrode array design was associated with a higher risk of post-implant meningitis. Laboratory data demonstrated the effectiveness of pneumococcal vaccination in preventing meningitis induced via the hematogenous route of infection. Fibrous sealing around the electrode array at the cochleostomy site, and the use of antibiotic-coated electrode array reduced the risk of meningitis induced via an otogenic route. The recent scientific data support the U.S. Food and Drug Administration recommendation of pneumococcal vaccination for the prevention of meningitis in implant recipients. Nontraumatic cochlear implant design, surgical technique, and an adequate fibrous seal around the cochleostomy site further reduce the risk of meningitis. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Measures to prevent breaches in the security of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zika-Ahlberg, G.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this paper, which is the result of the co-operation between the Swedish Board of Customs, the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute, the Security Police and the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, is to give an idea of the national prevention system as to illicit trafficking of nuclear materials and other radioactive sources. (author)

  13. Drive by Soil Moisture Measurement: A Citizen Science Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senanayake, I. P.; Willgoose, G. R.; Yeo, I. Y.; Hancock, G. R.

    2017-12-01

    Two of the common attributes of soil moisture are that at any given time it varies quite markedly from point to point, and that there is a significant deterministic pattern that underlies this spatial variation and which is typically 50% of the spatial variability. The spatial variation makes it difficult to determine the time varying catchment average soil moisture using field measurements because any individual measurement is unlikely to be equal to the average for the catchment. The traditional solution to this is to make many measurements (e.g. with soil moisture probes) spread over the catchment, which is very costly and manpower intensive, particularly if we need a time series of soil moisture variation across a catchment. An alternative approach, explored in this poster is to use the deterministic spatial pattern of soil moisture to calibrate one site (e.g. a permanent soil moisture probe at a weather station) to the spatial pattern of soil moisture over the study area. The challenge is then to determine the spatial pattern of soil moisture. This poster will present results from a proof of concept project, where data was collected by a number of undergraduate engineering students, to estimate the spatial pattern. The approach was to drive along a series of roads in a catchment and collect soil moisture measurements at the roadside using field portable soil moisture probes. This drive was repeated a number of times over the semester, and the time variation and spatial persistence of the soil moisture pattern were examined. Provided that the students could return to exactly the same location on each collection day there was a strong persistent pattern in the soil moisture, even while the average soil moisture varied temporally as a result of preceding rainfall. The poster will present results and analysis of the student data, and compare these results with several field sites where we have spatially distributed permanently installed soil moisture probes. The

  14. Measures to Prevent Financial Fraud and Legalization of Illicit Funds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunitska Iryna I.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The problems of preventing financial fraud and legalization of funds using mechanisms of the financial market are considered. The relevance of this problem in general and peculiar features of its research in developing economies are substantiated. The experience of organizations created to prevent the legalization of illicit funds is studied. It is determined that new organizations are created in response to the global challenges. It is justified that in Ukraine the fight against the legalization of illicit funds has actualized due to a lack of financial resources in the country, declaration of course towards European values and also as a result of the military conflict in the east of the country. The risk factors for financial fraud and illegal movement of financial flows are systematized according to the groups of conditions: pressure, favorable situation, propensity (justification. It is determined which levels of risk of generating illegal financial flows are inherent in different sectors of the economy depending on institutional factors. It is argued that the increase in the risks of illegal financial flows occurs under conditions of a low level of maturity of the institutional environment and a high level of information asymmetry. Types and tools of fraud in the financial market that increase the risks of illegal financial flows are systematized. It is determined that main types of fraud in the financial market are related to information manipulations and regulatory deficiencies. The world experience of legislative initiatives on counteracting the legalization of funds in financial markets is systematized. It is justified that, in order to prevent financial fraud and prevent legalization of illicit funds in Ukraine, it is necessary to ensure maximum transparency of information on the movement of financial flows in financial markets. In addition, regulators of the financial market should not only cooperate with each other but also prevent

  15. Developing a Project Scorecard to Measure the Performance of Project Management in Relation to EFQM Excellence Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Scheiblich

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Strategic company plans are more frequently realised in the form of strategic projects. Project portfolio management is new territory for a lot of companies, especially regarding the evaluation of strategic projects and the final financial and social results. The paper focuses on a pattern methodology for the measurement of project management performance and for projects prioritisation process. For this purpose, we analyse relevant pieces of literature in the field of project management, as well as other connected fields, like maturity and excellence models, balanced and project scorecard and performance measurement. As research methodology we develop a Project Scorecard that is derived from the Balanced Scorecard and the EFQM model. This is used to connect the strategic decision making process to the operational level of a project in terms of objectives and expectations, by determining a proper set of parameters that can measure each element’s impact on the project overall success. Our research focuses on two main parameters, staff and project maturity. Testing this tool is done by reviewing a sum of human resources documents and various employee surveys. The results offer an overall interpretation and key of the Project Scorecard.

  16. Evaluation of Pacific Islands Early Childhood Caries Prevention Project: Republic of the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milgrom, Peter; Tut, Ohnmar K

    2009-01-01

    This communication reports an outcomes evaluation of the Pacific Islands Early Childhood Caries Prevention Project. The evaluation includes children in three conditions: a) topical fluoride varnish three times per school year; b) varnish plus twice-per-day toothbrushing; and c) intervention 2 plus three-times-per-day xylitol containing gummy bear snacks at school and home visits to encourage parental involvement. For this evaluation, groups 2 and 3 have been combined. One year after project implementation, mean decayed, extracted, or filled primary teeth was 10.3 [standard deviation (SD)= 4.3] teeth for group 1, and 8.2 (SD = 4.0) teeth for the combination of groups 2 and 3 (P 0.05). Evaluation confirms the outcome of a program including both in-school twice-daily toothbrushing with fluoridated toothpaste and frequent applications of fluoride varnish.

  17. Psychosocial Predictors of Weight Loss among American Indian and Alaska Native Participants in a Diabetes Prevention Translational Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward J. Dill

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The association of psychosocial factors (psychological distress, coping skills, family support, trauma exposure, and spirituality with initial weight and weight loss among American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs in a diabetes prevention translational project was investigated. Participants (n=3,135 were confirmed as prediabetic and subsequently enrolled in the Special Diabetes Program for Indians Diabetes Prevention (SDPI-DP demonstration project implemented at 36 Indian health care programs. Measures were obtained at baseline and after completing a 16-session educational curriculum focusing on weight loss through behavioral changes. At baseline, psychological distress and negative family support were linked to greater weight, whereas cultural spirituality was correlated with lower weight. Furthermore, psychological distress and negative family support predicted less weight loss, and positive family support predicted greater weight loss, over the course of the intervention. These bivariate relationships between psychosocial factors and weight remained statistically significant within a multivariate model, after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. Conversely, coping skills and trauma exposure were not significantly associated with baseline weight or change in weight. These findings demonstrate the influence of psychosocial factors on weight loss in AI/AN communities and have substantial implications for incorporating adjunctive intervention components.

  18. Performance measures for evaluating multi-state projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    "Freight transportation projects require an analytic process that considers the impacts of geographic and industry distribution of project : benefits, intermodal impacts, and reliability, as well as the traditional benefits of time savings, safety en...

  19. Efficiency of entanglement of distant atoms by projective measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivares Renteria, Georgina; Zippilli, Stefano; Morigi, Giovanna [Departament de Fisica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Rohde, Felix; Schuck, Carsten; Eschner, Juergen [ICFO - Institut de CIencies Fotoniques, 08860 Castelldefels, Barcelona (Spain)

    2008-07-01

    We compare the efficiency of two schemes for the preparation of entangled states of distant atoms. In these proposals the atoms do not interact and the entanglement is realized by means of the measurement of the scattered field which project the two atoms into the desired state. We quantify the efficiency of the schemes using the fidelity between the state of the system after the detection of a photon and an ideal entangled state of the two atoms. In the first scheme the atoms interact with two optical cavities and the enhanced probability of emission into the cavities allows for high detection efficiency. This scheme is limited by the finite probability of emission of two photons. Thus, even under the assumption of perfect detection efficiency, the fidelity of the scheme never reaches unity. In the second scheme emission of two photons is suppressed by low excitation strength, but the detection efficiency is low since the atoms scatter into free space and only a small fraction of the photons is measured. In this case the fidelity is conditioned on single-photon detection and results to be higher. The comparison is quantitatively evaluated for an ongoing experiment with two distant trapped single Ca+ ions.

  20. Ultrasonic computerized tomography (CT) for temperature measurements with limited projection data based on extrapolated filtered back projection (FBP) method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Ning; Jiang Yong; Kato, Seizo

    2005-01-01

    This study uses ultrasound in combination with tomography to obtain three-dimensional temperature measurements using projection data obtained from limited projection angle. The main feature of the new computerized tomography (CT) reconstruction algorithm is to employ extrapolation scheme to make up for the incomplete projection data, it is based on the conventional filtered back projection (FBP) method while on top of that taking into account the correlation between the projection data and Fourier transform-based extrapolation. Computer simulation is conducted to verify the above algorithm. An experimental 3D temperature distribution measurement is also carried out to validate the proposed algorithm. The simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the extrapolated FBP CT algorithm is highly effective in dealing with projection data from limited projection angle

  1. The approach of the PREFER project to wildfire prevention and damage assessment in the Mediterranean area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laneve, Giovanni; Fusilli, Lorenzo; Tampellini, Maria Lucia; Vimercati, Marco; Hirn, Barbara; Sebastian-Lopez, Ana; Diagourtas, Dimitri; Eftychidis, Georgios; Clandillon, Stephen; Caspard, Mathilde; Oliveira, Sandra; Lourenco, Luciano

    2015-04-01

    PREFER is a Copernicus Emergency project funded from the 2012 FP7 Space Work Programme, and it is aimed at developing products and services that will contribute to improve the European capacity to respond to the preparedness, prevention, and recovery management steps in the case of forest fire emergency cycle, with focus on the Mediterranean area. It is well known from the most recent reports on state of Europe's forests that the Mediterranean area is particularly affected by uncontrolled forest fires, with a number of negative consequences on ecosystems, such as desertification and soil erosion, and on the local economy. Most likely, the current risks of forest fires will be exacerbated by climate change. In particular, the climate of Southern Europe and the Mediterranean basin is projected to warm at a rate exceeding the global average. Wild fires will therefore remain the most serious threat to Southern European forests. In this situation, the need to collect better information and more knowledge concerning future risks of forest fires and fire prevention in the Mediterranean area is widely recognized to be a major urgent one. As part of the Copernicus programme (i.e. the European Earth Observation Programme), PREFER is based on advanced geo-information products using in particular the earth observation data acquired and developed in the frame of Copernicus. The objective of the PREFER project, started at the end of 2012, 8 partners (from Italy, Portugal, Spain, France and Greece) involved and three years schedule, is the design, development and demonstration of a pre-operational "end-to-end" information service, fully exploiting satellite sensors data and able to support prevention/ preparedness and recovery phases of the Forest Fires emergency cycle in the EU Mediterranean Region. The PREFER information is as general as to be usable in the different countries of the Mediterranean Region, and acts in full complement to already existing services, such as the EC

  2. Teen Peer Outreach-Street Work Project: HIV prevention education for runaway and homeless youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podschun, G D

    1993-01-01

    Each year, there are approximately 2 million homeless and runaway youths in the United States. On any given night, there are 1,000 homeless youngsters living on the streets of San Diego, CA. Homeless young people are commonly involved in one or more of the following activities that place them at risk for HIV infection--unprotected sexual intercourse, needle-sharing in the use of injectable drugs, sex with someone who injects drugs. The Teen Peer Outreach-Street Work Project trains teen peer educators to work in three existing San Diego youth service programs with street outreach staff members to provide HIV prevention education and referral services to San Diego's homeless youth. Selected teens from the target population also participate in street-based case management that provides skill development to bring about behavioral and attitudinal changes. An HIV outreach program cannot stand alone and is most successful if it is integrated with services that meet the basic needs of its clients. In the three participating youth service programs of the Teen Peer Outreach-Street Work Project, food, clothes, and shelter information are provided. There are shelters in two of the three programs that become places where HIV educational messages, delivered on the street, can be reinforced. Immediate and concrete assistance can be offered to homeless youth. Low literacy among the target population presents a significant obstacle to adequate and appropriate HIV prevention education for homeless youth. Currently, education materials that specifically target homeless youth do not exit. The outreach street project is being expanded to develop materials for homeless youth with low literacy levels.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8464971

  3. Caries preventive measures used in orthodontic practices: an evidence-based decision?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, A.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Frencken, J.E.F.M.; Hof, M.A. van 't; Katsaros, C.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Although it is well known that treatment with fixed appliances increases the risk of enamel demineralization, little information is available about preventive measures that orthodontists actually use. This study was executed to survey measures used in orthodontic practices to prevent

  4. Project ECHO: A Telementoring Program for Cervical Cancer Prevention and Treatment in Low-Resource Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa S. Lopez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates are significantly higher in low- and middle-income countries compared with the United States and other developed countries. This disparity is caused by decreased access to screening, often coupled with low numbers of trained providers offering cancer prevention and treatment services. However, similar disparities are also found in underserved areas of the United States, such as the Texas-Mexico border, where cervical cancer mortality rates are 30% higher than in the rest of Texas. To address these issues, we have adopted the Project ECHO (Extension for Community Healthcare Outcomes program, a low-cost telementoring model previously proven to be successful in increasing local capacity, improving patient management skills, and ultimately improving patient outcomes in rural and underserved areas. We use the Project ECHO model to educate local providers in the management of cervical dysplasia in a low-resource region of Texas and have adapted it to inform strategies for the management of advanced cervical and breast cancer in Latin America and sub-Saharan Africa. This innovative approach, using ECHO, is part of a larger strategy to enhance clinical skills and develop collaborative projects between academic centers and partners in low-resource regions.

  5. The Healthy Skin Project: changing nursing practice to prevent and treat hospital-acquired pressure ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour-Burton, Teri; Fields, Willa; Outlaw, Lanie; Deleon, Elvira

    2013-06-01

    Hospital-acquired pressure ulcers are serious clinical complications that can lead to increased length of stay, pain, infection, and, potentially, death. The surgical progressive care unit at Sharp Grossmont Hospital, San Diego, California, developed the multidisciplinary Healthy Skin Project to decrease the prevalence of hospital-acquired pressure ulcers. The previous treatment plan was reviewed and modified according to current evidence-based practice. The project consisted of 3 components: creation of a position for a unit-based wound liaison nurse, staff education, and involvement of the nursing assistants. The wound liaison nurse developed and conducted bimonthly skin audits, which revealed inconsistencies in clinical practice and documentation. Education for the staff was accomplished via a self-learning module, case presentations, and 1-on-1 training. In addition, a pressure ulcer algorithm tool was developed to demonstrate step-by-step wound management and documentation. From Spring 2003 through Summer 2006, the prevalence of hospital-acquired pressure ulcers ranged from 0.0% to 18.92%, with a mean of 4.85%. After implementation of the project, the prevalence decreased to 0.0% for 17 of 20 quarters, through 2011. Prevention and a multidisciplinary approach are effective in reducing the occurrence of hospital-acquired pressure ulcers.

  6. Measured and projected performance of plasma direct converters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barr, W.L.; Moir, R.W.

    1981-10-22

    Test results from two plasma direct converters and their predicted cost and performance on tandem mirror fusion reactors are present. The tests were done at high power density (approx. 70 W/cm/sup 2/) in steady state to simulate the predicted conditions in a reactor. A single stage unit and a two-stage unit of the Venetian blind type were tested at up to 100 kV and 6 kW for a total time of about 80 hours. Measured efficiencies, when projected to a reactor, are typically about 50% for a single stage unit and 60 to 70% for a two-stage unit, depending on the energy distribution of the ions, the degree of subdivision of the collectors, and on the gas pressure. The high ambipolar potential in tandem mirror devices makes this good efficiency possible. When radiatively cooled grids are used, the incident power density is limited to about 100 W/cm/sup 2/ by the thermionic emission of electrons.

  7. Measured and projected performance of plasma direct converters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, W.L.; Moir, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    Test results from two plasma direct converters and their predicted cost and performance on tandem mirror fusion reactors are present. The tests were done at high power density (approx. 70 W/cm 2 ) in steady state to simulate the predicted conditions in a reactor. A single stage unit and a two-stage unit of the Venetian blind type were tested at up to 100 kV and 6 kW for a total time of about 80 hours. Measured efficiencies, when projected to a reactor, are typically about 50% for a single stage unit and 60 to 70% for a two-stage unit, depending on the energy distribution of the ions, the degree of subdivision of the collectors, and on the gas pressure. The high ambipolar potential in tandem mirror devices makes this good efficiency possible. When radiatively cooled grids are used, the incident power density is limited to about 100 W/cm 2 by the thermionic emission of electrons

  8. Long-Term INP Measurements within the BACCHUS project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrod, Jann; Bingemer, Heinz; Curtius, Joachim

    2016-04-01

    The European research project BACCHUS (Impact of Biogenic versus Anthropogenic emissions on Clouds and Climate: towards a Holistic UnderStanding) studies the interactions between aerosols, clouds and the climate system, and tries to reconstruct pre-industrial aerosol and cloud conditions from data collected in pristine environments. The number concentration of Ice Nucleating Particles (INP) is an important, yet scarcely known parameter. As a partner of Work package 1 of BACCHUS we began in September 2014 to operate a globally spanned network of four INP sampling stations, which is the first of its kind. The stations are located at the ATTO observatory in the Brazilian Rainforest, the Caribbean Sea (Martinique), the Zeppelin Observatory at Svalbard in the Arctic, and in central Europe (Germany). Samples are collected routinely every day or every few days by electrostatic precipitation of aerosol particles onto Si substrates. The samples are stored in petri-slides, and shipped to our laboratory in Frankfurt, Germany. The number of ice nucleating particles on the substrate is analyzed in the isothermal static diffusion chamber FRIDGE by growing ice on the INP and photographing and counting the crystals. The measurements in the temperature range from -20°C to -30°C and relative humidities of 100-135% (with respect to ice) address primarily the deposition/condensation nucleation modes. Here we present INP and supporting aerosol data from this novel INP network for the first time.

  9. Project management metrics, KPIs, and dashboards a guide to measuring and monitoring project performance

    CERN Document Server

    Kerzner, Harold

    2013-01-01

    Today, with the growth of complex projects, stakeholder involvement in projects, advances in computer technology for dashboard designs, metrics, and key performance indicators for project management have become an important focus. This Second Edition of the bestselling book walks readers through everything from the basics of project management metrics and key performance indicators to establishing targets and using dashboards to monitor performance. The content is aligned with PMI's PMBOK Guide and stresses "value" as the main focal point.

  10. Alzheimer’s disease: oral manifestations, treatment and preventive measures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Ortega-Martínez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the treatment of patients with dementia types such as Alzheimer’s, non-current and tough situations are faced. Treatment should be tailored to each stage of the disease and for each patient. In this type of disease, it is very important to involve families and caregivers to improve the patients´ quality of life. The main goal with these patients is prevention. All oral manifestations caused by the lack of inadequate oral hygiene, xerostomia and manifestations derived from taking drugs should be controlled. The aim of this review is to describe the main oral manifestations which can result from this disease and the best treatment options taking into account the patients’ clinical stages.

  11. Qualitative analysis of emergency department reports applied to a pilot project for the prevention of pediatric burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, E; Masellis, M; Fondi, G; Cedri, C; Debbia, C; Pitidis, A

    2015-12-31

    Accidents and burns are a major problem in Italy and in industrialized countries, due to the consequences they have on health, especially in children aged 0-4 years. In Italy, about 400 people die each year from burns, with over 70% of these occurring in the home. In the European Union, burns are one of the top five causes of death from accidents, accounting for 3% of all deaths from accidents and violence in those age groups. One percent of all deaths in children are due to burns. In this paper, we illustrate the results of qualitative analysis, conducted according to the methodology of content analysis, on narratives included in the anamnesis of clinical papers at the ED in 738 cases of burns in children (0-14 years) observed in a sample of Emergency Departments in the years 2005-2009. The results of content analysis show that the most frequent mechanism that leads to burns is contact with hot liquids and heating surfaces. Much of preventive action should be directed at controlling the child. The accidental event descriptions for the younger age group (0-4 years) reveal an unequivocal responsibility of the parents. The qualitative analysis of narratives was carried out to produce scientific evidence to identify the more frequent and severe burn accidents for specific target/age groups and to establish specific preventive measures. The study of qualitative analysis of burns observed at the ED was introductory to the pilot project PRIUS (Preventing burns among school-aged children). The objective of PRIUS is to increase awareness of the risks of burns in children and adults through a learning path tailored towards their prevention, and the promotion of appropriate standards of personal safe behaviour and first aid actions.

  12. Prevention validation and accounting platform: a framework for establishing accountability and performance measures of substance abuse prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S; McLeod, J H; Williams, C; Hepler, N

    2000-01-01

    The field of substance abuse prevention has neither an overarching conceptual framework nor a set of shared terminologies for establishing the accountability and performance outcome measures of substance abuse prevention services rendered. Hence, there is a wide gap between what we currently have as data on one hand and information that are required to meet the performance goals and accountability measures set by the Government Performance and Results Act of 1993 on the other. The task before us is: How can we establish the accountability and performance measures of substance abuse prevention programs and transform the field of prevention into prevention science? The intent of this volume is to serve that purpose and accelerate the processes of this transformation by identifying the requisite components of the transformation (i.e., theory, methodology, convention on terms, and data) and by introducing an open forum called, Prevention Validation and Accounting (PREVA) Platform. The entire PREVA Platform (for short, the Platform) is designed as an analytic framework, which is formulated by a collectivity of common concepts, terminologies, accounting units, protocols for counting the units, data elements, and operationalizations of various constructs, and other summary measures intended to bring about an efficient and effective measurement of process input, program capacity, process output, performance outcome, and societal impact of substance abuse prevention programs. The measurement units and summary data elements are designed to be measured across time and across jurisdictions, i.e., from local to regional to state to national levels. In the Platform, the process input is captured by two dimensions of time and capital. Time is conceptualized in terms of service delivery time and time spent for research and development. Capital is measured by the monies expended for the delivery of program activities during a fiscal or reporting period. Program capacity is captured

  13. Project Protect” intervention. Testing a new approach for HIV prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasylyeva, Tetyana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND. “Project Protect” aims to find highly infectious individuals through screening for acute/recent infection cases and prevent HIV transmission in the risk networks of these cases through contact tracing of these networks` participants, distributing community alerts about risk of acute infection among them and accurate post-test counseling.METHODS. An ongoing pilot phase of the intervention began in Kriviy Rig and Lviv, Ukraine in November, 2011. Participants are recruited through: 1 screening for cases of acute/recent infection at voluntary counseling and testing (VCT sites and in partner organizations (including AIDS-Centers which conduct VCT; 2 visits to drug use venues, chain-referral and contact tracing. Genscreen ultra HIV Ag-Ab “special-tests” are used to detect cases of acute infection. Recent infection is defined as positive test result and preceding negative result within 6 months and/or age younger than 21 years old.RESULTS. In the two cities 173 respondents were recruited to the project, 118 special tests were done. No cases of acute infection and eleven cases of recent infection were found (8 injection drug users (IDUs with preceding negative result within 6 months, 2 IDUs younger than 21 recruited by project team; one non-IDU with preceding negative result within 6 months referred from AIDS-Center. Six recent cases were recruited through screening at VCT sites, 5 others through contact tracing. Psychologists conducted 41 interviews with recent infection cases and their risk networks` members; 176 community alert flyers were distributed to members of risk networks during the interview by psychologist, at the venue by social worker and by participants themselves; 3 drug use venues were visited by project team with concomitant HIV-testing of people present at the venue. CONCLUSIONS. Network tracing seems to be feasible and to help find recently infected people. Further research is needed to tell whether this

  14. An Analytical Method for Measuring Competence in Project Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Marcos, Ana; Alba-Elías, Fernando; Ordieres-Meré, Joaquín

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to present a competence assessment method in project management that is based on participants' performance and value creation. It seeks to close an existing gap in competence assessment in higher education. The proposed method relies on information and communication technology (ICT) tools and combines Project Management…

  15. Measuring Learners' Attitudes toward Team Projects: Scale Development Through Exploratory And Confirmatory Factor Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chyung, Seung Youn; Winiecki, Donald J.; Hunt, Gary; Sevier, Carol M.

    2017-01-01

    Team projects are increasingly used in engineering courses. Students may develop attitudes toward team projects from prior experience, and their attitudinal responses could influence their performance during team project-based learning in the future. Thus, instructors need to measure students' attitudes toward team projects during their learner…

  16. Method for screening prevention and control measures and technologies based on groundwater pollution intensity assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Juan, E-mail: lijuan@craes.org.cn [College of Water Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Yang, Yang [College of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Huan, Huan; Li, Mingxiao [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Xi, Beidou, E-mail: xibd413@yeah.net [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Lanzhou Jiaotong University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Lv, Ningqing [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Wu, Yi [Guizhou Academy of Environmental Science and Designing, Guizhou 550000 (China); Xie, Yiwen, E-mail: qin3201@126.com [School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Dongguan University of Technology, Dongguan, 523808 (China); Li, Xiang; Yang, Jinjin [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China)

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a system for determining the evaluation and gradation indices of groundwater pollution intensity (GPI). Considering the characteristics of the vadose zone and pollution sources, the system decides which anti-seepage measures should be implemented at the contaminated site. The pollution sources hazards (PSH) and groundwater intrinsic vulnerability (GIV) are graded by the revised Nemerow Pollution Index and an improved DRTAS model, respectively. GPI is evaluated and graded by a double-sided multi-factor coupling model, which is constructed by the matrix method. The contaminated sites are categorized as prior, ordinary, or common sites. From the GPI results, we develop guiding principles for preventing and removing pollution sources, procedural interruption and remediation, and end treatment and monitoring. Thus, we can select appropriate prevention and control technologies (PCT). To screen the technological schemes and optimize the traditional analytical hierarchy process (AHP), we adopt the technique for order preference by the similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) method. Our GPI approach and PCT screening are applied to three types of pollution sites: the refuse dump of a rare earth mine development project (a potential pollution source), a chromium slag dump, and a landfill (existing pollution sources). These three sites are identified as ordinary, prior, and ordinary sites, respectively. The anti-seepage materials at the refuse dump should perform as effectively as a 1.5-m-thick clay bed. The chromium slag dump should be preferentially treated by soil flushing and in situ chemical remediation. The landfill should be treated by natural attenuation technology. The proposed PCT screening approach was compared with conventional screening methods results at the three sites and proved feasible and effective. The proposed method can provide technical support for the monitoring and management of groundwater pollution in China. - Highlights: • An

  17. The process evaluation of It's Your Move!, an Australian adolescent community-based obesity prevention project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simmons Annie M

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence on interventions for preventing unhealthy weight gain in adolescents is urgently needed. The aim of this paper is to describe the process evaluation for a three-year (2005-2008 project conducted in five secondary schools in the East Geelong/Bellarine region of Victoria, Australia. The project, 'It's Your Move!' aimed to reduce unhealthy weight gain by promoting healthy eating patterns, regular physical activity, healthy body weight, and body size perception amongst youth; and improve the capacity of families, schools, and community organisations to sustain the promotion of healthy eating and physical activity in the region. Methods The project was supported by Deakin University (training and evaluation, a Reference Committee (strategic direction, budgetary approval and monitoring and a Project Management Committee (project delivery. A workshop of students, teachers and other stakeholders formulated a 10-point action plan, which was then translated into strategies and initiatives specific to each school by the School Project Officers (staff members released from teaching duties one day per week and trained Student Ambassadors. Baseline surveys informed intervention development. Process data were collected on all intervention activities and these were collated and enumerated, where possible, into a set of mutually exclusive tables to demonstrate the types of strategies and the dose, frequency and reach of intervention activities. Results The action plan included three guiding objectives, four on nutrition, two on physical activity and one on body image. The process evaluation data showed that a mix of intervention strategies were implemented, including social marketing, one-off events, lunch time and curriculum programs, improvements in infrastructure, and healthy school food policies. The majority of the interventions were implemented in schools and focused on capacity building and healthy eating strategies as

  18. A National Implementation Project to Prevent Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection in Nursing Home Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mody, Lona; Greene, M Todd; Meddings, Jennifer; Krein, Sarah L; McNamara, Sara E; Trautner, Barbara W; Ratz, David; Stone, Nimalie D; Min, Lillian; Schweon, Steven J; Rolle, Andrew J; Olmsted, Russell N; Burwen, Dale R; Battles, James; Edson, Barbara; Saint, Sanjay

    2017-08-01

    utilization remained unchanged (4.50 at baseline, 4.45 at conclusion of project; IRR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.88-1.03; P = .26) in adjusted analyses. The number of urine cultures ordered for all residents decreased from 3.49 per 1000 resident-days to 3.08 per 1000 resident-days. Similarly, after adjustment, the rates were shown to decrease from 3.52 to 3.09 (IRR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.77-0.94; P = .001). In a large-scale, national implementation project involving community-based nursing homes, combined technical and socioadaptive catheter-associated UTI prevention interventions successfully reduced the incidence of catheter-associated UTIs.

  19. Current Status of Japanese Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachi, Misako; Oki, Riko; Kubota, Takuji; Masaki, Takeshi; Kida, Satoshi; Iguchi, Toshio; Nakamura, Kenji; Takayabu, Yukari N.

    2013-04-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission is a mission led by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) under collaboration with many international partners, who will provide constellation of satellites carrying microwave radiometer instruments. The GPM Core Observatory, which carries the Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) developed by JAXA and the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT), and the GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) developed by NASA. The GPM Core Observatory is scheduled to be launched in early 2014. JAXA also provides the Global Change Observation Mission (GCOM) 1st - Water (GCOM-W1) named "SHIZUKU," as one of constellation satellites. The SHIZUKU satellite was launched in 18 May, 2012 from JAXA's Tanegashima Space Center, and public data release of the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) on board the SHIZUKU satellite was planned that Level 1 products in January 2013, and Level 2 products including precipitation in May 2013. The Japanese GPM research project conducts scientific activities on algorithm development, ground validation, application research including production of research products. In addition, we promote collaboration studies in Japan and Asian countries, and public relations activities to extend potential users of satellite precipitation products. In pre-launch phase, most of our activities are focused on the algorithm development and the ground validation related to the algorithm development. As the GPM standard products, JAXA develops the DPR Level 1 algorithm, and the NASA-JAXA Joint Algorithm Team develops the DPR Level 2 and the DPR-GMI combined Level2 algorithms. JAXA also develops the Global Rainfall Map product as national product to distribute hourly and 0.1-degree horizontal resolution rainfall map. All standard algorithms including Japan-US joint algorithm will be reviewed by the Japan-US Joint

  20. "Helping Communities To Help Themselves." Twenty 1989 Exemplary Prevention Programs for Preventing Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse. Project Summaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of State Alcohol and Drug Abuse Directors, Inc.

    Twenty exemplary substance abuse prevention programs are presented in this document. These programs are included: (1) Tuba City, Arizona, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) Prevention Program; (2) Chemical Addiction Course, University of Arkansas; (3) "Teens Are Concerned" of Arkansas; (4) "Dare to be You of Colorado"; (5) Winyan…

  1. Prevention measures and socio-economic development result in a decrease in malaria in Hainan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shan-Qing; Li, Yu-Chun; Zhang, Zhi-Ming; Wang, Guang-Ze; Hu, Xi-Min; Qualls, Whitney A; Xue, Rui-De

    2014-09-15

    Historically, the incidence of malaria in the Hainan Province, China has been high. However, since 2001 the malaria incidence in Hainan has decreased due to large-scale, public educational, promotional campaigns and the adoption of preventative measures against malaria following the fast growth of socio-economic development. The present study analysed the correlation between prevention measures and social economic development on the incidence of malaria in Hainan from 2001 to 2013. The data of malaria preventative measures and socio-economic development were collected from various cities and counties in Hainan Province from 2001 to 2013 and analysed by the grey correlation analysis system. Seasonal preventive medication and local fiscal revenue increases are significantly related to the reduction of malaria incidence from 2001 to 2013 (R1 = 0.751677; R5 = 0.764795). Malaria prevention and control measures and local economic development in Hainan decreased malaria incidence from 2001 to 2013.

  2. Imperative of preventive measures addressing the life-cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajnik, Chittaranjan S

    2009-01-01

    The epidemiological characteristics of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCD) are fast changing. The prevalence has risen to unprecedented levels, and the young and the underprivileged are increasingly affected. The classic view of the etiology of NCD consists of a genetic susceptibility which is precipitated by aging and modern lifestyle. In a virtual absence of any methods to tackle genetic susceptibility, the preventive approach has so far been focused on the control of lifestyle factors in those at high risk (old, and those with positive family history and elevated risk factors). Such an approach might help high risk individuals, but is unlikely to curtail the burgeoning epidemic of obesity and diabetes. Recent research has suggested that susceptibility to NCD originates in early life through non-genetic mechanisms (fetal programming). Tackling these may offer an exciting opportunity to control the NCD epidemic by influencing the susceptibility in a more durable manner than only controlling the lifestyle factors in adult life. The imperative is to address the life cycle rather than concentrate on the end stages. Copyright (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Effectiveness and reliability of emergency measures for flood prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lendering, K.T.; Jonkman, S.N.; Kok, M.

    2014-01-01

    Floods in the summer of 2013 in Central Europe demonstrated once again that floods account for a large part of damage and loss of life caused by natural disasters. During flood threats emergency measures, such as sand bags and big bags, are often applied to strengthen the flood defences and attempt

  4. Task Listings Resulting from the Vocational Competency Measures Project. Memorandum Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Institutes for Research in the Behavioral Sciences, Palo Alto, CA.

    This memorandum report consists of 14 task listings resulting from the Vocational Competency Measures Project. (The Vocational Competency Measures Project was a test development project that involved the writing and verification of task listings for 14 vocational occupational areas through over 225 interviews conducted in 27 states.) Provided in…

  5. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Error processing SSI file About Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Heart disease and stroke are an epidemic in ... secondhand smoke. Barriers to Effective Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Many people with key risk factors for heart ...

  6. Prevented Mortality and Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Historical and Projected Nuclear Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharecha, Pushker A.; Hansen, James E.

    2013-01-01

    In the aftermath of the March 2011 accident at Japan's Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, the future contribution of nuclear power to the global energy supply has become somewhat uncertain. Because nuclear power is an abundant, low-carbon source of base-load power, it could make a large contribution to mitigation of global climate change and air pollution. Using historical production data, we calculate that global nuclear power has prevented an average of 1.84 million air pollution-related deaths and 64 gigatonnes of CO2-equivalent (GtCO2-eq) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that would have resulted from fossil fuel burning. On the basis of global projection data that take into account the effects of the Fukushima accident, we find that nuclear power could additionally prevent an average of 420 000-7.04 million deaths and 80-240 GtCO2-eq emissions due to fossil fuels by midcentury, depending on which fuel it replaces. By contrast, we assess that large-scale expansion of unconstrained natural gas use would not mitigate the climate problem and would cause far more deaths than expansion of nuclear power.

  7. Environmental Restoration Program pollution prevention checklist guide for the facility characterization project phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    A facility characterization (FC) is conducted to determine the nature and extent contamination at a potential hazardous facility waste site. The information gathered during an FC includes (1) data on the volume and chemical nature of the waste, (2) information on the extent of contamination and the migration potential of the contaminants, (3) preliminary information on evaluation of alternative concepts that can or cannot be considered, and (4)supportive technical and cost data. For the purposes of identification, the following operational phases will be used for definition for this phase of the decommissioning and decontamination process (1) facility characterization before clean up, (2) characterization during clean up, (3) characterization of waste materials, and (4) site characterization after clean up. A key consideration in this process is the prevention of any waste to be generated from these characterization activities. The purpose of this checklist guide is to assist users with incorporating pollution prevention/waste minimization (PP/WM) in all FC phase projects of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program. This guide will help users document PP/WM activities for technology transfer and reporting requirements. Automated computer screens will be created from the checklist data to assist users with implementing and evaluating waste reduction

  8. Longitudinal effects of the European smoking prevention framework approach (ESFA) project in Spanish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariza, Carles; Nebot, Manel; Tomás, Zoa; Giménez, Emmanuel; Valmayor, Sara; Tarilonte, Visitación; De Vries, Hein

    2008-10-01

    To describe the effects of a Spanish smoking prevention programme in the context of an European project on regular smoking, in a sample of Barcelona adolescents. A quasi-experimental design was conducted. An experimental group (EG) (1080 pupils) was exposed to programme and compared with a control group (CG) (872 students). The intervention included a school-based programme (16 sessions in 3 years), reinforcement of a smoke-free school policy, smoking cessation for teachers, brochures for parents and other community-based activities involving youth clubs and tobacco sales. At 12 months, 4.5% of boys and 5.6% of girls were new smokers in the EG versus 6.7% and 11.7% in the CG (P < 0.001). At 36 months, 18.6% of boys and 31.2% of girls in the EG were regular smokers versus 21.6% of boys and 38.3% of girls in the CG (P < 0.001). The main factors associated with progression to regular smoking at 36 months were to be girl, to attend to a public school and to belong to the CG. These results endorse the effectiveness of multi-modal smoking prevention programmes, which include strategies with adults who influence adolescents.

  9. PREVENTING POLLUTION USING ISO 14001 AT A PARTICLE ACCELERATOR THE RELATIVISTIC HEAVY ION COLLIDER PROJECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BRIGGS, S.L.K.; MUSOLINO, S.V.

    2001-01-01

    In early 1997 Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) discovered that the spent fuel pool of their High Flux Beam Reactor was leaking tritium into the groundwater. Community members, activist groups, politicians and regulators were outraged with the poor environmental management practices at BNL. The reactor was shut down and the Department of Energy (DOE) terminated the contract with the existing Management Company. At this same time, a major new scientific facility, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), was nearing the end of construction and readying for commissioning. Although environmental considerations had been incorporated into the design of the facility; some interested parties were skeptical that this new facility would not cause significant environmental impacts. RHIC management recognized that the future of its operation was dependent on preventing pollution and allaying concerns of its stakeholders. Although never done at a DOE National Laboratory before Brookhaven Science Associates, the new management firm, committed to implementing an Environmental Management System (EMS) and RHIC managers volunteered to deploy it within their facility on an extremely aggressive schedule. Several of these IS0 requirements contribute directly to preventing pollution, an area where particular emphasis was placed. This paper describes how Brookhaven used the following key IS0 14001 elements to institutionalize Pollution Prevention concepts: Environmental Policy, Aspects, Objectives and Targets, Environmental Management Program, Structure and Responsibility, Operational Controls, Training, and Management Review. In addition, examples of implementation at the RHIC Project illustrate how BNL's premiere facility was able to demonstrate to interested parties that care had been taken to implement technological and administrative controls to minimize environmental impacts, while at the same time reduce the applicability of regulatory requirements to their operations

  10. Effectiveness of a project to prevent HIV vertical transmission in the Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisio, Francesca; Masini, Giulia; Blasi Vacca, Elisabetta; Calzi, Anna; Cardinale, Francesco; Bruzzone, Bianca; Bruzzi, Paolo; Viscoli, Claudio

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a prevention programme against the vertical transmission of HIV in a resource-limited setting and to investigate variables associated with compliance. The Kento-Mwana project (2005-2008) provided counselling, serological and biomolecular testing and prophylaxis/therapy to HIV-positive pregnant women and their children attending four antenatal clinics in Pointe Noire, Republic of Congo. Expected and actual rates of vertical transmission of HIV were compared. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed in order to identify variables associated with non-compliance. The observed transmission rate in the group who completed follow-up was 5/290 (1.7%, 95% CI 0.6%-4.1%). The overall estimated transmission rate in the target population, computed taking into account the expected vertical transmission of HIV among drop-outs, was 67-115/638 (10.5%-18.0%). A comparison between this rate and the expected transmission rate in the absence of intervention (25%-40%) showed that the programme was able to prevent approximately 50% of vertical transmissions. Older age (OR 0.33, 95% CI 0.16-0.66, P = 0.002), telephone availability (OR 0.42, 95% CI 0.24-0.72, P = 0.002) and occupation (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.29-1.10, P = 0.092) were associated with better compliance. Despite the vast majority of women accepting counselling and testing, many of them refused prophylaxis or dropped out, thus reducing the effectiveness of the intervention from an ideal 2% to a still important but less impressive median transmission rate of 15% (range 10.5%-18%). Promoting participation and compliance, rather than increasing the potency of antiretroviral regimens, is crucial for preventing the vertical transmission of HIV in Africa.

  11. Using Cognitive Interviews to Enhance Measurement in Empirical Bioethics: Developing a Measure of the Preventive Misconception in Biomedical HIV Prevention Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarman, Jeremy; Seils, Damon M; Watson-Ormond, J Kemp; Weinfurt, Kevin P

    2016-01-01

    We describe our use of cognitive interviews in developing a measure of "preventive misconception" to demonstrate the importance of this approach to researchers developing surveys in empirical bioethics. The preventive misconception involves research participants' false beliefs about a prevention trial, including beliefs that the interventions being tested will certainly be effective. We developed and refined a measure of the preventive misconception using qualitative interviews that focused on cognitive testing of proposed survey items with HIV prevention trial participants. Two main problems emerged during initial interviews. First, the phrase "reduce your risk," used to elicit beliefs about risk reduction from the use of study medications, was interpreted as relating to a reduction of risky behaviors. Second, the phrase "participating in this study," intended to elicit beliefs about trial group assignment, was interpreted as relating to personal behavior changes associated with study participation. Additional interviews using a revised measure were no longer problematic in these ways, and participants felt the response options were appropriate for conveying their answers. These findings underscore the importance of cognitive testing in developing surveys for empirical bioethics.

  12. Project management metrics, KPIs, and dashboards a guide to measuring and monitoring project performance

    CERN Document Server

    Kerzner, Harold

    2017-01-01

    With the growth of complex projects, stakeholder involvement, and advancements in visual-based technology, metrics and KPIs (key performance indicators) are key factors in evaluating project performance. Dashboard reporting systems provide accessible project performance data, and sharing this vital data in a concise and consistent manner is a key communication responsibility of all project managers. This 3rd edition of Kerzner’s groundbreaking work includes the following updates: new sections on processing dashboard information, portfolio management PMO and metrics, and BI tool flexibility. PPT decks by chapter and a test bank will be available for use in seminar presentations and courses.

  13. [Resource support as the basis of projects for the prevention of violence and addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keupp, Heiner

    2004-10-01

    Lastingly effective projects for the prevention of violence and addiction must ask which resources adolescents require for coping with their lives. A central criteria for a successful life is the creation of coherence in one's inner life and thus the basis for becoming capable of functioning in society. In earlier social eras, the readiness to take on ready-made identity packages was the central criteria for coping with life. Today, this depends on individual adaptation and identity work, and thus the capability for self-organisation, for "intentionality" or "embedding". Children and young people need "free spaces" in their worlds, in order to be able to outline themselves and to act formatively upon their everyday environment. The future prospects of adolescents depend upon their options for learning the "craft of freedom". Sustainable key qualifications for coping with life in globalised, digital capitalism must grasp education as a hard-headed process in which the subject's capacity for self-organisation is to be given optimal encouragement, so that the patchwork of their own identity can succeed as a self-determined creative project.

  14. Research on the Structure, Quality and Measures to Prevent and Combat Soil Erosion in the Village Stejaru from Teleorman County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Popa

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is part of a research project on the influence of agro-livestock activities on surface water quality inTeleorman County. The paper presents structure, quality and measures to prevent and combat soil erosion in relationto agro-livestock activities in this area. The paper presents structure, quality and measures to prevent and combat soilerosion in relation to agro-livestock activities in this area. The research has been done in the whole locality, and tooksoil samples to determine the type and soil texture and soil supply status with major nutrients (N, P, K. Based onthese results and knowing the types of main crops and livestock structure, at Stejaru level, recommendations weremade about avoiding the risks of pollution of surface water by nitrates from agricultural and livestock activities.

  15. Quality improvement in nursing homes in Texas: results from a pressure ulcer prevention project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Robert L; Warren, Kevin; Bean, Gloria; Gabbard, Bethany; Lyder, Courtney H; Bing, Mark; McCauley, Carol

    2005-01-01

    Pressure ulcer prevalence, cost, associated mortality, and potential for litigation are major clinical problems in nursing homes despite guidelines for prevention and treatment. To improve the use of pressure ulcer prevention procedures at nursing homes in Texas through implementation of process of care system changes in collaboration with a state quality improvement organization (QIO). Preintervention and postintervention measurement of performance for process of care quality indicators and of pressure ulcer incidence rates. Twenty nursing homes in Texas. Quality improvement teams at participating nursing homes. Data were abstracted from medical records on performance measures (quality indicators) and pressure ulcer incidence rates between November 2000 and August 2002. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used. Process of care system changes consisting of tools and education to prevent pressure ulcers were introduced to participating nursing homes. Participating nursing homes showed statistically significant improvement in 8 out of 12 quality indicators. Pressure ulcer incidence rates also decreased, although not quite significantly. Furthermore, facilities with the greatest improvement in quality indicator scores had significantly lower pressure ulcer incidence rates than the facilities with the least improvement in quality indicator scores (S = 131.0, P = .03). This suggests that the interventions positively affected not only the process of care but also led to a decrease in pressure ulcer incidences. These results show that nursing homes in a collaborative effort with a QIO were able to improve their processes of care. Although significant improvement was noted on most of the quality indicators, opportunity remains for further improvement. Furthermore, these results suggest that implementation of process of care system changes by nursing homes in a collaborative relationship with a QIO may yield improvements in measures of patient outcome (eg, pressure

  16. Knowledge exchange in the Pacific: The TROPIC (Translational Research into Obesity Prevention Policies for Communities) project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Policies targeting obesogenic environments and behaviours are critical to counter rising obesity rates and lifestyle-related non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Policies are likely to be most effective and enduring when they are based on the best available evidence. Evidence-informed policy making is especially challenging in countries with limited resources. The Pacific TROPIC (Translational Research for Obesity Prevention in Communities) project aims to implement and evaluate a tailored knowledge-brokering approach to evidence-informed policy making to address obesity in Fiji, a Pacific nation challenged by increasingly high rates of obesity and concomitant NCDs. Methods The TROPIC project draws on the concept of ‘knowledge exchange’ between policy developers (individuals; organisations) and researchers to deliver a knowledge broking programme that maps policy environments, conducts workshops on evidence-informed policy making, supports the development of evidence-informed policy briefs, and embeds evidence-informed policy making into organisational culture. Recruitment of government and nongovernment organisational representatives will be based on potential to: develop policies relevant to obesity, reach broad audiences, and commit to resourcing staff and building a culture that supports evidence-informed policy development. Workshops will increase awareness of both obesity and policy cycles, as well as develop participants’ skills in accessing, assessing and applying relevant evidence to policy briefs. The knowledge-broking team will then support participants to: 1) develop evidence-informed policy briefs that are both commensurate with national and organisational plans and also informed by evidence from the Pacific Obesity Prevention in Communities project and elsewhere; and 2) collaborate with participating organisations to embed evidence-informed policy making structures and processes. This knowledge broking initiative will be evaluated via

  17. Status of the Japanese Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachi, Misako; Kubota, Takuji; Masaki, Takeshi; Kaneko, Yuki; Oki, Riko; Iguchi, Toshio; Nakamura, Kenji; Takayabu, Yukari N.

    2014-05-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission is a mission led by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) under collaboration with many international partners, who will provide constellation of satellites carrying microwave radiometer instruments. The GPM Core Observatory, which carries the Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) developed by JAXA and the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT), and the GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) developed by NASA. JAXA also provides the Global Change Observation Mission (GCOM) 1st - Water (GCOM-W1) named "SHIZUKU," as one of constellation satellites. The SHIZUKU satellite was launched on May 18, 2012, and all products, including the precipitation product, have been available to general users since May 2013. The Japanese GPM research project conducts scientific activities on algorithm development, ground validation, application research including production of research products. In addition to those activities, we promote collaboration studies in Japan and Asian countries, and seek potential users of satellite precipitation products. JAXA develops the DPR Level 1 algorithm, and the NASA-JAXA Joint Algorithm Team develops the DPR Level 2 and DPR-GMI combined Level2 algorithms. JAXA also develops the Global Rainfall Map algorithm, which is anew version of the Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation (GSMaP,) as national product to distribute hourly and 0.1-degree horizontal resolution rainfall map. In the GPM era, the GSMaP algorithm will be improved by refining rainfall retrievals over land, considered the orographic rainfall effects, added the rain gauge corrected rainfall product. In the future, information from the Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) will be compiled as a database to improve the retrieval accuracy of weak rainfall in mid-to-high latitudes. The GPM Core Observatory is scheduled to be launched from the JAXA

  18. Addressing vulnerabilities of female sex workers in an HIV prevention intervention in Mumbai and Thane: experiences from the Aastha project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranebennur, Virupax; Gaikwad, Sanjeevsingh; Ramesh, Sowmya; Bhende, Amrita

    2014-01-01

    Background It is important for targeted interventions to consider vulnerabilities of female sex workers (FSWs) such as poverty, work-related mobility, and literacy, for effective human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention. This paper describes and examines the association of the Aastha HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention project in Mumbai and Thane, India, on the relationship between vulnerability and behavioral outcomes. Materials and methods Data were drawn from the Behavioural Tracking Survey, a cross-sectional behavioral study conducted in 2010 with 2,431 FSWs recruited in Mumbai and Thane. The key independent measures used were program exposure and “vulnerability index”, a composite index of literacy, factors of dependence (alternative livelihood options, current debt, and children), and aspects of sex work (mobility and duration in sex work). Dependent measures included service uptake, self-confidence, self-identity, and individual agency. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the study objectives. Results Of the analytical sample of 2,431 FSWs, 1,295 (53.3%) were categorized as highly vulnerable. Highly vulnerable FSWs who were associated with the Aastha program for more than a year were more likely to have accessed crisis-response services in the past 6 months (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4–3.6; P<0.001), to have visited a clinic to get a checkup for STI symptoms (AOR 2.4, 95% CI 1.2–4.8; P<0.015), not to be ashamed to disclose identity as an FSW to health workers (AOR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2–3.5; P<0.008), and to be confident in supporting a fellow FSW in crisis (AOR 1.7, 95% CI 1.0–2.8, P<0.033) compared to those less vulnerable with similar exposure to the Aastha program. Conclusion It is critical for HIV/STI interventions to consider vulnerabilities of FSWs at project inception and address them with focused strategies, including a segmented service-delivery model and community

  19. Do work-place initiated measures reduce sickness absence? Preventive measures and sickness absence among older workers in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midtsundstad, Tove I; Nielsen, Roy A

    2014-03-01

    The article examines whether preventive measures and work adjustments at the establishment level affects sickness absence among workers aged 50 years and older. We combine survey data from a representative sample of 713 Norwegian companies, mapping the prevalence of preventive health measures in the work place in 2005, with register data on sickness absence and demographic variables for workers aged 50 years or older in 2001 and 2007. By means of a difference-in-differences approach, we compare changes and differences in the likelihood of sickness absence among the sample group, with and without the various measures/ instruments in 2005 respectively. In general, work-place preventive measures at the establishment level have not contributed to reducing the probability for sickness absence among workers aged 50 years and older. However, analyses comparing differences between industries find that the work-place measures have had a positive effect on public administration employees. Whether work-place preventive initiatives influence levels of sickness absence seems to be contingent on sector and industry. Therefore, work-place measures may be more effective in the public administration sector where most employees have office jobs compared to sectors such as manufacturing, construction and transportation, where many employees have manual work and more physical demanding jobs. Work-place initiatives thus seem to have less effect on preventing sickness absence in sectors dominated by manual labour.

  20. [Economic class syndrome: epidemiological features and preventive measures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorelli, Carlo; Pasquarella, Cesira; Trabacchi, Valeria; Carreri, Vittorio; Blangiardi, Francesco; Fara, Gaetano Maria

    2011-01-01

    The term "economic class syndrome" is generally used to describe the occurrence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in travelers after long-distance airline travel in economic class. However, cases of VTE have also been reported in business class travelers and in subjects exposed to prolonged periods of immobilization while using other forms of transportation such as automobile, train, and bus. VTE manifests with deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism but may also present with less severe, reversible manifestations such as headache, vertigo, and respiratory symptoms. Epidemiological studies have shown that the risk of VTE doubles following airline travel lasting longer than four hours. The risk of VTE increases with increased duration of air travel even in the presence of multiple stop-overs. In subjects with known risk factors, incidence of VTE depends on the degree of risk (low, medium, high) and on the duration of the flight. The main factor leading to VTE is prolonged immobilization and the pathogenesis is based on Virchow's triad: venous stasis, vessel wall injury, and hypercoagulability of blood. Specific characteristics of airline travel such as jet lag, low air quality and dehydration may increase the risk of VTE with respect to other forms of travel. This article discusses epidemiological aspects and pathogenesis of travel-related VTE and prophylactic measures that should be undertaken.

  1. Health Department HIV Prevention Programs That Support the National HIV/AIDS Strategy: The Enhanced Comprehensive HIV Prevention Planning Project, 2010-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Holly H; Hoyte, Tamika; Purcell, David W; Van Handel, Michelle; Williams, Weston; Krueger, Amy; Dietz, Patricia; Stratford, Dale; Heitgerd, Janet; Dunbar, Erica; Wan, Choi; Linley, Laurie A; Flores, Stephen A

    2016-01-01

    The Enhanced Comprehensive HIV Prevention Planning project was the first initiative of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to address the goals of the National HIV/AIDS Strategy (NHAS). Health departments in 12 U.S. cities with a high prevalence of AIDS conducted comprehensive program planning and implemented cost-effective, scalable HIV prevention interventions that targeted high-risk populations. We examined trends in health department HIV prevention programs in these cities during the project. We analyzed the number of people who received partner services, condoms distributed, and people tested for HIV, as well as funding allocations for selected HIV prevention programs by year and by site from October 2010 through September 2013. We assessed trends in the proportional change in services and allocations during the project period using generalized estimating equations. We also conducted thematic coding of program activities that targeted people living with HIV infection (PLWH). We found significant increases in funding allocations for HIV testing and condom distribution. All HIV partner services indicators, condom distribution, and HIV testing of African American and Hispanic/Latino populations significantly increased. HIV tests associated with a new diagnosis increased significantly among those self-identifying as Hispanic/Latino but significantly decreased among African Americans. For programs targeting PLWH, health department activities included implementing new program models, improving local data use, and building local capacity to enhance linkage to HIV medical care, retention in care, and treatment adherence. Overall, these findings indicate that health departments in areas with a high burden of AIDS successfully shifted their HIV prevention resources to scale up important HIV programs and make progress toward NHAS goals.

  2. A systematic review of the literature on safety measures to prevent railway suicides and trespassing accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havârneanu, Grigore M; Burkhardt, Jean-Marie; Paran, Françoise

    2015-08-01

    This review covers a central aspect in railway safety which is the prevention of suicides and trespassing accidents. The paper attempts to answer the following research question: 'What measures are available to reduce railway suicide and trespass, and what is the evidence for their effectiveness?' The review is based on 139 relevant publications, ranging from 1978 to 2014. The analysis aimed to identify the past and current trend in the prevention practice by looking both quantitatively and qualitatively at the recommended measures. According to the results, there has been a constant focus on suicide prevention, and only relatively recent interest in trespass countermeasures. The content analysis revealed 19 main preventative categories which include more than 100 specific measures. We identified 16 common categories against railway suicide and trespass, and 3 categories of specific measures to prevent suicide. There are only 22 studies which provide empirical support for the effectiveness of measures. Actual combinations of measures are barely evaluated, but several challenges emerge from the literature. The discussion focuses on the need for a unified approach to suicide and trespass prevention, and on the importance to consider the effect mechanism of the measures in order to design better interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Preventive measures used by farmers during agricultural pesticide application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihan Önen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study describes protective measures used by farmers during agricultural pesticide application in Çelikhan, Adıyaman. Methods: The target population of this descriptive study consists of 900 active farmers registered at Chamber of Agriculture in Çelikhan. The Sample included 381 farmers, who were interviewed, face to face, during January and February 2014. The Chi-square (Fisher’s exact test was used for the statistical evaluation. Results: Of the 363 farmers, who were growing tobacco, 358 used pesticides. The percentage of the farmers who use protective equipment during the application of pesticides was as follows: 78.8% used a face-mask, 73.2% used protective gloves, 29.6% used protective clothing, 16.8% used protective goggles and 15.6% used boots, while 4.7% never used any protective equipment. The following related to environmental factors: 72.3%, used appropriate doses and qualifications, 70.7% did not use pesticides during windy weather, 66.2% removed people from the field (55.6% kept it the pesticide in an appropriate warehouse and 17.6% used warning signs. A significant statistical relationship was found between the educational status and safe disposal of pesticide waste, not releasing pesticide boxes into the environment and knowing the harm of pesticide to human body (p<0.05. Conclusion: Farmers in this study are using masks and gloves for personal protection, a majority of them are not eating and drinking during spraying and nearly half of them are removing drug equipment safely. The need for protective equipment and for health education of the farmers is important as is the need for the safe disposal of waste materials. In order to awaken the interest of farmers, environmental and individual consciousness must be created.

  4. VAR Methodology Used for Exchange Risk Measurement and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina Balu

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article we discuss one of the modern risk measuring techniques Value-at-Risk (VaR. Currently central banks in major money centers, under the auspices of the BIS Basle Committee, adopt the VaR system to evaluate the market risk of their supervised banks. Banks regulators ask all commercial banks to report VaRs with their internal models. Value at risk (VaR is a powerful tool for assessing market risk, but it also imposes a challenge. Its power is its generality. Unlike market risk metrics such as the Greeks, duration and convexity, or beta, which are applicable to only certain asset categories or certain sources of market risk, VaR is general. It is based on the probability distribution for a portfolio’s market value. Value at Risk (VAR calculates the maximum loss expected (or worst case scenario on an investment, over a given time period and given a specified degree of confidence. There are three methods by which VaR can be calculated: the historical simulation, the variance-covariance method and the Monte Carlo simulation. The variance-covariance method is easiest because you need to estimate only two factors: average return and standard deviation. However, it assumes returns are well-behaved according to the symmetrical normal curve and that historical patterns will repeat into the future. The historical simulation improves on the accuracy of the VAR calculation, but requires more computational data; it also assumes that “past is prologue”. The Monte Carlo simulation is complex, but has the advantage of allowing users to tailor ideas about future patterns that depart from historical patterns.

  5. Preventive measures and lifestyle habits against exertional heat illness in radiation decontamination workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Shota; Kakamu, Takeyasu; Sato, Sei; Hidaka, Tomoo; Kumagai, Tomohiro; Nakano, Shinichi; Koyama, Kikuo; Fukushima, Tetsuhito

    2017-09-28

    The aim of this study was to reveal the current state of preventive measures and lifestyle habits against heat illness in radiation decontamination workers and to examine whether young radiation decontamination workers take less preventive measures and have worse lifestyle habits than the elder workers. This was a cross-sectional study. Self-administered questionnaires were sent to 1,505 radiation decontamination workers in Fukushima, Japan. Five hundred fifty-eight men who replied and answered all questions were included in the statistical analysis. The questionnaire included age, duration of decontamination work, previous occupation, lifestyle habit, and preventive measures for heat illness. We classified age of the respondents into five groups: decontamination workers are more likely to have worse lifestyle habits and take insufficient preventive measures for heat illness. This may be the cause of higher incidence of heat illness among young workers.

  6. Antibiotics or probiotics as preventive measures against ventilator-associated pneumonia: a literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schultz, M.J.; Haas, L.E.

    2011-01-01

    Mechanically ventilated critically ill patients frequently develop ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), a life-threatening complication. Proposed preventive measures against VAP include, but are not restricted to, selective decontamination of the digestive tract (SDD), selective oropharyngeal

  7. Is Project Towards No Drug Abuse (Project TND) an evidence-based drug and violence prevention program? A review and reappraisal of the evaluation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Dennis M

    2014-08-01

    This paper critically reviews the published evidence pertaining to Project Towards No Drug Abuse (Project TND). Publications from seven evaluation studies of Project TND are reviewed, and the results from these are discussed as related to the following outcomes: main effects on the use of cigarettes, alcohol and marijuana; main effects on the use of "hard drugs," defined in the evaluations as cocaine, hallucinogens, stimulants, inhalants, ecstasy and other drugs (e.g., depressants, PCP, steroids and heroin); subgroup and interaction analyses of drug use; and violence-related behaviors. Very few main effects have been found for cigarette, alcohol and marijuana use in the Project TND evaluations. While studies do report main effects for hard drug use, these findings are subject to numerous threats to validity and may be attributable to the data analyses employed. Similarly, while isolated subgroup and interaction effects were found for alcohol use among baseline nonusers and some violence-related behaviors in the early Project TND evaluations, these findings have not been replicated in more recent studies and may result from multiple comparisons between study conditions. In conclusion, there is little evidence to support the assertion that Project TND is an effective drug or violence prevention program. The broader implications of these findings for prevention science are discussed and suggestions are made as to how the quality of research in the field might be improved.

  8. The characters of emergency rescue and the measures to prevent accidents for nuclear-powered submarine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuexing

    1999-01-01

    The characteristics of emergency rescue and the measures for preventing and decreasing accidents in nuclear-powered submarine have been presented. The breakdown of equipment and human factors are the main reasons which lead to accidents. Four preventive measures are suggested: enhancing capabilities to take precautions against fire, seriously controlling the environmental factors which affect the health of the submariners, reinforcing the constitutions of the submariners, and working out emergency planning against serious accidents in advance

  9. Research progress on influencing factors of hospital infection and prevention and control measures

    OpenAIRE

    He Wenlong; Meng Lingbo; Wang Yaogang

    2015-01-01

    Hospital infections are associated with the emergence of hospitals. As the understanding of hospital infections deepen and prevention and control measures improve, hospital infections have become manageable. In recent years, affected by the increase in invasive treatment technology, antimicrobial abuse, and other factors, the control of hospital infection has encountered new problems. This paper reviews the influencing factors of hospital infections and their prevention and control measures.

  10. New possibilities in the prevention of eating disorders: The introduction of positive body image measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piran, Niva

    2015-06-01

    Delineating positive psychological processes in inhabiting the body, as well as quantitative measures to assess them, can facilitate progress in the field of prevention of eating disorders by expanding outcome evaluation of prevention interventions, identifying novel mediators of change, and increasing highly needed research into protective factors. Moreover, enhancing positive ways of inhabiting the body may contribute toward the maintenance of gains of prevention interventions. Integrated social etiological models to eating disorders that focus on gender and other social variables, such as the Developmental Theory of Embodiment (Piran & Teall, 2012a), can contribute to positive body image intervention development and research within the prevention field. Using the Developmental Theory of Embodiment as a lens, this article explores whether existing prevention programs (i.e., Cognitive Dissonance and Media Smart) may already work to promote positive body image, and whether prevention programs need to be expanded toward this goal. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Advanced Tethersonde for High-Speed Flux Measurements Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Flux measurements of trace gases and other quantities, such as latent heat, are of great importance in scientific field research. One typical flux measurement setup...

  12. Consideration on Preventive and Protective Measures Against Insider Threats at R.O.K. Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Min; Lee, Jung Ho; Koh, Moon Sung

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the current status of measures used to prevent, detect and respond to potential insiders at nuclear facilities in the Republic of KOREA. Measures against insiders are then analyzed based on IAEA guidelines. Insiders are able to take advantage of their access rights and knowledge of a facility to bypass dedicated security measures. They can also threaten cyber security, safety measures, and material control and accountancy (MC and A). Insiders are likely to have the time to plan their actions. In addition, they may work with an external adversary who shares their objectives. An insider threat is a great risk to a security system because of the access, authority, and special knowledge that someone within a facility possesses. Therefore, it is imperative that effective measures be taken to prevent insider incidents. A combination of preventive and protective measures offers the best solution to mitigating rogue elements within a facility

  13. Kinetic parameter estimation from attenuated SPECT projection measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reutter, B.W.; Gullberg, G.T.

    1998-01-01

    Conventional analysis of dynamically acquired nuclear medicine data involves fitting kinetic models to time-activity curves generated from regions of interest defined on a temporal sequence of reconstructed images. However, images reconstructed from the inconsistent projections of a time-varying distribution of radiopharmaceutical acquired by a rotating SPECT system can contain artifacts that lead to biases in the estimated kinetic parameters. To overcome this problem the authors investigated the estimation of kinetic parameters directly from projection data by modeling the data acquisition process. To accomplish this it was necessary to parametrize the spatial and temporal distribution of the radiopharmaceutical within the SPECT field of view. In a simulated transverse slice, kinetic parameters were estimated for simple one compartment models for three myocardial regions of interest, as well as for the liver. Myocardial uptake and washout parameters estimated by conventional analysis of noiseless simulated data had biases ranging between 1--63%. Parameters estimated directly from the noiseless projection data were unbiased as expected, since the model used for fitting was faithful to the simulation. Predicted uncertainties (standard deviations) of the parameters obtained for 500,000 detected events ranged between 2--31% for the myocardial uptake parameters and 2--23% for the myocardial washout parameters

  14. Chemical Microsensor Instrument for UAV Airborne Atmospheric Measurements Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Makel Engineering, Inc. (MEI) proposes to develop a miniaturized Airborne Chemical Microsensor Instrument (ACMI) suitable for real-time, airborne measurements of...

  15. Compact Instrument for Measurement of Atmospheric Carbon Monoxide Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Southwest Sciences proposed the development of a rugged, compact, and automated instrument for the high sensitivity measurement of tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO)....

  16. The TARGET project in Tuscany: the first disease management model of a regional project for the prevention of hip re-fractures in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscitelli, Prisco; Brandi, Maria Luisa; Nuti, Ranuccio; Rizzuti, Carla; Giorni, Loredano; Giovannini, Valtere; Metozzi, Alessia; Merlotti, Daniela

    2010-09-01

    The official inquiry on osteoporosis in Italy, promoted by the Italian Senate in 2002 concluded that proper preventive strategies should be adopted at regional level in order to prevent osteoporotic fractures. Tuscany is the first Italian region who has promoted an official program (the TARGET project) aimed to reduce osteoporotic fractures by ensuring adequate treatment to all people aged ≥65 years old who experience a hip fragility fracture. this paper provides information concerning the implementation of TARGET project in Tuscany, assuming that it may represent an useful model for similar experiences to be promoted in other Italian Regions and across Europe. we have examined the model proposed for the regional program, and we have particularly analyzed the in-hospital and post-hospitalization path of hip fractured patients aged >65 years old in Tuscany after the adoption of TARGET project by Tuscany healthcare system and during its ongoing start-up phase. orthopaedic surgeons have been gradually involved in the project and are increasingly fulfilling all the clinical prescriptions and recommendations provided in the project protocol. Different forms of cooperation between orthopaedic surgeons and other clinical specialists have been adopted at each hospital for the treatment of hip fractured elderly patients. GPs involvement needs to be fostered both at regional and local level. The effort of Tuscany region to cope with hip fractures suffered from elderly people must be acknowledged as an interesting way of addressing this critical health problem. Specific preventive strategies modelled on the Tuscany TARGET project should be implemented in other Italian regions.

  17. College Measures Economic Success Metrics Project. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Institute for Higher Education Policy, 2016

    2016-01-01

    College Measures was established in 2010 as a partnership between the American Institutes for Research (AIR) and Matrix Knowledge Group (now Optimity Advisors). In 2016, College Measures became fully owned by AIR. It remains focused on using data to drive improvement in higher education outcomes in the United States. Through its Economic Success…

  18. Peer-led Stress Prevention Seminars in the First Year of Medical School – A Project Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bugaj, Till Johannes

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: From the beginning of the first year of medical studies, increased psychological stress and elevated burnout prevalence rates can be registered compared to sample populations. Characterized by learning “on an equal footing”, the principle of peer-assisted learning (PAL is widely used in medical education. This report aims to showcase the development and evaluation of peer-led stress prevention seminars for first year medical students after one year of implementation.Project description: With each of the three sessions lasting 90 min., the stress prevention seminars took place in small groups (6-10 students in the period from November 2013 to January 2014 and from November 2014 to December 2014 at the Medical Faculty of Heidelberg. Led by trained peers, the seminar content ranged from psycho-educational elements, i.e. time management strategy development and test anxiety assistance, to relaxation techniques. All seminar sessions were evaluated via questionnaire. All questions were answered on a Likert scale ranging from 1 to 7 (1=strongly agree; 7=strongly disagree.Results: 75 students consented to participate in seminars (65% female; aged 20.5±3.3 years. The series of seminars was averagely given the school grade of 1.2±0.4 (1=very good to 6=unsatisfactory in WS 2013/14 and 1.5±0.5 in the following year and the peer tutors’ competence was evaluated as very high (1.4 to 1.5 approval rate on the Likert scale.Discussion: The seminar sessions’ importance to the students is underlined by their very positive evaluations. This offer seems to have benefited students especially during the demanding transitional phase at the start of their studies. Both the implementation of the preventive measure at an early stage as well as the use of PAL seem to have proven effective.Conclusion: PAL seems to be effective in the field of stress prevention. However, specific efficacy studies are still lacking.

  19. European energy balance research to prevent excessive weight gain among youth (ENERGY) project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stralen, Maartje M. van; Velde, Saskia J. te; Singh, Amika S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Obesity treatment is by large ineffective long term, and more emphasis on the prevention of excessive weight gain in childhood and adolescence is warranted. To inform energy balance related behaviour (EBRB) change interventions, insight in the potential personal, family and school...... environmental correlates of these behaviours is needed. Studies on such multilevel correlates of EBRB among schoolchildren in Europe are lacking. The ENERGY survey aims to (1) provide up-to-date prevalence rates of measured overweight, obesity, self-reported engagement in EBRBs, and objective accelerometer...... as assessing a range of EBRBs and their potential correlates at the personal, family and school level, among 10-12 year old children in seven European countries. This study will result in a unique dataset, enabling cross country comparisons in overweight, obesity, risk behaviours for these conditions as well...

  20. Immediate Effects of Project EX in Spain: A Classroom-Based Smoking Prevention and Cessation Intervention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espada, José P.; Gonzálvez, María T.; Guillén-Riquelme, Alejandro; Sun, Ping; Sussman, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco use is of high prevalence among Spanish adolescents. Programming to counteract tobacco use has been needed. There is a lack of knowledge on the efficacy of teen tobacco use cessation programming. The current study provides an immediate outcome evaluation of the Project EX tobacco use prevention and cessation program among Spanish…

  1. Waddenfonds Tidal Texel Demonstration project. BlueTEC Texel Tidal Project: Environmental measurement and performance analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponsoni, L.; Nauw, J.J.; Smit, M.; Ober, S.; Nichols, C.; Kenkhuis, J.; Schmidt, C.; Buatois, A.; de Haas, P.

    2016-01-01

    In the context of the BlueTEC project, this report starts by introducing theBlueTEC tidal energy platform and reviewing the patterns of circulation of theMarsdiep inlet. The energy resource assessment and the site selection for theplatform's deployment are reported. This document analyses di?erent

  2. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Aging & Health A to Z Find a Geriatrics Healthcare Professional Medications & Older Adults Making Your Wishes ... Prevention Hearing Loss Heart Attack High Blood Pressure Nutrition Osteoporosis Shingles Skin Cancer Related News Quitting Smoking, ...

  3. Measurement and Assessment of Flow Quality in Wind Tunnels Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — New wind tunnel flow quality test and analysis procedures have been developed and will be used to establish standardized turbulent flow quality measurement...

  4. Ultrasonic Derivative Measurements of Bone Strain During Exercise Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Luna Innovations, Inc., in collaboration with the SUNY Stony Brook, proposes to extend ultrasonic pulsed phase locked loop (PPLL) derivative measurements to the...

  5. Measurements of TYVEK reflective properties for the Pierre Auger Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gichaba, Justus Ogwoka; /Mississippi U.

    1998-08-01

    The authors have measured the spectrum and diffuse reflection of various samples of Tyvek, a material to be used to line the inner walls of the Pierre Auger Observatory water crenkov tanks. These measurements were carried out with a Lambda 18 UV/VIS spectrometer over a wavelength range from 200 nm to 700 nm. The angular dependence of this scattering was a gaussian. They have also carried the measurements with the PASCO OS-8020 to find the reflectivity of Tyvek samples versus Incident and Reflected angles. The reflected angles range from -90{sup o} to -90{sup o}. Finally, information from these measurements was used to simulate Cosmic rays events in a Water Cerenkov detector.

  6. 3-D Wind and Turbulence Measurement System for UAV Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In situ wind and turbulence measurements play a key role in the support and validation of Earth science missions using spaced-based technology. NASA has been using...

  7. Analysis of Installed Measures and Energy Savings for Single-Family Residential Better Buildings Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heaney, M. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Polly, B. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-04-30

    This report presents an analysis of data for residential single-family projects reported by 37 organizations that were awarded federal financial assistance (cooperative agreements or grants) by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Better Buildings Neighborhood Program.1 The report characterizes the energy-efficiency measures installed for single-family residential projects and analyzes energy savings and savings prediction accuracy for measures installed in a subset of those projects.

  8. A European cancer nursing curriculum for a post-basic course in cancer prevention: outcomes of a collaborative project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Y

    2000-09-01

    The core curriculum distance learning project in cancer prevention was funded by Europe Against Cancer and the University of Southampton and supported by the European Oncology Nursing Society. The commitments of the project were to collaborative working, involvement of as many EU countries as possible, joint writing and design of the materials, and a flexible and useful end-product. The ambitions of the project were realized by the collective production of materials on cancer prevention that are available either as a teaching resource in English, French or Portuguese, or an accredited post-graduate course by distance learning in English. This paper will focus on the tensions and issues arising out of the collaborative process; these were connected to funding, translation, dissemination and evaluation.

  9. Validation Engine for Observational Protocols. Measures of Effective Teaching (MET) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In the fall of 2009, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation launched the two-year Measures of Effective Teaching (MET) project to rigorously develop and test multiple measures of teacher effectiveness. As part of the project, partners from more than a dozen reputable academic, non-profit and for-profit organizations collected and analyzed data from…

  10. Working with Teachers to Develop Fair and Reliable Measures of Effective Teaching. MET Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In fall 2009, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation launched the Measures of Effective Teaching (MET) project to develop and test multiple measures of teacher effectiveness. The goal of the MET project is to improve the quality of information about teaching effectiveness available to education professionals within states and districts--information…

  11. Evaluating the Validity and Social Acceptability of Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Skill Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Brandon; Miltenberger, Raymond G.

    2008-01-01

    In research evaluating sexual abuse prevention programs, knowledge measures are typically used to assess the program's success. In other areas of research on child safety skills, however, skills are typically assessed through behavioral measures such as role-plays. The purpose of this study was to assess the validity and acceptability of a set of…

  12. Violence prevention in schools: Resilience promotion in the framework of a European practice research project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Rauh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The following article presents the theoretical background, design and evaluation results of the international practice research project Strong implementing strategies of violence prevention in schools by means of resilience promotion. After presenting the results from the quantitative and qualitative results briefly, success factors for the implementation of a prevention strategy are highlighted. Este artigo apresenta o quadro teórico, a conceção e a avaliação dos resultados do projeto internacional Strong de investigação prática no que à implementação de estratégias de prevenção da violência nas escolas diz respeito através da promoção da resiliência. Após a apresentação breve dos resultados quantitativos e qualitativos, serão realçados os fatores de sucesso de uma estratégia de prevenção. En este artículo se presenta el marco teórico, el diseño y la evaluación de los resultados del proyecto internacional de investigación práctica Strong de la implementación de estrategias para prevenir la violencia en las escuelas mediante la promoción de la resiliencia. Después de la breve presentación de los resultados cuantitativos y cualitativos se destacarán los factores de éxito de una estrategia de prevención. Cet article présente le cadre théorique, la conception et l'évaluation des résultats du projet international de recherche pratique Strong dans la mise en œuvre de stratégies visant à prévenir la violence dans les écoles préoccupations en favorisant la résilience. Après la brève présentation des résultats quantitatifs et qualitatifs seront mis en évidence les facteurs de réussite d'une stratégie de prévention

  13. 77 FR 29351 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control; Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Initial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Framing to Increase Support for Evidence-based Tobacco Control, SIP12-060, Panel A, initial review. In... Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned meeting: Time and Date 11:00 a.m.-5:30 p...

  14. 77 FR 31358 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Initial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Resident Knowledge and Practice in Physical Activity, Nutrition, and Obesity Counseling for Primary... Activity, Nutrition, and Obesity Counseling for Primary Prevention of Cancer, SIP12-053, Panel C, initial...

  15. Process evaluation of a community-based adolescent obesity prevention project in Tonga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotu, Kalesita F; Moodie, Marj M; Mavoa, Helen M; Pomana, Siosifa; Schultz, Jimaima T; Swinburn, Boyd A

    2011-05-09

    The rising burden of obesity in Tonga is alarming. The promotion of healthy behaviours and environments requires immediate urgent action and a multi-sectoral approach. A three-year community based study titled the Ma'alahi Youth Project (MYP) conducted in Tonga from 2005-2008 aimed to increase the capacity of the whole community (schools, churches, parents and adolescents) to promote healthy eating and regular physical activity and to reduce the prevalence of overweight and obesity amongst youth and their families. This paper reflects on the process evaluation for MYP, against a set of Best Practice Principles for community-based obesity prevention. MYP was managed by the Fiji School of Medicine. A team of five staff in Tonga were committed to planning, implementation and evaluation of a strategic plan, the key planks of which were developed during a two day community workshop. Intervention activities were delivered in villages, churches and schools, on the main island of Tongatapu. Process evaluation data covering the resource utilisation associated with all intervention activities were collected, and analysed by dose, frequency and reach for specific strategies. The action plan included three standard objectives around capacity building, social marketing and evaluation; four nutrition; two physical activity objectives; and one around championing key people as role models. While the interventions included a wide mix of activities straddling across all of these objectives and in both school and village settings, there was a major focus on the social marketing and physical activity objectives. The intervention reach, frequency and dose varied widely across all activities, and showed no consistent patterns. The adolescent obesity interventions implemented as part of the MYP program comprised a wide range of activities conducted in multiple settings, touched a broad spectrum of the population (wider than the target group), but the dose and frequency of activities were

  16. The Measure your World / Mide tu Mundo Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojman, S.; Johnson, R. M.; Meymaris, K. K.; Ward, D. L.; Russell, R.; Genyuk, J.; Lagrave, M.; Henderson, S.; Ostrosky, J.; Martinez, M.

    2007-12-01

    Over 22 centuries ago Erathostenes devised a method to determine the Earth radius. Measure your World / Mide tu Mundo is a joint venture lead by Windows to the Universe/Ventanas al Universo in the United States of America, EducaRed in Chile and RedEscolar in Mexico seeking to partner teams of students, teachers and parents from the three countries in a collaborative effort to determine the Earth circumference by sharing the results of their measurements, and exchanging cultural information. Data are collected from September 29 through October 7, 2007. A report of the whole experience will be presented.

  17. Knowledge-exchange in the Pacific: outcomes of the TROPIC (translational research for obesity prevention in communities) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Peter; Mavoa, Helen; Waqa, Gade; Moodie, Marjory; McCabe, Marita; Swinburn, Boyd

    2017-04-26

    The Pacific TROPIC (Translational Research for Obesity Prevention in Communities) project aimed to design, implement and evaluate a knowledge-broking approach to evidence-informed policy making to address obesity in Fiji. This paper reports on the quantitative evaluation of the knowledge-broking intervention through assessment of participants' perceptions of evidence use and development of policy/advocacy briefs. Selected staff from six organizations - four government Ministries and two nongovernment organizations (NGOs) - participated in the project. The intervention comprised workshops and supported development of policy/advocacy briefs. Workshops addressed obesity and policy cycles and developing participants' skills in accessing, assessing, adapting and applying relevant evidence. A knowledge-broking team supported participants individually and/or in small groups to develop evidence-informed policy/advocacy briefs. A questionnaire survey that included workplace and demographic items and the self-assessment tool "Is Research Working for You?" (IRWFY) was administered pre- and post-intervention. Forty nine individuals (55% female, 69% 21-40 years, 69% middle-senior managers) participated in the study. The duration and level of participant engagement with the intervention activities varied - just over half participated for 10+ months, just under half attended most workshops and approximately one third produced one or more policy briefs. There were few reliable changes on the IRWFY scales following the intervention; while positive changes were found on several scales, these effects were small (d obesity-related policies. The findings failed to indicate reliable improvements in research utilization at either the individual or organizational level. Factors associated with fidelity and intervention dose as well as challenges related to organizational support and the measurement of research utilization, are discussed and recommendations for future research presented.

  18. [Prevention of drink driving at academic festivals: «Tú decides» project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malveiro, Jorge; de Jesus, Saul Neves; Viseo, Joao; Pechorro, Pedro; Pacheco, Eusébio; Lima-Rodríguez, Joaquín Salvador; Lima-Serrano, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol consumption among university students has reached worrying levels, its effects on driving being highly dangerous. This aspect emphasizes the need to develop prevention programs, intended to raise subjects' awareness about the effects of alcohol on driving. The aim of the present research is to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention program «Tú decides», implemented at the Algarve University during several students festivals, between 2010-2014. Quasi-experimental study, pre-post test without control group. A total of 5,079 participants were inquired. They were asked, at two different moments, before and after the measurement of the blood alcohol level and giving an information session with technical recommendations to prevent driving under alcohol effects. One factor ANOVA test used, in order to perform a mean comparison, as well as the Chi-square statistics, to perform a proportion comparison (p<.05). It was found that the intention to drive was lower at the second moment (42.1%) (χ(2)=2078.71; p=.000). This intention was influenced by blood alcohol level different levels (χ(2)=338.252; p=.000), gender (χ(2)=35.718; p=.000), age (χ(2)=62.805; p=.000) and professional situation of the participants (χ(2)=27.397; p=.001). We can affirm that the main objective of this intervention was achieved, since the participants followed the technical recommendations based on the blood alcohol level results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Measurements of Worldwide Radioxenon Backgrounds - The "EU" Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowyer, Ted W.; Cooper, Matthew W.; Hayes, James C.; Forrester, Joel B.; Haas, Derek A.; Hansen, Randy R.; Keller, Paul E.; Kirkham, Randy R.; Lidey, Lance S.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Miley, Harry S.; Payne, Rosara F.; Saey, Paul R.; Thompson, Robert C.; Woods, Vincent T.; Williams, Richard M.

    2009-09-24

    Under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), radioactive xenon (radioxenon) measurements are one of the principle techniques used to detect nuclear underground nuclear explosions, and specifically, the presence of one or more radioxenon isotopes allows one to determine whether a suspected event was a nuclear explosion or originated from an innocent source. During the design of the International Monitoring System (IMS), which was designed as the verification mechanism for the Treaty, it was determined that radioxenon measurements should be performed at 40 or more stations worldwide. At the time of the design of the IMS, however, very few details about the background of the xenon isotopes was known and it is now recognized that the backgrounds were probably evolving anyhow. This paper lays out the beginning of a study of the worldwide concentrations of xenon isotopes that can be used to detect nuclear explosions and several sources that also release radioxenons, and will have to be accounted for during analysis of atmospheric levels. Although the global concentrations of the xenon isotopes are the scope of a much larger activity that could span over several years, this study measures radioxenon concentrations in locations where there was either very little information or there was a unique opportunity to learn more about emissions from known sources. The locations where radioxenon levels were measured and reported are included.

  20. First results and future projects for Petula ECE measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    How, J.; Melin, G.; Girard, A.

    1985-01-01

    Electron cyclotron emission (ECE) diagnostics are being installed on the Petula-B tokamak. First results include extensive measurements of the total ECE radiation, integrated over 50-1000 GHz, during ohmic and current drive operation, and preliminary interferograms from the polarizing interferometer. Future plans are discussed

  1. Glossary of Dependent Measures from the Employment Training Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusch, Frank R.

    The paper presents a list of definitions of dependent measures from published and unpublished reports on employment training for disabled persons. Explanations are offered for 38 terms such as "accepts criticism,""arrival behaviors,""bus riding,""complaining,""disagreements,""drooling,""following a a schedule,""meal preparation,""sweeping…

  2. Fission Fragment Angular Distributions measured with a Time Projection Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinrath, Verena

    2015-01-01

    The subject is presented in a series of slides with the following organization: Introduction (What is anisotropy? Relevance (Theory and ratio cross section), Previous measurements); Experiment (Particle tracking in the fissionTPC, Neutron time of flight, Data analysis & uncertainty calculation, Preliminary result for 235 U); and Future Work (Refine 235 U result, Process 239 Pu data).

  3. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A

    2001-01-01

    , breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....

  4. The Multidomain Intervention to preveNt disability in ElDers (MINDED) project: rationale and study design of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesari, Matteo; Demougeot, Laurent; Boccalon, Henri; Guyonnet, Sophie; Vellas, Bruno; Andrieu, Sandrine

    2014-05-01

    Disability is hardly reversible at old age, negatively impacts on the elders' quality of life, and significantly threatens the sustainability of public health services. Therefore, preventive interventions become necessary for successfully avoiding its onset. The translation of the successful clinical approach represented by the geriatric comprehensive assessment at the community-level and the specific targeting of frailty (a well-established geriatric syndrome) might represent a promising possibility. This approach may allow the implementation of preventive interventions before the irreversible features of disability onset. Unfortunately, there is a lack of evidence on the effectiveness of primary prevention programs against disability in community-dwelling elders. Moreover, the novelty of the topic makes it difficult for the immediate design and conduction of a full-scale trial. For these reasons, a pilot project aimed at obtaining the preliminary information for the design of a subsequent definitive trial is required. In the present article, we describe the objectives, design, and methods of the Multidomain Intervention to preveNt Disability in ElDers (MINDED) project. MINDED is articulated into three sequential phases. First, a screening tool for indentifying non-disabled frail older persons in the community (ideal target population for preventive interventions against disability) will be validated. Then, the organization of a multidisciplinary team in the development and design of a multidomain preventive plan against disability will be verified/optimized. Finally, a randomized controlled trial measuring the effect size of a multicomponent intervention (based on physical exercise, nutrition, and cognitive training) against incident mobility disability versus usual care in community-dwelling frail elders will be conducted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A Data Specification for Software Project Performance Measures: Results of a Collaboration on Performance Measurement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kasunic, Mark

    2008-01-01

    ... between completed projects. These terms and definitions were developed using a collaborative, consensus-based approach involving the Software Engineering Institute's Software Engineering Process Management program and service...

  6. Fission Fragment Angular Distributions measured with a Time Projection Chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinrath, Verena [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-04-28

    The subject is presented in a series of slides with the following organization: Introduction (What is anisotropy? Relevance (Theory and ratio cross section), Previous measurements); Experiment (Particle tracking in the fissionTPC, Neutron time of flight, Data analysis & uncertainty calculation, Preliminary result for 235U); and Future Work (Refine 235U result, Process 239Pu data).

  7. Measuring mobility and transport services : The METPEX project

    OpenAIRE

    Woodcock, A.; Susilo, Yusak; Diana, M.; Abenoza, Roberto; Pirra, M.; Tovey, M.

    2018-01-01

    Public transport is key to access social, economic, civic and cultural life. However, there is still a need to better understand (1) the needs of all transport users and (2) transport provision in cities and regions. The development of an inclusive, validated, passenger experience measurement instrument is the first step in understanding the whole journey, multi-modal journeys. Such a validated tool would enable resources to be focused on areas which travelers felt most important. Such inform...

  8. [Prevention of Alzheimer's dementia in Germany : A projection of the possible potential of reducing selected risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luck, T; Riedel-Heller, S G

    2016-11-01

    Current international projections suggest that reducing the prevalence of seven well-established risk factors, midlife hypertension and obesity, diabetes mellitus, depression, physical inactivity, smoking and low educational attainment, may also substantially reduce the prevalence of Alzheimer's dementia (AD). Following the procedures of the international projections, in this study we aimed to provide projections of a corresponding potential for prevention specific for Germany. For each risk factor separately and combined (with adjustment for the association between the risk factors) we calculated (1) the population attributable risk (PAR) for AD, (2) the corresponding total number of attributable AD cases and (3) the potential number of current AD cases that may have been prevented by a 10 %, 25 % and 50 % lower prevalence of the risk factors. According to the population projections 30.5 % of the current AD cases in Germany could be attributable to the risk factors considered (305,000 AD cases in total). The highest estimated impact on AD prevalence was found for physical inactivity (PAR = 21.7 %, 217,000 attributable cases) and smoking (PAR = 14.9 %, 149,000 cases). A 10-50 % reduction in the prevalence of all seven risk factors could have potentially prevented 23,000-130,000 of the current AD cases in Germany. The identified possible substantial potential for reducing AD prevalence should act as a strong additional incentive to reduce the seven risk factors in Germany.

  9. Measurement of obesity prevention in childcare settings: A systematic review of current instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanhope, Kaitlyn K; Kay, Christi; Stevenson, Beth; Gazmararian, Julie A

    The incidence of childhood obesity is highest among children entering kindergarten. Overweight and obesity in early childhood track through adulthood. Programs increasingly target children in early life for obesity prevention. However, the published literature lacks a review on tools available for measuring behaviour and environmental level change in child care. The objective is to describe measurement tools currently in use in evaluating obesity-prevention in preschool-aged children. Literature searches were conducted in PubMed using the keywords "early childhood obesity," "early childhood measurement," "early childhood nutrition" and "early childhood physical activity." Inclusion criteria included a discussion of: (1) obesity prevention, risk assessment or treatment in children ages 1-5 years; and (2) measurement of nutrition or physical activity. One hundred thirty-four publications were selected for analysis. Data on measurement tools, population and outcomes were abstracted into tables. Tables are divided by individual and environmental level measures and further divided into physical activity, diet and physical health outcomes. Recommendations are made for weighing advantages and disadvantages of tools. Despite rising numbers of interventions targeting obesity-prevention and treatment in preschool-aged children, there is no consensus for which tools represent a gold standard or threshold of accuracy. Copyright © 2016 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. HIV prevention costs and program scale: data from the PANCEA project in five low and middle-income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley Nicci

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Economic theory and limited empirical data suggest that costs per unit of HIV prevention program output (unit costs will initially decrease as small programs expand. Unit costs may then reach a nadir and start to increase if expansion continues beyond the economically optimal size. Information on the relationship between scale and unit costs is critical to project the cost of global HIV prevention efforts and to allocate prevention resources efficiently. Methods The "Prevent AIDS: Network for Cost-Effectiveness Analysis" (PANCEA project collected 2003 and 2004 cost and output data from 206 HIV prevention programs of six types in five countries. The association between scale and efficiency for each intervention type was examined for each country. Our team characterized the direction, shape, and strength of this association by fitting bivariate regression lines to scatter plots of output levels and unit costs. We chose the regression forms with the highest explanatory power (R2. Results Efficiency increased with scale, across all countries and interventions. This association varied within intervention and within country, in terms of the range in scale and efficiency, the best fitting regression form, and the slope of the regression. The fraction of variation in efficiency explained by scale ranged from 26% – 96%. Doubling in scale resulted in reductions in unit costs averaging 34.2% (ranging from 2.4% to 58.0%. Two regression trends, in India, suggested an inflection point beyond which unit costs increased. Conclusion Unit costs decrease with scale across a wide range of service types and volumes. These country and intervention-specific findings can inform projections of the global cost of scaling up HIV prevention efforts.

  11. Cost-effectiveness of measures to prevent classical swine fever introduction into The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vos, C J; Saatkamp, H W; Huirne, R B M

    2005-09-12

    Recent history has demonstrated that classical swine fever (CSF) epidemics can incur high economic losses, especially for exporting countries that have densely populated pig areas and apply a strategy of non-vaccination, such as The Netherlands. Introduction of CSF virus (CSFV) remains a continuing threat to the pig production sector in The Netherlands. Reducing the annual probability of CSFV introduction (P(CSFV)) by preventive measures is therefore of utmost importance. The choice of preventive measures depends not only on the achieved reduction of the annual P(CSFV), but also on the expenditures required for implementing these measures. The objective of this study was to explore the cost-effectiveness of tactical measures aimed at the prevention of CSFV introduction into The Netherlands. For this purpose for each measure (i) model calculations were performed with a scenario tree model for CSFV introduction and (ii) its annual cost was estimated. The cost-effectiveness was then determined as the reduction of the annual P(CSFV) achieved by each preventive measure (DeltaP) divided by the annual cost of implementing that measure (DeltaC). The measures analysed reduce the P(CSFV) caused by import or export of pigs. Results showed that separation of national and international transport of pigs is the most cost-effective measure, especially when risk aversion is assumed. Although testing piglets and breeding pigs by a quick and reliable PCR also had a high cost-effectiveness ratio, this measure is not attractive due to the high cost per pig imported. Besides, implementing such a measure is not allowed under current EU law, as it is trade restrictive.

  12. Development of Information Security-Focused Incident Prevention Measures for Critical Information Infrastructure in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hideaki; Watanabe, Kenji; Watanabe, Takahito; Nagayasu, Yukinobu

    In recent years, the dilemma of cyber attacks by malicious third parties targeting security vulnerabilities in information and communication systems has emerged, resulting in security incidents. This situation suggests that the establishment of proactive efforts and recurrence prevention measures are becoming imperative, especially in critical infrastructure sectors.This paper provides an analysis of 58 security incident cases, which occurred in critical infrastructures worldwide and were published in media. The purpose of the analysis is to conclude to a valid list of recurrence prevention measures that constitute good practices.

  13. Adaptive projection intensity adjustment for avoiding saturation in three-dimensional shape measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao; Gao, Nan; Wang, Xiangjun; Zhang, Zonghua

    2018-03-01

    Phase-based fringe projection methods have been commonly used for three-dimensional (3D) measurements. However, image saturation results in incorrect intensities in captured fringe pattern images, leading to phase and measurement errors. Existing solutions are complex. This paper proposes an adaptive projection intensity adjustment method to avoid image saturation and maintain good fringe modulation in measuring objects with a high range of surface reflectivities. The adapted fringe patterns are created using only one prior step of fringe-pattern projection and image capture. First, a set of phase-shifted fringe patterns with maximum projection intensity value of 255 and a uniform gray level pattern are projected onto the surface of an object. The patterns are reflected from and deformed by the object surface and captured by a digital camera. The best projection intensities corresponding to each saturated-pixel clusters are determined by fitting a polynomial function to transform captured intensities to projected intensities. Subsequently, the adapted fringe patterns are constructed using the best projection intensities at projector pixel coordinate. Finally, the adapted fringe patterns are projected for phase recovery and 3D shape calculation. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method achieves high measurement accuracy even for objects with a high range of surface reflectivities.

  14. The Leadership Program’s Violence Prevention Project: Infusing the Arts into Conflict Resolution

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa M. Chauveron

    2012-01-01

    While the demand for youth violence prevention programs increases, the ability of the traditional school day schedule to accommodate violence prevention program time requirements has diminished. School reforms, such as No Child Left Behind, have pressed schools to focus more tightly on academics, often to the exclusion of subjects such as physical education and the arts. Viable violence prevention programs must offer components that supplement classroom curriculum as well as reduce violence...

  15. 15/22 Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study (DPPOS) Phase 3 - Research Project | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abnormal regulation of glycemia ("dysglycemia") has a very long time course, from its earliest stage, labeled pre-diabetes, to the onset of Type 2 diabetes (T2D), to the development of clinically detectable microvascular changes and measurable atherosclerosis, to clinically manifest complications with attendant morbidity and mortality. |

  16. Measuring mental disorders: The failed commensuration project of DSM-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whooley, Owen

    2016-10-01

    Commensuration - the comparison of entities according to a common quantitative metric - is a key process in efforts to rationalize medicine. The push toward evidence-based medicine and quantitative assessment has led to the proliferation of metrics in healthcare. While social scientific attention has revealed the effects of these metrics once institutionalized - on clinical practice, on medical expertise, on outcome assessment, on valuations of medical services, and on experiences of illness - less attention has been paid to the process of developing metrics. This article examines the attempt to create severity scales during the revision to the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) as a case of failed commensuration. Using data from interviews with participants in the DSM-5 revision (n = 30), I reconstruct the problems that emerged in the DSM-5 Task Force's effort to develop viable psychometric instruments to measure severity. Framed as a part of a "paradigm shift" in psychiatry, the revision produced ad hoc, heterogeneous severity scales with divergent logics. I focus on two significant issues of metric construction in this case - diagnostic validity and clinical utility. Typically perceived as technical and conceptual challenges of design, I show how these issues were infused with, and undermined by, professional political dynamics, specifically tensions between medical researchers and clinicians. This case reveals that, despite its association with objectivity and transparency, commensuration encompasses more than identifying, operationalizing, and measuring an entity; it demands the negotiation of extra-scientific, non-empirical concerns that get written into medical metrics themselves. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Measuring the effects of using ICT/BIM in construction projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambrecht, Jan Fuglsig; Vestergaard, Flemming; Karlshøj, Jan

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on presenting part of the findings from a research project completed in the period of 2009-2013.The research project was funded by the Danish Building & Property Agency with the primary aim to identify and measure the economic effects of using ICT/BIM in construction projects....... Firstly, this paper presents a conceptual evaluation method developed in order to define and describe how case studies focusing on use of ICT/BIM in construction projects could be completed in order to measure (both quantitatively and qualitatively) the effects achieved from using ICT/BIM in construction...... projects. In this context effects are defined both as tangible and intangible effects (both economically and non-economically) directly and/or indirectly as a consequence of using ICT/BIM in a construction project. Secondly, the paper presents and analyses findings achieved from completing four case...

  18. Measuring the effects of using ICT/BIM in construction projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambrecht, Jan Fuglsig; Vestergaard, Flemming; Karlshøj, Jan

    2016-01-01

    his paper focuses on presenting part of the findings from a research project completed in the period of 2009-2013.The research project was funded by the Danish Building & Property Agency with the primary aim to identify and measure the economic effects of using ICT/BIM in construction projects....... Firstly, this paper presents a conceptual evaluation method developed in order to define and describe how case studies focusing on use of ICT/BIM in construction projects could be completed in order to measure (both quantitatively and qualitatively) the effects achieved from using ICT/BIM in construction...... projects. In this context effects are defined both as tangible and intangible effects (both economically and non-economically) directly and/or indirectly as a consequence of using ICT/BIM in a construction project. Secondly, the paper presents and analyses findings achieved from completing four case...

  19. The Cedar Project WelTel mHealth intervention for HIV prevention in young Indigenous people who use illicit drugs: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongbloed, Kate; Friedman, Anton J; Pearce, Margo E; Van Der Kop, Mia L; Thomas, Vicky; Demerais, Lou; Pooyak, Sherri; Schechter, Martin T; Lester, Richard T; Spittal, Patricia M

    2016-03-09

    Despite successes in preventing and treating HIV, Indigenous people in Canada continue to face disproportionately high rates of HIV infection. Programs that support healing from lifetime trauma, support connection to culture, and reduce drug-related harms are critical to preventing HIV among young Indigenous people who use drugs. The Cedar Project WelTel mHealth intervention proposed here is a structured mobile-phone initiative to connect young Indigenous people who use drugs with Cedar Case Managers in a community-based setting. The intervention consists of a package of supports, including a mobile phone and cellular plan, weekly two-way text messaging, and support from Cedar Case Managers. The Cedar Project WelTel mHealth study is a multi-site Zelen pre-randomized trial to measure the effect of a two-way supportive text-message intervention to reduce HIV vulnerability among young Indigenous people who use illicit drugs in two Canadian cities. The trial is nested within the Cedar Project, an ongoing cohort study addressing HIV and hepatitis C vulnerability among young Indigenous people who use drugs in Vancouver and Prince George, British Columbia. The Cedar Project Partnership, an independent body of Indigenous Elders, leaders, and health/social service experts, governs all aspects of the study. Two hundred participants will be followed over a 16-month period, with HIV propensity score at 6 months as the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes include HIV propensity at 1 year, HIV risk, resilience, psychological distress, access to drug-related services, and connection to culture measured at 6 months and 1 year. Primary analysis is by intention to treat. Culturally safe interventions that address barriers to HIV prevention while supporting the strength of young Indigenous people who use drugs are urgently needed. Despite presenting a tremendous opportunity to connect young, highly transient Indigenous people who use drugs to prevention services, supportive two-way m

  20. A coordinated school health approach to obesity prevention among Appalachian youth: the Winning with Wellness Pilot Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schetzina, Karen E; Dalton, William T; Lowe, Elizabeth F; Azzazy, Nora; VonWerssowetz, Katrina M; Givens, Connie; Pfortmiller, Deborah T; Stern, H Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Childhood obesity has been an increasing problem in the United States, especially in rural areas. Effective prevention approaches are needed. This article describes the development, implementation, effectiveness, feasibility, and sustainability of a school-based obesity prevention pilot project, Winning with Wellness. The program was based on the coordinated school health model and included a community-based participatory research approach aimed at promoting healthy eating and physical activity in a rural Appalachian elementary school. Findings from this preliminary project revealed improvements in nutrition offerings and increased physical activity during the school day. In addition, the program was found to be acceptable to teachers, successfully implemented utilizing both existing and newly developed resources, and sustainable as evidenced in continued practice and expansion to other area schools.

  1. Sellers to Preventive and Control Measures on Bird Flu, Benin City, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Y. Adam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigated was the knowledge of preventive measures of avian influenza from farmers, live chicken sellers, and poultry veterinarian in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. A cross-sectional descriptive study using standardized questionnaire was conducted. Respondents included 236 poultry farmers, live chicken sellers (LCS, and veterinarian aged 12–70 years in contact with birds through husbandry. The study duration was from October 2010 to May 2011. Participants knowledge on transmission sources showed low understanding with highest being from bird-bird (57.3%. The medium most commonly utilized was electronic media (82.5% as information source. Respondents thought that vaccination of birds (80.6% would prevent infection. Farmers’ education on bird flu needs to be improved through veterinary public health and health promotion approach. Nonpharmaceutical preventive measures such as hand washing freely and avoidance of eye, nose, and mouth touching must be improved.

  2. Comprehensive Sustainability Evaluation of High-Speed Railway (HSR Construction Projects Based on Unascertained Measure and Analytic Hierarchy Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongzhi Chang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to evaluate the sustainability of high-speed railway (HSR construction projects in a comprehensive manner. To this end, the author established an index system, involving 4 primary indices, 9 secondary indices, and 32 tertiary indices. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP and the unascertained measure were introduced to calculate the weights of these indices. Then, the index system was applied to evaluate the sustainability of the China’s Harbin-Dalian Passenger Dedicated Line (PDL. The results show that the Harbin-Dalian PDL project achieved good results in terms of process, economic benefit, impact, and sustainability, and will bring long-term benefits in the fields of tourism, economy, and transport capacity, as well as many other fields. In spite of its good overall sustainability, the project needs to further increase its economic benefits and reduce its negative environmental impact. For this purpose, it is necessary to adopt the management mode of “separation between network and transportation” and apply noise prevention measures like noise barriers, tunnels, and overhead viaducts. This research lays a solid basis for the sustainability evaluation of HSR construction projects, and simplifies the modelling process for designers of HSR.

  3. Handbook to guide the measurement and monitoring of project effectiveness and impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-09-15

    This handbook demonstrates the application of a tool for measuring and monitoring the impact of a development project in the Department of Quezaltenango, Guatemala. That project itself presently is a demonstration. It explores the technical feasibility and the commercial possibilities of direct geothermal heat applications to the processing of agricultural produce - with the eventual purpose of expanding agricultural exports from Guatemala. The handbook focuses on an early stage of the geothermal initiative and guides preparations for future impact measurement and monitoring of geothermal projects. Primarily, guidance is for projects in agricultural applications of geothermal heat - and basically in Quezaltenango. But the exercise and the handbook are relevant in broad outline to other, industrial applications projects as well which may be based in other departments and have immediate impact across the whole country. This handbook attempts to prepare geothermal energy planners in Guatemala for that juncture when geothermal projects can be managed by objectives. It promotes and facilitates thinking about defining specific objectives for projects that result from the demonstration at Zunil (in Quezaltenango Department); and it prompts preparations for obtaining baseline measurements and for making rational projections on the achievements of future projects.

  4. Measurement, calculation and evaluation of photon production data. Final report of a coordinated research project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oblozinsky, P.; Dietrich, F.S.; Mengoni, A.

    1999-12-01

    The report summarizes results of the Coordinated Research Project (CRP) devoted to photon preduction in neutron-induced reactions. The report presents 25 original contributions that reflect accomplishments achieved in measurement, calculation and evaluation of photon production under the project in 1994-1997. Major results are highlighted and a list of the CRP publications is given. (author)

  5. 33 CFR Appendix A to Part 274 - Preventive Safety Measures in Handling of Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Handling of Pesticides A Appendix A to Part 274 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS... Appendix A to Part 274—Preventive Safety Measures in Handling of Pesticides 1. Follow the label on each... permitted while pesticides are being handled. 4. All pesticides must be handled in well-vetilated areas to...

  6. The effects of suicide prevention measures reported through a psychoeducational video: a practice in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Shinji; Tanaka, Eriko; Kameyama, Akiko; Takizawa, Tohru; Takizawa, Shiho; Fujishima, Satoko; Nara, Mieko; Sakashita, Tomoe; Oyama, Hirofumi; Ono, Yutaka

    2014-12-01

    As the suicide rate in Japan has remained high since 1998, various suicide prevention measures have been implemented in Japanese local communities. To report our findings on the effect of a psychoeducational video as a suicide prevention measure in a Japanese rural town. Questionnaires were randomly mailed to 2,000 residents aged between 30 and 79 years. Within 4 weeks, volunteers in the town visited the residents individually and collected the questionnaires. The variables reported in this study are demographics, awareness of suicide prevention measures available in the town, whether the residents watched the video, help-seeking from advisers regarding suicidal ideation and financial problems and attitudes towards suicide. We analysed data collected from 1,118 people who reported their demographics (i.e. sex, age, and job) and whether they had watched the video. By conducting a series of logistic regression and multiple regression analyses and controlling for demographic variables, we found that watching the video had substantial psychoeducational effects. Despite conducting a cross-sectional study, our new suicide prevention measures were considered effective for psychoeducation. However, further studies using a longitudinal design are needed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Knowledge Of HIV/AIDS And Preventive Measures Use By City ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The study was aimed at assessing the knowledge of the drivers and conductors on HIV/AIDS epidemic and its preventive measures. Methods: This descriptive study was prospectively conducted among randomly selected city commuter-bus drivers and conductors from. December 2006 to April 2007 in Dar Es ...

  8. Hazards and preventive measures of well deviation in well construction of in-situ leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Wenjie; Chen Shihe

    2006-01-01

    Whether the in-situ leaching method is successful depends on the quality of borehole engineering to a great extent. There are lots of factors that affect the quality, and the well deviation is one of notable problems. The hazards and causes of the well deviation are analyzed. The preventive measures and the methods of rectifying the deviation are put forward. (authors)

  9. Knowledge and use of prevention measures related to dengue in northern Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Benthem, B. H. B.; Khantikul, N.; Panart, K.; Kessels, P. J.; Somboon, P.; Oskam, L.

    2002-01-01

    To determine the frequency and determinants of knowledge of dengue infection in three sites in northern Thailand, and to compare prevention measures of people with and without knowledge of dengue. In May 2001 we conducted an epidemiological survey among 1650 persons living in three areas in northern

  10. The determinants of technical efficiency of a large scale HIV prevention project: application of the DEA double bootstrap using panel data from the Indian Avahan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lépine, Aurélia; Vassall, Anna; Chandrashekar, Sudhashree

    2015-01-01

    In 2004, the largest HIV prevention project (Avahan) conducted globally was implemented in India. Avahan was implemented by NGOs supported by state lead partners in order to provide HIV prevention services to high-risk population groups. In 2007, most of the NGOs reached full coverage. Using a panel data set of the NGOs that implemented Avahan, we investigate the level of technical efficiency as well as the drivers of technical inefficiency by using the double bootstrap procedure developed by Simar & Wilson (2007). Unlike the two-stage traditional method, this method allows valid inference in the presence of measurement error and serial correlation. We find that over the 4 years, Avahan NGOs could have reduced the level of inputs by 43% given the level of outputs reached. We find that efficiency of the project has increased over time. Results indicate that main drivers of inefficiency come from the characteristics of the state lead partner, the NGOs and the catchment area. These organisational factors are important to explicitly consider and assess when designing and implementing HIV prevention programmes and in setting benchmarks in order to optimise the use and allocation of resources. C14, I1.

  11. Mothers' and their daughters' use of preventive measures against cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Bente Braad; Vazquez-Prada Baillet, Miguel; Rebolj, Matejka

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) and screening are complementary preventive measures against cervical cancer. In Denmark, screening and vaccination are free of charge for the women. In total, 75% of women are screened and about 90% of girls are vaccinated with at least one dose...... to increase the vaccination coverage by, for example, counselling at the mother's cervical screening appointment. Other measures to increase the coverage with vaccination will be important....

  12. ChemCam-like Spectrometer for Non-Contact Measurements of Key Isotopes Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project addresses the need for a non-contact instrument capable of measuring the isotopic ratios O-18/O-16 and D/H from water ice and other solid materials...

  13. Adaptive fringe-pattern projection for image saturation avoidance in 3D surface-shape measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Kofman, Jonathan

    2014-04-21

    In fringe-projection 3D surface-shape measurement, image saturation results in incorrect intensities in captured images of fringe patterns, leading to phase and measurement errors. An adaptive fringe-pattern projection (AFPP) method was developed to adapt the maximum input gray level in projected fringe patterns to the local reflectivity of an object surface being measured. The AFPP method demonstrated improved 3D measurement accuracy by avoiding image saturation in highly-reflective surface regions while maintaining high intensity modulation across the entire surface. The AFPP method can avoid image saturation and handle varying surface reflectivity, using only two prior rounds of fringe-pattern projection and image capture to generate the adapted fringe patterns.

  14. Project Pre-Gondola I, Close-In Ground Motion, Earth Stress, and Pore Presure Measurements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Day, J

    1967-01-01

    The objectives of this project were to measure and analyze the particle velocities, soil stresses, and pore water pressures produced by detonation of 20 tons of nitromethane in saturated clay-shale...

  15. A Community-Based Participatory Research Approach for Preventing Childhood Obesity: The Communities and Schools Together Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Shelton, Deb; Moreno-Black, Geraldine; Evers, Cody; Zwink, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity is a systemic and complex multilevel public health problem. Research approaches are needed that effectively engage communities in reversing environmental determinants of child obesity. Objectives This article discusses the Communities and Schools Together Project (CAST) and lessons learned about the project’s community-based participatory research (CBPR) model. Methods A partnership of schools, community organizations, and researchers used multiple methods to examine environmental health risks for childhood obesity and conduct school–community health programs. Action work groups structured partner involvement for designing and implementing study phases. Lessons Learned CBPR in child obesity prevention involves engaging multiple communities with overlapping yet divergent goals. Schools are naturally situated to participate in child obesity projects, but engagement of key personnel is essential for functional partnerships. Complex societal problems require CBPR approaches that can align diverse communities and necessitate significant coordination by researchers. CBPR can provide simultaneous health promotion across multiple communities in childhood obesity prevention initiatives. Support for emergent partner activities is an essential practice for maintaining community interest and involvement in multi-year CBPR projects. Conclusion Investigator-initiated CBPR partnerships can effectively organize and facilitate large health-promoting partnerships involving multiple, diverse stakeholder communities. Lessons learned from CAST illustrate the synergy that can propel projects that are holistically linked to the agents of a community. PMID:26548786

  16. The Triple Constraints: A valid set of criteria to measure IS-project success?

    OpenAIRE

    Milis, Koen

    2008-01-01

    Since the 1960's many authors accepted the triple constraints (time, cost, specification) as a standard measure of success and this still appears to be extremely important in evaluating the success of ICT projects. However, the parties involved may perceive the terms “success” or “failure” differently. A quasi-experiment (gaming) was developed to determine the measures for success used by the different parties involved in an ICT project. The results of this quasi experiment were analysed usin...

  17. Awareness on causes, consequences and preventive measures of obesity among urban married women in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Praween; Gupta, Kamla; Mishra, Vinod; Agrawal, Sutapa

    2013-10-01

    In spite of the numerous chronic diseases that have been linked to obesity, studies focusing on the awareness regarding causes, consequences and strategies to prevent and control of obesity among women are lacking in the literature, especially in developing countries such as India, where obesity is culturally accepted and nurtured and women bearded the highest weight gain in the recent decade. We explored the awareness regarding causes, consequences and preventive measures of obesity among 325 ever-married aged 20-54 years women with different levels of body mass index (BMI) in the national capital territory of Delhi representing urban India. A population based follow-up survey of women systematically selected from the second round of National Family Health Survey (NFHS-2, 1998-99) samples who were re-interviewed after four years in 2003. As a part of qualitative data collection, the respondents were asked to free list open-ended questions on causes, consequences and preventive measures of obesity. Responses were analyzed through Anthropac software package. Over eating was reported as the most important cause of obesity by normal and overweight women whereas obese women reported fried food consumption as the most important cause of weight gain. A few women from each group reported changing lifestyle as a cause of obesity. Also, there were lots of misconceptions about the cause of obesity among women (such as no tension in life, more tension, happiness, constipation, problem in Delhi's water etc.). In terms of the consequences of obesity, the participants were well aware of the common physical consequences. Normal and obese women reported breathlessness as the most important consequence whereas overweight women reported problem in standing and sitting. Regarding preventive measures, overweight and obese women reported 'walking' as most important preventive measure of obesity whereas normal women reported 'doing exercise'. In addition, 'dieting' was reported as the

  18. Corruption and compliance: preventive legislations and policies in international business projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsh PATHAK

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to provide an insight on the international phenomenon of corruption, dealing with its existence, and whether compliance is higher with Anti-Corruption laws or with corruption itself, resulting in anti-corruption laws being much less effective than the legislators intended it to be and the reasons for increasing demand worldwide for new governance standards and higher compliance controls and other effective anti-corruption laws and policies in light of rapid increase in corruption every year. This article further deals with the diagnosis and measures to deal with the cause of corruption – the short-comings in anti-corruption law – the reasons why corporations are willing to face continuing legal risks and adverse publicity but still indulge in corrupt practices and the extent of negative impact the prevailing levels of corruption ultimately have on international business and trade. Strict compliance controls are being introduced with increasing enforcement of anti-corruption laws internationally and nations have also started to focus on individual and corporate liability in cases of violation of anti-corruption laws, for both government and private organisations. In this context of far-reaching developments, whether European and South-east Asian Countries like India and International Business Organisations can act in ignorance or buck up and accept this trend, slowly and steadily moving towards a less corrupt nation and International business projects – if not towards a totally corruption free one, keeping in mind the growth of international trade and Commerce and its sustainability.

  19. Psychological and Pedagogical Measures of Preventing Conflicts of Interest Among Employees of Law Enforcement Agencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdyuk N.V.,

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article considers significant characteristics of the phenomenon of corruption resistance of employees of internal affairs agencies as civil servants. The outlined problem of preventing corruption manifestations and conflicts of interests in operational and service activities is characterized by the fact that it exceeds the limits of legal regulation. The possible solution in this case might be the selection of relevant psychological and pedagogical measures of preventing the conflict of interests and the formation of corruption resistance in the personnel of the internal affairs bodies. The article describes the value basis of law enforcement service and personal meanings in the profession.

  20. Application of instrument transfer function to a fringe projection system for measuring rough surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Davies, Angela; Ziegert, John; Evans, Christopher

    2017-08-01

    When fringe projection profilometry is used for measuring rough/textured surfaces, the fidelity of the measurement is subject to the spatial frequency response. The instrument transfer function (ITF) is one appealing approach to characterize this property. The foundation of ITF analysis is based on the linear theory; only linear systems are appropriate for ITF analysis. A fringe projection system is intrinsically nonlinear, but it can be approximated as a linear system when certain conditions are met. Here we investigate the linear conditions of a custom fringe projection system designed for an additive manufacturing application. The applicability of ITF is discussed through mathematical analysis and simulations.

  1. Measuring radiation damage dynamics by pulsed ion beam irradiation: 2016 project annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kucheyev, Sergei O. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-01-04

    The major goal of this project is to develop and demonstrate a novel experimental approach to access the dynamic regime of radiation damage formation in nuclear materials. In particular, the project exploits a pulsed-ion-beam method in order to gain insight into defect interaction dynamics by measuring effective defect interaction time constants and defect diffusion lengths. For Year 3, this project had the following two major milestones: (i) the demonstration of the measurement of thermally activated defect-interaction processes by pulsed ion beam techniques and (ii) the demonstration of alternative characterization techniques to study defect dynamics. As we describe below, both of these milestones have been met.

  2. Recruitment into diabetes prevention programs: what is the impact of errors in self-reported measures of obesity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernan Andrea

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Error in self-reported measures of obesity has been frequently described, but the effect of self-reported error on recruitment into diabetes prevention programs is not well established. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of using self-reported obesity data from the Finnish diabetes risk score (FINDRISC on recruitment into the Greater Green Triangle Diabetes Prevention Project (GGT DPP. Methods The GGT DPP was a structured group-based lifestyle modification program delivered in primary health care settings in South-Eastern Australia. Between 2004–05, 850 FINDRISC forms were collected during recruitment for the GGT DPP. Eligible individuals, at moderate to high risk of developing diabetes, were invited to undertake baseline tests, including anthropometric measurements performed by specially trained nurses. In addition to errors in calculating total risk scores, accuracy of self-reported data (height, weight, waist circumference (WC and Body Mass Index (BMI from FINDRISCs was compared with baseline data, with impact on participation eligibility presented. Results Overall, calculation errors impacted on eligibility in 18 cases (2.1%. Of n = 279 GGT DPP participants with measured data, errors (total score calculation, BMI or WC in self-report were found in n = 90 (32.3%. These errors were equally likely to result in under- or over-reported risk. Under-reporting was more common in those reporting lower risk scores (Spearman-rho = −0.226, p-value  Conclusions Overall FINDRISC was found to be an effective tool to screen and recruit participants at moderate to high risk of diabetes, accurately categorising levels of overweight and obesity using self-report data. The results could be generalisable to other diabetes prevention programs using screening tools which include self-reported levels of obesity.

  3. Prospective observational study of single- or multi-compartment pressure ulcer prevention cushions: PRESCAROH project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meaume, S; Marty, M; Colin, D

    2017-09-02

    In patients with reduced mobility, specialised pressure-relieving supports (mattresses, beds and cushions) are widely used to reduce or relieve the interface pressure between the skin and support surfaces to prevent incidence of pressure ulcers (PUs). The primary objective of these two observational studies was to assess the incidence of PUs in patients at high risk of PUs, seated in a wheelchair using a single- or multi-compartment air cushion. The level of patient satisfaction with the comfort and the views of the care team that used the air cushions were considered as secondary objectives. The PRESCAROH project was two prospective observational studies conducted in patients free of PUs at baseline and at high risk of PUs (Braden score ≤13 or ≤16 for people with spinal cord injury). Patients had to spend more than eight hours a day in a wheelchair and use either a single-compartment air cushion (patient without asymmetry of support) for the first study or a multi-compartment air cushion (patient with asymmetry of support) for the second study. The primary end point was the percentage of patients in whom a PU (sacrum and/or ischium) developed over a 35-day period. The analysis was performed on the full-analysis set (FAS) of patients included with at least a second assessment. We recruited 152 patients, 78 seated on a single-compartment air cushion (SiCAC group) and 74 on a multi-compartment air cushion (MuCAC group), in the two independent studies. All patients were included in the FAS (n=152). Most patients had spinal cord injuries. The average time spent sitting was 10.2 (standard deviation (SD): 2.3) hours a day in the SiCAC group and 9.1 (SD: 1.9) hours a day in the MuCAC group. In the SiCAC group, 6.4% (5/78) of patients dropped out of the study (one patient because of pulmonary infection and four patients for cushion installation problems). In the MuCAC group, 8.1% (6/74) of patients dropped out of the study (three patients because of adverse events not

  4. The first results of pilot project on combined preventive suplementation of iodine- and iron deficiency conditions in Tyumen region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G V Sharuho

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2008–2010 pilot project were realized in Tyumen region on combined preventive maintenance iodine deficiency and iron deficiency conditions, within the framework of which children from pilot of the territory got feeding, enriched premixes of the iodine and ferric while checking group has formed the children, getting monoprevention iodized salt. In study were examined 467 children. Frequency of the goiter on ultrasonography in pilot territory fell from 19.8 to 6.4%, in checking from 12.5 to 10.1%. In group teenager on background combined micronutrient preventive maintenance frequency tests ferritin less 15 mcg/l fell for 76 weeks in four times (p = 0.000, herewith average factors in 2010 above, than in 2008 (p = 0.114. In group teenager checking territory on background monoprevention frequency of the lowered tests ferritin more, than in group on background of the combined preventive maintenance in 2 times (p = 0.004, improvements for period of the study is not revealed.Dynamics indices of iodine deficiency conditions on background of the combined preventive maintenance and monoprevention confirms greater efficiency of the simultaneous using the products fortifications iodine and iron. Shown efficiency micronutrient preventive maintenances of the latent deficit ferric fortifications bread.

  5. Co-ownership and Collaboration: Insights into the Measurement of Impact and Change from Evidence-Based Community and State Violence Prevention Partnerships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariro Mutongwizo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Effective partnerships in community crime and violence prevention interventions are challenging to foster. While this may be the case, their merits cannot be denied, thus it is necessary to involve diverse stakeholders in processes that aim to address violence and crime prevention in order to better approach the causes of crime. However practical experiences have identified the challenges of crime prevention partnerships, particularly in developing indicators that appropriately measure and work to monitor and evaluate progress. It has also been noted that it is difficult to discern which interventions yield success, particularly in partnerships with various stakeholders. This article therefore encourages joint assessments from the onset of crime prevention projects with the development of indicators that are relatable to all partners. The paper will draw on three violence and crime prevention pilot projects, conducted in South Africa. The discussion will focus on the processes of developing performance measurement frameworks and the challenges and successes experienced throughout the monitoring, evaluation and learning process.

  6. Knowledge-exchange in the Pacific: outcomes of the TROPIC (translational research for obesity prevention in communities project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kremer

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Pacific TROPIC (Translational Research for Obesity Prevention in Communities project aimed to design, implement and evaluate a knowledge-broking approach to evidence-informed policy making to address obesity in Fiji. This paper reports on the quantitative evaluation of the knowledge-broking intervention through assessment of participants’ perceptions of evidence use and development of policy/advocacy briefs. Methods Selected staff from six organizations - four government Ministries and two nongovernment organizations (NGOs - participated in the project. The intervention comprised workshops and supported development of policy/advocacy briefs. Workshops addressed obesity and policy cycles and developing participants’ skills in accessing, assessing, adapting and applying relevant evidence. A knowledge-broking team supported participants individually and/or in small groups to develop evidence-informed policy/advocacy briefs. A questionnaire survey that included workplace and demographic items and the self-assessment tool “Is Research Working for You?” (IRWFY was administered pre- and post-intervention. Results Forty nine individuals (55% female, 69% 21–40 years, 69% middle-senior managers participated in the study. The duration and level of participant engagement with the intervention activities varied – just over half participated for 10+ months, just under half attended most workshops and approximately one third produced one or more policy briefs. There were few reliable changes on the IRWFY scales following the intervention; while positive changes were found on several scales, these effects were small (d < .2 and only one individual scale (assess was statistically significant (p < .05. Follow up (N = 1 analyses of individual-level change indicated that while 63% of participants reported increased research utilization post-intervention, this proportion was not different to chance levels. Similar analysis

  7. Economic aspects of hydro geological risk mitigation measures management in Italy: the ReNDiS project experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spizzichino, D.; Campobasso, C.; Gallozzi, P. L.; Dessi', B.; Traversa, F.

    2009-04-01

    ReNDiS project is a useful tool for monitoring, analysis and management of information data on mitigation measures and restoration works of soil protection at national scale. The main scope of the project, and related monitoring activities, is to improve the knowledge about the use of national funds and efforts against floods and landslides risk and, as a consequence, to better address the preventive policies in future. Since 1999 after the disastrous mudflow event occurred in Sarno in 1998, which caused the loss of 160 human lives, an extraordinary effort was conducted by the Italian Government in order to promote preventive measures against the hydro geological risk over the entire Italian territory. The Italian Ministry for the Environment promoted several and annual soil protection programmes. The ReNDiS project (Repertory of mitigation measures for National Soil Protection) is carried out by ISPRA - Institute for Environmental protection and Research, with the aim of improving the knowledge about the results of preventive policies against floods and landslides in order to better address national funds as requested by the Minister itself. The repertory is composed by a main archive and two secondary interface, the first for direct data management (ReNDiS-ist) and the latter (ReNDiS-web) for the on-line access and public consultation. At present, ReNDiS database contains about 3000 records concerning those programmes, focused on restoration works but including also information on landslide typologies and processes. The monitoring project is developed taking into account all the information about each step of every mitigation measure from the initial funding phase until the end of the work. During present work, we have statistically analyzed the ReNDiS database in order to highlight the conformity between the characteristic and type of the hazard (identified in a specific area) and the corresponding mitigation measures adopted for risk reduction. Through specific

  8. Calibration method of parallel projection beams for 3D profile measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shuo-Jen; Fan, Tienjung

    1996-10-01

    3D profile measurement of work-piece by non-contact optical methods has been studied extensively because of its importance in the automated manufacturing processes and quality control of components. In this paper, a projection method and its calibration algorithm of parallel projection means for 3D profile measurement system was presented. The proposed method used the pin-hole theory. An arc light which was assumed to be a point light source was positioned in the focal point of a parabolic mirror. After it was reflected by the parabolic mirror, uniform parallel light beams were projected. Using alignment collimator and telescope, the best positions of all of the optical elements in the system can be adjusted. Parameters of CCD lens, image center, arc light source and their relative positional relationship were also calibrated. This ensures the overall accuracy of the projection system. For most of the structured light optical methods, the size and shape of the dot laser beam or the length and width of a line laser beam of the projected slits were functions of the measurement range. A lot of efforts and caution have been conducted int he calibration process and mathematical manipulations are required to assure the measurement accuracy. The proposed parallel projection beam method eliminates above mentioned difficulty. It could be a robust and efficient non-contact optical method for the measurement of 3D profile.

  9. Measuring trauma center injury prevention activity: an assessment and reporting tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sise, Michael J; Sise, Carol Beth

    2006-02-01

    To develop an assessment and reporting tool for a trauma center's community partnership strategy to deliver injury prevention programs in a large metropolitan area. The tool was designed to track prevention activity and serve as a reporting format for the parent health system, county designating agency, and the American College of Surgeons' Trauma Center Verification Process. The tool collected data including trauma center paid and volunteer personnel time, equipment, resource, and financial costs, community group and public agency contributions, number of community members receiving prevention material or presentations, impact on public policy, and print and broadcast media coverage. These measurements were incorporated in a reporting grid format. Six youth injury prevention programs were evaluated over a recent 2-year interval to demonstrate the tool's usefulness. Of six programs, three focused on motor vehicle injuries, one on teen suicide, one on firearm injuries, and one on drug and alcohol abuse. Trauma Center personnel asset allocation included 3% full-time equivalent by the Trauma Medical Director, 30% by the Injury Prevention and Community Outreach Coordinator, and 473 person hours (both work and volunteer) by physicians, nurses, and other personnel. Trauma Center equipment and fixed asset expenses totaled $3,950 and monetary contribution totaled $4,430. Community groups and public agencies contributed 20,400 person hours with estimated in-kind costs exceeding $750,000. Five of the six programs continued during the 2-year period. A gun-lock giveaway program was suspended because of a product recall. A total of over 29,000 youth received prevention material and presentations. Four public policy initiatives and 18 Trauma Center media stories with over 50 mentions and 37 new community partnerships resulted. The reports generated were easily incorporated in the trauma center's reports to local and national organizations and agencies. This assessment tool

  10. Corrosion of circulating water pipings in thermal and nuclear power stations and corrosion prevention measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hachiya, Minoru

    1982-01-01

    In the age of energy conservation at present, the power generation facilities have been examined from the viewpoint of performance, endurance and economy, and in particular, the prevention of the loss due to the corrosion of various facilities is one of most important problems. Since circulating water pipings are in contact with sea water and soil, the peculiar corrosion phenomena are brought about on their external and internal surfaces. Namely, the pitting corrosion due to the environment of soil quality difference, the defects of coating and the contact with reinforcing bars in concrete occurs on the external surface, and the overall corrosion due to the increase of flow velocity and the pitting corrosion due to the defects of coating, the contact with different kinds of metals and the gap in corrosion-resistant steel occur on the internal surface. As the measures for corrosion prevention, corrosion-preventive coating and electric corrosion prevention are applied. The principle, the potential and current density, the system, the design procedure and the examples of application of electric corrosion prevention are described. (Kako, I.)

  11. Awareness regarding preventive measures of avian influenza among the adult people of Thimi Municipality, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manandhar, K; Chataut, J; Khanal, K; Shrestha, A; Shrestha, S; Shrestha, S

    2013-01-01

    Avian influenza is considered as a threat to global public health. Prevention and control depends on the awareness of the general population as well as high risk-groups. The avian influenza should be viewed more seriously because it may lead to pandemic influenza when the virus mutates its strain with the common human influenza. Thus, this study aims to explore the awareness regarding preventive measures of avian influenza among the adult population of Thimi Municipality. The objective of this study was to explore awareness regarding preventive measures of avian influenza among the adult population of Thimi Municipality. It is a cross-sectional, population based study. It was carried out in Thimi Municipality from May 15 to June 15, 2012. Pre tested structured questionnaire was used for face to face interview with randomly selected 250 subjects. Out of 250 subjects, 123 (49.2 %) were males. The mean age of subjects was 36 ± 11.8 year. Among total subjects, 94.4 percent had heard about avian influenza. The main source of information was television (94.1%). Majority of subjects (84.9 %) thought that keeping infected birds and poultry as the mode of transmission followed by eating not well cooked poultry meat (82.8 %). Out of total study subjects, 165 (66.0 percent) mentioned fever and 138 (55.2 percent) thought fatigue as the signs and symptoms. As for knowledge about preventive measures, majority (85.6%) stated that cleaning the surfaces that had come in contact with the poultry could prevent the disease and 83.2 % had knowledge that the infection could be prevented by washing hands with soap and water after poultry handling. Awareness regarding preventive measures was found significantly low in females, middle adults, illiterates, and house wives. The awareness regarding avian influenza was quite satisfactory among the adult people of Thimi Municipality. However level of awareness was seen lower in female, illiterate and middle adult. So that along with large

  12. Evidence-based development of school-based and family-involved prevention of overweight across Europe: The ENERGY-project's design and conceptual framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klepp Knut

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an urgent need for more carefully developed public health measures in order to curb the obesity epidemic among youth. The overall aim of the "EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth" (ENERGY-project is the development and formative evaluation of a theory-informed and evidence-based multi-component school-based and family-involved intervention program ready to be implemented and evaluated for effectiveness across Europe. This program aims at promoting the adoption or continuation of health behaviors that contribute to a healthy energy balance among school-aged children. Earlier studies have indicated that school and family environments are key determinants of energy-balance behaviors in schoolchildren. Schools are an important setting for health promotion in this age group, but school-based interventions mostly fail to target and involve the family environment. Methods Led by a multidisciplinary team of researchers from eleven European countries and supported by a team of Australian experts, the ENERGY-project is informed by the Environmental Research Framework for Weight gain Prevention, and comprises a comprehensive epidemiological analysis including 1 systematic reviews of the literature, 2 secondary analyses of existing data, 3 focus group research, and 4 a cross European school-based survey. Results and discussion The theoretical framework and the epidemiological analysis will subsequently inform stepwise intervention development targeting the most relevant energy balance-related behaviors and their personal, family-environmental and school-environmental determinants applying the Intervention Mapping protocol. The intervention scheme will undergo formative and pilot evaluation in five countries. The results of ENERGY will be disseminated among key stakeholders including researchers, policy makers and the general population. Conclusions The ENERGY-project is an international

  13. Determinants of participation in targeted preventive health checks: the TOF pilot project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun Larsen, Lars

    To examine the reach of a preventive healthcare intervention that systematically identifies patients at high risk of developing lifestyle-related disease, and provides targeted and coherent preventive services to these individuals. Material/Methods The study population comprises 8814 persons born between......Background The evidence on targeted and systematic screening of chronic disease is limited. To effectively target people at high risk of lifestyle-related disease, there is a substantial need to advance and implement evidence-based health strategies and interventions that facilitate...

  14. Advancing the strategic use of HIV operations research to strengthen local policies and programmes: the Research to Prevention Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerrigan, Deanna; Kennedy, Caitlin E; Cheng, Alison Surdo; Sandison, Sarah J; Fonner, Virginia A; Holtgrave, David R; Brahmbhatt, Heena

    2015-01-01

    In the field of HIV prevention, there is renewed interest in operations research (OR) within an implementation science framework. The ultimate goal of such studies is to generate new knowledge that can inform local programmes and policies, thus improving access, quality, efficiency and effectiveness. Using four case studies from the USAID-funded Research to Prevention (R2P) project, we highlight the strategic use of OR and the impact it can have on shaping the focus and content of HIV prevention programming across geographic and epidemic settings and populations. These case studies, which include experiences from several sub-Saharan African countries and the Caribbean, emphasize four unique ways that R2P projects utilized OR to stimulate change in a given context, including: (1) translating findings from clinical trials to real-world settings; (2) adapting promising structural interventions to a new context; (3) tailoring effective interventions to underserved populations; and (4) prioritizing key populations within a national response to HIV. Carefully crafted OR can bridge the common gap that exists between research-generated knowledge and field-based practice, lead to substantial, real-world changes in national policies and programmes, and strengthen local organizations and the use of data to be more responsive to a given topic or population, ultimately supporting a locally tailored HIV response.

  15. Outcome results for the Ma'alahi Youth Project, a Tongan community-based obesity prevention programme for adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotu, K F; Millar, L; Mavoa, H; Kremer, P; Moodie, M; Snowdon, W; Utter, J; Vivili, P; Schultz, J T; Malakellis, M; McCabe, M P; Roberts, G; Swinburn, B A

    2011-11-01

    Tonga has a very high prevalence of obesity with steep increases during youth, making adolescence a critical time for obesity prevention. The Ma'alahi Youth Project, the Tongan arm of the Pacific Obesity Prevention in Communities project, was a 3-year, quasi-experimental study of community-based interventions among adolescents in three districts on Tonga's main island (Tongatapu) compared to the island of Vava'u. Interventions focused mainly on capacity building, social marketing, education and activities promoting physical activity and local fruit and vegetables. The evaluation used a longitudinal design (mean follow-up duration 2.4 years). Both intervention and comparison groups showed similar large increases in overweight and obesity prevalence (10.1% points, n = 815; 12.6% points, n = 897 respectively). Apart from a small relative decrease in percentage body fat in the intervention group (-1.5%, P Youth Project had no impact on the large increase in prevalence of overweight and obesity among Tongan adolescents. Community-based interventions in such populations with high obesity prevalence may require more intensive or longer interventions, as well as specific strategies targeting the substantial socio-cultural barriers to achieving a healthy weight. © 2011 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2011 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  16. The problems of the late implementation of the legal prevention measures for flood risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanseverino-Godfrin Valérie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Three main laws, 13th July 1982, 2nd February 1995 and 30th July 2003, have reformed the French legal framework and introduced special measures to prevent flood risks. Besides, completing these measures, the urban planning law have imposed since the 1987 Law that the urban planning documents have had to take into account the natural hazards to define the buildable areas. But, the late implementation of the prevention provisions and the lack of the urban planning documents concerning the natural hazards have led to a development of the urbanism in the flood prone areas. As consequences, most of the constructions are not flood proof, and many large damages are caused each time a flood occurs. We present this problematic through 8 municipalities in three departments (Aude, Gard, and Var.

  17. Current and Ongoing Internet Crime Tendencies and Techniques. Preventive Legislation Measures in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Postolache

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Internet crime techniques that pilfer from victims millions each year continue to plague the Internet through a range of methods. Trends and techniques identified by many organizations along with itsdescription are followed by preventative measures that will support you in being informed prior to entering into dealings and transactions over the Internet. Techniques as Auction Fraud, Counterfeit Cashier's Check, Credit Card Fraud, Debt Elimination, Parcel Courier Email Scheme, Employment/Business Opportunities,Escrow Services Fraud, Identity Theft, Internet Extortion, Investment Fraud, Lotteries, Nigerian Letter or "419", Phishing/Spoofing, Ponzi/Pyramid, Reshipping, Spam, Third Party Receiver of Funds are clarified in this paper and, also the internet crime prevention and legislative measures are treated, too.

  18. Modeling and preventive measures of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Zhang, Jinhui; Zhang, Xinan

    2014-03-13

    This paper concentrates on the HFMD data of China from March 2009 to December 2012. We set up a mathematical model to fit those data with the goodness of fit and obtain the optimal parameter values of the model. By the Chi-square test of statistical inference, the optimal parameter values of the model are reasonable. We obtained the basic reproductive number of the disease for each year, and it is larger than 1. Thus, we conclude that HFMD will persist in China under the current conditions, so we investigate the preventive measures to control the HFMD. If the preventive measures proposed in our paper were implemented, HFMD would be controlled quickly and the number of infections would decline rapidly over a period of time.

  19. Boys' Clubs of America Alcohol Abuse Prevention Project, 1977-78. Final Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insight Associates, Great Neck, NY.

    This report evaluates this prevention program's effectiveness in producing social change in the area of alcohol abuse among Boys' Club participants. Concentrating on the program's third year, this paper presents summative evaluations for seven Boys' Club pilot sites. Each summation concentrates on the site's ability to translate models developed…

  20. Boys' Clubs of America Alcohol Abuse Prevention Project, 1976-77. Final Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insight Associates, Great Neck, NY.

    This report evaluates the alcohol abuse prevention program's effectiveness in producing social change among Boys' Club participants. Concentrating on the program's second year, this paper presents summative evaluations for nine Boys' Club pilot sites. Each summation concentrates on the site's ability to implement model programs developed during…

  1. Strategies for Playground Injury Prevention: An Overview of a Playground Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Heather; Hudson, Susan D.; Thompson, Donna

    2010-01-01

    Preventing injuries to children, especially debilitating and life threatening, requires an awareness of where these types of injuries occur during the school days. This review examines falls from playground equipment, events that have been identified as the leading causes of nonfatal unintentional injuries for children. Thus, the issue of…

  2. Cardiovascular disease and obesity prevention in Germany: an investigation into a heterogeneous engineering project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niewöhner, J.; Döring, M.; Kontopodis, M.; Madarász, J.; Heintze, C.

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases present the leading cause of death worldwide. Over the last decade, their preventio has become not only a central medical and public health issue but also a matter of political concern as well as a major market for pharma, nutrition, and exercise. A preventive assemblage has

  3. Integrating ergonomic aspects into research and development projects as a preventive strategy in the food industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Iben Posniak; Broberg, Ole

    1997-01-01

    As part of a national research and development programme for food technology it was formulated as a demand to applicants to describe the potential ergonomics impact of the research and development (R&D) projects. As the primary purpose of the research programme was to strengthen the Danish food...... are the potentials and limitations for integrating ergonomics into joint R&D projects involving companies within the food industry and the university research? The objectives were (i) to identify the R&D peoples viewpoints on potentials and limitations for integrating ergonomics into R&D projects and (ii) to study...... the R&D processes in such networks in order to obtain a better understanding of the conditions for integrating ergonomics....

  4. The PARAChute Project: Remote Monitoring of Posture and Gait for Fall Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewson, David J.; Duchêne, Jacques; Charpillet, François; Saboune, Jamal; Michel-Pellegrino, Valérie; Amoud, Hassan; Doussot, Michel; Paysant, Jean; Boyer, Anne; Hogrel, Jean-Yves

    2007-12-01

    Falls in the elderly are a major public health problem due to both their frequency and their medical and social consequences. In France alone, more than two million people aged over 65 years old fall each year, leading to more than 9 000 deaths, in particular in those over 75 years old (more than 8 000 deaths). This paper describes the PARAChute project, which aims to develop a methodology that will enable the detection of an increased risk of falling in community-dwelling elderly. The methods used for a remote noninvasive assessment for static and dynamic balance assessments and gait analysis are described. The final result of the project has been the development of an algorithm for movement detection during gait and a balance signature extracted from a force plate. A multicentre longitudinal evaluation of balance has commenced in order to validate the methodologies and technologies developed in the project.

  5. The PARAChute Project: Remote Monitoring of Posture and Gait for Fall Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Boyer

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Falls in the elderly are a major public health problem due to both their frequency and their medical and social consequences. In France alone, more than two million people aged over 65 years old fall each year, leading to more than 9 000 deaths, in particular in those over 75 years old (more than 8 000 deaths. This paper describes the PARAChute project, which aims to develop a methodology that will enable the detection of an increased risk of falling in community-dwelling elderly. The methods used for a remote noninvasive assessment for static and dynamic balance assessments and gait analysis are described. The final result of the project has been the development of an algorithm for movement detection during gait and a balance signature extracted from a force plate. A multicentre longitudinal evaluation of balance has commenced in order to validate the methodologies and technologies developed in the project.

  6. Awareness of Causes, Consequences and Preventive Measures of Obesity among Adolescents in India

    OpenAIRE

    kansra, pooja

    2016-01-01

    Background: The burden of obesity is rapidly increasing worldwide. Obesity is associated with wide range of diseases, including cardio respiratory disease such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and coronary heart disease. Aims: This study aimed to assess the awareness of the adolescents towards the causes, consequences and preventive measures of obesity. Methods: The present study was based on primary data. The study included 200 adolescents surveyed as per convenience sampling. The an...

  7. The school counsellor's role in recognizing eating disorders and implementing preventive measures

    OpenAIRE

    Berčnik, Sanja

    2012-01-01

    The present article discusses eating disorders. Eating disorders are defined as a serious health threat due to an abnormal relation to food which has become a way of coping with stress. They are also often linked to personality disorders. We have focused mainly on the three most common types of eating disorder – anorexia, bulimia, and compulsive (binge) eating – their recognizable features, the causes that lead to eating disorders, and on preventive measures practiced in ...

  8. Situation of radioactive wastes and their prevention and treatment measures in China's uranium mining and metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Renjie.

    1988-01-01

    The sorts of radioactive wastes produced in uranium mining and metallurgy and their hazards are discribed in this paper. The characteristics of the radioactive wastes are discussed. The measurements and results are introduced for treatment and disposal of the radioactive wastes. The way to deal with prevention and treatment of radioactive wastes is presented in the stages of engineering design, construction, production and decommission of uranium mines and plants

  9. Primary prevention of cardiovascular events with low-dose aspirin and vitamin E in type 2 diabetic patients: results of the Primary Prevention Project (PPP) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, Michele; Pellegrini, Fabio; Roncaglioni, Maria C; Avanzini, Fausto; Tognoni, Gianni; Nicolucci, Antonio

    2003-12-01

    We investigated in general practice the efficacy of antiplatelets and antioxidants in primary prevention of cardiovascular events in people with type 2 diabetes. The Primary Prevention Project (PPP) is a randomized, open trial with a two-by-two factorial design aimed to investigate low-dose aspirin (100 mg/day) and vitamin E (300 mg/day) in the prevention of cardiovascular events in patients with one or more cardiovascular risk factors. The primary end point was a composite end point of cardiovascular death, stroke, or myocardial infarction. A total of 1,031 people with diabetes in the PPP, aged >/=50 years, without a previous cardiovascular event were enrolled by 316 general practitioners and 14 diabetes outpatient clinics. The PPP trial was prematurely stopped (after a median of 3.7 years) by the independent data safety and monitoring board because of a consistent benefit of aspirin compared with the control group in a population of 4,495 patients with one or more major cardiovascular risk factors. In diabetic patients, aspirin treatment was associated with a nonsignificant reduction in the main end point (relative risk [RR] = 0.90, 95% CI 0.50-1.62) and in total cardiovascular events (0.89, 0.62-1.26) and with a nonsignificant increase in cardiovascular deaths (1.23, 0.69-2.19). In nondiabetic subjects, RRs for the main end point, total cardiovascular events, and cardiovascular deaths were 0.59 (0.37-0.94), 0.69 (0.53-0.90), and 0.32 (0.14-0.72), respectively. No significant reduction in any of the end points considered could be found with vitamin E in either diabetic or nondiabetic subjects. Our data suggest a lower effect of primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) with low-dose aspirin in diabetic patients as opposed to subjects with other cardiovascular risk factors. If confirmed, these findings might indicate that the antiplatelet effects of aspirin in diabetic patients are overwhelmed by aspirin-insensitive mechanisms of platelet activation and

  10. The international Chernobyl project: Assessment of radiological consequences and evaluation of protective measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-08-01

    This brochure gives a brief account of the findings of the International Chernobyl Project. Further details will be found in the report ''The International Chernobyl Project: An Overview'' (INI22:066284/5) and in the Technical Report (INI23:011339). Measurements and assessments carried out under the project provided general corroboration of the levels of surface cesium-137 contamination reported in the official maps. The project also concluded that the official procedures for estimating radiation doses to the population were scientifically sound, although they generally resulted in overestimates of two- to threefold. The project could find no marked increase in the incidence of leukemia or cancer, but reported absorbed thyroid doses in children might lead to a statistically detectable rise in the incidence of thyroid tumors. Significant non-radiation-related health disorders were found, and the accident had substantial psychological consequences in terms of anxiety and stress

  11. Ergonomic risk and preventive measures of musculoskeletal disorders in the dentistry environment: an umbrella review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sio, Simone; Traversini, Veronica; Rinaldo, Francesca; Colasanti, Valerio; Buomprisco, Giuseppe; Perri, Roberto; Mormone, Federica; La Torre, Giuseppe; Guerra, Fabrizio

    2018-01-01

    Dental practitioners are exposed to different occupational hazards during the course of their professional activity, such as physical, chemical, biological, ergonomic factors. The ergonomic hazards, caused by strained posture and prolonged repetitive movements, can induce musculoskeletal disorders. It occurs in 54-93% of dental professionals and involve the spine, shoulder and hand-wrist tract. Through a systematic review of international literature, we analyzed specific ergonomic risk factors and preventive measures of musculoskeletal disorders in professional dental activity. This systematic review is coherent with the PRISMA statement. The scientific research on the major online databases was based on the following keywords: dentist, prevention, ergonomic, dentistry, musculoskeletal, neck pain, posture, ergonomics, work and occupational. The studies included in this review focus on disorders related to ergonomics and on the most effective preventive measures to be adopted. No restrictions were applied for language or publication type. We excluded reports not related to ergonomic prevention in dentistry, reports of minor academic significance, editorial articles, individual contributions, and studies published in scientific conferences. Online research indicated 4188 references: PubMed (2919), Scopus (1257) e Cochrane Library (12). We excluded 3012 of these, because they were unrelated to ergonomics theme and 187 due to duplication. From the remaining 989 studies, 960 papers did not meet inclusion criteria and they were excluded. Therefore, we analyzed 29 articles, including 16 narrative reviews and 13 original article. The main risk factor for the development of musculoskeletal disorders found in our analysis is static posture adopted during work, highlighted in 87.5% of reviews and 84% of original articles. With regard to preventive measures, 75% of the reviews highlighted the importance of stretching after each working session and at the end of the working day

  12. Ergonomic risk and preventive measures of musculoskeletal disorders in the dentistry environment: an umbrella review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone De Sio

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Dental practitioners are exposed to different occupational hazards during the course of their professional activity, such as physical, chemical, biological, ergonomic factors. The ergonomic hazards, caused by strained posture and prolonged repetitive movements, can induce musculoskeletal disorders. It occurs in 54–93% of dental professionals and involve the spine, shoulder and hand-wrist tract. Through a systematic review of international literature, we analyzed specific ergonomic risk factors and preventive measures of musculoskeletal disorders in professional dental activity. Methods This systematic review is coherent with the PRISMA statement. The scientific research on the major online databases was based on the following keywords: dentist, prevention, ergonomic, dentistry, musculoskeletal, neck pain, posture, ergonomics, work and occupational. The studies included in this review focus on disorders related to ergonomics and on the most effective preventive measures to be adopted. No restrictions were applied for language or publication type. We excluded reports not related to ergonomic prevention in dentistry, reports of minor academic significance, editorial articles, individual contributions, and studies published in scientific conferences. Results Online research indicated 4188 references: PubMed (2919, Scopus (1257 e Cochrane Library (12. We excluded 3012 of these, because they were unrelated to ergonomics theme and 187 due to duplication. From the remaining 989 studies, 960 papers did not meet inclusion criteria and they were excluded. Therefore, we analyzed 29 articles, including 16 narrative reviews and 13 original article. The main risk factor for the development of musculoskeletal disorders found in our analysis is static posture adopted during work, highlighted in 87.5% of reviews and 84% of original articles. With regard to preventive measures, 75% of the reviews highlighted the importance of stretching after each

  13. Adaptive digital fringe projection technique for high dynamic range three-dimensional shape measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui; Gao, Jian; Mei, Qing; He, Yunbo; Liu, Junxiu; Wang, Xingjin

    2016-04-04

    It is a challenge for any optical method to measure objects with a large range of reflectivity variation across the surface. Image saturation results in incorrect intensities in captured fringe pattern images, leading to phase and measurement errors. This paper presents a new adaptive digital fringe projection technique which avoids image saturation and has a high signal to noise ratio (SNR) in the three-dimensional (3-D) shape measurement of objects that has a large range of reflectivity variation across the surface. Compared to previous high dynamic range 3-D scan methods using many exposures and fringe pattern projections, which consumes a lot of time, the proposed technique uses only two preliminary steps of fringe pattern projection and image capture to generate the adapted fringe patterns, by adaptively adjusting the pixel-wise intensity of the projected fringe patterns based on the saturated pixels in the captured images of the surface being measured. For the bright regions due to high surface reflectivity and high illumination by the ambient light and surfaces interreflections, the projected intensity is reduced just to be low enough to avoid image saturation. Simultaneously, the maximum intensity of 255 is used for those dark regions with low surface reflectivity to maintain high SNR. Our experiments demonstrate that the proposed technique can achieve higher 3-D measurement accuracy across a surface with a large range of reflectivity variation.

  14. Pressure ulcer prevention and healing using alternating pressure mattress at home: the PARESTRY project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meaume, S; Marty, M

    2015-08-01

    Specialised pressure-relieving supports reduce or relieve the interface pressure between the skin and the support surface. The comparative effectiveness of dynamic support surfaces is debated. The aim of this study is to examine the impact of using an alternating pressure air mattress (APAM) on pressure ulcer (PU) incidence in patients receiving home-based care. A second aim was to determine the level of patient/family satisfaction with comfort and gain the views of the care team that used the APAM. The PARESTRY study was a prospective observational study conducted in patients with a high risk of PUs (Braden score prevention groups consisted of patients with no PU at baseline who were in bed for at least 20 hours a day. Patients at baseline with a category 3 or 4 PU or a category 1 or 2 PU in association with poor general health or end-of-life status were included in the secondary prevention group. All patients were laid on an APAM. The primary end point was the % of patients with a worsening skin condition in the pressure area (heel, sacrum, ischium) at day 90 or at the end of the study. The primary analysis was done on the full analysis set (patients included with at least a second assessment), using the last observation carried forward technique to handle missing data, at day 90. A 95% confidence interval was calculated. Analysis was performed on 92 patients (30 in primary prevention and 62 in secondary prevention). The average time spent in bed was 22.7 (SD 2.7) hours a day and 22.6 (SD 2.2) hours in the primary and secondary prevention groups, respectively. At baseline, in the secondary group, 77% of patients had a sacral PU, 63% a heel PU, 8% an ischial tuberosity PU and 45% a PU in another area, a number of patients having multiple PUs. In the primary prevention group, 63% (19/30) of patients dropped out of the study (5 were hospitalised, 9 died, 5 other causes). In the secondary prevention group, 61% (38/62) dropped out (7 were hospitalised, 23 died, 8

  15. Utility of ketone measurement in the prevention, diagnosis and management of diabetic ketoacidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, S; Oliver, N S

    2015-01-01

    Ketone measurement is advocated for the diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis and assessment of its severity. Assessing the evidence base for ketone measurement in clinical practice is challenging because multiple methods are available but there is a lack of consensus about which is preferable. Evaluating the utility of ketone measurement is additionally problematic because of variability in the biochemical definition of ketoacidosis internationally and in the proposed thresholds for ketone measures. This has led to conflicting guidance from expert bodies on how ketone measurement should be used in the management of ketoacidosis. The development of point-of-care devices that can reliably measure the capillary blood ketone β-hydroxybutyrate (BOHB) has widened the spectrum of applications of ketone measurement, but whether the evidence base supporting these applications is robust enough to warrant their incorporation into routine clinical practice remains unclear. The imprecision of capillary blood ketone measures at higher values, the lack of availability of routine laboratory-based assays for BOHB and the continued cost-effectiveness of urine ketone assessment prompt further discussion on the role of capillary blood ketone assessment in ketoacidosis. In the present article, we review the various existing methods of ketone measurement, the precision of capillary blood ketone as compared with other measures, its diagnostic accuracy in predicting ketoacidosis and other clinical applications including prevention, assessment of severity and resolution of ketoacidosis. © 2014 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2014 Diabetes UK.

  16. EU-project AEROJET. Non-intrusive measurements of aircraft engine exhaust emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, K.; Heland, J. [Fraunhofer-Inst. fuer Atmosphaerische Umweltforschung (IFU), Garmisch-Partenkirchen (Germany); Burrows, R. [Rolls-Royce Ltd. (United Kingdom). Engine Support Lab.; Bernard, M. [AUXITROL, S.A. (France). Aerospace Equipment Div.; Bishop, G. [British Aerospace (United Kingdom). Sowerby Research Centre; Lindermeir, E. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e. V. (DLR), Bonn (Germany). Inst. fuer Optoelektronik; Lister, D.H. [Defence and Research Agency, Hants (United Kingdom). Propulsion and Development Dept.; Wiesen, P. [Bergische Univ. Wuppertal (Gesamthochshule) (Germany); Hilton, M. [University of Reading (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics

    1997-12-31

    The main goal of the AEROJET programme is to demonstrate the equivalence of remote measurement techniques to conventional extractive methods for both gaseous and particulate measurements. The different remote measurement techniques are compared and calibrated. A demonstrator measurement system for exhaust gases, temperature and particulates including data-analysis software is regarded as result of this project. Non-intrusive measurements are the method of choice within the AEROJET project promising to avoid the disadvantages of the gas sampling techniques which are currently used. Different ground based non-intrusive measurement methods are demonstrated during a final evaluation phase. Several non-intrusive techniques are compared with conventional gas sampling and analysis techniques. (R.P.) 3 refs.

  17. Application of Supply Chain Performance Measurement in Scor Model at Building Project

    OpenAIRE

    Wibowo, Mochamad Agung; Sholeh, Moh Nur

    2016-01-01

    The supply chain has become a priority subject of management research and manufacturing theory in recent years. It has also become an interesting topic in the construction industry. Construction supply chain management is more concerned with the coordination of discrete quantities of materials delivered to a specific construction project. Currently, in some building project, there has been no standard indicators in measuring the performance of the supply chain. Therefore, further research is ...

  18. Preventing socioeconomic inequalities in health behaviour in adolescents in Europe: Background, design and methods of project TEENAGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lenthe, Frank J; de Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Klepp, Knut-Inge; Lien, Nanna; Moore, Laurence; Faggiano, Fabrizio; Kunst, Anton E; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2009-01-01

    Background Higher prevalence rates of unhealthy behaviours among lower socioeconomic groups contribute substantially to socioeconomic inequalities in health in adults. Preventing the development of these inequalities in unhealthy behaviours early in life is an important strategy to tackle socioeconomic inequalities in health. Little is known however, about health promotion strategies particularly effective in lower socioeconomic groups in youth. It is the purpose of project TEENAGE to improve knowledge on the prevention of socioeconomic inequalities in physical activity, diet, smoking and alcohol consumption among adolescents in Europe. This paper describes the background, design and methods to be used in the project. Methods/design Through a systematic literature search, existing interventions aimed at promoting physical activity, a healthy diet, preventing the uptake of smoking or alcohol, and evaluated in the general adolescent population in Europe will be identified. Studies in which indicators of socioeconomic position are included will be reanalysed by socioeconomic position. Results of such stratified analyses will be summarised by type of behaviour, across behaviours by type of intervention (health education, environmental interventions and policies) and by setting (individual, household, school, and neighbourhood). In addition, the degree to which effective interventions can be transferred to other European countries will be assessed. Discussion Although it is sometimes assumed that some health promotion strategies may be particularly effective in higher socioeconomic groups, thereby increasing socioeconomic inequalities in health-related behaviour, there is little knowledge about differential effects of health promotion across socioeconomic groups. Synthesizing stratified analyses of a number of interventions conducted in the general adolescent population may offer an efficient guidance for the development of strategies and interventions to prevent

  19. Assessment and Evaluation Report on a Pilot Project on Preventive School Maintenance in Eritrea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vagnby, Bo Hellisen

    In 2002, efforts started on formulating a maintenance policy for schools and other social service facilities in Eritrea. Since then, an appropriate policy and related implementation strategies have been further developed. In 2003, a specific pilot project was designed covering a number of schools...... of a school based approach to school maintenance are presented in the report....

  20. Assessing effects of a media campaign on HIV/AIDS awareness and prevention in Nigeria: results from the VISION Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Joseph; Meekers, Dominique; Adewuyi, Alfred

    2006-05-03

    In response to the growing HIV epidemic in Nigeria, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) initiated the VISION Project, which aimed to increase use of family planning, child survival, and HIV/AIDS services. The VISION Project used a mass-media campaign that focused on reproductive health and HIV/AIDS prevention. This paper assesses to what extent program exposure translates into increased awareness and prevention of HIV/AIDS. This analysis is based on data from the 2002 and 2004 Nigeria (Bauchi, Enugu, and Oyo) Family Planning and Reproductive Health Surveys, which were conducted among adults living in the VISION Project areas. To correct for endogeneity, two-stage logistic regression is used to investigate the effect of program exposure on 1) discussion of HIV/AIDS with a partner, 2) awareness that consistent condom use reduces HIV risk, and 3) condom use at last intercourse. Exposure to the VISION mass media campaign was high: 59%, 47%, and 24% were exposed to at least 1 VISION radio, printed advertisement, or TV program about reproductive health, respectively. The differences in outcome variables between 2002 baseline data and the 2004 follow-up data were small. However, those with high program exposure were almost one and a half (Odds Ratio [O.R.] = 1.47, 95% Confidence Interval [C.I.] 1.01-2.16) times more likely than those with no exposure to have discussed HIV/AIDS with a partner. Those with high program exposure were over twice (O.R. = 2.20, C.I. 1.49-3.25) as likely as those with low exposure to know that condom use can reduce risk of HIV infection. Program exposure had no effect on condom use at last sex. The VISION Project reached a large portion of the population and exposure to mass media programs about reproductive health and HIV prevention topics can help increase HIV/AIDS awareness. Programs that target rural populations, females, and unmarried individuals, and disseminate information on where to obtain condoms, are needed to reduce

  1. Assessing effects of a media campaign on HIV/AIDS awareness and prevention in Nigeria: results from the VISION Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adewuyi Alfred

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In response to the growing HIV epidemic in Nigeria, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID initiated the VISION Project, which aimed to increase use of family planning, child survival, and HIV/AIDS services. The VISION Project used a mass-media campaign that focused on reproductive health and HIV/AIDS prevention. This paper assesses to what extent program exposure translates into increased awareness and prevention of HIV/AIDS. Methods This analysis is based on data from the 2002 and 2004 Nigeria (Bauchi, Enugu, and Oyo Family Planning and Reproductive Health Surveys, which were conducted among adults living in the VISION Project areas. To correct for endogeneity, two-stage logistic regression is used to investigate the effect of program exposure on 1 discussion of HIV/AIDS with a partner, 2 awareness that consistent condom use reduces HIV risk, and 3 condom use at last intercourse. Results Exposure to the VISION mass media campaign was high: 59%, 47%, and 24% were exposed to at least 1 VISION radio, printed advertisement, or TV program about reproductive health, respectively. The differences in outcome variables between 2002 baseline data and the 2004 follow-up data were small. However, those with high program exposure were almost one and a half (Odds Ratio [O.R.] = 1.47, 95% Confidence Interval [C.I.] 1.01–2.16 times more likely than those with no exposure to have discussed HIV/AIDS with a partner. Those with high program exposure were over twice (O.R. = 2.20, C.I. 1.49–3.25 as likely as those with low exposure to know that condom use can reduce risk of HIV infection. Program exposure had no effect on condom use at last sex. Conclusion The VISION Project reached a large portion of the population and exposure to mass media programs about reproductive health and HIV prevention topics can help increase HIV/AIDS awareness. Programs that target rural populations, females, and unmarried individuals, and

  2. A dynamic approach to real-time performance measurement in design projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skec, Stanko; Cash, Philip; Storga, Mario

    2017-01-01

    and teamwork performance in engineering design projects. This integrates multiple, previously disparate, aspects of design management and performance measurement theory in a single framework. Further, a fully realised performance measurement approach is developed, which complements existing management...... strategies. This framework is synthesised from an extensive review and illustrated via an in-depth case study. As such, this work contributes to performance measurement theory in engineering design and has significant implications for both engineering design research and industry....

  3. Fifteen-year follow-up of smoking prevention effects in the North Karelia youth project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartiainen, E; Paavola, M; McAlister, A; Puska, P

    1998-01-01

    This study evaluated the long-term effects of a school- and community-based smoking prevention program in Finland. Four intervention schools from North Karelia and two control schools from another province were chosen for the evaluation. Students who received the intervention were taught to resist social pressures to smoke. The program began in 1978 with seventh-grade students and ran through 1980, with a 15-year follow-up. In North Karelia, a community-based smoking cessation program for adults was also carried out. Mean lifetime cigarette consumption was 22% lower among program subjects than among control subjects. Smoking and prevalence were lower up to the age of 21. Long-term smoking prevention effects can be achieved if a school-based program using a social influence model is combined with community and mass media interventions.

  4. Assessment and prevention of acute health effects of weather conditions in Europe, the PHEWE project: background, objectives, design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Hugh

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The project "Assessment and prevention of acute health effects of weather conditions in Europe" (PHEWE had the aim of assessing the association between weather conditions and acute health effects, during both warm and cold seasons in 16 European cities with widely differing climatic conditions and to provide information for public health policies. Methods The PHEWE project was a three-year pan-European collaboration between epidemiologists, meteorologists and experts in public health. Meteorological, air pollution and mortality data from 16 cities and hospital admission data from 12 cities were available from 1990 to 2000. The short-term effect on mortality/morbidity was evaluated through city-specific and pooled time series analysis. The interaction between weather and air pollutants was evaluated and health impact assessments were performed to quantify the effect on the different populations. A heat/health watch warning system to predict oppressive weather conditions and alert the population was developed in a subgroup of cities and information on existing prevention policies and of adaptive strategies was gathered. Results Main results were presented in a symposium at the conference of the International Society of Environmental Epidemiology in Paris on September 6th 2006 and will be published as scientific articles. The present article introduces the project and includes a description of the database and the framework of the applied methodology. Conclusion The PHEWE project offers the opportunity to investigate the relationship between temperature and mortality in 16 European cities, representing a wide range of climatic, socio-demographic and cultural characteristics; the use of a standardized methodology allows for direct comparison between cities.

  5. Developing a community-based stroke prevention intervention course in minority communities: the DC Angels Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covington, Carolyn Frances; King, Joyce A; Fennell, Irnise; Jones, Chanel; Hutchinson, Charmaine; Evans, Annette

    2010-06-01

    Despite advances in stroke treatment in the United States, stroke remains the third leading cause of death among Americans and the leading cause of serious, long-term disability in the United States. About 780,000 Americans will have a new or recurrent stroke this year. Each year, about 60,000 more women than men have a stroke. African Americans have almost twice the risk of first-ever strokes compared with Whites. Minority populations are less likely to know all stroke symptoms and far less likely to know all heart attack symptoms. There are many benefits of early treatment of stroke, yet most minorities do not get this treatment because they do not recognize the warning signs, risk factors, and prevention of stroke. The objective of this intervention course was to increase the students' knowledge and awareness of stroke, warning signs, risk factors, and prevention. Developing community-based stroke prevention intervention courses in minority communities is a good strategy to reduce morbidity and mortality and help to eliminate health disparities in minority communities.

  6. Development of an effective communication strategy for the prevention of burns in children: the PRIUS project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedri, S.; Briguglio, E.; Cedri, C.; Masellis, A.; Crenca, A.; Pitidis, A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary This study has developed a learning kit for the prevention of domestic burns in childhood. The main objective was to trial an educational package for children (nursery and primary classes), for the prevention of burns, to be implemented through education in schools. The educational kit comprises posters, information leaflets, comic books, and pre and post education evaluation materials for school children, parents and teachers. Recipients of the preliminary study were the students of nine schools in the eight Italian cities where Burn Centers are located. In order to reach the target groups of children, it was necessary to identify the most effective communication strategy to convey the burn prevention message. For nursery school children, it was not possible to use tools with written texts alone, as they were not yet literate. Moreover, even for older children, it was necessary to find an attractive tool to catch their attention and interest, promoting the understanding and memorization of lessons learned. The most suitable means was found to be comic strips, allowing the messages to be conveyed through images as well as words. A total of 370 children (195 from nurseries and 175 from primary schools) participated in the trial of the educational kit. Overall, for every environment represented in the evaluation table, the ability to recognize the dangers among both the pre-school and primary school children increased significantly after the training activity. In conclusion, the educational kit has been positively assessed. PMID:27252606

  7. Prioritizing and optimizing sustainable measures for food waste prevention and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristóbal, Jorge; Castellani, Valentina; Manfredi, Simone; Sala, Serenella

    2018-02-01

    Food waste has gained prominence in the European political debate thanks to the recent Circular Economy package. Currently the waste hierarchy, introduced by the Waste Framework Directive, has been the rule followed to prioritize food waste prevention and management measures according to the environmental criteria. But when considering other criteria along with the environmental one, such as the economic, other tools are needed for the prioritization and optimization. This paper addresses the situation in which a decision-maker has to design a food waste prevention programme considering the limited economic resources in order to achieve the highest environmental impact prevention along the whole food life cycle. A methodology using Life Cycle Assessment and mathematical programing is proposed and its capabilities are shown through a case study. Results show that the order established in the waste hierarchy is generally followed. The proposed methodology revealed to be especially helpful in identifying "quick wins" - measures that should be always prioritized since they avoid a high environmental impact at a low cost. Besides, in order to aggregate the environmental scores related to a variety of impact categories, different weighting sets were proposed. In general, results show that the relevance of the weighting set in the prioritization of the measures appears to be limited. Finally, the correlation between reducing food waste generation and reducing environmental impact along the Food Supply Chain has been studied. Results highlight that when planning food waste prevention strategies, it is important to set the targets at the level of environmental impact instead of setting the targets at the level of avoided food waste generation (in mass). Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Environmental Restoration Program pollution prevention performance measures for FY 1993 and 1994 remedial investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    The Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Environmental Restoration (ER) Program adopted a Pollution Prevention Program in March 1991. The program's mission is to minimize waste and prevent pollution in remedial investigations (RI), feasibility studies (FS), decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D), and surveillance and maintenance (S ampersand M) site program activities. Mission success will result in volume and/or toxicity reduction of generated waste. Energy Systems is producing a fully developed a Numerical Scoring System (NSS) and actually scoring the generators of Investigation Derived Waste (IDW) at six ER sites: Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, the Oak Ridge K-25 site, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Paducah), and Portsmouth Uranium Enrichment Complex (Portsmouth). This report summarizes the findings of this initial numerical scoring evaluation and shows where improvements in the overall ER Pollution prevention program may be required. This report identifies a number of recommendations that, if implemented, would help to improve site-performance measures. The continued development of the NSS will support generators in maximizing their Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization efforts. Further refinements of the NSS, as applicable suggest comments and/or recommendations for improvement

  9. Analysis of occupational accidents: prevention through the use of additional technical safety measures for machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dźwiarek, Marek; Latała, Agata

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of results of 1035 serious and 341 minor accidents recorded by Poland's National Labour Inspectorate (PIP) in 2005-2011, in view of their prevention by means of additional safety measures applied by machinery users. Since the analysis aimed at formulating principles for the application of technical safety measures, the analysed accidents should bear additional attributes: the type of machine operation, technical safety measures and the type of events causing injuries. The analysis proved that the executed tasks and injury-causing events were closely connected and there was a relation between casualty events and technical safety measures. In the case of tasks consisting of manual feeding and collecting materials, the injuries usually occur because of the rotating motion of tools or crushing due to a closing motion. Numerous accidents also happened in the course of supporting actions, like removing pollutants, correcting material position, cleaning, etc.

  10. Overview of revised measures to prevent malaria transmission by blood transfusion in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garraud, O; Assal, A; Pelletier, B; Danic, B; Kerleguer, A; David, B; Joussemet, M; de Micco, P

    2008-10-01

    Plasmodial transmission by blood donation is rare in non-endemic countries, but a very serious complication of blood transfusion. The French national blood service (Etablissement Français du Sang and Centre de Transfusion sanguine des Armees) intended to revise the measures to strengthen blood safety with regard to Plasmodiae as transmissible pathogens. To limit the risk of transmission during infusion, serious additive measures have been taken for more than a decade in France, which is the European country with the highest rate of exposure to imported plasmodial infections or malaria. These measures were revised and strengthened after the occurrence of a lethal transfusion-transmitted infection in 2002, but did not prevent another occurrence in 2006. This report examines the weaknesses of the systems and aims at emphasizing the safety measures already taken and addresses issues to best respond to that risk.

  11. Healthcare workers' challenges in the implementation of tuberculosis infection prevention and control measures in Mozambique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Brouwer

    Full Text Available Healthcare Workers (HCWs have a higher frequency of TB exposure than the general population and have therefore an occupational TB risk that infection prevention and control (IPC measures aim to reduce. HCWs are crucial in the implementation of these measures. The objective of the study was to investigate Mozambican HCWs' perceptions of their occupational TB risk and the measures they report using to reduce this risk. In addition, we explored the challenges HCWs encounter while using these TBIPC measures.Focus group discussion. Analysis according content method.Four categories of HCWs: auxiliary workers, medical (doctors and clinical officers, nurses and TB program staff.HCWs are aware of their occupational TB risk and use various measures to reduce their risk of infection. HCWs find it challenging to employ measures that minimize such risks and a lack of clear guidelines contributes to these challenges. HCWs' and patient behavior further complicate the use of TBIPC measures.HCWs in Mozambique perceive a high occupational risk of TB infection. They report several challenges using measures to reduce this risk such as shortage of material, lack of clear guidelines, insufficient motivation and inadequate training. Robust training with motivational approaches, alongside supervision and support for HCWs could improve implementation of TBIPC measures. Healthcare management should address the areas for improvement that are beyond the individual HCW's control.

  12. Apparatus and method of optical marker projection for the three-dimensional shape measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhe; Qu, Xinghua; Geng, Xin; Zhang, Fumin

    2015-08-01

    Optical photography measurement and three-dimensional (3-D) scanning measurement have been widely used in the field of the fast dimensional and surface metrology. In the measurement process, however, retro-reflective markers are often pasted on the surface in advance for image registration and positioning the 3-D measuring instruments. For the large-scale workpiece with freeform surface, the process of pasting markers is time consuming, which reduces the measurement efficiency. Meanwhile, the measurement precision is impaired owing to the thickness of the marker. In this paper, we propose a system that projects two-dimensional (2-D) array optical markers with uniform energy on the surface of the workpiece instead of pasting retro-reflective markers, which achieves large-range and automated optical projection of the mark points. In order to conjunction with the 3-D handheld scanner belonging to our team, we develop an apparatus of optical marker projection, which is mainly composed of the high-power laser, the optical beam expander system, adjustable aperture stop and Dammann grating of dibasic spectrophotometric device. The projection apparatus can achieve the function of beams of 15 * 15 uniformly light of the two-dimensional lattice. And it's much cheaper than the existing systems.

  13. Measuring the quality of pressure ulcer prevention: A systematic mapping review of quality indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottner, Jan; Hahnel, Elisabeth; Lichterfeld-Kottner, Andrea; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Büscher, Andreas

    2017-11-27

    The aim of this study was to provide a systematic overview of available pressure ulcer prevention quality indicators and to evaluate the underlying empirical evidence. A systematic mapping review was conducted with combined searches in Embase and Medline, and websites of relevant institutions and organisations. The eligibility criteria were clear use of the term "quality indicator" regarding pressure ulcer prevention; English or German language; and all settings, populations, and types of resources, including articles, brochures, and online material. In total, n = 146 quality indicators were identified. Most indicators were published in the United States (n = 50). The majority of indicators was developed for the hospital setting (n = 102). Process indicators were the most common (n = 71), followed by outcome indicators (n = 49). Less than half of identified indicators appeared to be practically used. Evidence supporting the validity and reliability were reported for n = 25 and n = 30 indicators respectively. The high number of indicators demonstrate the importance of measuring pressure ulcer prevention quality. This is not an indicator of our ability to accurately measure and evaluate this construct. There is an urgent need to develop evidence-based and internationally comparable indicators to help improve patient care and safety worldwide. © 2017 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Measures Taken to Prevent Zika Virus Infection During Pregnancy - Puerto Rico, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Denise V; Salvesen von Essen, Beatriz; Lamias, Mark J; Shulman, Holly; Hernandez-Virella, Wanda I; Taraporewalla, Aspy J; Vargas, Manuel I; Harrison, Leslie; Ellington, Sascha R; Soto, Leslianne; Williams, Tanya; Rodriguez, Aurea; Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie K; Rivera, Brenda; Cox, Shanna; Pazol, Karen; Rice, Marion E; Dee, Deborah L; Romero, Lisa; Lathrop, Eva; Barfield, Wanda; Smith, Ruben A; Jamieson, Denise J; Honein, Margaret A; Deseda, Carmen; Warner, Lee

    2017-06-09

    Zika virus infection during pregnancy remains a serious health threat in Puerto Rico. Infection during pregnancy can cause microcephaly, brain abnormalities, and other severe birth defects (1). From January 1, 2016 through March 29, 2017, Puerto Rico reported approximately 3,300 pregnant women with laboratory evidence of possible Zika virus infection (2). There is currently no vaccine or intervention to prevent the adverse effects of Zika virus infection during pregnancy; therefore, prevention has been the focus of public health activities, especially for pregnant women (3). CDC and the Puerto Rico Department of Health analyzed data from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System Zika Postpartum Emergency Response (PRAMS-ZPER) survey conducted from August through December 2016 among Puerto Rico residents with a live birth. Most women (98.1%) reported using at least one measure to avoid mosquitos in their home environment. However, only 45.8% of women reported wearing mosquito repellent daily, and 11.5% reported wearing pants and shirts with long sleeves daily. Approximately one third (38.5%) reported abstaining from sex or using condoms consistently throughout pregnancy. Overall, 76.9% of women reported having been tested for Zika virus by their health care provider during the first or second trimester of pregnancy. These results can be used to assess and refine Zika virus infection prevention messaging and interventions for pregnant women and to reinforce measures to promote prenatal testing for Zika.

  15. Measuring the burden of preventable diabetic hospitalisations in the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo-Palacios, David G; Cairns, John; Masetto, Cynthia

    2016-08-02

    The prevalence of diabetes among adults in Mexico has increased markedly from 6.7 % in 1994 to 14.7 % in 2015. Although the main diabetic complications can be prevented or delayed with timely and effective primary care, a high percentage of diabetic patients have developed them imposing an important preventable burden on Mexican society and on the health system. This paper estimates the financial and health burden caused by potentially preventable hospitalisations due to diabetic complications in hospitals operated by the largest social security institution in Latin America, the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS), in the period 2007-2014. Hospitalisations in IMSS hospitals whose main cause was a diabetic complication were identified. The financial burden was estimated using IMSS diagnostic-related groups. To estimate the health burden, DALYs were computed under the assumption that patients would not have experienced complications if they had received timely and effective primary care. A total of 322,977 hospitalisations due to five diabetic complications were identified during the period studied, of which hospitalisations due to kidney failure and diabetic foot represent 78 %. The financial burden increased by 8.4 % in real terms between 2007 and 2014. However, when measured as cost per IMSS affiliate, it decreased by 11.3 %. The health burden had an overall decrease of 13.6 % and the associated DALYs in 2014 reached 103,688. Resources used for the hospital treatment of diabetic complications are then not available for other health care interventions. In order to prevent these hospitalisations more resources might need to be invested in primary care; the first step could be to consider the financial burden of these hospitalisations as a potential target for switching resources from hospital care to primary care services. However, more evidence of the effectiveness of different primary care interventions is needed to know how much of the burden could

  16. Effectiveness of biosecurity measures in preventing badger visits to farm buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Johanna; McDonald, Robbie A; Walker, Neil; Delahay, Richard J

    2011-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis is a serious and economically important disease of cattle. Badgers have been implicated in the transmission and maintenance of the disease in the UK since the 1970s. Recent studies have provided substantial evidence of widespread and frequent visits by badgers to farm buildings during which there is the potential for close direct contact with cattle and contamination of cattle feed. Here we evaluated the effectiveness of simple exclusion measures in improving farm biosecurity and preventing badger visits to farm buildings. In the first phase of the study, 32 farms were surveyed using motion-triggered infrared cameras on potential entrances to farm buildings to determine the background level of badger visits experienced by each farm. In the second phase, they were divided into four treatment groups; "Control", "Feed Storage", "Cattle Housing" and "Both", whereby no exclusion measures were installed, exclusion measures were installed on feed storage areas only, cattle housing only or both feed storage and cattle housing, respectively. Badger exclusion measures included sheet metal gates, adjustable metal panels for gates, sheet metal fencing, feed bins and electric fencing. Cameras were deployed for at least 365 nights in each phase on each farm. Badger visits to farm buildings occurred on 19 of the 32 farms in phase one. In phase two, the simple exclusion measures were 100% effective in preventing badger entry into farm buildings, as long as they were appropriately deployed. Furthermore, the installation of exclusion measures also reduced the level of badger visits to the rest of the farmyard. The findings of the present study clearly demonstrate how relatively simple practical measures can substantially reduce the likelihood of badger visits to buildings and reduce some of the potential for contact and disease transmission between badgers and cattle.

  17. Methodology of a diabetes prevention translational research project utilizing a community-academic partnership for implementation in an underserved Latino community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Yunsheng

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Latinos comprise the largest racial/ethnic group in the United States and have 2–3 times the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus as Caucasians. Methods and design The Lawrence Latino Diabetes Prevention Project (LLDPP is a community-based translational research study which aims to reduce the risk of diabetes among Latinos who have a ≥ 30% probability of developing diabetes in the next 7.5 years per a predictive equation. The project was conducted in Lawrence, Massachusetts, a predominantly Caribbean-origin urban Latino community. Individuals were identified primarily from a community health center's patient panel, screened for study eligibility, randomized to either a usual care or a lifestyle intervention condition, and followed for one year. Like the efficacious Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP, the LLDPP intervention targeted weight loss through dietary change and increased physical activity. However, unlike the DPP, the LLDPP intervention was less intensive, tailored to literacy needs and cultural preferences, and delivered in Spanish. The group format of the intervention (13 group sessions over 1 year was complemented by 3 individual home visits and was implemented by individuals from the community with training and supervision by a clinical research nutritionist and a behavioral psychologist. Study measures included demographics, Stern predictive equation components (age, gender, ethnicity, fasting glucose, systolic blood pressure, HDL-cholesterol, body mass index, and family history of diabetes, glycosylated hemoglobin, dietary intake, physical activity, depressive symptoms, social support, quality of life, and medication use. Body weight was measured at baseline, 6-months, and one-year; all other measures were assessed at baseline and one-year. All surveys were orally administered in Spanish. Results A community-academic partnership enabled the successful recruitment, intervention, and assessment of Latinos at

  18. Retrospective evaluation of Project Envision: A community mobilization pilot program to prevent sexual violence in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Lily; Fidler, Laura; O'Connor, Meghan; Haviland, Mary; Fry, Deborah; Pollak, Tamara; Frye, Victoria

    2018-02-01

    Sexual violence is a public health problem associated with short- and long-term physical and mental health consequences. Most interventions that aim to prevent sexual violence before it occurs target individual-level change or promote bystander training. Community-level interventions, while increasingly recommended in the sexual violence prevention field, are rarely documented in peer-reviewed literature. This paper is a targeted process evaluation of Project Envision, a 6-year pilot initiative to address social norms at the root of sexual violence through coalition building and community mobilization in three New York City neighborhoods, and reflects the perspectives of those charged with designing and implementing the program. Evaluation methods included a systematic literature review, archival source document review, and key informant interviews. Three themes emerged from the results: community identity and implications for engagement; capacity and readiness for community mobilization and consequences for implementation; and impacts on participants. Lessons learned include the limitations of using geographic boundaries to structure community interventions in urban settings; carefully considering whether communities should be mobilized around an externally-identified issue; translating theoretical frameworks into concrete tasks; assessing all coalition partners and organizations for readiness; critically evaluating available resources; and recognizing that community organizing is a skill that requires investment from funders. We conclude that Project Envision showed promise for shifting institutional norms towards addressing root causes of sexual violence in addition to providing victim services. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Reconstruction and measurement of a digital dental model using grating projection and reverse engineering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhenzhen, Wang; Yi, Lu; Jun, Song; Jun, Chen; Qin, Zhou

    2015-02-01

    This work lays the foundation for establishing a digital model database with normal occlusion. A digital dental cast is acquired through grating projection, and model features are measured through reverse engineering. The grating projection system controlled by a computer was projected onto the surface of a normal dental model. Three-dimensional contour data were obtained through multi-angle shooting. A three-dimensional model was constructed, and the model features were analyzed by using reverse engineering. The digital model was compared with the plaster model to determine the accuracy of the measurement system. The structure of three-dimensional reconstruction model was clear. The digital models of two measurements exhibited no significant difference (P > 0.05). When digital and plaster models were measured, we found that the crown length and arch width were not statistically different (P > 0.05), whereas the difference between the crown width and arch length was statistically significant (P model by using the grating projection technique and reverse engineering can be used for dental model measurement in clinic al and scientific research and can provide a scientific method for establishing a digital model database with normal occlusion.

  20. Using Project Performance to Measure Effectiveness of Quality Management System Maintenance and Practices in Construction Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Tiong Kung; Ariff, Mohd. Shoki Md.

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposed seven existing and new performance indicators to measure the effectiveness of quality management system (QMS) maintenance and practices in construction industry. This research is carried out with a questionnaire based on QMS variables which are extracted from literature review and project performance indicators which are established from project management's theory. Data collected was analyzed using correlation and regression analysis. The findings indicate that client satisfaction and time variance have positive and significant relationship with QMS while other project performance indicators do not show significant results. Further studies can use the same project performance indicators to study the effectiveness of QMS in different sampling area to improve the generalizability of the findings. PMID:24701182

  1. A Data Specification for Software Project Performance Measures: Results of a Collaboration on Performance Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    the copyright license under the clause at 252.227-7013. For information about purchasing paper copies of SEI reports, please visit the publications...early version of the document. The author would also like to thank Grant Bayne, Wolfhart Goethert (SEI), Zhang Hefei ( Samsung ), Ben Linders... apples and oranges. When you can measure what you are speaking about and express it in numbers, you know something about it. “ ”- Kelvin 6

  2. Teen Peer Outreach-Street Work Project: HIV prevention education for runaway and homeless youth.

    OpenAIRE

    Podschun, G D

    1993-01-01

    Each year, there are approximately 2 million homeless and runaway youths in the United States. On any given night, there are 1,000 homeless youngsters living on the streets of San Diego, CA. Homeless young people are commonly involved in one or more of the following activities that place them at risk for HIV infection--unprotected sexual intercourse, needle-sharing in the use of injectable drugs, sex with someone who injects drugs. The Teen Peer Outreach-Street Work Project trains teen peer e...

  3. Suicide and attempted suicide: epidemiological surveillance as a crucial means of a local suicide prevention project in Trento's Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Napoli, Wilma Angela; Della Rosa, Alberto

    2015-09-01

    The World Health Organization identifies suicide among the top 10 causes of death in many countries with an overall mortality rate of 16 per 100,000 inhabitants. Furthermore suicide attempts present a frequency 4-10 times greater than the suicidal events, representing also one of the main risk factors to lead to recurrent attempts of suicide. In 2008 the Autonomous Province of Trento launched a suicide prevention pogram called "Invitation to Life" which includes various interventions intended to counter the phenomenon of suicide in the region. Actually the epidemiological research upon the phenomenon of suicide in Trentino region is one of the main pillars of the project: it represents a fundamental requirement to identify risk and protective factors in the population in order to adopt more specific and effective preventive strategies. This article aims to present methods and instruments for epidemiological monitoring of suicide and attempted suicide which are applied in Trentino and to describe results after seven years from the beginning of the local prevention program "Invitation to life".

  4. Community and team member factors that influence the early phase functioning of community prevention teams: the PROSPER project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Mark T; Feinberg, Mark E; Meyer-Chilenski, Sarah; Spoth, Richard L; Redmond, Cleve

    2007-11-01

    This research examines the early development of community teams in a specific university-community partnership project called PROSPER (Spoth et al., Prev Sci 5:31-39, 2004). PROSPER supports local community teams in rural areas and small towns to implement evidence-based programs intended to support positive youth development and reduce early substance use. The study evaluated 14 community teams and included longitudinal data from 108 team members. Specifically, it examined how community demographics and team member characteristics, perceptions, and attitudes at initial team formation were related to local team functioning 6 months later, when teams were planning for prevention program implementation. Findings indicate that community demographics (poverty), perceived community readiness, characteristics of local team members (previous collaborative experience) and attitudes toward prevention played a substantial role in predicting the quality of community team functioning 6 months later. EDITORS' STRATEGIC IMPLICATIONS: The authors identify barriers to successful long-term implementation of prevention programs and add to a small, but important, longitudinal research knowledge base related to community coalitions.

  5. The role of interpersonal communication in preventing unsafe abortion in communities: the dialogues for life project in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Allison; Drake, Jennifer Kidwell; Goodyear, Lorelei; Gopinath, C Y; Kaufman, Anne; Bhattarai, Sanju

    2011-03-01

    Legal, procedural, and institutional restrictions on safe abortion services-such as laws forbidding the practice or policies preventing donors from supporting groups who provide legal services-remain a major access barrier for women worldwide. However, even when abortion services are legal, women face social and cultural barriers to accessing safe abortion services and preventing unwanted pregnancy. Interpersonal communication interventions play an important role in overcoming these obstacles, including as part of broad educational- and behavioral-change efforts. This article presents results from an interpersonal communication behavior change pilot intervention, Dialogues for Life, undertaken in Nepal from 2004 to 2006, after abortion was legalized in 2002. The project aimed to encourage and enable women to prevent unplanned pregnancies and unsafe abortions and was driven by dialogue groups and select community events. The authors' results confirm that a dialogue-based interpersonal communication intervention can help change behavior and that this method is feasible in a low-resource, low-literacy setting. Dialogue groups play a key role in addressing sensitive and stigmatizing health issues such as unsafe abortion and in empowering women to negotiate for the social support they need when making decisions about their health.

  6. Design of the Balance@Work project: systematic development, evaluation and implementation of an occupational health guideline aimed at the prevention of weight gain among employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weel Andre NH

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Occupational health professionals may play an important role in preventive health promotion activities for employees. However, due to a lack of knowledge and evidence- and practice based methods and strategies, interventions are hardly being implemented by occupational physicians to date. The aim of the Balance@Work project is to develop, evaluate, and implement an occupational health guideline aimed at the prevention of weight gain among employees. Methods Following the guideline development protocol of the Netherlands Society of Occupational Medicine and the Intervention Mapping protocol, the guideline was developed based on literature, interviews with relevant stakeholders, and consensus among an expert group. The guideline consists of an individual and an environmental component. The individual component includes recommendations for occupational physicians on how to promote physical activity and healthy dietary behavior based on principles of motivational interviewing. The environmental component contains an obesogenic environment assessment tool. The guideline is evaluated in a randomised controlled trial among 20 occupational physicians. Occupational physicians in the intervention group apply the guideline to eligible workers during 6 months. Occupational physicians in the control group provide care as usual. Measurements take place at baseline and 6, 12, and 18 months thereafter. Primary outcome measures include waist circumference, daily physical activity and dietary behavior. Secondary outcome measures include sedentary behavior, determinants of behavior change, body weight and body mass index, cardiovascular disease risk profile, and quality of life. Additionally, productivity, absenteeism, and cost-effectiveness are assessed. Discussion Improving workers' daily physical activity and dietary behavior may prevent weight gain and subsequently improve workers' health, increase productivity, and reduce absenteeism

  7. Design of the Balance@Work project: systematic development, evaluation and implementation of an occupational health guideline aimed at the prevention of weight gain among employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verweij, Lisanne M; Proper, Karin I; Weel, Andre N H; Hulshof, Carel T J; van Mechelen, Willem

    2009-12-14

    Occupational health professionals may play an important role in preventive health promotion activities for employees. However, due to a lack of knowledge and evidence- and practice based methods and strategies, interventions are hardly being implemented by occupational physicians to date. The aim of the Balance@Work project is to develop, evaluate, and implement an occupational health guideline aimed at the prevention of weight gain among employees. Following the guideline development protocol of the Netherlands Society of Occupational Medicine and the Intervention Mapping protocol, the guideline was developed based on literature, interviews with relevant stakeholders, and consensus among an expert group. The guideline consists of an individual and an environmental component. The individual component includes recommendations for occupational physicians on how to promote physical activity and healthy dietary behavior based on principles of motivational interviewing. The environmental component contains an obesogenic environment assessment tool. The guideline is evaluated in a randomised controlled trial among 20 occupational physicians. Occupational physicians in the intervention group apply the guideline to eligible workers during 6 months. Occupational physicians in the control group provide care as usual. Measurements take place at baseline and 6, 12, and 18 months thereafter. Primary outcome measures include waist circumference, daily physical activity and dietary behavior. Secondary outcome measures include sedentary behavior, determinants of behavior change, body weight and body mass index, cardiovascular disease risk profile, and quality of life. Additionally, productivity, absenteeism, and cost-effectiveness are assessed. Improving workers' daily physical activity and dietary behavior may prevent weight gain and subsequently improve workers' health, increase productivity, and reduce absenteeism. After an effect- and process evaluation the guideline will be

  8. Measures to prevent, intercept and respond to illicit uses of nuclear material and radioactive sources. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    As nuclear programmes have evolved, the quantities of nuclear material in use or storage, and the number of facilities operating or shut down has increased. In particular, the dismantling of nuclear weapons has resulted in greatly increased stockpiles of weapons usable plutonium and highly enriched uranium. Concern over the security of these and related materials has been further raised by the continued occurrence of cases of illicit trafficking. The risks are theft, leading to trafficking and possible illicit use, and sabotage which could lead to the creation of radiological hazards. The challenge is threefold: prevention, detection and interception, and response. Prevention starts with effective national systems for accountancy, control and protection. Detection and interception involves effective measures to combat illicit trafficking, and response requires planning for the consequences of theft and sabotage. Responsibilities in these fields are national, but nuclear security also has a powerful international dimension. The consequences of failures in national measures reach beyond national boundaries. The effectiveness of national nuclear security can be enhanced through international measures: through agreed international norms, standards and guides, through training and advice, through information exchange and the sharing of experience, and through developing common understandings and perceptions. The Stockholm Conference contributed by focusing on the threats, including terrorist, to nuclear and other radioactive materials; on how to assess them and on how to develop the appropriate security measures. National measures to protect nuclear material and facilities and the continuing development of international standards and obligations were described. The conference discussed the patterns and trends in the illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive materials and national and international measures to combat such trafficking. Finally, it considered

  9. Course Setting as a Prevention Measure for Overuse Injuries of the Back in Alpine Ski Racing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spörri, Jörg; Kröll, Josef; Fasel, Benedikt; Aminian, Kamiar; Müller, Erich

    2016-01-01

    Background: A combination of frontal bending, lateral bending, and torsion in the loaded trunk has been suggested to be a mechanism leading to overuse injuries of the back in Alpine ski racing. However, there is limited knowledge about the effect of course setting on the aforementioned back-loading patterns. Purpose: To investigate the effect of increased gate offset on the skier’s overall trunk kinematics and the occurring ground-reaction forces and to compare these variables between the competition disciplines giant slalom (GS) and slalom (SL). Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: Ten top-level athletes were divided into GS and SL groups. Both groups performed a total of 240 GS and 240 SL turns at 2 different course settings. The overall trunk movement components (frontal bending, lateral bending, and torsion angle) were measured using 2 inertial measurement units fixed on the sacrum and sternum. Total ground-reaction forces were measured by pressure insoles. Results: In SL, ground-reaction force peaks were significantly lower when the gate offset was increased, while in GS, no differences between course settings were observed. During the turn phase in which the highest spinal disc loading is expected to occur, the back-loading patterns in both GS and SL included a combination of frontal bending, lateral bending, and torsion in the loaded trunk. SL was characterized by shorter turns, lower frontal and lateral bending angles after gate passage, and a trend toward greater total ground-reaction force peaks compared with GS. Conclusion: Course setting is a reasonable measure to reduce the skier’s overall back loading in SL but not in GS. The distinct differences observed between GS and SL should be taken into account when defining discipline-specific prevention measures for back overuse injuries. Clinical Relevance: To reduce the magnitude of the overall back loading, in SL, minimal gate offsets should be avoided. Prevention measures in GS might

  10. Three-dimensional displacement measurement by fringe projection and speckle photography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrientos, B.; Garcia-Marquez, J.; Cerca, M.; Hernandez-Bernal, C.

    2008-01-01

    3D displacement fields are measured by the combination of two optical methods, fringe projection and speckle photography. The use of only one camera recording the necessary information implies that no calibration procedures are necessary as is the case in techniques based on stereoscopy. The out-of-plane displacement is measured by fringe projection whereas speckle photography yields the 2-D in-plane component. To show the feasibility of the technique, we analyze a detailed morphological spatio-temporal evolution of a model of the Earth's crust while subjected to compression forces. The results show that the combination of fringe projection and speckle photography is well suited for this type of studies

  11. Do women in rural areas of Serbia rarely apply preventive measures against cervical cancer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antić Ljiljana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The incidence of cervical cancer in Central Serbia has the higher rate as compared with that in other European countries. Considering mortality rate for cervical cancer, the standardized rate in Serbia is 10.1 per 10,000 females, which is the second highest one after that in Romania with 13.0. The aim of this study was to examine application of preventive measures for cervical cancer in women both from rural and urban areas in Serbia and if they are associated with sociodemographic characteristics and sexual behaviour. Methods. We analyzed secondary data of the 2006 National Health Survey of the population of Serbia focused on characteristics of adult females aged 25 to 65 years (5.314 in total taking into consideration that programme of the organized screening will include female population aged over 25 years. Results. Respondents from rural areas have gynecological examination less than once a year in comparison with those from urban areas (OR = 0.60, 95% Cl 0.54-0.68. Less women from rural areas did Pap test during the last 12 months in comparison with respondents from urban areas (OR = 0.55, 95% Cl 0.48- 0.64. Respondents from urban areas less often do the Pap test on doctor's advice in comparison with those from rural one (OR = 0.55, 95% Cl 0.42-0.62. Conclusion. This study shows that women in rural areas rarely implement preventive gynecological measures againt cervical cancer in comparison with those in urban areas. Implementation of preventive measures among rural women is conditioned by lower levels of education and lower socioeconomic status. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175025

  12. Healthy outcomes for teens project: diabetes prevention through distributed interactive learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelli, Darla M; Goss, David; Scherer, Jane; Chapman-Novakofski, Karen

    2011-03-01

    This study assessed whether distributed interactive learning via web-based modules and grounded in schema and social cognitive theory (treatment group, n = 101) would increase knowledge about diabetes prevention in adolescents from three middle schools to a greater extent than the control group (n = 80) and examined whether the school environment used to convey the education had an effect. The treatment group showed substantially greater increases in overall and individual modular content knowledge, with 72 voluntarily choosing to retake evaluations that significantly improved their scores. The treatment (t[3.8], β ≥ 0.30, P school, pull out from physical education, or health education curriculum) (t[3.41], β ≥ 0.24, P learning was more effective than its passive counterpart, and a more structured delivery enhanced knowledge, as did opportunities to self-regulate learning. Attention to these process components will facilitate effective interventions by educators in schools.

  13. Prevention of Adolescent Problem Behavior: Longitudinal Impact of the Project P.A.T.H.S. in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T. L. Shek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study attempts to examine the longitudinal impact of a curriculum-based positive youth development program, entitled the Project P.A.T.H.S. (Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programmes, on adolescent problem behavior in Hong Kong. Using a longitudinal randomized group design, six waves of data were collected from 19 experimental schools (n = 3,797 at Wave 1 in which students participated in the Project P.A.T.H.S. and 24 control schools (n = 4,049 at Wave 1. At each wave, students responded to questions asking about their current problem behaviors, including delinquency and use of different types of drugs, and their intentions of engaging in such behaviors in the future. Results based on individual growth curve modeling generally showed that the participants displayed lower levels of substance abuse and delinquent behavior than did the control students. Participants who regarded the program to be helpful also showed lower levels of problem behavior than did the control students. The present findings suggest that the Project P.A.T.H.S. is effective in preventing adolescent problem behavior in the junior secondary school years.

  14. Research on Chinese life cycle-based wind power plant environmental influence prevention measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hanxi; Xu, Jianling; Liu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Tian

    2014-08-19

    The environmental impact of wind power plants over their life cycle is divided into three stages: construction period, operation period and retired period. The impact is mainly reflected in ecological destruction, noise pollution, water pollution and the effect on bird migration. In response to these environmental effects, suggesting reasonable locations, reducing plant footprint, optimizing construction programs, shielding noise, preventing pollution of terrestrial ecosystems, implementing combined optical and acoustical early warning signals, making synthesized use of power generation equipment in the post-retired period and using other specific measures, including methods involving governance and protection efforts to reduce environmental pollution, can be performed to achieve sustainable development.

  15. Research on Chinese Life Cycle-Based Wind Power Plant Environmental Influence Prevention Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hanxi; Xu, Jianling; Liu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Tian

    2014-01-01

    The environmental impact of wind power plants over their life cycle is divided into three stages: construction period, operation period and retired period. The impact is mainly reflected in ecological destruction, noise pollution, water pollution and the effect on bird migration. In response to these environmental effects, suggesting reasonable locations, reducing plant footprint, optimizing construction programs, shielding noise, preventing pollution of terrestrial ecosystems, implementing combined optical and acoustical early warning signals, making synthesized use of power generation equipment in the post-retired period and using other specific measures, including methods involving governance and protection efforts to reduce environmental pollution, can be performed to achieve sustainable development. PMID:25153474

  16. Research on Chinese Life Cycle-Based Wind Power Plant Environmental Influence Prevention Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanxi Wang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The environmental impact of wind power plants over their life cycle is divided into three stages: construction period, operation period and retired period. The impact is mainly reflected in ecological destruction, noise pollution, water pollution and the effect on bird migration. In response to these environmental effects, suggesting reasonable locations, reducing plant footprint, optimizing construction programs, shielding noise, preventing pollution of terrestrial ecosystems, implementing combined optical and acoustical early warning signals, making synthesized use of power generation equipment in the post-retired period and using other specific measures, including methods involving governance and protection efforts to reduce environmental pollution, can be performed to achieve sustainable development.

  17. Artificial Intelligence Measurement System, Overview and Lessons Learned. Final Project Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Eva L.; Butler, Frances A.

    This report summarizes the work conducted for the Artificial Intelligence Measurement System (AIMS) Project which was undertaken as an exploration of methodology to consider how the effects of artificial intelligence systems could be compared to human performance. The research covered four areas of inquiry: (1) natural language processing and…

  18. Summary report (CORDIS) [of the European research project] PROMISING (Promotion of Measures for Vulnerable Road Users).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the PROMISING-project was to capitalise on non-restrictive measures and technical developments in a number of areas to minimise the problems of vulnerable and young road users. The potential for problem reduction was specified for four target groups of vulnerable road users:

  19. Project and construction of a system to measure with Geiger-Mueller counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, F.A. de.

    1984-01-01

    The project and construction of a Geiger-Mueller detection and analysis system using Brazilian electronic equipment and presented. The measure system has an high voltage source that permits to give variable output voltage in stages of 30 to 30 V, a pulse counter and a clock, that drives simultaneously with the counter. (E.G.) [pt

  20. Feedback Control of a Solid-State Qubit Using High-Fidelity Projective Measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riste, D.; Bultink, C.C.; Lehnert, K.W.; DiCarlo, L.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate feedback control of a superconducting transmon qubit using discrete, projective measurement and conditional coherent driving. Feedback realizes a fast and deterministic qubit reset to a target state with 2.4% error averaged over input superposition states, and allows concatenating

  1. Consensus report: Preventive measures for Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever during Eid-al-Adha festival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblebicioglu, Hakan; Sunbul, Mustafa; Memish, Ziad A; Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A; Bodur, Hurrem; Ozkul, Aykut; Gucukoglu, Ali; Chinikar, Sadegh; Hasan, Zahra

    2015-09-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is endemic in Eurasian countries such as, Turkey, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Iran. CCHF virus is spread by the Hyalomma tick, which is found mainly on cattle and sheep. Muslim countries, in which these animals are sacrificed during Eid-Al-Adha, are among the countries where CCHF is endemic, and it has been observed that CCHF is associated with practices surrounding the Eid-ad-Adha festival. The dates for Eid-Al-Adha drift 10 days earlier in each year according to Georgian calendar. In previous years Eid-al-Adha occurred in autumn-winter months however in the next 10-15 years it will be take place in the summer months when CCHF is more prevalent. This may lead to a rise in the number of cases due to increased dissemination of CCHF virus with uncontrolled animal movements in and between countries. This consensus report focuses on the variable practices regarding animal handling in different regions and possible preventative measures to reduce the incidence of CCHF. Environmental hygiene and personal protection are essential parts of prevention. There is a need for international collaborative preparedness and response plans for prevention and management of CCHF during Eid-Al-Adha in countries where the disease is prevalent. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. PREVENTIVE MEASURES - EXCEPTION TO THE PRINCIPLE OF THE RIGHT TO LIBERTY AND SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin-Alin DĂNILĂ

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Considering the specific obligations arising from the exercise of criminal action and civil action in criminal proceedings and taking into account the need to ensure a better conduct of activities that are undertaken in solving criminal cases, it sometimes appears necessary, taking certain procedural measures. Procedural measures were defined [1] as institutions available for criminal procedural law and criminal judicial bodies consisting of privations or certain constraints, real or personal, of the conditions and circumstances under which the criminal proceedings are being realized. By the function pursued by the legislature, these measures work as a legal means of prevention or suppression of circumstances or situations likely to jeopardize the effectiveness of the criminal proceedings through the obstacles, difficulties and confusion which they can produce [2]. Procedural measures arise as opportunities, but not being specific to any criminal case, judicial bodies take measures according to the specific circumstances of each criminal case. From this derives the adjacent character of the criminal procedural measures to the main job [3].

  3. Bicycling crashes on streetcar (tram) or train tracks: mixed methods to identify prevention measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschke, Kay; Dennis, Jessica; Reynolds, Conor C O; Winters, Meghan; Harris, M Anne

    2016-07-22

    Streetcar or train tracks in urban areas are difficult for bicyclists to negotiate and are a cause of crashes and injuries. This study used mixed methods to identify measures to prevent such crashes, by examining track-related crashes that resulted in injuries to cyclists, and obtaining information from the local transit agency and bike shops. We compared personal, trip, and route infrastructure characteristics of 87 crashes directly involving streetcar or train tracks to 189 crashes in other circumstances in Toronto, Canada. We complemented this with engineering information about the rail systems, interviews of personnel at seven bike shops about advice they provide to customers, and width measurements of tires on commonly sold bikes. In our study, 32 % of injured cyclists had crashes that directly involved tracks. The vast majority resulted from the bike tire being caught in the rail flangeway (gap in the road surface alongside rails), often when cyclists made unplanned maneuvers to avoid a collision. Track crashes were more common on major city streets with parked cars and no bike infrastructure, with left turns at intersections, with hybrid, racing and city bikes, among less experienced and less frequent bicyclists, and among women. Commonly sold bikes typically had tire widths narrower than the smallest track flangeways. There were no track crashes in route sections where streetcars and trains had dedicated rights of way. Given our results, prevention efforts might be directed at individual knowledge, bicycle tires, or route design, but their potential for success is likely to differ. Although it may be possible to reach a broader audience with continued advice about how to avoid track crashes, the persistence and frequency of these crashes and their unpredictable circumstances indicates that other solutions are needed. Using tires wider than streetcar or train flangeways could prevent some crashes, though there are other considerations that lead many

  4. Bicycling crashes on streetcar (tram or train tracks: mixed methods to identify prevention measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kay Teschke

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streetcar or train tracks in urban areas are difficult for bicyclists to negotiate and are a cause of crashes and injuries. This study used mixed methods to identify measures to prevent such crashes, by examining track-related crashes that resulted in injuries to cyclists, and obtaining information from the local transit agency and bike shops. Methods We compared personal, trip, and route infrastructure characteristics of 87 crashes directly involving streetcar or train tracks to 189 crashes in other circumstances in Toronto, Canada. We complemented this with engineering information about the rail systems, interviews of personnel at seven bike shops about advice they provide to customers, and width measurements of tires on commonly sold bikes. Results In our study, 32 % of injured cyclists had crashes that directly involved tracks. The vast majority resulted from the bike tire being caught in the rail flangeway (gap in the road surface alongside rails, often when cyclists made unplanned maneuvers to avoid a collision. Track crashes were more common on major city streets with parked cars and no bike infrastructure, with left turns at intersections, with hybrid, racing and city bikes, among less experienced and less frequent bicyclists, and among women. Commonly sold bikes typically had tire widths narrower than the smallest track flangeways. There were no track crashes in route sections where streetcars and trains had dedicated rights of way. Conclusions Given our results, prevention efforts might be directed at individual knowledge, bicycle tires, or route design, but their potential for success is likely to differ. Although it may be possible to reach a broader audience with continued advice about how to avoid track crashes, the persistence and frequency of these crashes and their unpredictable circumstances indicates that other solutions are needed. Using tires wider than streetcar or train flangeways could prevent some

  5. Heat and health in Antwerp under climate change: Projected impacts and implications for prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez Martinez, Gerardo; Diaz, Julio; Hooyberghs, Hans

    2018-01-01

    Background Excessive summer heat is a serious environmental health problem in several European cities. Heat-related mortality and morbidity is likely to increase under climate change scenarios without adequate prevention based on locally relevant evidence. Methods We modelled the urban climate....... Results During the sample period 2009–2013 we observed an increase in daily mortality from a maximum daily temperature of 26 °C, or the 89th percentile of the maximum daily temperature series. The annual average heat-related mortality in this period was 13.4 persons (95% CI: 3.8–23.4). No effect of heat...... was observed in the case of hospital admissions due to cardiorespiratory causes. Under a no acclimatization scenario, annual average heat-related mortality is multiplied by a factor of 1.7 in the near future (24.1 deaths/year CI 95%: 6.78–41.94) and by a factor of 4.5 in the far future (60.38 deaths/year CI 95...

  6. Natural Peer Leaders as Substance Use Prevention Agents: the Teens' Life Choice Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golonka, Megan M; Peairs, Kristen F; Malone, Patrick S; Grimes, Christina L; Costanzo, Philip R

    2017-07-01

    In adolescent social groups, natural peer leaders have been found to engage in more frequent experimentation with substance use and to possess disproportionate power to affect the behavior and social choices of their associated peer followers. In the current exploratory study, we used sociometrics and social cognitive mapping to identify natural leaders of cliques in a seventh grade population and invited the leaders to develop anti-drug presentations for an audience of younger peers. The program employed social-psychological approaches directed at having leaders proceed from extrinsic inducements to intrinsic identification with their persuasive products in the context of the group intervention process. The goals of the intervention were to induce substance resistant self-persuasion in the leaders and to produce a spread of this resistance effect to their peer followers. To test the intervention, we compared the substance use behaviors of the selected leaders and their peers to a control cohort. The study found preliminary support that the intervention produced changes in the substance use behavior among the leaders who participated in the intervention, but did not detect a spread to non-leader peers in the short term. This descriptive study speaks to the plausibility of employing self-persuasion paradigms to bring about change in high-risk behaviors among highly central adolescents. In addition, it highlights the viability of applying social psychological principles to prevention work and calls for more research in this area.

  7. Adherence to vector preventive measures decrease cases of acute Dengue among Abuja residents, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idris Abdullahi Nasir

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nigeria is one of the dengue hyper-endemic nations. This study investigated the level of knowledge about dengue and vector preventive practices and their impacts on acute dengue among febrile patients at Abuja, Nigeria. Materials and methods: This cross-sectional survey was conducted on febrile patients attending University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Abuja, Nigeria. Blood samples were individually collected from 171 febrile patients residing at Gwagwalada suburb. Interviewer administered questionnaires were used to assess subjects’ knowledge about preventive measures against vector breeding and bites. Blood samples were tested for dengue virus Nonstructural glycoprotein-1antigen using enzyme linked Immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Results: Fifteen out of 171 febrile persons (8.8% were Dengue NS1 positive. Sixty percent of the subjects do not know about dengue, while 33% knew about dengue virus infection through television/ radio programs, 5% through healthcare professionals and 2% from friends/families. Those who persistently use indoor residual spraying and long sleeves/trousers during daytime had less cases of DENV NS1 than those who do not. There was statistical association between DENV NS1 and residence in proximity to waste dumpsites (P<0.0001 and frequent use of long sleeve clothing and trousers (P=0.005. However, there was no statistical association between DENV NS1 antigenemia and persistent use of indoor residual spraying and presence of in-door water containers (P>0.05. Conclusions: Findings from this study imply that proper education and adherence to preventive measures minimize people from being susceptible to Dengue virus infections.

  8. [Prevention of melanoma by sun protective measures in childhood. Temporal changes in awareness of parents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kölmel, K F; Pfahlberg, A; Gefeller, O

    1997-06-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies on risk factors of malignant melanoma confirm the etiologic role of excessive UV-exposure especially in childhood. Preventive educational campaigns directed to parents of pre-school children have been inaugurated in several countries. In Germany the information was distributed by the "Working group for Preventive Measures in Dermatology" in cooperation with different public health institutions and the media starting in 1993. To evaluate the influence of these efforts on the knowledge and behaviour of the parents, two successive cross-sectional studies at all 56 nursery schools using the same standardised questionnaire were performed. The first interview took place in spring 1993 (before the campaign) with 1341 evaluable questionnaires', the second in fall 1994 (after the campaign) with 1150 evaluable questionnaire. The knowledge of the parents on melanoma risk factors was significantly improved in the second interview. Also the parental behavior regarding sun-protective measures when their children were outdoor at the beach or in the garden definitely changed. In 1993 the best textile sun protection was used by 21% of the parents at the beach and 36% in the garden. These numbers rose to 34% (beach) and 57% (garden) by the second interview. The percentage of children with no sunburn recorded during the preceding summer rose from 39% to 51%. According to the child's gender the parental behavior was different between the sexes; boys were always better protected than girls. The design of this study with two cross-sectional surveys in the same populations does not provide a methodologically sound basis for attributing the observed positive changes to the campaign. Without any doubt it can be stated that the parental knowledge and their attention to sun protection in their children showed substantial improvement in the second survey after the campaign. Thus, these results provide some evidence for the success of the preventive activities

  9. Transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease and irradiated blood products as its preventive measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Masaru

    1996-01-01

    In this article, the outline of TA-GVHD is presented and its preventive measures, especially the effects of radiation exposure of transfusion blood, is reported. TA-GVHD is a transfusion complication with the highest mortality. In Japan, 1 of 659 patients who underwent cardiac surgery suffers this disease. If this is caused by on way matching of HLA antigen type, 1 of 312 patients are to be observed in Japanese (Europe, 1/1024; North America, 1/797). Furthermore, the primary diseases of 171 patients whose definitive diagnosis was TA-GVHD were chest vascular surgery diseases in 67, malignant tumors in 61, and pediatric diseases in 14. The relative risk rates of cardiac surgery patients are 3 times higher than that of cancer patients. The current most effective preventive therapy for TA-GVHD is radiotherapy. The ions produced by H 2 O decomposition due to radiation destroy cells. Since TA-GVHD often appears in the case of using fresh blood, authors always use irradiated blood for infusion when blood was collected within 72 hours regardless of the subject diseases. In the authors' hospitals, there have been no report of TA-GVHD between December 1993 and August 1995. Radiological effects on lymphocytes, erythrocytes, platelets, and granulocytes were also studied. As the other preventive measures, lymphocytes eliminating filter, MAP-erythrocytes, and ultraviolet irradiation are also reported. The current most safe blood is therefore considered the blood of which lymphocytes were eliminated within 24 hours after collection and exposured to irradiation. (S.Y.). 57 refs

  10. Phlebotomy as a preventive measure for crocidolite-induced mesothelioma in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Yuuki; Chew, Shan-Hwu; Shibata, Takahiro; Okazaki, Yasumasa; Yamashita, Kyoko; Toyokuni, Shinya

    2018-02-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a rare but socially important neoplasm due to its association with asbestos exposure. Malignant mesothelioma is difficult to diagnose at an early stage, yet there are no particularly effective treatments available at the advanced stage, thus necessitating efficient strategies to prevent MM in individuals already exposed to asbestos. We previously showed that persistent oxidative damage caused by foreign body reaction and affinity of asbestos both to hemoglobin and histones is one of the major pathogeneses. Accordingly, as an effective strategy to prevent asbestos-induced MM, we undertook the use of an iron chelator, deferasirox, which decreased the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in a crocidolite-induced rat MM model. However, this agent may show adverse effects. Here, we studied the effects of iron removal by phlebotomy as a realistic measure on the same rat model. We injected a total of 5 mg crocidolite i.p. to F1 hybrid rats between the Fischer-344 and Brown-Norway strains at the age of 6 weeks. We repeated weekly or biweekly phlebotomy of 6-8 mL/kg/time from 10 to 60 weeks of age. The animals were observed until 120 weeks. In male rats, phlebotomy significantly decreased the weight and nuclear grade of MM, and modestly reduced the associated ascites and the fraction of more malignant sarcomatoid subtype. Weekly phlebotomy prolonged long-term survival. Our results indicate that appropriate phlebotomy may be a practical preventive measure to attenuate the initiation and promotion capacity of asbestos towards MM by reducing iron in individuals exposed to asbestos. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  11. Implementation of new legislative measures on industrial risks prevention and control in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cahen, Bruno

    2006-01-01

    Incompatible at first sight, but vital to each other, the industry and the city have been developing a complex relationship for decades. From 1810 on in France, risk prevention and control in and around major industrial sites evolves step-by-step, learning from accidents. Land-use planning in the vicinity of SEVESO establishments becomes one of the key policies in the prevention of major industrial accident hazard on European level in 1996, focussing on historical situation of concern [M.D. Christou, S. Porter, Guidance on Land-use Planning as required by the Council Directive 96/82/EC. Joint Research Centre, European Commission, 1999]. The Toulouse (F) accidents, on 21 September 2001 evidenced the need for new tools to reinforce protective action and ease the situation of clusters of factories engulfed in the urban setting. In France, new legislative measures adopted on 30 July 2003 deeply modified the approach to land-use planning around the main dangerous facilities (622 establishments). The implementation of technological risk prevention plans [Fr. 'PPRT'] will limit the exposition of the population to the consequences of accidents. These plans, derived from the risk assessment (safety reports) produced by the operators of the hazardous facilities, will delineate areas within which requirements can be imposed on existing and future buildings and within which future building rights may be restricted. On the grounds of extremely serious danger that threatens human life, pre-existing constructions may be progressively expropriated. The financing of the corresponding measures, estimated a rough -bar 2-4 billions, will be defined by agreements among the Central Government, the industrial company and the local and regional bodies

  12. The prevention and reduction of weight loss in an acute tertiary care setting: protocol for a pragmatic stepped wedge randomised cluster trial (the PRoWL project)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Malnutrition, with accompanying weight loss, is an unnecessary risk in hospitalised persons and often remains poorly recognised and managed. The study aims to evaluate a hospital-wide multifaceted intervention co-facilitated by clinical nurses and dietitians addressing the nutritional care of patients, particularly those at risk of malnutrition. Using the best available evidence on reducing and preventing unplanned weight loss, the intervention (introducing universal nutritional screening; the provision of oral nutritional supplements; and providing red trays and additional support for patients in need of feeding) will be introduced by local ward teams in a phased way in a large tertiary acute care hospital. Methods/Design A pragmatic stepped wedge randomised cluster trial with repeated cross section design will be conducted. The unit of randomisation is the ward, with allocation by a random numbers table. Four groups of wards (n = 6 for three groups, n = 7 for one group) will be randomly allocated to each intervention time point over the trial. Two trained local facilitators (a nurse and dietitian for each group) will introduce the intervention. The primary outcome measure is change in patient’s body weight, secondary patient outcomes are: length of stay, all-cause mortality, discharge destinations, readmission rates and ED presentations. Patient outcomes will be measured on one ward per group, with 20 patients measured per ward per time period by an unblinded researcher. Including baseline, measurements will be conducted at five time periods. Staff perspectives on the context of care will be measured with the Alberta Context Tool. Discussion Unplanned and unwanted weight loss in hospital is common. Despite the evidence and growing concern about hospital nutrition there are very few evaluations of system-wide nutritional implementation programs. This project will test the implementation of a nutritional intervention across one hospital system using a

  13. Radiodosimetry and preventive measures in the event of a nuclear accident. Proceedings of an international symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    An international symposium on Radiodosimetry and Preventive Measures in the Event of a Nuclear Accident was held in Cracow, Poland, from 26 to 28 May 1994. The symposium was organized by the Polish Society for Nuclear Medicine, and co-sponsored by the IAEA. Over 40 experts from Belarus, Latvia, Lithuania, Germany, Poland, the Russian Federation, Sweden and Switzerland participated. The aim of the Symposium was to review models of iodine kinetics used in the calculation of internal radiation doses to the thyroid after the Chernobyl accident, to discuss internal and external radiation dose to the thyroid in terms or risk of thyroid cancer, and to present data on the incidence rate of thyroid cancer in the selected iodine deficient area in Poland. A part of the symposium was dedicated to the physiological basis of iodine prophylaxis and emergency planning for a nuclear accident. Recommendations of the IAEA on preventive measures in the event of a nuclear accident were also addressed. These proceedings contain the full text of the eight invited papers presented at the symposium. Refs, figs, tabs

  14. Environmental Education in Brazil: Preventive Measures to Avoid Contamination with U and Th

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Pastura, Valeria Fonseca da; Wieland, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Aiming at increasing awareness of radiation health effects, environmental issues and preventive measures, the Nuclear Energy National Commission (CNEN) launched in 2004 an education and public outreach programme for mine workers, students, teachers, governmental leaders, labor representatives and members of communities nearby small mining sites at the North and Northeast regions. Many Brazilian conventional mines present a significant risk of exposure to radiation due to Uranium and Thorium. CNEN inspects the mines but there are several small mining sites dedicated to open pit short term mineral extraction, called 'garimpagem', that are of difficult control. Therefore, information at large about preventive measures to avoid contamination during exploration, transportation and storage is necessary. CNEN developed an educational campaign which includes a series of open seminars, talks, folders, booklets and posters. The objective of this paper is to present the Brazilian educational campaign to avoid contamination risks at those small mineral exploration sites and its results. This campaign is a joint task that receives collaboration of other organizations such as federal police, schools and universities

  15. EMPRESS: A European Project to Enhance Process Control Through Improved Temperature Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, J. V.; Edler, F.; Elliott, C. J.; Rosso, L.; Sutton, G.; Andreu, A.; Machin, G.

    2017-08-01

    A new European project called EMPRESS, funded by the EURAMET program `European Metrology Program for Innovation and Research,' is described. The 3 year project, which started in the summer of 2015, is intended to substantially augment the efficiency of high-value manufacturing processes by improving temperature measurement techniques at the point of use. The project consortium has 18 partners and 5 external collaborators, from the metrology sector, high-value manufacturing, sensor manufacturing, and academia. Accurate control of temperature is key to ensuring process efficiency and product consistency and is often not achieved to the level required for modern processes. Enhanced efficiency of processes may take several forms including reduced product rejection/waste; improved energy efficiency; increased intervals between sensor recalibration/maintenance; and increased sensor reliability, i.e., reduced amount of operator intervention. Traceability of temperature measurements to the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) is a critical factor in establishing low measurement uncertainty and reproducible, consistent process control. Introducing such traceability in situ (i.e., within the industrial process) is a theme running through this project.

  16. Ebola outbreak preparedness and preventive measures among healthcare providers in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almutairi, Khalid M; Alodhayani, Abdulaziz Alhomaidi; Moussa, Mahaman; Aboshaiqah, Ahmad E; Tumala, Regie B; Vinluan, Jason M

    2016-08-31

    As medical professionals on the front lines in the outbreaks of infectious disease like Ebola Virus Disease (EVD), healthcare providers must have sufficient knowledge, skills, and best practices to protect themselves and the public from the disease. The purpose of this study is to identify the level of awareness, attitudes and practices among healthcare workers in relation to precautionary measures to EVD. A total of 177 physicians and 545 nurses participated in a descriptive cross-sectional study from a tertiary government hospital in Saudi Arabia. All subjects answered a self-administered questionnaire focusing on their level of awareness, concerns, and clinical practice related to EVD. Majority of the participants were knowledgeable about the etiology, mode of transmission, signs and symptoms, and treatment of EVD. All of the participants had high levels of concern about EVD (p=0.001) and about the implementation of strict standard infection control precautionary measures. The study found that greater infection control measures were taken by the participants including frequent hand washing, use of personal protective equipment, and avoiding normal activities such as going to work, school, travel, etc. if fever symptoms appear. A combination of evidence based knowledge about EVD and high levels of concern of healthcare providers in relation to precautionary measures to EVD are the main factors leading to strict compliance with the infection control measures recommended in this study. Additionally, healthcare providers must be trained in infection control and adhere to the universal infection control standard guidelines to facilitate prevention and precaution.

  17. A quality control circle process to improve implementation effect of prevention measures for high-risk patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Haixia; Li, Guohong; Xu, Cuirong; Ju, Changping; Suo, Peiheng

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the influence of prevention measures on pressure injuries for high-risk patients and to establish the most appropriate methods of implementation. Nurses assessed patients using a checklist and factors influencing the prevention of a pressure injury determined by brain storming. A specific series of measures was drawn up and an estimate of risk of pressure injury determined using the Braden Scale, analysis of nursing documents, implementation of prevention measures for pressure sores and awareness of the system both before and after carrying out a quality control circle (QCC) process. The overall scores of implementation of prevention measures ranged from 74.86 ± 14.24 to 87.06 ± 17.04, a result that was statistically significant (P prevention measure scores ranged from 11.48 ± 4.18 to 13.96 ± 3.92. Differences in all of the above results are statistically significant (P prevention measures for patients who are vulnerable to pressure sores and is of practical importance to their prevention and control. © 2017 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Lifestyle changes and prevention of metabolic syndrome in the Heart of New Ulm Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanWormer, Jeffrey J; Boucher, Jackie L; Sidebottom, Abbey C; Sillah, Arthur; Knickelbine, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    Prior research has shown that unhealthy lifestyles increase the risk for developing a number of chronic diseases, but there are few studies examining how lifestyle changes impact metabolic syndrome. This study analyzed the association between two-year changes in key lifestyle risk metrics and incident metabolic syndrome in adults. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using data from metabolic syndrome free adults in the Heart of New Ulm Project (New Ulm, MN). The outcome was incident metabolic syndrome observed two years after baseline in 2009. The primary predictor was change in optimal lifestyle score based on four behavioral risk factors, including smoking, alcohol use, fruit/vegetable consumption, and physical activity. In the analytical sample of 1059 adults, 12% developed metabolic syndrome by 2011. Multivariable regression models (adjusted for baseline lifestyle score, age, sex, education, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes) revealed that a two-year decrease in optimal lifestyle score was associated with significantly greater odds of incident metabolic syndrome (OR = 2.92; 95% CI: 1.69, 5.04; p metabolic syndrome over the two-year study timeframe.

  19. The development of biodiversity conservation measures in China's hydro projects: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Ruiqiao; Liu, Xuehua; Liu, Xiaofei; Liu, Lanmei; Wang, Jianping; Liao, Sihui; Zhu, Annah; Li, Zhouyuan

    2017-11-01

    The hydropower capacity of China ranks first in the world and accounts for approximately 20% of the total energy production in the country. While hydropower has substantially contributed to meeting China's renewable energy targets and providing clean energy to rural areas, the development of hydropower in China has been met with significant controversy. Ecologically, hydro projects alter the landscape, with potential impacts to the country's aquatic biodiversity. Over the past four decades in China, various mainstream opinions and misunderstandings have been presented concerning how to alleviate the negative impacts of hydro projects on aquatic ecosystems. This article reviews research concerning potential mitigation measures to enhance aquatic biodiversity conservation in hydro projects in China. Based on the academic attention such research has attracted, three technical measures for aquatic biodiversity conservation are considered: (1) fish passages, (2) restocking efforts and (3) river and lake renovations. This article provides a historical comparison of these three practices in China to demonstrate the advantages and disadvantages of each method. The article also reviews the relevant legislation, regulations and technical guidelines concerning China's hydro projects dating back to 1979. The dynamics in research, publications, and patents concerning these three mitigation measures are summarized to demonstrate their technological developments in the context of legislative and policy advances. Data were gathered through the China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database and the State Intellectual Property Office of the People's Republic of China. Based on the analysis provided, the article recommends an expansion of China's environmental certification system for hydro projects, more robust regional legislation to bolster the national framework, the cooperation between upstream and downstream conservation mechanisms, and better monitoring to determine the efficacy

  20. [Pressure ulcers in intensive care: assessment of risk and prevention measures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizpitarte Pegenaute, Eva; García de Galdiano Fernández, Ana; Zugazagoitia Ciarrusta, Nerea; Margall Coscojuela, María Angeles; Asiain Erro, María Carmen

    2005-01-01

    Pressure ulcers (PU) are associated to greater patient morbidity and mortality. Thus, all prevention measures are very important. In order to establish the appropriate care early, the first measure is the identification of patients at risk of developing PU, using specific scales. 1) to assess the risk of developing PU in the patients admitted in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU), using the Waterlow scale; 2) to identify patients with PU and to analyse the possible relationship between them and the measured risk; 3) to analyse the preventive care received by patients for its prevention. This descriptive study analysed the risk of developing PU in 91 critical patients with a stay greater than 3 days. To measure the risk the Waterlow scale (modified by Weststrate in 1998), that included 14 risk factors, was used. Sociodemographic data, cause of admission, patients with PU, its location and grade and care applied were also collected. Risk grade obtained on the Waterlow scale was: without risk (ulcer, in 10 of them it was present on admission. Their score obtained on the scale was risk in 2 patients, high risk in 5 and very high risk in the remaining 6. A statistically significant difference was found between the mean score of risk of the 13 patients who had ulcer and the remaining sample (21.85-16.83; p = 0.005). When the risk factors included in the scale and its relationship with the presence of ulcer were analysed, statistically significant difference was only found in the "heart failure" factor (vasoconstrictor treatment), p = 0.045. No association was found between age, gender, diagnosis and presence of ulcer. Regarding the daily care applied to patients, the following results were obtained: skin hydration and hygiene were done in 100% of the patients, patient repositioning were done every 2 hours or more frequently in 80% of the patients, every 3 hours in 10% and in the remaining 10%, with a frequency greater than 4 hours. Heel protection was applied in 57% of the

  1. Is a project needed to prevent urinary tract infection in patients admitted to spanish ICUs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez Lerma, F; Olaechea Astigarraga, P; Nuvials, X; Gimeno, R; Catalán, M; Gracia Arnillas, M P; Seijas Betolaza, I; Palomar Martínez, M

    2018-02-06

    To analyze epidemiological data of catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) in critically ill patients admitted to Spanish ICUs in order to assess the need of implementing a nationwide intervention program to reduce these infections. Non-intervention retrospective annual period prevalence analysis. Participating ICUs in the ENVIN-UCI multicenter registry between the years 2007-2016. Critically ill patients admitted to the ICU with catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI). Incidence rates per 1,000 catheter-days; urinary catheter utilization ratio; proportion of CAUTIs in relation to total health care-associated infections (HAIs). A total of 187,100 patients, 137,654 (73.6%) of whom had a urinary catheter in place during 1,215,673 days (84% of days of ICU stay) were included. In 4,539 (3.3%) patients with urinary catheter, 4,977 CAUTIs were diagnosed (3.6 episodes per 100 patients with urinary catheter). The CAUTI incidence rate showed a 19% decrease between 2007 and 2016 (4.69 to 3.8 episodes per 1,000 catheter-days), although a sustained urinary catheter utilization ratio was observed (0.84 [0.82-0.86]). The proportion of CAUTI increased from 23.3% to 31.9% of all HAIs controlled in the ICU. Although CAUTI rates have declined in recent years, these infections have become proportionally the first HAIs in the ICU. The urinary catheter utilization ratio remains high in Spanish ICUs. There is room for improvement, so that a CAUTI-ZERO project in our country could be useful. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  2. Software Project Management and Measurement on the World-Wide-Web (WWW)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, John; Ramakrishnan, Sudhaka

    1996-01-01

    We briefly describe a system for forms-based, work-flow management that helps members of a software development team overcome geographical barriers to collaboration. Our system, called the Web Integrated Software Environment (WISE), is implemented as a World-Wide-Web service that allows for management and measurement of software development projects based on dynamic analysis of change activity in the workflow. WISE tracks issues in a software development process, provides informal communication between the users with different roles, supports to-do lists, and helps in software process improvement. WISE minimizes the time devoted to metrics collection and analysis by providing implicit delivery of messages between users based on the content of project documents. The use of a database in WISE is hidden from the users who view WISE as maintaining a personal 'to-do list' of tasks related to the many projects on which they may play different roles.

  3. Standard Measurement & Verification Plan for Lighting Equipment Retrofit or Replacement Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richman, Eric E.

    2009-11-04

    This document provides a framework for a standard Measurement and Verification (M&V) plan for lighting projects. It was developed to support cost-effective retrofits (partial and complete replacements) of lighting systems and is intended to provide a foundation for an M&V plan for a lighting retrofit utilizing a "best practice" approach, and to provide guidance to site owners, contractors, and other involved organizations on what is essential for a robust M&V plan for lighting projects. This document provides examples of appropriate elements of an M&V plan, including the calculation of expected energy savings. The standard M&V plan, as provided, also allows for consistent comparison with other similar lighting projects. Although intended for lighting retrofit applications, M&V plans developed per this framework document may also be used for other non-lighting technology retrofits and new installations.

  4. Causes of blindness in rural Myanmar (Burma: Mount Popa Taung-Kalat Blindness Prevention Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie Y Nemet

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Arie Y Nemet1, Pinhas Nemet2, Geoff Cohn3, Gina Sutton, Gerald Sutton4, Richard Rawson41Department of Ophthalmology, Sydney Hospital and Sydney Eye Hospital, Sydney, Australia; 2Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Israel; 3Departments of Ophthalmology, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia; 4Department of Ophthalmology, University of Sydney, AustraliaPurpose: This study is a review of the major causes of visual impairment (VI and severe visual impairment/blindness (SVI/BL in Mount Popa Taung-Kalat, a rural region in Myanmar (Burma.Methods: A review of our clinical records of consecutive patients attending clinics was conducted. Participants of all ages (n = 650 of the population of Mount Popa Taung-Kalat and villages in its vicinity underwent ophthalmic interview and a detailed dilated ocular evaluation by trained Australian ophthalmologists and ophthalmic nurses. This evaluation included anterior segment examination with a slit lamp, intraocular pressure recording, and direct or indirect ophthalmoscopy. VI and SVI/BL were defined by the World Health Organization (WHO criteria. Results: Six hundred fifty subjects were screened, with a mean age of 49.0 ± 20.6 years (range, 1–99. One hundred five patients (16.2% were children (ages 1–18. Five hundred thirty-one eyes of the total 1,300 eyes (39.5% had VI/SVI/BL, and 40 eyes of the children (38.1% (average age 15.3 ± 13.3 had VI/SVI/BL. The leading causes of VI/SVI/BL were cataract with 288 cases (54.2%, glaucoma with 84 cases (15.8%, and corneal pathology with 78 cases (14.7%. Of all the VI/SVI/BL cases, 8.4% were preventable, 81.9% were treatable, and total of 90.5% were avoidable.Conclusions: In the current study, cataracts were the major cause of blindness and visual impairment, and most of the ophthalmic pathology causing blindness is avoidable. These results highlight the lack of basic ophthalmologist eye care and optician resources in rural regions in Myanmar

  5. [Improved Blood Pressure Control to Reduce Cardiovascular Disease Morbidity and Mortality: The Standardized Hypertension Treatment and Prevention Project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Pragna; Ordunez, Pedro; DiPette, Donald; Escobar, María Cristina; Hassell, Trevor; Wyss, Fernando; Hennis, Anselm; Asma, Samira; Angell, Sonia

    2017-06-08

    Hypertension is the leading remediable risk factor for cardiovascular disease, affecting more than 1 billion people worldwide, and is responsible for more than 10 million preventable deaths globally each year. While hypertension can be successfully diagnosed and treated, only one in seven persons with hypertension have controlled blood pressure. To meet the challenge of improving the control of hypertension, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, the authors developed the Standardized Hypertension Treatment and Prevention Project, which involves a health systems-strengthening approach that advocates for standardized hypertension management using evidence-based interventions. These interventions include the use of standardized treatment protocols, a core set of medications along with improved procurement mechanisms to increase the availability and affordability of these medications, registries for cohort monitoring and evaluation, patient empowerment, team-based care (task shifting), and community engagement. With political will and strong partnerships, this approach provides the groundwork to reduce high blood pressure and cardiovascular disease-related morbidity and mortality.

  6. Ion Exchange Technology Development in Support of the Urine Processor Assembly Precipitation Prevention Project for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Julie L.; Broyan, James L.; Pickering, Karen D.; Adam, Niklas; Casteel, Michael; Callahan, Michael; Carrier, Chris

    2012-01-01

    In support of the Urine Processor Assembly Precipitation Prevention Project (UPA PPP), multiple technologies were explored to prevent CaSO4 2H2O (gypsum) precipitation during the on-orbit distillation process. Gypsum precipitation currently limits the water recovery rate onboard the International Space Station (ISS) to 70% versus the planned 85% target water recovery rate. Due to its ability to remove calcium cations in pretreated augmented urine (PTAU), ion exchange was selected as one of the technologies for further development by the PPP team. A total of 13 ion exchange resins were evaluated in various equilibrium and dynamic column tests with solutions of dissolved gypsum, urine ersatz, PTAU, and PTAU brine at 85% water recovery. While initial evaluations indicated that the Purolite SST60 resin had the highest calcium capacity in PTAU (0.30 meq/mL average), later tests showed that the Dowex G26 and Amberlite FPC12H resins had the highest capacity (0.5 meq/mL average). Testing at the Marshall Spaceflight Center (MSFC) integrates the ion exchange technology with a UPA ground article under flight-like pulsed flow conditions with PTAU. To date, no gypsum precipitation has taken place in any of the initial evaluations.

  7. Improved Blood Pressure Control to Reduce Cardiovascular Disease Morbidity and Mortality: The Standardized Hypertension Treatment and Prevention Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Pragna; Ordunez, Pedro; DiPette, Donald; Escobar, Maria Cristina; Hassell, Trevor; Wyss, Fernando; Hennis, Anselm; Asma, Samira; Angell, Sonia

    2016-12-01

    Hypertension is the leading remediable risk factor for cardiovascular disease, affecting more than 1 billion people worldwide, and is responsible for more than 10 million preventable deaths globally each year. While hypertension can be successfully diagnosed and treated, only one in seven persons with hypertension have controlled blood pressure. To meet the challenge of improving the control of hypertension, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, the authors developed the Standardized Hypertension Treatment and Prevention Project, which involves a health systems-strengthening approach that advocates for standardized hypertension management using evidence-based interventions. These interventions include the use of standardized treatment protocols, a core set of medications along with improved procurement mechanisms to increase the availability and affordability of these medications, registries for cohort monitoring and evaluation, patient empowerment, team-based care (task shifting), and community engagement. With political will and strong partnerships, this approach provides the groundwork to reduce high blood pressure and cardiovascular disease-related morbidity and mortality. ©2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Deviation rectification for dynamic measurement of rail wear based on coordinate sets projection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chao; Ma, Ziji; Li, Yanfu; Liu, Hongli; Zeng, Jiuzhen; Jin, Tan

    2017-01-01

    Dynamic measurement of rail wear using a laser imaging system suffers from random vibrations in the laser-based imaging sensor which cause distorted rail profiles. In this paper, a simple and effective method for rectifying profile deviation is presented to address this issue. There are two main steps: profile recognition and distortion calibration. According to the constant camera and projector parameters, efficient recognition of measured profiles is achieved by analyzing the geometric difference between normal profiles and distorted ones. For a distorted profile, by constructing coordinate sets projecting from it to the standard one on triple projecting primitives, including the rail head inner line, rail waist curve and rail jaw, iterative extrinsic camera parameter self-compensation is implemented. The distortion is calibrated by projecting the distorted profile onto the x – y plane of a measuring coordinate frame, which is parallel to the rail cross section, to eliminate the influence of random vibrations in the laser-based imaging sensor. As well as evaluating the implementation with comprehensive experiments, we also compare our method with other published works. The results exhibit the effectiveness and superiority of our method for the dynamic measurement of rail wear. (paper)

  9. AeroCom INSITU Project: Comparing modeled and measured aerosol optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Elisabeth; Schmeisser, Lauren; Schulz, Michael; Fiebig, Markus; Ogren, John; Bian, Huisheng; Chin, Mian; Easter, Richard; Ghan, Steve; Kokkola, Harri; Laakso, Anton; Myhre, Gunnar; Randles, Cynthia; da Silva, Arlindo; Stier, Phillip; Skeie, Ragnehild; Takemura, Toshihiko; van Noije, Twan; Zhang, Kai

    2016-04-01

    AeroCom, an open international collaboration of scientists seeking to improve global aerosol models, recently initiated a project comparing model output to in-situ, surface-based measurements of aerosol optical properties. The model/measurement comparison project, called INSITU, aims to evaluate the performance of a suite of AeroCom aerosol models with site-specific observational data in order to inform iterative improvements to model aerosol modules. Surface in-situ data has the unique property of being traceable to physical standards, which is an asset in accomplishing the overall goal of bettering the accuracy of aerosols processes and the predicative capability of global climate models. Here we compare dry, in-situ aerosol scattering and absorption data from ~75 surface, in-situ sites from various global aerosol networks (including NOAA, EUSAAR/ACTRIS and GAW) with a simulated optical properties from a suite of models participating in the AeroCom project. We report how well models reproduce aerosol climatologies for a variety of time scales, aerosol characteristics and behaviors (e.g., aerosol persistence and the systematic relationships between aerosol optical properties), and aerosol trends. Though INSITU is a multi-year endeavor, preliminary phases of the analysis suggest substantial model biases in absorption and scattering coefficients compared to surface measurements, though the sign and magnitude of the bias varies with location. Spatial patterns in the biases highlight model weaknesses, e.g., the inability of models to properly simulate aerosol characteristics at sites with complex topography. Additionally, differences in modeled and measured systematic variability of aerosol optical properties suggest that some models are not accurately capturing specific aerosol behaviors, for example, the tendency of in-situ single scattering albedo to decrease with decreasing aerosol extinction coefficient. The endgoal of the INSITU project is to identify specific

  10. Collection of measurement data in 2012 fiscal year at the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, Daisuke

    2014-03-01

    The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (URL) Project has being pursued by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) to enhance the reliability of relevant disposal technologies through investigations of the deep geological environment within the host sedimentary formations at Horonobe, northern Hokkaido. The URL project consists of two major research areas, 'Geoscientific Research' and 'R and D on Geological Disposal Technologies', and proceeds in three overlapping phases, 'Phase I: Surface-based investigations', 'Phase II: Investigations during tunnel excavation' and 'Phase III: Investigations in the underground facilities', over a period of around 20 years. The Phase I geoscientific research was carried out from March 2001 to March 2006 in parallel with design and execution scheme on URL facilities. In addition, identifying key issues that need to be addressed in the Phase II/III investigations was planned. At the begining of the Phase II investigations, an investigation report titled 'Measurement Plan and Observational Construction Program on Shaft Excavation at the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project' (hereinafter referred to as 'Observational Construction Program') and an investigation report titled 'Measurement Plan and Observational Construction Program on Drift Excavation at the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project' were published. The Observational Construction Program summarizes the followings from the results of the Phase I investigations: measurements for safety and reasonable constructions, enhancement of shaft design and construction technologies and evaluation of appropriateness for the deep geological environment model estimated before shaft excavation. This report summarizes the measurements data acquired at the Ventilation Shaft, the East Shaft and the drifts in 2012 fiscal year based on the Observational Construction Program. The report summarizes the measurements data for the purpose of acquisition of the basic data

  11. In Vivo measurement of pediatric vocal fold motion using structured light laser projection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rita R; Donohue, Kevin D; Lau, Daniel; Unnikrishnan, Harikrishnan

    2013-07-01

    The aim of the study was to present the development of a miniature structured light laser projection endoscope and to quantify vocal fold length and vibratory features related to impact stress of the pediatric glottis using high-speed imaging. The custom-developed laser projection system consists of a green laser with a 4-mm diameter optics module at the tip of the endoscope, projecting 20 vertical laser lines on the glottis. Measurements of absolute phonatory vocal fold length, membranous vocal fold length, peak amplitude, amplitude-to-length ratio, average closing velocity, and impact velocity were obtained in five children (6-9 years), two adult male and three adult female participants without voice disorders, and one child (10 years) with bilateral vocal fold nodules during modal phonation. Independent measurements made on the glottal length of a vocal fold phantom demonstrated a 0.13mm bias error with a standard deviation of 0.23mm, indicating adequate precision and accuracy for measuring vocal fold structures and displacement. First, in vivo measurements of amplitude-to-length ratio, peak closing velocity, and impact velocity during phonation in pediatric population and a child with vocal fold nodules are reported. The proposed laser projection system can be used to obtain in vivo measurements of absolute length and vibratory features in children and adults. Children have large amplitude-to-length ratio compared with typically developing adults, whereas nodules result in larger peak amplitude, amplitude-to-length ratio, average closing velocity, and impact velocity compared with typically developing children. Copyright © 2013 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Measuring Sexual Behavior Stigma to Inform Effective HIV Prevention and Treatment Programs for Key Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahlman, Shauna; Hargreaves, James R; Sprague, Laurel; Stangl, Anne L; Baral, Stefan D

    2017-04-26

    The levels of coverage of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment and prevention services needed to change the trajectory of the HIV epidemic among key populations, including gay men and other men who have sex with men (MSM) and sex workers, have consistently been shown to be limited by stigma. The aim of this study was to propose an agenda for the goals and approaches of a sexual behavior stigma surveillance effort for key populations, with a focus on collecting surveillance data from 4 groups: (1) members of key population groups themselves (regardless of HIV status), (2) people living with HIV (PLHIV) who are also members of key populations, (3) members of nonkey populations, and (4) health workers. We discuss strengths and weaknesses of measuring multiple different types of stigma including perceived, anticipated, experienced, perpetrated, internalized, and intersecting stigma as measured among key populations themselves, as well as attitudes or beliefs about key populations as measured among other groups. With the increasing recognition of the importance of stigma, consistent and validated stigma metrics for key populations are needed to monitor trends and guide immediate action. Evidence-based stigma interventions may ultimately be the key to overcoming the barriers to coverage and retention in life-saving antiretroviral-based HIV prevention and treatment programs for key populations. Moving forward necessitates the integration of validated stigma scales in routine HIV surveillance efforts, as well as HIV epidemiologic and intervention studies focused on key populations, as a means of tracking progress toward a more efficient and impactful HIV response. ©Shauna Stahlman, James R Hargreaves, Laurel Sprague, Anne L Stangl, Stefan D Baral. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 26.04.2017.

  13. Selecting measures to prevent deleterious alkali-silica reaction in concrete : rationale for the AASHTO PP65 prescriptive approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    PP65-11 provides two approaches for selecting preventive measures: (i) a performance approach based on laboratory testing, and (ii) a prescriptive approach based on a consideration of the reactivity of the aggregate, type and size of structure, expos...

  14. Measuring efficiency of university-industry Ph.D. projects using best worst method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimi, Negin; Rezaei, Jafar

    2016-01-01

    A collaborative Ph.D. project, carried out by a doctoral candidate, is a type of collaboration between university and industry. Due to the importance of such projects, researchers have considered different ways to evaluate the success, with a focus on the outputs of these projects. However, what has been neglected is the other side of the coin-the inputs. The main aim of this study is to incorporate both the inputs and outputs of these projects into a more meaningful measure called efficiency. A ratio of the weighted sum of outputs over the weighted sum of inputs identifies the efficiency of a Ph.D. The weights of the inputs and outputs can be identified using a multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) method. Data on inputs and outputs are collected from 51 Ph.D. candidates who graduated from Eindhoven University of Technology. The weights are identified using a new MCDM method called Best Worst Method (BWM). Because there may be differences in the opinion of Ph.D. candidates and supervisors on weighing the inputs and outputs, data for BWM are collected from both groups. It is interesting to see that there are differences in the level of efficiency from the two perspectives, because of the weight differences. Moreover, a comparison between the efficiency scores of these projects and their success scores reveals differences that may have significant implications. A sensitivity analysis divulges the most contributing inputs and outputs.

  15. Concept of Operations for the NASA Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) Project. Version 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Walter S.; Tsoucalas, George; Tanger, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    The Weather Accident Prevention Concept of Operations (CONOPS) serves as a decision-making framework for research and technology development planning. It is intended for use by the WxAP members and other related programs in NASA and the FAA that support aircraft accident reduction initiatives. The concept outlines the project overview for program level 3 elements-such as AWIN, WINCOMM, and TPAWS (Turbulence)-that develop the technologies and operating capabilities to form the building blocks for WxAP. Those building blocks include both retrofit of equipment and systems and development of new aircraft, training technologies, and operating infrastructure systems and capabilities. This Concept of operations document provides the basis for the WxAP project to develop requirements based on the operational needs ofthe system users. It provides the scenarios that the flight crews, airline operations centers (AOCs), air traffic control (ATC), and flight service stations (FSS) utilize to reduce weather related accidents. The provision to the flight crew of timely weather information provides awareness of weather situations that allows replanning to avoid weather hazards. The ability of the flight crew to locate and avoid weather hazards, such as turbulence and hail, contributes to safer flight practices.

  16. Project risk definition and measurement in a not-for-profit setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gapenski, L C

    1992-11-01

    The health care finance literature on capital investment decisions generally applies conventional market risk concepts without distinguishing between proprietary and not-for-profit forms of organization. Since proprietary firms have shareholder wealth maximization as their primary goal, a project's relevant risk is its contribution to the riskiness of the equity investors' well diversified stock portfolios, or its market risk. However, not-for-profit organizations do not have shareholder wealth maximization as their primary goal, and thus market risk concepts are not applicable. Rather, the relevant risk in a not-for-profit setting is a project's corporate risk; that is, the project's contribution to the riskiness of the organization. The difference in risk definition and measurement between proprietary and not-for-profit firms has two implications for managerial decisions: (1) in making capital investment decisions, a manager must define and measure a project's riskiness on the basis of the firm's organizational form; and (2) although diversification for the sole purpose of risk reduction is not a valid rationale for proprietary firms because stockholders can achieve the same result at less cost, risk-reducing diversification does make sense for not-for-profit firms.

  17. Cost/schedule performance measurement system utilized on the Fast Flux Test Facility project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.K.; Frost, R.A.; Zimmerman, F.M.

    1976-01-01

    An Earned Value-Integrated Cost/Schedule Performance Measurement System has been applied to a major nonmilitary nuclear design and construction project. This system is similar to the Department of Defense Cost/Schedule Performance Measurement System. The project is the Fast Flux Test Facility (a Fuels and Materials test reactor for the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor Program) being built at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory, Richland, Washington, by Westinghouse Hanford Company for the U. S. Energy Research and Development Administration. Because the project was well into the construction phase when the Earned Value System was being considered, it was decided that the principles of DOD's Cost/Schedule Control System Criteria would be applied to the extent possible but no major changes in accounting practices or management systems were imposed. Implementation of this system enabled the following questions to be answered: For work performed, how do actual costs compare with the budget for that work. What is the impact of cost and schedule variances at an overall project level composed of different kinds of activities. Without the Earned Value system, these questions could be answered in a qualitative, subjective manner at best

  18. Evaluation of adherence to measures for the prevention of surgical site infections by the surgical team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Cristina de Oliveira

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractOBJECTIVEEvaluate pre- and intraoperative practices adopted by medical and nursing teams for the prevention of surgical infections.METHODA prospective study carried out in the period of April to May 2013, in a surgical center of a university hospital in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais.RESULTS18 surgeries were followed and 214 surgical gloves were analyzed, of which 23 (10.7% had postoperative glove perforation detected, with 52.2% being perceived by users. Hair removal was performed on 27.7% of patients in the operating room, with the use of blades in 80% of the cases. Antibiotic prophylaxis was administered to 81.8% of patients up to 60 minutes prior to surgical incision. An average of nine professionals were present during surgery and the surgery room door remained open in 94.4% of the procedures.CONCLUSIONPartial adhesion to the recommended measures was identified, reaffirming a need for greater attention to these critical steps/actions in order to prevent surgical site infection.

  19. Measuring Fidelity and Adaptation: Reliability of a Instrument for School-Based Prevention Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Dana C; Pankratz, Melinda M; Hansen, William B; Albritton, Jordan; Albritton, Lauren; Strack, Joann

    2014-06-01

    There is a need to standardize methods for assessing fidelity and adaptation. Such standardization would allow program implementation to be examined in a manner that will be useful for understanding the moderating role of fidelity in dissemination research. This article describes a method for collecting data about fidelity of implementation for school-based prevention programs, including measures of adherence, quality of delivery, dosage, participant engagement, and adaptation. We report about the reliability of these methods when applied by four observers who coded video recordings of teachers delivering All Stars, a middle school drug prevention program. Interrater agreement for scaled items was assessed for an instrument designed to evaluate program fidelity. Results indicated sound interrater reliability for items assessing adherence, dosage, quality of teaching, teacher understanding of concepts, and program adaptations. The interrater reliability for items assessing potential program effectiveness, classroom management, achievement of activity objectives, and adaptation valences was improved by dichotomizing the response options for these items. The item that assessed student engagement demonstrated only modest interrater reliability and was not improved through dichotomization. Several coder pairs were discordant on items that overall demonstrated good interrater reliability. Proposed modifications to the coding manual and protocol are discussed. © The Author(s) 2013.

  20. Travel advice for the immunocompromised traveler: prophylaxis, vaccination, and other preventive measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel RR

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Rupa R Patel,1 Stephen Y Liang,1 Pooja Koolwal,2 Frederick Matthew Kuhlmann1 1Division of Infectious Diseases, 2Division of Medical Education, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, USA Abstract: Immunocompromised patients are traveling at increasing rates. Physicians caring for these complex patients must be knowledgeable in pretravel consultation and recognize when referral to an infectious disease specialist is warranted. This article outlines disease prevention associated with international travel for adults with human immunodeficiency virus, asplenia, solid organ and hematopoietic transplantation, and other immunosuppressed states. While rates of infection may not differ significantly between healthy and immunocompromised travelers, the latter are at greater risk for severe disease. A thorough assessment of these risks can ensure safe and healthy travel. The travel practitioners’ goal should be to provide comprehensive risk information and recommend appropriate vaccinations or prevention measures tailored to each patient’s condition. In some instances, live vaccines and prophylactic medications may be contraindicated. Keywords: immunocompromised, vaccines, travel, malaria, diarrhea

  1. Expert opinions on good practice in evaluation of health promotion and primary prevention measures related to children and adolescents in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korber, Katharina; Becker, Christian

    2017-10-02

    Determining what constitutes "good practice" in the measurement of the costs and effects of health promotion and disease prevention measures is of particular importance. The aim of this paper was to gather expert knowledge on (economic) evaluations of health promotion and prevention measures for children and adolescents, especially on the practical importance, the determinants of project success, meaningful parameters for evaluations, and supporting factors, but also on problems in their implementation. This information is targeted at people responsible for the development of primary prevention or health promotion programs. Partially structured open interviews were conducted by two interviewers and transcribed, paraphrased, and summarized for further use. Eight experts took part in the interviews. The interviewed experts saw evaluation as a useful tool to establish the effects of prevention programs, to inform program improvement and further development, and to provide arguments to decision making. The respondents' thought that determinants of a program's success were effectiveness with evidence of causality, cost benefit relation, target-group reach and sustainability. It was considered important that hard and soft factors were included in an evaluation; costs were mentioned only by one expert. According to the experts, obstacles to evaluation were lacking resources, additional labor requirements, and the evaluators' unfamiliarity with a program's contents. It was recommended to consider evaluation design before a program is launched, to co-operate with people involved in a program and to make use of existing structures. While in in this study only a partial view of expert knowledge is represented, it could show important points to consider when developing evaluations of prevention programs. By considering these points, researchers could further advance towards a more comprehensive approach of evaluation targeting measures in children and adolescents.

  2. Expert opinions on good practice in evaluation of health promotion and primary prevention measures related to children and adolescents in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Korber

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Determining what constitutes “good practice” in the measurement of the costs and effects of health promotion and disease prevention measures is of particular importance. The aim of this paper was to gather expert knowledge on (economic evaluations of health promotion and prevention measures for children and adolescents, especially on the practical importance, the determinants of project success, meaningful parameters for evaluations, and supporting factors, but also on problems in their implementation. This information is targeted at people responsible for the development of primary prevention or health promotion programs. Methods Partially structured open interviews were conducted by two interviewers and transcribed, paraphrased, and summarized for further use. Eight experts took part in the interviews. Results The interviewed experts saw evaluation as a useful tool to establish the effects of prevention programs, to inform program improvement and further development, and to provide arguments to decision making. The respondents’ thought that determinants of a program’s success were effectiveness with evidence of causality, cost benefit relation, target-group reach and sustainability. It was considered important that hard and soft factors were included in an evaluation; costs were mentioned only by one expert. According to the experts, obstacles to evaluation were lacking resources, additional labor requirements, and the evaluators’ unfamiliarity with a program’s contents. It was recommended to consider evaluation design before a program is launched, to co-operate with people involved in a program and to make use of existing structures. Conclusion While in in this study only a partial view of expert knowledge is represented, it could show important points to consider when developing evaluations of prevention programs. By considering these points, researchers could further advance towards a more comprehensive

  3. Development, reliability, and validity of the Alberta Perinatal Stroke Project Parental Outcome Measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemister, Taryn B; Brooks, Brian L; Kirton, Adam

    2014-07-01

    Perinatal stroke is a leading cause of cerebral palsy and lifelong disability, although parent and family outcomes have not yet been studied in this specific population. The Alberta Perinatal Stroke Project Parental Outcome Measure was developed as a 26-item questionnaire on the impact of perinatal stroke on parents and families. The items were derived from expert opinion and scientific literature on issues salient to parents of children with perinatal stroke, including guilt and blame, which are not well captured in existing measures of family impact. Data were collected from 82 mothers and 28 fathers who completed the Parental Outcome Measure and related questionnaires (mean age, 39.5 years; mean child age, 7.4 years). Analyses examined the Parental Outcome Measure's internal consistency, test-retest reliability, validity, and factor structure. The Parental Outcome Measure demonstrated three unique theoretical constructs: Psychosocial Impact, Guilt, and Blame. The Parental Outcome Measure has excellent internal consistency (Cronbach α = 0.91) and very good test-retest reliability more than 2-5 weeks (r = 0.87). Regarding validity, the Parental Outcome Measure is sensitive to condition severity, accounts for additional variance in parent outcomes, and strongly correlates with measures of anxiety, depression, stress, quality of life, family functioning, and parent adjustment. The Parental Outcome Measure contributes to the literature as the first brief measure of family impact designed for parents of children with perinatal stroke. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Some TPC [Time Projection Chamber] measurements in an oxygen beam at the AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Love, W.A.; Bonner, B.E.; Buchanan, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    The principal detector for AGS Experiment 810 is a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) in which it is intended to measure momenta and angles of a major fraction of the charged particles from each light ion collision. This report describes the results of a test of a prototype of the TPC in a beam of (14.6 /times/ 16 = 233.6 GeV/c) oxygen ions run in June of this year

  5. Impact of legal measures prevent transplant tourism: the interrelated experience of The Philippines and Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Benita; Danovitch, Gabriel M; Lavee, Jacob

    2013-11-01

    We describe the parallel changes that have taken place in recent years in two countries, Israel and The Philippines, the former once an "exporter" of transplant tourists and the latter once an "importer" of transplant tourists. These changes were in response to progressive legislation in both countries under the influence of the Declaration of Istanbul. The annual number of Israeli patients who underwent kidney transplantation abroad decreased from a peak of 155 in 2006 to an all-time low of 35 in 2011 while in the Philippines the annual number of foreign transplant recipients fell from 531 in 2007 to two in 2011. The experience of these two countries provides a "natural experiment" on the potential impact of legal measures to prevent transplant tourism.

  6. Pancreatic Fistula after Pancreatectomy: Definitions, Risk Factors, Preventive Measures, and Management—Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Oneil Machado

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Resection of pancreas, in particular pancreaticoduodenectomy, is a complex procedure, commonly performed in appropriately selected patients with benign and malignant disease of the pancreas and periampullary region. Despite significant improvements in the safety and efficacy of pancreatic surgery, pancreaticoenteric anastomosis continues to be the “Achilles heel” of pancreaticoduodenectomy, due to its association with a measurable risk of leakage or failure of healing, leading to pancreatic fistula. The morbidity rate after pancreaticoduodenectomy remains high in the range of 30% to 65%, although the mortality has significantly dropped to below 5%. Most of these complications are related to pancreatic fistula, with serious complications of intra-abdominal abscess, postoperative bleeding, and multiorgan failure. Several pharmacological and technical interventions have been suggested to decrease the pancreatic fistula rate, but the results have been controversial. This paper considers definition and classification of pancreatic fistula, risk factors, and preventive approach and offers management strategy when they do occur.

  7. WISE: Automated support for software project management and measurement. M.S. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Sudhakar

    1995-01-01

    One important aspect of software development and IV&V is measurement. Unless a software development effort is measured in some way, it is difficult to judge the effectiveness of current efforts and predict future performances. Collection of metrics and adherence to a process are difficult tasks in a software project. Change activity is a powerful indicator of project status. Automated systems that can handle change requests, issues, and other process documents provide an excellent platform for tracking the status of the project. A World Wide Web based architecture is developed for (a) making metrics collection an implicit part of the software process, (b) providing metric analysis dynamically, (c) supporting automated tools that can complement current practices of in-process improvement, and (d) overcoming geographical barrier. An operational system (WISE) instantiates this architecture allowing for the improvement of software process in a realistic environment. The tool tracks issues in software development process, provides informal communication between the users with different roles, supports to-do lists (TDL), and helps in software process improvement. WISE minimizes the time devoted to metrics collection, analysis, and captures software change data. Automated tools like WISE focus on understanding and managing the software process. The goal is improvement through measurement.

  8. Efficacy of a group-based multimedia HIV prevention intervention for drug-involved women under community supervision: project WORTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bassel, Nabila; Gilbert, Louisa; Goddard-Eckrich, Dawn; Chang, Mingway; Wu, Elwin; Hunt, Tim; Epperson, Matt; Shaw, Stacey A; Rowe, Jessica; Almonte, Maria; Witte, Susan

    2014-01-01

    This study is designed to address the need for evidence-based HIV/STI prevention approaches for drug-involved women under criminal justice community supervision. We tested the efficacy of a group-based traditional and multimedia HIV/STI prevention intervention (Project WORTH: Women on the Road to Health) among drug-involved women under community supervision. We randomized 306 women recruited from community supervision settings to receive either: (1) a four-session traditional group-based HIV/STI prevention intervention (traditional WORTH); (2) a four-session multimedia group-based HIV/STI prevention intervention that covered the same content as traditional WORTH but was delivered in a computerized format; or (3) a four-session group-based Wellness Promotion intervention that served as an attention control condition. The study examined whether the traditional or multimedia WORTH intervention was more efficacious in reducing risks when compared to Wellness Promotion; and whether multimedia WORTH was more efficacious in reducing risks when compared to traditional WORTH. Primary outcomes were assessed over the 12-month post-intervention period and included the number of unprotected sex acts, the proportion of protected sex acts, and consistent condom use. At baseline, 77% of participants reported unprotected vaginal or anal sex (n = 237) and 63% (n = 194) had multiple sex partners. Women assigned to traditional or multimedia WORTH were significantly more likely than women assigned to the control condition to report an increase in the proportion of protected sex acts (β = 0.10; 95% CI = 0.02-0.18) and a decrease in the number of unprotected sex acts (IRR = 0.72; 95% CI = 0.57-0.90). The promising effects of traditional and multimedia WORTH on increasing condom use and high participation rates suggest that WORTH may be scaled up to redress the concentrated epidemics of HIV/STIs among drug-involved women in the criminal justice system. Clinical

  9. Peer-led Stress Prevention Seminars in the First Year of Medical School--A Project Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugaj, Till Johannes; Mücksch, Christine; Schmid, Carolin; Junne, Florian; Erschens, Rebecca; Herzog, Wolfgang; Nikendei, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    From the beginning of the first year of medical studies, increased psychological stress and elevated burnout prevalence rates can be registered compared to sample populations. Characterized by learning "on an equal footing", the principle of peer-assisted learning (PAL) is widely used in medical education. This report aims to showcase the development and evaluation of peer-led stress prevention seminars for first year medical students after one year of implementation. With each of the three sessions lasting 90 min., the stress prevention seminars took place in small groups (6-10 students) in the period from November 2013 to January 2014 and from November 2014 to December 2014 at the Medical Faculty of Heidelberg. Led by trained peers, the seminar content ranged from psycho-educational elements, i.e. time management strategy development and test anxiety assistance, to relaxation techniques. All seminar sessions were evaluated via questionnaire. All questions were answered on a Likert scale ranging from 1 to 7 (1=strongly agree; 7=strongly disagree). 75 students consented to participate in seminars (65% female; aged 20.5±3.3 years). The series of seminars was averagely given the school grade of 1.2±0.4 (1=very good to 6=unsatisfactory) in WS 2013/14 and 1.5±0.5 in the following year and the peer tutors' competence was evaluated as very high (1.4 to 1.5 approval rate on the Likert scale). The seminar sessions' importance to the students is underlined by their very positive evaluations. This offer seems to have benefited students especially during the demanding transitional phase at the start of their studies. Both the implementation of the preventive measure at an early stage as well as the use of PAL seem to have proven effective. PAL seems to be effective in the field of stress prevention. However, specific efficacy studies are still lacking.

  10. Measuring factors that influence the utilisation of preventive care services provided by general practitioners in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oldenburg Brian

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Relatively little research attention has been given to the development of standardised and psychometrically sound scales for measuring influences relevant to the utilisation of health services. This study aims to describe the development, validation and internal reliability of some existing and new scales to measure factors that are likely to influence utilisation of preventive care services provided by general practitioners in Australia. Methods Relevant domains of influence were first identified from a literature review and formative research. Items were then generated by using and adapting previously developed scales and published findings from these. The new items and scales were pre-tested and qualitative feedback was obtained from a convenience sample of citizens from the community and a panel of experts. Principal Components Analyses (PCA and internal reliability testing (Cronbach's alpha were then conducted for all of the newly adapted or developed scales utilising data collected from a self-administered mailed survey sent to a randomly selected population-based sample of 381 individuals (response rate 65.6 per cent. Results The PCA identified five scales with acceptable levels of internal consistency were: (1 social support (ten items, alpha 0.86; (2 perceived interpersonal care (five items, alpha 0.87, (3 concerns about availability of health care and accessibility to health care (eight items, alpha 0.80, (4 value of good health (five items, alpha 0.79, and (5 attitudes towards health care (three items, alpha 0.75. Conclusion The five scales are suitable for further development and more widespread use in research aimed at understanding the determinants of preventive health services utilisation among adults in the general population.

  11. Crisis prevention centers as confidence building measures: Suggestions for Northeast Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pregenzer, A.L.

    1995-05-01

    Relationships between countries generally exist somewhere in the grey area between war and peace. Crisis prevention activities are particularly important and should have two goals: stabilizing tense situations that could push countries toward war, and supporting or reinforcing efforts to move countries toward peace. A Crisis Prevention Center (CPC) should facilitate efforts to achieve these goals. Its functions can be grouped into three broad, inter-related categories: establishing and facilitating communication among participating countries; supporting negotiations and consensus-building on regional security issues; and supporting implementation of agreed confidence and security building measures. Technology will play a critical role in a CPC. First, technology is required to establishing communication systems and to provide the means for organizing and analyzing this information. Second, technically-based cooperative monitoring can provide an objective source of information on mutually agreed issues. In addition, technology can be a neutral subject of interaction and collaboration between technical communities from different countries. Establishing a CPC in Northeast Asia does not require the existence of an Asian security regime. Potential first steps for such a CPC should include establishing communication channels and a dedicated communications center in each country, together with an agreement to use the system as a {open_quotes}Hot Line{close_quotes} in bilateral and multilateral emergency situations. A central CPC could also be established as a regional communications hub. The central CPC could coordinate a number of functions aimed at stabilizing regional tensions and supporting confidence building activities, perhaps initially in an unofficial capacity. Specific recommendations for confidence building measures are discussed.

  12. Crisis Prevention Centers as confidence building measures: Suggestions for the Middle East

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pregenzer, A.L.

    1995-05-01

    Relationships between countries generally exist somewhere in the grey area between war and peace. Crisis prevention activities are important in this area, and should have two goals: stabilizing tense situations that could push countries toward war, and supporting or reinforcing efforts to move countries toward peace. A Crisis Prevention Center (CPC) should facilitate efforts to achieve these goals. Its functions can be grouped into three broad, interrelated categories: establishing and facilitating communication among participating countries; supporting negotiations and consensus-building on regional security issues; and supporting implementation of agreed confidence and security building measures. Technology will play a critical role in a CPC. Technology is required for establishing communication systems to ensure the timely flow of information between countries and to provide the means for organizing and analyzing this information. Technically-based cooperative monitoring can provide an objective source of information on mutually agreed issues, thereby supporting the implementation of confidence building measures and treaties. Technology can be a neutral subject of interaction and collaboration between technical communities from different countries, thereby providing an important channel for improving relationships. Potential first steps for a CPC in the Middle Ease could include establishing communication channels and a dedicated communications center in each country, together with an agreement to use the system as a ``Hot Line` in bilateral and multilateral-lateral emergency situations. Bilateral cooperative monitoring centers could be established to assist with implementation of agreements. A centrally located CPC could serve as a regional communications hub, coordinating a number of functions aimed at stabilizing regional tensions and supporting confidence building activities. Specific recommendations for confidence building activities are discussed.

  13. A multiple sampling time projection ionization chamber for nuclear fragment tracking and charge measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, G.; Bieser, F.; Brady, F.P.; Chance, J.C.; Christie, W.F.; Gilkes, M.; Lindenstruth, V.; Lynen, U.; Mueller, W.F.J.; Romero, J.L.; Sann, H.; Tull, C.E.; Warren, P.

    1997-01-01

    A detector has been developed for the tracking and charge measurement of the projectile fragment nuclei produced in relativistic nuclear collisions. This device, MUSIC II, is a second generation Multiple Sampling Ionization Chamber (MUSIC), and employs the principles of ionization and time projection chambers. It provides unique charge determination for charges Z≥6, and excellent track position measurement. MUSIC II has been used most recently with the EOS (equation of state) TPC and other EOS collaboration detectors. Earlier it was used with other systems in experiments at the Heavy Ion Superconducting Spectrometer (HISS) facility at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and the ALADIN spectrometer at GSI. (orig.)

  14. Measuring the Social Costs of Rent-Seeking in Agriculture-Based Rural Development Projects in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Fleming, Euan

    1996-01-01

    Identification and measurement of the social costs of rent-seeking (and associated rentdefending and rent-avoiding) in projects in developing countries have been neglected. This is in spite !1f a voluminous literature on the methodology and practice of project evaluation, an.i intense scrutiny of project activities by agencies responsible for their funding. The potential for social costs from rent-seeking in such projects is explored in this paper, with some illustrative ex,mples from agricul...

  15. Nursing workload and adherence to non-pharmacological measures in the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia. A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jam, R; Hernández, O; Mesquida, J; Turégano, C; Carrillo, E; Pedragosa, R; Gómez, V; Martí, L; Vallés, J; Delgado-Hito, P

    To analyse whether adherence to non-pharmacological measures in the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is associated with nursing workload. A prospective observational study performed in a single medical-surgical ICU. Nurses in charge of patients under ventilator support were assessed. knowledge questionnaire, application of non-pharmacological VAP prevention measures, and workload (Nine Equivalents of Nursing Manpower Use Score). Phases: 1) the nurses carried out a educational programme, consisting of 60-minute lectures on non-pharmacological measures for VAP prevention, and at the end completed a questionnaire knowledge; 2) observation period; 3) knowledge questionnaire. Among 67 ICU-staff nurses, 54 completed the educational programme and were observed. A total of 160 observations of 49 nurses were made. Adequate knowledge was confirmed in both the initial and final questionnaires. Application of preventive measures ranged from 11% for hand washing pre-aspiration to 97% for the use of a sterile aspiration probe. The Nine Equivalents of Nursing Manpower Use Score was 50±13. No significant differences were observed between the association of the nurses' knowledge and the application of preventive measures or between workload and the application of preventive measures. Nurses' knowledge of VAP prevention measures is not necessarily applied in daily practice. Failure to follow these measures is not subject to lack of knowledge or to increased workload, but presumably to contextual factors. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Enfermería Intensiva y Unidades Coronarias (SEEIUC). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Prevention of meningococcal disease during the Hajj and Umrah mass gatherings: past and current measures and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yezli, Saber; Bin Saeed, Abdulaziz A; Assiri, Abdullah M; Alhakeem, Rafat F; Yunus, Muslim A; Turkistani, Abdulhafiz M; Booy, Robert; Alotaibi, Badriah M

    2016-06-01

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has a long history of instituting preventative measures against meningococcal disease (MD). KSA is at risk of outbreaks of MD due to its geographic location, demography, and especially because it hosts the annual Hajj and Umrah mass gatherings. Preventative measures for Hajj and Umrah include vaccination, targeted chemoprophylaxis, health awareness and educational campaigns, as well as an active disease surveillance and response system. Preventative measures have been introduced and updated in accordance with changes in the epidemiology of MD and available preventative tools. The mandatory meningococcal vaccination policy for pilgrims has possibly been the major factor in preventing outbreaks during the pilgrimages. The policy of chemoprophylaxis for all pilgrims arriving from the African meningitis belt has also probably been important in reducing the carriage and transmission of Neisseria meningitidis in KSA and beyond. The preventative measures for Hajj and Umrah are likely to continue to focus on vaccination, but to favour the conjugate vaccine for its extra benefits over the polysaccharide vaccines. Additionally, the surveillance system will continue to be strengthened to ensure early detection and response to cases and outbreaks; ongoing disease awareness campaigns for pilgrims will continue, as will chemoprophylaxis for target groups. Local and worldwide surveillance of the disease and drug-resistant N. meningitidis are crucial in informing future recommendations for vaccination, chemoprophylaxis, and treatment. Preventative measures should be reviewed regularly and updated accordingly, and compliance with these measures should be monitored and enhanced to prevent MD during Hajj and Umrah, as well as local and international outbreaks. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Prevention of meningococcal disease during the Hajj and Umrah mass gatherings: past and current measures and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber Yezli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA has a long history of instituting preventative measures against meningococcal disease (MD. KSA is at risk of outbreaks of MD due to its geographic location, demography, and especially because it hosts the annual Hajj and Umrah mass gatherings. Preventative measures for Hajj and Umrah include vaccination, targeted chemoprophylaxis, health awareness and educational campaigns, as well as an active disease surveillance and response system. Preventative measures have been introduced and updated in accordance with changes in the epidemiology of MD and available preventative tools. The mandatory meningococcal vaccination policy for pilgrims has possibly been the major factor in preventing outbreaks during the pilgrimages. The policy of chemoprophylaxis for all pilgrims arriving from the African meningitis belt has also probably been important in reducing the carriage and transmission of Neisseria meningitidis in KSA and beyond. The preventative measures for Hajj and Umrah are likely to continue to focus on vaccination, but to favour the conjugate vaccine for its extra benefits over the polysaccharide vaccines. Additionally, the surveillance system will continue to be strengthened to ensure early detection and response to cases and outbreaks; ongoing disease awareness campaigns for pilgrims will continue, as will chemoprophylaxis for target groups. Local and worldwide surveillance of the disease and drug-resistant N. meningitidis are crucial in informing future recommendations for vaccination, chemoprophylaxis, and treatment. Preventative measures should be reviewed regularly and updated accordingly, and compliance with these measures should be monitored and enhanced to prevent MD during Hajj and Umrah, as well as local and international outbreaks.

  18. Measurement Rounding Errors in an Assessment Model of Project Led Engineering Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Moreira

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the rounding errors that occur in the assessment of an interdisciplinary Project-Led Education (PLE process implemented in the Integrated Master degree on Industrial Management and Engineering (IME at University of Minho. PLE is an innovative educational methodology which makes use of active learning, promoting higher levels of motivation and students’ autonomy. The assessment model is based on multiple evaluation components with different weights. Each component can be evaluated by several teachers involved in different Project Supporting Courses (PSC. This model can be affected by different types of errors, namely: (1 rounding errors, and (2 non-uniform criteria of rounding the grades. A rigorous analysis of the assessment model was made and the rounding errors involved on each project component were characterized and measured. This resulted in a global maximum error of 0.308 on the individual student project grade, in a 0 to 100 scale. This analysis intended to improve not only the reliability of the assessment results, but also teachers’ awareness of this problem. Recommendations are also made in order to improve the assessment model and reduce the rounding errors as much as possible.

  19. Measurements and modelling of atmospheric pollution over the Paris area: an overview of the ESQUIF project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menut, L.; Vautard, R.; Flamant, P.H. [Centre National de Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 75 - Paris (France). Lab. de Meteorologie Dynamique; Flamant, C.; Beekmann, M.; Megie, G.; Sicard, M. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 91 - Verrieres-le-Buisson (France). Service d' Aeronomie; Abonnel, C.; Lefebvre, M.P.; Lossec, B. [Meteo-France, 75 - Paris (France); Chazette, P.; Martin, D. [CNRS (France). Lab. des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement; Gombert, D. [AIRPARIF, Paris (France); Guedalia, D. [CNRS-Universite Paul Sabatier (France). Lab. d' Aerologie; Kley, D. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany); Perros, P.; Toupance, G. [CNRS (France). Lab. Interuniversitaire des Systemes Atmospheriques

    2000-11-01

    The ''etude et simulation de la qualite de l'air en ile de France'' (ESQUIF) project is the first integrated project dedicated to the study of the processes leading to air pollution events over the Paris area. The project was carried out over two years (summer 1998 to winter 2000) to document all types of meteorological conditions favourable to air quality degradation, and in particular to photo oxydant formation. The goals of ESQUIF are (1) to improve our understanding of the relevant chemical and dynamical processes and, in turn, improve their parametrizations in numerical models, and (2) to improve and validate existing models dedicated to pollution analysis, scenarios and/or forecasting, by establishing a comprehensive and thorough database. We present the rationale of the ESQUIF project and we describe the experimental set-up. We also report on the first experiments which took place during the summer of 1998 involving surface networks, and remote sensing instruments as well as several aircraft. Focusing on three days of August 1998, the relative contributions of long-range transported and locally-produced ozone to the elevated ozone concentrations observed during this period are discussed and chemistry-transport model preliminary results on this period are compared to measurements. (orig.)

  20. Measurements and modelling of atmospheric pollution over the Paris area: an overview of the ESQUIF Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Menut

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available The "Étude et Simulation de la QUalité de l'air en Ile de France" (ESQUIF project is the first integrated project dedicated to the study of the processes leading to air pollution events over the Paris area. The project was carried out over two years (summer 1998 to winter 2000 to document all types of meteorological conditions favourable to air quality degradation, and in particular to photo oxydant formation. The goals of ESQUIF are (1 to improve our understanding of the relevant chemical and dynamical processes and, in turn, improve their parametrizations in numerical models, and (2 to improve and validate existing models dedicated to pollution analysis, scenarios and/or forecasting, by establishing a comprehensive and thorough database. We present the rationale of the ESQUIF project and we describe the experimental set-up. We also report on the first experiments which took place during the summer of 1998 involving surface networks, and remote sensing instruments as well as several aircraft. Focusing on three days of August 1998, the relative contributions of long-range transported and locally-produced ozone to the elevated ozone concentrations observed during this period are discussed and chemistry-transport model preliminary results on this period are compared to measurements.Key words: Atmospheric composition and structure (pollution – urban and regional; troposphere – composition and chemistry – Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (mesoscale meteorology

  1. [THE RESULTS OF IMPLEMENTATION OF THE INTERNATIONAL BANK FOR RECONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT LOAN PROJECT "PREVENTION, DIAGNOSIS, AND TREATMENT OF TUBERCULOSIS AND AIDS", A "TUBERCULOSIS" COMPONENT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Due to the implementation of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) loan project "Prevention, diagnosis, treatment of tuberculosis and AIDS", a "Tuberculosis" component that is an addition to the national tuberculosis control program in 15 subjects of the Russian Federation, followed up by the Central Research Institute of Tuberculosis, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, the 2005-2008 measures stipulated by the Project have caused substantial changes in the organization of tuberculosis control: implementation of Orders Nos. 109, 50, and 690 and supervision of their implementation; modernization of the laboratories of the general medical network and antituberbulosis service (404 kits have been delivered for clinical diagnostic laboratories and 12 for bacteriological laboratories, including BACTEC 960 that has been provided in 6 areas); 91 training seminars have been held at the federal and regional levels; 1492 medical workers have been trained in the detection, diagnosis, and treatment of patients with tuberculosis; 8 manuals and guidelines have been prepared and sent to all areas. In the period 2005-2008, the tuberculosis morbidity and mortality rates in the followed-up areas reduced by 1.2 and 18.6%, respectively. The analysis of patient cohorts in 2007 and 2005 revealed that the therapeutic efficiency evaluated from sputum smear microscopy increased by 16.3%; there were reductions in the proportion of patients having ineffective chemotherapy (from 16.1 to 11.1%), patients who died from tuberculosis (from 11.6 to 9.9%), and those who interrupted therapy ahead of time (from 11.8 to 7.8%). Implementation of the IBR project has contributed to the improvement of the national strategy and the enhancement of the efficiency of tuberculosis control.

  2. The prevention of workplace bullying as a question of human resource management: measures adopted and underlying organizational factors

    OpenAIRE

    Salin, Denise

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study has been to analyze measures adopted to counteract workplace bullying from the perspective of human resource management. First, the kind of measures that are adopted to prevent bullying were examined. Second, factors affecting the extent of such measures were explored. The introduction of written anti-bullying policies and the provision of information were found to be the most common measures adopted. The policies strongly emphasized the role of supervisors and the immed...

  3. Characteristics of digital micromirror projection for 3D shape measurement at extreme speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höfling, Roland; Aswendt, Petra; Leischnig, Frank; Förster, Matthias

    2015-03-01

    3D shape measurement is one of the growing industrial applications of the Texas Instruments DLP® micro-mirror device. This paper presents investigations on precision and repeatability of that spatial light modulators output when it is driven up to its high-speed limit. The study concerns the basic switching behavior of the individual micro-mirror at different frame rates ranging over three orders of magnitude. The 3D shape measuring methodologies are focused on phase encoded triangulation, i.e. the projection of sinusoidal patterns. The DLP chip is a bi-stable device providing an on/off pattern at each certain moment in time, i.e. it has a native binary output. Sinusoidal patterns are the result of either a temporal integration of multiple on/off patterns or a spatial integration within one on/off pattern. Both approaches are studied experimentally with respect to precision and stability of the pattern output. The STAR-07 industrial projection unit, based upon the 0.7" DLP Discovery™4100 chipset, has been used for this work and the pattern frame rates cover the range from 225 frames per second (fps) to 50,000 fps. The STAR-07 output is detected by a photodiode, amplified, and analyzed in a Yokogawa digital storage oscilloscope. All results prove the very high precision and repeatability of the STAR-07 pattern projection, up to the extreme speed of 50,000 fps.

  4. Underwater 3D Surface Measurement Using Fringe Projection Based Scanning Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bräuer-Burchardt, Christian; Heinze, Matthias; Schmidt, Ingo; Kühmstedt, Peter; Notni, Gunther

    2015-12-23

    In this work we show the principle of optical 3D surface measurements based on the fringe projection technique for underwater applications. The challenges of underwater use of this technique are shown and discussed in comparison with the classical application. We describe an extended camera model which takes refraction effects into account as well as a proposal of an effective, low-effort calibration procedure for underwater optical stereo scanners. This calibration technique combines a classical air calibration based on the pinhole model with ray-based modeling and requires only a few underwater recordings of an object of known length and a planar surface. We demonstrate a new underwater 3D scanning device based on the fringe projection technique. It has a weight of about 10 kg and the maximal water depth for application of the scanner is 40 m. It covers an underwater measurement volume of 250 mm × 200 mm × 120 mm. The surface of the measurement objects is captured with a lateral resolution of 150 μm in a third of a second. Calibration evaluation results are presented and examples of first underwater measurements are given.

  5. Failure Analysis of Pitted Copper Pipes Used in Underground Water and Preventive Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Gi-ho; Lee, Jong-kwon; Kim, Kyung-ja

    2018-03-01

    This study performed an experiment on the causes of pitting corrosion in a copper tubing used for a sprinkler system. Corrosion products of a copper tubing that sustained pitting corrosion were collected and cultured in Culture medium [Luria-Bertani, Brain heart infusion, Tryptic soy broth (TSB), R2A]. Four types of bacteria were found through identification: Micrococcus luteus sp (species)., Staphylococcus sp., Sphingomonas sp., and Bacillus sp. The copper toxicity test was performed for each microorganism. Among the four microorganisms, Micrococcus luteus sp. showed good growth in the environment containing copper ions. On the immersion test, changes in pH and Optical density were measured; On the inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry test, the copper concentration of each culture medium was measured. The surface of each copper sample was observed using a scanning electron microscope. The corrosion potential of a copper sample, after 48 h exposure of the TSB medium containing Micrococcus luteus sp., was measured using a potentiodynamic polarization experiment. The next experiment was conducted to prevent microbial corrosion by suppressing the growth of microorganisms. Six 30 ml TSB culture media with controlled pH value of 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 through HCl and NaOH were manufactured. Then the microorganisms were cultured in 37 °C 133 rpm, of which the growth status was checked every 24 h for 3 days. It was found that microorganisms did not grow on culture media with the pH value of 6 and lower. The same experiment conducted on culture media controlled with acetic acid, nitric acid, and sulfuric acid, also showed no growth of microorganisms on media with pH value of 6 and lower. Six 5 ml TSB culture media each containing 0.5, 0.25, 0.125, 0.0625, 0.0312%, and 0.0156% NaOCl and NaOBr as germicides were manufactured. 0.01 μl of microorganisms were inoculated on the media and cultured in 37 °C for 48 h. It was found that microorganisms did not

  6. Injuries in skiing and snowboarding: Epidemiology and risk factors as a basis for prevention measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ropret Robert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the subject of injury in alpine skiing and snowboarding and the aim was to define the characteristics of injuries and the risk factors as the basis for establishing preventive measures. The types of injuries and risk factors were analyzed by examining previous papers. During the last thirty years, the number of injuries has generally decreased by 50-70%. The changes were recorded in the types of injuries, and the number of certain injuries increased. It was found that there was a mutual difference in the number and structure of the injuries of skiers and snowboarders. Injuries can be classified topologically and according to risk factors. The risk factors may be manifold: the characteristics of the equipment, the characteristics of the trail and snow surface, protective equipment, age, gender, physical fitness, risky behaviours, time of day, skiing discipline, climate factors, the presence of other skiers and others. By the analysis of these factors it was concluded that there were three entities in the implementation of security measures: the state that stipulates laws (relevant ministries, owners or organizers who provide services in skiing (ski centres, ski services, ski schools, clubs and skiers and snowboarders themselves.

  7. DimeRisk Project: Development of an educational and training program for the prevention and mitigation of seismic risk in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-González, Fidel; Martín-Velazquez, Silvia; Giner-Robles, Jorge; Martínez-Díaz, Jose Jesus; Rodríguez-Pascua, Miguel Angel; Béjar, Marta; Pérez-López, Raul; López, Jose Antonio; Morales, Javier; Barranco, Ana; Palomo, Isabel

    2014-05-01

    In Spain, due to the low recurrence of earthquakes in the last century, there is no awareness of seismic risk and prevention plans. For this reason, moderate magnitude earthquakes have generated significant damage and casualties. However, the risk is evident, in Spain during the nineteenth century there were more than five destructive earthquakes with intensities greater than VIII (e.g. Arenas del Rey IX-X, Torrevieja IX-X). A recent example was the 2011 Lorca earthquake, that with moderate magnitudes and intensities (magnitude Mw 5.2, intensity VI) it struck a populated area with old historic buildings and a population unprepared (9 victims, 324 injured, 1,200 million in reparations). In this earthquake many errors were found in the behavior of the population and in the basic self-protection measures. Many countries have educational programs that significantly reduce the damage and losses caused by earthquakes. The objective of this project (Dimerisk project) is to generate training and educational materials that help mitigate the damage and losses caused by earthquakes. This project is based on plans of experienced countries (e.g. U.S.A., Italy, Mexico, New Zealand) but having into account the mistakes made in the last earthquake in Spain, and also the characteristics of the Spanish educational system and building characteristics. This project has been founded by FUNDACION MAPFRE. The team is formed by geologist, earthquake researchers and teachers at secondary schools and universities. The ultimate goal is to generate material that can inform about the seismic and geological processes that participate in an earthquake and the basics of self-protection against earthquakes. This project has focused on scenarios (offices, factories, homes, education centers) and educational levels (schools, colleges and universities). Educational materials have been also developed for different educational levels with basic concepts related to seismicity, how to behave during an

  8. OPEN RADIATION: a collaborative project for radioactivity measurement in the environment by the public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottollier-Depois, Jean-François; Allain, E.; Baumont, G.; Berthelot, N.; Clairand, I.; Couvez, C.; Darley, G.; Henry, B.; Jolivet, T.; Laroche, P.; Lebau-Livé, A.; Lejeune, V.; Miss, J.; Monange, W.; Quéinnec, F.; Richet, Y.; Simon, C.; Trompier, F.; Vayron, F.

    2017-09-01

    After the Fukushima accident, initiatives emerged from the public to carry out themselves measurements of the radioactivity in the environment with various devices, among which smartphones, and to share data and experiences through collaborative tools and social networks. Such measurements have two major interests, on the one hand, to enable each individual of the public to assess his own risk regarding the radioactivity and, on the other hand, to provide "real time" data from the field at various locations, especially in the early phase of an emergency situation, which could be very useful for the emergency management. The objective of the OPENRADIATION project is to offer to the public the opportunity to be an actor for measurements of the radioactivity in the environment using connected dosimetric applications on smartphones. The challenge is to operate such a system on a sustainable basis in peaceful time and be useful in case of emergency. In "peaceful situation", this project is based on a collaborative approach with the aim to get complementary data to the existing ones, to consolidate the radiation background, to generate alerts in case of problem and to provide education & training and enhanced pedagogical approaches for a clear understanding of measures for the public. In case of emergency situation, data will be available "spontaneously" from the field in "real time" providing an opportunity for the emergency management and the communication with the public. … The practical objective is i) to develop a website centralising data from various systems/dosimeters, providing dose maps with raw and filtered data and creating dedicated areas for specific initiatives and exchanges of data and ii) to develop a data acquisition protocol and a dosimetric application using a connected dosimeter with a bluetooth connection. This project is conducted within a partnership between organisms' representative of the scientific community and associations to create links

  9. An ecological model using promotores de salud to prevent cardiovascular disease on the US-Mexico border: the HEART project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcázar, Hector; Wise, Sherrie; Rosenthal, E Lee; Ochoa, Cecilia; Rodriguez, Jose; Hastings, Diana; Flores, Leticia; Hernandez, Lorraine; Duarte-Gardea, Maria

    2012-01-01

    To address cardiovascular disease risk factors among Hispanics, a community model of prevention requires a comprehensive approach to community engagement. The objectives of our intervention were to reduce cardiovascular disease risk factors in Hispanics living in 2 low-income areas of El Paso, Texas, and to engage the community in a physical activity and nutrition intervention. Drawing on lessons learned in phase 1 (years 2005-2008) of the HEART Project, we used an iterative, community-based process to develop an intervention based on an ecological framework. New community partners were introduced and community health workers delivered several elements of the intervention, including the curriculum entitled "Mi Corazón, Mi Comunidad" ("MiCMiC" [My Heart, My Community]). We received feedback from the project's Community Health Academy and Leadership Council throughout the development process and established a policy agenda that promotes integration of community health workers into the local and state workforce. Collaboration with 2 new community partners, the YWCA and the Department of Parks and Recreation, were instrumental in the process of community-based participatory research. We enrolled 113 participants in the first cohort; 78% were female, and the mean age was 41 years. More than 50% reported having no health insurance coverage. Seventy-two (60%) participants attended 1 or more promotora-led Su Corazón, Su Vida sessions, and 74 (62%) participants attended 1 or more of the 15 exercise classes. HEART phase 2 includes a multilevel ecological model to address cardiovascular disease risk among Hispanics. Future similarly targeted initiatives can benefit from an ecological approach that also embraces the promotora model.

  10. Falls prevention in hospitals and mental health units: an extended evaluation of the FallSafe quality improvement project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Frances; Lowe, Derek; Darowski, Adam; Windsor, Julie; Treml, Jonathan; Byrne, Lisa; Husk, Janet; Phipps, Jill

    2014-07-01

    inpatient falls are a major patient safety issue causing distress, injury and death. Systematic review suggests multifactorial assessment and intervention can reduce falls by 20-30%, but large-scale studies of implementation are few. This paper describes an extended evaluation of the FallSafe quality improvement project, which presented key components of multifactorial assessment and intervention as a care bundle. : data on delivery of falls prevention processes were collected at baseline and for 18 months from nine FallSafe units and nine control units. Data on falls were collected from local risk management systems for 24 months, and data on under-reporting through staff surveys. : in FallSafe units, delivery of seven care bundle components significantly improved; most improvements were sustained after active project support was withdrawn. Twelve-month moving average of reported fall rates showed a consistent downward trend in FallSafe units but not controls. Significant reductions in reported fall rate were found in FallSafe units (adjusted rate ratio (ARR) 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.68-0.84 P control units (ARR 0.91, 95% CI 0.81-1.03 P = 0.13). No significant changes in injurious fall rate were found in FallSafe units (ARR 0.86, 95% CI 0.71-1.03 P = 0.11), or controls (ARR 0.88, 95% CI 0.72-1.08 P = 0.13). In FallSafe units, staff certain falls had been reported increased from 60 to 77%. : introducing evidence-based care bundles of multifactorial assessment and intervention using a quality improvement approach resulted in improved delivery of multifactorial assessment and intervention and significant reductions in fall rates, but not in injurious fall rates. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Process evaluation of a community-based intervention program: Healthy Youth Healthy Communities, an adolescent obesity prevention project in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waqa, Gade; Moodie, Marj; Schultz, Jimaima; Swinburn, Boyd

    2013-12-01

    Nearly one-half of the adult population in Fiji between the ages of 15-64 years is either overweight or obese; and rates amongst school children have, on average, doubled during the last decade. There is an urgent need to scale up the promotion of healthy behaviors and environments using a multi-sectoral approach. The Healthy Youth Healthy Community (HYHC) project in Fiji used a settings approach in secondary schools and faith-based organizations to increase the capacity of the whole community, including churches, mosques and temples, to promote healthy eating and regular physical activity, and to prevent unhealthy weight gain in adolescents aged 13-18 years. The team consisted of a study manager, project coordinator and four research assistants (RAs) committed to planning, designing and facilitating the implementation of intervention programs in collaboration with other stakeholders, such as the wider school communities, government and non-governmental organizations and business partners. Process data were collected on all intervention activities and analyzed by dose, frequency and reach for each specific strategy. The Fiji Action Plan included nine objectives for the school settings; four were based on nutrition and two on physical activity in schools, plus three general objectives, namely capacity building, social marketing and evaluation. Long-term change in nutritional behavior was difficult to achieve; a key contributor to this was the unhealthy food served in the school canteens. Whilst capacity-building proved to be one of the best mechanisms for intervening, it is important to consider the cultural and social factors influencing health behaviors and affecting specific groups.

  12. Severe accident approach - final report. Evaluation of design measures for severe accident prevention and consequence mitigation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tentner, A. M.; Parma, E.; Wei, T.; Wigeland, R.; Nuclear Engineering Division; SNL; INL

    2010-03-01

    An important goal of the US DOE reactor development program is to conceptualize advanced safety design features for a demonstration Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR). The treatment of severe accidents is one of the key safety issues in the design approach for advanced SFR systems. It is necessary to develop an in-depth understanding of the risk of severe accidents for the SFR so that appropriate risk management measures can be implemented early in the design process. This report presents the results of a review of the SFR features and phenomena that directly influence the sequence of events during a postulated severe accident. The report identifies the safety features used or proposed for various SFR designs in the US and worldwide for the prevention and/or mitigation of Core Disruptive Accidents (CDA). The report provides an overview of the current SFR safety approaches and the role of severe accidents. Mutual understanding of these design features and safety approaches is necessary for future collaborations between the US and its international partners as part of the GEN IV program. The report also reviews the basis for an integrated safety approach to severe accidents for the SFR that reflects the safety design knowledge gained in the US during the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) and Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) programs. This approach relies on inherent reactor and plant safety performance characteristics to provide additional safety margins. The goal of this approach is to prevent development of severe accident conditions, even in the event of initiators with safety system failures previously recognized to lead directly to reactor damage.

  13. Coalescence measurements for evolving foams monitored by real-time projection imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myagotin, A; Helfen, L; Baumbach, T

    2009-01-01

    Real-time radiographic projection imaging together with novel spatio-temporal image analysis is presented to be a powerful technique for the quantitative analysis of coalescence processes accompanying the generation and temporal evolution of foams and emulsions. Coalescence events can be identified as discontinuities in a spatio-temporal image representing a sequence of projection images. Detection, identification of intensity and localization of the discontinuities exploit a violation criterion of the Fourier shift theorem and are based on recursive spatio-temporal image partitioning. The proposed method is suited for automated measurements of discontinuity rates (i.e., discontinuity intensity per unit time), so that large series of radiographs can be analyzed without user intervention. The application potential is demonstrated by the quantification of coalescence during the formation and decay of metal foams monitored by real-time x-ray radiography

  14. Measurement of Rotorcraft Blade Deformation Using Projection Moiré Interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary A. Fleming

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Projection Moiré Interferometry (PMI has been used to obtain near instantaneous, quantitative blade deformation measurements of a generic rotorcraft model at several test conditions. These laser-based measurements provide quantitative, whole field, dynamic blade deformation profiles conditionally sampled as a function of rotor azimuth. The instantaneous nature of the measurements permits computation of the mean and unsteady blade deformation, blade bending, and twist. The PMI method is presented, and the image processing steps required to obtain quantitative deformation profiles from PMI interferograms are described. Experimental results are provided which show blade bending, twist, and unsteady motion. This initial proof-of-concept test has demonstrated the capability of PMI to acquire accurate, full field rotorcraft blade deformation data.

  15. Rigid and flexible endoscopes for three dimensional measurement of inside machine parts using fringe projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pösch, Andreas; Schlobohm, Jochen; Matthias, Steffen; Reithmeier, Eduard

    2017-02-01

    Routine maintenance is mandatory for safe and efficient operation of complex machines, such as airplane turbines. Occasional special events, like bird strike, entail extraordinary inspection works. Hereby, inside machine parts are hard to reach, oftentimes occluded by other parts and not directly accessible for visual inspection. Disassembly of machine parts is time-consuming and expensive and, therefore undesired. This leaves distal imaging, i.e. endoscopy, to be the only practical option for defect detection. Ordinary endoscopes, which provide two dimensional intensity image data, are insufficient to fully assess the risks caused by small three dimensional defects. As a solution to this issue, we have developed and implemented two different systems for three dimensional endoscopic measurement based on structured light projection which are capable of recording high resolution and high accuracy point cloud data. A measurement standard deviation of roughly 20 μm is achieved within a field of measurement of 20 × 30 × 30mm3 .

  16. Quantum Algorithm for Universal Implementation of the Projective Measurement of Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Shojun; Soeda, Akihito; Murao, Mio

    2015-05-01

    A projective measurement of energy (PME) on a quantum system is a quantum measurement determined by the Hamiltonian of the system. PME protocols exist when the Hamiltonian is given in advance. Unknown Hamiltonians can be identified by quantum tomography, but the time cost to achieve a given accuracy increases exponentially with the size of the quantum system. In this Letter, we improve the time cost by adapting quantum phase estimation, an algorithm designed for computational problems, to measurements on physical systems. We present a PME protocol without quantum tomography for Hamiltonians whose dimension and energy scale are given but which are otherwise unknown. Our protocol implements a PME to arbitrary accuracy without any dimension dependence on its time cost. We also show that another computational quantum algorithm may be used for efficient estimation of the energy scale. These algorithms show that computational quantum algorithms, with suitable modifications, have applications beyond their original context.

  17. Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes by lifestyle intervention in an Australian primary health care setting: Greater Green Triangle (GGT Diabetes Prevention Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bunker Stephen

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Randomised controlled trials demonstrate a 60% reduction in type 2 diabetes incidence through lifestyle modification programmes. The aim of this study is to determine whether such programmes are feasible in primary health care. Methods An intervention study including 237 individuals 40–75 years of age with moderate or high risk of developing type 2 diabetes. A structured group programme with six 90 minute sessions delivered during an eight month period by trained nurses in Australian primary health care in 2004–2006. Main outcome measures taken at baseline, three, and 12 months included weight, height, waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose and lipids, plasma glucose two hours after oral glucose challenge, blood pressure, measures of psychological distress and general health outcomes. To test differences between baseline and follow-up, paired t-tests and Wilcoxon rank sum tests were performed. Results At twelve months participants' mean weight reduced by 2.52 kg (95% confidence interval 1.85 to 3.19 and waist circumference by 4.17 cm (3.48 to 4.87. Mean fasting glucose reduced by 0.14 mmol/l (0.07 to 0.20, plasma glucose two hours after oral glucose challenge by 0.58 mmol/l (0.36 to 0.79, total cholesterol by 0.29 mmol/l (0.18 to 0.40, low density lipoprotein cholesterol by 0.25 mmol/l (0.16 to 0.34, triglycerides by 0.15 mmol/l (0.05 to 0.24 and diastolic blood pressure by 2.14 mmHg (0.94 to 3.33. Significant improvements were also found in most psychological measures. Conclusion This study provides evidence that a type 2 diabetes prevention programme using lifestyle intervention is feasible in primary health care settings, with reductions in risk factors approaching those observed in clinical trials. Trial Number Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN38031372

  18. Comparison of Prescribed and Measured Dialysate Sodium: A Quality Improvement Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Ambreen; Miskulin, Dana C; Paine, Susan S; Narsipur, Sriram S; Arbeit, Leonard A; Harford, Antonia M; Weiner, Daniel E; Schrader, Ronald; Horowitz, Bruce L; Zager, Philip G

    2016-03-01

    There is controversy regarding the optimal dialysate sodium concentration for hemodialysis patients. Dialysate sodium concentrations of 134 to 138 mEq/L may decrease interdialytic weight gain and improve hypertension control, whereas a higher dialysate sodium concentration may offer protection to patients with low serum sodium concentrations and hypotension. We conducted a quality improvement project to explore the hypothesis that prescribed and delivered dialysate sodium concentrations may differ significantly. Cross-sectional quality improvement project. 333 hemodialysis treatments in 4 facilities operated by Dialysis Clinic, Inc. Measure dialysate sodium to assess the relationships of prescribed and measured dialysate sodium concentrations. Magnitude of differences between prescribed and measured dialysate sodium concentrations. Dialysate sodium measured pre- and late dialysis. The least square mean of the difference between prescribed minus measured dialysate sodium concentration was -2.48 (95% CI, -2.87 to -2.10) mEq/L. Clinics with a greater number of different dialysate sodium prescriptions (clinic 1, n=8; clinic 2, n=7) and that mixed dialysate concentrates on site had greater differences between prescribed and measured dialysate sodium concentrations. Overall, 57% of measured dialysate sodium concentrations were within ±2 mEq/L of the prescribed dialysate sodium concentration. Differences were greater at higher prescribed dialysate sodium concentrations. We only studied 4 facilities and dialysate delivery machines from 2 manufacturers. Because clinics using premixed dialysate used the same type of machine, we were unable to independently assess the impact of these factors. Pressures in dialysate delivery loops were not measured. There were significant differences between prescribed and measured dialysate sodium concentrations. This may have beneficial or deleterious effects on clinical outcomes, as well as confound results from studies assessing the

  19. Serum Potassium Is Positively Associated With Stroke and Mortality in the Large, Population-Based Malmö Preventive Project Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Linda S; Mattsson, Nick; Sajadieh, Ahmad; Wollmer, Per; Söderholm, Martin

    2017-11-01

    Low serum potassium is associated with stroke in populations with cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus but has not been studied in a mainly healthy population. We aimed to study the relation between serum potassium and incident stroke and mortality in the Malmö Preventive Project, a large cohort with screening in early mid-life and follow-up >25 years. Serum potassium measurements and covariates were available in 21 353 individuals (79% men, mean age 44 years). Mean follow-up time was 26.9 years for stroke analyses and 29.3 years for mortality analyses. There were 2061 incident stroke events and 8709 deaths. Cox regression analyses adjusted for multiple stroke risk factors (age, sex, height, weight, systolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, serum sodium, current smoking, prevalent diabetes mellitus, prevalent coronary artery disease, and treatment for hypertension) were fitted. There was an independent, linear association between serum potassium, per mmol/L increase, and both stroke (hazard ratio, 1.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-1.52; P stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage and in both hypertensive and normotensive subjects. Serum potassium, measured in early mid-life, was linearly associated with both incidence of ischemic stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage and all-cause mortality. An interaction with serum sodium implies that factors related to electrolyte balance and incident hypertension may be mediating factors. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. A new linear back projection algorithm to electrical tomography based on measuring data decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Benyuan; Yue, Shihong; Cui, Ziqiang; Wang, Huaxiang

    2015-01-01

    As an advanced measurement technique of non-radiant, non-intrusive, rapid response, and low cost, the electrical tomography (ET) technique has developed rapidly in recent decades. The ET imaging algorithm plays an important role in the ET imaging process. Linear back projection (LBP) is the most used ET algorithm due to its advantages of dynamic imaging process, real-time response, and easy realization. But the LBP algorithm is of low spatial resolution due to the natural ‘soft field’ effect and ‘ill-posed solution’ problems; thus its applicable ranges are greatly limited. In this paper, an original data decomposition method is proposed, and every ET measuring data are decomposed into two independent new data based on the positive and negative sensing areas of the measuring data. Consequently, the number of total measuring data is extended to twice as many as the number of the original data, thus effectively reducing the ‘ill-posed solution’. On the other hand, an index to measure the ‘soft field’ effect is proposed. The index shows that the decomposed data can distinguish between different contributions of various units (pixels) for any ET measuring data, and can efficiently reduce the ‘soft field’ effect of the ET imaging process. In light of the data decomposition method, a new linear back projection algorithm is proposed to improve the spatial resolution of the ET image. A series of simulations and experiments are applied to validate the proposed algorithm by the real-time performances and the progress of spatial resolutions. (paper)

  1. Application of legal measures as part of the policy for prevention of corruption in public sphere: Kosovo case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilard Bytyqi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper will address the application of legal measures as part of the policy of corruption prevention in the public sphere. At present, corruption offenses have become a very dangerous phenomenon for the stability and security of societies, undermining the institutions and values of democracy, ethical values and justice, and jeopardizing the essential development and the rule of law. Knowing that these criminal offenses carry a high social risk and are conducted with high professionalism from people who have the state power, a greater focus should be placed on its prevention. Naturally, the criminal sanctions against criminal acts of corruption have their positive effect, punitive and preventive, but these are the last measures that the state should use. The state of Kosovo in an effort to prevent corruption, has established in legal terms an advanced legislation in accordance with international laws and comparable to developed countries.

  2. The Development of an Instrument to Measure the Project Competences of College Students in Online Project-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chien-Liang

    2018-02-01

    This study sought to develop a self-report instrument to be used in the assessment of the project competences of college students engaged in online project-based learning. Three scales of the KIPSSE instrument developed for this study, namely, the knowledge integration, project skills, and self-efficacy scales, were based on related theories and the analysis results of three project advisor interviews. Those items of knowledge integration and project skill scales focused on the integration of different disciplines and technological skills separately. Two samples of data were collected from information technology-related courses taught with an online project-based learning strategy over different semesters at a college in southern Taiwan. The validity and reliability of the KIPSSE instrument were confirmed through item analysis and confirmatory factor analysis using structural equation modeling of two samples of students' online response sets separately. The Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficient for the entire instrument was 0.931; for each scale, the alpha ranged from 0.832 to 0.907. There was also a significant correlation ( r = 0.55, p < 0.01) between the KIPSSE instrument results and the students' product evaluation scores. The findings of this study confirmed the validity and reliability of the KIPSSE instrument. The confirmation process and related implications are also discussed.

  3. Preventive measures for radioactive contamination in iron and steel used as construction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsi Huo-Wang; Wu Ching-Hwa; Chou Kei-Den; Yeh Chin-Shiun

    2000-01-01

    At the end of July 1992, Atomic Energy Council (AEC) received tips-off from Taipei local residents, saying some buildings in Taipei had their rebar been contaminated by radioactive materials. Regarding causes and sources of those radioactively contaminated rebar, views from every aspects were pointing toward that scraps mixed with radioactive source smelting in the steel mill as the most possible reason. After investigating houses and constructors, AEC found that most contaminated buildings were constructed during the period of 1982 and 1984. For protection of public rights, AEC then actively undertook nation-wide survey of more than forty thousand buildings constructed between 1982 and 1984. Thermal Luminescent Dosimeters (TLD) and house by house surveying were major methods to investigate houses contamination. Finally, it was found that radiation contaminated houses are concentrated in Taipei City, Taipei County, Tauoyen County, Keelung County. According to data collected up to December 31, 1999, there were 180 cases, with a total of 1601 contaminated housing units. Based on information data of dose assessment, distribution of annual dose are as the following: higher than 15 mSv -143 housing units (9.21%), 5-15 mSv -117 housing units (7.53%), less than 5 mSv -1293 housing units (83.26%). Except actively conducting remodeling of contaminated houses and granting compensation to house owners, AEC has established following measures to prevent rebars from being radioactively contaminated. (1) Radiation detection training of iron and steel detectors (2) Strengthening controls over radioactive sources (3) Enforcing examination of radioactive levels for imported rebars (4) Requesting domestic steel companies establish radiation detection capability (5) Promoting installation of portal type radiation detectors for steel companies having smelting furnace (6) Enforcing no-radioactive contamination certificate system. The radiation detection training of iron and steel

  4. Tele-diabetology to Screen for Diabetes and Associated Complications in Rural India: The Chunampet Rural Diabetes Prevention Project Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Viswanathan; Prathiba, Vijayaraghavan; Pradeepa, Rajendra

    2014-03-01

    Diabetes, with its acute and long-term complications, has become a major health hazard in developing countries. An estimated 62.4 million people in India have diabetes. With increasing urbanization and industrialization, we can expect huge numbers of people with diabetes in India in the future. Moreover, all diabetes efforts in India are currently focused in urban areas while 70% of India's population actually lives in rural areas. The current statistics demonstrates that urgent interventions are mandatory to curb the epidemic of diabetes and its complications at the grassroots level. This gap in providing diabetes care can be nullified by the use of tele-diabetology. This holds great potential to overcome barriers and improve quality and access to diabetes care to remote, underserved areas of developing counties. The Chunampet Rural Diabetes Prevention Project (CRDPP) has been developed and tested as a successful model for screening and delivering diabetes care to rural areas in developing countries. Using a tele-diabetology mobile van loaded with appropriate equipment, trained technicians, and satellite technology helped us to screen for diabetes and its complications and deliver diabetes care to remote villages in southern India. The Chunampet model can be applied in reaching out to remote areas where specialized diabetes care facilities may not be available. © 2014 Diabetes Technology Society.

  5. Environmental Restoration Program pollution prevention performance measures for FY 1993 and 1994 remedial investigations: Generator training manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-01

    This computer-based program is designed to help waste generators in the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program prevent pollution at the DOE Oak Ridge Field Office (DOE-OR) facilities in Oak Ridge, Paducah, and Portsmouth. The Numerical Scoring System (NSS) is an interactive system designed to maintain data on ER Program pollution prevention efforts and to measure the success of these efforts through the ER Program life cycle.

  6. Environmental Restoration Program pollution prevention performance measures for FY 1993 and 1994 remedial investigations: Generator training manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    This computer-based program is designed to help waste generators in the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program prevent pollution at the DOE Oak Ridge Field Office (DOE-OR) facilities in Oak Ridge, Paducah, and Portsmouth. The Numerical Scoring System (NSS) is an interactive system designed to maintain data on ER Program pollution prevention efforts and to measure the success of these efforts through the ER Program life cycle

  7. A Flexible Fringe Projection Vision System with Extended Mathematical Model for Accurate Three-Dimensional Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzhi Xiao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to acquire an accurate three-dimensional (3D measurement, the traditional fringe projection technique applies complex and laborious procedures to compensate for the errors that exist in the vision system. However, the error sources in the vision system are very complex, such as lens distortion, lens defocus, and fringe pattern nonsinusoidality. Some errors cannot even be explained or rendered with clear expressions and are difficult to compensate directly as a result. In this paper, an approach is proposed that avoids the complex and laborious compensation procedure for error sources but still promises accurate 3D measurement. It is realized by the mathematical model extension technique. The parameters of the extended mathematical model for the ’phase to 3D coordinates transformation’ are derived using the least-squares parameter estimation algorithm. In addition, a phase-coding method based on a frequency analysis is proposed for the absolute phase map retrieval to spatially isolated objects. The results demonstrate the validity and the accuracy of the proposed flexible fringe projection vision system on spatially continuous and discontinuous objects for 3D measurement.

  8. A Flexible Fringe Projection Vision System with Extended Mathematical Model for Accurate Three-Dimensional Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Suzhi; Tao, Wei; Zhao, Hui

    2016-04-28

    In order to acquire an accurate three-dimensional (3D) measurement, the traditional fringe projection technique applies complex and laborious procedures to compensate for the errors that exist in the vision system. However, the error sources in the vision system are very complex, such as lens distortion, lens defocus, and fringe pattern nonsinusoidality. Some errors cannot even be explained or rendered with clear expressions and are difficult to compensate directly as a result. In this paper, an approach is proposed that avoids the complex and laborious compensation procedure for error sources but still promises accurate 3D measurement. It is realized by the mathematical model extension technique. The parameters of the extended mathematical model for the 'phase to 3D coordinates transformation' are derived using the least-squares parameter estimation algorithm. In addition, a phase-coding method based on a frequency analysis is proposed for the absolute phase map retrieval to spatially isolated objects. The results demonstrate the validity and the accuracy of the proposed flexible fringe projection vision system on spatially continuous and discontinuous objects for 3D measurement.

  9. Data-as-a-Service Platform for Delivering Healthy Lifestyle and Preventive Medicine: Concept and Structure of the DAPHNE Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Catherine; Bailador Del Pozo, Gonzalo; Andrés, Javier; Lobstein, Tim; Manco, Melania; Lewy, Hadas; Bergman, Einat; O'Callaghan, David; Doherty, Gavin; Kudrautseva, Olga; Palomares, Angel; Ram, Roni; Olmo, Alberto

    2016-12-09

    Overweight and obesity is related to many health problems and diseases. The current obesity epidemic, which is a major health problem, is closely related to a lack of physical activity, high levels of sedentary behavior, and increased energy intake; with evidence to show increasing incidence of these issues in the younger population. Tackling obesity and its comorbid conditions requires a holistic approach encompassing attention on physical activity, healthy diet, and behavioral activation in order to enable and maintain meaningful and long-term weight loss and weight maintenance. The objective of the Data-as-a-Service Platform for Healthy Lifestyle and Preventive Medicine (DAPHNE) project is to develop a breakthrough information communications technology (ICT) platform for tracking health, weight, physical activity, diet, lifestyle, and psychological components within health care systems, whereby the platform and clinical support is linked. The DAPHNE platform aims to deliver personalized guidance services for lifestyle management to the citizen/patient by means of (1) advanced sensors and mobile phone apps to acquire and store continuous/real-time data on lifestyle aspects, behavior, and surrounding environment; (2) individual models to monitor their health and fitness status; (3) intelligent data processing for the recognition of behavioral trends; and (4) specific services for personalized guidance on healthy lifestyle and disease prevention. It is well known that weight loss and maintenance of weight loss are particularly difficult. This tool will address some of the issues found with conventional treatment/advice in that it will collect data in real time, thereby reducing reliability issues known with recalling events once they have passed and will also allow adjustment of behavior through timely support and recommendations sent through the platform without the necessity of formal one-to-one visits between patient and clinician. Patient motivation

  10. National quality measurement using clinical indicators: the Danish National Indicator Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mainz, Jan; Hansen, Anne-Marie; Palshof, Torben

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the Danish National Indicator Project that aims to document and improve the quality of care at national level. Specific clinical indicators, standards, and prognostic factors have been developed for eight diseases (e.g. lung cancer). It has been implemented in all clinical...... departments in Denmark. Participation is mandatory. Results related to lung cancer are presented and discussed. The experiences from 2000 to 2008 indicate that the quality of care related to the eight diseases improve over time and that that performance and outcome measurement will get paid in terms...... of quality improvement....

  11. MEASUREMENT PROCESS OF SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS FOR SUPPORTING STRATEGIC BUSINESS OBJECTIVES IN SOFTWARE DEVELOPING COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Lais Pedroso

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Software developing companies work in a competitive market and are often challenged to make business decisions with impact on competitiveness. Models accessing maturity for software development processes quality, such as CMMI and MPS-BR, comprise process measurements systems (PMS. However, these models are not necessarily suitable to support business decisions, neither to achieve strategic goals. The objective of this work is to analyze how the PMS of software development projects could support business strategies for software developing companies. Results taken from this work show that PMS results from maturity models for software processes can be suited to help evaluating operating capabilities and supporting strategic business decisions.

  12. Procedures and results of the measurements on large area photomultipliers for the NEMO project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, S.; Leonora, E.; Aloisio, A.; Ameli, F.; Amore, I.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anzalone, A.; Barbarino, G.; Barbarito, E.; Battaglieri, M.; Bazzotti, M.; Bellotti, R.; Bersani, A.; Beverini, N.; Biagi, S.; Bonori, M.; Bouhdaef, B.; Cacopardo, G.; Calı, C.; Capone, A.; Caponetto, L.; Carminati, G.; Cassano, B.; Ceres, A.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Cocimano, R.; Coniglione, R.; Cordelli, M.; Costa, M.; D'Amico, A.; DeBonis, G.; DeRosa, G.; DeRuvo, G.; DeVita, R.; Distefano, C.; Flaminio, V.; Fratini, K.; Gabrielli, A.; Galeotti, S.; Gandolfi, E.; Giacomelli, G.; Giorgi, F.; Giovanetti, G.; Grimaldi, A.; Grmek, A.; Habel, R.; Imbesi, M.; Lonardo, A.; LoPresti, D.; Lucarelli, F.; Margiotta, A.; Marinelli, A.; Martini, A.; Masullo, R.; Maugeri, F.; Migneco, E.; Minutoli, S.; Mongelli, M.; Morganti, M.; Musico, P.; Musumeci, M.; Orlando, A.; Osipenko, M.; Papaleo, R.; Pappalardo, V.; Piattelli, P.; Piombo, D.; Raffaelli, F.; Raia, G.; Randazzo, N.; Reito, S.; Ricco, G.; Riccobene, G.; Ripani, M.; Rovelli, A.; Ruppi, M.; Russo, G. V.; Russo, S.; Sapienza, P.; Sedita, M.; Shirokov, E.; Simeone, F.; Sciliberto, D.; Sipala, V.; Sollima, C.; Spurio, M.; Stefani, F.; Taiuti, M.; Terreni, G.; Trasatti, L.; Urso, S.; Vecchi, M.; Vicini, P.; Wischnewski, R.

    2010-03-01

    The selection of the photomultiplier plays a crucial role in the R&D activity related to a large-scale underwater neutrino telescope. This paper illustrates the main procedures and facilities used to characterize the performances of 72 large area photomultipliers, Hamamatsu model R7081 sel. The voltage to achieve a gain of 5×10 7, dark count rate and single photoelectron time and charge properties of the overall response were measured with a properly attenuated 410 nm pulsed laser. A dedicated study of the spurious pulses was also performed. The results prove that the photomultipliers comply with the general requirements imposed by the project.

  13. An Evaluation of Immediate Outcomes and Fidelity of a Drug Abuse Prevention Program in Continuation High Schools: Project towards No Drug Abuse (TND)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisha, Nadra E.; Sun, Ping; Rohrbach, Louise A.; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Unger, Jennifer B.; Sussman, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The present study provides an implementation fidelity, process, and immediate outcomes evaluation of Project Towards No Drug Abuse (TND), a drug prevention program targeting continuation high school youth (n = 1426) at risk for drug abuse. A total of 24 schools participated in three randomized conditions: TND Only, TND and motivational…

  14. Kinematic Measurement of Knee Prosthesis from Single-Plane Projection Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirokawa, Shunji; Ariyoshi, Shogo; Takahashi, Kenji; Maruyama, Koichi

    In this paper, the measurement of 3D motion from 2D perspective projections of knee prosthesis is described. The technique reported by Banks and Hodge was further developed in this study. The estimation was performed in two steps. The first-step estimation was performed on the assumption of orthogonal projection. Then, the second-step estimation was subsequently carried out based upon the perspective projection to accomplish more accurate estimation. The simulation results have demonstrated that the technique archived sufficient accuracies of position/orientation estimation for prosthetic kinematics. Then we applied our algorithm to the CCD images, thereby examining the influences of various artifacts, possibly incorporated through an imaging process, on the estimation accuracies. We found that accuracies in the experiment were influenced mainly by the geometric discrepancies between the prosthesis component and computer generated model and by the spacial inconsistencies between the coordinate axes of the positioner and that of the computer model. However, we verified that our algorithm could achieve proper and consistent estimation even for the CCD images.

  15. Infection prevention and control measures currently applied in South African audiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Ehlert

    2014-11-01

    Objective: The primary aim of the study was to ascertain the methods that audiologists in South Africa use to prevent and control the spread of infections during and after consultation with clients. Method: A survey study was conducted, using a self-administered questionnaire. Fifty currently practising audiologists participated in the study. Results: The majority (84%; n = 42 of respondents acknowledged the importance of hand hygiene for the purpose of infection control, with 76% (n = 38 making use of no-rinse hand sanitisers. Approximately a third of audiologists wear gloves during procedures such as otoscopy and immittance, and while handling hearing aids. Disinfecting audiological equipment seem to be the preferred choice of infection control, with only 60% (n = 30 of respondents sterilising audiological equipment after each individual patient consultation. Less than half of the respondents disinfected touch surfaces and toys in the reception area. Conclusions: Based on the results, further education and training should focus on measures implemented in infection control, awareness of possible risk factors at work settings, and vaccination as an effective means of infection control.

  16. Measurement and Modeling of the Ability of Crack Fillers to Prevent Chloride Ingress into Mortar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Scott Z; Bentz, Dale P; Davis, Jeffrey M; Hussey, Daniel S; Jacobson, David L; Molloy, John L; Sieber, John R

    2017-09-01

    A common repair procedures applied to damaged concrete is to fill cracks with an organic polymer. This operation is performed to increase the service life of the concrete by removing a preferential pathway for the ingress of water, chlorides, and other deleterious species. To effectively fulfill its mission of preventing chloride ingress, the polymer must not only fully fill the macro-crack, but must also intrude the damage zone surrounding the crack perimeter. Here, the performance of two commonly employed crack fillers, one epoxy, and one methacrylate, are investigated using a combined experimental and computer modeling approach. Neutron tomography and microbeam X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (μXRF) measurements are employed on pre-cracked and chloride-exposed specimens to quantify the crack filling and chloride ingress limiting abilities, respectively, of the two polymers. A two-dimensional model of chloride transport is derived from a mass balance and solved by the finite element method. Crack images provided by μXRF are used to generate the input microstructure for the simulations. When chloride binding and a time-dependent mortar diffusivity are both included in the computer model, good agreement with the experimental results is obtained. Both crack fillers significantly reduce chloride ingress during the 21 d period of the present experiments; however, the epoxy itself contains approximately 4 % by mass chlorine. Leaching studies were performed assess the epoxy as a source of deleterious ions for initiating corrosion of the steel reinforcement in concrete structures.

  17. Preventive or punitive disciplinary measures in South African schools: Which should be favoured?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.J. Oosthuizen

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent research shows a major paradigm shift towards preventive and positive rather than punitive disciplinary measures. Since the essence of learner discipline is correctional and educational rather than punitive, this approach seems to be the correct one – especially after the abolition of corporal punishment in South African schools. However, the question remains: is there still room for punitive and reactive learner discipline in our schools? And if so, which is the better approach, and where should the emphasis be? This article endeavours to evaluate the two approaches by means of a normative framework. Rather than ruling which approach is the more successful one, the authors argue that it is not the one or the other, but rather a combination of the two approaches. One of the guiding determinants for correct decision-making is vested in maintaining a safe, harmonious and orderly environment conducive to education and learning. The decision regarding the most effective form of discipline in a particular instance should therefore be determined by the context of the situation. For example, it depends on the seriousness of the misconduct, the attitude of the learners (e.g. was it as a result of intent or negligence?, the age of the learner, the influence it had on the teaching-learning environment, et cetera.

  18. Preventive measures of water pollution in China; Chugoku ni okeru suishitsu odaku boshi taisaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, Y.; Huang, X.

    1996-01-10

    This paper describes the progress and the major results of research and development on technologies and measures to prevent water pollution in China. Tests and researches have been performed on an upward anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), a vertical baffled anaerobic sludge blanket, two-phase anaerobic digestion, and an anaerobic fluidized bed. When anaerobically digested sludge and aerobic active sludge are inoculated in the UASB, particle-shaped sludge was formed well in both sludges. This technology has begun to be used in breweries and citric acid factories. With anaerobic treatment of waste water containing sulfate, the sulfate was recovered as sulfur by using the first and second phases. Research and development is being progressed on the oxidation ditch technology as an improved version of the active sludge method. In a pilot test of a soil treatment system and a stabilization pond treatment system as alternative technology for the active sludge method, the BOD in the treated water was found 2.5 mg{times}1/l. Attentions are drawn on primary treatment, a living organism contact oxidation method, and a continuous filtration treatment process as technologies to turn polluted water into resources. 6 refs., 1 tab.

  19. [Assessment of job stress after implementation of prevention measures in a pension fund].

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Rosa-Rodriguez, Emilio; Le Clesiau, Hervé; Dubois, Gérard; Izard, Jean-Luc; Bonin, Michel; Bordron, Julien; Neveu, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Work stress and its impact on health have been widely studied. However, very few studies have examined the effect of implementing measures designed to reduce work stress, a risk factor for psychological health problems. The purpose of this study was to fill this gap. Two surveys were conducted in October 2009 and October 2011. 150 employees participated in the first trial, while 108 took part in the second trial. Among them, 74 employees participated in both surveys and were matched. Participation in the two surveys was anonymous and the participants were asked to complete three questionnaires. The intervention was not effective in reducing perceived poor health, accidents, hospitalizations, sick leaves, medication use, musculoskeletal disorders, psychosocial distress and job stress. However, there wasa significant decrease in iso-strain and an increase in social support. Iso-strain decreased, especially among women (p < 0.002) and employees (p < 0.001). The increased support provided by supervisors and colleagues benefited women and employees, while improved emotional support from supervisors and colleagues mainly benefited employees. These trends were associated with psychological and musculoskeletal disorders. The significant decrease of iso-strain through improved social support suggests that efforts to prevent work-related stress need to be pursued.

  20. An additional measurement of glycated albumin can help prevent missed diagnosis of diabetes in Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xingxing; Ying, Lingwen; Ma, Xiaojing; Shen, Yun; Su, Hang; Peng, Jiahui; Wang, Yufei; Bao, Yuqian; Zhou, Jian; Jia, Weiping

    2017-12-01

    In subjects who present a first fasting plasma glucose (FPG 1 ) ≥7.0mmol/l without classic symptoms of diabetes, diagnosis of diabetes will likely be missed without an additional oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in the Chinese population. Recent studies have shown that glycated albumin (GA) has advantages in reflecting postprandial hyperglycemia. Therefore, the present study evaluated whether additional measurement of GA could reduce the rate of missed diagnosis of diabetes. A total of 1287 participants (711 men, 576 women) with a FPG 1 ≥7.0mmol/l without classic symptoms of diabetes were enrolled and underwent a 75-g OGTT. Serum GA was measured by a liquid enzyme method. Diabetes was diagnosed based on the 2010 American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria. A total of 992 (77.08%) participants were diagnosed diabetes by OGTT and glycated hemoglobin A 1c (HbA 1c ). The diagnostic validity of 2-h postload plasma glucose (2hPG) was superior to other glycemic index (the diagnostic sensitivity of 2hPG, HbA 1c , the second FPG (FPG 2 ) was 87.50%, 73.99%, 63.21%, respectively). Without 2hPG after OGTT, repeat testing of FPG 2 alone would result in missed diagnosis of 36.79% of diabetic participants, whereas testing FPG 2 with HbA 1c was associated with a missed diagnosis rate of 14.31%. While using the combined criteria of FPG 2 ≥7.0mmol/l and/or HbA 1c ≥6.5% and/or GA≥17.1%, the rate of missed diagnosis was merely 9.48%. That is, the rate of missed diagnosis was reduced by 33.75% with the addition of GA measurement. The k value reflecting the consistency of diagnosis between the FPG 2 and/or HbA 1c and/or GA criteria and the 2010 ADA criteria was 0.788. For subjects with FPG 1 ≥7.0mmol/l without classic symptoms of diabetes, additional measurement of GA can help prevent missed diagnosis of diabetes in Chinese population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Implementation of an Intersectoral Program to Eliminate Human and Canine Rabies: The Bohol Rabies Prevention and Elimination Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapiz, Stella Marie D.; Miranda, Mary Elizabeth G.; Garcia, Romulo G.; Daguro, Leonida I.; Paman, Meydalyn D.; Madrinan, Frederick P.; Rances, Polizena A.; Briggs, Deborah J.

    2012-01-01

    Background The province of Bohol, located in the Visayas islands region in the Philippines has a human population of 1.13 million and was the 4th highest region for human rabies deaths in the country, averaging 10 per year, prior to the initiation of the Bohol Rabies Prevention and Elimination Project (BRPEP). Aims The BRPEP was initiated in 2007 with the goal of building a sustainable program that would prevent human rabies by eliminating rabies at its source, in dogs, by 2010. This goal was in line with the Philippine National Rabies Program whose objective is to eliminate rabies by 2020. Methods The intersectoral BRPEP was launched in 2007 and integrated the expertise and resources from the sectors of agriculture, public health and safety, education, environment, legal affairs, interior and local government. The program included: increasing local community involvement; implementing dog population control; conducting mass dog vaccination; improving dog bite management; instituting veterinary quarantine; and improving diagnostic capability, surveillance and monitoring. Funding was secured from the national government, provincial, municipal and village units, dog owners, NGOs, the regional office of the WHO, the UBS Optimus Foundation, and the Global Alliance for Rabies Control. The BRPEP was managed by the Bohol Rabies Prevention and Eradication Council (BRPEC) under the jurisdiction of the Governor of Bohol. Parallel organizations were created at the municipal level and village level. Community volunteers facilitated the institution of the program. Dog population surveys were conducted to plan for sufficient resources to vaccinate the required 70% of the dogs living in the province. Two island-wide mass vaccination campaigns were conducted followed by “catch up” vaccination campaigns. Registration of dogs was implemented including a small fee that was rolled back into the program to maintain sustainability. Children were educated by introducing rabies

  2. Effect of caries preventive measures directed to expectant mothers on caries experience in their children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanata Régia Luzia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this prospective study was to determine the effectiveness of caries preventive measures started during pregnancy on the caries experience of first-time mothers and their infants. Eighty-one pregnant women with low social background were selected on the basis of the presence of active carious lesions and were randomly divided into control (38 and experimental (43 groups. The initial dental status (DMFS and white spot lesions was established through clinical examination. The prophylactic measures were repeated during pregnancy and 6 and 12 months after delivery. Both groups received primary care intervention. They were instructed in relation to the etiologic factors of dental caries and received oral hygiene kits. Oral hygiene instructions were reinforced through interactive brushing. The experimental group also received antimicrobial treatment (topical application of NaF and iodine solution immediately after prophylaxis and 3 and 5 days later and restorative care using glass ionomer cement. By the time the children were 2 years of age, 33.3% of the infants in the control group and 14.7% in the experimental group had caries activity. A significant difference in caries prevalence was observed between children with and without visible dental plaque. The mean number of tooth surfaces with carious lesions (including areas of demineralization was higher among the children in the control group compared to the experimental group (6.3 x 3.2, however, with no statistical significance. Maternal caries increase was a significant factor influencing the caries experience of the children. These data support the evidence of an association between caries prevalence in young children and clinical (dental plaque and maternal factors.

  3. Preventive measures for safety and helth at work with the amphibious transporter PTS-M

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad V. Kovačević

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the knowledge of using the amphibious transporter STM-M ( STM-M is very limited. A small number of professional soldiers in the Serbian Armed Forces know how to use thisvery useful and high-quality military vehicle in a regular way. From the day onethis vehicle has remained in its basic shape without any modifications since it was made in the former Soviet Union. Today, the Serbian Armed Forces have only 12 of these vehicles in the operational use. The Serbian Armed Forces have two amphibious platoons in two pontoon batalions in the River Flotilla. As the author of this article was an officer in charge of maintaining this complex and “unusual” vehicle, the article deals with the provisions from the Regulations on preventive measures for safety and health while using work equipment (Ministry of Labour, 2012, applied to work with STM-Ms, The article makes a parallel between the provisions of the Regulations and the actual situation and specific conditions of using and maintaining STM-Ms . Introduction Some basic information about the STM-M is given here, twith Figure 1 of this vehicle and its tactical and technicalspecifications.The dangerous places onthe vehicle are presented as well. Mesuares and rules for safe work This part ofthe article presents all speciall tools on the STM-M that are used for safe work. Each piece of tool is described in detail -itslocationon the STM-M, its physical characteristics,  and most common mistakes during its use. Some measures for better maintenance and improved safety at work are also proposed. Conclusion The conclusion deals with the misuse and wrong maintenance of STM-Ms and gives some proposals for their better use. A critical commentary about the conditions of safety engineering in the Serbian Armed Forces can be found here as well.  

  4. Investment feasibility tracking: the importance of measuring and tracking the success level of the project during commercialization phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputra, Y. A.; Setyaningtyas, V. E. D.; Latiffianti, E.; Wijaya, S. H.; Ladamay, O. S. A.

    2018-04-01

    Measuring project success level is a challenging activity. This area of works has attracted many researchers to look deeper into the method of measurement, success factor identification, risk management, and many others relevant topics. However, the project management scope is limited until the project handover stage. After a project handover, the control of a project management changes from Project Management Team to the project owner/commercialization team. From an investor’s point of view, the success of a project delivery needs to be followed by the success of commercialization phase. This paper aims to present an approach on how we track and measure the progress and success level of a project investment in the commercialization phase. This is an interesting topic which probably often being forgotten in many practical case. Our proposed concept modify Freeman and Beale concept by estimating the variance between the Planned Net Present Value / Annual Worth (as it is in the Feasibility Study Document) and the Actual Net Present Value / Annual Worth (until the point time of evaluation). The gap will lead us to the next analysis and give us some important information, especially exposing whether our project investment performs better than the planning or underperformed. Some corrective actions can be suggested based on the provided information. Practical cases to exercise the concept is also provided and discussed; one case in a property sector in the middle of commercialization phase, and another case in a Power Plant investment approaching the end of commercialization phase.

  5. Pre- and postharvest preventive measures and intervention strategies to control microbial food safety hazards of fresh leafy vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Maria I; Selma, Maria V; Suslow, Trevor; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Uyttendaele, Mieke; Allende, Ana

    2015-01-01

    This review includes an overview of the most important preventive measures along the farm to fork chain to prevent microbial contamination of leafy greens. It also includes the technological and managerial interventions related to primary production, postharvest handling, processing practices, distribution, and consumer handling to eliminate pathogens in leafy greens. When the microbiological risk is already present, preventive measures to limit actual contamination events or pathogen survival are considered intervention strategies. In codes of practice the focus is mainly put on explaining preventive measures. However, it is also important to establish more focused intervention strategies. This review is centered mainly on leafy vegetables as the commodity identified as the highest priority in terms of fresh produce microbial safety from a global perspective. There is no unique preventive measure or intervention strategy that could be applied at one point of the food chain. We should encourage growers of leafy greens to establish procedures based on the HACCP principles at the level of primary production. The traceability of leafy vegetables along the chain is an essential element in ensuring food safety. Thus, in dealing with the food safety issues associated with fresh produce it is clear that a multidisciplinary farm to fork strategy is required.

  6. Measuring cognition: the Chicago Cognitive Function Measure in the National Social Life, Health and Aging Project, Wave 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shega, Joseph W; Sunkara, Priya D; Kotwal, Ashwin; Kern, David W; Henning, Sara L; McClintock, Martha K; Schumm, Philip; Waite, Linda J; Dale, William

    2014-11-01

    To describe the development of a multidimensional test of cognition for the National Social life, Health and Aging Project (NSHAP), the Chicago Cognitive Function Measure (CCFM). CCFM development included 3 steps: (a) A pilot test of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) to create a standard protocol, choose specific items, reorder items, and improve clarity; (b) integration into a CAPI-based format; and (c) evaluation of the performance of the CCFM in the field. The CCFM was subsequently incorporated into NSHAP, Wave 2 (n = 3,377). The pre-test (n = 120) mean age was 71.35 (SD 8.40); 53% were female, 69% white, and 70% with college or greater education. The MoCA took an average of 15.6min; the time for the CCFM was 12.0 min. CCFM scores (0-20) can be used as a continuous outcome or to adjust for cognition in a multivariable analysis. CCFM scores were highly correlated with MoCA scores (r = .973). Modeling projects MoCA scores from CCFM scores using the equation: MoCA = (1.14 × CCFM) + 6.83. In Wave 2, the overall weighted mean CCFM score was 13.9 (SE 0.13). A survey-based adaptation of the MoCA was successfully integrated into a nationally representative sample of older adults, NSHAP Wave 2. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Evaluation of measurement reproducibility using the standard-sites data, 1994 Fernald field characterization demonstration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rautman, C.A.

    1996-02-01

    The US Department of Energy conducted the 1994 Fernald (Ohio) field characterization demonstration project to evaluate the performance of a group of both industry-standard and proposed alternative technologies in describing the nature and extent of uranium contamination in surficial soils. Detector stability and measurement reproducibility under actual operating conditions encountered in the field is critical to establishing the credibility of the proposed alternative characterization methods. Comparability of measured uranium activities to those reported by conventional, US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-certified laboratory methods is also required. The eleven (11) technologies demonstrated included (1) EPA-standard soil sampling and laboratory mass-spectroscopy analyses, and currently-accepted field-screening techniques using (2) sodium-iodide scintillometers, (3) FIDLER low-energy scintillometers, and (4) a field-portable x-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Proposed advanced characterization techniques included (5) alpha-track detectors, (6) a high-energy beta scintillometer, (7) electret ionization chambers, (8) and (9) a high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer in two different configurations, (10) a field-adapted laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) technique, and (11) a long-range alpha detector. Measurement reproducibility and the accuracy of each method were tested by acquiring numerous replicate measurements of total uranium activity at each of two ''standard sites'' located within the main field demonstration area. Meteorological variables including temperature, relative humidity. and 24-hour rainfall quantities were also recorded in conjunction with the standard-sites measurements

  8. Two-Column Aerosol Project: Aerosol Light Extinction Measurements Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubey, Manvendra [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Aiken, Allison [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Berg, Larry K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Freedman, Andrew [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Gorkowski, Kyle [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-01

    We deployed Aerodyne Research Inc.’s first Cavity Attenuated Phase Shift extinction (CAPS PMex) monitor (built by Aerodyne) that measures light extinction by using a visible-light-emitting diode (LED) as a light source, a sample cell incorporating two high-reflectivity mirrors centered at the wavelength of the LED, and a vacuum photodiode detector in Cape Cod in 2012/13 for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP). The efficacy of this instrument is based on the fact that aerosols are broadband scatterers and absorbers of light. The input LED is square-wave modulated and passed through the sample cell that distorts it due to exponential decay by aerosol light absorption and scattering; this is measured at the detector. The amount of phase shift of the light at the detector is used to determine the light extinction. This extinction measurement provides an absolute value, requiring no calibration. The goal was to compare the CAPS performance with direct measurements of absorption with ARM’s baseline photoacoustic soot spectrometer (PASS-3) and nephelometer instruments to evaluate its performance.

  9. Magnetic Measurements of Storage Ring Magnets for the APS Upgrade Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doose, C.; Dejus, R.; Jaski, M.; Jansma, W.; Collins, J.; Donnelly, A.; Liu, J.; Cease, H.; Decker, G.; Jain, A.; DiMarco, J.

    2017-06-01

    Extensive prototyping of storage ring magnets is ongoing at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) in support of the APS Multi-Bend Achromat (MBA) upgrade project (APS-U) [1]. As part of the R&D activities four quadrupole magnets with slightly different geometries and pole tip materials, and one sextupole magnet with vanadium permendur (VP) pole tips were designed, built and tested. Magnets were measured individually using a rotating coil and a Hall probe for detailed mapping of the magnetic field. Magnets were then assembled and aligned relative to each other on a steel support plate and concrete plinth using precision machined surfaces to gain experience with the alignment method chosen for the APS-U storage ring magnets. The required alignment of magnets on a common support structure is 30 μm rms. Measurements of magnetic field quality, strength and magnet alignment after subjecting the magnets and assemblies to different tests are presented.

  10. A Time Projection Chamber for High Accuracy and Precision Fission Cross-Section Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Hill; K. Jewell; M. Heffner; D. Carter; M. Cunningham; V. Riot; J. Ruz; S. Sangiorgio; B. Seilhan; L. Snyder; D. M. Asner; S. Stave; G. Tatishvili; L. Wood; R. G. Baker; J. L. Klay; R. Kudo; S. Barrett; J. King; M. Leonard; W. Loveland; L. Yao; C. Brune; S. Grimes; N. Kornilov; T. N. Massey; J. Bundgaard; D. L. Duke; U. Greife; U. Hager; E. Burgett; J. Deaven; V. Kleinrath; C. McGrath; B. Wendt; N. Hertel; D. Isenhower; N. Pickle; H. Qu; S. Sharma; R. T. Thornton; D. Tovwell; R. S. Towell; S.

    2014-09-01

    The fission Time Projection Chamber (fissionTPC) is a compact (15 cm diameter) two-chamber MICROMEGAS TPC designed to make precision cross-section measurements of neutron-induced fission. The actinide targets are placed on the central cathode and irradiated with a neutron beam that passes axially through the TPC inducing fission in the target. The 4p acceptance for fission fragments and complete charged particle track reconstruction are powerful features of the fissionTPC which will be used to measure fission cross-sections and examine the associated systematic errors. This paper provides a detailed description of the design requirements, the design solutions, and the initial performance of the fissionTPC.

  11. Regional fringe analysis for improving depth measurement in phase-shifting fringe projection profilometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Kuang-Che Chang; Tu, Han-Yen; Hsieh, Ching-Huang; Cheng, Chau-Jern; Chang, Chun-Yen

    2018-01-01

    This study proposes a regional fringe analysis (RFA) method to detect the regions of a target object in captured shifted images to improve depth measurement in phase-shifting fringe projection profilometry (PS-FPP). In the RFA method, region-based segmentation is exploited to segment the de-fringed image of a target object, and a multi-level fuzzy-based classification with five presented features is used to analyze and discriminate the regions of an object from the segmented regions, which were associated with explicit fringe information. Then, in the experiment, the performance of the proposed method is tested and evaluated on 26 test cases made of five types of materials. The qualitative and quantitative results demonstrate that the proposed RFA method can effectively detect the desired regions of an object to improve depth measurement in the PS-FPP system.

  12. Performance Refactoring of Instrumentation, Measurement, and Analysis Technologies for Petascale Computing: the PRIMA Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malony, Allen D. [Department of Computer and Information Science, University of Oregon; Wolf, Felix G. [Juelich Supercomputing Centre, Forschungszentrum Juelich

    2014-01-31

    The growing number of cores provided by today’s high-end computing systems present substantial challenges to application developers in their pursuit of parallel efficiency. To find the most effective optimization strategy, application developers need insight into the runtime behavior of their code. The University of Oregon (UO) and the Juelich Supercomputing Centre of Forschungszentrum Juelich (FZJ) develop the performance analysis tools TAU and Scalasca, respectively, which allow high-performance computing (HPC) users to collect and analyze relevant performance data – even at very large scales. TAU and Scalasca are considered among the most advanced parallel performance systems available, and are used extensively across HPC centers in the U.S., Germany, and around the world. The TAU and Scalasca groups share a heritage of parallel performance tool research and partnership throughout the past fifteen years. Indeed, the close interactions of the two groups resulted in a cross-fertilization of tool ideas and technologies that pushed TAU and Scalasca to what they are today. It also produced two performance systems with an increasing degree of functional overlap. While each tool has its specific analysis focus, the tools were implementing measurement infrastructures that were substantially similar. Because each tool provides complementary performance analysis, sharing of measurement results is valuable to provide the user with more facets to understand performance behavior. However, each measurement system was producing performance data in different formats, requiring data interoperability tools to be created. A common measurement and instrumentation system was needed to more closely integrate TAU and Scalasca and to avoid the duplication of development and maintenance effort. The PRIMA (Performance Refactoring of Instrumentation, Measurement, and Analysis) project was proposed over three years ago as a joint international effort between UO and FZJ to accomplish

  13. Performance Refactoring of Instrumentation, Measurement, and Analysis Technologies for Petascale Computing. The PRIMA Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malony, Allen D. [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States). Dept. of Computer and Information Science; Wolf, Felix G. [Wilhelm-Johnen-Strasse, Julich (Germany). Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH

    2014-01-31

    The growing number of cores provided by today’s high-­end computing systems present substantial challenges to application developers in their pursuit of parallel efficiency. To find the most effective optimization strategy, application developers need insight into the runtime behavior of their code. The University of Oregon (UO) and the Juelich Supercomputing Centre of Forschungszentrum Juelich (FZJ) develop the performance analysis tools TAU and Scalasca, respectively, which allow high-­performance computing (HPC) users to collect and analyze relevant performance data – even at very large scales. TAU and Scalasca are considered among the most advanced parallel performance systems available, and are used extensively across HPC centers in the U.S., Germany, and around the world. The TAU and Scalasca groups share a heritage of parallel performance tool research and partnership throughout the past fifteen years. Indeed, the close interactions of the two groups resulted in a cross-­fertilization of tool ideas and technologies that pushed TAU and Scalasca to what they are today. It also produced two performance systems with an increasing degree of functional overlap. While each tool has its specific analysis focus, the tools were implementing measurement infrastructures that were substantially similar. Because each tool provides complementary performance analysis, sharing of measurement results is valuable to provide the user with more facets to understand performance behavior. However, each measurement system was producing performance data in different formats, requiring data interoperability tools to be created. A common measurement and instrumentation system was needed to more closely integrate TAU and Scalasca and to avoid the duplication of development and maintenance effort. The PRIMA (Performance Refactoring of Instrumentation, Measurement, and Analysis) project was proposed over three years ago as a joint international effort between UO and FZJ to

  14. Collection of measurement data in 2013 fiscal year at the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Kawate, Satoshi

    2015-12-01

    The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (URL) Project has being pursued by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) to enhance the reliability of relevant disposal technologies through investigations of the deep geological environment within the host sedimentary formations at Horonobe, northern Hokkaido. The URL project consists of two major research areas, “Geoscientific Research” and “R and D on Geological Disposal Technologies”, and proceeds in three overlapping phases, “Phase I: Surface-based investigations”, “Phase II: Investigations during tunnel excavation” and “Phase III: Investigations in the underground facilities”, over a period of around 20 years. The Phase I geoscientific research was carried out from March 2001 to March 2006 in parallel with design and execution scheme on URL facilities. In addition, identifying key issues that need to be addressed in the Phase II/III investigations were planned. At the beginning of the Phase II investigations, an investigation report titled “Measurement Plan and Observational Construction Program on Shaft Excavation at the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project” (hereinafter referred to as “Observational Construction Programs”) and an investigation report titled “Measurement Plan and Observational Construction Program on Drift Excavation at the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project” were published. The Observational Construction Program summarizes the followings from the results of the Phase I investigations: measurements for safety and reasonable constructions, enhancement of shaft design and construction technologies and evaluation of appropriateness for the deep geological environment model estimated before shaft excavation. This report summarizes the measurements data acquired at the Ventilation Shaft, the West Shaft and the drifts in 2013 fiscal year for the purpose of the basic data for carrying out the Observational Construction Program. A DVD-ROM is

  15. Natural Water Retention Measures (NWRM): from Design to Implementation through European Projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magdaleno Mas, F.; Dalacamara Andres, G.

    2015-01-01

    The Centre for Applied Technique Studies (CETA) of CEDEX has been working over the last few years in different European projects related with the design and development of natural water retention measures (NWRM). These are a number of measures, boosted by the Water Unit of the Environment Directorate-General of the European Commission. with close links to green infrastructures, which try to integrate, from a multifunctional approach, different legal and technical requirements aimed at a better adaptation to extreme hydro meteorological events, environmental protection and conservation, and maintenance of ecosystem services. This paper reviews the underpinning foundations of the concept and the mechanisms for designing and implementing NWRM. It also shows the way they can be applied, by presenting different initiatives developed by CETA since 2008 in Navarra (Arga-Aragon rivers system). For fulfilling those works, CETA has collaborated with environmental and hydraulic authorities of Navarra. It has also actively cooperated with research centres, such as the Institute IMDEA Water. specifically in a European project devoted to the diffusion, assessment, and presentation of NWRM within the context of the EU River Basin Districts. (Author)

  16. Measuring the effect of e-business on organizational performance in project based organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Sadi-Nezhad

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there have been significant development on e-business and nearly all business partners try to offer their products and services via internet. One primary question for the implementation of e-business is to measure the effect of this new facility on supply chain in project based organizations. Although e-business may not directly influence on organizational performance, it definitely influences on unifying customers and suppliers, which yields to a better performance of organizations. This study performs a study to measure the indirect effect of e-business on project based organizational performance. The proposed study of this paper designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 140 professional experts in different industries in province of Ontario, Canada. The survey examines different hypotheses for a possible correlation between e-business and integrated suppliers, e-business and customers, integrated customers and suppliers with organizational performance. The results of this survey indicate a positive relationship between all these components either directly or indirectly.

  17. Cost effective measures to prevent obesity: epidemiological basis and appropriate target groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seidell, J.C.; Nooyens, A.C.J.; Visscher, T.L.S.

    2005-01-01

    Cost-effective prevention strategies to prevent weight gain and the development of obesity should be based on appropriate knowledge of the determinants of weight gain. The body of evidence on the dietary determinants of weight gain is, however, fragmentary at best, partly because inappropriate

  18. Cost-effective measures to prevent obesity : epidemiological basis and appropriate target groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seidell, Jacob C; Nooyens, Astrid J; Visscher, Tommy L S

    Cost-effective prevention strategies to prevent weight gain and the development of obesity should be based on appropriate knowledge of the determinants of weight gain. The body of evidence on the dietary determinants of weight gain is, however, fragmentary at best, partly because inappropriate

  19. Quantitative measures of corrosion and prevention: application to corrosion in agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, J.C.; Gellings, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    The corrosion protection factor (c.p.f.) and the corrosion condition (c.c.) are simple instruments for the study and evaluation of the contribution and efficiency of several methods of corrosion prevention and control. The application of c.p.f. and c.c. to corrosion and prevention in agriculture in

  20. Baseline characteristics of a school based intervention to prevent non communicable diseases risk factors: Project "together in Health".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maatoug Maaloul, Jihene; Harrabi, Imed; Ghammem, Rim; Hmad, Sonia; Belkacem, Mylene; Slama, Slim; Ben Mabrouk, Faouzia; Boughammoura, Lamia; Ghannem, Hassen

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco use, unhealthy diet, and physical inactivity are among the leading causes of the major non communicable diseases. So, prevention should take place early in childhood. In this paper, we will present an overview of project "Together in health" in schools, a component of a community based intervention. It consists on a school based intervention with the aim to improve knowledge, attitudes and behaviors concerning the main chronic disease risk factors such as unhealthy diet, physical inactivity and smoking. We conducted a quasi experimental design with intervention and control groups. The study concerned pupils of colleges of Sousse aged 11 to 16 years old in 7th and 9th grade. The pre-assessment concerned a randomized sample of schoolchildren. The proportional and stratified sample was composed of 4003 schoolchildren with 1929 and 2074 respectively in intervention and control groups. We used chi square test to compare percentages with 0.05 level of significance. The sex ration was been 1 in the intervention group and 0.87 in control group. The mean age of our population was been 13.48±1.29 and 13.24±1.25 respectively in intervention and control groups with significant difference (pfoods and beverages included respectively in the intervention and control group: vegetables 3.9 days/week and 4.81 days/week, fruits 5.41 days/week and 5.7 days/week, high fat food 2.49 days/week and 2.48 days/week, sweetened beverage 3.84 days/week and 3.3 days/week, sweets 4.33 days/week and 4.57 days/week. The proportion of irregular smokers was been respectively 6.8% and 2.2% among boys and girls in the intervention group and 11.3% and 0.9% in control group. Integrated and sustainable interventions against non communicable disease risk factors in this region are needed to prevent these diseases early in childhood.

  1. Efficacies of prevention and control measures applied during an outbreak in Southwest Madrid, Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anaiá da Paixão Sevá

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease of worldwide distribution, currently present in 98 countries. Since late 2010, an unusual increase of human visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis cases has been observed in the south-western Madrid region, totaling more than 600 cases until 2015. Some hosts, such as human, domestic dog and cat, rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus, and hare (Lepus granatensis, were found infected by the parasite of this disease in the area. Hares were described as the most important reservoir due to their higher prevalence, capacity to infect the vector, and presence of the same strains as in humans. Various measures were adopted to prevent and control the disease, and since 2013 there was a slight decline in the human sickness. We used a mathematical model to evaluate the efficacy of each measure in reducing the number of infected hosts. We identified in the present model that culling both hares and rabbits, without immediate reposition of the animals, was the best measure adopted, decreasing the proportion of all infected hosts. Particularly, culling hares was more efficacious than culling rabbits to reduce the proportion of infected individuals of all hosts. Likewise, lowering vector contact with hares highly influenced the reduction of the proportion of infected hosts. The reduction of the vector density per host in the park decreased the leishmaniasis incidence of hosts in the park and the urban areas. On the other hand, the reduction of the vector density per host of the urban area (humans, dogs and cats decreased only their affected population, albeit at a higher proportion. The use of insecticide-impregnated collar and vaccination in dogs affected only the infected dogs' population. The parameters related to the vector contact with dog, cat or human do not present a high impact on the other hosts infected by Leishmania. In conclusion, the efficacy of each control strategy was determined, in order to direct future actions

  2. Radon measurements in air in waterworks and indoor swimming pools - a primary mapping project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinko, J.; Mjoenes, L.; Soederman, A.-L.

    2004-01-01

    In 2001 the Swedish Work Environment Authority asked five regional offices around the country; Falun, Malmoe, Vaexjoe, Umeaa and Oerebro, to measure radon in air in workplaces where water was likely to enhance radon levels indoors. Track etch detectors were used and placed in workplaces according to the SSI measurement protocol for determining the annual average radon concentration in homes. Rooms that are frequently used by employees were measured. The detectors were exposed between 1 to 3 months. 225 detectors were used in the project and analysed at the same laboratory. The results showed that the radon concentration in waterworks often is high. Measurements were made in 60 waterworks. Levels exceeding 1000 Bq/m 3 were found in 49 of them and levels exceeding 4000 Bq/m 3 were found in 21 waterworks. The variation between waterworks may be a result of the radon concentration in the raw water, the amount of radon gas escaping to the air when water is treated, the air exchange rate in the building and where the detectors were deployed. Measurements were made in 28 indoor swimming baths. The maximum level was 290 Bq/m 3 , but most concentrations were between 30 to 70 Bq/m 3 . The conclusion is that high radon levels do not seem to be a problem in indoor swimming baths. Maybe this is due to good ventilation or the fact that water often has been treated for radon before it is used in swimming pools. The results from measurement in food industries such as breweries showed no extreme radon levels except for a fish farm where levels over 1000 Bq/m 3 were measured in the farming room and 790 Bq/m 3 in the office. The radon concentrations in laundries were relatively low, between 30 and 170 Bq/m 3

  3. Conducting rigorous research with subgroups of at-risk youth: lessons learned from a teen pregnancy prevention project in Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Hohman-Billmeier

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, Alaska Department of Health and Social Services (DHSS received federal funding to test an evidence-based teen pregnancy prevention program. The grant required a major modification to an existing program and a randomized control trial (RCT to test its effectiveness. As the major modifications, Alaska used peer educators instead of adults to deliver the program to youth aged 14–19 instead of the original curriculum intended age range of 12–14. Cultural and approach adaptations were included as well. After 4 years of implementation and data collection, the sample was too small to provide statistically significant results. The lack of findings gave no information about the modification, nor any explanation of how the curriculum was received, or reasons for the small sample. This paper reports on a case study follow-up to the RCT to better understand outcome and implementation results. For this study, researchers reviewed project documents and interviewed peer educators, state and local staff, and evaluators. Three themes emerged from the data: (a the professional growth of peer educators and development of peer education, (b difficulties resulting from curriculum content, especially for subpopulations of sexually active youth, youth identified as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, intersex and/or asexual, pregnant, and parenting youth and (c the appropriateness of an RCT with subpopulations of at-risk youth. Three recommendations emerged from the case study. First, including as many stakeholders as possible in the program and evaluation design phases is essential, and must be supported by appropriate funding streams and training. Second, there must be recognition of the multiple small subpopulations found in Alaska when adapting programs designed for a larger and more homogeneous population. Third, RCTs may not be appropriate for all population subgroups.

  4. Conducting rigorous research with subgroups of at-risk youth: lessons learned from a teen pregnancy prevention project in Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohman-Billmeier, Kathryn; Nye, Margaret; Martin, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, Alaska Department of Health and Social Services (DHSS) received federal funding to test an evidence-based teen pregnancy prevention program. The grant required a major modification to an existing program and a randomized control trial (RCT) to test its effectiveness. As the major modifications, Alaska used peer educators instead of adults to deliver the program to youth aged 14-19 instead of the original curriculum intended age range of 12-14. Cultural and approach adaptations were included as well. After 4 years of implementation and data collection, the sample was too small to provide statistically significant results. The lack of findings gave no information about the modification, nor any explanation of how the curriculum was received, or reasons for the small sample. This paper reports on a case study follow-up to the RCT to better understand outcome and implementation results. For this study, researchers reviewed project documents and interviewed peer educators, state and local staff, and evaluators. Three themes emerged from the data: (a) the professional growth of peer educators and development of peer education, (b) difficulties resulting from curriculum content, especially for subpopulations of sexually active youth, youth identified as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, intersex and/or asexual, pregnant, and parenting youth and (c) the appropriateness of an RCT with subpopulations of at-risk youth. Three recommendations emerged from the case study. First, including as many stakeholders as possible in the program and evaluation design phases is essential, and must be supported by appropriate funding streams and training. Second, there must be recognition of the multiple small subpopulations found in Alaska when adapting programs designed for a larger and more homogeneous population. Third, RCTs may not be appropriate for all population subgroups.

  5. The German Dunkelfeld project: a pilot study to prevent child sexual abuse and the use of child abusive images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, Klaus M; Grundmann, Dorit; Kuhle, Laura F; Scherner, Gerold; Konrad, Anna; Amelung, Till

    2015-02-01

    Sexual interest toward prepubescents and pubescents (pedophilia and hebephilia) constitutes a major risk factor for child sexual abuse (CSA) and viewing of child abusive images, i.e., child pornography offenses (CPO). Most child sexual exploitation involving CSA and CPO are undetected and unprosecuted in the "Dunkelfeld" (German: "dark field"). This study assesses a treatment program to enhance behavioral control and reduce associated dynamic risk factors (DRF) in self-motivated pedophiles/hebephiles in the Dunkelfeld. Between 2005 and 2011, 319 undetected help-seeking pedophiles and hebephiles expressed interest in taking part in an anonymous and confidential 1-year-treatment program using broad cognitive behavioral methodology in the Prevention Project Dunkelfeld. Therapy was assessed using nonrandomized waiting list control design (n=53 treated group [TG]; n=22 untreated control group [CG]). Self-reported pre-/posttreatment DRF changes were assessed and compared with CG. Offending behavior characteristics were also assessed via self-reporting. No pre-/postassessment changes occurred in the control group. Emotional deficits and offense-supportive cognitions decreased in the TG; posttherapy sexual self-regulation increased. Treatment-related changes were distributed unequally across offender groups. None of the offending behavior reported for the TG was identified as such by the legal authorities. However, five of 25 CSA offenders and 29 of 32 CPO offenders reported ongoing behaviors under therapy. Therapy for pedophiles/hebephiles in the Dunkelfeld can alter child sexual offending DRF and reduce-related behaviors. Unidentified, unlawful child sexual exploitative behaviors are more prevalent in this population than in officially reported recidivism. Further research into factors predictive of problematic sexual behaviors in the Dunkelfeld is warranted. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  6. APPLE Project: 2-y findings of a community-based obesity prevention program in primary school age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Rachael W; McAuley, Kirsten A; Barbezat, Wyn; Strong, Amber; Williams, Sheila M; Mann, Jim I

    2007-09-01

    Developing effective strategies for obesity prevention in children is urgently required. We determined the effectiveness of a 2-y controlled community-based intervention to prevent excessive weight gain in 5-12-y-old children by enhancing opportunities for healthy eating and noncurricular physical activity. Children (n = 730) from 4 intervention and 3 control schools underwent measurements of height, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, diet, and physical activity at baseline and at 1 and 2 y. Intervention components included nutrition education that targeted reductions in sweetened drinks and increased fruit and vegetable intake and activity coordinators who managed an activity program that focused on noncurricular lifestyle-based activities (eg, community walks). Body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2) z score was significantly lower in intervention children than in control children by a mean of 0.09 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.18) after 1 y and 0.26 (95% CI: 0.21, 0.32) at 2 y, but the prevalence of overweight did not differ. Waist circumference was significantly lower at 2 y (-1 cm), and systolic blood pressure was reduced at 1 y (-2.9 mm Hg). An interaction existed between intervention group and overweight status (P = 0.029), such that mean BMI z score was reduced in normal-weight (-0.29; 95% CI: -0.38, -0.21) but not overweight (-0.02; 95% CI: -0.16, 0.12) intervention children relative to controls. Intervention children consumed fewer carbonated beverages (67% of control intake; P = 0.04) and fruit juice or drinks (70%; P = 0.03) and more fruit (0.8 servings/3 d; P nutrition education in schools, significantly reduces the rate of excessive weight gain in children, although this may be limited to those not initially overweight. This trial was registered at Australian Clinical Trials Registry as #12605000578606.

  7. Are dietary habits of the Polish population consistent with the recommendations for prevention of cardiovascular disease? - WOBASZ II project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waśkiewicz, Anna; Szcześniewska, Danuta; Szostak-Węgierek, Dorota; Kwaśniewska, Magdalena; Pająk, Andrzej; Stepaniak, Urszula; Kozakiewicz, Krystyna; Tykarski, Andrzej; Zdrojewski, Tomasz; Zujko, Małgorzata E; Drygas, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    Diet is a modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). To assess diet quality in the adult Polish population, taking into consideration consumption of various nutrients as well as the total diet quality. Within the frame of the National Multicentre Health Survey (WOBASZ II), a random sample of the whole Polish population aged 20 years and above was screened during the years 2013-2014. Dietary habits were assessed in 5690 subjects (2554 men and 3136 women). Nutrient intakes were compared to the Dietary Reference Intakes. Total diet quality was measured using the Healthy Diet Indicator (HDI) score, based on the World Health Organisation recommendations for CVD prevention, that includes 7 nutrients (saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, cholesterol, protein, dietary fibre, fruits and vegetables, free sugars) and ranges from 0 (the least healthy diet) to 7 (the healthiest diet). The studied group was characterised by a high prevalence of overweight and obesity (69% in men vs. 59% in women), hypercholesterolaemia (56% vs. 55%, respectively), hypertension (50% vs. 42%), and diabetes (12% vs. 10%). At the same time, a significant percentage of Poles had improper dietary habits. A low fat and low cholesterol diet was reported by only 8% and a low calorie diet by 1% of the respondents. Adding salt to already seasoned dishes was reported by 27% of men and 18% of women, and 56% and 30% of them, respectively, consumed meat products with visible fat. The diet of most adult Polish citizens was found to be not balanced. Vitamins A, C, E, B1, B2, B6, and B12, protein, dietary cholesterol and fruits/vegetables were consumed in recommended doses only by 44-80% of the respondents. The recommended intake of fat, saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, which significantly affect lipid levels, was found in 18-37% of the respondents. Dietary intakes of folate and minerals important for the prevention of hypertension were insufficient. The desired level of folate

  8. Wireless Sensor for Measuring Pump Efficiency: Small Business Voucher Project with KCF Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL; Liu, Xiaobing [ORNL; Koopman, Gary [KCF Technologies; Fugate, David L [ORNL

    2017-01-23

    This document is to fulfill the final report requirements for the Small Business Voucher (SBV) CRADA project with ORNL and KCF Technologies (CRADA/NFE-16-06133). Pumping systems account for nearly 20% of the world’s electrical energy demand and range from 25-50% of the energy usage in many industrial and building power plants. The energy cost is the largest element in the total cost of owning a pump (~40%). In response to a recent DOE mandate for improved pump efficiency pump manufacturers are preparing for the changes that the impending regulations will bring, including design improvements. This mandate also establishes a need for new low cost pump efficiency measurement systems. The standard industry definition of pump efficiency is the mechanical water horsepower delivered divided by the electrical horsepower input to the motor. KCF Technologies has developed a new sensor measurement technique to estimate fluid pump efficiency using a thermodynamic approach. KCF Technologies applied for a SBV grant with ORNL as the research partner. KCF needed a research partner with the proper facilities to demonstrate the efficacy of its wireless sensor unit for measuring pump efficiency. The ORNL Building Technologies Research and Integration Center (BTRIC) test resources were used to test and demonstrate the successful measurement of pump efficiency with the KCF sensor technology. KCF is now working on next steps to commercialize this sensing technology.

  9. Actinide Capture and Fission Cross Section Measurements Within the Mini-Inca Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letourneau, A.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The Mini-INCA project is devoted to precise description of the transmutation chain of Actinides within high thermal neutron fluxes. It uses the High Flux Reactor of ILL (Laue Langevin Institute) as an intense thermal neutron source to measure capture and fission cross sections. Two irradiation channels are dedicated for those measurements offering a diversity of fluxes ranging from pure thermal neutrons to 15% epithermal neutrons with intensities as high as 1*10 15 n/cm 2 /s. Standard nuclear techniques for measurements, such as α and γ-spectroscopy of irradiated samples, have been extended in order to stand all constraints due to the irradiation in high fluxes. In particular new types of fission micro-chambers have been developed to follow online the evolution of one actinide and to measure its fission cross section in reference to 235 U(n,F) standard reaction. This type of neutron detector will be used within the MEGAPIE target to on-line characterise the neutron flux and to study the potentiality of such target in terms of incineration. (author)

  10. Measurement of the directional sensitivity of Dark Matter Time Projection Chamber detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaconu, Cosmin; Leyton, Michael; Corliss, Ross; Druitt, Gabriela; Eggleston, Richard; Guerrero, Natalia; Henderson, Shawn; Lopez, Jeremy; Monroe, Jocelyn; Fisher, Peter

    2017-06-01

    The dark matter time projection chamber (DMTPC) is a direction-sensitive detector designed to measure the direction of recoiling F 19 and C 12 nuclei in low-pressure CF4 gas using optical and charge readout systems. In this paper, we employ measurements from two DMTPC detectors, with operating pressures of 30-60 torr, to develop and validate a model of the directional response and performance of such detectors as a function of recoil energy. Using our model as a benchmark, we formulate the necessary specifications for a scalable directional detector with sensitivity comparable to that of current-generation counting (nondirectional) experiments, which measure only recoil energy. Assuming the performance of existing DMTPC detectors, as well as current limits on the spin-dependent WIMP-nucleus cross section, we find that a 10-20 kg scale direction-sensitive detector is capable of correlating the measured direction of nuclear recoils with the predicted direction of incident dark matter particles and providing decisive (3 σ ) confirmation that a candidate signal from a nondirectional experiment was indeed induced by elastic scattering of dark matter particles off of target nuclei.

  11. Co-ordinated research project on isotopic evaluations of maternal and child health nutrition to help prevent stunting. Report on the 1. research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The concept for the Co-ordinated Research Programme on isotopic evaluations of maternal and child nutrition to help prevent stunting was a consequence of discussions held between IAEA staff and participants in a regional training course on 'Isotope Techniques in Human Nutrition' held in Lima, Peru in June 1996. The intention then was to develop research on factors influencing the success of lactation and the consequent effects on the breast-fed child. The project would have Latin American participants to promote regional exchange of expertise and ideas. Initial participation was from Argentina, Chile, Mexico, Peru and Venezuela. Brazil and Pakistan have now been added to these. There are three Specific Research Objectives: (1) To develop stable isotope methods for measuring breast-milk intake using regionally available equipment. (2) To apply the methodology in the assessment of milk intake in infants in relation to maternal nutrition, socio-economic status and education, and infant nutrition and intake of macro- and micro-nutrients. (3) To use information gathered at 2) to determine the need for supplementation programmes for mothers and/or infants, and educational programmes for the mothers

  12. A study on fatigue measurement of operators for human error prevention in NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, Oh Yeon; Il, Jang Tong; Meiling, Luo; Hee, Lee Young

    2012-01-01

    The identification and the analysis of individual factor of operators, which is one of the various causes of adverse effects in human performance, is not easy in NPPs. There are work types (including shift), environment, personality, qualification, training, education, cognition, fatigue, job stress, workload, etc in individual factors for the operators. Research at the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health (FIOH) reported that a 'burn out (extreme fatigue)' is related to alcohol dependent habits and must be dealt with using a stress management program. USNRC (U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission) developed FFD (Fitness for Duty) for improving the task efficiency and preventing human errors. 'Managing Fatigue' of 10CFR26 presented as requirements to control operator fatigue in NPPs. The committee explained that excessive fatigue is due to stressful work environments, working hours, shifts, sleep disorders, and unstable circadian rhythms. In addition, an International Labor Organization (ILO) developed and suggested a checklist to manage fatigue and job stress. In domestic, a systematic evaluation way is presented by the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) chapter 18, Human Factors, in the licensing process. However, it almost focused on the interface design such as HMI (Human Machine Interface), not individual factors. In particular, because our country is in a process of the exporting the NPP to UAE, the development and setting of fatigue management technique is important and urgent to present the technical standard and FFD criteria to UAE. And also, it is anticipated that the domestic regulatory body applies the FFD program as the regulation requirement so that a preparation for that situation is required. In this paper, advanced researches are investigated to find the fatigue measurement and evaluation methods of operators in a high reliability industry. Also, this study tries to review the NRC report and discuss the causal factors and management

  13. A study on fatigue measurement of operators for human error prevention in NPPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, Oh Yeon; Il, Jang Tong; Meiling, Luo; Hee, Lee Young [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    The identification and the analysis of individual factor of operators, which is one of the various causes of adverse effects in human performance, is not easy in NPPs. There are work types (including shift), environment, personality, qualification, training, education, cognition, fatigue, job stress, workload, etc in individual factors for the operators. Research at the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health (FIOH) reported that a 'burn out (extreme fatigue)' is related to alcohol dependent habits and must be dealt with using a stress management program. USNRC (U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission) developed FFD (Fitness for Duty) for improving the task efficiency and preventing human errors. 'Managing Fatigue' of 10CFR26 presented as requirements to control operator fatigue in NPPs. The committee explained that excessive fatigue is due to stressful work environments, working hours, shifts, sleep disorders, and unstable circadian rhythms. In addition, an International Labor Organization (ILO) developed and suggested a checklist to manage fatigue and job stress. In domestic, a systematic evaluation way is presented by the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) chapter 18, Human Factors, in the licensing process. However, it almost focused on the interface design such as HMI (Human Machine Interface), not individual factors. In particular, because our country is in a process of the exporting the NPP to UAE, the development and setting of fatigue management technique is important and urgent to present the technical standard and FFD criteria to UAE. And also, it is anticipated that the domestic regulatory body applies the FFD program as the regulation requirement so that a preparation for that situation is required. In this paper, advanced researches are investigated to find the fatigue measurement and evaluation methods of operators in a high reliability industry. Also, this study tries to review the NRC report and discuss the causal factors and

  14. Outbreak of resistant Acinetobacter baumannii: measures and proposal for prevention and control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Maia de Castro Romanelli

    Full Text Available Acinetobacter baumannii colonization and infection, frequent in Intensive Care Unit (ICU patients, is commonly associated with high morbimortality. Several outbreaks due to multidrug-resistant (MDR A. baumanii have been reported but few of them in Brazil. This study aimed to identify risk factors associated with colonization and infection by MDR and carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii strains isolated from patients admitted to the adult ICU at HC/UFMG. A case-control study was performed from January 2007 to June 2008. Cases were defined as patients colonized or infected by MDR/carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii, and controls were patients without MDR/carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii isolation, in a 1:2 proportion. For statistical analysis, due to changes in infection control guidelines, infection criteria and the notification process, this study was divided into two periods. During the first period analyzed, from January to December 2007, colonization or infection by MDR/carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii was associated with prior infection, invasive device utilization, prior carbapenem use and clinical severity. In the multivariate analysis, prior infection and mechanical ventilation proved to be statistically significant risk factors. Carbapenem use showed a tendency towards a statistical association. During the second study period, from January to June 2008, variables with a significant association with MDR/carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii colonization/infection were catheter utilization, carbapenem and third-generation cephalosporin use, hepatic transplantation, and clinical severity. In the multivariate analysis, only CVC use showed a statistical difference. Carbapenem and third-generation cephalosporin use displayed a tendency to be risk factors. Risk factors must be focused on infection control and prevention measures considering A. baumanni dissemination.

  15. Using and interpreting mental health measures in the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Carolyn; Hedberg, E C; Kozloski, Michael; Dale, William; McClintock, Martha K

    2014-11-01

    National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP) included five unique mental health measures in Waves 1 and 2 that researchers can use to measure the overall emotional health of participants: depressive symptoms, happiness-unhappiness, anxiety symptoms, perceived stress, and felt loneliness. For each, we detail the rationale for its development and explain how to score, analyze, and interpret results. NSHAP developed its measures by modifying traditional short-form scales to improve response efficiency and reduce respondent burden. Scoring protocols and interpretations were developed for each measure. U.S. population estimates for older adults born between 1920 and 1947 were generated using age-eligible samples from Waves 1 and 2. NSHAP's protocols yielded U.S. prevalence rates similar to other nationally representative studies of older adults and comparable between waves. Higher estimates of anxiety symptoms and perceived stress in Wave 2 compared with Wave 1 were explained by age, administration mode, and time period. Analytic strategies for longitudinal analyses are provided. In Wave 2, mental health generally was worse at older ages, with women having more symptoms at younger ages than men. Women had fewer anxiety symptoms at the oldest ages. NSHAP's mental health measures were successfully integrated into the project's survey and showed acceptable external reliability as well as moderately stable individual characteristics across the 5 years between Waves 1 and 2. Depressive symptoms and unhappiness may form a mental health cluster in the elderly, distinct from anxiety symptoms, perceived stress, and felt loneliness. Gender differences in age-specific patterns of mental health were evident using the exact age of participants rather than the traditional decade groupings. Administration mode and time period (between 2005-2006 and 2010-2011) were determined to be potential confounds that need to be accommodated in longitudinal analyses of aging, whereas

  16. Infection prevention and control measures and tools for the prevention of entry of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae into healthcare settings: guidance from the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Magiorakos

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infections with carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE are increasingly being reported from patients in healthcare settings. They are associated with high patient morbidity, attributable mortality and hospital costs. Patients who are “at-risk” may be carriers of these multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (MDR-E. The purpose of this guidance is to raise awareness and identify the “at-risk” patient when admitted to a healthcare setting and to outline effective infection prevention and control measures to halt the entry and spread of CRE. Methods The guidance was created by a group of experts who were functioning independently of their organisations, during two meetings hosted by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. A list of epidemiological risk factors placing patients “at-risk” for carriage with CRE was created by the experts. The conclusions of a systematic review on the prevention of spread of CRE, with the addition of expert opinion, were used to construct lists of core and supplemental infection prevention and control measures to be implemented for “at-risk” patients upon admission to healthcare settings. Results Individuals with the following profile are “at-risk” for carriage of CRE: a a history of an overnight stay in a healthcare setting in the last 12 months, b dialysis-dependent or cancer chemotherapy in the last 12 months, c known previous carriage of CRE in the last 12 months and d epidemiological linkage to a known carrier of a CRE. Core infection prevention and control measures that should be considered for all patients in healthcare settings were compiled. Preliminary supplemental measures to be implemented for “at-risk” patients on admission are: pre-emptive isolation, active screening for CRE, and contact precautions. Patients who are confirmed positive for CRE will need additional supplemental measures. Conclusions Strengthening the microbiological

  17. THE MEASUREMENT AND EVALUATION OF THE INTERNAL COMMUNICATION PROCESS IN PROJECT MANAGEMENT