WorldWideScience

Sample records for prevention programs work

  1. Collecting costs of community prevention programs: communities putting prevention to work initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khavjou, Olga A; Honeycutt, Amanda A; Hoerger, Thomas J; Trogdon, Justin G; Cash, Amanda J

    2014-08-01

    Community-based programs require substantial investments of resources; however, evaluations of these programs usually lack analyses of program costs. Costs of community-based programs reported in previous literature are limited and have been estimated retrospectively. To describe a prospective cost data collection approach developed for the Communities Putting Prevention to Work (CPPW) program capturing costs for community-based tobacco use and obesity prevention strategies. A web-based cost data collection instrument was developed using an activity-based costing approach. Respondents reported quarterly expenditures on labor; consultants; materials, travel, and services; overhead; partner efforts; and in-kind contributions. Costs were allocated across CPPW objectives and strategies organized around five categories: media, access, point of decision/promotion, price, and social support and services. The instrument was developed in 2010, quarterly data collections took place in 2011-2013, and preliminary analysis was conducted in 2013. Preliminary descriptive statistics are presented for the cost data collected from 51 respondents. More than 50% of program costs were for partner organizations, and over 20% of costs were for labor hours. Tobacco communities devoted the majority of their efforts to media strategies. Obesity communities spent more than half of their resources on access strategies. Collecting accurate cost information on health promotion and disease prevention programs presents many challenges. The approach presented in this paper is one of the first efforts successfully collecting these types of data and can be replicated for collecting costs from other programs. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  2. Health Prevention Program: the cornerstone for a safe work environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores-Andrade, Augusto; Benalcazar, Fernando L. [EnCanEcuador S.A., Quito (Ecuador)

    2004-07-01

    EnCana in Ecuador is deeply committed through the sustainable development by minimizing and controlling hazards, while contributing to the well being of the people and protecting the environment of the communities where we operate, the health and safety of our employees, as well as preventing any loss and ensuring business continuity. To ensure a safe work environment for all our employees and Contractors, the Company has conducted a complete Risk Evaluation, considering: physical, biological, chemical, ergonomics and psychosocial factors. Based on this Map of Risks, the exposure level and the age of the employee, the Medical Department established four different routines of medical exams (pre-occupational and occupational), which are conducted on a regular two years basis, or even in a shorter period of time, if required. Additionally, medical exams are conducted when an employee is transferred to a different position. All employees have their own records, which document their medical shape when enrolled, at any time while working, and when the person leaves the Company. This allows diagramming the history of employees, the following information: X Axis (horizontal) Age of the employee when enrolled, years (chronological) and position when the exams are conducted. Y Axis (vertical) Capability in terms of percentage, of different organs and physiology (audiometric, ears, lungs, etc.). All this information is processed by the EHS Department, which in conjunction with other departments, plan improvement Safety measures to avoid the exposure of the employees to those factors above mentioned, minimizing potential losses and reducing dramatically costs of accidents and absenteeism. Exactly the same concept is being implemented with Contractors, which must also comply with these requirements. Follow-up of all recommendations is conducted on a regular basis by the Employees, Contractors and Management (Executive) EHS Committees. (author)

  3. Effects of a work injury prevention program for housekeeping in the hotel industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landers, Merrill; Maguire, Lynn

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the effectiveness of a work injury prevention program in the housekeeping department of a hotel. Studies have validated the use of different injury prevention strategies to decrease the incidence of work-related injuries. Few studies, however, have reported the efficacy of an on-site work injury prevention program by a physical therapist. In 1995, implementation of a work injury prevention program by a physical therapist to 50 housekeeping supervisors, 60 house persons and 340 guest room attendants at a large hotel began. This program included a detailed work risk analysis of the work environment, development of job descriptions, identification of injury-related problematic work situations, and implementation of a job specific supervisor-training program. Supervisor, house person and guest room attendant training was also conducted at the end of 1995 and the beginning of 1997. Data of injury reports in 1995, 1996, and 1997 were analyzed to determine the results of the program. There was a reduction in total injury claims, total medical expenses, total lost work time and total restricted duty time. These results demonstrate the cost effectiveness of implementing a work injury prevention program for housekeeping guest room attendants in the hotel industry. Copyright 2004 IOS Press

  4. Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recruiting Patients & Families Consortia, Networks & Centers Reports & Planning Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) The NIDDK-sponsored Diabetes Prevention ... Diabetes Prevention Program for those who are eligible. Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) DPP Goal The DPP looked ...

  5. Putting program evaluation to work: a framework for creating actionable knowledge for suicide prevention practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Natalie; Thigpen, Sally; Lockman, Jennifer; Mackin, Juliette; Madden, Mary; Perkins, Tamara; Schut, James; Van Regenmorter, Christina; Williams, Lygia; Donovan, John

    2013-06-01

    The economic and human cost of suicidal behavior to individuals, families, communities, and society makes suicide a serious public health concern, both in the US and around the world. As research and evaluation continue to identify strategies that have the potential to reduce or ultimately prevent suicidal behavior, the need for translating these findings into practice grows. The development of actionable knowledge is an emerging process for translating important research and evaluation findings into action to benefit practice settings. In an effort to apply evaluation findings to strengthen suicide prevention practice, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) supported the development of three actionable knowledge products that make key findings and lessons learned from youth suicide prevention program evaluations accessible and useable for action. This paper describes the actionable knowledge framework (adapted from the knowledge transfer literature), the three products that resulted, and recommendations for further research into this emerging method for translating research and evaluation findings and bridging the knowledge-action gap.

  6. Work hazard prevention plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albertos Campos, F.

    2009-01-01

    The prevention of industrial risks is a constantly evolving discipline that has changed considerable in the last 25 years. The Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plants has always been operated with a clear policy favoring prevention by supporting the principle of its integration, i. e., that the hierarchical functional organization of the company make sure that industrial risk prevention is effective and that health and safety standards are met. The historical evolution of occupational safety in the Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plant shows a a clear trend towards improvement and is the results of many years of hard work and effort by the plants own and contractor personnel in the field of industrial risk prevention. (Author)

  7. Implementation between text and work-a qualitative study of a readmission prevention program targeting elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehn, Sara Fokdal; Thuesen, Jette; Bunkenborg, Gitte; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe; Rod, Morten Hulvej

    2018-03-01

    Numerous studies emphasize the importance of context in implementation. Successful implementation across the health care system depends on conditions and requirements that are often presented to health professionals through text-based materials and might present contradictory expectations to the work of health professionals. In this study, we operationalize institutional context as the text-based material, which from the perspective of health professionals, influence health care work. Via the case of a readmission prevention program for elderly patients, we examine the experiences of health professionals that work with implementation, concerning the contradictions that arise between the demands imposed by program implementation and their everyday work routines, and the role of text-based materials in these contradictions. We conducted five focus group interviews among health professionals working at different locations in a single administrative region of Denmark. The 24 health professionals in our study included hospital physicians, hospital nurses, medical secretaries, municipal care managers, registered municipal nurses, and general practitioners. All focus group interviews were transcribed verbatim. Inspired by institutional ethnography, we look into text-based materials, such as written guidelines, if health professionals indicate they are important. The health professionals experience that specific demands of the readmission prevention program come into conflict with the existing demands and daily work routines. Professional resistance to control and the existing digital communication tools create tensions with a program requirement for standardized enrollment of patients to the program. In addition, the striving for autonomy among health professionals and the high level of mono-professional working routines create tension with the program requirements for an additional amount of interdisciplinary work. The different demands are widely mediated by text

  8. Differentiated Typology of Sex Work and Implication for HIV Prevention Programs among Female Sex Workers in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Shiva Raj; Neupane, Sanjeev Raj

    2015-01-01

    Sex work in exchange for kind and cash has long been practiced in Nepal. The HIV prevention program in Nepal is focused mainly on these two typologies of sex work. There might be more typologies of sex work beyond streets and establishments seeking research and programmatic attention. The objective of the study is to explore the differentiated typologies of sex work. This is a cross-sectional study conducted using a qualitative technique. Researchers carried out eight Focus Group Discussions with female sex workers (FSWs) (n = 50) in different places of Tanahu district. Data were analyzed using a deductive thematic analysis approach. We identified a more differentiated typology of sex work. Private contact-based sex work and the covert sex work on the cruising areas along the major highways were common. Sex work has become easier to operate with the advent of new technologies such as cell phone. With limited role of facilitation by brokers and pimps, now FSWs are better off and have longer duration of relationship with clients. Soft prostitution was common, as FSWs complemented their income through sex work. The conventional mode of peer and outreach educational approach needs to be further strengthened and modified according to the changing typology of sex work. HIV testing sites need to be further expanded to cruising areas along the highways.

  9. Differentiated typology of sex work and implication for HIV prevention programs among female sex workers in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Raj Mishra

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundSex work in exchange for kind and cash has long been practiced in Nepal. The HIV prevention program in Nepal is focused mainly on these two typologies of sex work. There might be more typologies of sex work beyond streets and establishments seeking research and programmatic attention. The objective of the study is to explore the differentiated typologies of sex work.MethodsThis is a cross sectional study conducted using a qualitative technique. Researchers carried out eight Focus Group Discussions with Female Sex Workers (FSWs (n=50 in different places of Tanahu district. Data was analyzed using a deductive thematic analysis approach.ResultsWe identified a more differentiated typology of sex work. Private contact-based sex work and the covert sex work on the cruising areas along the major highways were common. Sex work has become easier to operate with the advent of new technologies such as cellphone. With limited role of facilitation by brokers and pimps, now FSWs are better off and have longer duration of relationship with clients. Soft prostitution was common, as FSWs complemented their income through sex work.ConclusionsThe conventional mode of peer and outreach educational approach needs to be further strengthened and modified according to the changing typology of sex work. HIV testing sites need to be further expanded to cruising areas along the highways.

  10. Differentiated Typology of Sex Work and Implication for HIV Prevention Programs among Female Sex Workers in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Shiva Raj; Neupane, Sanjeev Raj

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sex work in exchange for kind and cash has long been practiced in Nepal. The HIV prevention program in Nepal is focused mainly on these two typologies of sex work. There might be more typologies of sex work beyond streets and establishments seeking research and programmatic attention. The objective of the study is to explore the differentiated typologies of sex work. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted using a qualitative technique. Researchers carried out eight Focus Group Discussions with female sex workers (FSWs) (n = 50) in different places of Tanahu district. Data were analyzed using a deductive thematic analysis approach. Results: We identified a more differentiated typology of sex work. Private contact-based sex work and the covert sex work on the cruising areas along the major highways were common. Sex work has become easier to operate with the advent of new technologies such as cell phone. With limited role of facilitation by brokers and pimps, now FSWs are better off and have longer duration of relationship with clients. Soft prostitution was common, as FSWs complemented their income through sex work. Conclusion: The conventional mode of peer and outreach educational approach needs to be further strengthened and modified according to the changing typology of sex work. HIV testing sites need to be further expanded to cruising areas along the highways. PMID:25785259

  11. Youth Suicide Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalafat, John

    2006-01-01

    Youth suicide prevention programs are described that promote the identification and referral of at-risk youth, address risk factors, and promote protective factors. Emphasis is on programs that are both effective and sustainable in applied settings.

  12. When Informing About Eating Disorders Exacerbates the Problem Instead of Preventing it: Which Programs Work and Which Ones do not?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Faccio

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, we find in the literature many researches and related theories about body diseases and eating disorders in adolescence. Basing on these theories, the health promotion interventions at school are inclined to give youth the outcomes of risk behavior analysis, in the development of eating disorders. Those interventions lack of consideration regarding what students already think about the origins of the diseases. In this work we seek for the spontaneous ideas about developing of eating disorders and theories about how these problems could be prevented at school. In order to do that, we constructed an ad hoc survey which have been validated. Using the factorial analysis, we recognized three factors that participants used to explain the disorder: Relationship with parents, self-harm and mental illness; Organic illness; and Social comparison and social acceptance. The analysis of the data suggest that, in the schools that did not have programs of health promotion on food and the body (70%, students are more vulnerable to eating disorder. Among the others, the factor considered the most important by the students of these school, was the social comparison and social acceptance. On the contrary, the students who participated to the health programs on this topic, were more likely to consider responsible the relationships with parents, mental illness and self-harm. Considering the outcomes, we could suggest to rethink the methods utilized to promote health programs for preventing eating disorders at school.

  13. Does a Gatekeeper Suicide Prevention Program Work in a School Setting? Evaluating Training Outcome and Moderators of Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Tanya L.; Witt, Jody; Abraibesh, Nadia

    2009-01-01

    The current study sought to evaluate the suicide prevention gatekeeper training program QPR (Question, Persuade, and Refer) among school personnel using a non-equivalent control group design. Substantial gains were demonstrated from pre- to post-test for attitudes, knowledge, and beliefs regarding suicide and suicide prevention. Exploratory…

  14. Poison Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Substance Misuse and Addiction Prevention Finance & Management Services Health Care , Technology: For more info about the national Poison Help program and to request materials visit: http Seniors & Disabilities Services Substance Misuse and Addiction Prevention State of Alaska myAlaska My

  15. What Works to Prevent Adolescent Smoking? A Systematic Review of the National Cancer Institute's Research-Tested Intervention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Elyse J.; Primack, Brian A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Cigarette use remains the leading preventable cause of death in the United States. Although school is an ideal setting for antismoking interventions, school-based programs have not been successful in the long term. The purpose of this study was to explore characteristics of programs deemed to be successful short-term Research-Tested…

  16. Prevention program at construction worksites aimed at improving health and work ability is cost-saving to the employer: Results from an RCT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Hengel, K.M.; Bosmans, J.E.; Dongen, J.M. van; Bongers, P.M.; Beek, A.J. van der; Blatter, B.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: To prolong sustainable healthy working lives of construction workers, a prevention program was developed which aimed to improve the health and work ability of construction workers. The objective of this study was to analyze the cost-effectiveness and financial return from the employers'

  17. Sex work, syphilis, and seeking treatment: an opportunity for intervention in HIV prevention programming in Karnataka, South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sharmistha; Moses, Stephen; Hanumaiah, Prakash K; Washington, Reynold; Alary, Michel; Ramesh, B M; Isac, Shajy; Blanchard, James F

    2009-03-01

    To measure the determinants of syphilis among female sex workers (FSWs) in the state of Karnataka, South India. During 2004-2006, cross-sectional surveys were administered to 2312 FSWs across 5 districts in the state, in the context of a large-scale HIV preventive intervention program. Demographic and behavioral information, and serum (for syphilis, HSV-2 and HIV) and urine specimens (for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis) were obtained. The prevalences of lifetime (TPHA positive) and active (RPR and TPHA positive) syphilis were 25.3% and 9.6%, respectively. There was considerable variation in the prevalence between districts, ranging from 10.9% to 37.4% lifetime, and 3.4% to 24.9% active infection. Factors associated with lifetime syphilis were older age, longer duration of sex work, illiteracy, client volume, practising sex work in >1 city, and sex work typology (public solicitation followed by brothel or lodge-based sex). The same typology, client volume, illiteracy, and having been widowed, divorced or deserted, were predictive of active infection. Of the 976 women who had symptoms of an STI, 78.8% had sought medical treatment, behavior that was protective for both outcomes. HIV infection was strongly associated with lifetime (OR 2.0; 95% CI: 1.6-2.6) and active syphilis (OR 2.1; 95% CI: 1.5-2.9). Despite reasonable treatment-seeking behavior, the high prevalence of syphilis has necessitated enhanced outreach efforts for FSWs and acceleration of the implementation of syphilis screening. Mobilizing resources to enhance syphilis control will not only reduce the burden of syphilis morbidity, but should impact in reducing HIV transmission.

  18. A Mediation Analysis of a Tobacco Prevention Program for Adolescents in India: How Did Project MYTRI Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stigler, Melissa Harrell; Perry, Cheryl L.; Smolenski, Derek; Arora, Monika; Reddy, K. Srinath

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the results of a mediation analysis of Project MYTRI (Mobilizing Youth for Tobacco Related Initiatives in India), a randomized, controlled trial of a multiple-component, school-based tobacco prevention program for sixth- to ninth-graders (n = 14,085) in Delhi and Chennai, India. A mediation analysis identifies "how"…

  19. The effectiveness of a construction worksite prevention program on work ability, health, and sick leave: Results from a cluster randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Hengel, K.M.; Blatter, B.M.; Molen, H.F. van der; Bongers, P.M.; Beek, A.J. van der

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of a prevention program on work ability, health, and sick leave targeted at construction worksites. Methods A total of 15 departments (N=297 workers) from 6 construction companies participated in this cluster randomized controlled trial and

  20. Grant Programs for Pollution Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics is responsible for overseeing several grant programs for tribes and states which promote pollution prevention through source reduction and resource conservation.

  1. Prevention of Child Sexual Abuse within the Family System: Guidelines for an Educational Social Group Work Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masilo, Daniel Tuelo

    2018-02-28

    Children have the right to be brought up in safe environments. However, this right is often infringed by people who are supposed to provide love, care, and protection to children. These people can include biological fathers, step-fathers, brothers, cousins, aunts, mothers, and uncles. Violation of children takes place in a variety of ways, however, for the purpose of this paper, the focus is on child sexual abuse within the family system. A literature review is adopted as the methodology for the discussions in this paper. The purpose of this paper is firstly to demonstrate that child sexual abuse happens within the family system in South Africa, and secondly, to argue that the prevention of child sexual abuse should start within the family system and this can be achieved by conducting educational social group work sessions on child sexual abuse with the family members.

  2. Abandoned works program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnott, A.

    2007-01-01

    Thousands of improperly abandoned or decommissioned oil and gas wells are threatening the purity of Ontario's source water. This presentation discussed an abandoned works program developed by the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. The abandoned works program was established in 2005 in order to plug old oil and gas wells. The program was designed to create a list of abandoned wells, develop a coherent policy, and formulate procurement and contracting protocols. Abandoned wells are defined as wells drilled prior to 1963 with no operator other than the current landowner. There are currently over 200 prioritized wells on the list. Twenty-six contracts have been issued for a total of 33 wells, and 19 wells have been plugged since the program's field operations began in 2006. However, the program is often challenged by the difficulties associated with determining where the wells are located. Many of the wells have been cut off and buried, and access is often dependent on weather conditions and road restrictions. There is also a shortage of contractors who have experience working with older wells. It was concluded that the program will expand by obtaining further funding and modifying its qualification criteria. tabs., figs

  3. Pollution prevention/waste minimization program 1998 fiscal year work plan - WBS 1.11.2.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howald, S.C.; Merry, D.S.

    1997-09-01

    Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization (P2/WMin) is the Department of Energy's preferred approach to environmental management. The P2/WMin mission is to eliminate or minimize waste generation, pollutant releases to the environment, use of toxic substances, and to conserve resources by implementing cost-effective pollution prevention technologies, practices, and polices

  4. For whom does it work? Subgroup differences in the effects of a school-based universal prevention program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spilt, J.L.; Koot, H.M.; van Lier, P.A.C.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined subgroup differences in the effectiveness of a universal classroom-based preventive intervention. The Good Behavior Game (GBG) was delivered in Grade 1 and 2 in a randomized controlled trial including 759 students. Changes in externalizing and internalizing problems were modeled

  5. Staff Directory | Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program values the contributions of its fellows and works to provide relevant and useful experiences in research and education in return. Our staff is here to provide unwavering support and guidance to each fellow as they progress through the program.

  6. Working towards More Effective Implementation, Dissemination and Scale-Up of Lower-Limb Injury-Prevention Programs: Insights from Community Australian Football Coaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlashan, Angela; Verrinder, Glenda; Verhagen, Evert

    2018-02-16

    Disseminating lower-limb injury-prevention exercise programs (LL-IPEPs) with strategies that effectively reach coaches across sporting environments is a way of preventing lower-limb injuries (LLIs) and ensuring safe and sustainable sport participation. The aim of this study was to explore community-Australian Football (community-AF) coaches' perspectives on the strategies they believed would enhance the dissemination and scale-up of LL-IPEPs. Using a qualitative multiple case study design, semi-structured interviews with community-AF coaches in Victoria, Australia, were conducted. Overall, coaches believed a range of strategies were important including: coach education, policy drivers, overcoming potential problem areas, a 'try before you buy approach', presenting empirical evidence and guidelines for injury-prevention exercise programs (IPEPs), forming strategic collaboration and working in partnership, communication and social marketing, public meetings, development of a coach hotline, and targeted multi-focused approaches. A shift to a culture whereby evidence-based IPEP practices in community-AF will take time, and persistent commitment by all involved in the sport is important. This will support the creation of strategies that will enhance the dissemination and scale-up of LL-IPEPs across community sport environments. The focus of research needs to continue to identify effective, holistic and multi-level interventions to support coaches in preventing LLIs. This could lead to the determination of successful strategies such as behavioural regulation strategies and emotional coping resources to implement LL-IPEPs into didactic curricula and practice. Producing changes in practice will require attention to which strategies are a priority and the most effective.

  7. Working towards More Effective Implementation, Dissemination and Scale-Up of Lower-Limb Injury-Prevention Programs: Insights from Community Australian Football Coaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela McGlashan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Disseminating lower-limb injury-prevention exercise programs (LL-IPEPs with strategies that effectively reach coaches across sporting environments is a way of preventing lower-limb injuries (LLIs and ensuring safe and sustainable sport participation. The aim of this study was to explore community-Australian Football (community-AF coaches’ perspectives on the strategies they believed would enhance the dissemination and scale-up of LL-IPEPs. Using a qualitative multiple case study design, semi-structured interviews with community-AF coaches in Victoria, Australia, were conducted. Overall, coaches believed a range of strategies were important including: coach education, policy drivers, overcoming potential problem areas, a ‘try before you buy approach’, presenting empirical evidence and guidelines for injury-prevention exercise programs (IPEPs, forming strategic collaboration and working in partnership, communication and social marketing, public meetings, development of a coach hotline, and targeted multi-focused approaches. A shift to a culture whereby evidence-based IPEP practices in community-AF will take time, and persistent commitment by all involved in the sport is important. This will support the creation of strategies that will enhance the dissemination and scale-up of LL-IPEPs across community sport environments. The focus of research needs to continue to identify effective, holistic and multi-level interventions to support coaches in preventing LLIs. This could lead to the determination of successful strategies such as behavioural regulation strategies and emotional coping resources to implement LL-IPEPs into didactic curricula and practice. Producing changes in practice will require attention to which strategies are a priority and the most effective.

  8. Violence prevention at work. A business perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, C W

    2001-02-01

    The risk of workplace violence varies depending on the type and location of the business. Business managers should assess violence risk and develop a program based on the level of risk faced by their employees. This assessment should include: (1) a review of workplace security and identification of positions with increased risk of exposure to violence, (2) risk reduction through environmental design and employee training, (3) development of a plan and identification of professional resources to respond to incidents should they occur, and (4) communication of the employer's commitment to providing a safe work environment for employees. For most businesses, threat assessment and management comprise the cornerstone of a workplace violence-prevention program. Planning and preparation are key to workplace violence prevention.

  9. Pollution prevention program implementation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engel, J.A.

    1996-09-01

    The Pollution Prevention Program Implementation Plan (the Plan) describes the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (PNNL) Pollution Prevention (P2) Program. The Plan also shows how the P2 Program at PNNL will be in support of and in compliance with the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention (WMin/P2) Awareness Program Plan and the Hanford Site Guide for Preparing and Maintaining Generator Group Pollution Prevention Program Documentation. In addition, this plan describes how PNNL will demonstrate compliance with various legal and policy requirements for P2. This plan documents the strategy for implementing the PNNL P2 Program. The scope of the P2 Program includes implementing and helping to implement P2 activities at PNNL. These activities will be implemented according to the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) hierarchy of source reduction, recycling, treatment, and disposal. The PNNL P2 Program covers all wastes generated at the Laboratory. These include hazardous waste, low-level radioactive waste, radioactive mixed waste, radioactive liquid waste system waste, polychlorinated biphenyl waste, transuranic waste, and sanitary waste generated by activities at PNNL. Materials, resource, and energy conservation are also within the scope of the PNNL P2 Program

  10. Municipal water pollution prevention program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-03-01

    EPA believes that the most effective and equitable means of assuring viability of this infrastructure is through environmentally preferred pollution prevention approaches especially through application of Municipal Water Pollution Prevention (MWPP). These approaches may enhance worker safety, improve the usability of sludge, increase the ability for local community expansion, and reduce operation and compliance costs. State-based municipal pollution prevention programs focus attention on a series of actions to prevent pollution in advance rather than taking more expensive corrective actions. MWPP encourages resource conservation to reduce water and energy use, appropriate pricing, toxicity reductions at the source, BOD reductions, recycling, proper treatment of wastes, and beneficial uses of sludge

  11. Training program attracts work and health researchers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skakon, Janne

    2007-01-01

    Each year in Canada, the costs of disability arising from work-related causes – including workers’ compensation and health-care costs – exceed $6.7 billion. Despite the significant financial and social impacts of worker injury and illness, only a small fraction of Canadian researchers are dedicated...... to examining work disability prevention issues. An innovative program that attracts international students, the Work Disability Prevention Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) Strategic Training Program, aims to build research capacity in young researchers and to create a strong network that examines...

  12. Days La Familia community drug and alcohol prevention program: Family-centered model for working with inner-city Hispanic families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, L P; Lucero, E

    1996-03-01

    Substance abuse among Hispanics is on the increase despite national efforts toward reducing it. Researchers and service providers have recognized the specific need for better prevention models that address the issues of poor Hispanics. La Familia is a community-based ATOD prevention program that targets Hispanic families with high-risk youth from 6 to 11 years old, and attempts to reduce identified risk factors while building on culturally relevant protective factors. During the 2 years, the program has enrolled 219 youth and their families utilizing existing community networks and aggressive outreach. The program resulted in a 92% retention rate and over 80% attendance per session. As a result of the program, families became more willing to discuss ATOD issues openly and made positive steps toward empowerment.

  13. Pollution Prevention Program: Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has established a national Research, Development, Demonstration, Testing, and Evaluation (RDDT ampersand E) Program for pollution prevention and waste minimization at its production plants During FY89/90 the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM), through the Office of Technology Development (OTD), established comprehensive, pollution prevention technical support programs to demonstrate new, environmentally-conscious technology for production processes. The RDDT ampersand E program now entails collaborative efforts across DOE. The Pollution Prevention Program is currently supporting three major activities: The DOE/US Air Force Memorandum of Understanding Program is a collaborative effort to utilize the combined resources of DOE and the Department of Defense, eliminate duplication of effort in developing technologies, and to facilitate technology solutions aimed at reducing waste through process modification, material substitution or recycling. The Waste Component Recycle, Treatment and Disposal Integrated Demonstration (WeDID) will develop recycle, treatment, and disposal processes and associated technologies for use in the dismantlement of non-nuclear weapons components, to support US arms treaties and policies. This program will focus on meeting all security and regulatory requirements (with additional benefit to the commercial electronics industry). The Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing Integrated Demonstration (ECMID) will effectively implement ECM technologies that address both the needs of the DOE Complex and US electronics industry, and encourage strong interaction between DOE and US industry. The ECMID will also develop life cycle analysis tools that will aid decisionmakers in selecting the optimum process based on the tradeoffs between cost an environmental impact

  14. Science and Success: Sex Education and Other Programs That Work to Prevent Teen Pregnancy, HIV, and Sexually Transmitted Infections. Second Edition. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alford, Sue

    2008-01-01

    Until recently, teen pregnancy and birth rates had declined in the United States. Despite these declines, U.S. teen birth and sexually transmitted infection (STI) rates remain among the highest in the industrialized world. Given the need to focus limited prevention resources on effective programs, Advocates for Youth undertook exhaustive reviews…

  15. NWMO transportation technical work program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatton, C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes technical work program for the transportation nuclear waste by the Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO). Transportation work program involves risk assessment which under normal conditions involves dose assessment to the worker and the public as well as consideration of transportation system routing and operations. It also involves possible accident scenarios using forensic modelling and probability analysis.

  16. NWMO transportation technical work program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatton, C. [Nuclear Waste Management Organization, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    This paper describes technical work program for the transportation nuclear waste by the Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO). Transportation work program involves risk assessment which under normal conditions involves dose assessment to the worker and the public as well as consideration of transportation system routing and operations. It also involves possible accident scenarios using forensic modelling and probability analysis.

  17. Pollution prevention program plan 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This plan serves as the principal crosscutting guidance to Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters, Operations Office, laboratory, and contractor management to fully implement pollution prevention programs within the DOE complex between now and 2000. To firmly demonstrate DOE's commitment to pollution prevention, the Secretary of Energy has established goals, to be achieved by December 31, 1999, that will aggressively reduce DOE's routine generation of radioactive, mixed, and hazardous wastes, and total releases and offsite transfers of toxic chemicals. The Secretary also has established sanitary waste reduction, recycling, and affirmative procurement goals. Site progress in meeting these goals will be reported annually to the Secretary in the Annual Report on Waste Generation and Waste Minimization Progress, using 1993 as the baseline year. Implementation of this plan will represent a major step toward reducing the environmental risks and costs associated with DOE operations

  18. BEST PRACTICE IN INDIVIDUAL SUPERVISION OF PSYCHOLOGISTS WORKING IN THE FRENCH CAPEDP PREVENTIVE PERINATAL HOME-VISITING PROGRAM: RESULTS OF A DELPHI CONSENSUS PROCESS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greacen, Tim; Welniarz, Bertrand; Purper-Ouakil, Diane; Wendland, Jaqueline; Dugravier, Romain; Saïas, Thomas; Tereno, Susana; Tubach, Florence; Haddad, Alain; Guedeney, Antoine

    2017-03-01

    Individual supervision of home-visiting professionals has proved to be a key element for perinatal home-visiting programs. Although studies have been published concerning quality criteria for supervision in North American contexts, little is known about this subject in other national settings. In the context of the CAPEDP program (Compétences parentales et Attachement dans la Petite Enfance: Diminution des risques liés aux troubles de santé mentale et Promotion de la résilience; Parental Skills and Attachment in Early Childhood: Reducing Mental Health Risks and Promoting Resilience), the first randomized controlled perinatal mental health promotion research program to take place in France, this article describes the results of a study using the Delphi consensus method to identify the program supervisors' points of view concerning best practice for the individual supervision of home visitors involved in such programs. The final 18 recommendations could be grouped into four general themes: the organization and setting of supervision sessions; supervisor competencies; relationship between supervisor and supervisee; and supervisor intervention strategies within the supervision process. The quality criteria identified in this perinatal home-visiting program in the French cultural context underline the importance of clinical supervision and not just reflective supervision when working with families with multiple, highly complex needs. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  19. Wanted: A Developmentally Oriented Alcohol Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoth, Richard; Rosenthal, David

    1980-01-01

    Describes an alcohol prevention program with a comprehensive developmental skills orientation. The program includes values clarification, decision making, career planning and communication skills, assertiveness and relaxation training, and relationship with parents and peers. (Author/JAC)

  20. Working relationships of infection prevention and control programs and environmental services and associations with antibiotic-resistant organisms in Canadian acute care hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoutman, Dick E; Ford, B Douglas; Sopha, Keith

    2014-04-01

    Environmental contamination in hospitals with antibiotic-resistant organisms (AROs) is associated with patient contraction of AROs. This study examined the working relationship of Infection Prevention and Control (IPAC) and Environmental Services and the impact of that relationship on ARO rates. Lead infection control professionals completed an online survey that assessed the IPAC and Environmental Services working relationship in their acute care hospital in 2011. The survey assessed cleaning collaborations, staff training, hospital cleanliness, and nosocomial methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) infection, and Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). The survey was completed by 58.3% of hospitals (119 of 204). Two-thirds (65.8%; 77 of 117) of the respondents reported that their cleaners were adequately trained, and 62.4% (73 of 117) reported that their hospital was sufficiently clean. Greater cooperation between IPAC and Environmental Services was associated with lower rates of MRSA infection (r = -0.22; P = .02), and frequent collaboration regarding cleaning protocols was associated with lower rates of VRE infection (r = -0.20; P = .03) and CDI (r = -0.31; P Environmental Services, and this was associated with lower rates of ARO. Deficits in the adequacy of cleaning staff training and hospital cleanliness were identified. The promotion of collaborative working relationships and additional training for Environmental Services workers would be expected to lower ARO rates. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Haemoglobinopathy prevention program in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Canatan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Thalassemia and abnormal haemoglobins are a serious health problem in Turkey. Very important steps for toward preventing thalassemia have been taken in Turkey by Ministry of Health (MOH, Turkish National Haemoglobinopathy Council (TNHC and Thalassemia Federation of Turkey (TFT since 2000. In 1993, a law was issued called Fight Against Hereditary Blood Disease especially for thalassemia and haemoglobinopathies. The law commends to prevent haemoglobinopathies and to treat all patients with haemoglobinopathy and thalassemia. A pilot project was started and centres were created in the MOH Hospitals in the southern provinces of Turkey. In 2000, TNHC was installed to combine all centres, foundations, and associations into one organization controlled by the MOH. In 2001, the MOH and the TNHC made an inventory of all recorded patients with thalassemia and abnormal hemoglobins in Turkey, registering at least 4513 patients. In 2002, written regulations for the Fight Against Hereditary Blood Disease were published. MOH and TNHC selected 33 provinces situated in the Thrace, Marmara, Aegean, Mediterranean and South Eastern regions with high birth prevalence of severe haemoglobinopathies. In 2003, the haemoglobinopathy scientific committee was set-up, a guidebook was published and a national Hemoglobinopaty Prevention Program (HPP was started in these high risk provinces . This program is running in these provinces successfully. In 2005, TFT was established as a secular society organization instead of TNHC. In 2007, National Thalassemia Prevention Campaign (NTPC was organized for public education by TFT. This campaign contributed very important supporting to HPP in Turkey, because totally 62.682 people such as health workers, students, teachers, demarches, religion officers and the other many people were educated for preventing thalassemia and haemoglobinopathies. In 2009, National Thalassemia Education Seminars (NTES for health personnel have been planned in

  2. 40 CFR 68.175 - Prevention program/Program 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.175 Prevention program/Program 3. (a) For each Program 3 process, the owner or operator shall provide the information indicated in paragraphs (b) through (p) of this section. If the same information applies to more than one covered process...

  3. 40 CFR 68.170 - Prevention program/Program 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.170 Prevention program/Program 2. (a) For each Program 2 process, the owner or operator shall provide in the RMP the information... the process. (c) The name(s) of the chemical(s) covered. (d) The date of the most recent review or...

  4. Writing parallel programs that work

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    Serial algorithms typically run inefficiently on parallel machines. This may sound like an obvious statement, but it is the root cause of why parallel programming is considered to be difficult. The current state of the computer industry is still that almost all programs in existence are serial. This talk will describe the techniques used in the Intel Parallel Studio to provide a developer with the tools necessary to understand the behaviors and limitations of the existing serial programs. Once the limitations are known the developer can refactor the algorithms and reanalyze the resulting programs with the tools in the Intel Parallel Studio to create parallel programs that work. About the speaker Paul Petersen is a Sr. Principal Engineer in the Software and Solutions Group (SSG) at Intel. He received a Ph.D. degree in Computer Science from the University of Illinois in 1993. After UIUC, he was employed at Kuck and Associates, Inc. (KAI) working on auto-parallelizing compiler (KAP), and was involved in th...

  5. The Latino Migrant Worker HIV Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Jesús; Silva-Suarez, Georgina; Serna, Claudia A.; De La Rosa, Mario

    2017-01-01

    There is limited information on the impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic on Latino migrant workers (LMWs), although available data indicate that this community is being disproportionally affected. The need for prevention programs that address the specific needs of LMWs is becoming well recognized. HIV prevention interventions that train and employ community health workers are a culturally appropriate way to address the issues of community trust and capacity building in this community. This article describes the Latino Migrant Worker HIV Prevention Program and its efforts to train and engage community health workers in the prevention of HIV among LMWs in South Florida. PMID:22367261

  6. Ethiopia: hard work for successful AIDS prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    An innovative AIDS control program targeting sex workers and clients in Ethiopia has shown that hard work and government support are essential for the success of a program. Serosurveys conducted in 1988 and 1989 had shown that certain groups were particularly vulnerable to HIV infection: women who engage in formal or informal prostitution and their clients -- often migrant workers or truck drivers. So in mid-1990, Ethiopia's Department of AIDS Control (DAC) launched an intervention effort targeting these high-risk groups, a program entitled the Multiple Partner Sexual Contact (MPSC) Female and Male Mobilization and Condom Promotion Project. The program had a 3-layer strategy: 1) establishing a "trickle down" training process, which would create a network of MPSC peer educators and organizers; 2) identifying MPSC men to serve as educators for other men; and 3) ensuring the widespread availability of condoms for both men and women. As site for its pilot project, DAC selected Nazareth, a trading city of more than 30% among MPSC females. After 6 months of operation, the program's effectiveness convinced DAC to expand the project to 9 additional sites. An evaluation of the project has revealed several important findings: 1) retraining and motivation sessions must be constantly maintained; 2) men's resistance to condom use may be diminished by targeting them with education at the same time as the women; 3) interventions that take into account the socioeconomic issues faced by MPSC women make the program more effective; 4) it is important to develop new educational materials periodically; and 5) involving the owners and managers of sex-related businesses makes the program more effective.

  7. Program Administration | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Governance Structure Recognizing the importance of an integrated approach to preventative drug development, there is a unified Governance Structure for the PREVENT Program responsible for coordinating and integrating available resources. With the goal of reaching go/no-go decisions as efficiently as possible, the purpose is to ensure a pragmatic approach to drug development

  8. School-Based Child Abuse Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassard, Marla R.; Fiorvanti, Christina M.

    2015-01-01

    Child abuse is a leading cause of emotional, behavioral, and health problems across the lifespan. It is also preventable. School-based abuse prevention programs for early childhood and elementary school children have been found to be effective in increasing student knowledge and protective behaviors. The purpose of this article is to help school…

  9. Effective prevention programs for tobacco use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentz, M A

    1999-01-01

    Several types of prevention programs have shown effects on delaying or reducing youth tobacco use for periods of 1-5 years or more. These are referred to as evidence-based programs. However, they are not widely used. At the same time, with few exceptions, adolescent tobacco use rates have been stable or have increased in the 1990s. The challenge for prevention is to identify critical components shared by effective prevention programs--that is, components most associated with effect, and then to evaluate factors that are most likely to promote adoption, implementation, and diffusion of effective programs across schools and communities in the United States. Effective tobacco prevention programs focus on counteracting social influences on tobacco use, include either direct training of youth in resistance and assertiveness skills or, for policy and community organization interventions, direct or indirect (through adults) training in community activism, and are mainly theory-based, with an emphasis on three levels of theory: (a) personal (attitudes, normative expectations, and beliefs); (b) social (social or group behavior); and/or (c) environmental (communications and diffusion). Program effects increase with the use of booster sessions, standardized implementor training and support, multiple program components, and multiple levels of theory. Overall, multi-component community programs that have a school program as a basis, with supportive parent, media, and community organization components, have shown the most sustained effects on tobacco use. Positive program adoption by the school or community, extent and quality of program implementation, and existence of credible networks of leaders to promote the program are critical for any effect. Research on predictors of adoption, implementation, and diffusion of evidence-based programs is scanty relative to outcome research. In addition, more research is needed on why multi-component programs appear to be most effective

  10. Validation of a Poison Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Noel C.; Braden, Barbara T.

    Two way analyses of variance and cross-group descriptive comparisons assessed the effectiveness of the Siop Poison Prevention Program, which included an educational program and the use of warning labels, on improving verbal and visual discrimination of poisonous and nonpoisonous products for preschool children. The study sample consisted of 156…

  11. Construction principles of prevention programs for adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Bochaver

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We present the basic principles for the development of effective programs for prevention of substance abuse among young people employed in the United States. They are based on the model of “risk factors and protective factors” and suggest a consistent, systematic, coordinated deployment of preventive interventions for children of different ages and in different social contexts (individually, in family, at school, in community. These principles can be useful for transfer of foreign experience on the Russian reality and for development of a new generation of programs for the prevention of substance abuse in Russia. Also, these principles and ideas may be partly extrapolated to develop prevention programs for other social risks.

  12. Prevention: Making a shadow component a real goal in social work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane D. Woody

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Although need, opportunity, and funding for prevention programs are currently increasing, social workers do not appear to be leaders in this area of practice. Their lack of initiative in prevention will not likely change until social work education incorporates concepts from prevention science into the curriculum. This article: identifies and explains major prevention concepts and principles; discusses their congruence with social work's historical roots and current curriculum policy; and offers thoughts on integrating prevention values and content into both generalist and advanced courses. An appendix of resources is included to encourage faculties to consider how prevention could fit in the overall design of their programs.

  13. Working session 4: Preventative and corrective measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.; Slama, G.

    1997-01-01

    The Preventive and Corrective Measures working session included 13 members from France, Germany, Japan, Spain, Slovenia, and the United States. Attendee experience included regulators, utilities, three steam generator vendors, consultants and researchers. Discussions centered on four principal topics: (1) alternate materials, (2) mechanical mitigation, (3) maintenance, and (4) water chemistry. New or replacement steam generators and original equipment steam generators were separately addressed. Four papers were presented to the session, to provide information and stimulate various discussion topics. Topics discussed and issues raised during the several meeting sessions are provided below, followed by summary conclusions and recommendations on which the group was able to reach a majority consensus. The working session was composed of individuals with diverse experience and varied areas of specialized expertise. The somewhat broad range of topics addressed by the group at times saw discussion participation by only a few individuals. As in any technical meeting where all are allowed the opportunity to speak their mind, straying from an Individual topic was not unusual. Where useful, these stray topics are also presented below within the context In which they occurred. The main categories of discussion were: minimize sludge; new steam generators; maintenance; mechanical mitigation; water chemistry

  14. Local government`s pollution prevention program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, D. [Boulder Country Pollution Prevention Program, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The pollution prevention program operated by the Health Department of Boulder County is called Business Partners for a Clean Environment (Business Partners). It is a cooperative effort among local businesses, the City of Boulder, Boulder County, and the Boulder Chamber of Commerce. This nonregulatory, incentive-based program provides industry with pollution prevention information and technical assistance necessary to reduce and/or eliminate environmental waste. This paper provides an overview of the program development, creation of partnerships and trust, and some of the results from implementation of the program. Following the first 18 months of the program, 35 businesses were recognized as Business Partners. The Business Partners program has also received an achievement award from the National Association of Counties for promoting {open_quotes}responsible, responsive, and effective government{close_quotes} and two governor`s awards from the State of Colorado. Participating businesses have demonstrated that a pollution prevention program can reduce environmental waste, increase employee safety, and decrease costs. 4 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Pressure ulcer prevention program: a journey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmore, Barbara; Lebovits, Sarah; Baldock, Philip; Suggs, Barbara; Ayello, Elizabeth A

    2011-01-01

    The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services' regulations regarding nonpayment for hospital-acquired conditions such as pressure ulcers have prompted a marked increase in focus on preventive care. Our hospital also used this change in payment policy as an opportunity to strengthen our pressure ulcer prevention practices. We used an 8-spoke prevention wheel to develop and implement practice changes that reduced pressure ulcer incidence from 7.3% to 1.3% in 3 years. Because it is about the journey, we will describe the mechanisms we designed and implemented, and identify strategies that worked or did not work as we promulgated a quality improvement process for pressure ulcer prevention in our large urban hospital center.

  16. Cancer Prevention Programs in the Workplace. WBGH Worksite Wellness Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Michael P.

    When employees develop cancer, businesses bear not only the direct medical costs of the disease, but also the indirect costs associated with lost work time, disability payments, loss of a trained employee, and retraining. Research has confirmed that aggressive prevention and screening programs can be, and indeed are, effective in limiting the…

  17. Effectiveness and Evaluation of Crime Prevention Programs in Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Beato

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay analyzes previous studies evaluating the effectiveness of the crime prevention policies adopted by the Government of Minas Gerais (Brazil. In this work, greater emphasis is placed on studies evaluating outcomes than on studies dealing with the process of setting up and implementing programs and projects. In order to allow a more systematic discussion, the Maryland Scale, which categorizes research and evaluations according to the methodological strengths and weaknesses in five levels, is employed. Subsequently, the authors draw a parallel between Brazil and other settings. Finally, this essay lays out the implications of this discussion regarding the prevention programs

  18. Purpose and methods of a Pollution Prevention Awareness Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flowers, P.A.; Irwin, E.F.; Poligone, S.E.

    1994-08-15

    The purpose of the Pollution Prevention Awareness Program (PPAP), which is required by DOE Order 5400.1, is to foster the philosophy that prevention is superior to remediation. The goal of the program is to incorporate pollution prevention into the decision-making process at every level throughout the organization. The objectives are to instill awareness, disseminate information, provide training and rewards for identifying the true source or cause of wastes, and encourage employee participation in solving environmental issues and preventing pollution. PPAP at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was created several years ago and continues to grow. We believe that we have implemented several unique methods of communicating environmental awareness to promote a more active work force in identifying ways of reducing pollution.

  19. Work stress prevention needs of employees and supervisors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havermans, Bo M; Brouwers, Evelien P M; Hoek, Rianne J A; Anema, Johannes R; van der Beek, Allard J; Boot, Cécile R L

    2018-05-21

    Work stress prevention can reduce health risks for individuals, as well as organisational and societal costs. The success of work stress interventions depends on proper implementation. Failure to take into account the needs of employees and supervisors can hinder intervention implementation. This study aimed to explore employee and supervisor needs regarding organisational work stress prevention. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with employees (n = 7) and supervisors (n = 8) from different sectors, such as the finance, health care, and services industry. The interviews focused on respondents' needs regarding the prevention of work stress within an organisational setting. Performing thematic analysis, topics and themes were extracted from the verbatim transcribed interviews using Atlas.ti. Both employees and supervisors reported a need for: 1) communication about work stress, 2) attention for determinants of work stress, 3) supportive circumstances (prerequisites) for work stress prevention, 4) involvement of various stakeholders in work stress prevention, and 5) availability of work stress prevention measures. Both employees and supervisors expressed the need for supervisors to communicate about work stress. Employees and supervisors reported similar psychosocial work factors that should be targeted for prevention (e.g., social support and autonomy). There was greater variety in the sub-themes within communication about work stress and supportive circumstances for work stress prevention in supervisor responses, and greater variety in the sub-themes within availability of work stress prevention measures in employee responses. Both employees and supervisors were explicit about who should take part in communication about work stress, what prerequisites for work stress prevention should exist, and which stakeholders should be involved. These results can inform work stress prevention practice, supporting selection and implementation of

  20. Seroprevalence of HCV and HIV infection among clients of the nation's longest-standing statewide syringe exchange program: A cross-sectional study of Community Health Outreach Work to Prevent AIDS (CHOW).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salek, Thomas P; Katz, Alan R; Lenze, Stacy M; Lusk, Heather M; Li, Dongmei; Des Jarlais, Don C

    2017-10-01

    The Community Health Outreach Work to Prevent AIDS (CHOW) Project is the first and longest-standing statewide integrated and funded needle and syringe exchange program (SEP) in the US. Initiated on O'ahu in 1990, CHOW expanded statewide in 1993. The purpose of this study is to estimate the prevalences of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and to characterize risk behaviors associated with infection among clients of a long-standing SEP through the analysis of the 2012 CHOW evaluation data. A cross-sectional sample of 130 CHOW Project clients was selected from January 1, 2012 through December 31, 2012. Questionnaires captured self-reported exposure information. HIV and HCV antibodies were detected via rapid, point-of-care FDA-approved tests. Log-binomial regressions were used to estimate prevalence proportion ratios (PPRs). A piecewise linear log-binomial regression model containing 1 spline knot was used to fit the age-HCV relationship. The estimated seroprevalence of HCV was 67.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]=59.5-75.8%). HIV seroprevalence was 2.3% (95% CI=0-4.9%). Anti-HCV prevalence demonstrated age-specific patterns, ranging from 31.6% through 90.9% in people who inject drugs (PWID) HIV prevalence compared with HCV prevalence reflects differences in transmissibility of these 2 blood-borne pathogens and suggests much greater efficacy of SEP for HIV prevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S

    2012-03-29

    This document describes how Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) meets the requirements and management practices of federal regulation 10 CFR 850, 'Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program (CBDPP).' This revision of the LLNL CBDPP incorporates clarification and editorial changes based on lessons learned from employee discussions, observations and reviews of Department of Energy (DOE) Complex and commercial industry beryllium (Be) safety programs. The information is used to strengthen beryllium safety practices at LLNL, particularly in the areas of: (1) Management of small parts and components; and (2) Communication of program status to employees. Future changes to LLNL beryllium activities and on-going operating experience will be incorporated into the program as described in Section S, 'Performance Feedback.'

  2. The work of the Child Accident Prevention Trust.

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, R H; Cooper, S; Hayes, H R

    1988-01-01

    In 1983 an article was published in this Journal describing the work of the Child Accident Prevention Trust. Since that time many developments have taken place in the field of child accident prevention. There has been an increased recognition of the role of accidents and injuries in child health and the importance of accident prevention at an international, national, and local level. This has, in part, been a result of work undertaken by the Child Accident Prevention Trust. Much remains to be...

  3. Results of prevention programs with adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, C L

    1987-09-01

    Programs for preventing smoking and alcohol and drug abuse have radically changed in the past decade. Instead of being regarded as a health or discipline problem that involves only a few deviant adolescents, drug use has begun to be viewed as social behavior that is functional for adolescents, not capricious, and is normative for that population. The most successful prevention programs have sought to delay the onset of tobacco use. Based on theoretical and etiological research, these programs target factors that have repeatedly been predictive of adolescent smoking, alcohol and drug use. The programs teach adolescents (1) why people their age smoke tobacco or use alcohol and drugs; (2) how these meanings get established by peers, older role models and advertising; (3) how to resist these influences to smoke or to use alcohol and drugs; and (4) life skills and competencies to counterbalance the functions that drug use serves. Because of the association with the onset of smoking and the onset of using other drugs, these strategies are being studied for alcohol use and other drugs. In addition, elected peer leaders are trained to conduct these activities with their classmates and act as new role models for non-use. Evaluations of these approaches are optimistic. Studies in northern California and Minnesota reveal 50-70% reductions in the onset of smoking. Botvin's 'Life Skills Training' program demonstrates success in delaying heavy alcohol and marijuana use.

  4. Workplace Wellness Programs to Promote Cancer Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldano, Sharon K

    2016-08-01

    To define the diversity of and business case for workplace wellness programs, highlight best practices for a comprehensive health promotion program, and describe the opportunities for employees to become wellness advocates. Current literature and articles published between 2010 and 2016, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Health Enhancement Research Organization, National Business Group on Health, Wellness Councils of America, best practice program guidelines and internet resources. Employers are increasingly affected by rising health care costs and epidemic rates of obesity and associated chronic diseases within the workforce. Employers who offer workplace wellness programs can contribute to the overall health and well-being of their employees, improve employee productivity and retention, and reduce absenteeism and health care costs. Employees participating in workplace wellness programs can reduce their health risks and serve as health promotion advocates. Nurses can lead by example by participating in their workplace wellness programs, serving as an advocate to influence their employers and colleagues, and educating their patients regarding the benefits of workplace wellness programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Electoral Violence Prevention:What Works?

    OpenAIRE

    Birch, Sarah; Muchlinski, David

    2017-01-01

    Elections are in theory democratic means of resolving disputes and making collective decisions, yet too often force is employed to distort the electoral process. The post-Cold War increase in the number of electoral authoritarian and hybrid states has brought this problem into relief. In recent years the prevention of electoral violence has played an increasingly large role in the democratic assistance activities undertaken by international agencies, following increased awareness within the i...

  6. Work-related musculoskeletal disorders : prevention report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Podniece, Z.; Heuvel, S. van den; Blatter, B.

    2008-01-01

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) can interfere with activities at work and can lead to reduced productivity, sickness absence and chronic occupational disability. The aim of this report is to systematic evaluate the effectiveness of interventions at the workplace since 2002 and to

  7. [IBM Work and Personal Life Balance Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Business Machines Corp., Armonk, NY.

    These five brochures describe the IBM Corporation's policies, programs, and initiatives designed to meet the needs of employees' child care and family responsibilities as they move through various stages of employment with IBM. The Work and Personal Life Balance Programs brochure outlines (1) policies for flexible work schedules, including…

  8. Healthcare Work and Organizational Interventions to Prevent Work-related Stress in Brindisi, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Ettorre, Gabriele; Greco, Mariarita

    2015-03-01

    Organizational changes that involve healthcare hospital departments and care services of health districts, and ongoing technological innovations and developments in society increasingly expose healthcare workers (HCWs) to work-related stress (WRS). Minimizing occupational exposure to stress requires effective risk stress assessment and management programs. The authors conducted an integrated analysis of stress sentinel indicators, an integrated analysis of objective stress factors of occupational context and content areas, and an integrated analysis between nurses and physicians of hospital departments and care services of health districts in accordance with a multidimensional validated tool developed in Italy by the National Network for the Prevention of Work-Related Psychosocial Disorders. The purpose of this retrospective observational study was to detect and analyze in different work settings the level of WRS resulting from organizational changes implemented by hospital healthcare departments and care services of health districts in a sample of their employees. The findings of the study showed that hospital HCWs seemed to incur a medium level risk of WRS that was principally the result of work context factors. The implementation of improvement interventions focused on team development, safety training programs, and adopting an ethics code for HCWs, and it effectively and significantly reduced the level of WRS risk in the workplace. In this study HCW resulted to be exposed to occupational stress factors susceptible to reduction. Stress management programs aimed to improve work context factors associated with occupational stress are required to minimize the impact of WRS on workers.

  9. Preventive strength training improves working ergonomics during welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Karsten; Petermann, Carmen; Pilat, Christian; Schubert, Emil; Pons-Kühnemann, Jörn; Mooren, Frank C

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effect of a preventive strength training program on cardiovascular, metabolic and muscular strains during welding. Welders are one of the occupation groups which typically have to work in extended forced postures which are known to be an important reason for musculoskeletal disorders. Subjects (exercise group) accomplished a 12-week strength training program, while another group served as controls (control group). Pre and post training examinations included the measurements of the one repetition maximum and an experimental welding test. Local muscle activities were analysed by surface electromyography. Furthermore, heart rate, blood pressure, lactate and rating of perceived exertion were examined. In the exercise group, strength training lead to a significant increase of one repetition maximum in all examined muscles (pwelding test muscle activities of trunk and shoulder muscles and arm muscles were significantly reduced in the exercise group after intervention (pwelding (p<.05). Effects of strength training can be translated in an improved working ergonomics and tolerance against the exposure to high physical demands at work.

  10. Exercise following Mental Work Prevented Overeating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumeier, William H; Goodner, Emily; Biasini, Fred; Dhurandhar, Emily J; Menear, Kristi S; Turan, Bulent; Hunter, Gary R

    2016-09-01

    Mental work may promote caloric intake, whereas exercise may offset positive energy balance by decreasing energy intake and increasing energy expenditure. This study aimed to replicate previous findings that mental work increases caloric intake compared with a rest condition and assess whether exercise after mental work can offset this effect. Thirty-eight male and female university students were randomly assigned to mental work + rest (MW + R) or mental work + exercise (MW + E). Participants also completed a baseline rest (BR) visit consisting of no mental work or exercise. Visit order was counterbalanced. During the MW + R or MW + E visit, participants completed a 20-min mental task and either a 15-min rest (MW + R) or a 15-min interval exercise (MW + E). Each visit ended with an ad libitum pizza lunch. A two-way repeated-measures ANOVA was used to compare eating behavior between groups. Participants in the MW + R condition consumed an average of 100 more kilocalories compared with BR (633.3 ± 72.9 and 533.9 ± 67.7, respectively, P = 0.02), and participants in MW + E consumed an average of 25 kcal less compared with BR (432.3 ± 69.2 and 456.5 ± 64.2, respectively, P > 0.05). When including the estimated energy expenditure of exercise in the MW + E conditions, participants were in negative energy balance by an average of 98.5 ± 41.5 kcal, resulting in a significant difference in energy balance between the two groups (P = 0.001). An acute bout of interval exercise after mental work resulted in significantly decreased food consumption compared with a nonexercise condition. These results suggest that an acute bout of exercise may be used to offset positive energy balance induced by mental tasks.

  11. [Prevention of cardiovascular diseases - Prophylactic program in a selected enterprise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedlecka, Jadwiga; Gadzicka, Elżbieta; Szyjkowska, Agata; Siedlecki, Patryk; Szymczak, Wiesław; Makowiec-Dąbrowska, Teresa; Bortkiewicz, Alicja

    2017-10-17

    In Poland cardiovascular diseases (CVD), classified as work-related diseases, are responsible for 25% of disability and cause 50% of all deaths, including 26.9% of deaths in people aged under 65 years. The aim of the study was to analyze employee expectations regarding CVD- oriented prophylactic activities in the selected enterprise. A questionnaire, developed for this study, consists of: socio-demographic data, job characteristics, occupational factors, and questions about the respondents' expectations concerning the prevention program. The study group comprised 407 multi-profile company employees aged (mean) 46.7 years (standard deviation (SD) = 9.1), including 330 men (81.1%), mean age = 46.9 (SD = 9.2) and 77 women (18.9%), mean age = 45.9 (SD = 8.2) The study was performed using the method of auditorium survey. Employees declared the need for actions related to physical activity: use of gym, swimming pool, tennis (56.5%), smoking habits - education sessions on quitting smoking (24.6%). A few people were interested in activities related to healthy diet. According to the majority of the study group, the scope of preventive examinations should be expanded. Based on our own findings and literature data CVD- -oriented preventive program, addressed to the analyzed enterprise was prepared. The program will be presented in another paper. The results showed significant quantitative and qualitative differences in the classic and occupational CVD risk factors between men and women, as well as in preferences for participation in prevention programs. Therefore, gender differences should be taken into account when planning prevention programs. Med Pr 2017;68(6):757-769. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  12. Cost effectiveness of the MDOT preventive maintenance program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The Michigan Department of Transportations (MDOT) pavement preservation program dates back to 1992. MDOTs pavement preservation strategy is primarily implemented through its capital preventive maintenance (CPM) program, in which preventive main...

  13. Repository-Based Software Engineering Program: Working Program Management Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Repository-Based Software Engineering Program (RBSE) is a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) sponsored program dedicated to introducing and supporting common, effective approaches to software engineering practices. The process of conceiving, designing, building, and maintaining software systems by using existing software assets that are stored in a specialized operational reuse library or repository, accessible to system designers, is the foundation of the program. In addition to operating a software repository, RBSE promotes (1) software engineering technology transfer, (2) academic and instructional support of reuse programs, (3) the use of common software engineering standards and practices, (4) software reuse technology research, and (5) interoperability between reuse libraries. This Program Management Plan (PMP) is intended to communicate program goals and objectives, describe major work areas, and define a management report and control process. This process will assist the Program Manager, University of Houston at Clear Lake (UHCL) in tracking work progress and describing major program activities to NASA management. The goal of this PMP is to make managing the RBSE program a relatively easy process that improves the work of all team members. The PMP describes work areas addressed and work efforts being accomplished by the program; however, it is not intended as a complete description of the program. Its focus is on providing management tools and management processes for monitoring, evaluating, and administering the program; and it includes schedules for charting milestones and deliveries of program products. The PMP was developed by soliciting and obtaining guidance from appropriate program participants, analyzing program management guidance, and reviewing related program management documents.

  14. State Options for Supporting Delinquency Prevention: A Working Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croan, Gerald M.; And Others

    A supplement to the related document "Delinquency Prevention: Theories and Strategies," this paper analyzes the options for state agencies (particularly state planning agencies participating in the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration formula grant program) to promote and support program forms recommended in the companion document.…

  15. Hanford Site waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Place, B.G.

    1998-01-01

    This plan, which is required by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400. 1, provides waste minimization and pollution prevention guidance for all Hanford Site contractors. The plan is primary in a hierarchical series that includes the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan, Prime contractor implementation plans, and the Hanford Site Guide for Preparing and Maintaining Generator Group Pollution Prevention Program Documentation (DOE-RL, 1997a) describing programs required by Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) 3002(b) and 3005(h) (RCRA and EPA, 1994). Items discussed include the pollution prevention policy and regulatory background, organizational structure, the major objectives and goals of Hanford Site's pollution prevention program, and an itemized description of the Hanford Site pollution prevention program. The document also includes US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office's (RL's) statement of policy on pollution prevention as well as a listing of regulatory drivers that require a pollution prevention program

  16. Programs that work : California case examples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgrigues, G. [Southern California Edison, Rosemead, CA (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Examples of programs that work in California with respect to greenhouse gas emissions were discussed. Specifically, Southern California Edison (SCE) was noted as one of the country's largest investor-owned utilities that has provided environmental leadership in this area. Energy, environment, economy, and community were mentioned as being the four value propositions for demand side management (DSM) programs. The environmental benefits of California investor-owned utilities programs were also discussed. Customer participation in SCE's energy efficiency programs was defined as an important measure of success. Other topics that were addressed in the presentation included energy efficiency in the long-term resource plan; ratcheting codes and standards; effective marketing and outreach; residential and non-residential programs; partnership programs; and competitively-selected programs. Measurement, verification and evaluation were noted as being real savings. Initiatives on the horizon such as the California solar initiative and Edison smartconnect were presented. tabs., figs.

  17. Programs that work : California case examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgrigues, G.

    2007-01-01

    Examples of programs that work in California with respect to greenhouse gas emissions were discussed. Specifically, Southern California Edison (SCE) was noted as one of the country's largest investor-owned utilities that has provided environmental leadership in this area. Energy, environment, economy, and community were mentioned as being the four value propositions for demand side management (DSM) programs. The environmental benefits of California investor-owned utilities programs were also discussed. Customer participation in SCE's energy efficiency programs was defined as an important measure of success. Other topics that were addressed in the presentation included energy efficiency in the long-term resource plan; ratcheting codes and standards; effective marketing and outreach; residential and non-residential programs; partnership programs; and competitively-selected programs. Measurement, verification and evaluation were noted as being real savings. Initiatives on the horizon such as the California solar initiative and Edison smartconnect were presented. tabs., figs

  18. Sandia National Laboratories, California Pollution Prevention Program annual report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Janet S.; Farren, Laurie J.

    2010-03-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the SNL/CA Pollution Prevention Program for a given calendar year. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. The program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Pollution Prevention Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

  19. Connect: An Effective Community-Based Youth Suicide Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Gretchen; Baber, Kristine M.

    2011-01-01

    Youth suicide prevention is an important public health issue. However, few prevention programs are theory driven or systematically evaluated. This study evaluated Connect, a community-based youth suicide prevention program. Analysis of pre and posttraining questionnaires from 648 adults and 204 high school students revealed significant changes in…

  20. Work hazard prevention plans; Plan de prevencion de riesgos laborales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albertos Campos, F.

    2009-07-01

    The prevention of industrial risks is a constantly evolving discipline that has changed considerable in the last 25 years. The Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plants has always been operated with a clear policy favoring prevention by supporting the principle of its integration, i. e., that the hierarchical functional organization of the company make sure that industrial risk prevention is effective and that health and safety standards are met. The historical evolution of occupational safety in the Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plant shows a a clear trend towards improvement and is the results of many years of hard work and effort by the plants own and contractor personnel in the field of industrial risk prevention. (Author)

  1. Orchestration in work environment policy programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Peter; Limborg, Hans Jørgen; Grøn, Sisse

    2017-01-01

    In spite of many years’ efforts, it is difficult to prove substantial improvements of the work environment and policymakers are continuously searching for new efficient strategies. This paper examines the concept of orchestration of work environment programs, based on an empirical analysis...... of recent Danish policy. Orchestration is a strategy where different stakeholders and activities are integrated into a unified program aimed at a specific target group. The analysis includes three policy cases, supplemented with two company case studies. The research shows a move toward a more governance...... type of regulation, which is not only emerging in network but also includes more explicitly orchestrated policy programs. The stakeholders participate in the network with different interests and the orchestration of work environment policies is therefore built on a platform of regulation...

  2. Strengthening Chronic Disease Prevention Programming: The Toward Evidence-Informed Practice (TEIP) Program Evidence Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Dayna; Fortin, Rebecca; Herrera, Christine; Hanning, Rhona; Lessio, Anne; Rush, Brian

    2013-01-01

    In public health and chronic disease prevention there is increasing priority for effective use of evidence in practice. In Ontario, Canada, despite various models being advanced, public health practitioners are seeking ways to identify and apply evidence in their work in practical and meaningful ways. In a companion article, “Strengthening Chronic Disease Prevention Programming: The Toward Evidence-Informed Practice (TEIP) Program Assessment Tool,” we describe use of a tool to assess and strengthen program planning and implementation processes using 19 criteria derived from best and promising practices literature. In this article, we describe use of a complementary Program Evidence Tool to identify, synthesize, and apply a range of evidence sources to strengthen the content of chronic disease prevention programming. The Program Evidence Tool adapts tools of evidence-based medicine to the unique contexts of community-based health promotion and chronic disease prevention. Knowledge management tools and a guided dialogue process known as an Evidence Forum enable community stakeholders to make appropriate use of evidence in diverse social, political, and structural contexts. Practical guidelines and worksheets direct users through 5 steps: 1) define an evidence question, 2) develop a search strategy, 3) collect and synthesize evidence, 4) interpret and adapt evidence, and 5) implement and evaluate. We describe the Program Evidence Tool’s benefits, strengths, challenges, and what was learned from its application in 4 Ontario public health departments. The Program Evidence Tool contributes to the development and understanding of the complex use of evidence in community-based chronic disease prevention. PMID:23721788

  3. Predictors of Prevention Failure in College Students Participating in Two Indicated Depression Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Vanessa; Rohde, Paul; Vázquez, Fernando L.; Otero, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify subgroups of university students with the highest likelihood of remaining at elevated levels of depressive symptoms six months following the receipt of a depressive prevention intervention on the basis of known risk factors and participation in one of two depression prevention programs. Data from a randomized controlled trial evaluating depression prevention among 133 college students with elevated depressive symptoms were analyzed. Participants were randomized to a cognitive-behavioral or relaxation training group preventive intervention. Classification tree analysis showed that older age was the strongest risk factor for persistently elevated depression. Additional risk factors were: (1) for younger students, fewer daily pleasant activities; (2) for those with higher level of pleasant activities, higher level of stressful events; and (3) for those with higher level of stressful events, lower assertiveness. Results offer directions for prevention foci, identify specific subgroups of college students to target for depression prevention efforts, and suggest that research aim to help older, non-traditional students or graduating students manage the transition from college to the work force. PMID:24714056

  4. Psychological Treatment as Part of Dropout Prevention: An Israeli Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Hava; Hain, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on the integration of psychotherapy in a comprehensive dropout prevention program developed at the Dean of Students' office of Ben-Gurion University of the Negev in Israel. The program's psychologists conducted psychotherapy with a subset of dropout prevention program participants who had reacted with emotional turmoil to the…

  5. Tobacco training in clinical social work graduate programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinfelder, JoAnn; Price, James H; Dake, Joseph A; Jordan, Timothy R; Price, Joy A

    2013-08-01

    The leading cause of preventable death, in the most vulnerable segments of society, whom social workers often counsel, is cigarette smoking. The purpose of this study was to assess tobacco smoking cessation training in clinical social work programs. A valid 21-item questionnaire was sent to the entire population of 189 clinical graduate social work programs identified by the Council on Social Work Education. A three-wave mailing process was used to maximize the return rate. Directors from 112 clinical social work programs returned completed questionnaires (61 percent). The majority (91 percent) of directors reported having never thought about offering formal smoking cessation training, and only nine of the programs (8 percent) currently provided formal smoking cessation education. The three leading barriers to offering smoking cessation education were as follows: not a priority (60 percent), not enough time (55 percent), and not required by the accrediting body (41 percent). These findings indicate that clinical social work students are not receiving standardized smoking cessation education to assist in improving the well-being of their clients. The national accrediting body for graduate clinical social work programs should consider implementing guidelines for smoking cessation training in the curriculums.

  6. A research framework for the development and implementation of interventions preventing work-related musculoskeletal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Beek, Allard J; Dennerlein, Jack T; Huysmans, Maaike A; Mathiassen, Svend Erik; Burdorf, Alex; van Mechelen, Willem; van Dieën, Jaap H; Frings-Dresen, Monique Hw; Holtermann, Andreas; Janwantanakul, Prawit; van der Molen, Henk F; Rempel, David; Straker, Leon; Walker-Bone, Karen; Coenen, Pieter

    2017-11-01

    Objectives Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) are highly prevalent and put a large burden on (working) society. Primary prevention of work-related MSD focuses often on physical risk factors (such as manual lifting and awkward postures) but has not been too successful in reducing the MSD burden. This may partly be caused by insufficient knowledge of etiological mechanisms and/or a lack of adequately feasible interventions (theory failure and program failure, respectively), possibly due to limited integration of research disciplines. A research framework could link research disciplines thereby strengthening the development and implementation of preventive interventions. Our objective was to define and describe such a framework for multi-disciplinary research on work-related MSD prevention. Methods We described a framework for MSD prevention research, partly based on frameworks from other research fields (ie, sports injury prevention and public health). Results The framework is composed of a repeated sequence of six steps comprising the assessment of (i) incidence and severity of MSD, (ii) risk factors for MSD, and (iii) underlying mechanisms; and the (iv) development, (v) evaluation, and (vi) implementation of preventive intervention(s). Conclusions In the present framework for optimal work-related MSD prevention, research disciplines are linked. This framework can thereby help to improve theories and strengthen the development and implementation of prevention strategies for work-related MSD.

  7. Use of quality management methods in the transition from efficacious prevention programs to effective prevention services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Vicki-Smith; Sandler, Irwin; Wolchik, Sharlene

    2008-06-01

    This paper applies concepts and methods developed in management to translate efficacious prevention programs into effective prevention services. The paper describes Quality Function Deployment (QFD) as a method for structured planning and development that connects the needs and wants of the consumer with the design of the product or service. The paper describes basic tools used in quality management, and discusses how they might be applied to prepare a prevention program for implementation by community agencies. Prevention programs are conceptualized as having multiple consumers (i.e., stakeholders), including the participants who receive the service, the service providers, the organizations that deliver the program, and the researchers who evaluate the programs. As an illustration of one step in the application of QFD to translate efficacious prevention programs into effective prevention services, analysis of the needs and preferences of Family Courts for the implementation of an the New Beginnings Program is presented.

  8. THE PREVENTION PROGRAMS OF PHYSICAL REHABILITATION FOR CHERNOBYL DISASTER SURVIVORS

    OpenAIRE

    G.V. Korobeynikov; V.U. Drojjin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study: approbation of the prevention program of physical rehabilitation for Chernobyl disaster survivors in lifestyle aspects. Sixty persons who were disaster survivors and workers of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant aged 32-60 have rehabilitation during 21 days. The complex of training prevention programs of physical and psycho-emotional rehabilitation methods was elaborated. The study of efficacy of training prevention programs among Chernobyl disaster survivors. The results...

  9. Collaborative Communication in Work Based Learning Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Stephen Allen

    2017-01-01

    This basic qualitative study, using interviews and document analysis, examined reflections from a Work Based Learning (WBL) program to understand how utilizing digital collaborative communication tools influence the educational experience. The Community of Inquiry (CoI) framework was used as a theoretical frame promoting the examination of the…

  10. A worksite prevention program for construction workers: Design of a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Hengel, K.M.; Joling, C.I.; Proper, K.I.; Blatter, B.M.; Bongers, P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background. A worksite prevention program was developed to promote the work ability of construction workers and thereby prolong a healthy working life. The objective of this paper is to present the design of a randomized controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of that intervention program

  11. Peer outreach work as economic activity: implications for HIV prevention interventions among female sex workers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie George

    Full Text Available Female sex workers (FSWs who work as peer outreach workers in HIV prevention programs are drawn from poor socio-economic groups and consider outreach work, among other things, as an economic activity. Yet, while successful HIV prevention outcomes by such programs are attributed in part to the work of peers who have dense relations with FSW communities, there is scant discussion of the economic implications for FSWs of their work as peers. Using observational data obtained from an HIV prevention intervention for FSWs in south India, we examined the economic benefits and costs to peers of doing outreach work and their implications for sex workers' economic security. We found that peers considered their payment incommensurate with their workload, experienced long delays receiving compensation, and at times had to advance money from their pockets to do their assigned peer outreach work. For the intervention these conditions resulted in peer attrition and difficulties in recruitment of new peer workers. We discuss the implications of these findings for uptake of services, and the possibility of reaching desired HIV outcomes. Inadequate and irregular compensation to peers and inadequate budgetary outlays to perform their community-based outreach work could weaken peers' relationships with FSW community members, undermine the effectiveness of peer-mediated HIV prevention programs and invalidate arguments for the use of peers.

  12. Youth exposure to violence prevention programs in a national sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelhor, David; Vanderminden, Jennifer; Turner, Heather; Shattuck, Anne; Hamby, Sherry

    2014-04-01

    This paper assesses how many children and youth have had exposure to programs aimed at preventing various kinds of violence perpetration and victimization. Based on a national sample of children 5-17, 65% had ever been exposed to a violence prevention program, 55% in the past year. Most respondents (71%) rated the programs as very or somewhat helpful. Younger children (5-9) who had been exposed to higher quality prevention programs had lower levels of peer victimization and perpetration. But the association did not apply to older youth or youth exposed to lower quality programs. Disclosure to authorities was also more common for children with higher quality program exposure who had experienced peer victimizations or conventional crime victimizations. The findings are consistent with possible benefits from violence prevention education programs. However, they also suggest that too few programs currently include efficacious components. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. THE PREVENTION PROGRAMS OF PHYSICAL REHABILITATION FOR CHERNOBYL DISASTER SURVIVORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.V. Korobeynikov

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study: approbation of the prevention program of physical rehabilitation for Chernobyl disaster survivors in lifestyle aspects. Sixty persons who were disaster survivors and workers of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant aged 32-60 have rehabilitation during 21 days. The complex of training prevention programs of physical and psycho-emotional rehabilitation methods was elaborated. The study of efficacy of training prevention programs among Chernobyl disaster survivors. The results showed the improvement of psycho-emotional status and normalization of cardiovascular vegetative regulation after training prevention programs in Chernobyl disasters survivors. The studies show that the preventive programs for Chernobyl disaster survivors in lifestyle aspects had the high effect. This displays the decrease of tempo of aging and the improving of physical and psychological health status of Chernobyl disaster survivors during preventive course.

  14. Work Disability Prevention: A Primer for Occupational Therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Alicia; Nowrouzi-Kia, Behdin

    An estimated 313 million workplace accidents resulting in injury occur worldwide every year. Therefore, the burden of workplace injury and disability is present at the individual and the societal level and involves several stakeholders. There has been a shift in paradigm from workplace disability and injury treatment to workplace disability prevention. Occupational therapy practitioners are well positioned to address this multifaceted societal issue. Opening communication lines among stakeholders allows for a more holistic, collaborative, and comprehensive approach to disability, injury, and pain management. The positive results researchers have found at the individual level when using a holistic approach translate to benefits for all of the stakeholders involved. Occupational therapy practitioners may espouse a work disability prevention approach to reduce work disability rates and provide timely return-to-work outcomes for clients. The transition to the preventative model requires collaboration among stakeholders but would be beneficial to all stakeholders involved in the workplace. Copyright © 2017 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  15. Developing the strategic plan for pollution prevention in defense programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchetti, John A.; Betschart, James F.; Suffern, J. Samuel

    1992-01-01

    In order to provide effective leadership and to ensure a consistent pollution prevention effort in all of its production facilities and laboratories, Defense Programs (DP) Headquarters, in close cooperation with the Field, has developed a strategic plan for its Pollution Prevention Program. The strategic plan is built upon the history of waste minimization, waste reduction, and pollution prevention activity to date, and articulates both long- and short-term strategies to ensure program initiation, growth, and stability. The organization of the program, including Headquarters staffing and linkages to the Geld, is described. Life-cycle analysis of program barriers and bottlenecks, along with associated initiatives and action plans are discussed. (author)

  16. Logic models as a tool for sexual violence prevention program development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Stephanie R; Clinton-Sherrod, A Monique; Irvin, Neil; Hart, Laurie; Russell, Sarah Jane

    2009-01-01

    Sexual violence is a growing public health problem, and there is an urgent need to develop sexual violence prevention programs. Logic models have emerged as a vital tool in program development. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention funded an empowerment evaluation designed to work with programs focused on the prevention of first-time male perpetration of sexual violence, and it included as one of its goals, the development of program logic models. Two case studies are presented that describe how significant positive changes can be made to programs as a result of their developing logic models that accurately describe desired outcomes. The first case study describes how the logic model development process made an organization aware of the importance of a program's environmental context for program success; the second case study demonstrates how developing a program logic model can elucidate gaps in organizational programming and suggest ways to close those gaps.

  17. Violence prevention education program for psychiatric outpatient departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Robert E

    2014-10-01

    Approximately 40 % of psychiatrists and up to 64 % of psychiatric residents have been physically assaulted. Ranges of 72-96 % of psychiatric residents in various studies have been verbally threatened. As violence risk occurs in outpatient settings, our department developed a quality and safety curriculum designed to prepare psychiatric residents and staff to optimally respond to aggressive outpatients and violence threats or events. In 2011 and 2012, we offered an 8-part violence prevention performance improvement curriculum/program including (1) situational awareness/creating a safe environment; (2) violence de-escalation training; (3) violence risk assessment training, use of risk assessment tools, and medical record documentation; (4) violence safety discharge planning; (5) legal issues and violence; (6) "shots fired on campus" video/discussion; (7) "2011 violence threat simulation" video/discussion; and (8) violence threat simulation exercise. This program was offered to approximately 60 psychiatric residents/staff in each year. We obtained qualitative comments about the entire program and data from 2 years of post-event surveys on the usefulness of the "violence threat simulation exercise." The large majority of comments about program elements 1 to 7 were positive. In 2011 and 2012, respectively, 76 and 86 % of participants responded to a post-event survey of the violence threat simulation exercise; 90 and 88 % of participants, respectively, reported the simulation to be very helpful/somewhat helpful; and 86 and 82 % of participants, respectively, reported feeling much better/better prepared to deal with a violent event. Although some participants experienced anxiety, sleep disturbances, increase in work safety concerns, and/or traumatic memories, the majority reported no post-simulation symptoms (72 and 80 %, respectively). Although we are unable to demonstrate that this program effectively prevents violence, the overall positive response from participants

  18. Program and Policy Options for Preventing Obesity in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijun, Wang; Fengying, Zhai

    2014-01-01

    By 2002, China’s prevalence of overweight and obesity among adults was 18.9 percent and 2.9 percent, respectively. The Chinese traditional diet has been replaced by the “Western diet” and major declines in all phases of activity and increased sedentary activity as the main reasons explaining the rapid increase in overweight and obesity, bring major economic and health costs. The Nutrition Improvement Work Management Approach was released in 2010. Overweight and obesity prevention-related policies were added to national planning for disease prevention and control. The Guidelines for Prevention and Control of Overweight and Obesity of Chinese Adults and the School-age Children and Teenagers Overweight and Obesity Prevention and Control Guidelines in China were promulgated in 2003 and 2007, respectively. Few education programs have been implemented. Selected academic intervention research projects dominate with a focus on reducing child obesity and promoting healthier diets; increasing physical activity and reducing sedentary time; and facilitating changes in family, school, social, and cultural environments. Intervention samples are small and have not addressed the increasing rates of obesity throughout the entire population. Government provision of effective policy measures, multisectoral cooperation and increasing corporate social responsibility are keys to curb the trend toward overweight and obesity in China. PMID:24102781

  19. Sandia National Laboratories, California Pollution Prevention Program annual report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Janet S.

    2011-04-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the SNL/CA Pollution Prevention Program for a given calendar year. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. The program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Pollution Prevention Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA. Pollution Prevention supports the goals and objectives to increase the procurement and use of environmentally friendly products and materials and minimize the generation of waste (nonhazardous, hazardous, radiological, wastewater). Through participation on the Interdisciplinary Team P2 provides guidance for integration of environmentally friendly purchasing and waste minimization requirements into projects during the planning phase. Table 7 presents SNL's corporate objectives and targets that support the elements of the Pollution Prevention program.

  20. Sandia National Laboratories, California Pollution Prevention Program annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, Janet S.

    2011-01-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the SNL/CA Pollution Prevention Program for a given calendar year. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. The program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Pollution Prevention Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA. Pollution Prevention supports the goals and objectives to increase the procurement and use of environmentally friendly products and materials and minimize the generation of waste (nonhazardous, hazardous, radiological, wastewater). Through participation on the Interdisciplinary Team P2 provides guidance for integration of environmentally friendly purchasing and waste minimization requirements into projects during the planning phase. Table 7 presents SNL's corporate objectives and targets that support the elements of the Pollution Prevention program.

  1. CDC's DELTA FOCUS Program: Identifying Promising Primary Prevention Strategies for Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstead, Theresa L; Rambo, Kirsten; Kearns, Megan; Jones, Kathryn M; Dills, Jenny; Brown, Pamela

    2017-01-01

    According to 2011 data, nearly one in four women and one in seven men in the United States experience severe physical violence by an intimate partner, creating a public health burden requiring population-level solutions. To prevent intimate partner violence (IPV) before it occurs, the CDC developed Domestic Violence Prevention Enhancements and Leadership Through Alliances, Focusing on Outcomes for Communities United with States to identify promising community- and societal-level prevention strategies to prevent IPV. The program funds 10 state domestic violence coalitions for 5 years to implement and evaluate programs and policies to prevent IPV by influencing the environments and conditions in which people live, work, and play. The program evaluation goals are to promote IPV prevention by identifying promising prevention strategies and describing those strategies using case studies, thereby creating a foundation for building practice-based evidence with a health equity approach.

  2. Cyberbullying Prevention and Intervention Programs in Schools: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanrikulu, Ibrahim

    2018-01-01

    This article presents a systematic review of school-based cyberbullying prevention and intervention programs. Research presenting empirical evidence about the effectiveness of a school-based cyberbullying prevention or intervention program published before August 2016 was searched. Seventeen studies were obtained and reviewed. The findings showed…

  3. Resources for Developing Acquaintance Rape Prevention Programs for Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle, James P.; Nies, Charles T.

    1994-01-01

    Provides an annotated bibliography of videos and printed materials that may be used as educational tools in rape prevention programs. Focuses on sources that are aimed directly at men. Also outlines the use of consultants or lecturers as one of many resources in the construction and implementation of rape prevention programs. (KW)

  4. REBUILD AMERICA PROGRAM SCOPE OF WORK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey Brown; Bruce Exstrum

    2004-12-01

    This report summarizes the activities carried out by Aspen Systems Corporation in support of the Department of Energy's Rebuild America program during the period from October 9, 1999 to October 31, 2004. These activities were in accordance with the Scope of Work contained in a GSA MOBIS schedule task order issued by the National Energy Technology Laboratory. This report includes descriptions of activities and results in the following areas: deployment/delivery model; program and project results; program representative support activities; technical assistance; web site development and operation; business/strategic partners; and training/workshop activities. The report includes conclusions and recommendations. Five source documents are also provided as appendices.

  5. Teen Dating Violence Prevention Program Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Quincy Arrianna Rose

    2013-01-01

    The American Psychological Association (APA) has identified the prevention of and intervention in relationship violence as a top priority (APA, n.d.). According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention's 2012 Teen Dating Violence Fact Sheet, dating violence is a serious problem in the United States. In accordance with Foshee et al. (1998):…

  6. Access to Employee Wellness Programs and Use of Preventive Care Services Among U.S. Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isehunwa, Oluwaseyi O; Carlton, Erik L; Wang, Yang; Jiang, Yu; Kedia, Satish; Chang, Cyril F; Fijabi, Daniel; Bhuyan, Soumitra S

    2017-12-01

    There is little research at the national level on access to employee wellness programs and the use of preventive care services. This study examined the use of seven preventive care services among U.S working adults with access to employee wellness programs. The study population comprised 17,699 working adults aged ≥18 years, obtained from the 2015 National Health Interview Survey. Multivariate logistic regression models examined the relationship between access to employee wellness programs and use of seven preventive care services: influenza vaccination, blood pressure check, diabetes check, cholesterol check, Pap smear test, mammogram, and colon cancer screening. Data analysis began in Fall 2016. Overall, 46.6% of working adults reported having access to employee wellness programs in 2015. Working adults with access to employee wellness programs had higher odds of receiving influenza vaccination (OR=1.57, 95% CI=1.43, 1.72, pemployee wellness programs and the use of Pap smear test and colon cancer screening services. Using a nationally representative sample of individuals, this study found a positive association between access to employee wellness programs and the use of preventive care services. The results support favorable policies to encourage implementing wellness programs in all worksites, especially those with employees. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Dropout Prevention: A Study of Prevention Programs Used by High Schools to Increase Graduation Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Christopher L.

    2013-01-01

    This mixed methods study focused on the relationship between dropout prevention programs and graduation rates in one school district in Florida during the 2010-2011 school year. The dropout prevention program data analyzed included high school principals' perceptions in regard to perceived effectiveness, fidelity of implementation, cost efficacy,…

  8. School Programs To Prevent Smoking: The National Cancer Institute Guide to Strategies That Succeed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Thomas J.

    This guide to school-based smoking prevention programs for educators is the product of five years of work to prevent cancer. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is currently funding 23 coordinated intervention trials directed at youth. Although not all the studies are complete, sufficient results are available to recommend the most effective…

  9. Bicycling to Work and Primordial Prevention of Cardiovascular Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Anders; Koivula, Robert W; Johansson, Ingegerd

    2016-01-01

    of incident obesity, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, and impaired glucose tolerance, comparing individuals who commuted to work by bicycle with those who used passive modes of transportation. We also examined the relationship of change in commuting mode with incidence of these clinical risk factors......% CI 0.74-0.91) compared with participants not cycling to work at both times points or who switched from cycling to other modes of transport during follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that commuting by bicycle to work is an important strategy for primordial prevention of clinical cardiovascular...... risk factors among middle-aged men and women....

  10. Participation in preventive care programs: individual determinants, social interactions and program design.

    OpenAIRE

    Bouckaert, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    This doctoral research focuses on existing medical preventive care programs. Because of externalities (e.g. in the prevention of communicable diseases) or the program cost-benefit ratio, preventive care programs require high participation rates. In the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have set clear participation objectives – next to quality targets – which are measured and evaluated over time (National Center for Health Statistics, 2012). For example, the 2010 pa...

  11. Communities Putting Prevention to Work: Results of an Obesity Prevention Initiative in Child Care Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natale, Ruby; Camejo, Stephanie; Sanders, Lee M.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a significant public health issue affecting even our youngest children. Given that a significant amount of young children are enrolled in child care, the goal of this project was to evaluate the effectiveness of a child care facility-based obesity prevention program. Over 1,000 facilities participated in the study. The intervention…

  12. Fifty communities putting prevention to work: accelerating chronic disease prevention through policy, systems and environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunnell, Rebecca; O'Neil, Dara; Soler, Robin; Payne, Rebecca; Giles, Wayne H; Collins, Janet; Bauer, Ursula

    2012-10-01

    The burden of preventable chronic diseases is straining our nation's health and economy. Diseases caused by obesity and tobacco use account for the largest portions of this preventable burden. CDC funded 50 communities in 2010 to implement policy, systems, and environmental (PSE) interventions in a 2-year initiative. Funded communities developed PSE plans to reduce obesity, tobacco use, and second-hand smoke exposure for their combined 55 million residents. Community outcome objectives and milestones were categorized by PSE interventions as they related to media, access, promotion, pricing, and social support. Communities estimated population reach based on their jurisdiction's census data and target populations. The average proportion of each community's population that was reached was calculated for each intervention category. Outcome objectives that were achieved within 12 months of program initiation were identified from routine program records. The average proportion of a community's jurisdictional population reached by a specific intervention varied across interventions. Mean population reach for obesity-prevention interventions was estimated at 35%, with 14 (26%) interventions covering over 50% of the jurisdictional populations. For tobacco prevention, mean population reach was estimated at 67%, with 16 (84%) interventions covering more than 50% of the jurisdictional populations. Within 12 months, communities advanced over one-third of their obesity and tobacco-use prevention strategies. Tobacco interventions appeared to have higher potential population reach than obesity interventions within this initiative. Findings on the progress and potential reach of this major initiative may help inform future chronic disease prevention efforts.

  13. Preventative programs for respiratory disease in cow/calf operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelken, T J

    1997-11-01

    Control of respiratory disease in cow/calf operations presents many challenges. The incidence of disease in the suckling calf is not well documented and the logistics of handling range animals make control programs difficult to implement. Health programs have to be built around normal working patterns, and these patterns may not provide the best "fit" for immune management of the calf. Weaned calves undergo significant disease challenge when they enter typical marketing channels. This provides the potential for high levels of calf morbidity, mortality, medicine costs, and losses from decreased performance as they arrive at a stocker operation or feedyard. If preweaning calf health and preconditioning programs are used, they must be planned so that the producer has an opportunity to obtain a return on their investment. Options for increasing calf weight marketed, certified calf health sales, or retained ownership through the next phase of production should be evaluated carefully. Any potential increase in calf value must be weighed against program costs. This affords the veterinarian an opportunity to build on traditional disease management and prevention skills and expand their influence in overall ranch management.

  14. [Assessment of a preconception preventive program in a community].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, B; Mendoza, M E; Avila Rosas, H

    2000-01-01

    Primary Health Care (PHC) is the basic health support that includes health promotion and disease prevention, considering social and developmental factors. It is the main axis to pregestational health programs with the basic elements for the women's self-care. This study evaluated the impact on health behavior and adherence to a community based pregestational preventive program in 224 women of reproductive age from Mexico City. The women were exposed to a health education intervention for twelve months, with free clinical examination every six months in a mobile screening unit close to their homes. Food and hygiene one to one orientation was offered, together with anthropometric, blood pressure and biochemical evaluations. Program adherence was 55%. Most of the women were less than 25 years of age, education above nine years, non-single, housework occupation as housewives, from an extended family, with social security and two or less live children and desire for more. No differences were found in the evaluated factors between those who continued and those who left the program. When comparing initial and final data, a significant larger proportion did breast self-examination, while this was not the case for the Pap smear test, no differences were found in prevalence of anemia or overweight. Drop-out was mainly due to a lack of interest, school or work problems and change of address. While breast self examination showed a positive effect, the negative or no effect on the other factors requires the intervention of other health professionals and implies more effort from the women. If one of the objectives of the PHC is health promotion, nurse intervention is a prominent role in the community.

  15. A Cognitive Behavioral Depression Prevention Program for Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miloseva, Lence

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present results of our one year experience with Cognitive Behavioral Psychology Program, in order to contribute to the building of whole school approach and positive psychology preventive mental health problems model. Based on Penn Resilience program (PRP), we modify and create program for early adolescents: how to…

  16. Team teaching fire prevention program: evaluation of an education technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank L. Ryan; Frank H. Gladen; William S. Folkman

    1978-01-01

    The California Department of Forestry's Team Teaching Fire Prevention Program consists of small-group discussions, slides or films, and a visit by Smokey Bear to school classrooms. In a survey, teachers and principals who had experienced the program responded favorably to it. The conduct by team members also received approval. The limited criticisms of the Program...

  17. Conceptualizing community mobilization for HIV prevention: implications for HIV prevention programming in the African context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheri A Lippman

    Full Text Available Community mobilizing strategies are essential to health promotion and uptake of HIV prevention. However, there has been little conceptual work conducted to establish the core components of community mobilization, which are needed to guide HIV prevention programming and evaluation.We aimed to identify the key domains of community mobilization (CM essential to change health outcomes or behaviors, and to determine whether these hypothesized CM domains were relevant to a rural South African setting.We studied social movements and community capacity, empowerment and development literatures, assessing common elements needed to operationalize HIV programs at a community level. After synthesizing these elements into six essential CM domains, we explored the salience of these CM domains qualitatively, through analysis of 10 key informant in-depth-interviews and seven focus groups in three villages in Bushbuckridge.CM DOMAINS INCLUDE: 1 shared concerns, 2 critical consciousness, 3 organizational structures/networks, 4 leadership (individual and/or institutional, 5 collective activities/actions, and 6 social cohesion. Qualitative data indicated that the proposed domains tapped into theoretically consistent constructs comprising aspects of CM processes. Some domains, extracted from largely Western theory, required little adaptation for the South African context; others translated less effortlessly. For example, critical consciousness to collectively question and resolve community challenges functioned as expected. However, organizations/networks, while essential, operated differently than originally hypothesized - not through formal organizations, but through diffuse family networks.To date, few community mobilizing efforts in HIV prevention have clearly defined the meaning and domains of CM prior to intervention design. We distilled six CM domains from the literature; all were pertinent to mobilization in rural South Africa. While some adaptation of

  18. [German Prevention Programs for Eating Disorders - A Systematic Review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickhardt, Mara; Adametz, Luise; Richter, Felicitas; Strauß, Bernhard; Berger, Uwe

    2018-02-13

    In the past years a considerable amount of primary and secondary prevention programs for eating disorders was developed in German speaking countries. However, up to now there has been no systematic review of contents and evaluation studies. The main objective of the present systematic review is to identify and outline German prevention programs for eating disorders. This should facilitate the selection of appropriate and effective interventions for medical experts, other professionals and teachers. A systematic literature research was conducted and 22 German-language primary and secondary prevention programs were identified. Half of them were evaluated. The programs were conducted either in school, on the internet or in a group setting. The findings show that throughout almost all programs a reduction in weight and shape concerns and drive for thinness as well as an increase of (body) self-esteem could be observed in either the total sample or the high-risk sample. However, programs were inconsistently effective in reducing disordered eating behavior in the target population. All studies were effective in reducing at least one risk factor. Overall, higher effect sizes were found for secondary prevention programs than for primary prevention programs. Lastly, limitations of the studies and suggestions for future prevention efforts are discussed. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Prevention and management of work-related cardiovascular disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akizumi Tsutsumi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disorders (CVDs constitute a major burden for health of working populations throughout the world with as much as 50% of all causes of death and at least 25% of work disability. There are some changes in CVD risk factors among occupational classes. This is mainly due to the new types of work-related causes of morbidity associated with the recent developments in global work life, particularly in the industrialized countries. Meanwhile, in the developing countries or those in transition (e.g., in Eastern Europe, CVD mortality is increasing due to major socioeconomic changes, the demographic transition and rapid industrialisation and urbanisation, all leading to growing challenges to cardiovascular health. Better control of known risk factors (i.e., smoking, obesity, physical inactivity, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, and high blood glucose is effective to prevent CVD incidence. But the expected improvement has not been achieved. The obstacles of achieving such impact are due to lack of awareness, lack of policies and their implementation into practice and shortage of infrastructures and human resources. These are needed for wide-scale and long-term programme implementation. Considering the WHO Global Strategy on Occupational Health for All, the WHO Global Action Plan on Workers’ Health, the WHO Programme on Prevention of Non-communicable Diseases and the ILO Decent Work agenda, the 6th ICOH International Conference on Work Environment and Cardiovascular Diseases adopted the Tokyo Declaration.

  20. 28 CFR 545.23 - Inmate work/program assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... community living area, unless the pretrial inmate has signed a waiver of his or her right not to work (see... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inmate work/program assignment. 545.23... WORK AND COMPENSATION Inmate Work and Performance Pay Program § 545.23 Inmate work/program assignment...

  1. Gender Differences in Alcohol Prevention Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogenchuk, Marcella J.; Hellsten, Laurie-Ann M.; Prytula, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a study of the outcomes of a school-based alcohol abuse prevention initiative. The initiative was focused on identifying, developing, disseminating, and evaluating information for high school students based on the school community needs. Student learning outcomes were measured using pre- and post-tests…

  2. Application Guidelines | Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Personal Statement of Research Goals In narrative form, describe your research interests and goals and how these relate to cancer prevention and control. Please also provide insight into your short- and long-term career goals, and explain how the CPFP will help you achieve those goals.

  3. A systematic review of school-based suicide prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Cara; Bolton, Shay-Lee; Katz, Laurence Y; Isaak, Corinne; Tilston-Jones, Toni; Sareen, Jitender

    2013-10-01

    Suicide is one of the leading causes of death among youth today. Schools are a cost-effective way to reach youth, yet there is no conclusive evidence regarding the most effective prevention strategy. We conducted a systematic review of the empirical literature on school-based suicide prevention programs. Studies were identified through MEDLINE and Scopus searches, using keywords such as "suicide, education, prevention and program evaluation." Additional studies were identified with a manual search of relevant reference lists. Individual studies were rated for level of evidence, and the programs were given a grade of recommendation. Five reviewers rated all studies independently and disagreements were resolved through discussion. Sixteen programs were identified. Few programs have been evaluated for their effectiveness in reducing suicide attempts. Most studies evaluated the programs' abilities to improve students' and school staffs' knowledge and attitudes toward suicide. Signs of Suicide and the Good Behavior Game were the only programs found to reduce suicide attempts. Several other programs were found to reduce suicidal ideation, improve general life skills, and change gatekeeper behaviors. There are few evidence-based, school-based suicide prevention programs, a combination of which may be effective. It would be useful to evaluate the effectiveness of general mental health promotion programs on the outcome of suicide. The grades assigned in this review are reflective of the available literature, demonstrating a lack of randomized controlled trials. Further evaluation of programs examining suicidal behavior outcomes in randomized controlled trials is warranted. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. An outline of 1961 program;IAEA program of work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1960-09-15

    The program of work for 1961 which the International Atomic Energy Agency's Board of Governors has presented to the Agency's General Conference for final approval provides for steady amplification of its work in technical assistance to specific projects, training of scientific personnel and scientific research. These activities and certain others are of special interest to those areas of the world that are less advanced in the utilization of atomic energy. This is in accord with the Agency's Statute which requires that it bear in mind 'the special needs of the under-developed areas of the world'. At the same time, the Board indicated that the 1961 program 'provides for activities intended to create a basis for general progress in the safe utilization of atomic energy for peaceful purposes which is of concern to all Member States. Thus the delay in the advent of generally economic nuclear power is used to build up the necessary technological infrastructure in the less developed countries and to establish an international framework of norms and regulations which an orderly and safe development of widespread nuclear industries will require'. Some highlights of the 1961 program are presented

  5. Sparsity Prevention Pivoting Method for Linear Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peiqiang; Li, Qiyuan; Li, Canbing

    2018-01-01

    When the simplex algorithm is used to calculate a linear programming problem, if the matrix is a sparse matrix, it will be possible to lead to many zero-length calculation steps, and even iterative cycle will appear. To deal with the problem, a new pivoting method is proposed in this paper....... The principle of this method is avoided choosing the row which the value of the element in the b vector is zero as the row of the pivot element to make the matrix in linear programming density and ensure that most subsequent steps will improve the value of the objective function. One step following...... this principle is inserted to reselect the pivot element in the existing linear programming algorithm. Both the conditions for inserting this step and the maximum number of allowed insertion steps are determined. In the case study, taking several numbers of linear programming problems as examples, the results...

  6. Sparsity Prevention Pivoting Method for Linear Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peiqiang; Li, Qiyuan; Li, Canbing

    2018-01-01

    . The principle of this method is avoided choosing the row which the value of the element in the b vector is zero as the row of the pivot element to make the matrix in linear programming density and ensure that most subsequent steps will improve the value of the objective function. One step following......When the simplex algorithm is used to calculate a linear programming problem, if the matrix is a sparse matrix, it will be possible to lead to many zero-length calculation steps, and even iterative cycle will appear. To deal with the problem, a new pivoting method is proposed in this paper...... this principle is inserted to reselect the pivot element in the existing linear programming algorithm. Both the conditions for inserting this step and the maximum number of allowed insertion steps are determined. In the case study, taking several numbers of linear programming problems as examples, the results...

  7. Preventing Occupational Skin Disease: A Review of Training Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zack, Bethany; Arrandale, Victoria H; Holness, D Linn

    Occupational contact dermatitis (OCD) is a common occupational disease that impacts a variety of worker groups. Skin protection and disease prevention training programs have shown promise for improving prevention practices and reducing the incidence of OCD. This review details the features of training programs for primary prevention of OCD and identifies gaps in the literature. Twelve studies were identified for in-depth review: many studies included wet workers employed in health care, hairdressing, cleaning, and food preparation; 1 program featured manufacturing workers. Few programs provided content on allergic contact dermatitis, and only 1 was evaluated for long-term effectiveness. Effective programs were similar in content, delivery method, and timing and were characterized by industry specificity, multimodal learning, participatory elements, skin care resource provision, repeated sessions, and management engagement. Long-term effectiveness, generalizability beyond OCD, workplace health and safety culture impact, and translation of programs in the North American context represent areas for future research.

  8. Primary prevention research: a preliminary review of program outcome studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaps, E; Churgin, S; Palley, C S; Takata, B; Cohen, A Y

    1980-07-01

    This article reviews 35 drug abuse prevention program evaluations employing drug-specific outcome measures. Many of these evaluations assessed the effects of "new generation" prevention strategies: affective, peer-oriented, and multidimensional approaches. Only 14 studies evaluated purely informational programs. Evaluations were analyzed to ascertain (1) characteristics of the programs under study, (2) characteristics of the research designs, and (3) patterns among findings. This review provides some evidence that the newer prevention strategies may produce more positive and fewer negative outcomes than did older drug information approaches. Over 70% of the programs using the newer strategies produced some positive effects; only 29% showed negative effects. In contrast, 46% of informational programs showed positive effects; 46% showed negative effects. These findings must be approached with great caution, since the research was frequently scientifically inadequate, and since rigor of research was negatively correlated with intensity and duration of program services.

  9. [Mobbing and working environment: towards an organizational prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosco, Maria Giuseppina; Salerno, Silvana

    2004-01-01

    Psychological violence in the workplaces is increasing and the Italian national health service and trade unions are mostly involved in single cases of diagnosis strategy. To analyse published mobbing cases using a mobbing prevention approach that takes account of the main civil rights violation in mobbing actions. 25 cases were analysed in order to identify the type of mobbing, gender, the professional position and the main civil rights that were violated. Seven main civil rights had been violated in the 25 mobbing cases: health, work, professional skills, equal treatment, legality, diversity, dignity. Men working in unhealthy conditions, mostly due to unhealthy working environments, were forced to leave under the pressure of moral violence. In women, equal treatment and diversity were the main rights that were violated. Co-worker support was absent in all cases. A civil rights assessment to prevent mobbing is considered. Italian legislation, particularly the Civil Code, can be the legislation key for prevention, with the employer responsible for providing a violence-free environment as indicated in European Directive 626/94.

  10. Evaluation of a child sexual abuse prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasan-Taber, L; Tabachnick, J

    1999-10-01

    A half-million children are believed to be sexually abused each year in the United States. In 1995, the American Medical Association declared sexual assault "a silent violent epidemic." The majority of efforts to stop child sexual abuse have focused on punishing abusers and treating victims and their families; prevention programs are uncommon and rely on educating children to report sexual abuse. This case study describes the evaluation of the first public health campaign designed to target adults for prevention. A baseline assessment of attitudes, awareness, knowledge, and policies was conducted in Vermont to identify facilitators and barriers to adult prevention of child sexual abuse. These included predisposing factors (50% of Vermont residents did not know the characteristics of an abuser), enabling factors (60% of Vermont residents did not know where to refer someone who may have sexual behavior problems), and reinforcing factors (when focus group participants knew an abuser, they were less likely to take action). This process guided the intervention, which included a broad-based media campaign targeting adults; a one-to-one communications strategy that provided information to agencies working with families at risk and a toll-free helpline for adults in an abuse situation; and a systems change strategy designed to educate decision-makers and leaders. Program evaluation measures included a random-digit dial survey, focus groups, a survey of Vermont decision-makers, and other data sets. The successes and limitations of these interventions, both as strategies in themselves and as data sources for evaluation, are discussed.

  11. Vocal problems among teachers: evaluation of a preventive voice program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovo, Roberto; Galceran, Marta; Petruccelli, Joseph; Hatzopoulos, Stavros

    2007-11-01

    Vocal education programs for teachers may prevent the emergence of vocal disorders; however, only a few studies have tried to evaluate the effectiveness of these preventive programs, particularly in the long term. Two hundred and sixty-four subjects, mostly kindergarten and primary school female teachers, participated in a course on voice care, including a theoretical seminar (120 minutes) and a short voice group therapy (180 minutes, small groups of 20 subjects). For 3 months, they had to either attend the vocal ergonomics norms and, as psychological reinforcement, they had to make out a daily report of vocal abuse, or to follow the given exercises for a more efficient vocal technique, reporting on whether the time scheduled was respected or not. The effectiveness of the course was assessed in a group of 21 female teachers through a randomized controlled study. Evaluation comprehended stroboscopy, perceptual and electro-acoustical voice analysis, Voice Handicap Index, and a course benefit questionnaire. A group of 20 teachers matched for age, working years, hoarseness grade, and vocal demand served as a control group. At 3 months evaluation, participants demonstrated amelioration in the global dysphonia rates (P=0.0003), jitter (P=0.0001), shimmer (P=0.0001), MPT (P=0.0001), and VHI (P=0.0001). Twelve months after the course, the positive effects remained, although they were slightly reduced. In conclusion, a course inclusive of two lectures, a short group voice therapy, home-controlled voice exercises, and hygiene, represents a feasible and cost-effective primary prevention of voice disorders in a homogeneous and well-motivated population of teachers.

  12. Jump start: a targeted substance abuse prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, N G; Donohew, L

    1997-10-01

    A substance abuse prevention and life skills program for economically disadvantaged, high sensation seeking African American teens was developed and tested in Cincinnati, Ohio. Formative research was conducted to determine program content and format. Over two implementations, 289 individuals in the target population were recruited as participants for the field test of the program. For the first implementation, participants were randomly selected from the city's summer youth employment program. For the second, a media campaign was designed to recruit participants. Process evaluation indicated that participants evaluated the program extremely positively. Outcome evaluation indicated that significant pretest differences between high and low sensation seekers were neutralized for liquor and marijuana in both years of the program and for attitude toward drugs in the first year of the program. These results suggest that sensation seeking is a useful message design and audience-targeting variable for substance abuse prevention program design. Implications and recommendations for future research are discussed.

  13. [Preventive withdrawal from work, psychosocial work demands and major depressive symptoms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, A; Goulet, L; Vézina, M

    2015-12-01

    Our study objectives were as follows: assess exposure to psychosocial work demands among working pregnant women and women on preventive withdrawal from work; and measure the association between psychosocial work demands and major depressive symptoms, according to time of withdrawal from work. Karasek's abbreviated scale was used to measure psychosocial work demands (Job strain and "Iso-strain") and CES-D scale (Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale) was used to measure major depressive symptoms (CES-D score≥23), at 24-26 weeks of pregnancy, among 3043 pregnant women in Montreal (Quebec) who worked at paid jobs at least 15 h/week and at least four consecutive weeks since the beginning of their pregnancy. Multivariate logistic regression models were built. At 24-26 weeks of pregnancy, 31.4% (956/3043) of pregnant women were on preventive withdrawal from work. They were more in "high-strain" (31.1% vs. 21.1%) and "Iso-strain" groups (21.0% vs. 14.2%) than those who continued to work (Pdemands are an important risk factor for the mental health of pregnant workers and require that preventive actions be put forward. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Organizational options for preventing work-related stress in knowledge work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ipsen, Christine; Jensen, Per Langaa

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies point to work-related stress as an increasing problem for knowledge workers. However, the working life in knowledge-intensive companies is often described as good and stimulating. The aim of this study is to explore the organizational options for preventing work-related problems...... in knowledge work. This calls for a study of the characteristics of knowledge work, stress management interventions and an in-depth analysis of the organizational factors causing frustrations and work-related problems in relation to knowledge work. In a qualitative study, 27 respondents were interviewed....... They represented different stakeholders in five Danish knowledge-intensive companies, which comprised two consultancies and three engineering consulting companies. The study shows that knowledge work comprises a paradox, since the same work-related or organizational issues could be experienced as both...

  15. [Online gaming. Potential risk and prevention programs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malischnig, Doris

    2014-12-01

    Online gaming is more and more common and increasingly accessible. Due to a lack of social control the participation could be a potential risk for certain customers. The given article focuses on prevention measures that are provided by the Austrian online gaming operator, the Austrian Lotteries, provider of the online gaming platform win2day, in the light of the specifics of Internet gaming in order to avoid problems with gaming.

  16. Health problems due to long working hours in Japan: working hours, workers' compensation (Karoshi), and preventive measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Kenji; Takahashi, Masaya; Nakata, Akinori

    2006-10-01

    Late in the 1970s, serious social concern over health problems due to long working hours has arisen in Japan. This report briefly summarizes the Japanese circumstances about long working hours and what the Government has achieved so far. The national statistics show that more than 6 million people worked for 60 h or more per week during years 2000 and 2004. Approximately three hundred cases of brain and heart diseases were recognized as labour accidents resulting from overwork (Karoshi) by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) between 2002 and 2005. Consequently, the MHLW has been working to establish a more appropriate compensation system for Karoshi, as well as preventive measures for overwork related health problems. In 2001, the MHLW set the standards for clearly recognizing Karoshi in association with the amount of overtime working hours. These standards were based on the results of a literature review and medical examinations indicating a relationship between overwork and brain and heart diseases. In 2002, the MHLW launched the program for the prevention of health impairment due to overwork, and in 2005 the health guidance through an interview by a doctor for overworked workers has been enacted as law. Long working hours are controversial issues because of conflicts between health, safety, work-life balance, and productivity. It is obvious that we need to continue research regarding the impact on worker health and the management of long working hours.

  17. An Evaluation of the California Injury and Illness Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendeloff, John; Gray, Wayne B.; Haviland, Amelia M.; Main, Regan; Xia, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The Injury and Illness Prevention Program (IIPP) requirement has been the most frequently cited standard in California workplace health and safety inspections almost every year since it became effective in July 1991. Every workplace safety inspection must assess compliance with the IIPP. This article presents the results of an evaluation of the IIPP's effects on worker injuries in California and should inform policy both in California and in the federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) program, which has made the adoption of a similar national requirement a top priority. Using data from the Workers' Compensation Information System, OSHA Data Initiative statistics, and Workers' Compensation Insurance Rating Bureau of California reports on medical and indemnity claims from single-establishment firms, the evaluation team analyzed the impact of citations for violations of the IIPP on safety performance by (1) using the number of citations as a measure of effectiveness and (2) assessing the number of establishments that were cited for noncompliance and then came into compliance. They found that enforcement of the IIPP appears to prevent injuries only when inspectors cite firms for violations of specific subsections of that standard. Eighty percent of the citations of the IIPP by the California Division of Occupational Safety and Health program are for only a different section, the one that requires employers to have a written IIPP. The specific subsections refer to the provisions that mandate surveying and fixing hazards, investigating the causes of injuries, and training employees to work safely. Because about 25 percent of all inspections cite the IIPP, citations of the specific subsections occur in about 5 percent of all inspections. In those inspections, the total recordable injury rate falls by more than 20 percent in the two years following the inspection. PMID:28083238

  18. Factors Related to Teenage Dating Violence Prevention Programming in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Beverly M.; Hawley, Alicia; Hoefer, Richard; Barnett, Tracey M.

    2017-01-01

    The Children's Safety Network has identified teenage dating violence (TDV) as a public health problem and called for effective prevention programs to address the issue. This study used resource dependence theory to examine factors that relate to domestic violence shelters' in-school efforts to prevent TDV. A national survey was sent to domestic…

  19. A Multilevel Evaluation of a Comprehensive Child Abuse Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Michael A.; Alameda-Lawson, Tania; Byrnes, Edward C.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study is to examine the extent to which participation in a county-wide prevention program leads to improvements in protective factors associated with child abuse prevention (CAP) and whether improvements in measured protective factors relate to decreased odds of child abuse. Method: Using multilevel growth modeling,…

  20. Prevention and management of work-related cardiovascular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsumi, Akizumi

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disorders (CVDs) constitute a major burden for health of working populations throughout the world with as much as 50% of all causes of death and at least 25% of work disability. There are some changes in CVD risk factors among occupational classes. This is mainly due to the new types of work-related causes of morbidity associated with the recent developments in global work life, particularly in the industrialized countries. Meanwhile, in the developing countries or those in transition (e.g., in Eastern Europe), CVD mortality is increasing due to major socioeconomic changes, the demographic transition and rapid industrialisation and urbanisation, all leading to growing challenges to cardiovascular health. Better control of known risk factors (i.e., smoking, obesity, physical inactivity, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, and high blood glucose) is effective to prevent CVD incidence. But the expected improvement has not been achieved. The obstacles of achieving such impact are due to lack of awareness, lack of policies and their implementation into practice and shortage of infrastructures and human resources. These are needed for wide-scale and long-term programme implementation. Considering the WHO Global Strategy on Occupational Health for All, the WHO Global Action Plan on Workers' Health, the WHO Programme on Prevention of Non-communicable Diseases and the ILO Decent Work agenda, the 6th ICOH International Conference on Work Environment and Cardiovascular Diseases adopted the Tokyo Declaration. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  1. Healthcare Work and Organizational Interventions to Prevent Work-related Stress in Brindisi, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele d'Ettorre

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: In this study HCW resulted to be exposed to occupational stress factors susceptible to reduction. Stress management programs aimed to improve work context factors associated with occupational stress are required to minimize the impact of WRS on workers.

  2. Assessment and retrofit program at work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuyler, G [Rowan Williams Davies and Irwin Inc., Guelph, ON (Canada); Lethbridge, S [Owens-Corning, Guelph, ON (Canada)

    1993-10-01

    A glass plant in Ontario volunteered for an assessment as part of the Green Industry Assessment Retrofit Program. The project was intended to assess pollution prevention and reduction, water conservation, and energy utilization at the plant. The plant produces glass fibers and is a major user of natural gas and electricity, with a minimum electrical demand of 4 MW. Total waste heat in the flue gas from the gas-fired melting furnaces, relative to 25[degree]C, is over 5 MW. Nitrogen oxides are the predominant air emission at the plant. Glass fiber scrap constitutes the bulk of the solid wastes produced. Conservation opportunities were identified and their payback periods calculated. Options considered to be feasible included heat recovery and power generation from the furnace exhaust gases, and moving the air conditioning system intakes so they draw in cool air instead of hot air from the melter area. Bioremediation was considered to have good potential for treating the glass fiber wastes. Under this concept, the waste would be cycled through reactor cells containing microorganisms that could remove the binders and coatings on the fibers. At the end of this process, the glass fiber would be of sufficient quality that it could be recycled directly to the melter. 1 tab.

  3. Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program Application Period is Open until August 25 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The application period for the NCI Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program (CPFP) is open. Since 1987, CPFP has provided funding support for post-doctoral Fellows to train the next generation of researchers and leaders in the field. |

  4. Attending Weak Signals: The Prevention of Work-related Illnesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Liff

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the characteristics of communication among managers, human resource (HR experts, and occupational health care specialists, as they deal with such informal information as weak signals in the prevention of work-related illnesses, using a theoretical framework in which the prevention of work-related illness is analogous to theory on crisis management. This is a qualitative study in which individual and focus-group interviews were conducted in a Swedish context with occupational health care specialists, managers, and HR experts. The results suggest that organizational solutions have failed and continue to fail at controlling workers’ health problems, although the main difficulty is not in identifying the ‘right’ individually oriented weak signals. Rather, it is upper management’s reliance on formal information (e.g., statistics and surveys – because of the difficulty in supplementing it with informal information (e.g., rumors and gossip – that makes it difficult to improve traditional health and safety work

  5. A Quasi-Experimental Analysis of Schoolwide Violence Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Tia Navelene; Leite, Walter; Smith, Stephen W.

    2017-01-01

    Violence prevention programs are commonplace in today's schools, though reviews of the literature reveal mixed empirical findings on their effectiveness. Often, these programs include a variety of components such as social skills training, student mentoring, and activities designed to build a sense of school community that have not been tested for…

  6. A Primary Prevention Program to Reduce Bulimia and Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullari, Salvatore; Redmon, William K.

    This paper presents a theoretical model for a primary prevention program for bulimia and anorexia nervosa to be used with adolescents and young women considered most at risk of developing these eating disorders. Characteristics of potential anorexics and bulimics are identified to aid in the selection of target groups for the program. It is…

  7. Wellness Programs: Preventive Medicine to Reduce Health Care Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Gilbert R., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    A wellness program is a formalized approach to preventive health care that can positively affect employee lifestyle and reduce future health-care costs. Describes programs for health education, smoking cessation, early detection, employee assistance, and fitness, citing industry success figures. (eight references) (MLF)

  8. Promoting a Shared Representation of Workers' Activities to Improve Integrated Prevention of Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Roquelaure

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Effective and sustainable prevention of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WR-MSDs remains a challenge for preventers and policy makers. Coordination of stakeholders involved in the prevention of WR-MSDs is a key factor that requires greater reflection on common knowledge and shared representation of workers' activities among stakeholders. Information on workers' strategies and operational leeway should be the core of common representations, because it places workers at the center of the “work situation system” considered by the intervention models. Participatory ergonomics permitting debates among stakeholders about workers' activity and strategies to cope with the work constraints in practice could help them to share representations of the “work situation system” and cooperate. Sharing representation therefore represents a useful tool for prevention, and preventers should provide sufficient space and time for dialogue and discussion of workers' activities among stakeholders during the conception, implementation, and management of integrated prevention programs.

  9. Hanford Site waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    The Hanford Site WMin/P2 program is an organized, comprehensive, and continual effort to systematically reduce the quantity and toxicity of hazardous, radioactive, mixed, and sanitary wastes; conserve resources; and prevent or minimize pollutant releases to all environmental media from all Site activities. The Hanford Site WMin/P2 program plan reflects national and DOE waste minimization and pollution prevention goals and policies, and represents an ongoing effort to make WMin/P2 part of the Site operating philosophy. In accordance with these policies, a hierarchical approach to environmental management has been adopted and is applied to all types of polluting and waste generating activities. Pollution prevention and waste minimization through source reduction are first priority in the Hanford WMin/P2 program, followed by environmentally safe recycling. Treatment to reduce the quantity, toxicity, and/or mobility will be considered only when prevention or recycling are not possible or practical. Environmentally safe disposal is the last option

  10. Preventing the Onset of Child Sexual Abuse by Targeting Young Adolescents With Universal Prevention Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letourneau, Elizabeth J.; Schaeffer, Cindy M.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Feder, Kenneth A.

    2017-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a serious public health problem that increases risk for physical and mental health problems across the life course. Young adolescents are responsible for a substantial portion of CSA offending, yet to our knowledge, no validated prevention programs that target CSA perpetration by youth exist. Most existing efforts to address CSA rely on reactive criminal justice policies or programs that teach children to protect themselves; neither approach is well validated. Given the high rates of desistance from sexual offending following a youth’s first CSA-related adjudication, it seems plausible that many youth could be prevented from engaging in their first offense. The goal of this article is to examine how school-based universal prevention programs might be used to prevent CSA perpetrated by adolescents. We review the literature on risk and protective factors for CSA perpetration and identify several promising factors to target in an intervention. We also summarize the literature on programs that have been effective at preventing adolescent dating violence and other serious problem behaviors. Finally, we describe a new CSA prevention program under development and early evaluation and make recommendations for program design characteristics, including unambiguous messaging, parental involvement, multisession dosage, skills practice, and bystander considerations. PMID:28413921

  11. Suicide Prevention in Social Work Education: How Prepared Are Social Work Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteen, Philip J.; Jacobson, Jodi M.; Sharpe, Tanya L.

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of suicide suggests social workers will encounter clients at risk for suicide, but research shows social workers receive little to no training on suicide and suicide prevention and feel unprepared to work effectively with clients at risk. Baseline results from a randomized intervention study of the Question, Persuade, and Refer…

  12. Strength at Home Couples Program to Prevent Military Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0374 TITLE: Strength at Home Couples Program to Prevent Military Partner Violence PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Casey T...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Strength at Home Couples Program to Prevent Military Partner Violence 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0374 5c. PROGRAM...7 9. Appendices…………………………………………………………………………………..7 1 Annual Report for Period: Sep 30, 2016 to Sept 29, 2017 Strength at Home

  13. Evaluation of high myopia complications prevention program in university freshmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Gow-Lieng; Chen, Cheng-Yu

    2016-10-01

    High myopia is a global eye health problem because of its high incidence of sight-threatening complications. Due to the role of awareness, self-examination, and preventive behavior in prevention of morbidity of high myopia complications, promoting knowledge, capabilities, and attitude of high myopic personnel are required in this regard.In this quasi-experiment study, 31 freshmen with high myopia in a national university were enrolled in 2014. The data were collected by validated and reliable questionnaire based on health belief model (HBM) and self-efficacy theory. The intervention program consisted of 1 educational session lasting 150 minutes by lecturing of high myopia complications, virtual reality experiencing, similarity modeling, and quibbling a film made on high myopia complications preventive concepts.Implementing the educational program showed immediate effect in knowledge, perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, self-efficacy, and preventive behavior intention. While 6 weeks after the educational program, significant increases were observed in cues to action, self-efficacy, and preventive behavior intention.This article provided that, after a single session, there was positive improvement in high myopia complication prevention behavior intention among participants. These positive effects confirmed the efficacy of the education program and will probably induce behavior change.

  14. Designing an Effective Prevention Program: Principles Underlying the Rand Smoking and Drug Prevention Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellickson, Phyllis L.

    This paper describes the Project ALERT program (Adolescent Learning Experiences in Resistance Training) which was established by the Rand Corporation to prevent smoking and drug use among seventh graders. The program is based on the social influence model of drug use initiation. Curriculum features are described including motivation to resist and…

  15. Suicide Prevention in the Dot Com Era: Technological Aspects of a University Suicide Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Jessica; VanDeusen, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Western Michigan University's Suicide Prevention Program utilizes multiple technological components, including an online training course, a Web site, and 2 social networking Web site profiles, as integral aspects of a comprehensive program. This article discusses the development, maintenance, use, and impact of the technological aspects of this…

  16. Optimal investment in a portfolio of HIV prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaric, G S; Brandeau, M L

    2001-01-01

    In this article, the authors determine the optimal allocation of HIV prevention funds and investigate the impact of different allocation methods on health outcomes. The authors present a resource allocation model that can be used to determine the allocation of HIV prevention funds that maximizes quality-adjusted life years (or life years) gained or HIV infections averted in a population over a specified time horizon. They apply the model to determine the allocation of a limited budget among 3 types of HIV prevention programs in a population of injection drug users and nonusers: needle exchange programs, methadone maintenance treatment, and condom availability programs. For each prevention program, the authors estimate a production function that relates the amount invested to the associated change in risky behavior. The authors determine the optimal allocation of funds for both objective functions for a high-prevalence population and a low-prevalence population. They also consider the allocation of funds under several common rules of thumb that are used to allocate HIV prevention resources. It is shown that simpler allocation methods (e.g., allocation based on HIV incidence or notions of equity among population groups) may lead to alloctions that do not yield the maximum health benefit. The optimal allocation of HIV prevention funds in a population depends on HIV prevalence and incidence, the objective function, the production functions for the prevention programs, and other factors. Consideration of cost, equity, and social and political norms may be important when allocating HIV prevention funds. The model presented in this article can help decision makers determine the health consequences of different allocations of funds.

  17. Optimizing Violence Prevention Programs: An Examination of Program Effectiveness among Urban High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompkins, Amanda C.; Chauveron, Lisa M.; Harel, Ofer; Perkins, Daniel F.

    2014-01-01

    Background: While demand for youth violence prevention programs increases, the ability of the school-day schedule to accommodate their time requirements has diminished. Viable school-based prevention programs must strike a balance between brevity and effectiveness. This article reports results from an effectiveness trial of a 12-session…

  18. Westinghouse Hanford Company Pollution Prevention Program Implementation Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floyd, B.C.

    1994-10-01

    This plan documents Westinghouse Hanford Company's (WHC) Pollution Prevention (P2) (formerly Waste Minimization) program. The program includes WHC; BCS Richland, Inc. (BCSR); and ICF Kaiser Hanford Company (ICF KH). The plan specifies P2 program activities and schedules for implementing the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness (WMin/P2) Program Plan requirements (DOE 1994a). It is intended to satisfy the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and other legal requirements that are discussed in both the Hanford Site WMin/P2 plan and paragraph C of this plan. As such, the Pollution Prevention Awareness Program required by DOE Order 5400.1 (DOE 1988) is included in the WHC P2 program. WHC, BCSR, and ICF KH are committed to implementing an effective P2 program as identified in the Hanford Site WMin/P2 Plan. This plan provides specific information on how the WHC P2 program will develop and implement the goals, activities, and budget needed to accomplish this. The emphasis has been to provide detailed planning of the WHC P2 program activities over the next 3 years. The plan will guide the development and implementation of the program. The plan also provides background information on past program activities. Because the plan contains greater detail than in the past, activity scope and implementation schedules may change as new priorities are identified and new approaches are developed and realized. Some activities will be accelerated, others may be delayed; however, all of the general program elements identified in this plan and contractor requirements identified in the Site WMin/P2 plan will be developed and implemented during the next 3 years. This plan applies to all WHC, BCSR, and ICF KH organizations and subcontractors. It will be distributed to those with defined responsibilities in this plan; and the policy, goals, objectives, and strategy of the program will be communicated to all WHC, BCSR, and ICF KH employees

  19. Shift Work and Health: Current Problems and Preventive Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Costa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives an overview of the problems to be tackled nowadays by occupational health with regards to shift work as well as the main guidelines at organizational and medical levels on how to protect workers’ health and well-being. Working time organization is becoming a key factor on account of new technologies, market globalization, economic competition, and extension of social services to general populations, all of which involve more and more people in continuous assistance and control of work processes over the 24 hours in a day. The large increase of epidemiological and clinical studies on this issue document the severity of this risk factor on human health and well being, at both social and psychophysical levels, starting from a disruption of biological circadian rhythms and sleep/wake cycle and ending in several psychosomatic troubles and disorders, likely also including cancer, and extending to impairment of performance efficiency as well as family and social life. Appropriate interventions on the organization of shift schedules according to ergonomic criteria and careful health surveillance and social support for shift workers are important preventive and corrective measures that allow people to keep working without significant health impairment.

  20. Preventing halo bias in grading the work of university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Malouff

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Experts have advocated anonymous marking as a means of minimizing bias in subjective student assessment. In the present study, 159 faculty members or teaching assistants across disciplines were randomly assigned (1 to grade a poor oral presentation of a university student, (2 to grade a good oral presentation of the same student, or (3 not to grade any oral presentation of the student. All graders then assessed the same written work by the student. A linear-contrasts analysis showed that, as hypothesized, the graders assigned significantly higher scores to written work following the better oral presentation than following the poor oral presentation, with intermediate scores for the written work of the student whose oral presentation was not seen by the graders. The results provide evidence of a halo effect in that prior experience with a student biased the grading of written work completed by the student. The findings suggest that keeping students anonymous, as in the condition with no knowledge of the student’s performance in the oral presentation, helps prevent bias in grading.

  1. Preliminary program evaluation of emergency department HIV prevention counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitlinger, Andrea P; Lindsell, Christopher J; Ruffner, Andrew H; Wayne, D Beth; Hart, Kimberly W; Trott, Alexander T; Fichtenbaum, Carl J; Lyons, Michael S

    2011-07-01

    Controversy surrounds the linkage of prevention counseling with emergency department (ED)-based HIV testing. Further, the effectiveness and feasibility of prevention counseling in the ED setting is unknown. We investigate these issues by conducting a preliminarily exploration of several related aspects of our ED's HIV prevention counseling and testing program. Our urban, academic ED provides formal client-centered prevention counseling in conjunction with HIV testing. Five descriptive, exploratory observations were conducted, involving surveys and analysis of electronic medical records and programmatic data focused on (1) patient perception and feasibility of prevention counseling in the ED, (2) patient perceptions of the need to link prevention counseling with testing, and (3) potential effectiveness of providing prevention counseling in conjunction with ED-based HIV testing. Of 110 ED patients surveyed after prevention counseling and testing, 98% believed privacy was adequate, and 97% reported that their questions were answered. Patients stated that counseling would lead to improved health (80%), behavioral changes (72%), follow-up testing (77%), and discussion with partners (74%). However, 89% would accept testing without counseling, 32% were willing to seek counseling elsewhere, and 26% preferred not to receive the counseling. Correct responses to a 16-question knowledge quiz increased by 1.6 after counseling (95% confidence interval 1.3 to 12.0). The program completed counseling for 97% of patients tested; however, 6% of patients had difficulty recalling the encounter and 13% denied received testing. Among patients undergoing repeated testing, there was no consistent change in self-reported risk behaviors. Participants in the ED prevention counseling and testing program considered counseling acceptable and useful, though not required. Given adequate resources, prevention counseling can be provided in the ED, but it is unlikely that all patients benefit

  2. A Clustered Randomized Controlled Trial of the Positive Prevention PLUS Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaChausse, Robert G

    2016-09-01

    To determine the impact of Positive Prevention PLUS, a school-based adolescent pregnancy prevention program on delaying sexual intercourse, birth control use, and pregnancy. I randomly assigned a diverse sample of ninth grade students in 21 suburban public high schools in California into treatment (n = 2483) and control (n = 1784) groups that participated in a clustered randomized controlled trial. Between October 2013 and May 2014, participants completed baseline and 6-month follow-up surveys regarding sexual behavior and pregnancy. Participants in the treatment group were offered Positive Prevention PLUS, an 11-lesson adolescent pregnancy prevention program. The program had statistically significant impacts on delaying sexual intercourse and increasing the use of birth control. However, I detected no program effect on pregnancy rates at 6-month follow-up. The Positive Prevention PLUS program demonstrated positive impacts on adolescent sexual behavior. This suggests that programs that focus on having students practice risk reduction skills may delay sexual activity and increase birth control use.

  3. Information resources for US Department of Energy pollution prevention programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, K.L.; Snowden-Swan, L.J.; Butner, R.S.

    1994-01-01

    In support of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) pollution prevention efforts being conducted under the aegis of DOE`s Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) program, Pacific Northwest Laboratory was tasked with evaluating pollution prevention information resources. The goal of this activity was to improve the effectiveness of DOE`s pollution prevention activities through improved information flow, both within the complex, and more specifically, between DOE and other organizations that share similar pollution prevention challenges. This report presents our findings with respect to the role of information collection and dissemination within the complex, opportunities for teaming from successes of the private sector, and specific information needs of the DOE pollution prevention community. These findings were derived from a series of interviews with pollution prevention coordinators from across the DOE complex, review of DOE site and facility pollution prevention plans, and workshops with DOE information users as well as an information resources workshop that brought together information specialists from private industry, non-profit organizations, as well as state and regional pollution prevention assistance programs.

  4. Is the Infrastructure of EHDI Programs Working?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, K. Todd; Hoffman, Jeff; Munoz, Karen F.; Bradham, Tamala S.

    2011-01-01

    State coordinators of early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) programs completed a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, or SWOT, analysis that consisted of 12 evaluative areas of EHDI programs. For the EHDI program infrastructure area, 47 coordinators responded with a total of 292 items, and themes were identified in each…

  5. Understanding small business engagement in workplace violence prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruening, Rebecca A; Strazza, Karen; Nocera, Maryalice; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Casteel, Carri

    2015-01-01

    Worksite wellness, safety, and violence prevention programs have low penetration among small, independent businesses. This study examined barriers and strategies influencing small business participation in workplace violence prevention programs (WVPPs). A semistructured interview guide was used in 32 telephone interviews. The study took place at the University of North Carolina Injury Prevention Research Center. Participating were a purposive sample of 32 representatives of small business-serving organizations (e.g., business membership organizations, regulatory agencies, and economic development organizations) selected for their experience with small businesses. This study was designed to inform improved dissemination of Crime Free Business (CFB), a WVPP for small, independent retail businesses. Thematic qualitative data analysis was used to identify key barriers and strategies for promoting programs and services to small businesses. Three key factors that influence small business engagement emerged from the analysis: (1) small businesses' limited time and resources, (2) low salience of workplace violence, (3) influence of informal networks and source credibility. Identified strategies include designing low-cost and convenient programs, crafting effective messages, partnering with influential organizations and individuals, and conducting outreach through informal networks. Workplace violence prevention and public health practitioners may increase small business participation in programs by reducing time and resource demands, addressing small business concerns, enlisting support from influential individuals and groups, and emphasizing business benefits of participating in the program.

  6. Family Violence Prevention and Services Programs. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-02

    This rule will better prevent and protect survivors of family violence, domestic violence, and dating violence, by clarifying that all survivors must have access to services and programs funded under the Family Violence Prevention and Services Act. More specifically, the rule enhances accessibility and non-discrimination provisions, clarifies confidentiality rules, promotes coordination among community-based organizations, State Domestic Violence Coalitions, States, and Tribes, as well as incorporates new discretionary grant programs. Furthermore, the rule updates existing regulations to reflect statutory changes made to the Family Violence Prevention and Services Act, and updates procedures for soliciting and awarding grants. The rule also increases clarity and reduces potential confusion over statutory and regulatory standards. The rule codifies standards already used by the program in the Funding Opportunity Announcements and awards, in technical assistance, in reporting requirements, and in sub-regulatory guidance.

  7. Pollution prevention program for new projects -- Lessons learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lum, J. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-03-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to relay the experience of the Office of New Production Reactors (NP) in developing and implementing its pollution prevention program. NP was established to plan, design, and construct a new safe and environmentally acceptable nuclear reactor capacity necessary to provide an assured supply of tritium to maintain the nation`s long-term deterrent capability. The Program offered the Department of Energy an opportunity to demonstrate its commitment to environmental protection via minimization of environmental releases; new design offers the best opportunity for pollution prevention. The NP pollution prevention program was never fully implemented because NP`s tritium production design activity was recovery terminated. The information in this paper represented lessons learned from the last three years of NP operation.

  8. Needlestick Injuries in Agriculture Workers and Prevention Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buswell, Minden L; Hourigan, Mary; Nault, André J; Bender, Jeffrey B

    2016-01-01

    were nonspecific. NSI in agriculture workers and veterinarians can result in significant bodily injury and loss of work. There is a need for varied and comprehensive educational programs for agricultural workers and veterinarians to prevent NSI on livestock operations.

  9. [Chronic migraine and work: occupational risks and prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente-Herrero, M T; Ramírez Iñiguez de la Torre, M V; Capdevila García, L M; López-González, Á A; Terradillos García, M J

    2013-09-01

    Chronic migraine is a clinically difficult to manage primary headache which affects the quality of life of the patients. This impact is important in the occupational world, where along with the clinical aspects of the disease, the therapies used for the control of the symptoms or preventive aspects, must be assessed. The side effects of the drugs and the limitations associated with their symptoms are aspects to highlight in occupational health, especially in individual workplaces, where there is a high risk of work-related injuries. The medical officer must assess the occupational risks of particular importance in the progression of this disease, as well as preventive actions, within the ambit of the current Spanish legislation, that may be favorable for both the company and the worker. The coordinated medical intervention and knowledge of these occupational aspects can provide clinically relevant tools, andoccupational and social optimization in the use of available resources. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  10. Primary mental health prevention themes in published research and academic programs in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakash, Ora; Razon, Liat; Levav, Itzhak

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organization Comprehensive Mental Health Action Plan (CMHAP) 2013-2020 proposes the implementation of primary prevention strategies to reduce the mental health burden of disease. The extent to which Israeli academic programs and published research adhere to the principles spelled out by the CMHAP is unknown. To investigate the presence of mental health primary prevention themes in published research and academic programs in Israel. We searched for mental health primary prevention themes in: (1) three major journals of psychiatry and social sciences during the years 2001-2012; (2) university graduate programs in psychology, social work and medicine in leading universities for the academic year of 2011-2012; and (3) doctoral and master's theses approved in psychology and social work departments in five universities between the years 2007-2012. We used a liberal definition of primary prevention to guide the above identification of themes, including those related to theory, methods or research information of direct or indirect application in practice. Of the 934 articles published in the three journals, 7.2%, n = 67, addressed primary prevention. Of the 899 courses in the 19 graduate programs 5.2%, n = 47, elective courses addressed primary prevention. Of the 1960 approved doctoral and master's theses 6.2%, n = 123, addressed primary prevention. Only 11 (4.7%) articles, 5 (0.6%) courses, and 5 (0.3%) doctoral and master's theses addressed primary prevention directly. The psychiatric reform currently implemented in Israel and WHO CMHAP call for novel policies and course of action in all levels of prevention, including primary prevention. Yet, the latter is rarely a component of mental health education and research activities. The baseline we drew could serve to evaluate future progress in the field.

  11. Faith-based HIV prevention and counseling programs: findings from the Cincinnati census of religious congregations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szaflarski, Magdalena; Ritchey, P Neal; Jacobson, C Jeffrey; Williams, Rhys H; Baumann Grau, Amy; Meganathan, Karthikeyan; Ellison, Christopher G; Tsevat, Joel

    2013-06-01

    Congregations are well positioned to address HIV in their communities, but their response to HIV has been mixed. An emerging literature describes HIV programming in urban, predominantly black congregations, but population-based data remain limited. This study examined the levels of HIV prevention and counseling programs and associated factors (e.g., religious, organizational) by using data from a phone census of congregations in the Greater Cincinnati area (N = 447). Over 10 % of congregations (36 % of Black Protestant and 5-18 % of other types of congregations) offered HIV education/prevention alone or in combination with counseling or with counseling and testing. Path analysis results showed notable significant (p theology-polity on HIV prevention/counseling programs, but these effects were fully mediated by other factors, including other community work and racial composition. The levels of HIV programming in this study were high by national standards, but further outreach is needed in high-risk African American communities.

  12. [HIV prevention program for young people--the WYSH Project as a model of "combination prevention"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono-Kihara, Masako

    2010-03-01

    In face of the HIV pandemic that still grows, unsuccessful efforts of developing biomedical control measures or the failure of cognitive-behavioral approach to show sustained social level effectiveness, behavioral strategy is now expected to evolve into a structural prevention ("combination prevention") that involves multiple behavioral goals and multilevel approaches. WYSH Project is a combination prevention project for youth developed through socio-epidemiological approach that integrates epidemiology with social science such as social marketing and mixed method. WYSH Project includes mass education programs for youth in schools and programs for out-of-school youth through cyber network and peer communication. Started in 2002, it expanded nationwide with supports from related ministries and parent-teacher associations and has grown into a single largest youth prevention project in Japan.

  13. State Enterprise Zone Programs: Have They Worked?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Alan H.; Fisher, Peter S.

    The effectiveness of state enterprise zone programs was examined by using a hypothetical-firm model called the Tax and Incentives Model-Enterprise Zones (TAIM-ez) model to analyze the value of enterprise zone incentives to businesses across the United States and especially in the 13 states that had substantial enterprise zone programs by 1990. The…

  14. S-14: Soccer Injury Prevention Program; How Parents Can Play a Role?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Rahimi Moghaddam

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Soccer is classified as a high to moderate-intensity contact sport. It is therefore of importance that the incidence of soccer injuries be reduced through preventive interventions. The purpose of this review is to conclude the importance of a prevention program and explore the role parents have towards minimizing soccer related injuries among children and adolescence football players.METHOD: 42 hand searches, 5 books, and 25 electronic articles were reviewed and relevant results were collected for the purpose of this paper. Selected studies were categorized as follows: soccer injury statistics, injury prevention program, and parents and prevention.RESULTS: 5-16 year of age is a critical age range for soccer related injuries. Some studies have confirmed soccer injuries can be reduced by preventive interventions, and mentioned the importance of prevention program and the role of parents in the program. A few studies reported the efficacy for a positive parent-child relationship and injury prevalence, while other reported the negative influence parental demand on injury rates among children. Moreover, suggestions were made of consideration to parents prior to allowing children to participate in soccer.CONCLUSIONS: Prevention of sports injuries is team work, and parent's role can be as vital as other members of the prevention team. In a successful preventive program, there are steps that parents can take to help kids stay safe on the soccer field or wherever they play or participate in sports activities. Educational materials should be provided to parents by soccer camp organizers before children involve in soccer programs.

  15. Team awareness for workplace substance abuse prevention: the empirical and conceptual development of a training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J B; Lehman, W E; Reynolds, G S

    2000-09-01

    This paper describes the empirical and theoretical development of a workplace training program to help reduce/prevent employee alcohol and drug abuse and enhance aspects of the work group environment that support ongoing prevention. The paper (1) examines the changing social context of the workplace (e.g., teamwork, privacy issues) as relevant for prevention, (2) reviews studies that assess risks and protective factors in employee substance abuse (work environment, group processes, and employee attitudes), (3) provides a conceptual model that focuses on work group processes (enabling, neutralization of deviance) as the locus of prevention efforts, (4) describes an enhanced team-oriented training that was derived from previous research and the conceptual model, and (5) describes potential applications of the program. It is suggested that the research and conceptual model may help prevention scientists to assess the organizational context of any workplace prevention strategy. The need for this team-oriented approach may be greater among employees who experience psychosocial risks such as workplace drinking climates, social alienation, and policies that emphasize deterrence (drug testing) over educative prevention. Limitations of the model are also discussed.

  16. Hospital graduate social work field work programs: a study in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showers, N

    1990-02-01

    Twenty-seven hospital field work programs in New York City were studied. Questionnaires were administered to program coordinators and 238 graduate social work students participating in study programs. High degrees of program structural complexity and variation were found, indicating a state of art well beyond that described in the general field work literature. High rates of student satisfaction with learning, field instructors, programs, and the overall field work experience found suggest that the complexity of study programs may be more effective than traditional field work models. Statistically nonsignificant study findings indicate areas in which hospital social work departments may develop field work programs consistent with shifting organizational needs, without undue risk to educational effectiveness. Statistically significant findings suggest areas in which inflexibility in program design may be more beneficial in the diagnostic related groups era.

  17. Parents-CARE: a suicide prevention program for parents of at-risk youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooven, Carole

    2013-02-01

    Families play an important role in youth suicide prevention, as both a source of protection and a source of risk, and thus are an important target for adolescent suicide prevention programs. This article describes in detail Parents-CARE, a brief youth suicide prevention program for parents, for which effectiveness has been demonstrated. Engaging parents in preventive intervention can be challenging; therefore, the feasibility, acceptability, and relevance of the program to parents are examined. A total of 289 households participated in Parents-CARE. Parent attendance data and parent and interventionist process data are utilized to demonstrate the positive response by parents to the program. The Parents-CARE program was highly attended, and ratings demonstrate that parents were engaged in the program. Ratings show parents found the program both acceptable and relevant. Hence, the program described is promising for clinicians working with at-risk youth as they seek brief, accessible, and effective interventions that include parents in order to amplify the effects of an individual intervention approach. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. 77 FR 27593 - Exchange Visitor Program-Summer Work Travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ...--Summer Work Travel AGENCY: Department of State. ACTION: Interim final rule with request for comment... Travel Program allows foreign post-secondary students (mostly between the ages of 18 and 30) to come to... students have participated in the Sumer Work Travel Program. The popularity of this Program--both with...

  19. High School Students' Perceptions of Alcohol Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogenchuk, Marcella

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore Grade 11 students' perceptions of programs related to the prevention of alcohol use in high school settings through an analysis of quantitative and qualitative data elicited from student questionnaires (n=452) and focus groups. It was found that students felt a need for increased information on alcohol…

  20. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) | Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Am I eligible? To be considered for the Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program (CPFP), you must meet eligibility criteria related to educational attainment, US citizenship/permanent residency status, and the duration of prior postdoctoral research experience. Refer to the Eligibility Requirements for details. How do I apply? You must apply through our online application process.

  1. 77 FR 4239 - Sexual Assault Prevention and Response (SAPR) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    ... victims of sexual assault. The ASD(HA) shall direct that all sexual assault patients be given priority, so... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 32 CFR Part 103 [DoD-2008-OS-0124; 0790-AI37] Sexual... Program on prevention, response, and oversight to sexual assault. It is DoD policy to establish a culture...

  2. Developing a Culturally Appropriate Depression Prevention Program: Opportunities and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardemil, Esteban V.; Kim, Saeromi; Davidson, Tatiana; Sarmiento, Ingrid A.; Ishikawa, Rachel Zack; Sanchez, Monica; Torres, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the experiences of the first author and his colleagues in the development and implementation of a depression prevention program that specifically targets Latina mothers. Building on the earlier papers that highlight the underutilization of mental health services by Latinos in general, this paper will make the case that the…

  3. U.S. Teachers' Perceptions of School Violence Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chestnut, Natakie

    2016-01-01

    In response to high profile violent incidents and crimes, many schools have developed plans that address school discipline to create a school climate and culture wherein everyone is valued and treated with respect. The problem that prompted this study is teachers are struggling with effectively implementation prevention program. The purpose of…

  4. Postoperative pneumonia-prevention program for the inpatient surgical ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wren, Sherry M; Martin, Molinda; Yoon, Jung K; Bech, Fritz

    2010-04-01

    Postoperative pneumonia can lead to increased morbidity, length of hospital stay, and costs. Pneumonia-prevention programs have been successfully implemented in ICU settings, but no program exists for surgical ward patients. A pilot prevention program was designed and implemented based on literature review. The program consisted of education of physicians and ward staff and a standardized postoperative electronic order set consisting of incentive spirometer, chlorhexidine oral hygiene, ambulation, and head-of-bed elevation. Quarterly staff meetings discussed the results of and compliance with the program. The intervention commenced in April 2007. Baseline incidence of inpatient ward pneumonia was calculated from the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database for fiscal year (FY) 2006 and FY 2007. Postintervention incidence was calculated in the same manner from FY 2007 through FY 2008. Any patient who contracted pneumonia in the ICU was excluded from analysis. There was a significant decrease in ward pneumonia incidence from 0.78% in the preintervention group compared with 0.18% in the postintervention group (p = 0.006), representing an 81% decrease in incidence from 2006 to 2008. The pneumonia-prevention program was very successful in diminishing postoperative pneumonia on the surgical ward. There was a highly statistically significant 4-fold decrease in pneumonia incidence after program implementation. The interventions were not costly but did require ongoing communication and cooperation between physician and nursing leadership to achieve compliance with the measures. This program has great potential for dissemination to hospital surgical wards and could decrease inpatient postoperative pneumonias. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Health promotion and disease prevention: a look at demand management programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronstin, P

    1996-09-01

    This Issue Brief describes employers' efforts to contain health expenditures through demand management programs. These programs are designed to reduce utilization by focusing on disease prevention and health promotion. Demand management includes work site health promotion, wellness programs, and access management. Work site health promotion is a comprehensive approach to improving health and includes awareness, health education, behavioral change, and organizational health initiatives. Wellness programs usually include stress management, smoking cessation, weight management, back care, health screenings, nutrition education, work place safety, prenatal and well baby care, CPR and first aid classes, and employee assistance programs (EAPs). These programs are often viewed positively by workers and can have long-term benefits for employers above and beyond health care cost containment. Demand management can benefit employers by increasing productivity, employee retention, and employee morale and by reducing turnover, absenteeism, future medical claims, and ultimately expenditures on health care. Even though a growing number of employers are offering wellness programs, only 37 percent of full-time workers employed in medium and large private establishments were eligible for wellness programs by 1993. However, a recent survey found that 88 percent of major employers have introduced some form of health promotion, disease prevention, or early intervention initiative to encourage healthy lifestyles among their salaried employees. Distinctions must be drawn between short- and long-term strategies. Demand management can be thought of as a short-term strategy when the focus of the program is on creating more appropriate and efficient health care utilization. Disease prevention is characterized by longer-term health improvement objectives. Whether the purpose is to reduce utilization in the short term or in the long term, the ultimate goal remains the same: to reduce health

  6. Is the Texas Pecan Checkoff Program Working?

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Eli D.; Williams, Gary W.

    2008-01-01

    The Texas Pecan Board was established in 1998 to administer the Texas Pecan Checkoff Program and is financed through a one-half cent per pound assessment on grower pecan sales. The Board spends the assessment collections on a variety of advertising campaigns in an attempt to expand demand for Texas pecans, both improved and native varieties, and increase the welfare of Texas pecan growers. This study presents an evaluation of the economic effectiveness of the Texas Pecan Checkoff Program in e...

  7. Measuring quality of delivery in a substance use prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Steven; Jackson-Newsom, Julia; Pankratz, Melinda M; Hansen, William B; Ringwalt, Christopher L; Dusenbury, Linda

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate an observation measure designed to capture teachers' use of interactive teaching skills within the delivery of the All Stars substance use prevention program. Coders counted the number of times teachers praised and encouraged students, accepted and used students' ideas, asked questions, self-disclosed personal anecdotes, and corrected student misbehavior. These teacher behaviors loaded on three factors: classroom management, acknowledgment, and student-centered methods. Classroom management was negatively related to student engagement. Acknowledgment was negatively related to students' normative beliefs. Student-centered methods were positively related to student idealism and normative beliefs, and marginally predicted decreases in student marijuana use. Editors' Strategic Implications: The authors provide a promising approach to studying pedagogical prevention approaches, and they also link teaching processes to student outcomes. This study of program delivery should be of general interest (i.e., not limited to substance use prevention) to practitioners and researchers.

  8. Strengthening Chronic Disease Prevention Programming: the Toward Evidence-Informed Practice (TEIP) Program Assessment Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Dayna; Fortin, Rebecca; Lessio, Anne; Herrera, Christine; Hanning, Rhona; Rush, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Best practices identified solely on the strength of research evidence may not be entirely relevant or practical for use in community-based public health and the practice of chronic disease prevention. Aiming to bridge the gap between best practices literature and local knowledge and expertise, the Ontario Public Health Association, through the Toward Evidence-Informed Practice initiative, developed a set of resources to strengthen evidence-informed decision making in chronic disease prevention programs. A Program Assessment Tool, described in this article, emphasizes better processes by incorporating review criteria into the program planning and implementation process. In a companion paper, “Strengthening Chronic Disease Prevention Programming: The Toward Evidence-Informed Practice (TEIP) Program Evidence Tool,” we describe another tool, which emphasizes better evidence by providing guidelines and worksheets to identify, synthesize, and incorporate evidence from a range of sources (eg, peer-reviewed literature, gray literature, local expertise) to strengthen local programs. The Program Assessment Tool uses 19 criteria derived from literature on best and promising practices to assess and strengthen program planning and implementation. We describe the benefits, strengths, and challenges in implementing the tool in 22 community-based chronic disease prevention projects in Ontario, Canada. The Program Assessment Tool helps put best processes into operation to complement adoption and adaptation of evidence-informed practices for chronic disease prevention. PMID:23721789

  9. Adjuncts in Social Work Programs: Good Practice or Unethical?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlman, Catherine A.

    2013-01-01

    Social work education programs rely heavily on adjunct instructors, as do most academic institutions. This article adds to existing literature on adjuncts by focusing on the unique issues in social work education, using social work values and ethics as a focus. The benefits and detriments for adjuncts, programs, and students in schools of social…

  10. Work program analysis - defining the capability/risk plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrinivich, W.A.

    2004-01-01

    Bruce Power has developed and implemented an analysis methodology (Work Program Analysis) to assess and address corporate business risk associated with work group capability. Work Program Analysis is proving to be an excellent tool for identifying and supporting key business decisions facing the line and senior management at Bruce Power. The following describes the methodology, its application and the results achieved. (author)

  11. Methods for evaluating a mature substance abuse prevention/early intervention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, L R; Hall, M; Fisher, D A; Miller, T R

    2000-05-01

    The authors describe methods for work in progress to evaluate four workplace prevention and/or early intervention programs designed to change occupational norms and reduce substance abuse at a major U.S. transportation company. The four programs are an employee assistance program, random drug testing, managed behavioral health care, and a peer-led intervention program. An elaborate mixed-methods evaluation combines data collection and analysis techniques from several traditions. A process-improvement evaluation focuses on the peer-led component to describe its evolution, document the implementation process for those interested in replicating it, and provide information for program improvement. An outcome-assessment evaluation examines impacts of the four programs on job performance measures (e.g., absenteeism, turnover, injury, and disability rates) and includes a cost-offset and employer cost-savings analysis. Issues related to using archival data, combining qualitative and quantitative designs, and working in a corporate environment are discussed.

  12. An interactive multimedia program to prevent HIV transmission in men with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Jennifer; Clark, Khaya; Sarno, Karen

    2014-05-01

    The efficacy of a computer-based interactive multimedia HIV/AIDS prevention program for men with intellectual disability (ID) was examined using a quasi-experimental within-subjects design. Thirty-seven men with mild to moderate intellectual disability evaluated the program. The pretest and posttest instruments assessed HIV/AIDS knowledge (high-risk fluids, HIV transmission, and condom facts) and condom application skills. All outcome measures showed statistically significant gains from pretest to posttest, with medium to large effect sizes. In addition, a second study was conducted with twelve service providers who work with men with ID. Service providers reviewed the HIV/AIDS prevention program, completed a demographics questionnaire, and a program satisfaction survey. Overall, service providers rated the program highly on several outcome measures (stimulation, relevance, and usability).

  13. Predicting Improvement After a Bystander Program for the Prevention of Sexual and Dating Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Denise A; Palm Reed, Kathleen M

    2015-07-01

    Although evidence suggests that bystander prevention programs are promising interventions for decreasing sexual violence and dating violence on college campuses, there have been no studies to date evaluating moderators of bystander program effectiveness. The current study evaluates whether different demographic characteristics, attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors at pretest predict change over a 6-month follow-up for students who participated in a bystander prevention program. Participants in the three assessments (pretest, posttest, 6-month follow-up) included 296 college students who were mandated to attend a bystander program during their first year orientation. Analyses showed that with few exceptions, the bystander program worked best for students who were most at risk given their pretest demographics and levels of attitudes condoning dating violence and sexual violence, bystander efficacy, and bystander behaviors. Results are discussed in terms of suggestions for future research. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  14. Factors associated with the completion of falls prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, Anamica; Page, Timothy; Melchior, Michael; Seff, Laura; Vieira, Edgar Ramos; Palmer, Richard C

    2013-12-01

    Falls and fear of falling can affect independence and quality of life of older adults. Falls prevention programs may help avoiding these issues if completed. Understanding factors that are associated with completion of falls prevention programs is important. To reduce fear of falling and increase activity levels, a Matter of Balance (MOB) and un Asunto de Equilibrio (ADE) workshops were offered to 3420 older adults in South Florida between 1 October 2008 and 31 December 2011. Workshops were conducted in English or Spanish over eight, 2-hour sessions. Participants completed a demographic and a pre-post questionnaire. Factors associated with program completion were identified using logistic regression. For MOB, females were more likely to complete the program (OR = 2.076, P = 0.02). For ADE, females, moderate and extreme interference by falls in social activities were found to affect completion (OR = 2.116, P = 0.001; OR = 2.269, P = 0.003 and OR = 4.133, P = 0.008, respectively). Different factors predicted completion of both programs. Awareness of these factors can help lower the attrition rates, increase benefits and cost effectiveness of program. Future research needs to explore why certain groups had a higher likelihood of completing either program.

  15. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment for Sandia National Laboratories/California recycling programs.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wrons, Ralph Jordan; Vetter, Douglas Walter

    2007-07-01

    This Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (PPOA) was conducted for the Sandia National Laboratories/California (SNL/CA) Environmental Management Department between May 2006 and March 2007, to evaluate the current site-wide recycling program for potential opportunities to improve the efficiency of the program. This report contains a summary of the information collected and analyses performed with recommended options for implementation. The SNL/NM Pollution Prevention (P2) staff worked with the SNL/CA P2 Staff to arrive at these options.

  16. Preventive maintenance program of motorized operated valves (MOV) at Cernavoda NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groza, M.; Moldoveanu, Edy

    2001-01-01

    This is a Power Point presentation. The following objectives are addressed: A. Determine the target of MOV program; B. Define the strategy for MOV; C. Establish the MOV program execution phases; D. Identification of key parameters; E. Examples. The target of MOV program is to improve the safety by ensuring the adequacy of safety valves and the reliability of safety equipment and, subsequently, to ensure the economic operation of the plant. Consequences of MV malfunction are indicated. The strategy for MOV program development is both general, namely, to define the minimal requirements of preventive /corrective maintenance activities for all MOV's according to design/ manufacture specification and particular, namely to identify MV's specific problems and the need for increasing/decreasing the preventing maintenance tasks or frequency established in 'general' MOV program. Strategy for MOV program development implies: - Establish MOV program applicability; - Develop diagnostic strategy (define key parameters ); - Perform program for engineering review; - Establish program for preventive maintenance; - Revise procedures for operating and maintenance tests; - Dynamic evaluation of MOV. The program execution phases are listed as follows: 1. Perform risk assessment of the MOV's to determine criticality level (program applicability); 2. Collect data to fill in MOV Application Data Sheet; 3. Perform engineering review to determine functional parameters acceptable range and determine key parameters; 4. Analysis for maintenance tasks / frequencies selection and determination of implementing actions (engineer review); 5. Prepare work packages for availability confirmation; 6. Schedule and plan corrective actions or provide input to other programs; 7. Schedule and plan implementing actions in preparation for program field execution; 8. Program field implementation; 9. Program monitoring, evaluation and optimization. The criteria defining the key operational and maintenance

  17. Identifying Patterns in Implementation of Hospital Pressure Ulcer Prevention Programs: A Multisite Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soban, Lynn M; Finley, Erin P; Miltner, Rebecca S

    2016-01-01

    To describe the presence or absence of key components of hospital pressure ulcer (PU) prevention programs in 6 acute care hospitals. Multisite comparative case study. Using purposeful selection based on PU rates (high vs low) and hospital size, 6 hospitals within the Veterans Health Administration health care system were invited to participate. Key informant interviews (n = 48) were conducted in each of the 6 participating hospitals among individuals playing key roles in PU prevention: senior nursing leadership (n = 9), nurse manager (n = 7), wound care specialist (n = 6), frontline RNs (n = 26). Qualitative data were collected during face-to-face, semistructured interviews. Interview protocols were tailored to each interviewee's role with a core set of common questions covering 3 major content areas: (1) practice environment (eg, policies and wound care specialists), (2) current prevention practices (eg, conduct of PU risk assessment and skin inspection), and (3) barriers to PU prevention. We conducted structured coding of 5 key components of PU prevention programs and cross-case analysis to identify patterns in operationalization and implementation of program components across hospitals based on facility size and PU rates (low vs high). All hospitals had implemented all PU prevention program components. Component operationalization varied considerably across hospitals. Wound care specialists were integral to the operationalization of the 4 other program components examined; however, staffing levels and work assignments of wound care specialists varied widely. Patterns emerged among hospitals with low and high PU rates with respect to wound care specialist staffing, data monitoring, and staff education. We found hospital-level variations in PU prevention programs. Wound care specialist staffing may represent a potential point of leverage in achieving other PU program components, particularly performance monitoring and staff education.

  18. Trauma Center Based Youth Violence Prevention Programs: An Integrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhail, Judy Nanette; Nemeth, Lynne Sheri

    2016-12-01

    Youth violence recidivism remains a significant public health crisis in the United States. Violence prevention is a requirement of all trauma centers, yet little is known about the effectiveness of these programs. Therefore, this systematic review summarizes the effectiveness of trauma center-based youth violence prevention programs. A systematic review of articles from MEDLINE, CINAHL, and PsychINFO databases was performed to identify eligible control trials or observational studies. Included studies were from 1970 to 2013, describing and evaluating an intervention, were trauma center based, and targeted youth injured by violence (tertiary prevention). The social ecological model provided the guiding framework, and findings are summarized qualitatively. Ten studies met eligibility requirements. Case management and brief intervention were the primary strategies, and 90% of the studies showed some improvement in one or more outcome measures. These results held across both social ecological level and setting: both emergency department and inpatient unit settings. Brief intervention and case management are frequent and potentially effective trauma center-based violence prevention interventions. Case management initiated as an inpatient and continued beyond discharge was the most frequently used intervention and was associated with reduced rearrest or reinjury rates. Further research is needed, specifically longitudinal studies using experimental designs with high program fidelity incorporating uniform direct outcome measures. However, this review provides initial evidence that trauma centers can intervene with the highest of risk patients and break the youth violence recidivism cycle. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Prevention of "simple accidents at work" with major consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    broadly. This review identifies gaps in the prevention of simple accidents, relating to safety barriers for risk control and the management processes that need to be in place to deliver those risk controls in a continuingly effective state. The article introduces the ‘‘INFO cards’’ as a tool......The concept ‘‘simple accidents’’ is understood as traumatic events with one victim. In the last 10 years many European countries have seen a decline in the number of fatalities, but there still remain many severe accidents at work. In the years 2009–2010 in European countries 2.0–2.4 million...... occupational accidents a year were notified leading to 4500 fatalities and 90,000 permanent disabilities each year. The article looks at the concept ‘‘accident’’ to find similarities and distinctions between major and simple accident characteristics. The purpose is to find to what extent the same kinds...

  20. Implementing the work disability prevention paradigm among therapists in Hong Kong: facilitators and barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeto, Grace P Y; Cheng, Andy S K; Lee, Edwin W C; Schonstein, Eva; Gross, Douglas P

    2011-03-01

    This is a discussion paper to examine the issues surrounding management of work-related injuries by physiotherapists and occupational therapists in Hong Kong. Therapists working in public hospitals are faced with managing injured workers with limited resources and this frequently results in suboptimal outcomes. In this paper, five experienced therapists critically reviewed the current practices in the physiotherapy and occupational therapy professions in Hong Kong, with regard to managing patients with work injuries. In many hospitals, therapists still practice with a disease-based model focusing on symptom relief and restoration of general physical function. We collated information about current programs initiated by physiotherapists and occupational therapists to provide more strategic intervention strategies for early screening of high-risk patients and adaptive biopsychosocial interventions targeting return-to-work outcomes. Clinical and system-level barriers and facilitators of a major paradigm shift towards work disability prevention are discussed. Physiotherapists and occupational therapists need to develop more strategic collaborations and actively voice out the need for major systematic changes within the local healthcare system, in order to provide a more effective management approach in line with the concept of Work Disability Prevention.

  1. Successful Bullying Prevention Programs: Influence of Research Design, Implementation Features, and Program Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryanna Hahn Fox

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Bullying prevention programs have been shown to be generally effective in reducing bullying and victimization. However, the effects are relatively small in randomized experiments and greater in quasi-experimental and age-cohort designs. Programs that are more intensive and of longer duration (for both children and teachers are more effective, as are programs containing more components. Several program components are associated with large effect sizes, including parent training or meetings and teacher training. These results should inform the design and evaluation of anti-bullying programs in the future, and a system ofaccreditation of effective programs.

  2. Factors associated with the implementation of programs for drug abuse prevention in schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Dias Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze if characteristics of managers, schools, and curriculum are associated with the implementation of programs for drug abuse prevention in elementary and high schools. METHODS Cross-sectional study, with random sample of 263 school managers. Data were collected between 2012 and 2013 by a program that sends forms via internet. A closed self-filling questionnaire was applied online. Statistical analysis included Chi-square tests and logistic regression models. The outcome variable was the presence of program for drug abuse prevention inserted in the daily life and educational program of the school. The explanatory variables were divided into: demographic data of the manager; characteristics of the school and of the curriculum; health education; and drug use in the school. RESULTS We found that 42.5% (95%CI 36.1–49.1 of the evaluated schools had programs for drug abuse prevention. With the multiple logistic regression model, we observed that the more time the manager has worked with education, the chance of the school having a program increased at about 4.0%. Experimenting with innovative teaching techniques also increased at about six times the chance of the school developing a program for drug abuse prevention. The difficulties in the implementation of the programs were more present in state and municipal schools, when compared with private schools, due to, for instance: lack of teaching materials, lack of money, and competing demands for teaching other subjects. CONCLUSIONS The implementation of programs for drug abuse prevention in the city of Sao Paulo is associated with the experience of the manager in education and with the teaching strategies of the school.

  3. Genetic tests in work place from the preventive selection to selective prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poissonnet, C.M.; Veron, M.

    2004-01-01

    The research in this area allows to better understand the mechanisms of illness trigger, to improve the knowledge in the relation exposure-illness, to detect the risk associated to low exposure among some particularly sensitive persons and to define the validity criteria. Inevitably these researches reach to define the most vulnerable persons. This designation could be a factor favorable to the prevention and to give a better sense of responsibility. The worker, well informed, can be particularly concerned by wearing the individual protections, and the person in charge of the installation by looking to reduce exposure. It can be also deviate and corresponds to a real discrimination with rejection of sensitive persons and selection of resistant individuals with which it could be possible to work in non optimal conditions. The problem is at this level the conflicts of interest exist between these ones that dream to use this possibility wisely and that ones for which the interests are elsewhere. (N.C.)

  4. [Cost-benefit analysis of primary prevention programs for mental health at the workplace in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Kensuke; Kawakami, Norito; Tsusumi, Akizumi; Inoue, Akiomi; Kobayashi, Yuka; Takeuchi, Ayano; Fukuda, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    To determine the cost-benefits of primary prevention programs for mental health at the workplace, we conducted a meta-analysis of published studies in Japan. We searched the literature, published as of 16 November 2011, using the Pubmed database and relevant key words. The inclusion criteria were: conducted in the workplace in Japan; primary prevention focus; quasi-experimental studies or controlled trials; and outcomes including absenteeism or presenteeism. Four studies were identified: one participatory work environment improvement, one individual-oriented stress management, and two supervisor education programs. Costs and benefits in yen were estimated for each program, based on the description of the programs in the literature, and additional information from the authors. The benefits were estimated based on each program's effect on work performance (measured using the WHO Health and Work Performance Questionnaire in all studies), as well as sick leave days, if available. The estimated relative increase in work performance (%) in the intervention group compared to the control group was converted into labor cost using the average bonus (18% of the total annual salary) awarded to employees in Japan as a base. Sensitive analyses were conducted using different models of time-trend of intervention effects and 95% confidence limits of the relative increase in work performance. For the participatory work environment improvement program, the cost was estimated as 7,660 yen per employee, and the benefit was 15,200-22,800 yen per employee. For the individual-oriented stress management program, the cost was 9,708 yen per employee, and the benefit was 15,200-22,920 yen per employee. For supervisor education programs, the costs and benefits were respectively 5,209 and 4,400-6,600 yen per employee, in one study, 2,949 and zero yen per employee in the other study. The 95% confidence intervals were wide for all these studies. For the point estimates based on these cases, the

  5. The Teaching of Work Ethics: Current Practices of Work Program Coordinators in Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Frances Annette; Herren, Ray V.

    A study examined the perceptions and practices of 160 work program coordinators in Georgia (44% of the sample) regarding the teaching of work ethics. A literature review had shown that a consistent view of potential employers was that graduates of vocational education programs should be well grounded in the concept of work ethics. The main purpose…

  6. Teachers' Perceptions of a Multiple High-Risk Behavior Prevention Program and Delivery of Universal Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Crystal; Henriksen, Richard C., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Much of the success of high-risk behavior prevention programs rests with teachers who deliver the curriculum however; few studies have investigated teachers' perceptions of program implementation. The objective of this phenomenological study was to answer the question, "What are the experiences of teachers who are asked to be involved in the…

  7. Preventive maintenance program for a research and production reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rico, N.A.

    1990-01-01

    This program proposes a simple, rapid and efficient methodology for the task of developing a really preventive maintenance discipline. Moreover, the lower cost of its application -since it must satisfy the plant's budget-. To this purpose, an extremely economical and easily obtainable infrastructure is proposed. The following stage is referred to the commissioning system, subsequent supervision and follow-up. The experience gained from the two reactors as RA-6 (Bariloche Atomic Center) and NUR (RAE) of Argelia. Finally, the interacting characteristic of this program, since it may be rapidly adapted to different dimensions of plants, laboratories, etc., must be pointed out. (Author) [es

  8. Implementing and evaluating a program to facilitate chronic disease prevention and screening in primary care: a mixed methods program evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manca, Donna Patricia; Aubrey-Bassler, Kris; Kandola, Kami; Aguilar, Carolina; Campbell-Scherer, Denise; Sopcak, Nicolette; O'Brien, Mary Ann; Meaney, Christopher; Faria, Vee; Baxter, Julia; Moineddin, Rahim; Salvalaggio, Ginetta; Green, Lee; Cave, Andrew; Grunfeld, Eva

    2014-10-08

    The objectives of this paper are to describe the planned implementation and evaluation of the Building on Existing Tools to Improve Chronic Disease Prevention and Screening in Primary Care (BETTER 2) program which originated from the BETTER trial. The pragmatic trial, informed by the Chronic Care Model, demonstrated the effectiveness of an approach to Chronic Disease Prevention and Screening (CDPS) involving the use of a new role, the prevention practitioner. The desired goals of the program are improved clinical outcomes, reduction in the burden of chronic disease, and improved sustainability of the health-care system through improved CDPS in primary care. The BETTER 2 program aims to expand the implementation of the intervention used in the original BETTER trial into communities across Canada (Alberta, Ontario, Newfoundland and Labrador, the Northwest Territories and Nova Scotia). This proactive approach provides at-risk patients with an intervention from the prevention practitioner, a health-care professional. Using the BETTER toolkit, the prevention practitioner determines which CDPS actions the patient is eligible to receive, and through shared decision-making and motivational interviewing, develops a unique and individualized 'prevention prescription' with the patient. This intervention is 1) personalized; 2) addressing multiple conditions; 3) integrated through linkages to local, regional, or national resources; and 4) longitudinal by assessing patients over time. The BETTER 2 program brings together primary care providers, policy/decision makers and researchers to work towards improving CDPS in primary care. The target patient population is adults aged 40-65. The reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, maintain (RE-AIM) framework will inform the evaluation of the program through qualitative and quantitative methods. A composite index will be used to quantitatively assess the effectiveness of the prevention practitioner intervention. The CDPS actions

  9. "Helping Communities To Help Themselves." Twenty 1989 Exemplary Prevention Programs for Preventing Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse. Project Summaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of State Alcohol and Drug Abuse Directors, Inc.

    Twenty exemplary substance abuse prevention programs are presented in this document. These programs are included: (1) Tuba City, Arizona, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) Prevention Program; (2) Chemical Addiction Course, University of Arkansas; (3) "Teens Are Concerned" of Arkansas; (4) "Dare to be You of Colorado"; (5) Winyan…

  10. Staffing and structure of infection prevention and control programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Patricia W; Dick, Andrew; Pogorzelska, Monika; Horan, Teresa C; Furuya, E Yoko; Larson, Elaine

    2009-06-01

    The nature of infection prevention and control is changing; however, little is known about current staffing and structure of infection prevention and control programs. Our objectives were to provide a snapshot of the staffing and structure of hospital-based infection prevention and control programs in the United States. A Web-based survey was sent to 441 hospitals that participate in the National Healthcare Safety Network. The response rate was 66% (n = 289); data were examined on 821 professionals. Infection preventionist (IP) staffing was significantly negatively related to bed size, with higher staffing in smaller hospitals (P hospital epidemiologists were reported to have authority to close beds for outbreaks always or most of the time (n = 225, 78%). Only 32% (n = 92) reported using an electronic surveillance system to track infections. This study is the first to provide a comprehensive description of current infection prevention and control staffing, organization, and support in a select group of hospitals across the nation. Further research is needed to identify effective staffing levels for various hospital types as well as examine how the IP role is changing over time.

  11. Recent developments in the DOE Waste Minimization Pollution Prevention Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancock, J.K.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is involved in a wide variety of research and development, remediation, and production activities at more than 100 sites throughout the United States. The wastes generated cover a diverse spectrum of sanitary, hazardous, and radioactive waste streams, including typical office environments, power generation facilities, laboratories, remediation sites, production facilities, and defense facilities. The DOE's initial waste minimization activities pre-date the Pollution Prevention Act of 1990 and focused on the defense program. Little emphasis was placed on nonproduction activities. In 1991 the Office of Waste Management Operations developed the Waste Minimization Division with the intention of coordinating and expanding the waste minimization pollution prevention approach to the entire complex. The diverse nature of DOE activities has led to several unique problems in addressing the needs of waste minimization and pollution prevention. The first problem is developing a program that addresses the geographical and institutional hurdles that exist; the second is developing a monitoring and reporting mechanism that one can use to assess the overall performance of the program

  12. MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS ROAD REPAIR WORKS OF THE ROADS NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Вікторія Василівна ІГНАТЮК

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the model and algorithm optimization program of road repair works, with limited funds. Features introduction program for calculating rational level detection repair costs for the period of the program, which allows dos evolve a desired operating condition of the pavement.

  13. Core elements of hospital antibiotic stewardship programs from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Loria A; Srinivasan, Arjun

    2014-10-15

    The proven benefits of antibiotic stewardship programs (ASPs) for optimizing antibiotic use and minimizing adverse events, such as Clostridium difficile and antibiotic resistance, have prompted the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to recommend that all hospitals have an ASP. This article summarizes Core Elements of Hospital Antibiotic Stewardship Programs, a recently released CDC document focused on defining the infrastructure and practices of coordinated multidisciplinary programs to improve antibiotic use and patient care in US hospitals. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  14. Communities Putting Prevention to Work: The Healthy Corner Store Initiative

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-07-18

    This podcast is an interview with Dr. Stephanie Jilcott Pitts, Associate Professor in the Department of Public Health at East Carolina University. Dr. Pitts answers questions about her study involving a healthy corner store initiative in North Carolina.  Created: 7/18/2013 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 7/18/2013.

  15. Prevention Research Matters-Communities Working to Improve Physical Activity

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2018-02-15

    We know that children who are physically active every day are less likely to develop chronic diseases as adults, including obesity. Dr. Sandy Slater, a researcher with the University of Illinois, Chicago Prevention Research Center, discusses how a park improvement project in Chicago helped engage communities to improve areas for play and activity.  Created: 2/15/2018 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 2/15/2018.

  16. Analysis of working conditions and comportment of prevention in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouhnik, C.

    1992-01-01

    In this article, the author presents analysis methods of working conditions( environment of working stations, working stress, socio-technical environment, ability and, emotion and relation phenomena) that permit to understand how the prevention comportment is regulated

  17. A worksite prevention program for construction workers: design of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oude Hengel, Karen M; Joling, Catelijne I; Proper, Karin I; Blatter, Birgitte M; Bongers, Paulien M

    2010-06-14

    A worksite prevention program was developed to promote the work ability of construction workers and thereby prolong a healthy working life. The objective of this paper is to present the design of a randomized controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of that intervention program compared with usual care for construction workers. The study is designed as a randomized controlled trial with a follow-up of one year. Employees eligible for this study are construction workers performing actual construction work. The worksite intervention will be compared with usual care. This intervention was developed by using the Intervention Mapping approach and consists of the following components: (1) two individual training sessions of a physical therapist to lower the physical workload, (2) a Rest-Break tool to improve the balance between work and recovery, and (3) two empowerment training sessions to increase the influence of the construction workers at the worksite. Outcome measures are assessed at baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months. The primary outcome measures of this study are work ability and health-related quality of life. Secondary outcome measures include need for recovery, musculoskeletal complaints, work engagement and self efficacy. Cost-effectiveness will be evaluated from the company perspective. Moreover, a process evaluation will be conducted. The feasibility of the intervention and the study has been enhanced by creating an intervention program that explicitly appeals to construction workers and will not interfere too much with the ongoing construction. The feasibility and effectiveness of this worksite prevention program will be investigated by means of an effect- and a process evaluation. If proven effective, this worksite prevention program can be implemented on a larger scale within the construction industry. NTR1278.

  18. A worksite prevention program for construction workers: design of a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Proper Karin I

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A worksite prevention program was developed to promote the work ability of construction workers and thereby prolong a healthy working life. The objective of this paper is to present the design of a randomized controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of that intervention program compared with usual care for construction workers. Methods The study is designed as a randomized controlled trial with a follow-up of one year. Employees eligible for this study are construction workers performing actual construction work. The worksite intervention will be compared with usual care. This intervention was developed by using the Intervention Mapping approach and consists of the following components: (1 two individual training sessions of a physical therapist to lower the physical workload, (2 a Rest-Break tool to improve the balance between work and recovery, and (3 two empowerment training sessions to increase the influence of the construction workers at the worksite. Outcome measures are assessed at baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months. The primary outcome measures of this study are work ability and health-related quality of life. Secondary outcome measures include need for recovery, musculoskeletal complaints, work engagement and self efficacy. Cost-effectiveness will be evaluated from the company perspective. Moreover, a process evaluation will be conducted. Discussion The feasibility of the intervention and the study has been enhanced by creating an intervention program that explicitly appeals to construction workers and will not interfere too much with the ongoing construction. The feasibility and effectiveness of this worksite prevention program will be investigated by means of an effect- and a process evaluation. If proven effective, this worksite prevention program can be implemented on a larger scale within the construction industry. Trial Registration NTR1278

  19. Work and Family Programs in Texas State Agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Work and Family Clearinghouse, Austin.

    A survey of work and family policies in state-supported organizations in Texas was conducted for the Texas Workforce Commission's Work and Family Clearinghouse. Survey questions addressed the prevalence, perceived need, and future direction of dependent care programs and flexible work arrangements (FWA). Key findings in dependent care include: (1)…

  20. 75 FR 9544 - Inmate Work and Performance Pay Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-03

    ... inmate may receive performance pay only for that portion of the month that the inmate was working... Inmate Work and Performance Pay Program AGENCY: Bureau of Prisons, Justice. ACTION: Proposed rule... work and performance pay by removing redundant language and provisions that relate solely to staff...

  1. AED's HIV/AIDS Prevention, Care, and Support Programs: Domestic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Academy for Educational Development, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Founded in 1961, the Academy for Educational Development (AED) is a nonprofit organization working globally to improve health, education, and economic opportunity--the foundation of thriving societies. With a global staff of more than 2,000 focusing on the underserved, AED implements more than 250 programs serving people in all 50 U.S. states and…

  2. Educational program for the prevention and management of school violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viriam Leiva Díaz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the main results of the implementation of an educational program for the preventionand management of violence in public schools by teachers of first and second cycle, the program was taught bythe School of Nursing at the University of Costa Rica, with a total of 40 hours from January to February 2011. Weused various teaching strategies based on the educational needs of this group of teachers, which were shown in aprevious study and application of a needs assessment. Attended by 33 teachers, 32 women and one man. Of theparticipants, 30 completed the program. The main results are as follows: participants were able to acquire, buildor improve their knowledge about the prevention and treatment of school violence, and also learned varioustechniques and strategies for prevention and control of violence in schools. It is concluded that success inachieving the goals set for each of the sessions is directly related to the fact that the entire educational programstuck to the educational needs expressed by the participating population and its characteristics as teachers, usingprinciples of andragogy, which allowed understanding learning as a knowledge sharing among stakeholders

  3. A Systematic Review of Elderly Suicide Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapierre, Sylvie; Erlangsen, Annette; Waern, Margda; De Leo, Diego; Oyama, Hirofumi; Scocco, Paolo; Gallo, Joseph; Szanto, Katalin; Conwell, Yeates; Draper, Brian; Quinnett, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background Suicide rates are highest among the elderly, yet research on suicide prevention in old age remains a much-neglected area. Aims We carried out a systematic review to examine the results of interventions aimed at suicidal elderly persons and to identify successful strategies and areas needing further exploration. Methods Searches through various electronic databases yielded 19 studies with an empirical evaluation of a suicide prevention or intervention program designed especially for adults aged 60 years and older. Results Most studies were centered on the reduction of risk factors (depression screening and treatment, and decreasing isolation), but when gender was considered, programs were mostly efficient for women. The empirical evaluations of programs attending to the needs of high-risk older adults seemed positive; most studies showed a reduction in the level of suicidal ideation of patients or in the suicide rate of the participating communities. However, not all studies used measures of suicidality to evaluate the outcome of the intervention, and rarely did they aim at improving protective factors. Conclusions Innovative strategies should improve resilience and positive aging, engage family and community gatekeepers, use telecommunications to reach vulnerable older adult, and evaluate the effects of means restriction and physicians education on elderly suicide. PMID:21602163

  4. Analysis of industrial pollution prevention programs in selected Asian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, S.Y. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.]|[East-West Center, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Industrialization in developing countries is causing increasing environmental damage. Pollution prevention (P2) is an emerging environmental concept that could help developing countries achieve leapfrog goals, bypassing old and pollutive technologies and minimizing traditional control practices. The current P2 promotion activities in Hong Kong, the Republic of Korea, the Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, and Thailand are discussed. These programs, generally initiated in the last 5 years, are classified into five categories: awareness promotion, education and training, information transfer, technical assistance, and financial incentives. All important at the early stages of P2 promotion, these programs should inform industries of the benefits of P2 and help them identify applicable P2 measures. Participation in these programs is voluntary. The limited data indicate that adoption of P2 measures in these countries is not yet widespread. Recommendations for expanding P2 promotion activities include (1) strengthening the design and enforcement of environmental regulations; (2) providing P2 training and education to government workers, nongovernmental organizations and labor unions officials, university faculties, and news media; (3) tracking the progress of P2 programs; (4) implementing selected P2 mandatory measures; (5) identifying cleaner production technologies for use in new facilities; (6) implementing special programs for small and medium enterprises; and (7) expanding P2 promotion to other sectors, such as agriculture and transportation, and encouraging green design and green consumerism.

  5. MENTOR-VIP: Piloting a global mentoring program for injury and violence prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyder, Adnan A; Meddings, David; Bachani, Abdulgafoor M

    2009-06-01

    Injuries occur as the result of a confluence of factors: environmental, social, biological, economic, and behavioral. To effectively address the burden of injuries, especially in low- and middle-income countries, a focus is needed on developing the human resource capacity for injury prevention. MENTOR-VIP is a global mentoring program that the authors developed with this need in mind. MENTOR-VIP approaches developing human resources in injury prevention by providing mentoring opportunities for junior professionals involved in its practice, research, and/or programs. MENTOR-VIP entails a 12-month working relationship between junior injury prevention practitioners (mentees) and more experienced individuals in the field (mentors). Its general objective is to improve global human resource capacity to effectively prevent and control injury and violence through the enhanced development of relevant skills. The program is currently in its pilot phase and is nearing the end of its second formal mentoring cycle, which began on September 1, 2008. This article discusses mentoring professionals as a key strategy to developing the human resource component of capacity, and one which complements existing approaches to capacity development. The authors also provide an overview of the rationale, modalities, objectives, and evaluation of MENTOR-VIP. This article highlights the importance of capacity building in the injury prevention field and situates MENTOR-VIP within the larger context of capacity building for global public health.

  6. Use of a computerized decision support system for primary and secondary prevention of work-related MSD disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womack, Sarah K; Armstrong, Thomas J

    2005-09-01

    The present study evaluates the effectiveness of a decision support system used to evaluate and control physical job stresses and prevent re-injury of workers who have experienced or are concerned about work-related musculoskeletal disorders. The software program is a database that stores detailed job information such as standardized work data, videos, and upper-extremity physical stress ratings for over 400 jobs in the plant. Additionally, the database users were able to record comments about the jobs and related control issues. The researchers investigated the utility and effectiveness of the software by analyzing its use over a 20-month period. Of the 197 comments entered by the users, 25% pertained to primary prevention, 75% pertained to secondary prevention, and 94 comments (47.7%) described ergonomic interventions. Use of the software tool improved primary and secondary prevention by improving the quality and efficiency of the ergonomic job analysis process.

  7. Implementation Measurement for Evidence-Based Violence Prevention Programs in Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massetti, Greta M; Holland, Kristin M; Gorman-Smith, Deborah

    2016-08-01

    Increasing attention to the evaluation, dissemination, and implementation of evidence-based programs (EBPs) has led to significant advancements in the science of community-based violence prevention. One of the prevailing challenges in moving from science to community involves implementing EBPs and strategies with quality. The CDC-funded National Centers of Excellence in Youth Violence Prevention (YVPCs) partner with communities to implement a comprehensive community-based strategy to prevent violence and to evaluate that strategy for impact on community-wide rates of violence. As part of their implementation approach, YVPCs document implementation of and fidelity to the components of the comprehensive youth violence prevention strategy. We describe the strategies and methods used by the six YVPCs to assess implementation and to use implementation data to inform program improvement efforts. The information presented describes the approach and measurement strategies employed by each center and for each program implemented in the partner communities. YVPCs employ both established and innovative strategies for measurement and tracking of implementation across a broad range of programs, practices, and strategies. The work of the YVPCs highlights the need to use data to understand the relationship between implementation of EBPs and youth violence outcomes.

  8. Everybody Brush! Consumer Satisfaction with a Tooth Decay Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha-Cruz, Joana; Huebner, Colleen E; Ludwig, Sharity; Dysert, Jeanne; Mitchell, Melissa; Allen, Gary; Shirtcliff, R Mike; Scott, JoAnna M; Milgrom, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Twice-daily caregiver-supervised toothbrushing with fluoridated toothpaste is an effective and widely recommended strategy to prevent tooth decay in children. Qualitative research suggests that low-income caregivers know the recommendation but would benefit from toothbrushing supplies and advice about how to introduce this health behavior especially as the child becomes older and asserts autonomy to do it "myself." Our objective is to assess consumer satisfaction with the evidence-based theory-informed campaign and usefulness of materials that were home delivered. The focus of the evaluation was families with children impact of the program on toothbrushing behavior and dental-care utilization is underway.

  9. The Centers for Disease Control program to prevent primary and secondary disabilities in the United States.

    OpenAIRE

    Houk, V N; Thacker, S B

    1989-01-01

    The Disabilities Prevention Program builds on traditional Centers for Disease Control (CDC) strengths in public health surveillance, epidemiology, and technology transfer to State and local governments in translating the findings of research into prevention programs. The objectives of the CDC program are to provide a national focus for the prevention of primary and secondary disabilities, build capacity at the State and community levels to maintain programs to prevent disabilities, and increa...

  10. The Impact of Knowledge of Suicide Prevention and Work Experience among Clinical Staff on Attitudes towards Working with Suicidal Patients and Suicide Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramberg, Inga-Lill; Di Lucca, Maria Anna; Hadlaczky, Gergö

    2016-02-04

    Suicide-preventive training has shown to influence attitudes. This study aimed at investigating what impact other factors than knowledge might have on attitudes towards work with suicidal patients and suicide prevention. In 2007, 500 health-care staff working in a psychiatric clinic in Stockholm received a questionnaire with items concerning work with suicidal patients to which 358 (71.6%) responded. A set of attitude items were tested using structural equation modelling (LISREL). Three models were found to be satisfactory valid and reliable: Job clarity, Job confidence and Attitudes towards prevention. These were then used in regression analyses as dependent variables with predictors such as experience of work with suicidal patients, perceived sufficient training, age and gender. Perceived sufficient training was consistently the most important predictor for all three attitude concepts (p prevention). Age was another significant predictor for Job clarity (p suicide for Job confidence (p suicide preventive education is likely to improve attitudes towards the prevention of suicide, clarity and confidence regarding their role in the care for suicidal patients. These improvements may contribute to the prevention of suicide in health care settings.

  11. Using a Domestic and Sexual Violence Prevention Advocate to Implement a Dating Violence Prevention Program with Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaime, M. C. D.; Stocking, M.; Freire, K.; Perkinson, L.; Ciaravino, S.; Miller, E.

    2016-01-01

    "Coaching Boys into Men" is an evidence-based dating violence prevention program for coaches to implement with male athletes. A common adaptation of this program is delivery by domestic violence and sexual violence prevention advocates instead of coaches. We explored how this implementer adaptation may influence athlete uptake of program…

  12. Translating Evidence Based Violence and Drug Use Prevention to Obesity Prevention: Development and Construction of the Pathways Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuma, Kari-Lyn K.; Riggs, Nathaniel R.; Pentz, Mary Ann

    2012-01-01

    Effective school-based obesity prevention programs are needed to prevent and reduce the growing obesity risk among youth. Utilizing the evidence-rich areas of violence and substance use prevention, translation science may provide an efficient means for developing curricula across multiple health behaviors. This paper introduces Pathways to Health,…

  13. Effectiveness of HIV prevention for women: What is working?

    OpenAIRE

    Gil Llario, María Dolores; Ballester Arnal, Rafael; Giménez García, Cristina; Salmerón Sánchez, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    The HIV-AIDS remains a public health prob- lem which disproportionally affects women. However, prevention strategies have rarely considered their specific efficacy for them. For this reason, this study examines the differential effectiveness of six intervention elements based on socio-cognitive theories addressing young women. A controlled between-groups design examined the change in risk profile among 167 young Spanish women (mean age ...

  14. Understanding Teaching Development Programs - the why and how they work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rump, Camilla Østerberg; Christiansen, Frederik V; Trigwell, Keith

    impacts are reported, and the question of why and how the programs work is not addressed. This study is based on 79 participant projects and interviews with 19 teachers of which 9 also did one of the participant projects. The data was analyzed in relation to specific learning outcome and level, types......, SEBs and the institutional context, thereby providing insight into the why and how the program works and a basis for further development of the TDP....

  15. Work zone safety : physical and behavioral barriers in accident prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    This report discusses the usefulness of creating a work zone traffic safety culture as a methodology to improve the overall : safety of both work zone personnel and the traveling public in Missouri. As part of this research, the existing MoDOT : w : ...

  16. Sustaining Teen Pregnancy Prevention Programs in Schools: Needs and Barriers Identified by School Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, Lesley R.; Brandt, Heather M.; Prince, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Background: To reduce teen pregnancy rates, prevention programs must be consistently available to large numbers of youth. However, prevention efforts have been historically conducted with little emphasis on ensuring program sustainability. This study examined the needs and barriers to sustaining teen pregnancy prevention (TPP) programming in…

  17. Postural hygiene program to prevent low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, F J; Gómez-Conesa, A

    2001-06-01

    A quasi-experimental study with 3 x 4 design was performed. To improve the level of knowledge and motor skills and thereby avert the development of painful symptoms. Despite the fact that low back pain affects a high percentage of the population, little research has been carried out to prevent low back pain through health education. The participants in this study were 106 third-grade (9-year-old) students. The program included 11 sessions. The teacher attended the placebo group sessions. No intervention was used with the control group. The level of knowledge and motor skills in the experimental group showed a significant increase immediately after the intervention finished, and at 6- and 12-month intervals after completion of the postural hygiene program (P = 0.00). Some positive changes were generalized to natural situations (P = 0.00). In an independent health check carried out by the local school health services 4 years after application of the postural hygiene program, the results tended slightly to favor the experimental condition over the control conditions (placebo + no intervention). A greater number of the control subjects required medical treatment for low back pain, although this difference was only marginally significant (P = 0.07). The findings from this study support the hypothesis that programs involving practice and motivating strategies impart health knowledge and habits more efficiently than those restricted to the mere transmission of information.

  18. Dropout Prevention Programs in Nine Mid-Atlantic Region School Districts: Additions to a Dropout Prevention Database. Issues & Answers. REL 2011-No. 103

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burzichelli, Claudia; Mackey, Philip E.; Bausmith, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    The current study replicates work of Regional Educational Laboratory (REL) Northeast and Islands. It describes dropout prevention programs in nine Mid-Atlantic Region (Delaware, the District of Columbia, Maryland, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania) school districts serving communities with populations of 24,742-107,250 (as of July 2008). All nine…

  19. Dropout Prevention Programs in Nine Mid-Atlantic Region School Districts: Additions to a Dropout Prevention Database. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2011-No. 103

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burzichelli, Claudia; Mackey, Philip E.; Bausmith, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    The current study replicates work of Regional Educational Laboratory (REL) Northeast and Islands. It describes dropout prevention programs in nine Mid-Atlantic Region (Delaware, the District of Columbia, Maryland, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania) school districts serving communities with populations of 24,742-107,250 (as of July 2008). All nine…

  20. Asia Oceania Guidelines for the Implementation of Programs for Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngan, H. Y. S.; Chan, K. K. L.; Cheung, A. N. Y.; Garland, S. M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to provide evidence-based recommendations for health professionals, to develop a comprehensive cervical cancer program for a clinic, a community, or a country. Ensuring access to health care is the responsibility of all societies, and the Asia Oceania Research Organisation in Genital Infections and Neoplasia (AOGIN) is committed to working collaboratively with governments and health professionals to facilitate prevention programs, to protect girls and women from cervical cancer, a disease that globally affects 500,000 and kills nearly 300,000 women annually, just over half of whom are in the Asia Oceania region. We share the vision that a comprehensive program of vaccination, screening, and treatment should be made accessible to all girls and women in the world. The primary purpose of these guidelines is to provide information on scientific evidence on the different modalities and approaches of cervical cancer prevention programs, for high resource and low resource settings. The secondary purpose is to provide an overview of the current situation of cervical cancer control and prevention in various Asian Oceania countries: their views of an ideal program, identified obstacles, and suggestions to overcome them are discussed.

  1. Asia Oceania Guidelines for the Implementation of Programs for Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngan, Hextan Y. S.; Garland, Suzanne M.; Bhatla, Neerja; Pagliusi, Sonia R.; Chan, Karen K. L.; Cheung, Annie N. Y.; Chu, Tang-Yuan; Domingo, Efren J.; Qiao, You Lin; Park, Jong Sup; Tay, Eng Hseon; Supakarapongkul, Wisit

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to provide evidence-based recommendations for health professionals, to develop a comprehensive cervical cancer program for a clinic, a community, or a country. Ensuring access to healthcare is the responsibility of all societies, and the Asia Oceania Research Organisation in Genital Infections and Neoplasia (AOGIN) is committed to working collaboratively with governments and health professionals to facilitate prevention programs, to protect girls and women from cervical cancer, a disease that globally affects 500,000 and kills nearly 300,000 women annually, just over half of whom are in the Asia Oceania region. We share the vision that a comprehensive program of vaccination, screening, and treatment should be made accessible to all girls and women in the world. The primary purpose of these guidelines is to provide information on scientific evidence on the different modalities and approaches of cervical cancer prevention programs, for high resource and low resource settings. The secondary purpose is to provide an overview of the current situation of cervical cancer control and prevention in various Asian Oceania countries: their views of an ideal program, identified obstacles, and suggestions to overcome them are discussed. PMID:21559068

  2. Cost-benefit analysis of comprehensive mental health prevention programs in Japanese workplaces: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Sachiko; Yokoyama, Kazuhito; Kitamura, Fumihiko; Fukuda, Takashi; Inaba, Ryoichi

    2013-01-01

    We examined the implementation of mental health prevention programs in Japanese workplaces and the costs and benefits. A cross-sectional survey targeting mental health program staff at 11 major companies was conducted. Questionnaires explored program implementation based on the guidelines of the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. Labor, materials, outsourcing costs, overheads, employee mental discomfort, and absentee numbers, and work attendance were examined. Cost-benefit analyses were conducted from company perspectives assessing net benefits per employee and returns on investment. The surveyed companies employ an average of 1,169 workers. The implementation rate of the mental health prevention programs was 66% for primary, 51% for secondary, and 60% for tertiary programs. The program's average cost was 12,608 yen per employee and the total benefit was 19,530 yen per employee. The net benefit per employee was 6,921 yen and the return on investment was in the range of 0.27-16.85. Seven of the 11 companies gained a net benefit from the mental health programs.

  3. Importance of multidisciplinary trauma prevention program for youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcir Escocia Dorigatti

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: present the experience of the P.A.R.T.Y. program in Campinas, thereby changing the habits of young people.METHODS: The organizers visited the participating schools talking to the students, who are aged between 14-18 years. These students spent an afternoon at the Clinics Hospital of Unicamp, where, for four hours, they attended lectures of the organizers, partners and municipal sectors, and also visited the hospital, talking with trauma victims. Questionnaires were evaluated between2010-2012, being applied before and after the project.RESULTS:2,450 high school students attended the program. The mean age is 16 ± 0,99 years and 37.6% were male. 3.6% of males already drive while drunk versus 0.8% of women. Before the project 116 (11.3% thought that drunk driving wasn't a risk, and only 37 (3.6% knew the alcohol effects. After the project, 441 (43% began to consider drunk driving a risk and 193 (18.8% know the alcohol effects when driving. 956 (93.3% considered that prevention projects have a huge impact on their formation.CONCLUSION: It's expected that the attendees will act as multipliers of information, conveying the message of prevention to their entire social circles resulting in reduction in the number of trauma events involving the young, in the long term.

  4. Back Pain at Work: Preventing Pain and Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dull and achy or sharp and stabbing, back pain can make it hard to concentrate on your job. Unfortunately, many occupations — such as nursing, construction and factory work — can place significant demands ...

  5. Evaluation of the AIDS prevention street nurse program: one step at a time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, B Ann; Thompson, Ray; Moore-Dempsey, Laura

    2009-03-01

    The AIDS Prevention Street Nurse Program uses specially prepared community health nurses to focus on HIV and STD prevention with marginalized, hard-to-reach and high-risk clients within a broader context of harm reduction and health promotion. Street nurses (n=17), service providers (n=30), representatives of other HIV/STD programs in the province of British Columbia, Canada (n=5), and clients (n=32) were interviewed during an evaluation for the purpose of describing the nurses' work, the challenges the nurses' face, the fit of the program with other services, and the impact of the nurses' work.This article describes the impact of the nurses' work on clients. Impact/outcome changes reflected a progression from knowledge to behavioural levels and to major indicators of health/illness. Impact on clients included: knowing more about HIV/AIDS, their own situation, and options; receiving essential supplies to reduce harm and promote health; changing behaviour to reduce disease transmission, improve resistance, and promote health; connecting with help; feeling better about themselves and others; feeling supported; influencing others; receiving earlier attention for problems; being healthier with or without HIV; making major changes in drug use; and likely decreasing morbidity and mortality. The program was found to be clearly effective in making a positive impact on clients.

  6. Implementing a Coach-Delivered Dating Violence Prevention Program with High School Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaime, Maria Catrina D; McCauley, Heather L; Tancredi, Daniel J; Decker, Michele R; Silverman, Jay G; O'Connor, Brian; Miller, Elizabeth

    2018-05-10

    Teen dating violence and sexual violence are severe public health problems. Abusive behaviors within the context of dating or romantic relationships are associated with adverse health outcomes. Promoting positive bystander intervention and increasing knowledge of abusive behaviors are promising strategies for preventing dating and sexual violence. Coaching Boys Into Men (CBIM) is an evidence-based, athletic coach-delivered dating violence prevention program that has been shown to increase positive bystander behaviors and reduce abuse perpetration among high school male athletes. Identifying specific barriers and facilitators based on the coaches' experiences with program delivery combined with the coaches' and athletes' program perceptions may help optimize future CBIM implementation and sustainability. Semi-structured interviews with coaches (n = 36) explored the implementers' perspectives on strategies that worked well and potential barriers to program implementation. Ten focus groups with male athletes (n = 39) assessed their experiences with CBIM and the suitability of having their coaches deliver this program. Coaches described using the CBIM training cards and integrating program delivery during practice. Athletes reported coaches routinely delivering the CBIM program and adding their own personal stories or examples to the discussions. Key facilitators to program implementation include support from the violence prevention advocate, the ease of integrating CBIM into the sports season, and using the program materials. Barriers to implementation included finding sufficient time for the program, dynamics of delivering sensitive program content, and participant constraints. Coaches and athletes alike found the program feasible and acceptable to implement within the sports setting. Both coaches and athletes offered insights on the implementation and the feasibility and acceptability of CBIM within school-based athletic programs. These experiences by

  7. Workplace disability management programs promoting return-to-work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gensby, Ulrik; Lund, Thomas; Kowalski, Krystyna

    This report presents a Campbell systematic review on the effectiveness of workplace disability management programs (WPDM programs) promoting return to work (RTW), as implemented and practised by employers. The objectives of this review were to assess the effects of WPDM programs, to examine...... non-randomized studies (NRS) and eleven single group ‘before and after’ studies (B & A)), including data from eleven different WPDM programs, met the inclusion criteria. There were insufficient data on the characteristics of the sample and the effect sizes were uncertain. There is a lack of evidence...

  8. Economic Evaluation of a Comprehensive Teenage Pregnancy Prevention Program: Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Marjorie S.; Ross, Joseph S.; Bilodeau, RoseAnne; Richter, Rosemary S.; Palley, Jane E.; Bradley, Elizabeth H.

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous research has suggested that comprehensive teenage pregnancy prevention programs that address sexual education and life skills development and provide academic are effective in reducing births among enrolled teenagers. However, there have been limited data on costs and cost-effectiveness of such programs. Objectives To use a community-based participatory research approach, to develop estimates of the cost-benefit of the Pathways/Senderos Center, a comprehensive neighborhood-based program to prevent unintended pregnancies and promote positive development for adolescents. Methods Using data from 1997-2003, we conducted an in-time intervention analysis to determine program cost-benefit while teenagers were enrolled and then used an extrapolation analysis to estimate accyrred economibc benefits and cost-benefit up to age 30. Results The program operating costs totaled $3,228,152.59 and reduced the teenage childbearing rate from 94.10 to 40.00 per 1000 teenage females, averting $52,297.84 in total societal costs, with an economic benefit to society from program participation of $2,673,153.11. Therefore, total costs to society exceeded economic benefits by $559,677.05, or $1,599.08 per adolescent per year. In an extrapolation analysis, benefits to society exceed costs by $10,474.77 per adolescent per year by age 30 on average, with social benefits outweighing total social costs by age 20.1. Conclusions We estimate that this comprehensive teenage pregnancy prevention program would provide societal economic benefits once participants are young adults, suggesting the need to expand beyond pilot demonstrations and evaluate the long-range cost-effectiveness of similarly comprehensive programs when implemented more widely in high-risk neighborhoods. PMID:19896030

  9. Economic evaluation of a comprehensive teenage pregnancy prevention program: pilot program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Marjorie S; Ross, Joseph S; Bilodeau, Roseanne; Richter, Rosemary S; Palley, Jane E; Bradley, Elizabeth H

    2009-12-01

    Previous research has suggested that comprehensive teenage pregnancy prevention programs that address sexual education and life skills development and provide academic support are effective in reducing births among enrolled teenagers. However, there have been limited data on the costs and cost effectiveness of such programs. The study used a community-based participatory research approach to develop estimates of the cost-benefit of the Pathways/Senderos Center, a comprehensive neighborhood-based program to prevent unintended pregnancies and promote positive development for adolescents. Using data from 1997-2003, an in-time intervention analysis was conducted to determine program cost-benefit while teenagers were enrolled; an extrapolation analysis was then used to estimate accrued economic benefits and cost-benefit up to age 30 years. The program operating costs totaled $3,228,152.59 and reduced the teenage childbearing rate from 94.10 to 40.00 per 1000 teenage girls, averting $52,297.84 in total societal costs, with an economic benefit to society from program participation of $2,673,153.11. Therefore, total costs to society exceeded economic benefits by $559,677.05, or $1599.08 per adolescent per year. In an extrapolation analysis, benefits to society exceed costs by $10,474.77 per adolescent per year by age 30 years on average, with social benefits outweighing total social costs by age 20.1 years. This comprehensive teenage pregnancy prevention program is estimated to provide societal economic benefits once participants are young adults, suggesting the need to expand beyond pilot demonstrations and evaluate the long-range cost effectiveness of similarly comprehensive programs when they are implemented more widely in high-risk neighborhoods.

  10. A Pilot Study for Linking Adolescent Patients to an Interactive Tobacco Prevention Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen S. Calabro

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Context: The American Academy of Pediatrics and professional guidelines recommend intervening with adolescents about avoiding tobacco use in the health-care setting. Barriers in the clinical setting limit consistent provision of this critical service. Objectives: This pilot study compared 2 approaches for referring adolescents to an evidence-based tobacco prevention and cessation program in the outpatient setting. Secondary aims assessed tobacco use, knowledge, and program evaluation. Design, Setting, and Participants: The study setting was a medical and dental clinic. Participants aged 13 to 18 received tobacco advice and instructions to work through “A Smoking Prevention Interactive Experience.” The program addresses health concerns of adolescents about tobacco use and is founded on behavioral change theories. The link to access it is featured on the website of the National Cancer Institute’s Research-Tested Interventions. Participants (N = 197 were randomized to 1 of 2 approaches (ie, a program link via e-mail or referral by a printed card. Results: The program was accessed by 57% (112 of 197 of participants. Both referral approaches were equally effective. Non-Hispanics were twice as likely to access the program as Hispanics (adjusted odds ratio = 2.1, 95% confidence interval = 1.2-3.8, P < .05. Over 95% of participants identified themselves as nonusers of tobacco and evaluated the program as beneficial in increasing knowledge and motivation to remain tobacco-free. Conclusion: Linking adolescent patients to an evidence-based tobacco prevention/cessation program at a community health clinic was highly promising and feasible. We present conclusions for future research.

  11. Evaluation of Occupational Therapy Workshops to Prevent Work-Related Injuries or Illnesses among Vocational Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecours, Alexandra; Therriault, Pierre-Yves

    2018-01-01

    The few studies aiming to evaluate prevention interventions provided by occupational therapists in health at work were conducted in work settings. However, to intervene in primary prevention, developing occupational therapy interventions with students learning a trade is relevant. The objective is to evaluate workshops designed and set up by…

  12. A multiple case study approach to work stress prevention in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kompier, M.A.J.; Cooper, C.L.; Geurts, S.A.E.

    2000-01-01

    Work stress has become a major issue among European employees. The current practice of its prevention seems disappointing, as work stress prevention programmes are predominantly reactive and biased to the individual. The lack of organization-level intervention studies is a barrier to progress in

  13. A multiple case study approach to work stress prevention in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kompier, M.A.J.; Cooper, C.L.; Geurts, S.A.E.; Cooper, C.L.

    2013-01-01

    Work stress has become a major issue among European employees. The current practice of its prevention seems disappointing, as work stress prevention programmes are predominantly reactive and biased to the individual. The lack of organization-level intervention studies is a barrier to progress in

  14. Fiscal loss and program fidelity: impact of the economic downturn on HIV/STI prevention program fidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catania, Joseph A; Dolcini, M Margaret; Gandelman, Alice A; Narayanan, Vasudha; McKay, Virginia R

    2014-03-01

    The economic downturn of 2007 created significant fiscal losses for public and private agencies conducting behavioral prevention. Such macro-economic changes may influence program implementation and sustainability. We examined how public and private agencies conducting RESPECT, a brief HIV/STI (sexually transmitted infection) counseling and testing intervention, adapted to fiscal loss and how these adaptations impacted program fidelity. We collected qualitative and quantitative data in a national sample of 15 agencies experiencing fiscal loss. Using qualitative analyses, we examined how program fidelity varied with different types of adaptations. Agencies reported three levels of adaptation: agency-level, program-level, and direct fiscal remedies. Private agencies tended to use direct fiscal remedies, which were associated with higher fidelity. Some agency-level adaptations contributed to reductions in procedural fit, leading to negative staff morale and decreased confidence in program effectiveness, which in turn, contributed to poor fidelity. Findings describe a "work stress pathway" that links program fiscal losses to poor staff morale and low program fidelity.

  15. Shiftwork, work-family conflict among Italian nurses, and prevention efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camerino, Donatella; Sandri, Marco; Sartori, Samantha; Conway, Paul Maurice; Campanini, Paolo; Costa, Giovanni

    2010-07-01

    Shiftwork may be a demanding situation because it raises problems for reconciling work and nonwork activities; as such, this conflict may be mitigated by designing and implementing effective preventative actions at the workplace. There is a paucity of research directly examining the impact of work schedules and preventative measures at work on work-family conflict. Hence, the authors posed the following questions in their study: What is the impact of different work schedules on work-family conflict? Is a preventative culture associated with less work-family conflict? Is work-family conflict associated with specific health and well-being indicators and if so, how does work-family conflict affect well-being as compared with other potential determinants? A subset of 750 nurses ( approximately 10% of total workforce) were randomly selected from a larger sample. Nurses completed the Italian version of the NEXT questionnaire plus newly developed items to create an index on occupational safety and health prevention at work. Data were explored using two data mining techniques, Random Forests and Bayesian Networks, and modeled using hierarchical linear regression models. In all, 664 (88.5% of sample) nurses answered the questionnaire. The authors found that different work schedules had a differential impact on work-family conflict. In addition, effective risk communication between workers and people in charge of safety and health, and participation in preventative activities, quantitative workload, performing tasks not belonging to the nursing profession, and the number of weekends/month spent at work were all strongly associated with work-family conflict. The variable "time schedules" also acted as an effect modifier in the relationship between effective communication and participation in preventative activities and work-family conflict. In addition, quantitative demands played a role as a mediator (30% of total effect) in the relationship between effective communication

  16. Historical context for the creation of the Office of Adolescent Health and the Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappeler, Evelyn M; Farb, Amy Feldman

    2014-03-01

    In Fiscal Year 2010, Federal funds were dedicated to support evidence-based approaches to effectively target teen pregnancy prevention and resulted in the establishment of the Office of Adolescent Health (OAH) and the Teen Pregnancy Prevention (TPP) Program. Through the tiered TPP Program, OAH supports replication and evaluation of programs using models whose effectiveness has been demonstrated through rigorous evaluation and the development and testing of promising or innovative pregnancy prevention strategies and approaches. This article documents the creation of OAH and the development of the TPP Program, the identification of a TPP evidence base, current program and evaluation efforts at OAH, and government coordination and partnerships related to reducing teen pregnancy. This article is of interest to those working to improve the health and wellbeing of adolescents. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Toward Mentoring in Palliative Social Work: A Narrative Review of Mentoring Programs in Social Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Ying Pin; Karthik, R; Teo, Chia Chia; Suppiah, Sarasvathy; Cheung, Siew Li; Krishna, Lalit

    2018-03-01

    Mentoring by an experienced practitioner enhances professional well-being, promotes resilience, and provides a means of addressing poor job satisfaction and high burnout rates among medical social workers. This is a crucial source of support for social workers working in fields with high risk of compassion fatigue and burnout like palliative care. Implementing such a program, however, is hindered by differences in understanding and application of mentoring practice. This narrative review of mentoring practice in social work seeks to identify key elements and common approaches within successful mentoring programs in social work that could be adapted to guide the design of new mentoring programs in medical social work. Methodology and Data Sources: A literature search of mentoring programs in social work between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2015, using Pubmed, CINAHL, OVID, ERIC, Scopus, Cochrane and ScienceDirect databases, involving a senior experienced mentor and undergraduate and/or junior postgraduates, was carried out. A total of 1302 abstracts were retrieved, 22 full-text articles were analyzed, and 8 articles were included. Thematic analysis of the included articles revealed 7 themes pertaining to the mentoring process, outcomes and barriers, and the characteristics of mentoring relationships, mentors, mentees, and host organizations. Common themes in prevailing mentoring practices help identify key elements for the design of an effective mentoring program in medical social work. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of these findings upon clinical practice in palliative care and on sustaining such a program.

  18. Health Prevention Programs in Social Marketing: Recent Trends and Future Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Serban

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Social marketing methods are nowadays frequently used in the development of healthprevention programs. The main Objectives of this paper are: to identify the role of skin protectionprograms in society, to evaluate sun protection behavior among consumers and to propose futuredirections of research in skin cancer prevention. Prior Work in skin protection focused on the risksassociated with long periods of sun exposure while offering advice regarding responsible behavior. InEurope, the main center of skin cancer research is European Cancer Observatory and, in Romania,Romanian Society of Dermatology (SRD. These institutions develop specialized programs annualy.The Approach used in this article is the survey. The paper analysis consumers’ perceptions regardingskin protection behavior in Romania by using a structured online questionnaire. A total number of 86respondents participated in the study. Results show that 53% of respondents don’t have a sunprotection behavior. Implications of the study are: health practitioners can use these findings infurther research and nonprofit organizations can increase their prevention programs in certain groups.The Value of this paper consists of direct analysis regarding skin cancer issue in Romania whileemphasizing the importance of health prevention programs for social marketing domain.

  19. Preventing halo bias in grading the work of university students

    OpenAIRE

    John M. Malouff; Sarah J. Stein; Lodewicka N. Bothma; Kimberley Coulter; Ashley J. Emmerton

    2014-01-01

    Experts have advocated anonymous marking as a means of minimizing bias in subjective student assessment. In the present study, 159 faculty members or teaching assistants across disciplines were randomly assigned (1) to grade a poor oral presentation of a university student, (2) to grade a good oral presentation of the same student, or (3) not to grade any oral presentation of the student. All graders then assessed the same written work by the student. A linear-contrasts analysis showed that, ...

  20. Constructing "Packages" of Evidence-Based Programs to Prevent Youth Violence: Processes and Illustrative Examples From the CDC's Youth Violence Prevention Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, Beverly; Bacallao, Martica; Smokowski, Paul; Sullivan, Terri; Sutherland, Kevin

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes the strategic efforts of six National Centers of Excellence in Youth Violence Prevention (YVPC), funded by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, to work in partnership with local communities to create comprehensive evidence-based program packages to prevent youth violence. Key components of a comprehensive evidence-based approach are defined and examples are provided from a variety of community settings (rural and urban) across the nation that illustrate attempts to respond to the unique needs of the communities while maintaining a focus on evidence-based programming and practices. At each YVPC site, the process of selecting prevention and intervention programs addressed the following factors: (1) community capacity, (2) researcher and community roles in selecting programs, (3) use of data in decision-making related to program selection, and (4) reach, resources, and dosage. We describe systemic barriers to these efforts, lessons learned, and opportunities for policy and practice. Although adopting an evidence-based comprehensive approach requires significant upfront resources and investment, it offers great potential for preventing youth violence and promoting the successful development of children, families and communities.

  1. Characterizing and Mitigating Work Time Inflation in Task Parallel Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen L. Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Task parallelism raises the level of abstraction in shared memory parallel programming to simplify the development of complex applications. However, task parallel applications can exhibit poor performance due to thread idleness, scheduling overheads, and work time inflation – additional time spent by threads in a multithreaded computation beyond the time required to perform the same work in a sequential computation. We identify the contributions of each factor to lost efficiency in various task parallel OpenMP applications and diagnose the causes of work time inflation in those applications. Increased data access latency can cause significant work time inflation in NUMA systems. Our locality framework for task parallel OpenMP programs mitigates this cause of work time inflation. Our extensions to the Qthreads library demonstrate that locality-aware scheduling can improve performance up to 3X compared to the Intel OpenMP task scheduler.

  2. The Union Health Center: a working model of clinical care linked to preventive occupational health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, R; Plattus, B; Kellogg, L; Luo, J; Marcus, M; Mascolo, A; Landrigan, P J

    1997-03-01

    As health care provision in the United States shifts to primary care settings, it is vital that new models of occupational health services be developed that link clinical care to prevention. The model program described in this paper was developed at the Union Health Center (UHC), a comprehensive health care center supported by the International Ladies Garment Workers Union (now the Union of Needletrades, Industrial and Textile Employees) serving a population of approximately 50,000 primarily minority, female garment workers in New York City. The objective of this paper is to describe a model occupational medicine program in a union-based comprehensive health center linking accessible clinical care with primary and secondary disease prevention efforts. To assess the presence of symptoms suggestive of occupational disease, a health status questionnaire was administered to female workers attending the UHC for routine health maintenance. Based on the results of this survey, an occupational medicine clinic was developed that integrated direct clinical care with worker and employer education and workplace hazard abatement. To assess the success of this new approach, selected cases of sentinel health events were tracked and a chart review was conducted after 3 years of clinic operation. Prior to initiation of the occupational medicine clinic, 64% (648) of the workers surveyed reported symptoms indicative of occupational illnesses. However, only 42 (4%) reported having been told by a physician that they had an occupational illness and only 4 (.4%) reported having field a workers' compensation claim for an occupational disease. In the occupational medicine clinic established at the UHC, a health and safety specialist acts as a case manager, coordinating worker and employer education as well as workplace hazard abatement focused on disease prevention, ensuring that every case of occupational disease is treated as a potential sentinel health event. As examples of the success

  3. Collaboration for cooperative work experience programs in biomedical engineering education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Shankar

    2010-01-01

    Incorporating cooperative education modules as a segment of the undergraduate educational program is aimed to assist students in gaining real-life experience in the field of their choice. The cooperative work modules facilitate the students in exploring different realistic aspects of work processes in the field. The track records for cooperative learning modules are very positive. However, it is indeed a challenge for the faculty developing Biomedical Engineering (BME) curriculum to include cooperative work experience or internship requirements coupled with a heavy course load through the entire program. The objective of the present work is to develop a scheme for collaborative co-op work experience for the undergraduate training in the fast-growing BME programs. A few co-op/internship models are developed for the students pursuing undergraduate BME degree. The salient features of one co-op model are described. The results obtained support the proposed scheme. In conclusion, the cooperative work experience will be an invaluable segment in biomedical engineering education and an appropriate model has to be selected to blend with the overall training program.

  4. Menopause and risk of diabetes in the Diabetes Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Catherine; Edelstein, Sharon L; Crandall, Jill P; Dabelea, Dana; Kitabchi, Abbas E; Hamman, Richard F; Montez, Maria G; Perreault, Leigh; Foulkes, Mary A; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth

    2011-08-01

    The study objectives were to examine the association between menopause status and diabetes risk among women with glucose intolerance and to determine if menopause status modifies response to diabetes prevention interventions. The study population included women in premenopause (n = 708), women in natural postmenopause (n = 328), and women with bilateral oophorectomy (n = 201) in the Diabetes Prevention Program, a randomized placebo-controlled trial of lifestyle intervention and metformin among glucose-intolerant adults. Associations between menopause and diabetes risk were evaluated using Cox proportional hazard models that adjusted for demographic variables (age, race/ethnicity, family history of diabetes, history of gestational diabetes mellitus), waist circumference, insulin resistance, and corrected insulin response. Similar models were constructed after stratification by menopause type and hormone therapy use. After adjustment for age, there was no association between natural menopause or bilateral oophorectomy and diabetes risk. Differences by study arm were observed in women who reported bilateral oophorectomy. In the lifestyle arm, women with bilateral oophorectomy had a lower adjusted hazard for diabetes (hazard ratio [HR], 0.19; 95% CI, 0.04-0.94), although observations were too few to determine if this was independent of hormone therapy use. No significant differences were seen in the metformin (HR, 1.29; 95% CI, 0.63-2.64) or placebo arms (HR, 1.37; 95% CI, 0.74-2.55). Among women at high risk for diabetes, natural menopause was not associated with diabetes risk and did not affect response to diabetes prevention interventions. In the lifestyle intervention, bilateral oophorectomy was associated with a decreased diabetes risk.

  5. Methodology of Isfahan Tobacco Use Prevention Program: First Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Roohafza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Tobacco use continues to be the leading global cause of preventable death. The majority of smokers begin using tobacco products at teen ages. The aims of this study were providing a methodology of Isfahan Tobacco Use Prevention Program and investigating the prevalence of tobacco use and its related factors. Method. It was a cross-sectional study among guidance and high school students in Isfahan province. Initiation, social, psychological (depression and self-efficacy, family, and attitudinal and belief factors and school policy toward smoking (cigarettes and water-pipe were investigated. Saliva qutinin was given from 5% of participants for determination of accuracy of responses. A self-administered anonymous questionnaire was used for gathering all data. Results. Of all 5500 questionnaires distributed, about 5408 completed questionnaires were returned (with response rate of 98.3%. Of all participants, 2702 (50.0% were girls and 2706 (50.0% were boys. Respectively, 4811 (89.0% and 597 (11.0% were from urban and rural. Of all participants, 2445 (45.2% were guidance school and 2962 (54.8% were high school students. Conclusion. This study will provide a unique opportunity to study prevalence of smoking cigarettes and water-pipe (ghelyan among guidance and high school students in Isfahan province and determine the role of initiation, social, psychological, family, and attitudinal and belief factors and school policy toward smoking.

  6. Shiftwork, work-family conflict among Italian nurses, and prevention efficacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Camerino, Donatella; Sandri, Marco; Sartori, Samantha

    2010-01-01

    of a preventative culture directly reduced work-family conflict and indirectly via reduction of work demands. The authors conclude that the development of a preventative culture among irregular and night shiftworkers can be effective in reducing work-family conflict, while positively increasing well-being and job......Shiftwork may be a demanding situation because it raises problems for reconciling work and nonwork activities; as such, this conflict may be mitigated by designing and implementing effective preventative actions at the workplace. There is a paucity of research directly examining the impact of work...... of the NEXT questionnaire plus newly developed items to create an index on occupational safety and health prevention at work. Data were explored using two data mining techniques, Random Forests and Bayesian Networks, and modeled using hierarchical linear regression models. In all, 664 (88.5% of sample) nurses...

  7. Everybody Brush! Consumer Satisfaction with a Tooth Decay Prevention Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Cunha-Cruz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionTwice-daily caregiver-supervised toothbrushing with fluoridated toothpaste is an effective and widely recommended strategy to prevent tooth decay in children. Qualitative research suggests that low-income caregivers know the recommendation but would benefit from toothbrushing supplies and advice about how to introduce this health behavior especially as the child becomes older and asserts autonomy to do it “myself.” Our objective is to assess consumer satisfaction with the evidence-based theory-informed campaign and usefulness of materials that were home delivered. The focus of the evaluation was families with children <36 months of age because of the high incidence of disease in this population.MethodsA dental care organization designed and implemented Everybody Brush! in three counties of Central Oregon. Participants were families of Medicaid-insured children <21 years of age. Participants were randomly assigned to one of the three study groups: test (supplies, voice/printed messages, telephone support, active (supplies, and a waitlist control. Program materials were in English and Spanish. Caregivers of children <36 months were interviewed at the beginning and end of the program.ResultsA total of 83,148 toothbrushing kits were mailed to 21,743 families. In addition, 93,766 printed messages and 110,367 recorded messages were sent to half of the families. Caregivers were highly satisfied. On a global rating scale from 0 to 10 (worst to best program possible, they rated the program 9.5 on average (median: 10, SD 0.9. On a scale from 0 to 10 (not at all to very useful, mean ratings for usefulness of the toothbrushing supplies was 9.5 (SD = 1.5, for the printed postcard messages was 7.2 (SD 3.6, and for the voice telephone messages was 6.5 (SD 3.9.DiscussionA dental care organization carried out a complex community intervention designed to address excess tooth decay among low-income children. Caregivers were highly

  8. Prevention of language problems in children: the effectiveness of an intervention program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis GALLEGO ORTEGA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Language is an essential tool for personal and social development of children and it is perceived as the most important learning that children undertake in the early years of their lives. It is generally accepted that from birth to the age of three-four years old, children achieve a basic repertory of skills in different linguistic dimensions which allow them to communicate effectively with their environment. However, research has shown that phonemic disorders, morphosyntactic dysfunctions and semantic poverty figure prominently in the overall oral language disorders in infancy. In this respect, the review of literature informs us of the abundance of work aimed at rehabiliting the conditions already set in childlike expression, but there are significant gaps in regard to systematic prevention programs to prevent such evolutionary disorders which can become operational because of an early intervention in the field of communication. According to the above, it was developed a research project designed to establish the differential impact of a program to develop language skills in preschoolers. We worked with a sample of 32 children (5 years old in a pretest-posttest design. The data analysis shows that the magnitude of change is significant when comparing the results obtained by the experimental and the control group before and after program implementation. The overall effect of the program allowed to determine its effectiveness to increase language skills in the morph syntactic level.

  9. Return to work programs are becoming a business priority

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2001-06-01

    Improved safety planning and operational procedures in the offshore industry, based on lessons learned from accidents offshore, are discussed. The emphasis in this instance is on the 'return-to-work' (RTW) program which consists of a formal set of processes whose goal is to minimize the impact of an impairment or disability on an individual's capacity to work. The program is designed to assist workers to return to their jobs or to an alternate suitable job, to mitigate the human and financial cost for both the worker and the employer. RTW programs are said to have assumed greater importance recently because of globalization of the economy and downsizing, and the increased pressure on organizations to decrease costs to stay competitive. The longer work-week for the remaining employees and increase in the average age of the workforce which tend to increase recovery time from an injury, are other factors contributing to the demand for increased safety in the work place and the increased popularity of structured and regulated return-to-work programs in all sectors of industry. Retained seniority, pay and benefits, along with maintaining self-worth, family stability, and social ties, are suggested as the principal benefit to workers. Employers would benefit from the ability to retain skilled workers, minimize production losses, and minimize the need to recruit and train new workers, or to retrain current employees to perform new tasks. To be successful, the employer must commit money and resources for the program, and employees have to be fully aware of the benefits of an RTW program. It appears that pending legislation making workplace accommodation mandatory, an RTW program will soon become a business essential for employers. At the same time, rising health care costs provide further substantiation for more structured approaches to reduce claims and absenteeism from the workplace.

  10. Work Life Balance Programs at Workplaces in the US (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    KUROSAWA Masako

    2011-01-01

    With the very limited policy intervention, work-life balance (WLB) enhancing programs available at workplaces in the US are not as prevalent as those observed in most continental European countries. Nevertheless, starting in the late 80s, firms began to introduce WLB enhancing programs, mostly in terms of flexible schedules, as ways to help workers and improve firm performance. The availability of workplace flexibility, however, has been mostly limited to highly skilled workers. This paper sh...

  11. Program Development and Effectiveness of Workplace Health Promotion Program for Preventing Metabolic Syndrome among Office Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Hosihn; Jung, Jiyeon; Cho, Jeonghyun; Chin, Dal Lae

    2017-08-04

    This paper aims to develop and analyze the effects of a socio-ecological model-based intervention program for preventing metabolic syndrome (MetS) among office workers. The intervention program was developed using regular health examinations, a "health behavior and need" assessment survey among workers, and a focus group study. According to the type of intervention, subjects took part in three groups: health education via an intranet-based web magazine (Group 1), self-monitoring with the U-health system (Group 2), and the target population who received intensive intervention (Group 3). The intervention programs of Group 1 and Group 2, which relied on voluntary participation, did not show significant effects. In Group 3, which relied on targeted and proactive programs, showed a decrease in waist circumference and in fasting glucose ( p light of the effectiveness of the intensive intervention strategy for metabolic syndrome prevention among workers used in this study, companies should establish targeted and proactive health care programs rather than providing a healthcare system that is dependent on an individual's voluntary participation.

  12. Workplace disability management programs promoting return-to-work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gensby, Ulrik; Lund, Thomas; Kowalski, Krystyna

    Return-to-work (RTW) following work related injuries or illnesses is receiving continued attention from a wide spectrum of research fields and is an important topic for many policy- and decision-makers. In particular long-term sickness absence is a challenge associated with a series of negative...... is still needed. This review will evaluate the effect of workplace disability management programs promoting RTW - i.e. report on the evidence and describes and combine results from individual studies on workplace disability management programs and explain possible variations in practice....

  13. Reliability-based maintenance evaluations and standard preventive maintenance programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varno, M.; McKinley, M.

    1993-01-01

    Due to recent issuance of 10CFR50.65, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission maintenance rule (Rule), and the open-quotes Industry Guideline for Monitoring the Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plantsclose quotes prepared by the Nuclear Management and Resources Council, many utilities are undertaking review or evaluation of current preventive maintenance (PM) programs. Although PM optimization and documentation are not specifically required by the Rule, an appropriate and effective PM program (PMP) will be the cornerstone of the successful and cost-effective implementation of the Rule. Currently, a project is being conducted at the Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station (VYNPS) in conjunction with Quadrex Energy Services to evaluate, optimize, and document the PMP. The project began in March 1993 and is scheduled for completion in mid-1995. The initial scope for the project is the evaluation of those structures, systems, and components that are within the scope of the Rule. Because of the number of systems to be evaluated (∼50), the desired completion schedule, and cost considerations, a streamlined approach to PM optimization and documentation is being utilized

  14. Programs of prevention of abuse in intimate relationships for adolescents and young adults abroad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makurina A.P.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article gives an overview of the programs of work with teenagers and young people, aimed at primary prevention of violence in intimate relationships. The content models of sex education as one of the highest priorities for primary prevention. A brief description of the methodological foundations of these programs, such as the focus on changing the existing norms of violence, gender stereotypes, pathogenic skills avoiding conflicts. Describes the procedural and substantive content features of these programs. The results of studies on the effectiveness of a number of programs that have demonstrated a decrease in the level of violence, positive changes in the skills that are most scarce to training with regard to the acceptability of violence and behavioral intentions. Highlights those aspects of targeted programs that are short-term and prolonged effects. So changing views on the norms of behavior in intimate relationships, conflict resolution skills and knowledge are stored in the long term, while females exhibit more positive attitudes and behavioral intentions than men.

  15. Innovation in HIV prevention: organizational and intervention characteristics affecting program adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R L

    2001-08-01

    A multiple case study design was used to explore the organizational characteristics of community-based organizations that provide HIV prevention programs and the criteria these organizations employ when judging the merits of externally-developed HIV prevention programs. In-depth interviews were conducted with organizational representatives of 38 randomly-selected HIV prevention providers throughout Illinois. Results indicated that there were three main types of adopting organizations: adopters of entire programs, adopters of program components and practices, and adopters of common ideas. These three types of organizations were distinguished by their level of organizational commitment to HIV prevention, organizational resources, and level of organizational maturity. Narrative data from the interviews are used to describe the dimensions that underlie the organizations' program adoption criteria. The criteria of merit used by these organizations to evaluate prevention programs provide partial empirical support for existing theories of technology transfer. Implications for designing and disseminating HIV prevention programs are discussed.

  16. Pollution Prevention in Air Force System Acquisition Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    noise requirements, handling radioactive materials, etc. The values should 278 be expressed in terms of indicators that, either quantitatively or...Structure pollhtion prevention ana~lysis Polution Prevention Analysis (PPA)? NEPA w/pollution prevention information - pollution Change prevention...Accumulation Procedures PS 81,04 Waste Jet Fuel Handling and Disposal Safe Practice Instructions (SPI) SPI 104 Radioactive Waste SPI 206 Mercury

  17. A Risk and Prevention Counselor Training Program Model: Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Michael J.; Nakkula, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    The need for training mental health counselors in risk and prevention is presented, and justification of the development of an innovative and integrative prevention training program is offered. Theoretical underpinnings that connect the counseling discipline to the field of prevention are described. A risk and prevention training model from…

  18. [After the Great East Japan Earthquake : suicide prevention and a gatekeeper program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Kotaro; Sakai, Akio; Nakamura, Hikaru; Akahira, Mitsuko

    2014-01-01

    When considering approaches to mental health in areas affected by the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake, as well as the resulting tsunami and Fukushima nuclear power plant accident, it is not sufficient to focus interventions solely on individuals experiencing mental health issues. The situation demands a comprehensive approach that includes programs that target improvements to mental health literacy among residents in areas affected by the disaster, the rebuilding of relationships between residents themselves, collaboration with recovery and support activities, and mental health support for people participating in recovery and support efforts. From a medium- to long-term perspective, suicide prevention is an important issue. Comprehensive suicide prevention efforts are being promoted in areas of Iwate Prefecture affected by the disaster. In suicide prevention programs, it is crucial to foster the development of human resources in the local community. In order to expand community supports, it is necessary to provide education on ways of supporting those affected by a disaster to local medical personnel, people staffing inquiry and consultation offices, and people in fields related to mental health. Suicide prevention and disaster relief efforts are both approaches that target people in difficulty, and they share commonalities in principles, systems, and approaches to human resource development. "Mental health first aid" is a program developed in Australia that defines methods of early intervention by non-professionals who encounter someone experiencing a mental health problem. The mental health first aid-based gatekeeper training program of the Japanese government's Cabinet Office, which the author's research team helped to develop, allows participants to obtain the knowledge and skills required of gatekeepers. In 2012, a module for disaster-affected areas was developed and added to the program, with additional content that provides program participants with the

  19. New Mexico district work-effort analysis computer program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiss, W.L.; Trantolo, A.P.; Sparks, J.L.

    1972-01-01

    The computer program (CAN 2) described in this report is one of several related programs used in the New Mexico District cost-analysis system. The work-effort information used in these programs is accumulated and entered to the nearest hour on forms completed by each employee. Tabulating cards are punched directly from these forms after visual examinations for errors are made. Reports containing detailed work-effort data itemized by employee within each project and account and by account and project for each employee are prepared for both current-month and year-to-date periods by the CAN 2 computer program. An option allowing preparation of reports for a specified 3-month period is provided. The total number of hours worked on each account and project and a grand total of hours worked in the New Mexico District is computed and presented in a summary report for each period. Work effort not chargeable directly to individual projects or accounts is considered as overhead and can be apportioned to the individual accounts and projects on the basis of the ratio of the total hours of work effort for the individual accounts or projects to the total New Mexico District work effort at the option of the user. The hours of work performed by a particular section, such as General Investigations or Surface Water, are prorated and charged to the projects or accounts within the particular section. A number of surveillance or buffer accounts are employed to account for the hours worked on special events or on those parts of large projects or accounts that require a more detailed analysis. Any part of the New Mexico District operation can be separated and analyzed in detail by establishing an appropriate buffer account. With the exception of statements associated with word size, the computer program is written in FORTRAN IV in a relatively low and standard language level to facilitate its use on different digital computers. The program has been run only on a Control Data Corporation

  20. Strengthening cancer biology research, prevention, and control while reducing cancer disparities: student perceptions of a collaborative master's degree program in cancer biology, preventions, and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jillson, I A; Cousin, C E; Blancato, J K

    2013-09-01

    This article provides the findings of a survey of previous and current students in the UDC/GU-LCCC master's degree program. This master's degree program, Cancer Biology, Prevention, and Control is administered and taught jointly by faculty of a Minority Serving Institution, the University of the District of Columbia, and the Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center to incorporate the strengths of a community-based school with a research intensive medical center. The program was initiated in 2008 through agreements with both University administrations and funding from the National Cancer Institute. The master's degree program is 36 credits with a focus on coursework in biostatistics, epidemiology, tumor biology, cancer prevention, medical ethics, and cancer outreach program design. For two semesters during the second year, students work full-time with a faculty person on a laboratory or outreach project that is a requirement for graduation. Students are supported and encouraged to transition to a doctoral degree after they obtain the master's and many of them are currently in doctorate programs. Since the inception of the program, 45 students have initiated the course of study, 28 have completed the program, and 13 are currently enrolled in the program. The survey was designed to track the students in their current activities, as well as determine which courses, program enhancements, and research experiences were the least and most useful, and to discern students' perceptions of knowledge acquired on various aspects of Cancer Biology Prevention, and Control Master's Program. Thirty of the 35 individuals to whom email requests were sent responded to the survey, for a response rate of 85.7%. The results of this study will inform the strengthening of the Cancer Biology program by the Education Advisory Committee. They can also be used in the development of comparable collaborative master's degree programs designed to address the significant disparities in prevalence of

  1. 40 CFR 256.05 - Annual work program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FOR DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF STATE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT PLANS Purpose, General Requirements... included by reference in the annual work program: (1) Substate solid waste management plans, (2) Plans for the development of facilities and services, including hazardous waste management facilities and...

  2. Knowledge Is Power Program (KIPP). What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2018

    2018-01-01

    The "Knowledge Is Power Program" ("KIPP") is a nonprofit network of more than 200 public charter schools educating early childhood, elementary, middle, and high school students. The What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) identified four studies of "KIPP" that fall within the scope of the Charter Schools topic area and meet…

  3. Compile-Time Debugging of C Programs Working on Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elgaard, Jacob; Møller, Anders; Schwartzbach, Michael I.

    2000-01-01

    of an initial store that leads to an error is automatically generated. This extends previous work that uses a similar technique to verify a simpler syntax manipulating only list structures. In that case, programs are translated into WS1S formulas. A naive generalization to recursive data-types determines...

  4. 40 CFR 1048.405 - How does this program work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 1048.405 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, LARGE NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Testing In-use Engines § 1048.405 How does this program work? (a) You must test in-use engines, for exhaust emissions, from the...

  5. NASA Pathways: Intern Employment Program Work Report Summer 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Kyle B.

    2014-01-01

    This report documents the work experience and project involvement of Kyle Davidson during his tenure at Kennedy Space Center for the summer of 2014. Projects include the Nitrogen Oxygen Recharge System (NORS), Restore satellite servicing program, and mechanical handling operations for the SAGE III and Rapidscat payloads.

  6. Homogeneity in Community-Based Rape Prevention Programs: Empirical Evidence of Institutional Isomorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Stephanie M.; Campbell, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the practices of 24 community-based rape prevention programs. Although these programs were geographically dispersed throughout one state, they were remarkably similar in their approach to rape prevention programming. DiMaggio and Powell's (1991) theory of institutional isomorphism was used to explain the underlying causes of…

  7. A research framework for the development and implementation of interventions preventing work-related musculoskeletal disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Der Beek, Allard J.; Dennerlein, Jack T.; Huysmans, Maaike A.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) are highly prevalent and put a large burden on (working) society. Primary prevention of work-related MSD focuses often on physical risk factors (such as manual lifting and awkward postures) but has not been too successful in reducing the MSD...

  8. A research framework for the development and implementation of interventions preventing work-related musculoskeletal disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Beek, Allard J.; Dennerlein, Jack T.; Huysmans, Maaike A.; Mathiassen, Svend Erik; Burdorf, Alex; Van Mechelen, Willem; Van Dieën, Jaap H.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H.W.; Holtermann, Andreas; Janwantanakul, Prawit; Van Der Molen, Henk F.; Rempel, David; Straker, Leon; Walker-Bone, Karen; Coenen, Pieter

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) are highly prevalent and put a large burden on (working) society. Primary prevention of work-related MSD focuses often on physical risk factors (such as manual lifting and awkward postures) but has not been too successful in reducing the MSD

  9. A research framework for the development and implementation of interventions preventing work-related musculoskeletal disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. van der Beek (Allard); Dennerlein, J.T. (Jack T.); Huysmans, M.A. (Maaike A.); S.E. Mathiassen; A. Burdorf (Alex); W. van Mechelen (Willem); J.H. van Dieën (Jaap); M.H.W. Frings-Dresen; A. Holtermann (Andreas); Janwantanakul, P. (Prawit); Van Der Molen, H.F. (Henk F.); Rempel, D. (David); L. Straker (Leon); Walker-Bone, K. (Karen); P. Coenen (Pieter)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractObjectives Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) are highly prevalent and put a large burden on (working) society. Primary prevention of work-related MSD focuses often on physical risk factors (such as manual lifting and awkward postures) but has not been too successful in

  10. A comprehensive approach to RCM-based preventive maintenance program development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, B.E.; Davis, T.; Pennington, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    In late 1986, Public Service Electric and Gas Company (PSE ampersand G) concluded that to support its vision and strategic planning it would be necessary to develop a consistent approach to maintenance for all nuclear units at the artificial island. General Physics Corporation was selected to lead a consultant team to support full-scale development of a preventive maintenance (PM) program for Salem and Hope Creek generating stations based on a reliability-centered maintenance (RCM) approach. RCM was selected because it represents a systematic approach to developing a PM program that provides a logical, consistent, and traceable methodology and produces a well-documented engineering basis for the program. Early in 1987, primary objectives for the PM program were defined. The Phase I tasks addressed key programmatic areas such as maintenance philosophy, procedures, condition monitoring, performance trending, equipment failure data base, ogranization, PM program effectiveness evaluation, RCM process, reliability/availability modeling, information management, training, spare parts, software/hardware, and commitments. Phase I of the PM program development project was completed in January 1988. Highlights of the Phase I work and the PM program manual are described

  11. Moving Forward by Looking Back: Reflecting on a Decade of CDC's Work in Sexual Violence Prevention, 2000–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Thomas R.; Basile, Kathleen C.; Yee, Sue Lin; Lang, Karen; Spivak, Howard

    2012-01-01

    Abstract In 2011, the Division of Violence Prevention (DVP) within CDC's Injury Center engaged an external panel of experts to review and evaluate its research and programmatic portfolio for sexual violence (SV) prevention from 2000 to 2010. This article summarizes findings from the review by highlighting DVP's key activities and accomplishments during this period and identifying remaining gaps in the field and future directions for SV prevention. DVP's SV prevention work in the 2000s included (1) raising the profile of SV as a public health problem, (2) shifting the field toward a focus on the primary prevention of SV perpetration, and (3) applying the public health model to SV research and programmatic activities. The panel recommended that DVP continue to draw attention to the importance of sexual violence prevention as a public health issue, build on prior investments in the Rape Prevention and Education Program, support high-quality surveillance and research activities, and enhance communication to improve the link between research and practice. Current DVP projects and priorities provide a foundation to actively address these recommendations. In addition, DVP continues to provide leadership and guidance to the research and practice fields, with the goal of achieving significant reductions in SV perpetration and allowing individuals to live to their full potential. PMID:23140201

  12. Moving forward by looking back: reflecting on a decade of CDC's work in sexual violence prevention, 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGue, Sarah; Simon, Thomas R; Basile, Kathleen C; Yee, Sue Lin; Lang, Karen; Spivak, Howard

    2012-12-01

    In 2011, the Division of Violence Prevention (DVP) within CDC's Injury Center engaged an external panel of experts to review and evaluate its research and programmatic portfolio for sexual violence (SV) prevention from 2000 to 2010. This article summarizes findings from the review by highlighting DVP's key activities and accomplishments during this period and identifying remaining gaps in the field and future directions for SV prevention. DVP's SV prevention work in the 2000s included (1) raising the profile of SV as a public health problem, (2) shifting the field toward a focus on the primary prevention of SV perpetration, and (3) applying the public health model to SV research and programmatic activities. The panel recommended that DVP continue to draw attention to the importance of sexual violence prevention as a public health issue, build on prior investments in the Rape Prevention and Education Program, support high-quality surveillance and research activities, and enhance communication to improve the link between research and practice. Current DVP projects and priorities provide a foundation to actively address these recommendations. In addition, DVP continues to provide leadership and guidance to the research and practice fields, with the goal of achieving significant reductions in SV perpetration and allowing individuals to live to their full potential.

  13. Can social networking be used to promote engagement in child maltreatment prevention programs? Two pilot studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards-Gaura, Anna; Whitaker, Daniel; Self-Brown, Shannon

    2014-08-01

    Child maltreatment is one of the United States' most significant public health problems. In efforts to prevent maltreatment experts recommend use of Behavioral Parent Training Programs (BPTs), which focus on teaching skills that will replace and prevent maltreating behavior. While there is research to support the effectiveness of BPTs in maltreatment prevention, the reach of such programs is still limited by several barriers, including poor retention of families in services. Recently, new technologies have emerged that offer innovative opportunities to improve family engagement. These technologies include smartphones and social networking; however, very little is known about the potential of these to aid in maltreatment prevention. The primary goal of this study was to conduct 2 pilot exploratory projects. The first project administered a survey to parents and providers to gather data about at-risk parents' use of smartphones and online social networking technologies. The second project tested a social networking-enhanced brief parenting program with 3 intervention participants and evaluated parental responses. Seventy-five percent of parents surveyed reported owning a computer that worked. Eighty-nine percent of parents reported that they had reliable Internet access at home, and 67% said they used the Internet daily. Three parents participated in the intervention with all reporting improvement in parent-child interaction skills and a positive experience participating in the social networking-enhanced SafeCare components. In general, findings suggest that smartphones, social networking, and Facebook, in particular, are now being used by individuals who show risk factors for maltreatment. Further, the majority of parents surveyed in this study said that they like Facebook, and all parents surveyed said that they use Facebook and have a Facebook account. As well, all saw it as a potentially beneficial supplement for future parents enrolling in parenting programs.

  14. Can Social Networking Be Used to Promote Engagement in Child Maltreatment Prevention Programs? Two Pilot Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Edwards-Gaura

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Child maltreatment is one of the United States’ most significant public health problems. In efforts to prevent maltreatment experts recommend use of Behavioral Parent Training Programs (BPTs, which focus on teaching skills that will replace and prevent maltreating behavior. While there is research to support the effectiveness of BPTs in maltreatment prevention, the reach of such programs is still limited by several barriers, including poor retention of families in services. Recently, new technologies have emerged that offer innovative opportunities to improve family engagement. These technologies include smartphones and social networking; however, very little is known about the potential of these to aid in maltreatment prevention. The primary goal of this study was to conduct 2 pilot exploratory projects. Methods: The first project administered a survey to parents and providers to gather data about at-risk parents’ use of smartphones and online social networking technologies. The second project tested a social networking-enhanced brief parenting program with 3 intervention participants and evaluated parental responses. Results: Seventy-five percent of parents surveyed reported owning a computer that worked. Eighty-nine percent of parents reported that they had reliable Internet access at home, and 67% said they used the Internet daily. Three parents participated in the intervention with all reporting improvement in parent-child interaction skills and a positive experience participating in the social networking-enhanced SafeCare components. Conclusion: In general, findings suggest that smartphones, social networking, and Facebook, in particular, are now being used by individuals who show risk factors formal treatment. Further, the majority of parents surveyed in this study said that they like Facebook, and all parents surveyed said that they use Facebook and have a Facebook account. As well, all saw it as a potentially

  15. Worker programs and resource use: Evidence from better work jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Nathan

    This paper examines data collected for the Better Work program in Jordan which aims to protect laborers in the garment industry from poor working conditions. Data are examined to look for benefits to the factories participating in the program beyond improved compliance with labor law. In particular, potential impacts to firm energy use are examined and correlations are tested between electricity use rates and measures of worker outcomes and a number of factory traits such as size and production input costs. Evidence was found to back up work done in Vietnam with regard to resource use and distribution of electricity expenses. It was also found that the type of data being collected is not ideal for examinations of energy, and more direct methods are desirable, and that considerable production obstacles are worker skill level, electricity prices, and to a greater degree in Jordan than in previously examined countries, water prices.

  16. Interventions to prevent and manage psychosocial risks and work-related stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Hesselink, J.; Jain, A.

    2014-01-01

    Prevention is the cornerstone of the European approach to managing occupational safety and health. Prevention means anticipating and analysing the various aspects of work to identify short and long term risks, and then taking action to eliminate or mitigate those risks; that is identifying and

  17. Developing optimal nurses work schedule using integer programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahidin, Ainon Mardhiyah; Said, Mohd Syazwan Md; Said, Noor Hizwan Mohamad; Sazali, Noor Izatie Amaliena

    2017-08-01

    Time management is the art of arranging, organizing and scheduling one's time for the purpose of generating more effective work and productivity. Scheduling is the process of deciding how to commit resources between varieties of possible tasks. Thus, it is crucial for every organization to have a good work schedule for their staffs. The job of Ward nurses at hospitals runs for 24 hours every day. Therefore, nurses will be working using shift scheduling. This study is aimed to solve the nurse scheduling problem at an emergency ward of a private hospital. A 7-day work schedule for 7 consecutive weeks satisfying all the constraints set by the hospital will be developed using Integer Programming. The work schedule for the nurses obtained gives an optimal solution where all the constraints are being satisfied successfully.

  18. Evaluating the impact of implementation factors on family-based prevention programming: methods for strengthening causal inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, D Max; Coffman, Donna L; Feinberg, Mark E; Greenberg, Mark T; Spoth, Richard L

    2014-04-01

    Despite growing recognition of the important role implementation plays in successful prevention efforts, relatively little work has sought to demonstrate a causal relationship between implementation factors and participant outcomes. In turn, failure to explore the implementation-to-outcome link limits our understanding of the mechanisms essential to successful programming. This gap is partially due to the inability of current methodological procedures within prevention science to account for the multitude of confounders responsible for variation in implementation factors (i.e., selection bias). The current paper illustrates how propensity and marginal structural models can be used to improve causal inferences involving implementation factors not easily randomized (e.g., participant attendance). We first present analytic steps for simultaneously evaluating the impact of multiple implementation factors on prevention program outcome. Then, we demonstrate this approach for evaluating the impact of enrollment and attendance in a family program, over and above the impact of a school-based program, within PROSPER, a large-scale real-world prevention trial. Findings illustrate the capacity of this approach to successfully account for confounders that influence enrollment and attendance, thereby more accurately representing true causal relations. For instance, after accounting for selection bias, we observed a 5% reduction in the prevalence of 11th grade underage drinking for those who chose to receive a family program and school program compared to those who received only the school program. Further, we detected a 7% reduction in underage drinking for those with high attendance in the family program.

  19. Environmental Restoration Remedial Actions Program Field Office Work Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-02-01

    The Environmental Restoration Remedial Actions (ERRA) Program was established by DP to comply with regulations for characterization and cleanup of inactive waste sites. The program specifically includes inactive site identification and characterization, technology development and demonstration, remedial design and cleanup action, and postclosure activities of inactive radioactive, chemically hazardous, and mixed waste sites. It does not include facility decontamination and decommissioning activities; these are included in a parallel program, Environmental Restoration Decontamination and Decommissioning (ERD and D), also managed by DP. The ERRA program was formally established in fiscal year (FY) 1988 at the Hanford Site to characterize and remediate inactive waste sites at Hanford. The objectives, planned implementation activities, and management planning for the ERRA Program are contained in several planning documents. These documents include planning for the national program and for the Hanford Program. This summary describes the major documents and the role and purpose of this Field Office Work Plan (FOWP) within the overall hierarchy of planning documents. 4 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs

  20. Impact of a Universal School-Based Violence Prevention Program on Violent Delinquency: Distinctive Benefits for Youth with Maltreatment Histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooks, Claire V.; Scott, Katreena; Ellis, Wendy; Wolfe, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Child maltreatment constitutes a strong risk factor for violent delinquency in adolescence, with cumulative experiences of maltreatment creating increasingly greater risk. Our previous work demonstrated that a universal school-based violence prevention program could provide a protective impact for youth at risk for violent delinquency…

  1. Health promotion and work: prevention of shift work disorders in companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Kneginja D; Acker, Jens; Scholz, Friederike; Niklewski, Günter

    2010-12-01

    Workplace health promotion is a strategy to improve the health and well-being of people at work. The measures aim at the personal, organisational and work environment. Shift work is one of many reasons provoking increased job stress. According to worldwide epidemiological data, up to 30% of the working population are employed in shifts. Taking into consideration that shift work causes a large number of somatic and psychiatric diseases which bear considerable negative consequences for the health status and the quality of life, it seems to be important to initiate health promotion strategies for shift workers in the companies. The results of recent studies indicate that well-scheduled und targeted health programmes can change the lifestyle of shift working employees and have an impact on the risk factors involved. One problem, though, is a considerable time lag till effects become apparent; therefore, the long-term economic effects of workplace health promotion have not been evaluated sufficiently to date. These definitely positive effects highlight the demand for trainings and workshops for people in shift work. We urgently suggest a speedy implementation of the recommended strategies by companies with shift work systems. In our view, this poses a challenge to the "infant" interdisciplinary field of sleep medicine that should be solved.

  2. A Fully Automated Diabetes Prevention Program, Alive-PD: Program Design and Randomized Controlled Trial Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Gladys; Azar, Kristen Mj; Block, Torin J; Romanelli, Robert J; Carpenter, Heather; Hopkins, Donald; Palaniappan, Latha; Block, Clifford H

    2015-01-21

    In the United States, 86 million adults have pre-diabetes. Evidence-based interventions that are both cost effective and widely scalable are needed to prevent diabetes. Our goal was to develop a fully automated diabetes prevention program and determine its effectiveness in a randomized controlled trial. Subjects with verified pre-diabetes were recruited to participate in a trial of the effectiveness of Alive-PD, a newly developed, 1-year, fully automated behavior change program delivered by email and Web. The program involves weekly tailored goal-setting, team-based and individual challenges, gamification, and other opportunities for interaction. An accompanying mobile phone app supports goal-setting and activity planning. For the trial, participants were randomized by computer algorithm to start the program immediately or after a 6-month delay. The primary outcome measures are change in HbA1c and fasting glucose from baseline to 6 months. The secondary outcome measures are change in HbA1c, glucose, lipids, body mass index (BMI), weight, waist circumference, and blood pressure at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Randomization and delivery of the intervention are independent of clinic staff, who are blinded to treatment assignment. Outcomes will be evaluated for the intention-to-treat and per-protocol populations. A total of 340 subjects with pre-diabetes were randomized to the intervention (n=164) or delayed-entry control group (n=176). Baseline characteristics were as follows: mean age 55 (SD 8.9); mean BMI 31.1 (SD 4.3); male 68.5%; mean fasting glucose 109.9 (SD 8.4) mg/dL; and mean HbA1c 5.6 (SD 0.3)%. Data collection and analysis are in progress. We hypothesize that participants in the intervention group will achieve statistically significant reductions in fasting glucose and HbA1c as compared to the control group at 6 months post baseline. The randomized trial will provide rigorous evidence regarding the efficacy of this Web- and Internet-based program in reducing or

  3. Contacts in the Office of Pesticide Programs, Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contact the Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division (BPPD) about regulatory activities associated with biologically-based pesticides, implementation of integrated pest management and the Pesticide Environmental Stewardship Program.

  4. Work engagement in employees at professional improvement programs in health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizangela Gianini Gonsalez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study evaluated the levels of engagement at work in enhancement programs and professionals training in health. Method: A cross-sectional study with 82 health professionals enhancement programs and improvement of a public institution in the State of São Paulo, using the Utrech Work Engagement Scale (UWES, a self-administered questionnaire composed of seventeen self-assessment items in three dimensions: vigor, dedication and absorption. The scores were calculated according to the statistical model proposed in the Preliminary Manual UWES. Results: Engagement levels were too high on the force, high dedication and dimension in general score, and medium in size to 71.61% absorption, 58.03%, 53.75% and 51.22% of workers, respectively. The professionals present positive relationship with the work; they are responsible, motivated and dedicated to the job and to the patients. Conclusion: Reinforces the importance of studies that evaluate positive aspects of the relationship between professionals and working environment, contributing to strengthen the programs of improvement, advancing the profile of professionals into the labour market.

  5. Hanford Site Environmental Restoration Program 1994 fiscal year work plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Site Management System (SMS) guidance requires a Fiscal Year Work Plan (FYWP) to be prepared for the Environmental Restoration (ER) Mission Area and all related programs. This revision is a complete update to cover the FY 1994 time period. This document describes the overall ER Missions Area and provides FYWP appendices for each of the following five program areas: Remedial Action (RA); Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D); Project Management and Support (PM ampersand S); Surveillance and Maintenance (S ampersand M); and Disposal Facilities (DF)

  6. OSTA program: A French follow up intervention program for suicide prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouaffak, Fayçal; Marchand, Arnaud; Castaigne, Emmanuelle; Arnoux, Armelle; Hardy, Patrick

    2015-12-30

    Attempted suicide is a strong risk factor for subsequent suicidal behavior. In recent years, a particular interest has been given to follow-up interventions as a potential effective strategy in preventing recurrent suicidal behavior. We developed a follow-up intervention program called OSTA (organization of a suitable monitoring for suicide attempters) aimed at addressing this issue and tested its effectiveness in a 1-year randomized controlled trial. Individuals who attempted suicide and were admitted to the emergency department (ED) of Bicêtre Hospital (n=320) were randomly allocated to receive either the OSTA program or a control treatment. On an intention to treat basis, the proportion of patients who reattempted suicide did not differ significantly between the interventional group (IG) 14.5% (22/152) and the control group (CG) 14% (21/150). There were also no significant differences, between the two arms, in the number of suicide attempts. Although no significant difference has been found between the OSTA program and the control treatment concerning the rate of suicide reattempts, we believe that further studies should be conducted to test the effectiveness of more standardized follow-up studies in suicide prevention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Primary Prevention Is? A Global Perspective on How Organizations Engaging Men in Preventing Gender-Based Violence Conceptualize and Operationalize Their Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storer, Heather L; Casey, Erin A; Carlson, Juliana; Edleson, Jeffrey L; Tolman, Richard M

    2016-02-01

    Engaging men in addressing violence against women (VAW) has become a strategy in the global prevention of gender-based violence. Concurrently, Western public health frameworks have been utilized to guide prevention agendas worldwide. Using qualitative methods, this study describes how global anti-violence organizations that partner with men conceptualize primary prevention in their work. Findings suggest that "primary prevention" is not a fixed term in the context of VAW and that front-line prevention work challenges rigidly delineated distinctions between levels of prevention. Much can be learned from global organizations' unique and contextualized approaches to the prevention of VAW. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Management characteristics of successful public health programs: "Avahan" HIV prevention program in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabuchi, Shunsuke; Singh, Suneeta; Bishnu, Rituparna; Bennett, Sara

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes Avahan, an HIV prevention program in India, that achieved very rapid scale-up. The paper aims to (i) define the distinctive features of the management of Avahan, (ii) examine how the distinctive features relate to key constructs in management frameworks and (iii) investigate how the management approaches of Avahan contributed to the program's ability to scale-up rapidly while maintaining service quality. The Delphi method was used to identify the distinctive features of Avahan. Through three rounds of questions, 38 participants closely associated with Avahan were asked to identify and develop consensus on its distinctive features. These features were then mapped against the Baldrige Health Care Criteria for Performance Excellence to investigate how they related to important dimensions of management. A total of 17 distinctive features of Avahan were identified. These distinctive features emphasized the importance of data use and performance monitoring at all levels, especially combined with a flexible management style that facilitated local responsiveness to community, innovation and learning. The distinctive features comprehensively addressed the criteria for management excellence in the Baldridge framework. In the case of Avahan, the rigorous application of known management techniques to public health programs appears to have been an important factor in the successful scale-up of the program. Also, the Baldrige criteria seem applicable to health programs in low-income and middle-income countries; further applications would help test their robustness and utility in such contexts. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. New Business Structures Creating Organizational Opportunities and Challenges for Work Disability Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekberg, Kerstin; Pransky, Glenn S; Besen, Elyssa; Fassier, Jean-Baptise; Feuerstein, Michael; Munir, Fehmidah; Blanck, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Purpose Flexible work arrangements are growing in order to develop resource-efficient production and because of advanced technologies, new societal values, changing demographics, and globalization. The article aims to illustrate the emerging challenges and opportunities for work disability prevention efforts among workers in alternate work arrangements. Methods The authors participated in a year-long collaboration that ultimately led to an invited 3-day conference, "Improving Research of Employer Practices to Prevent Disability," held October 14-16, 2015, in Hopkinton, Massachusetts, USA. The collaboration included a topical review of the literature, group conference calls to identify key areas and challenges, drafting of initial documents, review of industry publications, and a conference presentation that included feedback from peer researchers and a roundtable discussion with experts having direct employer experience. Results Both worker and employer perspectives were considered, and four common alternate work arrangements were identified: (a) temporary and contingent employment; (b) small workplaces; (c) virtual work/telework; and (d) lone workers. There was sparse available research of return-to-work (RTW) and workplace disability management strategies with regard to alternate work patterns. Limited research findings and a review of the grey literature suggested that regulations and guidelines concerning disabled workers are often ambiguous, leading to unsatisfactory protection. At the workplace level, there was a lack of research evidence on how flexible work arrangements could be handled or leveraged to support RTW and prevent disability. Potential negative consequences of this lack of organizational guidance and information are higher costs for employers and insurers and feelings of job insecurity, lack of social support and integration, or work intensification for disabled workers. Conclusions Future studies of RTW and workplace disability prevention

  10. Now Enhancing Working Skills: The ``NEWS`` Program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuiper, A. [Merex Corp. (United States)

    1995-01-23

    In October of 1992, Los Alamos National Laboratory and Merex Corporation began a pilot basic skills program to enhance workers` skills. The program, known as the NEWS (Now Enhancing Working Skills) Program, was implemented by the Training and Development Group of the Human Resources Division. A group of 106 employees known as Radiological Control Technicians (RCTs) from ESH-1 (Environmental, Safety, and Health) were targeted to take mandated DOE (Department of Energy) training. The main goal of the LANL/Merex partnership was to help RCTs prepare for mandated DOE Rad Con training and job performance by improving their information processing and math skills. A second goal of this project was to use the information from this small group to make some predictions about the Laboratory as a whole. This final report contains the description and an appendix for the ``NEWS`` program. The topics in this report include Merex class descriptions, test score results for the MAT, the WAT, the TABE, and Challenge test, a follow-up survey to Merex IPS and math training, student feedback statistics for skills programs, and lessons learned from the program.

  11. Parent Engagement in Youth Drug Prevention in Chinese Families: Advancement in Program Development and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra K. M. Tsang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The escalating youth drug abuse problem in Hong Kong has attracted intense attention from the government, schools, and youth service professionals. Most preventive efforts have focused directly on positive youth development, very often through school programs delivered to secondary school students. There have been limited efforts to engage parents even though it is obvious that the family is actually the primary context of children and youth development. This paper will assert the importance of parental engagement in youth drug-prevention work, discuss some barriers in such parental involvement, present some promising local attempts and their strengths and limitations, and propose that sustained efforts are needed to build up theory-driven and evidence-based resources for Chinese communities on the subject.

  12. Team Work in International Programs: Why is it so difficult?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Karen M.; Madsen, Henning

    intercultural collaboration. The issues that arise seem to be grounded in linguistic, cultural and educational factors. This paper reports on and discusses a study of student responses to intercultural collaboration (in English) in two programmes at Aarhus University, Denmark. One conclusion...... is that the international students are more prepared to work in multicultural teams than their Danish peers. Another one tells us that once students have experience with the diversity of these teams, at least some of them become more open towards working in such teams in the future. It is interesting to discuss......Team Work in International Programs: Why is it so difficult? And what can we do about it? It is common knowledge that students often find it difficult to collaborate on assignments, projects, etc., but we require that they do so for a number of reasons, e.g. to learn how to work in teams or take...

  13. Overdose prevention in injecting opioid users: The role of substance abuse treatment and training programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sarasa-Renedo

    2014-03-01

    Conclusions: These findings suggest that preventive programs would benefit from accounting for linguistic and educational limitations and from participation in every treatment episode. Comprehensiveness and broad coverage of such programs could help to maximize their impact.

  14. Working conditions and parents' ability to care for children's preventive health needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle, Alison; Heymann, Jody

    2014-04-01

    To determine whether workplace flexibility policies influence parents' ability to meet their children's preventive primary health care needs. Study sample included 917 employed adults with at least 1 child younger than 18 years in their household from a nationally representative survey of US adults. Multivariate logistic regression analyses of factors influencing parental ability to meet their children's preventive primary health care needs were conducted. Analyses assessed the effect of having access to schedule flexibility, a supervisor who is accommodating about work adjustments when family issues arise, and the ability to make personal calls without consequences on the odds of a parents' being unable to meet their child's preventive health care needs. Being able to make a personal phone call at work was associated with a 56% (P flexibility at work could make a substantial difference in parents' ability to obtain preventive care for their children.

  15. Work program. Borehole PPG-1 and seismical velocity profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    The topic of this report is to give the detailed work program of the foreseen drillings and to describe the investigations and measurements connected with it. It is based on the results of the advertisements and commission's negotiations as well as on the discussions with cantonal and communal authorities. The aim of the work is primarily the judgement of the geological and hydrogeological forecasts which have led to the choice of the area Piz Pian Grand as a potential site. 5 figs., 1 tab

  16. Strategies to optimize participation in diabetes prevention programs following gestational diabetes: a focus group study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaberi Dasgupta

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We performed a qualitative study among women within 5 years of Gestational Diabetes (GDM diagnosis. Our aim was to identify the key elements that would enhance participation in a type 2 diabetes (DM2 prevention program. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Potential participants received up to three invitation letters from their GDM physician. Four focus groups were held. Discussants were invited to comment on potential facilitators/barriers to participation and were probed on attitudes towards meal replacement and Internet/social media tools. Recurring themes were identified through qualitative content analysis of discussion transcripts. RESULTS: Among the 1,201 contacted and 79 eligible/interested, 29 women attended a focus group discussion. More than half of discussants were overweight/obese, and less than half were physically active. For DM2 prevention, a strong need for social support to achieve changes in dietary and physical activity habits was expressed. In this regard, face-to-face interactions with peers and professionals were preferred, with adjunctive roles for Internet/social media. Further, direct participation of partners/spouses in a DM2 prevention program was viewed as important to enhance support for behavioural change at home. Discussants highlighted work and child-related responsibilities as potential barriers to participation, and emphasized the importance of childcare support to allow attendance. Meal replacements were viewed with little interest, with concerns that their use would provide a poor example of eating behaviour to children. CONCLUSIONS: Among women within 5 years of a GDM diagnosis who participated in a focus group discussion, participation in a DM2 prevention program would be enhanced by face-to-face interactions with professionals and peers, provision of childcare support, and inclusion of spouses/partners.

  17. Strategies to optimize participation in diabetes prevention programs following gestational diabetes: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Kaberi; Da Costa, Deborah; Pillay, Sabrina; De Civita, Mirella; Gougeon, Réjeanne; Leong, Aaron; Bacon, Simon; Stotland, Stephen; Chetty, V Tony; Garfield, Natasha; Majdan, Agnieszka; Meltzer, Sara

    2013-01-01

    We performed a qualitative study among women within 5 years of Gestational Diabetes (GDM) diagnosis. Our aim was to identify the key elements that would enhance participation in a type 2 diabetes (DM2) prevention program. Potential participants received up to three invitation letters from their GDM physician. Four focus groups were held. Discussants were invited to comment on potential facilitators/barriers to participation and were probed on attitudes towards meal replacement and Internet/social media tools. Recurring themes were identified through qualitative content analysis of discussion transcripts. Among the 1,201 contacted and 79 eligible/interested, 29 women attended a focus group discussion. More than half of discussants were overweight/obese, and less than half were physically active. For DM2 prevention, a strong need for social support to achieve changes in dietary and physical activity habits was expressed. In this regard, face-to-face interactions with peers and professionals were preferred, with adjunctive roles for Internet/social media. Further, direct participation of partners/spouses in a DM2 prevention program was viewed as important to enhance support for behavioural change at home. Discussants highlighted work and child-related responsibilities as potential barriers to participation, and emphasized the importance of childcare support to allow attendance. Meal replacements were viewed with little interest, with concerns that their use would provide a poor example of eating behaviour to children. Among women within 5 years of a GDM diagnosis who participated in a focus group discussion, participation in a DM2 prevention program would be enhanced by face-to-face interactions with professionals and peers, provision of childcare support, and inclusion of spouses/partners.

  18. Modelling the work flow of a nuclear waste management program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeyer Mortensen, K. [Aarhus Univ., Computer Science Dept. (Denmark); Pinci, V. [Meta Software Corporation, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1997-03-01

    In this paper we describe a modelling project to improve a nuclear waste management program in charge of the creation of a new system for the permanent disposal of nuclear waste. SADT (Structural Analysis and Design Technique) is used in order to provide a work-flow description of the functions to be performed by the waste management program. This description is then translated into a number of Coloured Petri Nets (CPN or CP-nets) corresponding to different program functions where additional behavioural inscriptions provide basis for simulation. Each of these CP-nets is simulated to produce timed event charts that are useful for understanding the behaviour of the program functions under different scenarios. Then all the CPN models are linked together to form a single stand-alone application that is useful for validating the interaction and cooperation between the different program functions. A technique for linking executable CPN models is developed for supporting large modelling projects and parallel development of independent CPN models. (au) 11 refs.

  19. Modelling the work flow of a nuclear waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeyer Mortensen, K.; Pinci, V.

    1997-03-01

    In this paper we describe a modelling project to improve a nuclear waste management program in charge of the creation of a new system for the permanent disposal of nuclear waste. SADT (Structural Analysis and Design Technique) is used in order to provide a work-flow description of the functions to be performed by the waste management program. This description is then translated into a number of Coloured Petri Nets (CPN or CP-nets) corresponding to different program functions where additional behavioural inscriptions provide basis for simulation. Each of these CP-nets is simulated to produce timed event charts that are useful for understanding the behaviour of the program functions under different scenarios. Then all the CPN models are linked together to form a single stand-alone application that is useful for validating the interaction and cooperation between the different program functions. A technique for linking executable CPN models is developed for supporting large modelling projects and parallel development of independent CPN models. (au) 11 refs

  20. Dual Degree Social Work Programs: Where are the Programs and Where are the Graduates?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shari E. Miller

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents results of an exploratory study designed to survey the dual degree graduates of one large school of social work, and to report on the prevalence and types of dual degree programs offered at accredited schools of social work in the U.S. Quantitative and qualitative data were gathered from 72 dual degree graduates. Income, career trajectories, identification with social work, satisfaction with the decision to obtain a dual degree, whether graduates would encourage others to follow the dual degree path, and implications for the social work profession and social work education are discussed.

  1. Engaging black sub-Saharan African communities and their gatekeepers in HIV prevention programs: Challenges and strategies from England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Nyashanu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: HIV infection is a sensitive issue in black communities [Serrant-Green L. Black Caribbean men, sexual health decisions and silences. Doctoral thesis. Nottingham School of Nursing, University of Nottingham; 2004]. Statistics show black sub-Saharan African (BSSA communities disproportionately constitute two-thirds of people with HIV [Heath Protection Agency. Health protection report: latest infection reports-GOV.UK; 2013]. African communities constitute 30% of people accessing HIV treatment in the United Kingdom yet represent less than 1% of the population [Health Protection Agency. HIV in the United Kingdom: 2012 report; 2012], [Department of Health. DVD about FGM. 2012. Available from fgm@dh.gsi.gov.uk.]. This article explores the sociocultural challenges in engaging BSSA communities in HIV prevention programs in England and possible strategies to improve their involvement. Methods: Twelve focus group discussions and 24 semistructured interviews were conducted in a 2-year period with participants from the BSSA communities and sexual health services in the West Midlands, England. The research was supported by the Ubuntu scheme, a sexual health initiative working with African communities in Birmingham, England. Results: Ineffective engagement with African communities can hinder the effectiveness of HIV prevention programs. Skills and strategies sensitive to BSSA culture are important for successful implementation of prevention programs. HIV prevention programs face challenges including stigma, denial, and marginalized views within BSSA communities. Conclusion: Networking, coordination, and cultural sensitivity training for health professionals are key strategies for engaging BSSA communities in HIV prevention programs.

  2. The Latino Migrant Worker HIV Prevention Program: building a community partnership through a community health worker training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Jesús; Silva-Suarez, Georgina; Serna, Claudia A; De La Rosa, Mario

    2012-01-01

    There is limited information on the impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic on Latino migrant workers (LMWs), although available data indicate that this community is being disproportionally affected. The need for prevention programs that address the specific needs of LMWs is becoming well recognized. HIV prevention interventions that train and employ community health workers are a culturally appropriate way to address the issues of community trust and capacity building in this community. This article describes the Latino Migrant Worker HIV Prevention Program and its efforts to train and engage community health workers in the prevention of HIV among LMWs in South Florida.

  3. Salt repository sealing materials development program: 5-year work plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, L.B.

    1986-06-01

    This plan covers 5 years (fiscal years 1986 through 1990) of work in the repository sealing materials program to support design decisions and licensing activities for a salt repository. The plan covers a development activity, not a research activity. There are firm deliverables as the end points of each part of the work. The major deliverables are: development plans for code development and materials testing; seal system components models; seal system performance specifications; seal materials specifications; and seal materials properties ''handbook.'' The work described in this plan is divided into three general tasks as follows: mathematical modeling; materials studies (salt, cementitious materials, and earthen materials); and large-scale testing. Each of the sections presents an overview, status, planned activities, and summary of program milestones. This plan will be the starting point for preparing the development plans described above, but is subject to change if preparation of the work plan indicates that a different approach or sequence is preferable to achieve the ultimate goal, i.e., support of design and licensing

  4. HIV prevention and women's rights: working for one means working for both.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiragu, J

    1995-11-01

    In Kenya, as in many other developing countries, women who lack the rights to control their own bodies, choose their own partners, or own and inherit property are vulnerable to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The International Federation of Women Lawyers (FIDA-K) and other women's organizations in Kenya are pushing for legal reforms to reduce women's dependence on men. FIDA-K has worked with law enforcement agencies to protect women who report domestic violence and lobbied policymakers to make domestic violence and marital rape offenses punishable by law. Pressure to end the cultural practice of wife inheritance is growing in regions of Kenya where HIV prevalence is especially high. Also under scrutiny are laws that return a man's property to his own family when he dies, forcing many women widowed by acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) to turn to commercial sex work to support themselves and their children. In addition, FIDA-K is working to educate law enforcement agencies to understand female genital mutilation as a prosecutable offense. The Platform for Action adopted at the United Nations Fourth World Conference on Women calls for all governments to review and amend laws and enact legislation against sociocultural practices that contribute to women's susceptibility to HIV infection.

  5. 76 FR 31613 - NIOSH Fire Fighter Fatality Investigation and Prevention Program (FFFIPP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... Control and Prevention (CDC) requests stakeholder input on the progress and future directions of the NIOSH Fire Fighter Fatality Investigation and Prevention Program (FFFIPP). NIOSH is seeking stakeholder input... service, and to identify ways in which the program can be improved to increase its impact on the safety...

  6. Pilot Evaluation of a Sexual Abuse Prevention Program for Taiwanese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Chuen; Fortson, Beverly L.; Tseng, Kai-Wen

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to develop and evaluate the efficacy of a school-based child sexual abuse prevention program for Taiwanese children. Forty-six Taiwanese children age 6 to 13 were divided into one of two groups based on their school grade and then randomly assigned to a skills-based child sexual abuse prevention program who…

  7. Stacked Deck: An Effective, School-Based Program for the Prevention of Problem Gambling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert J.; Wood, Robert T.; Currie, Shawn R.

    2010-01-01

    School-based prevention programs are an important component of problem gambling prevention, but empirically effective programs are lacking. Stacked Deck is a set of 5-6 interactive lessons that teach about the history of gambling; the true odds and "house edge"; gambling fallacies; signs, risk factors, and causes of problem gambling; and…

  8. Culturally Sensitive Risk Behavior Prevention Programs for African American Adolescents: A Systematic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Isha; Cooper, Shauna M.; Zarrett, Nicole; Flory, Kate

    2013-01-01

    The current review conducted a systematic assessment of culturally sensitive risk prevention programs for African American adolescents. Prevention programs meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria were evaluated across several domains: (1) theoretical orientation and foundation; (2) methodological rigor; (3) level of cultural integration; (4)…

  9. Effects of Comprehensive, Multiple High-Risk Behaviors Prevention Program on High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Crystal

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to examine the effect of a multiple high-risk behaviors prevention program applied comprehensively throughout an entire school-system involving universal, selective, and indicated levels of students at a local private high school during a 4-year period. The prevention program was created based upon the…

  10. Effect of an internally versus externally focused acl injury prevention program on injury risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dallinga, J.; Benjaminse, A.; Gokeler, A.; Otten, Egbert; Lemmink, K.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention programs have shown mixed results, which may be in part due to suboptimal training components. OBJECTIVE: Determine effects of a prevention program with external and internal focus of attention on (potential) biomechanical risk factors

  11. Suicide Prevention Programs in the Schools: A Review and Public Health Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David N.; Eckert, Tanya L.; Mazza, James J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of school-based suicide prevention programs from a public health perspective. A literature review of empirical studies examining school-based suicide prevention programs was conducted. Studies were required to contain information pertaining to the implementation and outcomes of a…

  12. NASA LANGLEY RESEARCH CENTER AND THE TIDEWATER INTERAGENCY POLLUTION PREVENTION PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)'s Langley Research Center (LaRC) is an 807-acre research center devoted to aeronautics and space research. aRC has initiated a broad-based pollution prevention program guided by a Pollution Prevention Program Plan and implement...

  13. Teacher and Principal Survey Results in the National Preventive Dentistry Demonstration Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Stephen P.; And Others

    The National Preventive Dentistry Demonstration Program was conducted to assess the costs and benefits of combinations of school-based preventive dental care procedures. The program involved almost 30,000 elementary school children from 10 sites across the country. Classroom procedures, such as weekly fluoride mouthrinse, were administered or…

  14. A systematic review of evaluated suicide prevention programs targeting indigenous youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, Alyssa F; Bohanna, India; Clough, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Indigenous young people have significantly higher suicide rates than their non-indigenous counterparts. There is a need for culturally appropriate and effective suicide prevention programs for this demographic. This review assesses suicide prevention programs that have been evaluated for indigenous youth in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the United States. The databases MEDLINE and PsycINFO were searched for publications on suicide prevention programs targeting indigenous youth that include reports on evaluations and outcomes. Program content, indigenous involvement, evaluation design, program implementation, and outcomes were assessed for each article. The search yielded 229 articles; 90 abstracts were assessed, and 11 articles describing nine programs were reviewed. Two Australian programs and seven American programs were included. Programs were culturally tailored, flexible, and incorporated multiple-levels of prevention. No randomized controlled trials were found, and many programs employed ad hoc evaluations, poor program description, and no process evaluation. Despite culturally appropriate content, the results of the review indicate that more controlled study designs using planned evaluations and valid outcome measures are needed in research on indigenous youth suicide prevention. Such changes may positively influence the future of research on indigenous youth suicide prevention as the outcomes and efficacy will be more reliable.

  15. Family Violence Prevention Programs in Immigrant Communities: Perspectives of Immigrant Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simbandumwe, Louise; Bailey, Kim; Denetto, Shereen; Migliardi, Paula; Bacon, Brenda; Nighswander, Maggie

    2008-01-01

    The Strengthening Families in Canada Family Violence Prevention Project was aimed at engaging immigrant and refugee communities in family violence prevention. The project, which received support from the Community Mobilization Program, National Crime Prevention Strategy, involved a partnership of four community health and education organizations.…

  16. Text messaging based obesity prevention program for parents of pre-adolescent African American girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    African American girls are at a greater risk of obesity than their nonminority peers. Parents have the primary control over the home environment and play an important role in the child obesity prevention. Obesity prevention programs to help parents develop an obesity-preventive home environment are ...

  17. Programs of the preventive interventions against sexually transmitted infections in the high-risk subpopulations

    OpenAIRE

    T. V. Krasnoselskikh; E. V. Sokolovskiy

    2017-01-01

    A review article highlights the practical issues of design, implementation and effectiveness estimation of STI prevention programs aimed to correct the behavior leading to infection. the importance of epidemiological modeling method for the organization of preventive interventions is discussed. the prospects of the multidisciplinary behavioral approach to STI prevention are demonstrated.

  18. Programs of the preventive interventions against sexually transmitted infections in the high-risk subpopulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Krasnoselskikh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A review article highlights the practical issues of design, implementation and effectiveness estimation of STI prevention programs aimed to correct the behavior leading to infection. the importance of epidemiological modeling method for the organization of preventive interventions is discussed. the prospects of the multidisciplinary behavioral approach to STI prevention are demonstrated.

  19. A review of educational-based gambling prevention programs for adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boon Chin Oh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstracts Educational-based problem gambling prevention programs are important avenues in targeting at-risk behaviors among adolescents to prevent an escalation of problematic behaviors into adulthood. The aim of this review is to examine features pertinent to effective educational-based programs in the area of adolescent problem gambling prevention in hopes of providing a foundation and future suggestions for preventive efforts. A stronger understanding of this research area will be essential in ensuring that past practical and theoretical advancements are integrated into the development of future programs.

  20. Transcranial Stimulation of the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex Prevents Stress-Induced Working Memory Deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, Mario; Schwabe, Lars

    2016-01-27

    Stress is known to impair working memory performance. This disruptive effect of stress on working memory has been linked to a decrease in the activity of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC). In the present experiment, we tested whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the dlPFC can prevent stress-induced working memory impairments. We tested 120 healthy participants in a 2 d, sham-controlled, double-blind between-subjects design. Participants completed a test of their individual baseline working memory capacity on day 1. On day 2, participants were exposed to either a stressor or a control manipulation before they performed a visuospatial and a verbal working memory task. While participants completed the tasks, anodal, cathodal, or sham tDCS was applied over the right dlPFC. Stress impaired working memory performance in both tasks, albeit to a lesser extent in the verbal compared with the visuospatial working memory task. This stress-induced working memory impairment was prevented by anodal, but not sham or cathodal, stimulation of the dlPFC. Compared with sham or cathodal stimulation, anodal tDCS led to significantly better working memory performance in both tasks after stress. Our findings indicate a causal role of the dlPFC in working memory impairments after acute stress and point to anodal tDCS as a promising tool to reduce cognitive deficits related to working memory in stress-related mental disorders, such as depression, schizophrenia, or post-traumatic stress disorder. Working memory deficits are prominent in stress-related mental disorders, such as depression, schizophrenia, or post-traumatic stress disorder. Similar working memory impairments have been observed in healthy individuals exposed to acute stress. So far, attempts to prevent such stress-induced working memory deficits focused mainly on pharmacological interventions. Here, we tested the idea that transcranial direct current stimulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal

  1. The Garrett Lee Smith Memorial Suicide Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldston, David B.; Walrath, Christine M.; McKeon, Richard; Puddy, Richard W.; Lubell, Keri M.; Potter, Lloyd B.; Rodi, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    In response to calls for greater efforts to reduce youth suicide, the Garrett Lee Smith (GLS) Memorial Act has provided funding for 68 state, territory, and tribal community grants, and 74 college campus grants for suicide prevention efforts. Suicide prevention activities supported by GLS grantees have included education, training programs…

  2. 75 FR 21307 - Injury Prevention Program; Announcement Type: Cooperative Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-23

    ... vehicle and unintentional fall prevention published at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC... AI/AN communities. Unintentional falls reduce independence and quality of life for adults ages 65 and older. In the United States, every 18 seconds, an older adult is treated in an emergency department for...

  3. Project SAIL: An Evaluation of a Dropout Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, John L.; And Others

    Project SAIL (Student Advocates Inspire Learning) is a Title IV-C Project located in Hopkins, Minnesota, designed to prevent students from dropping out of school by keeping them successfully involved in the mainstream environment. This study presents a review of other dropout prevention approaches, describes the intervention strategies involved in…

  4. A systematic review of elderly suicide prevention programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lapierre, Sylvie; Erlangsen, Annette; Waern, Margda

    2011-01-01

    Suicide rates are highest among the elderly, yet research on suicide prevention in old age remains a much-neglected area.......Suicide rates are highest among the elderly, yet research on suicide prevention in old age remains a much-neglected area....

  5. Culturally relevant model program to prevent and reduce agricultural injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helitzer, D L; Hathorn, G; Benally, J; Ortega, C

    2014-07-01

    Limited research has explored pesticide injury prevention among American Indian farmers. In a five-year agricultural intervention, a university-community partnership, including the University of New Mexico School of Medicine, New Mexico State University, Shiprock Area Cooperative Extension Service, and Navajo Nation communities, used a culturally relevant model to introduce and maintain safe use of integrated pest management techniques. We applied the Diffusion of Innovations theory and community-based approaches to tailor health promotion strategies for our intervention. In a longitudinal study with repeated measures, we trained six "model farmers" to be crop management experts in pesticide safety, application, and control. Subsequently, these model farmers worked with 120 farm families randomized into two groups: intervention (Group 1) and delayed intervention (Group 2). Measurements included a walk-through analysis, test of knowledge and attitudes, and yield analysis. Both groups demonstrated improvements in pesticide storage behaviors after training. Test scores regarding safety practices improved significantly: from 57.3 to 72.4 for Group 1 and from 52.6 to 76.3 for Group 2. Group 1 maintained their knowledge and safety practices after the intervention. Attitudes about pesticides and communication of viewpoints changed across the study years. With pesticides and fertilizer, the number of corn ears increased by 56.3% and yield (kg m(-2)) of alfalfa increased by 41.2%. The study combined traditional farming practices with culturally relevant approaches and behavior change theory to affect knowledge, safety practices, attitudes, communication channels, and crop yield. Storage behaviors, use of pesticides and safety and application equipment, and safety practice knowledge changed significantly, as did attitudes about social networking, social support, and the compatibility and relative advantage of pesticides for farms.

  6. Older Workers and Federal Work Programs: The Korean Senior Employment Program (KSEP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eunhee

    2016-01-01

    Federal older worker programs are attracting attention due to the growing number of older workers across the world. They are uniquely situated to provide out-of-market work opportunities to older job seekers, who often find their age a barrier to securing desirable jobs. In 2004, the Korean government established its own program, the Korean Senior Employment Program (KSEP); however, literature for international readers on this innovative program is lacking. Thus, this article aims to provide an in-depth description of KSEP and a brief comparison between the Senior Community Service Employment Program in the U.S. and KSEP. The unique characteristics of KSEP include having the dual program foci on supplemental income and social participation; expanding work opportunities in the private sector beyond community-based jobs; accepting participants who are financially disadvantaged as well as those with a high desire for social participation regardless of their income; and broadening work opportunities for those with professional skills beyond repetitive, simple, and temporary jobs. This article may offer helpful insights to older worker advocates from various countries in creating or modifying their programs.

  7. PRIMARY PREVENTION IS? A GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE ON HOW ORGANIZATIONS ENGAGING MEN IN PREVENTING GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE CONCEPTUALIZE AND OPERATIONALIZE THEIR WORK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storer, Heather L.; Casey, Erin A.; Carlson, Juliana; Edleson, Jeffrey L.; Tolman, Richard M.

    2014-01-01

    Engaging men in addressing violence against women (VAW) has become a strategy in the global prevention of gender-based violence. Concurrently, Western public health frameworks have been utilized to guide prevention agendas worldwide. Using qualitative methods, this study describes how global anti-violence organizations that partner with men conceptualize primary prevention in their work. Findings suggest that ‘primary prevention’ is not a fixed term in the context of VAW and that front-line prevention work challenges rigidly delineated distinctions between levels of prevention. Much can be learned from global organizations’ unique and contextualized approaches to the prevention of VAW. PMID:26333283

  8. The Preventable Admissions Care Team (PACT): A Social Work-Led Model of Transitional Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso Lipani, Maria; Holster, Kathleen; Bussey, Sarah

    2015-10-01

    In 2010, the Preventable Admissions Care Team (PACT), a social work-led transitional care model, was developed at Mount Sinai to reduce 30-day readmissions among high-risk patients. PACT begins with a comprehensive bedside assessment to identify the psychosocial drivers of readmission. In partnership with the patient and family, a patient-centered action plan is developed and carried out through phone calls, accompaniments, navigations and home visits, as needed, in the first 30 days following discharge. 620 patients were enrolled during the pilot from September 2010-August 2012. Outcomes demonstrated a 43% reduction in inpatient utilization and a 54% reduction in emergency department visits among enrollees. In addition, 93% of patients had a follow-up appointment within 7-10 days of discharge and 90% of patients attended the appointment. The success of PACT has led to additional funding from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services under the Community-based Care Transitions Program and several managed care companies seeking population health management interventions for high risk members.

  9. Empowerment evaluation with programs designed to prevent first-time male perpetration of sexual violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, Rita K; Gibbs, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    This special issue captures several threads in the ongoing evolution of sexual violence prevention. The articles that follow examine an empowerment evaluation process with four promising programs dedicated to preventing first-time male perpetration of sexual violence, as well as evaluation findings. Both the evaluation approach and the programs examined shed light on how sexual violence prevention can continue to be improved in the future.

  10. Amblyopia prevention screening program in Northwest Iran (Ardabil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Ojaghi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The present investigation showed that coverage of amblyopia screening program was not enough in Ardabil Province. To increase the screening accuracy, standard instruments and examination room must be used; more optometrists must be involved in this program and increasing the validity of obtained results for future programming.

  11. The Prevention of Moral Harassment in the Environment of Work: An Analysis of Spanish Legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Marconatto

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to reflect on how the right to prevention of moral harassment in the labor environment is articulated and how this right has been projected in the Law on Occupational Hazards Prevention in Spanish Legislation, with the aim of demonstrating that there are Legal bases sufficient to take preventive measures in relation to psychosocial risk, even if it is not specifically included in the legal text. The protection of workers is basically based on the worker's right to adequate and effective protection in the working environment.

  12. After reliability centred maintenance. Preventive maintenance living program implementation at Bruce Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harazim, Michael L.; Ferguson, Brian J.

    2003-01-01

    Industrial preventive maintenance (PM) programs represent a large part of plant O and M costs. PM Optimization (PMO) projects represent an effective mechanism for identifying unnecessary PM, extending PM intervals and infusing predictive maintenance (PdM) methods. However, once optimized, what process prevents the PM program from returning to a state of disarray? This is the function of a PM living program (PMLP). In 1997, an independent performance assessment identified concerns with the applicability and effectiveness of all Ontario Power Generation, Inc. (OPGI) PM programs. In response, OPGI instituted an Integrated Maintenance Program (IMP) including Reliability Centred Maintenance (RCM) and a PMLP. It should be noted that the PMLP was developed for the 3 OPGI nuclear Sites (i.e. Bruce, Pickering, and Darlington). Effective 1 May 2001, the Bruce Site has been leased to a group of investors lead by British Energy. This paper is written in historical context and therefore refers to the Bruce Site as part of OPGI. The PMLP is made up of five elements: 1) process control, 2) change control, 3) worker feedback, 4) program performance metrics, and 5) deferral module. A PMLP software tool, originally applied to Duke Energy nuclear plants, was enhanced and customized specifically for the OPGI PMLP, and then implemented at all three of OPGI's nuclear sites. The objective of the OPGI PMLP was to: Provide processes/procedures for continual optimization of all site PM tasks, Ensure effective and timely revision of PM tasks in the work management system, Ensure PM tasks remain applicable/effective at all times, Maintain and enhance PM consistency on a component, system and Site basis, Ensure that new predictive maintenance techniques are applied and integrated with the PM program, Ensure that mandated PM tasks are identified and executed, Provide a mechanism for craft feedback, Meet regulatory requirements for PM program effectiveness, and Provide PM task deferral

  13. A community intervention trial of multimodal suicide prevention program in Japan: A Novel multimodal Community Intervention program to prevent suicide and suicide attempt in Japan, NOCOMIT-J

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzuki Yuriko

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To respond to the rapid surge in the incidence of suicide in Japan, which appears to be an ongoing trend, the Japanese Multimodal Intervention Trials for Suicide Prevention (J-MISP have launched a multimodal community-based suicide prevention program, NOCOMIT-J. The primary aim of this study is to examine whether NOCOMIT-J is effective in reducing suicidal behavior in the community. Methods/DesignThis study is a community intervention trial involving seven intervention regions with accompanying control regions, all with populations of statistically sufficient size. The program focuses on building social support networks in the public health system for suicide prevention and mental health promotion, intending to reinforce human relationships in the community. The intervention program components includes a primary prevention measures of awareness campaign for the public and key personnel, secondary prevention measures for screening of, and assisting, high-risk individuals, after-care for individuals bereaved by suicide, and other measures. The intervention started in July 2006, and will continue for 3.5 years. Participants are Japanese and foreign residents living in the intervention and control regions (a total of population of 2,120,000 individuals. Discussion The present study is designed to evaluate the effectiveness of the community-based suicide prevention program in the seven participating areas. Trial registration UMIN Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN-CTR UMIN000000460.

  14. A community intervention trial of multimodal suicide prevention program in Japan: a novel multimodal community intervention program to prevent suicide and suicide attempt in Japan, NOCOMIT-J.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Yutaka; Awata, Shuichi; Iida, Hideharu; Ishida, Yasushi; Ishizuka, Naoki; Iwasa, Hiroto; Kamei, Yuichi; Motohashi, Yutaka; Nakagawa, Atsuo; Nakamura, Jun; Nishi, Nobuyuki; Otsuka, Kotaro; Oyama, Hirofumi; Sakai, Akio; Sakai, Hironori; Suzuki, Yuriko; Tajima, Miyuki; Tanaka, Eriko; Uda, Hidenori; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Yotsumoto, Toshihiko; Watanabe, Naoki

    2008-09-15

    To respond to the rapid surge in the incidence of suicide in Japan, which appears to be an ongoing trend, the Japanese Multimodal Intervention Trials for Suicide Prevention (J-MISP) have launched a multimodal community-based suicide prevention program, NOCOMIT-J. The primary aim of this study is to examine whether NOCOMIT-J is effective in reducing suicidal behavior in the community. This study is a community intervention trial involving seven intervention regions with accompanying control regions, all with populations of statistically sufficient size. The program focuses on building social support networks in the public health system for suicide prevention and mental health promotion, intending to reinforce human relationships in the community. The intervention program components includes a primary prevention measures of awareness campaign for the public and key personnel, secondary prevention measures for screening of, and assisting, high-risk individuals, after-care for individuals bereaved by suicide, and other measures. The intervention started in July 2006, and will continue for 3.5 years. Participants are Japanese and foreign residents living in the intervention and control regions (a total of population of 2,120,000 individuals). The present study is designed to evaluate the effectiveness of the community-based suicide prevention program in the seven participating areas. UMIN Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN-CTR) UMIN000000460.

  15. Prevention and management of work disability in Asia Pacific: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuerstein, Michael

    2011-03-01

    The economic growth in Asia Pacific brings with it challenges and opportunities in many areas of work and health. As economies grow and work demands increase so do accidents, injures and work disability. Burns, chemical exposures, and construction related injuries are often catastrophic in severity and lead to work disability, major acute medical and subsequent rehabilitation efforts. In addition to these acute injuries, musculoskeletal and chronic illnesses are also sources of work disability. Industrial injuries and health problems are often explained and managed based on the classic unidimensional hazard prevention model. In contrast, work disability is a multi-factorial problem and requires more complex conceptualizations than an exposure outcome model. The economic impact of disability, limitations of the widely used impairment based disability determination method, lack of adherence to wide scale implementation of evidence based clinical approaches, the need for meaningful stakeholder involvement and the potential of a multivariable view of work disability, in all aspects of work disability prevention, management and policy are discussed in the context of Asia Pacific economic growth. With ideal alignment of diverse goals and incentives along with consideration of past efforts in disability prevention and management, new models, processes and policies can be created as commerce in these countries continues to grow.

  16. Research Program of Adolescent HIV Prevention Strategies | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Globally, youth aged 15 to 24 account for almost one third of all new infections. There are ... More research is needed to inform HIV prevention strategies focusing on youth. Members of the ... Institution. Ottawa Hospital Research Institute.

  17. Research Program of Adolescent HIV Prevention Strategies | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Globally, youth aged 15 to 24 account for almost one third of all new infections. There are ... More research is needed to inform HIV prevention strategies focusing on youth. Members of the ... Institution. Ottawa Hospital Research Institute.

  18. Implementation of the Danish return-to-work program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aust, Birgit; D. Nielsen, Maj Britt; Grundtvig, Gry

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the implementation of the Danish national return-to-work (RTW) program in 21 Danish municipalities. METHODS: We conducted a structured process evaluation on (i) reach and recruitment, (ii) fidelity, (iii) dose-delivered, (iv) dose-received, and (v...... (defined as implementation consistent with the principles of the interdisciplinary RTW process). Five municipalities had high and eight had low fidelity scores. Similar large differences were found with regard to dose-delivered, particularly in the quality of cooperation with beneficiaries, employers...

  19. Effects of an emotional intelligence program in variables related to the prevention of violence

    OpenAIRE

    Garaigordobil, Maite; Peña-Sarrionandia, Ainize

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, numerous studies have shown a significant increase in violence during childhood and adolescence. These data suggest the importance of implementing programs to prevent and reduce violent behavior. The study aimed to design a program of emotional intelligence (El) for adolescents and to assess its effects on variables related to violence prevention. The possible differential effect of the program on both genders was also examined. The sample comprised 148 adolescents aged fro...

  20. Evaluation of high myopia complications prevention program in university freshmen

    OpenAIRE

    Tseng, Gow-Lieng; Chen, Cheng-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract High myopia is a global eye health problem because of its high incidence of sight-threatening complications. Due to the role of awareness, self-examination, and preventive behavior in prevention of morbidity of high myopia complications, promoting knowledge, capabilities, and attitude of high myopic personnel are required in this regard. In this quasi-experiment study, 31 freshmen with high myopia in a national university were enrolled in 2014. The data were collected by validated an...

  1. Cultural adaptation of a peer-led lifestyle intervention program for diabetes prevention in India: the Kerala diabetes prevention program (K-DPP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Elezebeth; Thomas, Emma; Absetz, Pilvikki; D'Esposito, Fabrizio; Aziz, Zahra; Balachandran, Sajitha; Daivadanam, Meena; Thankappan, Kavumpurathu Raman; Oldenburg, Brian

    2018-01-04

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is now one of the leading causes of disease-related deaths globally. India has the world's second largest number of individuals living with diabetes. Lifestyle change has been proven to be an effective means by which to reduce risk of T2DM and a number of "real world" diabetes prevention trials have been undertaken in high income countries. However, systematic efforts to adapt such interventions for T2DM prevention in low- and middle-income countries have been very limited to date. This research-to-action gap is now widely recognised as a major challenge to the prevention and control of diabetes. Reducing the gap is associated with reductions in morbidity and mortality and reduced health care costs. The aim of this article is to describe the adaptation, development and refinement of diabetes prevention programs from the USA, Finland and Australia to the State of Kerala, India. The Kerala Diabetes Prevention Program (K-DPP) was adapted to Kerala, India from evidence-based lifestyle interventions implemented in high income countries, namely, Finland, United States and Australia. The adaptation process was undertaken in five phases: 1) needs assessment; 2) formulation of program objectives; 3) program adaptation and development; 4) piloting of the program and its delivery; and 5) program refinement and active implementation. The resulting program, K-DPP, includes four key components: 1) a group-based peer support program for participants; 2) a peer-leader training and support program for lay people to lead the groups; 3) resource materials; and 4) strategies to stimulate broader community engagement. The systematic approach to adaptation was underpinned by evidence-based behavior change techniques. K-DPP is the first well evaluated community-based, peer-led diabetes prevention program in India. Future refinement and utilization of this approach will promote translation of K-DPP to other contexts and population groups within India as

  2. The Process of Adoption of Evidence-based Tobacco Use Prevention Programs in California Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Melissa A.; Pokhrel, Pallav; Sussman, Steve; Rohrbach, Louise Ann

    2014-01-01

    Although there are a number of research-validated substance use prevention programs available for wide-scale dissemination, very little is known about the factors that influence adoption of evidence-based prevention programs in schools. We tested a model of the mechanisms of program adoption in schools that was guided by diffusion of innovations and social ecological theories. Cross-sectional data were collected from a sample of school district and county office of education tobacco use prevention education coordinators throughout California. Structural equation modeling was used to test the effects of community- and organizational variables on the adoption of prevention programs via school administrators’ beliefs and the organization’s receipt of funding for the program. Results supported the hypothesis that the process of adoption begins with forming beliefs about the program, leading to adoption through the receipt of funding. In addition, we found direct effects of various community- and organizational-level factors on beliefs, receipt of funding, and adoption. These results are likely to inform policies that affect school districts’ use of evidence-based substance use prevention programming, which should ultimately lead to reductions in negative health outcomes among adolescents. Specifically, this study identifies various factors that could be targeted for improvement to enhance evidence-based program adoption. To our knowledge, this is the first study to empirically elucidate the process of adoption of evidence-based tobacco prevention programs in schools. PMID:24398826

  3. Developing a culturally-tailored stroke prevention walking program for Korean immigrant seniors: A focus group study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ivy; Chang, Emiley; Araiza, Daniel; Thorpe, Carol Lee; Sarkisian, Catherine A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity is a major risk factor for stroke. Korean immigrant seniors are one of the most sedentary ethnic groups in the United States. Objectives To gain better understanding of (i) Beliefs and knowledge about stroke; (ii) Attitudes about walking for stroke prevention; and (iii) Barriers and facilitators to walking among Korean seniors for the cultural tailoring of a stroke prevention walking program. Design An explorative study using focus group data. Twenty-nine Korean immigrant seniors (64–90 years of age) who had been told by a doctor at least once that their blood pressure was elevated participated in 3 focus groups. Each focus group consisted of 8–11 participants. Methods Focus group audio tapes were transcribed and analyzed using standard content analysis methods. Results Participants identified physical and psychological imbalances (e.g., too much work and stress) as the primary causes of stroke. Restoring ‘balance’ was identified as a powerful means of stroke prevention. A subset of participants expressed that prevention may be beyond human control. Overall, participants acknowledged the importance of walking for stroke prevention, but described barriers such as lack of personal motivation and unsafe environment. Many participants believed that providing opportunities for socialization while walking and combining walking with health information sessions would facilitate participation in and maintenance of a walking program. Conclusions Korean immigrant seniors believe strongly that imbalance is a primary cause of stroke. Restoring balance as a way to prevent stroke is culturally special among Koreans and provides a conceptual base in culturally tailoring our stroke prevention walking intervention for Korean immigrant seniors. Implications for practice A stroke prevention walking program for Korean immigrant seniors may have greater impact by addressing beliefs about stroke causes and prevention such as physical and

  4. A community intervention trial of multimodal suicide prevention program in Japan: A Novel multimodal Community Intervention program to prevent suicide and suicide attempt in Japan, NOCOMIT-J

    OpenAIRE

    Ono, Yutaka; Awata, Shuichi; Iida, Hideharu; Ishida, Yasushi; Ishizuka, Naoki; Iwasa, Hiroto; Kamei, Yuichi; Motohashi, Yutaka; Nakagawa, Atsuo; Nakamura, Jun; Nishi, Nobuyuki; Otsuka, Kotaro; Oyama, Hirofumi; Sakai, Akio; Sakai, Hironori

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background To respond to the rapid surge in the incidence of suicide in Japan, which appears to be an ongoing trend, the Japanese Multimodal Intervention Trials for Suicide Prevention (J-MISP) have launched a multimodal community-based suicide prevention program, NOCOMIT-J. The primary aim of this study is to examine whether NOCOMIT-J is effective in reducing suicidal behavior in the community. Methods/DesignThis study is a community intervention trial involving seven intervention re...

  5. Prevention validation and accounting platform: a framework for establishing accountability and performance measures of substance abuse prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S; McLeod, J H; Williams, C; Hepler, N

    2000-01-01

    The field of substance abuse prevention has neither an overarching conceptual framework nor a set of shared terminologies for establishing the accountability and performance outcome measures of substance abuse prevention services rendered. Hence, there is a wide gap between what we currently have as data on one hand and information that are required to meet the performance goals and accountability measures set by the Government Performance and Results Act of 1993 on the other. The task before us is: How can we establish the accountability and performance measures of substance abuse prevention programs and transform the field of prevention into prevention science? The intent of this volume is to serve that purpose and accelerate the processes of this transformation by identifying the requisite components of the transformation (i.e., theory, methodology, convention on terms, and data) and by introducing an open forum called, Prevention Validation and Accounting (PREVA) Platform. The entire PREVA Platform (for short, the Platform) is designed as an analytic framework, which is formulated by a collectivity of common concepts, terminologies, accounting units, protocols for counting the units, data elements, and operationalizations of various constructs, and other summary measures intended to bring about an efficient and effective measurement of process input, program capacity, process output, performance outcome, and societal impact of substance abuse prevention programs. The measurement units and summary data elements are designed to be measured across time and across jurisdictions, i.e., from local to regional to state to national levels. In the Platform, the process input is captured by two dimensions of time and capital. Time is conceptualized in terms of service delivery time and time spent for research and development. Capital is measured by the monies expended for the delivery of program activities during a fiscal or reporting period. Program capacity is captured

  6. Prevention of Child Sexual Abuse Victimization: A Meta Analysis of School Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rispens, Jan; Aleman, Andre; Goudena, Paul P.

    1997-01-01

    Meta-analysis of 16 evaluation studies of school programs aimed at the prevention of child sexual abuse victimization found significant and considerable mean postintervention and follow-up effect sizes, indicating that the programs were effective in teaching children sexual abuse concepts and self-protection skills. Program duration and content…

  7. Combining Primary Prevention and Risk Reduction Approaches in Sexual Assault Protection Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menning, Chadwick; Holtzman, Mellisa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The object of this study is to extend prior evaluations of Elemental, a sexual assault protection program that combines primary prevention and risk reduction strategies within a single program. Participants and Methods: During 2012 and 2013, program group and control group students completed pretest, posttest, and 6-week and 6-month…

  8. An Integrative Suicide Prevention Program for Visitor Charcoal Burning Suicide and Suicide Pact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Paul W. C.; Liu, Patricia M. Y.; Chan, Wincy S. C.; Law, Y. W.; Law, Steven C. K.; Fu, King-Wa; Li, Hana S. H.; Tso, M. K.; Beautrais, Annette L.; Yip, Paul S. F.

    2009-01-01

    An integrative suicide prevention program was implemented to tackle an outbreak of visitor charcoal burning suicides in Cheung Chau, an island in Hong Kong, in 2002. This study evaluated the effectiveness of the program. The numbers of visitor suicides reduced from 37 deaths in the 51 months prior to program implementation to 6 deaths in the 42…

  9. Comparing a telephone- and a group-delivered diabetes prevention program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    S, Lim; Dunbar, James; Versace, Vin

    2017-01-01

    Aims To explore the acceptability of a telephone- or a group-delivered diabetes prevention program for women with previous gestational diabetes and to compare the characteristics associated with program engagement. Methods Postpartum women participated in a lifestyle modification program delivere...

  10. A Meta-Analysis of School-Based Bullying Prevention Programs' Effects on Bystander Intervention Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanin, Joshua R.; Espelage, Dorothy L.; Pigott, Therese D.

    2012-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized bullying prevention programs' effectiveness at increasing bystander intervention in bullying situations. Evidence from 12 school-based programs, involving 12,874 students, indicated that overall the programs were successful (Hedges's g = 0.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.11 to 0.29, p = 0.001), with larger…

  11. Universal Prevention Program Outcomes: Safe Schools Healthy Students in a Rural, Multicultural Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Elizabeth; McFarland, Joyce; Siebold, Wendi; Aguilar, Rafael; Sarmiento, Ana

    2007-01-01

    The Idaho Consortium for Safe Schools Healthy Students consists of three school districts in rural North Central Idaho and the Nez Perce Tribe's Students for Success Program. Universal prevention programs implemented in the elementary schools include Second Step and the middle schools implemented the Life Skills program. Each of the three…

  12. Building upon Bystander Intervention: A Multi-Component Prevention Programming Approach for University Sorority Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steward, Jennifer M.

    2017-01-01

    Sexual violence on college campuses is a pervasive problem with the potential for extensive physical and psychological health consequences. Institutions have begun implementing prevention programs; however, more research is needed to understand whether these programs are effective. Bystander intervention programs have increased in popularity…

  13. December 1993 National Drunk and Drugged Driving (3D) Prevention Month: Program Planner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This program planner's kit is based on the experiences of the first 12 years of the National Drunk and Drugged Driving (3D) Prevention Month program and provides practical advice to help readers plan activities for this year's campaign. Included in the kit is a background and resource guide that explains the background and goals of the program and…

  14. Identifying diabetes knowledge network nodes as sites for a diabetes prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesler, Wilbert M; Arcury, Thomas A; Skelly, Anne H; Nash, Sally; Soward, April; Dougherty, Molly

    2006-12-01

    This paper reports on the methods used and results of a study that identified specific places within a community that have the potential to be sites for a diabetes prevention program. These sites, termed diabetes knowledge network nodes (DKNNs), are based on the concept of socio-spatial knowledge networks (SSKNs), the web of social relationships within which people obtain knowledge about type 2 diabetes. The target population for the study was working poor African Americans, Latinos, and European Americans of both sexes in a small rural southern town who had not been diagnosed with diabetes. Information was collected from a sample of 121 respondents on the places they visited in carrying out their daily activities. Data on number of visits to specific sites, degree of familiarity with these sites, and ratings of sites as places to receive diabetes information were used to develop three categories of DKNNs for six subgroups based on ethnicity and sex. Primary potential sites of importance to one or more subgroups included churches, grocery stores, drugstores, the local library, a beauty salon, laundromats, a community service agency, and a branch of the County Health Department. Secondary potential sites included gas stations, restaurants, banks, and post offices. Latent potential sites included three medical facilities. Most of the DKNNs were located either in the downtown area or in one of two shopping areas along the most used highway that passed through the town. The procedures used in this study can be generalized to other communities and prevention programs for other chronic diseases.

  15. Supporting Universal Prevention Programs: A Two-Phased Coaching Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Kimberly D.; Darney, Dana; Domitrovich, Celene; Keperling, Jennifer Pitchford; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2013-01-01

    Schools are adopting evidence-based programs designed to enhance students' emotional and behavioral competencies at increasing rates (Hemmeter et al. in "Early Child Res Q" 26:96-109, 2011). At the same time, teachers express the need for increased support surrounding implementation of these evidence-based programs (Carter and Van Norman in "Early…

  16. Employee assistance programs: a preventive, cost-effective benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, G S; Gard, L H; Heffernan, W R

    1998-01-01

    Employee Assistance Programs (EAPs) provide a much-needed service to the employees of corporations. In these times of reduced benefits and diminished community resources, EAPs can dramatically compensate for those shortages. This article will explore the role of an EAP, the models of service available, and the selection process for choosing a program.

  17. Advantages and pitfalls of the Swedish National Program for Suicide Prevention 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Baran

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The World Health Organization report (2014 recommends the introduction of national programs for suicide prevention. However, the research on their effectiveness is scarce. As a result, policy makers do not have sufficient data for their decisions on the appropriate level of investment in suicide prevention. It is of great importance to know whether the introduction of a national prevention program results in a reduction in suicide rates, and if so, in what age groups and over what period of time after the announcement of the program. Sweden introduced the first suicide prevention program in 1995. It was then modified in 2008, and most recently in 2015. Objectives: The aim of this study was to answer the question about the impact of the suicide prevention program in Sweden (2008 on the total suicide rate as well as the age- and gender-specific suicide rates in the subsequent years. Material and methods: The study provides the overview of the suicide prevention program and suicide rates in Sweden in males and females, in the age groups 0–24, 25–44, 45–64 and over 65, 1, 3 and 6 years before and after the introduction of the national program for suicide prevention. The study presents the statistical analysis of changes in average suicide rates following the announcement of the Swedish National Program for Suicide Prevention 2008 with reference to chosen periods. Conclusions: The Swedish National Program for Suicide Prevention did not result in the reduction of suicide rates in the year after its introduction, whereas suicide rates decreased in all groups, except for the youth (under 24 years old, in 2009–2011 and 2009–2014.

  18. Beyond Work-Family Programs: Confronting and Resolving the Underlying Causes of Work-Personal Life Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofodimos, Joan R.

    Work-Family Programs (WFPs) are among the most popular and publicized workplace innovations of the 1990s. These programs are intended to alleviate employees' work-personal conflicts by addressing issues such as child care assistance, parental leave, elder care, flexible working arrangements, wellness and fitness, and stress management. The problem…

  19. An effective suicide prevention program in the Israeli Defense Forces: A cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelef, L; Tatsa-Laur, L; Derazne, E; Mann, J J; Fruchter, E

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the IDF Suicide Prevention Program, implemented since 2006. Quasi-experimental (before and after) cohort study. Two cohorts of IDF mandatory service soldiers: the first inducted prior to (1992-2005, n=766,107) and the second subsequent to (2006-2012, n=405,252) the launching of the intervention program. The IDF Suicide Prevention Program is a population-based program, incorporating: reducing weapon availability, de-stigmatizing help-seeking behavior, integrating mental health officers into service units, and training commanders and soldiers to recognize suicide risk factors and warning signs. Suicide rate and time to suicide in cohorts before and after exposure to the Suicide Prevention Program. Trend analysis showed lower suicide rates in the cohort after intervention. The hazard ratio for the intervention effect on time to suicide was 0.44 (95% CI=0.34-0.56, Psuicide rate following the administration of the IDF Suicide Prevention Program. The effect of the intervention appears to be related to use of a weapon, and being able to benefit from improved help-seeking and de-stigmatization. Future efforts should seek to extend the program's prevention reach to other demographic groups of soldiers. The success of the IDF program may inform suicide prevention in other military organizations and in the civilian sector. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. [A Group Cognitive-Behavioural Intervention to Prevent Depression Relapse in Individuals Having Recently Returned to Work: Protocol and Feasibility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecomte, Tania; Corbière, Marc

    Workplace depression is one of the major causes for sick leave and loss of productivity at work. Many studies have investigated factors predicting return to work for people with depression, including studies evaluating return to work programs and organizational factors. Yet, a paucity of studies have targeted the prevention of depressive relapses at work, even though more than half of those having had a depression will have a depressive relapse in the near future.Objectives This article describes a research protocol involving a novel group intervention based on cognitive behavioural principles with the aim to optimize return to work and diminish risk of depressive relapses.Method This pilot study follows a randomized controlled trial design, with half the participants (N=25) receiving the group intervention and the other half (N=25) receiving usual services. The theoretical and empirical underpinnings of the intervention are described, along with a detailed presentation of the intervention and of the study's objectives. The group intervention consists of 8 sessions whereby Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) principles and techniques are applied to the following themes: (1) Coping with stress at work; (2) Recognizing and modifying my dysfunctional beliefs linked to work; (3) Overcoming obstacles linked to work functioning and maintaining work; (4) Negotiating needed work adjustments with the support of the immediate supervisor; (5) Finding my strengths and competencies related to work; (6) Accepting criticism and asserting myself appropriately at work; (7) Uncovering my best coping strategies for work.Results Qualitative information pertaining to the first two cohorts' participants' subjective appreciation of the group experience revealed that the intervention was perceived as very useful by all, with group support, namely harmony and interpersonal support, as well as CBT strategies being mentioned specifically.Conclusion Finally, the potential relevance of the

  1. The effectiveness of a cardiometabolic prevention program in general practices offering integrated care programs including a patient tailored lifestyle treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollander, M.; Eppink, L.; Nielen, M.; Badenbroek, I.; Stol, D.; Schellevis, F.; Wit, N. de

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aim: Selective cardio-metabolic prevention programs (CMP) may be especially effective in well-organized practices. We studied the effect of a CMP program in the academic primary care practices of the Julius Health Centers (JHC) that offer integrated cardiovascular disease management

  2. Goal Attainment Scaling: A Primary Method of Treatment and Program Evaluation in Project SAIL - A Special Education Dropout Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Linda Hall; Thompson, John L.

    The manual discusses Project SAIL's (a special dropout prevention program) use of Goal Attainment Scaling as part of individualized education plans in the treatment of troubled adolescents and in overall program evaluation. The scaling is characterized as an explicit, respectful treatment contact through which the adolescent can learn to set…

  3. Primary Prevention Approaches to the Development of Mental Health Services for Ethnic Minorities: A Challenge to Social Work Education and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Samuel O., Ed.; And Others

    This monograph contains articles on mental health needs, experiences, and preventive social work programs in ethnic minority communities. An overview by Gwenelle Styles O'Neal reviews factors that influence the mental health of ethnic minorities and explores family and community support networks for alleviating stress. Susan Bellinger examines…

  4. Hanford Site guide for preparing and maintaining generator group pollution prevention program documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Place, B.G.

    1998-01-01

    This document provides guidance to generator groups for preparing and maintaining documentation of Pollution Prevention Waste Minimization (P2/WMin) Program activities. The guidance is one of a hierarchical series that includes the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan (DOE-RL, 1998a) and Prime contractor implementation plans describing programs required by Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) 3002(b) and 3005(h) (RCRA and EPA, 1994). Documentation guidance for the following five P2/WMin elements are discussed: Fiscal Year (FY) Goals; Budget and Staffing; Waste Minimization (WMin) Assessments (WMAs); Quarterly Pollution Prevention (P2) Reporting WMin Certification

  5. Hanford Site Guide for Preparing and Maintaining Fenerator Group Pollution Prevention Program Documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PLACE, B.G.

    1999-01-01

    This document provides guidance to generator groups for preparing and maintaining documentation of Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization (P2/WMin) Program activities. The guidance is one of a hierarchical series that includes the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan (DOE-RL, 1998a) and Prime Contractor implementation plans describing programs required by Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) 3002(b) and (300501) (RCRA and EPA, 1994). Documentation guidance for the following five P2/WMin elements are discussed: Fiscal Year (FY) Goals; Budget and Staffing; Waste Minimization (WMinn ) Assessments (WMAs); Pollution Prevention (P2) Reporting; WMin Certification

  6. CSN competence in the new regulations on risk prevention at work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez, V. E.

    1999-01-01

    This article gives a summary of the paper as submitted by the authoress at the seminar organized by the Spanish Radiological Protection Society for analyzing the implications of the regulations on risk prevention at work in medical surveillance and radiological protection of radiation workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiations. (Author)

  7. Work at night and breast cancer--report on evidence-based options for preventive actions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Jens Peter; Hansen, Johnni; Kolstad, Henrik Albert

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, the International Agency for Research on Cancer classified shift work involving circadian disruption as probably carcinogenic to humans (group 2A), primarily based on experimental and epidemiologic evidence for breast cancer. In order to examine options for evidence-based preventive acti...

  8. [Functions of participatory ergonomics programs in reducing work-related musculoskeletal disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, M J; Liu, J J; Yao, H Y

    2016-08-10

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are most commonly seen in all the occupational non-fatal injuries and illnesses for workers, especially those who are involved in labor-intensive industries. Participatory ergonomics is frequently used to prevent musculoskeletal disorders. This paper gives an overview of a historical perspective on the use of participatory ergonomics approach in reducing the health effects of labor-intensive industries. Progress, barriers and facilitators on the organization, implementation and evaluation of participatory ergonomics programs are studied. Participatory ergonomics seems a successful method to develop, prioritize measures to prevent MSDs. Participatory ergonomics can help industries reduce musculoskeletal injuries and disorders, improve workplace condition and promote health conditions of the workers.

  9. Effects of a parental program for preventing underage drinking - The NGO program strong and clear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriksson Charli

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study is an evaluation of a 3-year parental program aiming to prevent underage drinking. The intervention was implemented by a non-governmental organization and targeted parents with children aged 13-16 years old and included recurrent activities during the entire period of secondary school. The program consisted of four different types of group and self-administered activities: parent meetings, family dialogues, friend meetings, and family meetings. Methods A quasi-experimental design was used following parents and children with questionnaires during the three years of secondary school. The analytic sample consisted of 509 dyads of parents and children. Measures of parental attitudes and behaviour concerning underage drinking and adolescents' lifetime alcohol consumption and drunkenness were used. Three socio-demographic factors were included: parental education, school, and gender of the child. A Latent Growth Modelling (LGM approach was used to examine changes in parental behaviour regarding youth drinking and in young people's drinking behaviour. To test for the pre-post test differences in parental attitudes repeated measures ANOVA were used. Results The results showed that parents in the program maintained their restrictive attitude toward underage drinking to a higher degree than non-participating parents. Adolescents of participants were on average one year older than adolescents with non-participating parents when they made their alcohol debut. They were also less likely to have ever been drunk in school year 9. Conclusion The results of the study suggested that Strong and Clear contributed to maintaining parents' restrictive attitude toward underage drinking during secondary school, postponing alcohol debut among the adolescents, and significantly reducing their drunkenness.

  10. An Adult Communication Skills Program to Prevent Adolescent Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worden, John K.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Conducted communication skills workshops to prevent cigarette smoking among adolescents by teaching adults how to help young people make responsible decisions and resist peer influences. One year later, 66% reported use of skills five or more times in the previous month, and significantly fewer adolescents in the high workshop intensity area…

  11. 77 FR 19799 - Pipeline Safety: Pipeline Damage Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... noted ``when the oil pipeline industry developed the survey for its voluntary spill reporting system...) [cir] The American Public Gas Association (APGA) [cir] The Association of Oil Pipelines (AOPL) [cir... the contrary, all 50 states in the United States have a law designed to prevent excavation damage to...

  12. Exercise-Based School Obesity Prevention Programs: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetter, Georgette

    2009-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are major health concerns for young people. Schools are particularly promising environments for preventing and treating obesity. The Institutes of Medicine recommends 60 minutes per day of physical activity for children and youth, including at least 30 minutes at school. Yet the amount of moderate to vigorous physical…

  13. Obesity prevention programs and policies: practitioner and policy-maker perceptions of feasibility and effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Verity; McNeilly, Briohny; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie

    2013-09-01

    The aims of this study were to map obesity prevention activity being implemented by government, non-government, and community-based organizations; to determine practitioner and policy-maker perceptions of the feasibility and effectiveness of a range of evidence-based obesity prevention strategies; and to determine practitioner and policy-maker perceptions of preferred settings for obesity prevention strategies. This study involved a cross-sectional survey of 304 public health practitioners and policy-makers from government, non-government, and community organizations across Victoria, Australia. Participants reported their organizations' current obesity prevention programs and policies, their own perceptions of the feasibility and effectiveness of strategies to prevent obesity and their preferred settings for obesity prevention. Thirty-nine percent had an obesity prevention policy, and 92% were implementing obesity prevention programs. The most common programs focused on education, skill-building, and increasing access to healthy eating/physical activity opportunities. School curriculum-based initiatives, social support for physical activity, and family-based programs were considered the most effective strategies, whereas curriculum-based initiatives, active after-school programs, and providing access to and information about physical activity facilities were deemed the most feasible strategies. Schools were generally perceived as the most preferred setting for obesity prevention. Many organizations had obesity prevention programs, but far fewer had obesity prevention policies. Current strategies and those considered feasible and effective are often mismatched with the empirical literature. Systems to ensure better alignment between researchers, practitioners, and policy-makers, and identifying effective methods of translating empirical evidence into practice and policy are required. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  14. 75 FR 35360 - Injury and Illness Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-22

    ... proposed rule had five core elements, including: Management leadership and employee participation; hazard... Fairness Act (SBREFA) Panel for the draft Safety and Health Program proposed rule. The Panel provided small...

  15. Preventing Hypothermia in Preterm Infants: A Program of Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes a program of research to examine thermoregulation in premature .... designed to minimize heat loss and aim for thermal ..... (4th ed.). London: Churchill Livingstone. Sedin, G. (1995). Neonatal heat transfer, routes of heat.

  16. Barriers to Effective Implementation of Programs for the Prevention of Workplace Violence in Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blando, James; Ridenour, Marilyn; Hartley, Daniel; Casteel, Carri

    2015-01-01

    Effective workplace violence (WPV) prevention programs are essential, yet challenging to implement in healthcare. The aim of this study was to identify major barriers to implementation of effective violence prevention programs. After reviewing the related literature, the authors describe their research methods and analysis and report the following seven themes as major barriers to effective implementation of workplace violence programs: a lack of action despite reporting; varying perceptions of violence; bullying; profit-driven management models; lack of management accountability; a focus on customer service; and weak social service and law enforcement approaches to mentally ill patients. The authors discuss their findings in light of previous studies and experiences and offer suggestions for decreasing WPV in healthcare settings. They conclude that although many of these challenges to effective implementation of workplace violence programs are both within the program itself and relate to broader industry and societal issues, creative innovations can address these issues and improve WPV prevention programs.

  17. The value of partnerships in state obesity prevention and control programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersey, James; Kelly, Bridget; Roussel, Amy; Curtis, LaShawn; Horne, Joseph; Williams-Piehota, Pamela; Kuester, Sarah; Farris, Rosanne

    2012-03-01

    State health departments funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity Program collaborate with multiple partners to develop and implement comprehensive obesity prevention and control programs. A mixed-methods evaluation of 28 state programs over a 5-year period assessed states' progress on program requirements, including developing statewide partnerships and coordinating with partners to support obesity prevention and control efforts. States with greater partnership involvement leveraged more funding support for their programs, passed more obesity-related policies, and were more likely to implement obesity interventions in multiple settings. Case studies provided guidance for establishing and maintaining strong partnerships. Findings from this study offer emerging evidence to support assumptions about the centrality of partnerships to states' success in obesity program development and implementation and related health promotion activities.

  18. Workplace strength training prevents deterioration of work ability among workers with chronic pain and work disability: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D; Brandt, Mikkel; Jay, Kenneth; Persson, Roger; Aagaard, Per; Andersen, Lars L

    2014-05-01

    Imbalance between work demands and individual resources can lead to musculoskeletal disorders and reduced work ability. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two contrasting interventions on work ability among slaughterhouse workers with chronic pain and work disability. Sixty-six slaughterhouse workers with upper-limb chronic pain and work disability were randomly allocated to 10 weeks of either strength training for the shoulder, arm, and hand muscles (3 times per week, 10 minutes per session) or ergonomic training (usual care control group) from September to December 2012. The outcome measure was the change from baseline to 10-week follow-up in the work ability index (WAI). A priori hypothesis testing showed a group×time interaction for WAI (Ptraining group, WAI increased 2.3 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.9-3.7] in the strength training group corresponding to a moderate effect size (Cohen's d 0.52). Within-group changes indicated that between-group differences were mainly caused by a reduction in WAI in the ergonomic group. Of the 7 items of WAI, item 2 (work ability in relation to the demands of the job) and item 7 (mental resources) increased following strength training compared with ergonomic training (Ptraining at the workplace prevents deterioration of work ability among manual workers with chronic pain and disability exposed to forceful and repetitive job tasks. Thus, strength training performed at the workplace may in fact be regarded as a complex biopsychosocial intervention modality that reaches further than the specific physiological benefits of training per se.

  19. Expert system application for prioritizing preventive actions for shift work: shift expert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esen, Hatice; Hatipoğlu, Tuğçen; Cihan, Ahmet; Fiğlali, Nilgün

    2017-09-19

    Shift patterns, work hours, work arrangements and worker motivations have increasingly become key factors for job performance. The main objective of this article is to design an expert system that identifies the negative effects of shift work and prioritizes mitigation efforts according to their importance in preventing these negative effects. The proposed expert system will be referred to as the shift expert. A thorough literature review is conducted to determine the effects of shift work on workers. Our work indicates that shift work is linked to demographic variables, sleepiness and fatigue, health and well-being, and social and domestic conditions. These parameters constitute the sections of a questionnaire designed to focus on 26 important issues related to shift work. The shift expert is then constructed to provide prevention advice at the individual and organizational levels, and it prioritizes this advice using a fuzzy analytic hierarchy process model, which considers comparison matrices provided by users during the prioritization process. An empirical study of 61 workers working on three rotating shifts is performed. After administering the questionnaires, the collected data are analyzed statistically, and then the shift expert produces individual and organizational recommendations for these workers.

  20. The Living the Example Social Media Substance Use Prevention Program: A Pilot Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, William; Andrade, Elizabeth; Goldmeer, Sandra; Smith, Michelle; Snider, Jeremy; Girardo, Gunilla

    2017-06-27

    Adolescent substance use rates in rural areas of the United States, such as upstate New York, have risen substantially in recent years, calling for new intervention approaches in response to this trend. The Mentor Foundation USA conducts the Living the Example (LTE) campaign to engage youth in prevention using an experiential approach. As part of LTE, youth create their own prevention messages following a training curriculum in techniques for effective messaging and then share them via social media. This paper reports on a pilot evaluation of the LTE program. To conduct a pilot test of LTE in two rural high schools in upstate New York. We hypothesized that positive antidrug brand representations could be promoted using social media strategies to complement the Shattering the Myths (STM) in-person, event-based approach (hypothesis 1, H1), and that youth would respond positively and engage with prevention messages disseminated by their peers. We also hypothesized that exposure to the social media prevention messages would be associated with more positive substance use avoidance attitudes and beliefs, reductions in future use intentions, and decreased substance use at posttest (hypothesis 2, H2). We adapted a previously published curriculum created by the authors that focuses on branding, messaging, and social media for prevention. The curriculum consisted of five, one-hour sessions. It was delivered to participating youth in five sequential weeks after school at the two high schools in late October and early November 2016. We designed a pre- and posttest pilot implementation study to evaluate the effects of LTE on student uptake of the intervention and short-term substance use and related outcomes. Working at two high schools in upstate New York, we conducted a pilot feasibility evaluation of LTE with 9th-grade students (ie, freshmen) at these high schools. We administered a 125-item questionnaire online to capture data on media use; attitudes toward social media

  1. The Living the Example Social Media Substance Use Prevention Program: A Pilot Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Elizabeth; Goldmeer, Sandra; Smith, Michelle; Snider, Jeremy; Girardo, Gunilla

    2017-01-01

    Background Adolescent substance use rates in rural areas of the United States, such as upstate New York, have risen substantially in recent years, calling for new intervention approaches in response to this trend. The Mentor Foundation USA conducts the Living the Example (LTE) campaign to engage youth in prevention using an experiential approach. As part of LTE, youth create their own prevention messages following a training curriculum in techniques for effective messaging and then share them via social media. This paper reports on a pilot evaluation of the LTE program. Objective To conduct a pilot test of LTE in two rural high schools in upstate New York. We hypothesized that positive antidrug brand representations could be promoted using social media strategies to complement the Shattering the Myths (STM) in-person, event-based approach (hypothesis 1, H1), and that youth would respond positively and engage with prevention messages disseminated by their peers. We also hypothesized that exposure to the social media prevention messages would be associated with more positive substance use avoidance attitudes and beliefs, reductions in future use intentions, and decreased substance use at posttest (hypothesis 2, H2). Methods We adapted a previously published curriculum created by the authors that focuses on branding, messaging, and social media for prevention. The curriculum consisted of five, one-hour sessions. It was delivered to participating youth in five sequential weeks after school at the two high schools in late October and early November 2016. We designed a pre- and posttest pilot implementation study to evaluate the effects of LTE on student uptake of the intervention and short-term substance use and related outcomes. Working at two high schools in upstate New York, we conducted a pilot feasibility evaluation of LTE with 9th-grade students (ie, freshmen) at these high schools. We administered a 125-item questionnaire online to capture data on media use

  2. A short executive function training program improves preschoolers’ working memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma eBlakey

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive training has been shown to improve executive functions in middle childhood and adulthood. However, fewer studies have targeted the preschool years – a time when executive functions undergo rapid development. The present study tested the effects of a short four session executive function training program in 54 four-year-olds. The training group significantly improved their working memory from pre-training relative to an active control group. Notably, this effect extended to a task sharing few surface features with the trained tasks, and continued to be apparent three months later. In addition, the benefits of training extended to a measure of mathematical reasoning three months later, indicating that training executive functions during the preschool years has the potential to convey benefits that are both long-lasting and wide-ranging.

  3. Practical experience from the Office of Adolescent Health's large scale implementation of an evidence-based Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Amy Lynn; Roper, Allison Yvonne

    2014-03-01

    After 3 years of experience overseeing the implementation and evaluation of evidence-based teen pregnancy prevention programs in a diversity of populations and settings across the country, the Office of Adolescent Health (OAH) has learned numerous lessons through practical application and new experiences. These lessons and experiences are applicable to those working to implement evidence-based programs on a large scale. The lessons described in this paper focus on what it means for a program to be implementation ready, the role of the program developer in replicating evidence-based programs, the importance of a planning period to ensure quality implementation, the need to define and measure fidelity, and the conditions necessary to support rigorous grantee-level evaluation. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Major challenges to scale up of visual inspection-based cervical cancer prevention programs: the experience of Guatemalan NGOs

    OpenAIRE

    Chary, Anita Nandkumar; Rohloff, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Like many other low- and middle-income countries, Guatemala has adopted visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) as a low-resource alternative to the Pap smear for cervical cancer screening. Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) introduced VIA to Guatemala in 2004, and a growing number of NGOs, working both independently and in collaboration with the Guatemalan Ministry of Health, employ VIA in cervical cancer prevention programs today. While much research describes VIA ef...

  5. How to offer culturally relevant type 2 diabetes screening: lessons learned from the South asian diabetes prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Draanen, Jenna; Shafique, Ammara; Farissi, Aziz; Wickramanayake, Dilani; Kuttaiya, Sheela; Oza, Shobha; Stephens, Neil

    2014-10-01

    The literature on diabetes mellitus in the South Asian population clearly states the high-risk status of this group, yet there is a lack of effective models of culturally relevant, community-based screening and education programs for such a group. The South Asian Diabetes Prevention Program (SADPP) was developed to enhance equitable access to diabetes prevention resources for the South Asian communities in Toronto by offering language-specific and culturally relevant services. The SADPP model works through 3 participant education sessions plus an additional attachment and enrolment component. The screening tool that SADPP uses to provide participants with their individual risk score at the first education session is derived from the multiculturally validated Canadian Diabetes Risk Assessment Questionnaire (CANRISK), which has been modified to reflect the distinctive characteristics of the South Asian population. After analyzing the risk scores, 32% of participants were at increased risk, 40% were at high risk, 21% were at very high risk and only 7% were found to be at low risk of diabetes development. Evaluations of the program conducted in 2010 and 2013 revealed that the program is achieving its objectives and that participants increase their knowledge and self-efficacy related to diabetes prevention after program participation. Participants reported that the presentation from the nurse and dietitian, the question-and-answer time, the healthy eating demonstration, the multiple languages of delivery and the convenient location were especially beneficial. Those working in the field are encouraged to adapt this model and to contribute to the development of culturally relevant, community-driven diabetes prevention programs. Copyright © 2014 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Estimating intervention effects of prevention programs: accounting for noncompliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Elizabeth A; Perry, Deborah F; Le, Huynh-Nhu; Ialongo, Nicholas S

    2008-12-01

    Individuals not fully complying with their assigned treatments is a common problem encountered in randomized evaluations of behavioral interventions. Treatment group members rarely attend all sessions or do all "required" activities; control group members sometimes find ways to participate in aspects of the intervention. As a result, there is often interest in estimating both the effect of being assigned to participate in the intervention, as well as the impact of actually participating and doing all of the required activities. Methods known broadly as "complier average causal effects" (CACE) or "instrumental variables" (IV) methods have been developed to estimate this latter effect, but they are more commonly applied in medical and treatment research. Since the use of these statistical techniques in prevention trials has been less widespread, many prevention scientists may not be familiar with the underlying assumptions and limitations of CACE and IV approaches. This paper provides an introduction to these methods, described in the context of randomized controlled trials of two preventive interventions: one for perinatal depression among at-risk women and the other for aggressive disruptive behavior in children. Through these case studies, the underlying assumptions and limitations of these methods are highlighted.

  7. Investigation for integration of the German Public Health Service in catastrophe and disaster prevention programs in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfenninger, E.; Koenig, S.; Himmelseher, S.

    2004-01-01

    This research project aimed at investigating the integration of the GPHS into the plans for civil defence and protection as well as catastrophe prevention of the Federal Republic of Germany. Following a comprehensive analysis of the current situation, potential proposals for an improved integrative approach will be presented. In view of the lack of topics relevant for medical care in disaster medicine in educational curricula and training programs for medical students and postgraduate board programs for public health physicians, a working group of the Civil Protection Board of the German Federal Ministry of the Interior already complained in their 'Report on execution of legal rules for protection and rescue of human life as well as restitution of public health after disaster' in 1999, that the integration of the GPHS into catastrophe and disaster prevention programs has insufficiently been solved. On a point-by-point approach, our project analysed the following issues: - Legislative acts for integration of the German Public Health Service into medical care in catastrophes and disasters to protect the civilian population of Germany and their implementation and execution. - Administrative rules and directives on state and district levels that show relationship to integration of the German Public Health Service into preparedness programs for catastrophe prevention and management and their implementation and execution. - Education and postgraduate training options for physicians and non-physician employees of the German Public health Service to prepare for medical care in catastrophes and disasters. - State of knowledge and experience of the German Public Health Service personnel in emergency and disaster medicine. - Evaluation of the German administrative catastrophe prevention authorities with regard to their integration of the German Public Health Service into preparedness programs for catastrophe prevention and management. - Development of a concept to remedy the

  8. Common elements of adolescent prevention programs: minimizing burden while maximizing reach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boustani, Maya M; Frazier, Stacy L; Becker, Kimberly D; Bechor, Michele; Dinizulu, Sonya M; Hedemann, Erin R; Ogle, Robert R; Pasalich, Dave S

    2015-03-01

    A growing number of evidence-based youth prevention programs are available, but challenges related to dissemination and implementation limit their reach and impact. The current review identifies common elements across evidence-based prevention programs focused on the promotion of health-related outcomes in adolescents. We reviewed and coded descriptions of the programs for common practice and instructional elements. Problem-solving emerged as the most common practice element, followed by communication skills, and insight building. Psychoeducation, modeling, and role play emerged as the most common instructional elements. In light of significant comorbidity in poor outcomes for youth, and corresponding overlap in their underlying skills deficits, we propose that synthesizing the prevention literature using a common elements approach has the potential to yield novel information and inform prevention programming to minimize burden and maximize reach and impact for youth.

  9. The effectiveness of a multimedia program to prevent fetal alcohol syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachausse, Robert G

    2008-07-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) continues to be the leading preventable cause of mental retardation in the United States. Because abstaining from alcohol prior to and throughout pregnancy is the only way to prevent FAS, some prevention programs try to target women before they become pregnant. The Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Teaching and Research Awareness Campaign (FASTRAC) is a multimedia, peer-delivered educational presentation designed to reduce the incidence of FAS. Results from an ethnically diverse sample of high school students indicate that the program increased participants' knowledge regarding FAS but had no significant effect on participants' attitudes, beliefs about the dangers of FAS or intention to use alcohol during pregnancy. The FASTRAC program failed partly because of its didactic approach and the lack of health education principles that have been shown to be effective in changing other substance use behaviors. Suggestions for improving FAS prevention education programs are offered.

  10. Environmental Restoration Program waste minimization and pollution prevention self-assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    The Environmental Restoration (ER) Program within Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. is currently developing a more active waste minimization and pollution prevention program. To determine areas of programmatic improvements within the ER Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program, the ER Program required an evaluation of the program across the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, the Paducah Environmental Restoration and Waste Minimization Site, and the Portsmouth Environmental Restoration and Waste Minimization Site. This document presents the status of the overall program as of fourth quarter FY 1994, presents pollution prevention cost avoidance data associated with FY 1994 activities, and identifies areas for improvement. Results of this assessment indicate that the ER Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program is firmly established and is developing rapidly. Several procedural goals were met in FY 1994 and many of the sites implemented ER waste minimization options. Additional growth is needed, however, for the ER Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program

  11. Proposed national strategies for the prevention of leading work-related diseases and injuries. Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    Preliminary strategies developed at the National Symposium on the Prevention of Leading Work Related Diseases and Injuries, held in Atlanta, Georgia on May 1 to 3, 1985 were revised, elaborated, and further developed. Strategies were developed for the prevention of occupational lung diseases, musculoskeletal injuries, occupational cancers, severe occupational traumatic injuries, and occupational cardiovascular diseases. Lung diseases considered included silicosis, asbestosis, lung cancer mesothelioma, coal workers' pneumoconiosis, byssinosis, occupational asthma, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, asphyxiation, irritation, pulmonary edema, brucellosis, psitticosis, anthrax, mycobacterioses, histoplasmosis, aspergillosis, and coccidioidomycosis. Occupational cancers were discussed as they occur in the lung, pleura, peritoneum, bladder, kidneys, blood, nasal cavity, skin, nasal sinuses, and liver.

  12. Impact of HIV prevention programs on drug users in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarulzaman, Adeeba

    2009-11-01

    Faced with a rising HIV epidemic among injecting drug users, harm reduction policies and programs were introduced in Malaysia in 2005. The positive impact seen since the introduction of these programs comprise the inclusion of the health aspects of illicit drug use in the country's drug policies; better access to antiretroviral therapy for injecting drug users who are HIV infected; reduction in HIV-risk behavior; and greater social benefits, including increased employment. Despite these achievements, tension between law enforcement and public health persists, as harm reduction exists alongside an overall drug policy that is based on abstinence and zero tolerance. Unless there is harmonization of this policy, sustainability and scale-up of harm reduction programs will remain a challenge.

  13. Work out by Walking: A Pilot Exercise Program for Individuals With Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Julia; Penn, David L; Battaglini, Claudio L; Ludwig, Kelsey

    2016-09-01

    The health benefits of exercise are well documented, yet annual health care costs related to physical inactivity are well within the billions. Furthermore, individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSDs) are more likely to lead sedentary lives, exercise less than the general population, and die prematurely from preventable causes. Previous research examining the effects of exercise on individuals with SSDs has been encouraging yet limited in creating accessible and sustainable interventions. The current pilot study developed and evaluated the impact of Work out by Walking (WOW), a multicomponent group walking intervention on the health of 16 individuals with SSDs. Results indicated improvements in indicators of physical health, activity level, social support, and mental health and a high level of program satisfaction. Future research should examine multicomponent group walking programs for individuals with SSDs in larger samples and with the inclusion of a comparison condition.

  14. Faith Moves Mountains: An Appalachian Cervical Cancer Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenberg, Nancy E.; Hatcher, Jennifer; Dignan, Mark B.; Shelton, Brent; Wright, Sherry; Dollarhide, Kaye F.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To provide a conceptual description of Faith Moves Mountains (FMM), an intervention designed to reduce the disproportionate burden of cervical cancer among Appalachian women. Methods FMM, a community-based participatory research program designed and implemented in collaboration with churches in rural, southeastern Kentucky, aims to increase cervical cancer screening (Pap tests) through a multiphase process of educational programming and lay health counseling. Results We provide a conceptual overview to key elements of the intervention, including programmatic development, theoretical basis, intervention approach and implementation, and evaluation procedures. Conclusions After numerous modifications, FMM has recruited and retained over 400 women, 30 churches, and has become a change agent in the community. PMID:19320612

  15. Climate schools plus: An online, combined student and parent, universal drug prevention program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise K. Thornton

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Early initiation of substance use significantly increases one's risk of developing substance use dependence and mental disorders later in life. To interrupt this trajectory, effective prevention during the adolescent period is critical. Parents play a key role in preventing substance use and related harms among adolescents and parenting interventions have been identified as critical components of effective prevention programs. Despite this, there is currently no substance use prevention program targeting both students and parents that adopts online delivery to overcome barriers to implementation and sustainability. The Climate Schools Plus (CSP program was developed to meet this need. CSP is an online substance use prevention program for students and parents, based on the effective Climate Schools prevention program for students. This paper describes the development of the parent component of CSP including a literature review and results of a large scoping survey of parents of Australian high school students (n = 242. This paper also includes results of beta-testing of the developed program with relevant experts (n = 10, and parents of Australian high school students (n = 15. The CSP parent component consists of 1 a webinar which introduces shared rule ranking, 2 online modules and 3 summaries of student lessons. The parent program targets evidence-based modifiable factors associated with a delay in the onset of adolescent substance use and/or lower levels of adolescent substance use in the future; namely, rule-setting, monitoring, and modelling. To date, this is the first combined parent-student substance use prevention program to adopt an online delivery method. Keywords: Development, Prevention, Adolescent, Alcohol, Parent

  16. Primary mental health prevention themes in published research and academic programs in Israel

    OpenAIRE

    Nakash, Ora; Razon, Liat; Levav, Itzhak

    2015-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization Comprehensive Mental Health Action Plan (CMHAP) 2013?2020 proposes the implementation of primary prevention strategies to reduce the mental health burden of disease. The extent to which Israeli academic programs and published research adhere to the principles spelled out by the CMHAP is unknown. Objective To investigate the presence of mental health primary prevention themes in published research and academic programs in Israel. Methods We searched for...

  17. Asia Oceania Guidelines for the Implementation of Programs for Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hextan Y. S. Ngan

    2011-01-01

    The primary purpose of these guidelines is to provide information on scientific evidence on the different modalities and approaches of cervical cancer prevention programs, for high resource and low resource settings. The secondary purpose is to provide an overview of the current situation of cervical cancer control and prevention in various Asian Oceania countries: their views of an ideal program, identified obstacles, and suggestions to overcome them are discussed.

  18. Long-term Impact of Prevention Programs to Promote Effective Parenting: Lasting Effects but Uncertain Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Sandler, Irwin; Schoenfelder, Erin; Wolchik, Sharlene; MacKinnon, David

    2011-01-01

    This chapter reviews findings from 46 randomized experimental trials of preventive parenting interventions. The findings of these trials provide evidence of effects to prevent a wide range of problem outcomes and to promote competencies from one to twenty years later. However, there is a paucity of evidence concerning the processes that account for program effects. Three alternative pathways are proposed as a framework for future research on the long-term effects of preventive parenting progr...

  19. Diabetes Prevention and Treatment Programs for Western PA - Pediatrics/Platelet Gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    Diabetes Education Program results for self-management decision making f. Preventing, detecting , and treating acute complications. g. Preventing...SYSTEM AT WHMC 2.4.1 Expand Image Reading Center at WHMC Diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of new cases of blindness in Americans...between the ages of 20 to 74 (45-50). It has been estimated that blindness from diabetic retinopathy is preventable in at least 65% of cases, if

  20. France-Japan collaboration on the severe accident studies for ASTRID. Outcomes and future work program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serre, F.; Bertrand, F.; Bachrata, A.; Marie, N.; Kubo, Shigenobu; Kamiyama, Kenji; Carluec, B.; Farges, B.; Koyama, K.

    2017-01-01

    The ASTRID reactor (Advanced Sodium Technological Reactor for Industrial Demonstration) is a technological demonstrator of GenIV sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) designed by the CEA with its industrial partners, with very high levels of requirements. In the ASTRID project, the safety objectives are first to prevent the core melting, in particular by the development of an innovative core (named CFV core) with low void worth and complementary safety prevention devices, and second, to enhance the reactor resistance to severe accidents by design. In order to mitigate the consequences of hypothetical core melting situations, specific provisions (mitigation devices) are added to the core and to the reactor. To meet these ASTRID objectives, a large R and D program was launched in the Severe Accident domain by the CEA, with collaboration of AREVA NP, JAEA, MFBR and MHI organizations, in the frame of the France-Japan ASTRID and SFRs collaboration agreement. This R and D program covers exchanges on severe accident conditions to be studied for the SFR safety cases, the methodology to study these situations, ASTRID severe accident simulations, the comparison and understanding of the ASTRID and JSFR reactor behavior under these situations, the development and adaptation of simulation tools, and, despite an already large existing experimental database, a complementary experimental program to improve the knowledge and reduce the uncertainties. This paper will present the collaboration work performed on the Severe Accidents studies. (author)

  1. 78 FR 35054 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Program to Prevent Smoking in Hazardous Areas (Pertains to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ...; Program to Prevent Smoking in Hazardous Areas (Pertains to Underground Coal Mines) AGENCY: Mine Safety and... carrying smoking materials, matches, or lighters underground and to prevent smoking in hazardous areas... Act), 30 U.S.C. 877(c), and 30 CFR 75.1702 prohibits persons from smoking or carrying smoking...

  2. MINE WASTE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM PREVENTION OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE GENERATION FROM OPEN-PIT HIGHWALLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document summarizes the results of Mine Waste Technology Program Activity III, Project 26, Prevention of Acid Mine Drainage Generation from Open-Pit Highwalls. The intent of this project was to obtain performance data on the ability of four technologies to prevent the gener...

  3. A Cost Analysis Plan for the National Preventive Dentistry Demonstration Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foch, Craig B.

    The National Preventive Dentistry Demonstration Project (NPDDP) delivers school-based preventive dental care to approximately 14,000 children in ten United States cities. The program, begun in 1976, is to be conducted over a six and one-half year period. The costing definitions and allocation rules to be used in the project are the principal…

  4. Cost of Treatment Procedures in the National Preventive Dentistry Demonstration Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foch, Craig B.; And Others

    The National Preventive Dentistry Demonstration Program (NPDDP) delivered five different regimens of school based preventive dental care to groups of children in 10 American cities between 1977 and 1981. All clinical techniques employed had previously been demonstrated to be both safe and effective in clinical trials. The purpose of the NPDDP was…

  5. Mothers After Gestational Diabetes in Australia Diabetes Prevention Program (MAGDA-DPP) post-natal intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shih, Sophy T F; Davis-Lameloise, Nathalie; Janus, Edward D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Mothers After Gestational Diabetes in Australia Diabetes Prevention Program (MAGDA-DPP) is a randomized controlled trial (RCT) that aims to assess the effectiveness of a structured diabetes prevention intervention for women who had gestational diabetes.Methods/Design: The original...

  6. Testing Mediators of Intervention Effects in Randomized Controlled Trials: An Evaluation of Three Depression Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Seeley, John R.; Gau, Jeff M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate a new 5-step method for testing mediators hypothesized to account for the effects of depression prevention programs. Method: In this indicated prevention trial, at-risk teens with elevated depressive symptoms were randomized to a group cognitive-behavioral (CB) intervention, group supportive expressive intervention, CB…

  7. Prevention of Targeted School Violence by Responding to Students' Psychosocial Crises: The NETWASS Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuschner, Vincenz; Fiedler, Nora; Schultze, Martin; Ahlig, Nadine; Göbel, Kristin; Sommer, Friederike; Scholl, Johanna; Cornell, Dewey; Scheithauer, Herbert

    2017-01-01

    The standardized, indicated school-based prevention program "Networks Against School Shootings" combines a threat assessment approach with a general model of prevention of emergency situations in schools through early intervention in student psychosocial crises and training teachers to recognize warning signs of targeted school violence.…

  8. Aviation Safety Program: Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) Project Overview and Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadell, Shari-Beth

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a project overview and status for the Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) aviation safety program. The topics include: 1) Weather Accident Prevention Project Background/History; 2) Project Modifications; 3) Project Accomplishments; and 4) Project's Next Steps.

  9. Does the national program of prevention of mother to child ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To assess the PMTCT program achievement in Ouagadougou, the capital city of Burkina Faso. Methods: Between August and October 2008, a cross sectional study was ... Care providers were not qualified enough to deliver PMTCT services. Vitamin A supplementation was not implemented. None of the facilities ...

  10. Preventing Hypothermia in Preterm Infants: A Program of Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Neonatal hypothermia is a worldwide problem and leads to increased morbidity and mortality in newborn infants. This paper describes a program of research to examine thermoregulation in premature infants and to decrease neonatal hypothermia. Our studies include 1) examining an intervention to reduce heat loss in ...

  11. Evaluation of a Spiritually Based Child Maltreatment Prevention Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Louisa K.; Rigazio-DiGilio, Sandra A.

    2013-01-01

    The authors empirically evaluated a spiritually based 1-day child maltreatment training program. Pretest, posttest, and follow-up results indicated that participants' recognition of hypothetical maltreatment did not increase after training. Furthermore, although participants decreased their use of items known to dissuade decisions to report, they…

  12. Effectiveness of Secondary Pregnancy Prevention Programs: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Jacqueline; Pillai, Vijayan K.

    2007-01-01

    Because subsequent pregnancy in teen parents often worsens the impact of adolescent parenting; therefore, a common goal of teenage parent programs has been to reduce repeat pregnancy. To examine the impact of this goal, a meta-analysis was conducted on 16 control-comparison group studies that evaluated the effect of teenage pregnancy and parenting…

  13. Effects of a school-based pediatric obesity prevention program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a school-based pediatric obesity program for elementary children. Children (n = 782) were between the ages of 7 and 9 and in the 2nd grade. A total of 323 (189 males) children who exceeded the 85th percentile for BMI were randomized into an integrated health...

  14. Project Healthy Bones: An Osteoporosis Prevention Program for Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotzbach-Shimomura, Kathleen

    2001-01-01

    Project Healthy Bones is a 24-week exercise and education program for older women and men at risk for or who have osteoporosis. The exercise component is designed to improve strength, balance, and flexibility. The education curriculum stresses the importance of exercise, nutrition, safety, drug therapy, and lifestyle factors. (SK)

  15. PULSAR: A Qualitative Study of a Substance Abuse Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino-McAllister, Jeanne M.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the risk, protective factors, and resiliency characteristics of students selected to participate in the Police, Public Educators and Peers Utilizing the Leadership Skills of Students At Risk/As Resources (PULSAR) program. The study is significant as it employed qualitative methods and a resiliency-focused…

  16. [The development of an integrated suicide-violence prevention program for adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun Sook

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an integrated suicide-violence prevention program for adolescents. Another purpose was to evaluate the effects of the integrated suicide-violence prevention program on self-esteem, parent-child communication, aggression, and suicidal ideation in adolescents. The study employed a quasi-experimental design. Participants for the study were high school students, 24 in the experimental group and 25 in the control group. Data was analyzed by using the SPSS/WIN. 11.5 program with chi2 test, t-test, and 2-way ANOVA. Participants in the integrated suicide-violence prevention program reported increased self-esteem scores, which was significantly different from those in the control group. Participants in the integrated suicide-violence prevention program reported decreased aggression and suicidal ideation scores, which was significantly different from those in the control group. The integrated suicide-violence prevention program was effective in improving self-esteem and decreasing aggression and suicidal ideation for adolescents. Therefore, this approach is recommended as the integrated suicide-violence prevention strategy for adolescents.

  17. A Meta-Analysis of Empirically Tested School-Based Dating Violence Prevention Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah R. Edwards

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Teen dating violence prevention programs implemented in schools and empirically tested were subjected to meta-analysis. Eight studies met criteria for inclusion, consisting of both within and between designs. Overall, the weighted mean effect size (ES across studies was significant, ESr = .11; 95% confidence interval (CI = [.08, .15], p < .0001, showing an overall positive effect of the studied prevention programs. However, 25% of the studies showed an effect in the negative direction, meaning students appeared to be more supportive of dating violence after participating in a dating violence prevention program. This heightens the need for thorough program evaluation as well as the need for decision makers to have access to data about the effectiveness of programs they are considering implementing. Further implications of the results and recommendations for future research are discussed.

  18. Teachers or Psychologists: Who Should Facilitate Depression Prevention Programs in Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Melanie S.; Adelson, Jill L.; Patak, Margarete A.; Pössel, Patrick; Hautzinger, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The current study evaluates a depression prevention program for adolescents led by psychologists vs. teachers in comparison to a control. The universal school-based prevention program has shown its efficacy in several studies when implemented by psychologists. The current study compares the effects of the program as implemented by teachers versus that implemented by psychologists under real-life conditions. A total of 646 vocational track 8th grade students from Germany participated either in a universal prevention program, led by teachers (n = 207) or psychologists (n = 213), or a teaching-as-usual control condition (n = 226). The design includes baseline, post-intervention, and follow-up (at 6 and 12 months post-intervention). The cognitive-behavioral program includes 10 sessions held in a regular school setting in same-gender groups and is based on the social information-processing model of social competence. Positive intervention effects were found on the change in girls’ depressive symptoms up to 12 months after program delivery when the program was implemented by psychologists. No such effects were found on boys or when program was delivered by teachers. The prevention program can successfully be implemented for girls by psychologists. Further research is needed for explanations of these effects. PMID:24837667

  19. Teachers or Psychologists: Who Should Facilitate Depression Prevention Programs in Schools?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie S. Wahl

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The current study evaluates a depression prevention program for adolescents led by psychologists vs. teachers in comparison to a control. The universal school-based prevention program has shown its efficacy in several studies when implemented by psychologists. The current study compares the effects of the program as implemented by teachers versus that implemented by psychologists under real-life conditions. A total of 646 vocational track 8th grade students from Germany participated either in a universal prevention program, led by teachers (n = 207 or psychologists (n = 213, or a teaching-as-usual control condition (n = 226. The design includes baseline, post-intervention, and follow-up (at 6 and 12 months post-intervention. The cognitive-behavioral program includes 10 sessions held in a regular school setting in same-gender groups and is based on the social information-processing model of social competence. Positive intervention effects were found on the change in girls’ depressive symptoms up to 12 months after program delivery when the program was implemented by psychologists. No such effects were found on boys or when program was delivered by teachers. The prevention program can successfully be implemented for girls by psychologists. Further research is needed for explanations of these effects.

  20. Methodological and Design Considerations in Evaluating the Impact of Prevention Programs on Violence and Related Health Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massetti, Greta M; Simon, Thomas R; Smith, Deborah Gorman

    2016-10-01

    Drawing on research that has identified specific predictors and trajectories of risk for violence and related negative outcomes, a multitude of small- and large-scale preventive interventions for specific risk behaviors have been developed, implemented, and evaluated. One of the principal challenges of these approaches is that a number of separate problem-specific programs targeting different risk areas have emerged. However, as many negative health behaviors such as substance abuse and violence share a multitude of risk factors, many programs target identical risk factors. There are opportunities to understand whether evidence-based programs can be leveraged for potential effects across a spectrum of outcomes and over time. Some recent work has documented longitudinal effects of evidence-based interventions on generalized outcomes. This work has potential for advancing our understanding of the effectiveness of promising and evidence-based prevention strategies. However, conducting longitudinal follow-up of established interventions presents a number of methodological and design challenges. To answer some of these questions, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention convened a panel of multidisciplinary experts to discuss opportunities to take advantage of evaluations of early prevention programs and evaluating multiple long-term outcomes. This special section of the journal Prevention Science includes a series of papers that begin to address the relevant considerations for conducting longitudinal follow-up evaluation research. This collection of papers is intended to inform our understanding of the challenges and strategies for conducting longitudinal follow-up evaluation research that could be used to drive future research endeavors.

  1. Approach to the current state of work harassment prevention in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Andrés Dávila Londoño

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mobbing or harassment is now recognized as a phenomenon of high impact on individuals, organizations and society. In Latin America, and specifically in Colombia, has been identified little development of thematic; this is a weakness against the possibilities to know, identify and intervene on this reality, growing in organizations. The objective of this paper is to present the results of theoretical analysis and review of prevention of mobbing in Colombia. The paper is divided into four parts. In the first, the main theoretical elements of the discussion about mobbing are synthesized. In the second, reviewed the legislation on mobbing in Colombia, and that the state has responsibilities for the identification, assessment, prevention and intervention of psychosocial risk factors at work. In a third part, presents and analyzes some measures and procedures existing prevention and intervention. Finally conclusions of the review are presented.

  2. An Evaluation of Two Dating Violence Prevention Programs on a College Campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Kerry; Sharps, Phyllis; Banyard, Victoria; Powers, Ráchael A; Kaukinen, Catherine; Gross, Deborah; Decker, Michele R; Baatz, Carrie; Campbell, Jacquelyn

    2016-03-13

    Dating violence is a serious and prevalent public health problem that is associated with numerous negative physical and psychological health outcomes, and yet there has been limited evaluation of prevention programs on college campuses. A recent innovation in campus prevention focuses on mobilizing bystanders to take action. To date, bystander programs have mainly been compared with no treatment control groups raising questions about what value is added to dating violence prevention by focusing on bystanders. This study compared a single 90-min bystander education program for dating violence prevention with a traditional awareness education program, as well as with a no education control group. Using a quasi-experimental pre-test/post-test design with follow-up at 2 months, a sample of predominately freshmen college students was randomized to either the bystander (n = 369) or traditional awareness (n = 376) dating violence education program. A non-randomized control group of freshmen students who did not receive any education were also surveyed (n = 224). Students completed measures of attitudes, including rape myth acceptance, bystander efficacy, and intent to help as well as behavioral measures related to bystander action and victimization. Results showed that the bystander education program was more effective at changing attitudes, beliefs, efficacy, intentions, and self-reported behaviors compared with the traditional awareness education program. Both programs were significantly more effective than no education. The findings of this study have important implications for future dating violence prevention educational programming, emphasizing the value of bystander education programs for primary dating violence prevention among college students. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Drug use prevention: factors associated with program implementation in Brazilian urban schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ana Paula Dias; Sanchez, Zila M

    2018-03-07

    A school is a learning environment that contributes to the construction of personal values, beliefs, habits and lifestyles, provide convenient settings for the implementation of drug use prevention programs targeting adolescents, who are the population group at highest risk of initiating drug use. The objective of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of factors associated with implementing drug use prevention programs in Brazilian public and private middle and high urban schools. The present population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted with a probability sample of 1151 school administrators stratified by the 5 Brazilian administrative divisions, in 2014. A close-ended, self-reported online questionnaire was used. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with implementing drug use prevention programs in schools. A total of 51.1% of the schools had adopted drug use prevention programs. The factors associated with program implementation were as follows: belonging to the public school network; having a library; development of activities targeting sexuality; development of "Health at School Program" activities; offering extracurricular activities; and having an administrator that participated in training courses on drugs. The adoption of drug use prevention practices in Brazilian schools may be expanded with greater orchestration of schools through specialized training of administrators and teachers, expansion of the School Health Program and concomitant development of the schools' structural and curricular attributes.

  4. Case Study of a School-Based Universal Dating Violence Prevention Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Cascardi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of universal dating violence prevention programs has rapidly expanded in the past two decades. Many programs demonstrate change in attitudes supportive of dating violence, and a few show evidence of behavior change; however, detailed analysis of process and fidelity of program implementation is generally neglected. An important goal of prevention research is to identify successful initiatives that can be replicated and disseminated in the field. The purpose of the current case study is to document the implementation process of a middle school–based dating violence prevention curriculum in economically disadvantaged urban neighborhoods. Particular attention is given to the school context, such as the process of school and teacher recruitment, the program model, and classroom implementation of the dating violence prevention program in four areas: teacher training, student outcomes, program fidelity, and student engagement. Nine health and physical education teachers from six urban middle schools participated. Results describe effective strategies to secure school participation and engagement, and provide evidence regarding methods to train health and physical education teachers in low-income, urban neighborhoods. Furthermore, classroom observations demonstrate that teachers successfully implemented the five-lesson curriculum, which resulted in positive student outcomes to prevent dating violence. This case study represents an important step in deepening our understanding of the mechanisms of program delivery.

  5. The Program for the Prevention of Childhood Asthma: a specialized care program for children with wheezing or asthma in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia-Pereira, Marilyn; Avila, Jennifer; Solé, Dirceu

    2016-01-01

    To present the Programa Infantil de Prevenção de Asma (PIPA, Program for the Prevention of Childhood Asthma) and the characteristics of the patients followed in this program. Implemented in the city of Uruguaiana, Brazil, PIPA has as its target population children and adolescents ( 3 years of age, respectively. Physician-diagnosed asthma was reported in 26.5% and 82.2%, respectively. In the sample as a whole, the prevalence of passive smoking was high (> 36%), occurring during pregnancy in > 15%; > 40% of the patients had been born by cesarean section; and 30% had a mother who had had < 8 years of schooling. A prevention program for children with asthma is an effective strategy for controlling the disease. Knowledge of local epidemiological and environmental characteristics is essential to reducing the prevalence of the severe forms of asthma, to improving the use of health resources, and to preventing pulmonary changes that could lead to COPD in adulthood.

  6. The Latino Migrant Worker HIV Prevention Program: Building a Community Partnership Through a Community Health Worker Training Program

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez, Jesús; Silva-Suarez, Georgina; Serna, Claudia A.; De La Rosa, Mario

    2012-01-01

    There is limited information on the impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic on Latino migrant workers (LMWs), although available data indicate that this community is being disproportionally affected. The need for prevention programs that address the specific needs of LMWs is becoming well recognized. HIV prevention interventions that train and employ community health workers are a culturally appropriate way to address the issues of community trust and capacity building in this community. This article...

  7. Parenting Programs to Prevent Corporal Punishment: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolla Magioni Santini

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Studies have shown that corporal punishment against children is a common family practice, causing damage to child development. Considering that parents are the main perpetrators of this type of aggression, parenting programs are needed to raise children without violence. This study aimed at performing a systematic review of parenting programs evaluations to reduce corporal punishment. Intervention procedures, as well as design, results and limitations were identified for each study. The PRISMA protocol (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses was used for reporting the results. A literature survey was conducted in Brazilian databases, as well as English ones from 1994-2014. One Brazilian study and eight international studies were selected as relevant, and only four used randomized controlled trials (RCT. All studies reported satisfactory results in decreasing aggression by parents against their children. Further research in the area with solid methodology is recommended.

  8. Fatigue at work: Professional illness of the 21th century: Prevention and consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Marina R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychophysical capabilities of individuals in terms of work in the modern systems of today are not the only factor that their performance and achievement of results depend on. The context is much broader, starting from work conditions at their work place, through physical and climate factors, social environment and support, down to psychophysical status of an individual, his/her general work efficiency and risk from getting professional illnesses. Although the mechanisms and causes of fatigue occurring at work have long been a subject of study and interest in the area of psychophysiology of work, the fact is that to the day there has been no unique and generally accepted definition of fatigue, not only due to complex causes of its origin, but also due to complexity and diversity of its manifestations. Factors that are subject of study may be grouped into areas of contents of work, organization of work or work environment, and they significantly affect working ability and its misbalance, needs, capabilities and requirements to be met by an individual at a work place. Similarly to the concept of stress at work, fatigue as a reversible physiological occurrence manifests itself in physiological, i.e. health-related, psychological and professional areas, which in the long run affects total performance and efficiency of an individual, and results in unfit behavior, mental problems or physical illness. Keeping this in mind, it is important that a professional department and personnel management in organizations and institutions should react in a timely manner in order to prevent, detect and eliminate the factors that bring an individual at work to chronicle fatigue, therefore, to reduced performance and productivity at work.

  9. Inuit women's stories of strength: informing Inuit community-based HIV and STI prevention and sexual health promotion programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Jenny R

    2016-01-01

    There is a dearth of literature to guide the development of community-based HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention and sexual health promotion programs within Inuit communities. The aim of this study was to create a dialogue with Inuit women to address the lack of information available to inform programming to improve the sexual health of Inuit women, their families, and their communities in the Canadian Arctic. This study used Indigenous methodologies and methods by drawing from Inuit Qaujimajatuqangit and postcolonial research theory in a framework of Two-Eyed Seeing, and using storytelling sessions to gather data. Community-based participatory research principles informed the design of the study, ensuring participants were involved in all stages of the project. Nine storytelling sessions took place with 21 Inuit women aged 18-61 years. Storytelling sessions were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim, and Atlas.ti aided in the organization of the data for collaborative thematic analysis within three participatory analysis sessions with 13 of the participating women. From the storytelling and analysis sessions, five major themes emerged: (a) the way it used to be, (b) change, (c) family, (d) intimate relationships and (e) holistic strategies. Participating women emphasized that HIV and STI prevention and sexual health promotion programming needs to take a holistic, community-wide, family-focused and youth-centred approach within their communities. Participants identified several important determinants of sexual health and shared ideas for innovative approaches they believe will work as prevention efforts within their communities. This article specifically focuses on key characteristics of programming aimed at STI and HIV prevention and sexual health promotion that were identified throughout participants' stories. This study has provided a narrative to complement the epidemiological data that highlight the urgent need for prevention programming.

  10. Perceived Benefits and Barriers of a Community-Based Diabetes Prevention and Management Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawley-Brzoska, Samantha; Misra, Ranjita

    2018-03-13

    This study examined the perceptions of benefits of and barriers to participating in a community-based diabetes program to improve program effectiveness. The Diabetes Prevention and Management (DPM) program was a twenty-two session, 1-year program, modeled after the evidence-based National Diabetes Prevention Program and AADE7 Self-Care Behaviors framework. Community-based participatory research approach was used to culturally tailor the curriculum. Participants included overweight or obese adults with dysglycemia. A benefits and barriers survey was developed to gather information on participants' perception of the program, as well as information on demographics and health literacy levels. Eighty-nine adults participated in the DPM program (73% females; 62% diabetic; 77% had adequate health literacy); 79% of participants completed the benefits and barriers survey. Principal component analysis indicated two components representing benefits (Cronbach's α = 0.83) and barriers (α = 0.65). The majority perceived high benefits and low barriers to program participation; benefits included helpful interaction with health coach or program leader (73%), improved lifestyle modification (65%) due to the program, and satisfaction with the program (75%). Open-ended questions confirmed themes related to benefits of program participation, suggestion for programmatic improvements as well as barriers to participation. Participant feedback could be used to guide interventions and tailor future program implementation.

  11. Prevention of Backover Fatalities in Highway Work Zones: A Synthesis of Current Practices and Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Fan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to synthesize current practices and procedures on the prevention of backing fatalities in highway work zones. First, general work zone safety hazards are reviewed, particularly blind areas are identified. Second, engineering controls currently in use are examined and explained to help understand what steps can be taken to prevent future backing fatalities. Third, administrative controls (including signalers, drivers, and workers-on-foot training are also discussed. Fourth, existing technology controls are reviewed for use in aiding equipment operators in identifying when pedestrian personnel are in dangerous areas around their equipment (i.e., back-up camera, radar. Fifth, recommendations are made based on the comprehensive review of the backover fatality prevention techniques in construction work zones and the conducted testing results of several commercially available systems. Recommendations on engineering and technology controls are discussed, with detailed information such as improving internal traffic control plans, and integrating technology with traffic control plans. Information and drawings are provided to illustrate how to design work zones, and the internal traffic flow diagrams are created using the integrated technology available, and site specific characteristics. The drawings represent examples of using different types of technology, in different scenarios using the proper legend, as well as using the proper general and technology notes to help explain the traffic control plan, ensuring that full comprehension is made. Recommendations on administrative controls are also given such as how to conduct safety meetings, electing safety officers, how to set regulations and guidelines for workers, and how to handle training. Training should be used as a backover fatality prevention method for pedestrian workers, flaggers, spotters, and equipment operators. Finally, a summary and discussion of future research

  12. Work environments and HIV prevention: a qualitative review and meta-synthesis of sex worker narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Shira M; Duff, Putu; Krusi, Andrea

    2015-12-16

    Sex workers (SWs) experience a disproportionately high burden of HIV, with evidence indicating that complex and dynamic factors within work environments play a critical role in mitigating or producing HIV risks in sex work. In light of sweeping policy efforts to further criminalize sex work globally, coupled with emerging calls for structural responses situated in labour and human-rights frameworks, this meta-synthesis of the qualitative and ethnographic literature sought to examine SWs' narratives to elucidate the ways in which physical, social and policy features of diverse work environments influence SWs' agency to engage in HIV prevention. We conducted a meta-synthesis of qualitative and ethnographic studies published from 2008 to 2014 to elucidate SWs' narratives and lived experiences of the complex and nuanced ways in which physical, social, and policy features of indoor and outdoor work environments shape HIV prevention in the sex industry. Twenty-four qualitative and/or ethnographic studies were included in this meta-synthesis. SWs' narratives revealed the nuanced ways that physical, social, and policy features of work environments shaped HIV risk and interacted with macrostructural constraints (e.g., criminalization, stigma) and community determinants (e.g., sex worker empowerment initiatives) to shape SWs' agency in negotiating condom use. SWs' narratives revealed the ways in which the existence of occupational health and safety standards in indoor establishments, as well as protective practices of third parties (e.g., condom promotion) and other SWs/peers were critical ways of enhancing safety and sexual risk negotiation within indoor work environments. Additionally, working in settings where negative interactions with law enforcement were minimized (e.g., working in decriminalized contexts or environments in which peers/managers successfully deterred unjust policing practices) was critical for supporting SWs' agency to negotiate HIV prevention. Policy

  13. Project EX-India: A classroom-based tobacco use prevention and cessation intervention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, Anupreet Kaur; Sussman, Steve; Tewari, Abha; Bassi, Shalini; Arora, Monika

    2016-02-01

    Tobacco use experimentation is most frequent between the ages of 15–24 in India. Therefore, programming to counteract tobacco use among adolescents is needed. There is a lack of evidence-based teen tobacco use prevention and cessation programs. The current study provides an outcome evaluation of the Project EX tobacco use prevention and cessation program among Indian adolescents (16–18 years). An eight-session classroom-based curriculum was adapted to the Indian context and translated from English to Hindi (local language). Next, it was tested using a quasi-experimental design with 624 Indian students at baseline, involving two program and two control schools, with a three-month post-program follow-up. Project EX involves motivation enhancement (e.g., talk shows and games) and coping skills (e.g., complementary and alternative medicine) components. Program participants rated complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) activities like meditation, yoga and healthy breathing higher than talk shows and games. Compared to the standard care control condition, the program condition revealed a prevention effect, but not a cessation effect. Implications for prevention/cessation programming among Indian teens are discussed. This study was approved by the Independent Ethics Committee, Mumbai.

  14. School-Based Smoking Prevention Programs for Adolescents in South Korea: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eunok

    2006-01-01

    The number of research papers evaluating programs designed to prevent adolescent smoking have increased in the last 13 years in Korea. The purpose of this study was to evaluate these programs, to review the features of the studies and to systemically assess the results on the knowledge about, and attitude to, smoking and smoking behavior. Database…

  15. Implementation and Evaluation of a Parenting Program to Prevent Child Maltreatment in Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kooij, Inger W.; Bipat, Shandra; Boer, Frits; Lindauer, Ramón J. L.; Graafsma, Tobi L. G.

    2017-01-01

    The prevention of child maltreatment has become a global health concern because child maltreatment is a violation of children's rights. Across the world, a variety of parenting programs have been developed to address this problem. However, no such parenting program currently exists in Suriname. This

  16. Cultural Adaptation of a Preventive Program for Ultra-Orthodox Preschool Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilboa, Yafit

    2016-01-01

    Cultural factors significantly influence the effectiveness of pediatric screening that enables the prevention of developmental disturbances. The formulation of intervention programs must match the needs of the child, his or her family, and educators. Recognizing the importance of creating an intervention program accessible to the culture of the…

  17. Substance Use Prevention among At-Risk Rural Youth: Piloting the Social Ecological "One Life" Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ronald D., Jr.; Barnes, Jeremy T.; Holman, Thomas; Hunt, Barry P.

    2014-01-01

    Substance use among youth is a significant health concern in the rural United States, particularly among at-risk students. While evidence-based programs are available, literature suggests that an underdeveloped rural health prevention workforce often limits the adoption of such programs. Additionally, population-size restrictions of national…

  18. Family Support in Prevention Programs for Children at Risk for Emotional/Behavioral Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaleri, Mary A.; Olin, S. Serene; Kim, Annie; Hoagwood, Kimberly E.; Burns, Barbara J.

    2011-01-01

    We conducted a review of empirically based prevention programs to identify prevalence and types of family support services within these programs. A total of 238 articles published between 1990 and 2011 that included a family support component were identified; 37 met criteria for inclusion. Following the Institute of Medicine's typology, prevention…

  19. Preventing Smoking among Hispanic Preadolescents: Program Orientation, Participant Individualism-Collectivism, and Acculturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Stella G.; Garza, Raymond T.; Gonzalez-Blanks, Ana G.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the role of individualism-collectivism (IC) and acculturation in smoking prevention programs for Hispanic preadolescents. The sixth graders received a collectivist or individualist curriculum. Both programs contained knowledge-based facts about smoking. The collectivist condition included an interdependent…

  20. Secondary Prevention Efforts at the Middle School Level: An Application of the Behavior Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Capizzi, Andrea M.; Fisher, Marisa H.; Ennis, Robin Parks

    2012-01-01

    In this study we examine the impact of the Behavior Education Program (BEP; Hawken, MacLeod, & Rawlings, 2007) with four middle school students who were not responsive to a comprehensive primary prevention program including academic, behavioral and social components. To extend this line of inquiry we (a) conducted a functional behavioral…

  1. Evaluation of Three Osteoporosis Prevention Programs for Young Women: Application of the Health Belief Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lein, Donald H.; Turner, Lori; Wilroy, Jereme

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of theory-based osteoporosis prevention programs on calcium and vitamin D intakes and osteoporosis health beliefs in young women. Methods: Women (N = 152) aged 19 to 25 years were randomly assigned to one of 3 groups: a brochure group (n = 51), a computer-tailored program group…

  2. Valued Youth Partnerships: Programs in Caring. Cross-Age Tutoring Dropout Prevention Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intercultural Development Research Association, San Antonio, TX.

    This booklet provides information about the Valued Youth Partnership (VYP) program for dropout prevention. Begun in 1984 with the support of the Coca-Cola Company and the collaboration of the Intercultural Development Research Association, the VYP program is being implemented in the Edgewood and South San Antonio school districts in San Antonio,…

  3. The Differential Effects of Rape Prevention Programming on Attitudes, Behavior, and Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heppner, Mary J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Evaluates whether type of programming differentially affects the processing of rape prevention messages, attitudes, knowledge, behaviors, and stability of change. Participants (n=258) were assigned to a didactic-video program, an interactive drama, or control. Results indicated that the interactive video was most effective in central route…

  4. Evaluating an In-School Drug Prevention Program for At-Risk Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWit, David J.; Steep, Barbara; Silverman, Gloria; Stevens-Lavigne, Andrea; Ellis, Kathy; Smythe, Cindy; Rye, Barbara J.; Braun, Kathy; Wood, Eileen

    2000-01-01

    A drug prevention program involving 167 at-risk students in grades 8-10 at 9 Ontario schools resulted in reduced use of and less supportive attitudes toward alcohol, cannabis, tobacco, and tranquilizers. Program success is attributed to high attendance and retention, community health professionals' participation, comprehensive approach, strong…

  5. Characteristics of Student Assistance and Prevention Counseling Programs in Response to Environmental Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Matthew J.; Videka, Lynn; Loneck, Barry; Newman, Lucy J.; Rajendran, Kushmand

    2014-01-01

    The impacts of the terror attacks of September 11, 2001, were observed in Student Assistance and Prevention Counseling programs in New York schools. Methods: A mixed-method study of programs across the state, consisting of interviews (N = 14) and record reviews (N = 407), was conducted in New York State in 2002. Standardized state forms were used…

  6. Living Peace: An Exploration of Experiential Peace Education, Conflict Resolution and Violence Prevention Programs for Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettler, Shannon; Johnston, Linda M.

    2009-01-01

    The authors review the types of experiential peace education programs available to teens in the US and provide a classification guide for educators, parents, other concerned adults and teens who may be interested in developing conflict, peace and/or violence prevention knowledge, skills and attitudes. The authors identify experiential programs in…

  7. Sun Protection is Fun! A Skin Cancer Prevention Program for Preschools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Mary K.; Herrmann, Nancy B.; Parcel, Guy S.; Chamberlin, Robert M.; Gritz, Ellen R.

    2000-01-01

    Describes the Sun Protection is Fun! skin cancer prevention program for preschool children that features intervention methods grounded in social cognitive theory and emphasizes symbolic modeling, vicarious learning, enactive mastery experiences, and persuasion. Program components include a curriculum and teacher's guide, videos, newsletters,…

  8. DCP Leading NIH Glycoscience Common Fund Program; Funding Opportunities Open | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI's Division of Cancer Prevention is a leading participant for a key initiative in the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Glycoscience Common Fund program. This program supports development of accessible and affordable new tools and technologies for studying the role complex carbohydrates in health and disease. |

  9. A High School Depression and Suicide Prevention Program: A Collaboration between Health Education and Psychological Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moilanen, Donna L.; Bradbury, Susan

    2002-01-01

    Examined a collaboration between health education and psychological services in generating a high school depression and suicide prevention program. The five-component program raised awareness of teen depression and suicide, increased communication about these issues within the school and community, and provided information about available…

  10. Factors influencing participation in a vascular disease prevention lifestyle program among participants in a cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Rachel A; Fanaian, Mahnaz; Jayasinghe, Upali W; McKenzie, Suzanne; Passey, Megan; Davies, Gawaine Powell; Lyle, David; Harris, Mark F

    2013-05-31

    Previous research suggests that lifestyle intervention for the prevention of diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are effective, however little is known about factors affecting participation in such programs. This study aims to explore factors influencing levels of participation in a lifestyle modification program conducted as part of a cluster randomized controlled trial of CVD prevention in primary care. This concurrent mixed methods study used data from the intervention arm of a cluster RCT which recruited 30 practices through two rural and three urban primary care organizations. Practices were randomly allocated to intervention (n = 16) and control (n = 14) groups. In each practice up to 160 eligible patients aged between 40 and 64 years old, were invited to participate. Intervention practice staff were trained in lifestyle assessment and counseling and referred high risk patients to a lifestyle modification program (LMP) consisting of two individual and six group sessions over a nine month period. Data included a patient survey, clinical audit, practice survey on capacity for preventive care, referral and attendance records at the LMP and qualitative interviews with Intervention Officers facilitating the LMP. Multi-level logistic regression modelling was used to examine independent predictors of attendance at the LMP, supplemented with qualitative data from interviews with Intervention Officers facilitating the program. A total of 197 individuals were referred to the LMP (63% of those eligible). Over a third of patients (36.5%) referred to the LMP did not attend any sessions, with 59.4% attending at least half of the planned sessions. The only independent predictors of attendance at the program were employment status - not working (OR: 2.39 95% CI 1.15-4.94) and having high psychological distress (OR: 2.17 95% CI: 1.10-4.30). Qualitative data revealed that physical access to the program was a barrier, while GP/practice endorsement of the program and

  11. Evaluations of Sexual Assault Prevention Programs in Military Settings: A Synthesis of the Research Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchowski, Lindsay M; Berry-Cabán, Cristóbal S; Prisock, Kara; Borsari, Brian; Kazemi, Donna M

    2018-03-01

    The prevention of sexual assault (SA) in the U.S. military is a significant priority. This study applied the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines to a literature search that identified research evaluating SA prevention programs conducted within military settings. Only six studies published between 2005 and 2016 met criteria for inclusion in the review. Studies demonstrated high heterogeneity in the: (1) conceptual framework of the prevention approach; (2) target population and timing of administration; (3) study recruitment methods; (4) methodological design; (5) method of delivery, program dosage and theory of change; and (6) outcome administration and efficacy. Scientific rigor according to the Oxford Center for Evidence-based Medicine was also variable. Several gaps in the research base were identified. Specifically, research evaluating SA prevention programs have only been conducted among U.S. Army and U.S. Navy samples. Most studies did not examine whether program participation was associated with reductions in rates of sexual violence. Studies also lacked utilization of a long-term follow-up period. Additionally, studies did not reflect the types of SA prevention programs currently being implemented in military settings. Taken together, further research is needed to enhance the evidence base for SA prevention in the military, and to evaluate the effectiveness of the approaches currently being conducted with service members.

  12. An Online Bystander Intervention Program for the Prevention of Sexual Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinsasser, Anne; Jouriles, Ernest N; McDonald, Renee; Rosenfield, David

    2015-07-01

    Because of its high prevalence and serious consequences for victims, sexual violence is a significant problem on college campuses. Sexual assault prevention programs based on the bystander intervention model have been shown to be effective; however, current programs are limited in terms of ease of distribution. To address this issue, we developed and evaluated "Take Care," an online bystander intervention program. To our knowledge, this is the first empirical evaluation of an online bystander intervention program designed to prevent sexual violence. Ninety-three participants (80.6% female, 19.4% male) recruited from social psychology classes at a mid-size university were randomly assigned to view one of two online programs: Take Care or a control program on study skills. Before viewing the programs, participants completed measures of bystander behaviors and feelings of efficacy for performing such behaviors. Measures were administered again post-intervention and at a two-month follow-up assessment. Participants who viewed Take Care reported greater efficacy for engaging in bystander behaviors at post-treatment and two months following treatment, compared to those who viewed the control program. In addition, participants who viewed Take Care reported performing relatively more bystander behaviors for friends at the two-month follow-up assessment, compared to participants who viewed the control program. These results suggest that sexual violence prevention programs may be effectively adapted to an online format.

  13. Effective Ways to Realize the Character Education Value of Work-study Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lv Xuemei PhD Student

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper indicates work-study program can foster the character development of college students as an important content of social practice activities in university. It suggests strategies for realizing the character education value of work-study program. First, establish a specific character education object for every work-study program. Second, use the controllability of the classroom to make up the uncontrollability of work-study program. Third, set up an effective supervision and evaluation mechanism.

  14. Perception of HIV prevention programs among Ayoreo sex workers in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Entrambasaguas, Olga María; Fernández-Sola, Cayetano; Granero-Molina, José

    2015-11-01

    The Ayoreo population constitutes one of Bolivia's most vulnerable ethnic groups in terms of HIV/AIDS. Being a woman, indigenous, and a sex worker signifies belonging to a high-risk group. The aim of this study is to explore the Ayoreo sex workers' and health agents' perceptions of HIV/AIDS prevention programs in order to identify variables that could influence their success or failure. This study used an ethnographic methodology that included participant observation and semistructured interviews. In the data collection, participant observation and semistructured interviews with sex workers and key informants were conducted. Three themes emerged from the inductive data analysis: health prevention efforts, cultural inadequacy of prevention programs, and the eventuality of interventions. We conclude that nursing can develop culturally-adequate HIV/AIDS prevention interventions and programs as well as promote health within these populations. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Effectiveness of an Ongoing, Community-Based Breast Cancer Prevention Program for Korean American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Eun; Choi, Ga-Young; Cho, Ji Young

    2016-02-01

    The study evaluates the effectiveness of an ongoing, community-based breast cancer prevention program offered by a local social services agency in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area. Korean American women who participated in this breast cancer prevention program were compared with those who did not participate in their knowledge, attitude, and screening behaviors. The study found that the intervention group was more knowledgeable on breast cancer and related services and reported more positive attitudes toward breast cancer screening services than the comparison group. The participants in the intervention group were also more likely to plan to receive a mammogram than those in the comparison group. However, significant differences were not observed in the two groups in their intention to receive a clinical breast examination. The study findings suggest that an ongoing, community-based breast cancer prevention program can be an effective method of addressing breast cancer prevention disparities observed among Korean American women.

  16. A national survey of school-based, adolescent suicide prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, A; Shaffer, D; Whittle, B

    1989-11-01

    A national survey of suicide prevention programs was conducted to determine the number, distribution and content of school-based, curriculum programs for adolescents. One hundred fifteen programs were identified. The total number of students and schools targeted for prevention efforts more than doubled during the academic years 1984/1985 to 1986/1987. Content of the programs was similar, with nearly all including information on suicide warning signs and other facts, as well as on accessing community mental health resources. Most included a separate component for school staff and parents. Ninety-five percent subscribed to the view that suicide is most commonly a response to extreme stress or pressure and could happen to anyone. Possible negative implications of this "stress model" of suicide were discussed. While this survey plays an important first step in providing a description of these programs, more evaluative research is needed to determine what effect, if any, these programs have on suicidal behavior.

  17. Organizational Strategies to Implement Hospital Pressure Ulcer Prevention Programs: Findings from a National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    SOBAN, LYNN M.; KIM, LINDA; YUAN, ANITA H.; MILTNER, REBECCA S.

    2017-01-01

    Aim To describe the presence and operationalization of organizational strategies to support implementation of pressure ulcer prevention programs across acute care hospitals in a large, integrated healthcare system. Background Comprehensive pressure ulcer programs include nursing interventions such as use of a risk assessment tool and organizational strategies such as policies and performance monitoring to embed these interventions into routine care. The current literature provides little detail about strategies used to implement pressure ulcer prevention programs. Methods Data were collected by an email survey to all Chief Nursing Officers in Veterans Health Administration acute care hospitals. Descriptive and bivariate statistics were used to summarize survey responses and evaluate relationships between some variables. Results Organizational strategies that support pressure ulcer prevention program implementation (policy, committee, staff education, wound care specialists, and use of performance data) were reported at high levels. Considerable variations were noted in how these strategies were operationalized within individual hospitals. Conclusion Organizational strategies to support implementation of pressure ulcer preventive programs are often not optimally operationalized to achieve consistent, sustainable performance. Implications for Nursing Management The results of this study highlight the role and influence of nurse leaders on pressure ulcer prevention program implementation. PMID:27487972

  18. The promise and limitations of cash transfer programs for HIV prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fieno, John; Leclerc-Madlala, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    As the search for more effective HIV prevention strategies continues, increased attention is being paid to the potential role of cash transfers in prevention programming in sub-Saharan Africa. To date, studies testing the impact of both conditional and unconditional cash transfers on HIV-related behaviours and outcomes in sub-Saharan Africa have been relatively small-scale and their potential feasibility, costs and benefits at scale, among other things, remain largely unexplored. This article examines elements of a successful cash transfer program from Latin America and discusses challenges inherent in scaling-up such programs. The authors attempt a cost simulation of a cash transfer program for HIV prevention in South Africa comparing its cost and relative effectiveness--in number of HIV infections averted--against other prevention interventions. If a cash transfer program were to be taken to scale, the intervention would not have a substantial effect on decreasing the force of the epidemic in middle- and low-income countries. The integration of cash transfer programs into other sectors and linking them to a broader objective such as girls' educational attainment may be one way of addressing doubts raised by the authors regarding their value for HIV prevention.

  19. PRIMARY PREVENTION IS? A GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE ON HOW ORGANIZATIONS ENGAGING MEN IN PREVENTING GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE CONCEPTUALIZE AND OPERATIONALIZE THEIR WORK

    OpenAIRE

    Storer, Heather L.; Casey, Erin A.; Carlson, Juliana; Edleson, Jeffrey L.; Tolman, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015, The Author(s) 2015. Engaging men in addressing violence against women (VAW) has become a strategy in the global prevention of gender-based violence. Concurrently, Western public health frameworks have been utilized to guide prevention agendas worldwide. Using qualitative methods, this study describes how global anti-violence organizations that partner with men conceptualize primary prevention in their work. Findings suggest that “primary prevention” is not a fixed term in the context ...

  20. Long-term impact of prevention programs to promote effective parenting: lasting effects but uncertain processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, Irwin N; Schoenfelder, Erin N; Wolchik, Sharlene A; MacKinnon, David P

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews findings from 46 randomized experimental trials of preventive parenting interventions. The findings of these trials provide evidence of effects to prevent a wide range of problem outcomes and to promote competencies from one to 20 years later. However, there is a paucity of evidence concerning the processes that account for program effects. Three alternative pathways are proposed as a framework for future research on the long-term effects of preventive parenting programs: (a) through program effects on parenting skills, perceptions of parental efficacy, and reduction in barriers to effective parenting; (b) through program-induced reductions in short-term problems of youth that persist over time, improvements in youth adaptation to stress, and improvements in youth belief systems concerning the self and their relationships with others; and (c) through effects on contexts in which youth become involved and on youth-environment transactions.

  1. Preventing the development of depression at work: a systematic review and meta-analysis of universal interventions in the workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Depression is a major public health problem among working-age adults. The workplace is potentially an important location for interventions aimed at preventing the development of depression, but to date, the mental health impact of universal interventions in the workplace has been unclear. Method A systematic search was conducted in relevant databases to identify randomized controlled trials of workplace interventions aimed at universal prevention of depression. The quality of studies was assessed using the Downs and Black checklist. A meta-analysis was performed using results from studies of adequate methodological quality, with pooled effect size estimates obtained from a random effects model. Results Nine workplace-based randomized controlled trials (RCT) were identified. The majority of the included studies utilized cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) techniques. The overall standardized mean difference (SMD) between the intervention and control groups was 0.16 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.07, 0.24, P = 0.0002), indicating a small positive effect. A separate analysis using only CBT-based interventions yielded a significant SMD of 0.12 (95% CI: 0.02, 0.22, P = 0.01). Conclusions There is good quality evidence that universally delivered workplace mental health interventions can reduce the level of depression symptoms among workers. There is more evidence for the effectiveness of CBT-based programs than other interventions. Evidence-based workplace interventions should be a key component of efforts to prevent the development of depression among adults. PMID:24886246

  2. Hanford site guide for preparing and maintaining generator group pollution prevention program documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    This manual provides the necessary guidance to contractor generator groups for developing and maintaining documentation of their pollution prevention (P2) program activities. Preparation of program documentation will demonstrate compliance with contractor and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requirements, as well as state and federal regulations. Contractor waste generator groups are no longer required to prepare and update facility waste minimization plans. Developing and maintaining program documentation replace this requirement

  3. Comprehensive resurvey program to prevent radiological incidents at a national laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipton, W.V.; Hunckler, C.A.

    1978-01-01

    A comprehensive resurvey program in a general purpose research building at Argonne National Laboratory is being implemented. The program was designed to prevent radiological incidents by increasing the awareness of Health Physics personnel of radiological hazards, initiating corrective actions, and providing information for improving routine survey schedules, and for establishing manpower requirements. The following aspects of the program are described: scheduling, surveys, records, follow-up, and statistics

  4. Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program Recommendations from Urban and Reservation Northern Plains American Indian Community Members

    OpenAIRE

    McMahon, Tracey R.; Hanson, Jessica D.; Griese, Emily R.; Kenyon, DenYelle Baete

    2015-01-01

    Despite declines over the past few decades, the United States has one of the highest rates of teen pregnancy compared to other industrialized nations. American Indian youth have experienced higher rates of teen pregnancy compared to the overall population for decades. Although it's known that community and cultural adaptation enhance program effectiveness, few teen pregnancy prevention programs have published on recommendations for adapting these programs to address the specific needs of Nort...

  5. Preventive Effects of Safety Helmets on Traumatic Brain Injury after Work-Related Falls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Chul Kim

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Work-related traumatic brain injury (TBI caused by falls is a catastrophic event that leads to disabilities and high socio-medical costs. This study aimed to measure the magnitude of the preventive effect of safety helmets on clinical outcomes and to compare the effect across different heights of fall. Methods: We collected a nationwide, prospective database of work-related injury patients who visited the 10 emergency departments between July 2010 and October 2012. All of the adult patients who experienced work-related fall injuries were eligible, excluding cases with unknown safety helmet use and height of fall. Primary and secondary endpoints were intracranial injury and in-hospital mortality. We calculated adjusted odds ratios (AORs of safety helmet use and height of fall for study outcomes, and adjusted for any potential confounders. Results: A total of 1298 patients who suffered from work-related fall injuries were enrolled. The industrial or construction area was the most common place of fall injury occurrence, and 45.0% were wearing safety helmets at the time of fall injuries. The safety helmet group was less likely to have intracranial injury comparing with the no safety helmet group (the adjusted odds ratios (ORs (95% confidence interval (CI: 0.42 (0.24–0.73, however, there was no statistical difference of in-hospital mortality between two groups (the adjusted ORs (95% CI: 0.83 (0.34–2.03. In the interaction analysis, preventive effects of safety helmet on intracranial injury were significant within 4 m height of fall. Conclusions: A safety helmet is associated with prevention of intracranial injury resulting from work-related fall and the effect is preserved within 4 m height of fall. Therefore, wearing a safety helmet can be an intervention for protecting fall-related intracranial injury in the workplace.

  6. Dyslexia Training Program. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The "Dyslexia Training Program," developed at the Texas Scottish Rite Hospital for Children, is a Tier III reading intervention program that provides intensive phonics instruction to children with dyslexia, primarily in grades two through five. It is a comprehensive two-year program that bridges the gap for school districts in which a…

  7. Effectiveness of waste prevention program in primary students' schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorpas, Antonis A; Voukkali, Irene; Loizia, Pantelitsa

    2017-06-01

    Even though reducing waste is at the top of the waste hierarchy, no real decoupling between waste generation and consumption has been demonstrated. Several waste directives had been published from EU, but they have only brought minor changes within the key objective of reducing waste generation. Most efforts have been targeted towards greater amounts of recycling and better management of waste disposal. While these are necessary and socially beneficial goals, they are not adequate for the achievement of long-term sustainability goals. The purpose of this study is to understand students' knowledge, attitudes and behavioural changes in relation to the water plastic bottle of 500 ml. Understanding waste prevention behaviour (WPB) could enable schools' principals, local authorities and committees as well as decision makers to design and implement more effective policies for reducing the amount of specific waste streams that is generated. Students in a daily base bring their own water containers of 500 ml or buy water from the school as they do not feel safe to use other sources of water. Nine hundred ninety-eight refilling stainless steel water refilling bottles (SSWRB-of 600 ml) were shared to the students in four primary schools. The results indicated that the students are presented with different behaviours from class to class for many reasons; most of them are related with what their parents believe, and how themselves or the synergies between them reacts and affected.

  8. Measuring implementation of a school-based violence prevention program : Fidelity and teachers' responsiveness as predictors of proximal outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schultes, Marie Therese; Stefanek, Elisabeth; van de Schoot, Rens; Strohmeier, Dagmar; Spiel, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    When school-based prevention programs are put into practice, evaluation studies commonly only consider one indicator of program implementation. The present study investigates how two different aspects of program implementation - fidelity and participant responsiveness - jointly influence proximal

  9. Obesity Prevention Interventions in US Public Schools: Are Schools Using Programs That Promote Weight Stigma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Erica L; Wintner, Suzanne; Lee, Rebekka M; Austin, S Bryn

    2017-12-28

    Despite substantial research on school-based obesity prevention programs, it is unclear how widely they are disseminated. It is also unknown whether schools use obesity programs that inadvertently promote weight stigma or disordered weight-control behaviors. In spring 2016, we distributed an online survey about school wellness programming to a simple random sample of US public school administrators (N = 247 respondents; 10.3% response rate). We analyzed survey responses and conducted immersion/crystallization analysis of written open-ended responses. Slightly less than half (n = 117, 47.4%) of schools offered any obesity prevention program. Only 17 (6.9%) reported using a predeveloped program, and 7 (2.8%) reported using a program with evidence for effectiveness. Thirty-seven schools (15.0%) reported developing intervention programs that focused primarily on individual students' or staff members' weight rather than nutrition or physical activity; 28 schools (11.3% of overall) used staff weight-loss competitions. School administrators who reported implementing a program were more likely to describe having a program champion and adequate buy-in from staff, families, and students. Lack of funding, training, and time were widely reported as barriers to implementation. Few administrators used educational (n = 12, 10.3%) or scientific (n = 6, 5.1%) literature for wellness program decision making. Evidence-based obesity prevention programs appear to be rarely implemented in US schools. Schools may be implementing programs lacking evidence and programs that may unintentionally exacerbate student weight stigma by focusing on student weight rather than healthy habits. Public health practitioners and researchers should focus on improving support for schools to implement evidence-based programs.

  10. Feasibility of the Positive Thoughts and Actions Prevention Program for Middle Schoolers at Risk for Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn A. McCarty

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of adolescent depression, few school-based prevention programs have been developed and tested in the United States with middle school populations. This study examined the acceptability and changes in targeted outcomes for a new preventative program, Positive Thoughts and Actions (PTA. Sixty-seven 7th grade students with elevated depressive symptoms were recruited from public schools and randomized to the 12-week PTA program with a parent-component or to a school-as-usual control group. The PTA prevention program was well received by students and parents, yielding high rates of participation and satisfaction among those randomized to receive the intervention. However, analyses of the efficacy of the program in changing depressive symptoms were not significant. In terms of our proximal program targets, most differences were not statistically significant, though effect sizes suggested advantage of PTA over control group in coping, cognitive style, and parent-child communication. This preliminary research highlights a need for further testing of programs for school-based prevention of depression and promotion of positive emotional health.

  11. AN AUDIT OF THE SUDDEN-INFANT-DEATH-SYNDROME PREVENTION PROGRAM IN THE AUCKLAND REGION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obdeijn, M. C.; Tonkin, S.; Mitchell, E. A.

    1995-01-01

    Aim. An audit of the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) prevention programme in the Auckland region. Methods. 107 health professionals working in antenatal classes, postnatal wards, domiciliary midwifery and the Plunket Society were interviewed. Results. Maternal smoking and infant sleeping

  12. Effects of the cyberbullying prevention program media heroes (Medienhelden) on traditional bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaux, Enrique; Velásquez, Ana María; Schultze-Krumbholz, Anja; Scheithauer, Herbert

    2016-01-01

    There is considerable debate over whether cyberbullying is just another form of bullying, or whether it is a problem distinct enough to require specific intervention. One way to explore this issue is to analyze whether programs designed to prevent traditional bullying help prevent cyberbullying, and whether programs designed to prevent cyberbullying prevent traditional bullying. The main goal of the current study was to analyze the spillover effects of the cyberbullying prevention program Media Heroes (Medienhelden) on traditional bullying. Media Heroes promotes empathy, knowledge of risks and consequences, and strategies that allow bystanders to defend victims from cyberbullying. Mixed ANOVAs were conducted comparing pretest and post-test (6 months after intervention) measures of 722 students (ages 11-17) assigned to a long (15 sessions) intervention, a short (1 day) intervention, and a control group. In addition to confirming the previously reported effects on cyberbullying, Media Heroes was found to reduce traditional bullying. Effects were larger for the long-version of the program than for the short 1-day version. No effects were found on victimization by either cyberbullying or traditional bullying. Strategies to complement traditional and cyberbullying prevention efforts are discussed. Aggr. Behav. 42:157-165, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. [Arduous working conditions for beginners: when workplace prevention becomes an economic risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latil, François

    2015-01-01

    The French law of 20.01.2014 recently instituted an arduous working conditions allowance. This innovated legislation is designed to improve the status of workers subject to arduous working conditions either by allowing lighter work schedules or job reclassification or early retirement. The impact of arduous working conditions on health has been clearly established, but no consensual solution has yet been proposed. Life expectancy without disability can differ by as much as 9 years between higher executives and manual workers, but the proposed solutions comprise a multitude of perverse effects. Workers may benefit from maintaining their arduous working conditions in order to preserve their right to early retirement. Companies do not necessarily have the desire or the resources to invest in prevention, which is the only consensually accepted effective measure, if they are also required to finance both training and retirement. In particular, management of the arduous working conditions allowance is very complex and entirely financed by companies. Consequently, company productivity can be impacted, leading to transfers of company headquarters, outsourcing to interim workers, replacement of jobs by automation. Unemployment could be the big winner of this conflict. Politically, arduous working conditions allowance appears to be very difficult to put into practice and can be considered to be more a promise by the government to the left and to the trade unions.

  14. Implementing Suicide Prevention Programs: Costs and Potential Life Years Saved in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliadis, Helen-Maria; Lesage, Alain; Latimer, Eric; Seguin, Monique

    2015-09-01

    Little is known about the costs and effects of suicide prevention programs at the population level. We aimed to determine (i) the costs associated with a suicide death and using prospective values (ii) the costs and effects of transferring, into a Canadian context, the results of the European Nuremberg Alliance against Depression (NAD) trial with the addition of 4 community-based suicide prevention strategies. These included the training of family physicians in the detection and treatment of depression, population campaigns aimed at increasing awareness about depression, the training of community leaders among first responders and follow-up of individuals who attempted suicide. This study includes a prospective value implementation study design. Using published data and information from interviews with Canadian decision makers, we assessed the costs of a suicide death in the province of Quebec and the costs of potentially implementing the NAD multi-modal suicide prevention programs, and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER), from a health care system and societal perspective, associated with the NAD program while considering the friction cost method (FCM) and human capital approach (HCA) (discounted at 3%.) The costs considered included those incurred for the suicide prevention program and direct medical and non-medical costs as well as those related to a police investigation and funeral costs. Indirect costs associated with loss of productivity and short term disability were also considered. Sensitivity analyses were also carried out. Costs presented were in 2010 dollars. The annual total cost of implementing the suicide prevention programs in Quebec reached CAD23,982,293. The most expensive components of the program included the follow-up of individuals who had attempted suicide and psychotherapy for bereaved individuals. These accounted for 39% and 34% of total costs. The ICER associated with the implementation of the programs reached on average CAD3

  15. Can improving working memory prevent academic difficulties? A school based randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Gehan; Quach, Jon; Gold, Lisa; Anderson, Peter; Rickards, Field; Mensah, Fiona; Ainley, John; Gathercole, Susan; Wake, Melissa

    2011-06-20

    Low academic achievement is common and is associated with adverse outcomes such as grade repetition, behavioural disorders and unemployment. The ability to accurately identify these children and intervene before they experience academic failure would be a major advance over the current 'wait to fail' model. Recent research suggests that a possible modifiable factor for low academic achievement is working memory, the ability to temporarily store and manipulate information in a 'mental workspace'. Children with working memory difficulties are at high risk of academic failure. It has recently been demonstrated that working memory can be improved with adaptive training tasks that encourage improvements in working memory capacity. Our trial will determine whether the intervention is efficacious as a selective prevention strategy for young children at risk of academic difficulties and is cost-effective. This randomised controlled trial aims to recruit 440 children with low working memory after a school-based screening of 2880 children in Grade one. We will approach caregivers of all children from 48 participating primary schools in metropolitan Melbourne for consent. Children with low working memory will be randomised to usual care or the intervention. The intervention will consist of 25 computerised working memory training sessions, which take approximately 35 minutes each to complete. Follow-up of children will be conducted at 6, 12 and 24 months post-randomisation through child face-to-face assessment, parent and teacher surveys and data from government authorities. The primary outcome is academic achievement at 12 and 24 months, and other outcomes include child behaviour, attention, health-related quality of life, working memory, and health and educational service utilisation. A successful start to formal learning in school sets the stage for future academic, psychological and economic well-being. If this preventive intervention can be shown to be efficacious, then

  16. Can improving working memory prevent academic difficulties? a school based randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Peter

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low academic achievement is common and is associated with adverse outcomes such as grade repetition, behavioural disorders and unemployment. The ability to accurately identify these children and intervene before they experience academic failure would be a major advance over the current 'wait to fail' model. Recent research suggests that a possible modifiable factor for low academic achievement is working memory, the ability to temporarily store and manipulate information in a 'mental workspace'. Children with working memory difficulties are at high risk of academic failure. It has recently been demonstrated that working memory can be improved with adaptive training tasks that encourage improvements in working memory capacity. Our trial will determine whether the intervention is efficacious as a selective prevention strategy for young children at risk of academic difficulties and is cost-effective. Methods/Design This randomised controlled trial aims to recruit 440 children with low working memory after a school-based screening of 2880 children in Grade one. We will approach caregivers of all children from 48 participating primary schools in metropolitan Melbourne for consent. Children with low working memory will be randomised to usual care or the intervention. The intervention will consist of 25 computerised working memory training sessions, which take approximately 35 minutes each to complete. Follow-up of children will be conducted at 6, 12 and 24 months post-randomisation through child face-to-face assessment, parent and teacher surveys and data from government authorities. The primary outcome is academic achievement at 12 and 24 months, and other outcomes include child behaviour, attention, health-related quality of life, working memory, and health and educational service utilisation. Discussion A successful start to formal learning in school sets the stage for future academic, psychological and economic well-being. If

  17. Efficiency estimation of using phased program of caries prevention in children domiciled in Transcarpathian region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klitynska Oksana V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Caries is a pathological process that occurs in the hard tissues of the teeth after eruption and reduced quality of life due to significant complications, especially in children. An extremely high incidence of dental caries among children living permanently in Transcarpathian region requires a comprehensive prevention program. The aim of this study was to determine the efficiency of complex caries prevention program among children permanently living in the area of biogeochemical fluorine deficiency. Aim of the study: To evaluate efficiency level of using phased program of caries prevention among children of different age groups domiciled in Transcarpathian region. Material and Methods: On examination of 346 children aged 3-8 years, among which 163 (46.9% boys and 183 (53.1% girls, a phased program of complex prophylaxis was created, covering the basic dental diseases in children living permanently in deficiency conditions. The program included: hygienic education of preschool children and their parents; exogenous medicament prevention; early identification and treatment of caries using conventional methods according to treatment protocols; endogenous non-medical prevention, nutrition correction have proved its effectiveness. Results: The indicator of caries prevention efficiency of the proposed scheme for children 5-7 (3-5 years is 69.5%; for children 8-10 age group (6-8 years - 66.9%. Conclusion: The main strategy of pediatric dental services in Ukraine should be created for the children population (aged up 18 years through national and regional programs for the primary prevention of main dental diseases with providing adequate financing in sufficient volume to preserve the nation's dental health for the next 20 years.

  18. Anterior cruciate ligament injuries in soccer: Loading mechanisms, risk factors, and prevention programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyi Dai

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injuries are common in soccer. Understanding ACL loading mechanisms and risk factors for ACL injury is critical for designing effective prevention programs. The purpose of this review is to summarize the relevant literature on ACL loading mechanisms, ACL injury risk factors, and current ACL injury prevention programs for soccer players. Literature has shown that tibial anterior translation due to shear force at the proximal end of tibia is the primary ACL loading mechanism. No evidence has been found showing that knee valgus moment is the primary ACL loading mechanism. ACL loading mechanisms are largely ignored in previous studies on risk factors for ACL injury. Identified risk factors have little connections to ACL loading mechanisms. The results of studies on ACL injury prevention programs for soccer players are inconsistent. Current ACL injury prevention programs for soccer players are clinically ineffective due to low compliance. Future studies are urgently needed to identify risk factors for ACL injury in soccer that are connected to ACL loading mechanisms and have cause-and-effect relationships with injury rate, and to develop new prevention programs to improve compliance.

  19. Identifying gaps, barriers, and solutions in implementing pressure ulcer prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Irene M; Nadzam, Deborah Morris

    2011-06-01

    Patients continue to suffer from pressure ulcers (PUs), despite implementation of evidence-based pressure ulcer (PU) prevention protocols. In 2009, Joint Commission Resources (JCR) and Hill-Rom created the Nurse Safety Scholar-in-Residence (nurse scholar) program to foster the professional development of expert nurse clinicians to become translators of evidence into practice. The first nurse scholar activity has focused on PU prevention. Four hospitals with established PU programs participated in the PU prevention implementation project. Each hospital's team completed an inventory of PU prevention program components and provided copies of accompanying documentation, along with prevalence and incidence data. Site visits to the four participating hospitals were arranged to provide opportunities for more in-depth analysis and support. Following the initial site visit, the project team at each hospital developed action plans for the top three barriers to PU program implementation. A series of conference calls was held between the site visits. Pressure Ulcer Program Gaps and Recommendations. The four hospitals shared common gaps in terms of limitations in staff education and training; lack of physician involvement; limited involvement of unlicensed nursing staff; lack of plan for communicating at-risk status; and limited quality improvement evaluations of bedside practices. Detailed recommendations were identified for addressing each of these gaps. these Recommendations for eliminating gaps have been implemented by the participating teams to drive improvement and to reduce hospital-acquired PU rates. The nurse scholars will continue to study implementation of best practices for PU prevention.

  20. 13 CFR 120.340 - What is the Export Working Capital Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What is the Export Working Capital... LOANS Special Purpose Loans Export Working Capital Program (ewcp) § 120.340 What is the Export Working Capital Program? Under the EWCP, SBA guarantees short-term working capital loans made by participating...