WorldWideScience

Sample records for prevention programme lessons

  1. E-mentoring for violence and injury prevention: early lessons from a global programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwaniya, Shirin; Meddings, David; Gururaj, Gopalkrishna; Ozanne-Smith, Joan; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Hyder, Adnan A

    2015-01-01

    To address the growing burden of violence and injuries, especially in low- and middle-income countries, in 2007 the World Health Organization launched MENTOR-VIP, a global violence and injury prevention (VIP)-mentoring programme. The programme aims to develop human resource capacity through 12-month mentoring arrangements between individual VIP experts (mentors) and less-experienced injury practitioners (mentees). In this paper, we review the first five years of the programme (2007-2011) using a systems analysis and SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) frameworks, discuss programme findings and make recommendations. A well-defined programme with clear instructions, successful matching of mentorship pairs with similar interests and language, a formal accord agreement, institutional support and effective communication were identified as programme strengths. Overambitious projects, lack of funds and difficulties with communications were identified as programme weaknesses. Mentorship projects that require institutional permissions or resources could be potential threats to the success of mentorship. The study resulted in the four following recommendations to strengthen the programme: (1) institute additional steps in selection and matching mentor-mentee pair; (2) train mentors on e-mentoring; (3) conduct special orientation for mentees to the programme; and (4) maintain effective and open communication throughout the programme.

  2. Accident prevention programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This study by the Steel Industry Safety and Health Commission was made within the context of the application by undertakings of the principles of accident and disease prevention previously adopted by the said Commission. It puts forward recommendations for the effective and gradual implementation of a programme of action on occupational health and safety in the various departments of an undertaking and in the undertaking as a whole. The methods proposed in this study are likely to be of interest to all undertakings in the metallurgical industry and other industrial sectors

  3. Sellafield Decommissioning Programme - Update and Lessons Learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutwyche, P. R.; Challinor, S. F.

    2003-01-01

    The Sellafield site in North West England has over 240 active facilities covering the full nuclear cycle from fuel manufacture through generation, reprocessing and waste treatment. The Sellafield decommissioning programme was formally initiated in the mid 1980s though several plants had been decommissioned prior to this primarily to create space for other plants. Since the initiation of the programme 7 plants have been completely decommissioned, significant progress has been made in a further 16 and a total of 56 major project phases have been completed. This programme update will explain the decommissioning arrangements and strategies and illustrate the progress made on a number of the plants including the Windscale Pile Chimneys, the first reprocessing plan and plutonium plants. These present a range of different challenges and requiring approaches from fully hands on to fully remote. Some of the key lessons learned will be highlighted

  4. Integrated Programme Control Systems: Lessons Learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, C. W. [Babcock International Group PLC (formerly UKAEA Ltd) B21 Forss, Thurso, Caithness, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2013-08-15

    Dounreay was the UK's centre of fast reactor research and development from 1955 until 1994 and is now Scotland's largest nuclear clean up and demolition project. After four decades of research, Dounreay is now a site of construction, demolition and waste management, designed to return the site to as near as practicable to its original condition. Dounreay has a turnover in the region of Pounds 150 million a year and employs approximately 900 people. It subcontracts work to 50 or so companies in the supply chain and this provides employment for a similar number of people. The plan for decommissioning the site anticipates all redundant buildings will be cleared in the short term. The target date to achieve interim end state by 2039 is being reviewed in light of Government funding constraints, and will be subject to change through the NDA led site management competition. In the longer term, controls will be put in place on the use of contaminated land until 2300. In supporting the planning, management and organisational aspects for this complex decommissioning programme an integrated programme controls system has been developed and deployed. This consists of a combination of commercial and bespoke tools integrated to support all aspects of programme management, namely scope, schedule, cost, estimating and risk in order to provide baseline and performance management data based upon the application of earned value management principles. Through system evolution and lessons learned, the main benefits of this approach are management data consistency, rapid communication of live information, and increased granularity of data providing summary and detailed reports which identify performance trends that lead to corrective actions. The challenges of such approach are effective use of the information to realise positive changes, balancing the annual system support and development costs against the business needs, and maximising system performance. (author)

  5. Lessons from obesity prevention for the prevention of mental disorders: the primordial prevention approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Joshua; Jacka, Felice N; Waters, Elizabeth; Allender, Steven

    2014-09-10

    Emerging evidence supports a relationship between risk factors for obesity and the genesis of the common mental disorders, depression and anxiety. This suggests common mental disorders should be considered as a form of non-communicable disease, preventable through the modification of lifestyle behaviours, particularly diet and physical activity. Obesity prevention research since the 1970's represents a considerable body of knowledge regarding strategies to modify diet and physical activity and so there may be clear lessons from obesity prevention that apply to the prevention of mental disorders. For obesity, as for common mental disorders, adolescence represents a key period of vulnerability. In this paper we briefly discuss relationships between modifiable lifestyle risk factors and mental health, lifestyle risk factor interventions in obesity prevention research, the current state of mental health prevention, and the implications of current applications of systems thinking in obesity prevention research for lifestyle interventions. We propose a potential focus for future mental health promotion interventions and emphasise the importance of lessons available from other lifestyle modification intervention programmes.

  6. Youth, Terrorism and Education: Britain's Prevent Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Since the 7/7 bombings of July 2005, Britain has experienced a domestic terror threat posed by a small minority of young Muslims. In response, Britain has initiated "Prevent," a preventative counter-terrorism programme. Building on previous, general critiques of Prevent, this article outlines and critically discusses the ways in which…

  7. Lessons Learned from Environmental Remediation Programmes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-03-15

    Several remediation projects have been developed to date, and experience with these projects has been accumulated. Lessons learned span from non-technical to technical aspects, and need to be shared with those who are beginning or are facing the challenge to implement environmental remediation works. This publication reviews some of these lessons. The key role of policy and strategies at the national level in framing the conditions in which remediation projects are to be developed and decisions made is emphasized. Following policy matters, this publication pays attention to the importance of social aspects and the requirement for fairness in decisions to be made, something that can only be achieved with the involvement of a broad range of interested parties in the decision making process. The publication also reviews the funding of remediation projects, planning, contracting, cost estimates and procurement, and issues related to long term stewardship. Lessons learned regarding technical aspects of remediation projects are reviewed. Techniques such as the application of cover systems and soil remediation (electrokinetics, phytoremediation, soil flushing, and solidification and stabilization techniques) are analysed with respect to performance and cost. After discussing soil remediation, the publication covers issues associated with water treatment, where techniques such as ‘pump and treat’ and the application of permeable barriers are reviewed. Subsequently, there is a section dedicated to reviewing briefly the lessons learned in the remediation of uranium mining and processing sites. Many of these sites throughout the world have become orphaned, and are waiting for remediation. The publication notes that little progress has been made in the management of some of these sites, particularly in the understanding of associated environmental and health risks, and the ability to apply prediction to future environmental and health standards. The publication concludes

  8. Lessons Learned from Environmental Remediation Programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Several remediation projects have been developed to date, and experience with these projects has been accumulated. Lessons learned span from non-technical to technical aspects, and need to be shared with those who are beginning or are facing the challenge to implement environmental remediation works. This publication reviews some of these lessons. The key role of policy and strategies at the national level in framing the conditions in which remediation projects are to be developed and decisions made is emphasized. Following policy matters, this publication pays attention to the importance of social aspects and the requirement for fairness in decisions to be made, something that can only be achieved with the involvement of a broad range of interested parties in the decision making process. The publication also reviews the funding of remediation projects, planning, contracting, cost estimates and procurement, and issues related to long term stewardship. Lessons learned regarding technical aspects of remediation projects are reviewed. Techniques such as the application of cover systems and soil remediation (electrokinetics, phytoremediation, soil flushing, and solidification and stabilization techniques) are analysed with respect to performance and cost. After discussing soil remediation, the publication covers issues associated with water treatment, where techniques such as ‘pump and treat’ and the application of permeable barriers are reviewed. Subsequently, there is a section dedicated to reviewing briefly the lessons learned in the remediation of uranium mining and processing sites. Many of these sites throughout the world have become orphaned, and are waiting for remediation. The publication notes that little progress has been made in the management of some of these sites, particularly in the understanding of associated environmental and health risks, and the ability to apply prediction to future environmental and health standards. The publication concludes

  9. National programme for prevention of burn injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta J

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The estimated annual burn incidence in India is approximately 6-7 million per year. The high incidence is attributed to illiteracy, poverty and low level safety consciousness in the population. The situation becomes further grim due to the absence of organized burn care at primary and secondary health care level. But the silver lining is that 90% of burn injuries are preventable. An initiative at national level is need of the hour to reduce incidence so as to galvanize the available resources for more effective and standardized treatment delivery. The National Programme for Prevention of Burn Injuries is the endeavor in this line. The goal of National programme for prevention of burn injuries (NPPBI would be to ensure prevention and capacity building of infrastructure and manpower at all levels of health care delivery system in order to reduce incidence, provide timely and adequate treatment to burn patients to reduce mortality, complications and provide effective rehabilitation to the survivors. Another objective of the programme will be to establish a central burn registry. The programme will be launched in the current Five Year Plan in Medical colleges and their adjoining district hospitals in few states. Subsequently, in the next five year plan it will be rolled out in all the medical colleges and districts hospitals of the country so that burn care is provided as close to the site of accident as possible and patients need not to travel to big cities for burn care. The programme would essentially have three components i.e. Preventive programme, Burn injury management programme and Burn injury rehabilitation programme.

  10. Integrating Prevention of Mother to Child HIV Transmission competencies into the nursing curriculum: Methodological lessons from a university-based undergraduate programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbombo, Nomafrench; Bimerew, Million

    2012-11-14

    South Africa (SA) has the highest number of women infected with HIV and AIDS during pregnancy, which results in more than 70 000 infected babies being born each year AIDS is the major contributor to maternal and child morbidities and mortalities in the country. To combat this, the SA government has developed a national policy to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT). However, for effective implementation of this policy, there is a dire need for a competent, skilled health worker to render the service. In response to this, the School of Nursing at the University of the Western Cape has integrated PMTCT competencies into the undergraduate Bachelor of Nursing Science curriculum. In this paper, we described teaching and learning approaches used to integrate PMTCT competencies, including the skills laboratory methodology and case-based learning, as well as a portfolio of evidence assessment tool. A quantitative descriptive design was used to analyse data collected from students in regard to assessment of PMTCT competencies achieved. The study used the conceptual framework of Lenburg's competency outcomes and performance assessment model, which focuses on competency development and assessment in a clinical environment. HIV competencies, including PMTCT, should be integrated both theoretically and at service delivery into other nursing and midwifery competencies, including assessment strategies. Provincial policies in provision of antiretrovirals by nurses and midwives become barriers to successful implementation of PMTCT, resulting in limited learning opportunities for students to practice PMTCT competencies. Further research is required to assess an attribute, affect, which is another prong for competencies.

  11. Determining Factors for Cyberbullying Prevention Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzuoli, Cristina Hennig; Medina, Liliana Cuesta

    2017-01-01

    This study reports on the first stages of a larger project to develop an ICT-supported cyberbullying prevention programme that fosters development of children's communication skills for the safe use of social media. To establish baseline data on the incidence and growth of cyberbullying in Bogotá, Colombia, we applied a Revised School Violence…

  12. The effects of a three-year smoking prevention programme in secondary schools in Helsinki.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartiainen, Erkki; Pennanen, Marjaana; Haukkala, Ari; Dijk, Froukje; Lehtovuori, Riku; De Vries, Hein

    2007-06-01

    This study evaluates the effects of a 3-year smoking prevention programme in secondary schools in Helsinki. The study is part of the European Smoking prevention Framework Approach (ESFA), in which Denmark, Finland, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain and the UK participated. A total of 27 secondary schools in Finland participated in the programme (n = 1821). Schools were randomised into experimental (13) and control groups (14). The programme included 14 information lessons about smoking and refusal skills training. The 3-year smoking prevention programme was also integrated into the standard curriculum. The community-element of the programme included parents, parish confirmation camps and dentists. The schools in the experimental group received the prevention programme and the schools in the control group received the standard health education curriculum. Among baseline never smokers (60.8%), the programme had a significant effect on the onset of weekly smoking in the experimental group [OR = 0.63 (0.45-0.90) P = 0.009] when compared with the control group. Being female, doing poorly at school, having parents and best friends who smoke and more pocket money to spend compared with others were associated with an increased likelihood of daily and weekly smoking onset. These predictors did not have an interaction effect with the experimental condition. This study shows that a school- and community-based smoking prevention programme can prevent smoking onset among adolescents.

  13. School-based programmes for preventing smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Roger E; McLellan, Julie; Perera, Rafael

    2013-04-30

    Helping young people to avoid starting smoking is a widely endorsed public health goal, and schools provide a route to communicate with nearly all young people. School-based interventions have been delivered for close to 40 years. The primary aim of this review was to determine whether school smoking interventions prevent youth from starting smoking. Our secondary objective was to determine which interventions were most effective. This included evaluating the effects of theoretical approaches; additional booster sessions; programme deliverers; gender effects; and multifocal interventions versus those focused solely on smoking. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group's Specialised Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, ERIC, CINAHL, Health Star, and Dissertation Abstracts for terms relating to school-based smoking cessation programmes. In addition, we screened the bibliographies of articles and ran individual MEDLINE searches for 133 authors who had undertaken randomised controlled trials in this area. The most recent searches were conducted in October 2012. We selected randomised controlled trials (RCTs) where students, classes, schools, or school districts were randomised to intervention arm(s) versus a control group, and followed for at least six months. Participants had to be youth (aged 5 to 18). Interventions could be any curricula used in a school setting to deter tobacco use, and outcome measures could be never smoking, frequency of smoking, number of cigarettes smoked, or smoking indices. Two reviewers independently assessed studies for inclusion, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Based on the type of outcome, we placed studies into three groups for analysis: Pure Prevention cohorts (Group 1), Change in Smoking Behaviour over time (Group 2) and Point Prevalence of Smoking (Group 3). One hundred and thirty-four studies involving 428,293 participants met the inclusion criteria. Some

  14. Public health lessons from a pilot programme to reduce mother-to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Public health lessons from a pilot programme to reduce mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 in Khayelitsha. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... took blood for HIV enzyme-linked imrnunosorbent assay (EUSA) testing.

  15. School-based programmes for preventing smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R; Perera, R

    2006-07-19

    Smoking rates in adolescents are rising in some countries. Helping young people to avoid starting smoking is a widely endorsed goal of public health, but there is uncertainty about how to do this. Schools provide a route for communicating with a large proportion of young people, and school-based programmes for smoking prevention have been widely developed and evaluated. To review all randomized controlled trials of behavioural interventions in schools to prevent children (aged 5 to12) and adolescents (aged 13 to18) starting smoking. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group's Specialized Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsyclNFO, ERIC, CINAHL, Health Star, Dissertation Abstracts and studies identified in the bibliographies of articles. Individual MEDLINE searches were made for 133 authors who had undertaken randomized controlled trials in this area. Types of studies: those in which individual students, classes, schools, or school districts were randomized to the intervention or control groups and followed for at least six months. Children (aged 5 to12) or adolescents (aged 13 to18) in school settings. Types of interventions: Classroom programmes or curricula, including those with associated family and community interventions, intended to deter use of tobacco. We included programmes or curricula that provided information, those that used social influences approaches, those that taught generic social competence, and those that included interventions beyond the school into the community. We included programmes with a drug or alcohol focus if outcomes for tobacco use were reported. Types of outcome measures: Prevalence of non-smoking at follow up among those not smoking at baseline. We did not require biochemical validation of self-reported tobacco use for study inclusion. We assessed whether identified citations were randomized controlled trials. We assessed the quality of design and execution, and

  16. The Management of innovation: Lessons from a Danish Development Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lennie

    1997-01-01

    The paper reports from an ongoing Danish development programme entitled "Process and Product Development in the Building Industry". The programme is a joint initiatvie, initiated by the Ministry of Housing and Building and the Ministry of Busines and Industry. In a competition in 1994 four...... consortia representing actors of the whole value chain were chosen to carry out innovation projects during a 4-year period, including experimental building projects. The paper describes the programme with respect to its background and organisation, the basic development ideas of the four consortia...... in the consortia.Keywords: R&D programme, innovation, experimental building projects, consortia....

  17. Lessons learnt from a three-year pilot field epidemiology training programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Damian; Durand, A Mark; Hancock, Thane; Cash, Haley L; Hardie, Kate; Paterson, Beverley; Paulino, Yvette; White, Paul; Merritt, Tony; Fitzgibbons, Dawn; Gopalani, Sameer Vali; Flint, James; Edwin A Merilles, Onofre; Kashiwabara, Mina; Biaukula, Viema; Lepers, Christelle; Souares, Yvan; Nilles, Eric; Batikawai, Anaseini; Huseynova, Sevil; Patel, Mahomed; Saketa, Salanieta T; Durrheim, David; Henderson, Alden; Roth, Adam

    2017-01-01

    The Pacific region has widely dispersed populations, limited financial and human resources and a high burden of disease. There is an urgent need to improve the availability, reliability and timeliness of useable health data. The purpose of this paper is to share lessons learnt from a three-year pilot field epidemiology training programme that was designed to respond to these Pacific health challenges. The pilot programme built on and further developed an existing field epidemiology training programme for Pacific health staff. The programme was delivered in country by epidemiologists working for Pacific Public Health Surveillance Network partners. The programme consisted of five courses: four one-week classroom-based courses and one field epidemiology project. Sessions were structured so that theoretical understanding was achieved through interaction and reinforced through practical hands-on group activities, case studies and other interactive practical learning methods. As of September 2016, 258 students had commenced the programme. Twenty-six course workshops were delivered and one cohort of students had completed the full five-course programme. The programme proved popular and gained a high level of student engagement. Face-to-face delivery, a low student-to-facilitator ratio, substantial group work and practical exercises were identified as key factors that contributed to the students developing skills and confidence. Close engagement of leaders and the need to quickly evaluate and adapt the curriculum were important lessons, and the collaboration between external partners was considered important for promoting a harmonized approach to health needs in the Pacific.

  18. Youth, terrorism and education: Britain’s Prevent programme

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Since the 7/7 bombings of July 2005, Britain has experienced a domestic terror threat posed by a small minority of young Muslims. In response, Britain has initiated ‘Prevent’, a preventative counter-terrorism programme. Building on previous, general critiques of Prevent, this article outlines and critically discusses the ways in which Prevent has approached young Muslims and their educational institutions. The article argues that, rather than trust in broader and non-stigmatising processes of...

  19. National infection prevention and control programmes: Endorsing quality of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stempliuk, Valeska; Ramon-Pardo, Pilar; Holder, Reynaldo

    2014-01-01

    Core components Health care-associated infections (HAIs) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. In addition to pain and suffering, HAIs increase the cost of health care and generates indirect costs from loss of productivity for patients and society as a whole. Since 2005, the Pan American Health Organization has provided support to countries for the assessment of their capacities in infection prevention and control (IPC). More than 130 hospitals in 18 countries were found to have poor IPC programmes. However, in the midst of many competing health priorities, IPC programmes are not high on the agenda of ministries of health, and the sustainability of national programmes is not viewed as a key point in making health care systems more consistent and trustworthy. Comprehensive IPC programmes will enable countries to reduce the mobility, mortality and cost of HAIs and improve quality of care. This paper addresses the relevance of national infection prevention and control (NIPC) programmes in promoting, supporting and reinforcing IPC interventions at the level of hospitals. A strong commitment from national health authorities in support of national IPC programmes is crucial to obtaining a steady decrease of HAIs, lowering health costs due to HAIs and ensuring safer care.

  20. Preventing Unplanned Pregnancy and Completing College: An Evaluation of Online Lessons. 2nd Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonishak, Jill; Connolly, Chelsey

    2014-01-01

    The National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy published free online lessons that help students take action to prevent unplanned pregnancy and complete their education. From the fall of 2012 to the spring of 2014, approximately 2,800 students took the online lessons and participated in pre- and post-lesson evaluation surveys at four…

  1. Development of an HIV Prevention Videogame: Lessons Learned

    OpenAIRE

    Kimberly Hieftje; Lynn E. Fiellin; Tyra Pendergrass; Lindsay R Duncan

    2016-01-01

    The use of videogames interventions is becoming an increasingly popular and effective strategy in disease prevention and health promotion; however, few health videogame interventions have been scientifically rigorously evaluated for their efficacy. Moreover, few examples of the formative process used to develop and evaluate evidence-based health videogame interventions exist in the scientific literature. The following paper provides valuable insight into the lessons learned during the process...

  2. tanzania danida dental health programme progress in prevention

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gramme have been reactivated. Three of these projects deal with prevention only and more specifically with dental health education of the population. These projects are the. Tanzania School Health Programme, our work. 8 with the MCH system and, the continuing educa- tion of dental personnel to reorient them towards.

  3. Lessons learnt from a three-year pilot field epidemiology training programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Hoy

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Problem: The Pacific region has widely dispersed populations, limited financial and human resources and a high burden of disease. There is an urgent need to improve the availability, reliability and timeliness of useable health data. Context: The purpose of this paper is to share lessons learnt from a three-year pilot field epidemiology training programme that was designed to respond to these Pacific health challenges. The pilot programme built on and further developed an existing field epidemiology training programme for Pacific health staff. Action: The programme was delivered in country by epidemiologists working for Pacific Public Health Surveillance Network partners. The programme consisted of five courses: four one-week classroom-based courses and one field epidemiology project. Sessions were structured so that theoretical understanding was achieved through interaction and reinforced through practical hands-on group activities, case studies and other interactive practical learning methods. Outcome: As of September 2016, 258 students had commenced the programme. Twenty-six course workshops were delivered and one cohort of students had completed the full five-course programme. The programme proved popular and gained a high level of student engagement. Discussion: Face-to-face delivery, a low student-to-facilitator ratio, substantial group work and practical exercises were identified as key factors that contributed to the students developing skills and confidence. Close engagement of leaders and the need to quickly evaluate and adapt the curriculum were important lessons, and the collaboration between external partners was considered important for promoting a harmonized approach to health needs in the Pacific.

  4. Development of an HIV Prevention Videogame: Lessons Learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Hieftje

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of videogames interventions is becoming an increasingly popular and effective strategy in disease prevention and health promotion; however, few health videogame interventions have been scientifically rigorously evaluated for their efficacy. Moreover, few examples of the formative process used to develop and evaluate evidence-based health videogame interventions exist in the scientific literature. The following paper provides valuable insight into the lessons learned during the process of developing the risk reduction and HIV prevention videogame intervention for young adolescents, PlayForward: Elm City Stories. 

  5. The Focus on Youth Prevention and Education Research Programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynette Deveaux

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Like many developing or transitional countries affected by the HIV epidemic, The Bahamas has been deeply committed to HIV and sexually transmitted infection reduction and continues to make great strides in controlling the epidemic within its boundaries. Encouraged by the impact of the Focus on Youth Caribbean (FOYC, a school-based HIV/AIDS prevention programme and its parenting component on Grade 6 and Grade 10 students and their parents, a team of researchers from The Bahamas and the United States sought to implement a similar programme at a national level, while simultaneously evaluating factors that impact the sustainability of sexual risk-reduction programmes like FOYC. This paper describes five research projects conducted in The Bahamas between 1998 and 2016 and includes a list of over 40 published research articles

  6. Design lessons from using programmable controllers in the MFTF-B personnel safety and interlocks system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branum, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    Applying programmable controllers in critical applications such as personnel safety and interlocks systems requires special considerations in the design of both hardware and software. All modern programmable controller systems feature extensive internal diagnostic capabilities to protect against problems such as program memory errors; however most, if not all present designs lack an intrinsic capability for detecting and countering failures on the field-side of their I/O modules. Many of the most common styles of I/O modules can also introduce potentially dangerous sneak circuits, even without component failure. This paper presents the most significant lessons learned to date in the design of the MFTF-B Personnel Safety and Interlocks System, which utilizes two non-redundant programmable controllers with over 800 I/O points each. Specific problems recognized during the design process as well as those discovered during initial testing and operation are discussed along with their specific solutions in hardware and software

  7. Preventive psychosocial parental and school programmes in a general population

    OpenAIRE

    Löfgren, Hans O.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Numerous preventive programmes have emerged, and need to be investigated to determine their effects on the normal population. Earlier studies have shown a decrease in depressive symptoms, positive effects on children’s disruptive behaviour problems, and an improvement in parental competence. About a fifth of the parents in previous studies had problem-oriented (targeted) reasons for enrolment, whereas the rest of the parents had general (universal) reasons. The results of those s...

  8. Environmental radioprotection: main lessons learnt from the Envirhom programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnier-Laplace, J.; Adam, C.; Gilbin, R.; Simon, O.; Tran, D.; Massabuau, J.C.; Fortin, C.; Denison, D.; Pradines, C.; Floriani, M.; Henner, P.

    2004-01-01

    Within the field of chronic low-level exposure of ecosystems to radionuclides where data are critically sparse, the ENVIRHOM research programme launched two years ago at the Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, proposes to acquire the needed knowledge for Ecological Risk Assessment specific to bioaccumulation of alpha and beta emitters in living organisms. Gaps of knowledge within this field constitute a strong limitation to our capability to make a reasonable risk estimate. Internal doses cannot be accurately calculated and potentially associated biological effects at any organization level remain fairly unknown. As a result, derivation of ecologically relevant and knowledge-based predicted no-effects concentrations becomes a critical issue in ERA. The scope of this presentation is to illustrate the relevance of the development of a greater depth of understanding of radionuclide fate and biological effects at several hierarchical levels to support quantitative risk assessments with defined and acceptable uncertainty bounds. The following crucial issues are discussed and exemplified for uranium and other alpha or beta emitters. First, radionuclide bioavailability is a key knowledge to an accurate assessment of both exposure and effect and media quality criteria are needed. Second, specificities of chronic exposures have to be taken into account to obtain accurate dose estimates and induced effects, as exposure conditions (concentration and duration) strongly modify the radionuclide internal distribution at various biological scales. Lastly, considering different scales for biological effects (from early to delayed, from subcellular to high organisation level) is crucial to evidence ecologically relevant indicators. A global overview of operational data from ENVIRHOM - media criteria to assess exposure, dose-effects relationships at various biological scales that constitute primary data to introduce radionuclides in ERA methods in a consistent manner

  9. Pollution prevention program for new projects -- Lessons learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lum, J. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-03-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to relay the experience of the Office of New Production Reactors (NP) in developing and implementing its pollution prevention program. NP was established to plan, design, and construct a new safe and environmentally acceptable nuclear reactor capacity necessary to provide an assured supply of tritium to maintain the nation`s long-term deterrent capability. The Program offered the Department of Energy an opportunity to demonstrate its commitment to environmental protection via minimization of environmental releases; new design offers the best opportunity for pollution prevention. The NP pollution prevention program was never fully implemented because NP`s tritium production design activity was recovery terminated. The information in this paper represented lessons learned from the last three years of NP operation.

  10. Mediterranean fruit fly preventative release programme in southern California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowell, Robert V.; Meyer, Fred; Siddiqu, Isi A.; Leon Spaugy, E.

    2000-01-01

    California employs several area-wide pest management programmes that use the release of sterile insects to protect its commercial and dooryard agriculture. The first was developed in response to the discovery of the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens, in Tijuana, Mexico and adjacent areas in San Diego County, California. Initially pesticide sprays of malathion and bait were applied to host plants around each fly find site. Additionally, soil sprays of diazion (0.05 kg per 93 m 2 ) were applied under every host plant around each fly find site. It soon became apparent that this approach was expensive and environmentally damaging. This led the interested parties, the California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA), the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the government of Mexico to develop a programme that utilises the release of sterile Mexican fruit flies over the city of Tijuana in order to prevent the establishment of a breeding population of this fly in the city. The belief is that preventing the Mexican fruit fly from breeding in Tijuana will help protect both that city and California. To date, no Mexican fruit fly larvae have been found in Tijuana or the adjacent areas of California. The second programme was developed in response to the discovery of the pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella, in cotton in the Imperial Valley area of southern California. As the pink bollworm spread throughout the cotton growing region of southern California, it became a significant pest that threatened the 405,000 hectares of cotton grown in the San Joaquin Valley to the north. To keep this pest out of the San Joaquin Valley, the CDFA/USDA and California cotton growers use the large-scale releases of sterile pink bollworms in areas in which wild pink bollworms are captured each year. Thus far, the pink bollworm has been prevented from establishing a permanent presence in the San Joaquin Valley and the cotton growers in southern California, Arizona and

  11. Effectiveness of a universal school-based programme for preventing depression in Chinese adolescents: a quasi-experimental pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Paul W C; Fu, King-Wa; Chan, Kim Y K; Chan, Wincy S C; Liu, Patricia M Y; Law, Yik-Wa; Yip, Paul S F

    2012-12-15

    Evidence of the effectiveness, rather than efficacy, of universal school-based programmes for preventing depression among adolescents is limited. This study examined the effectiveness of a universal depression prevention programme, "The Little Prince is Depressed" (LPD), which adopted the cognitive-behavioural model and aimed to reduce depressive symptoms and enhance protective factors of depression among secondary school students in Hong Kong. A quasi-experimental design was adopted for this pilot study. Thirteen classes were assigned to the intervention or control conditions according to the deliberation of the programme administrator of the four participating schools. Implementation was carried out in two phases, with a professional-led first phase and teacher-led programme second phase. LPD consisted of a 12-week school-based face-to-face programme with psycho-educational lessons and homework assignments. Students completed the programme generally showed positive development in help-seeking attitudes and self-esteem. For students who had more depressive symptoms at pre-assessment, the programme was found to be significant in enhancing cognitive-restructuring skills and support-seeking behaviours. The programme was not, however, found to be statistically significant in reducing depressive symptoms of the participants over the study period. A small sample size, a high attrition rate, and a short follow-up time frame. The LPD programme was successful in building resilience of the students in general and enhancing the cognitive-behavioural skills of students with depressive symptoms. While we did not find sufficient evidence for concluding that the LPD was effective in reducing depressive symptoms, we believe that these results highlight the challenges of implementing evidence-based practices generated from highly controlled environments in real-life settings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. An evidence-based oral health promotion programme: Lessons from Leicester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, J M; Burch, T E; Dickenson, A J; Wong, J; Moore, R

    2018-03-01

    To provide an overview and draw lessons from the establishment of a local oral health promotion programme for preschool children in Leicester, England (2013-2017). The article provides information on the strategic approach taken in Leicester, one of the most ethnically diverse cities in England, and also one of the most deprived. Over a third of children aged 3 years, and half of those aged 5 years, have experience of obvious dental decay. A description of the evolution and development of the programme is provided along with commentary by the authors. This includes the origins, design and evaluation of the programme. Progress so far has been promising. There has been a statistically significant 8% decrease in the proportion of 5-year-old children in Leicester with dental decay from 2011/2012 to 2014/2015. This will need to be sustained and further developed to deliver the 10% reduction required within the strategy. The successful implementation of a local oral health improvement programme in Leicester has required leadership to coordinate a multiagency partnership approach to embedding effective concepts and realising opportunities collaboratively. However, longer term sustainability remains a concern. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Programme and policy options for preventing obesity in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H; Zhai, F

    2013-11-01

    By 2002, China's prevalence of overweight and obesity among adults was 18.9 and 2.9%, respectively. The replacement of traditional Chinese diet with 'Western diet', major declines in all phases of activity and increased sedentary activity are cited as the main reasons explaining the rapid increase in overweight and obesity, which bring major economic and health costs. The Nutrition Improvement Work Management Approach was released in 2010. Overweight and obesity prevention-related policies were added to national planning for disease prevention and control. The Guidelines for Prevention and Control of Overweight and Obesity of Chinese Adults and the School-age Children and Teenagers Overweight and Obesity Prevention and Control Guidelines in China were promulgated in 2003 and 2007, respectively. Few education programmes have been implemented. Selected academic intervention research projects dominate with a focus on reducing child obesity and promoting healthier diets; increasing physical activity and reducing sedentary time; and facilitating changes in family, school, social and cultural environments. Intervention samples are small and have not addressed the increasing rates of obesity throughout the entire population. Government provision of effective policy measures, multisectoral cooperation and increasing corporate social responsibility are keys to curbing the trend towards overweight and obesity in China. © 2013 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  14. The effects of preventive mental health programmes in secondary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Bror Just

    2013-01-01

    The author wanted to test the effects of preventive mental health programmes in schools and established a longitudinal study with a test group and a control group, using Solomon's method. Data was collected through questionnaires prior to intervention and at 1, 6, 12, and 24 months after the intervention. The size of the effect on the various indices were estimated in terms of (a) differences in improvement of total percentage scores and (b) Cohen's d. From to to t1, t2 and t3 the intervention group showed significantly greater progress in six out of seven knowledge indexes, and 12 months later we found significant effects on the level of mental health problems.

  15. Tobacco Use Prevention Education. K-12 Lesson Plans from the Montana Model Curriculum for Health Enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montana State Office of Public Instruction, Helena.

    This publication presents K-12 tobacco use prevention lesson plans for schools in the state of Montana. Lessons for students in grades K-6 include: family connections; body tracing; smokeless tobacco; prenatal development; tobacco look-alikes; tobacco chemicals; analyzing tobacco and alcohol ads; tobacco use and the lungs; and a personal health…

  16. Accrediting the MD Programme in Sultan Qaboos University: Process, Earned Benefits, and Lessons Learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulayma Albarwani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The MD Programme of the College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, has been accredited recently. The College has been preparing for this event for more than ten years and wishes to share its experience with other regional medical colleges. The process of accreditation per se took less than three years to complete and most of the time was spent to prepare for the process; to build-up capacity in addition to implementing curricular reforms and other requirements that were needed to comply with accreditation standards. In the end of this exercise, the College has earned many benefits as well as learned some lessons. This article describes the most notable activities and events and discusses how the College responded to the challenges posed.

  17. An evaluation of a public health practitioner registration programme: lessons learned for workforce development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Em; Wills, Jane

    2014-09-01

    This article explores the lessons learned for workforce development from an evaluation of a regional programme to support the assessment and registration of public health practitioners to the UK Public Health Register (UKPHR) in England. A summative and process evaluation of the public health practitioner programme in Wessex was adopted. Data collection was by an online survey of 32 public health practitioners in the Wessex area and semi-structured interviews with 53 practitioners, programme support, employers and system leaders. All survey respondents perceived regulation of the public health workforce as very important or important. Managers and system leaders saw a register of those fit to practise and able to define themselves as a public health practitioner as a necessary assurance of quality for the public. Yet, because registration is voluntary for practitioners, less value was currently placed on this than on completing a master's qualification. The local programme supports practitioners in the compilation of a retrospective portfolio of evidence that demonstrates fitness to practise; practitioners and managers stated that this does not support current and future learning needs or the needs of those working at a senior level. One of the main purposes of statutory regulation of professionals is to protect the public by an assurance of fitness to practise where there is a potential for harm. The widening role for public health practitioners without any regulation means that there is the risk of inappropriate interventions or erroneous advice. Regulators, policy makers and system leaders need to consider how they can support the development of the public health workforce to gain professional recognition at all levels of public health, including practitioners alongside specialists, and support a professional career framework for the public health system. © Royal Society for Public Health 2014.

  18. Community-based osteoporosis prevention: Physical activity in relation to bone density, fall prevention, and the effect of training programmes : The Vadstena Osteoporosis Prevention Project

    OpenAIRE

    Grahn Kronhed, Ann-Charlotte

    2003-01-01

    This thesis is based on studies of the ten-year community-based intervention programme entitled, the Vadstena Osteoporosis Prevention Project (VOPP). The specific aims of the research were to describe the effects of physical activity and training programmes on bone mass and balance performance in adults, to determine whether a fall risk prevention programme could motivate personal actions among the elderly, to ascertain whether the intervention programme could reduce the incidence of forearm ...

  19. Process Evaluation of the Teacher Training for an AIDS Prevention Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Nazeema; Flisher, Alan J.; Mathews, Catherine; Jansen, Shahieda; Mukoma, Wanjiru; Schaalma, Herman

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides a process evaluation of a 6-day teacher training programme which forms part of a sexuality education project. The training aimed at providing teachers with the necessary knowledge and skills to effectively teach a 16-lesson Grade 8 (14 year olds) life skills curriculum consisting of participatory exercises on sexual…

  20. Empowering teenagers to prevent pregnancy: lessons from South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewkes, Rachel; Morrell, Robert; Christofides, Nicola

    2009-10-01

    Reducing rates of teenage pregnancy is an important part of the agenda of action for meeting most of the Millenium Development Goals. South Africa has important lessons for other countries in this regard as the rate of teenage pregnancy is high but has declined very substantially over the last twenty years. The country experiences waves of moral panic about teenage pregnancy, with assertions that current problems are rooted in accepting or even encouraging the sexual appetites of young people rather than sternly disciplining them. In this paper, we argue that the key to success in teenage pregnancy reduction has been an empowering social policy agenda that has sought to work with young people, making them aware of their rights and the risks of sexual intercourse. Furthermore, family responses and education policy have greatly reduced the potential negative impact of teenage pregnancy on the lives of teenage girls. There is tremendous scope for further progress in reducing teenage pregnancy and we argue that this lies in paying more attention to issues of gender and sexuality, including the terms and conditions under which teenagers have sex. There needs to be critical reflection and engagement with men and boys on issues of masculinity, including their role in child rearing, as well as examination within families of their engagement with supporting pregnancy prevention and responses to pregnancies.

  1. Linking agriculture and nutrition education to improve infant and young child feeding: Lessons for future programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlhoff, Ellen; Wijesinha-Bettoni, Ramani; Westaway, Elizabeth; Jeremias, Theresa; Nordin, Stacia; Garz, Julia

    2017-10-01

    Agriculture and food systems play a central role in nutrition by supplying nutritious, healthy and affordable foods. When integrated with nutrition education for behaviour change, agricultural interventions that supply diverse affordable foods from all food groups have great scope for improving young child and family diets. In 2014, process reviews were conducted in Cambodia and Malawi of food security projects that provided agricultural support and community-based nutrition education on improved infant and young child feeding (IYCF). In both countries, household visits were carried out with mothers/caregivers, and interviews and Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) were conducted with purposively selected project stakeholders (53 in Cambodia, 170 in Malawi), including government staff from the agriculture and health sectors. Results highlight that adoption of improved IYCF practices was facilitated by participation in nutrition education and practical cooking sessions, and supportive family and community structures. Barriers faced by families and caregivers were identified, such as women's workload and lack of access to high quality foods, namely fruits, vegetables, legumes, nuts and animal source foods. Implementation challenges regarding coordination of cross-sectoral targeting strategies and capacities of extension services to sustain community-based IYCF nutrition education need to be addressed to improve programme effectiveness and impact. The project lessons from Cambodia and Malawi are useful for integrated agriculture-IYCF nutrition education programmes to help ensure better young child nutrition outcomes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Control of zoonoses in emergency situations: lessons learned during recent outbreaks (gaps and weaknesses of current zoonoses control programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darem Tabbaa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In emergency situations, domestic animals and wildlife are, like people, exposed to infectious diseases and environmental contaminants in the air, soil, water and food. They can suffer from acute and/or chronic diseases from such exposure. Often animals serve as disease reservoirs or early warning systems for the community in regard to the spread of zoonotic diseases. Over 100 years of experience have shown that animal and human health are closely related. During the past few years, emergent disease episodes have increased; nearly all have involved zoonotic agents. As there is no way to predict when or where the next important new zoonotic pathogen will emerge or what its ultimate importance might be, investigation at the first sign of emergence of a new zoonotic disease is particularly important. Today, in many emerging situations, different activities involving zoonotic disease control are at risk because of failed investigative infrastructures or financial constraints. Considering that zoonotic diseases have their own characteristics, their prevention and control require unique strategies, based more on fundamental and applied research than on traditional approaches. Such strategies require cooperation and coordination between animal and public health sectors and the involvement of other disciplines and experts such as epidemiologists, entomologists, environmentalists and climatologists. Lessons learned from the avian influenza pandemic threat, the Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever and rabies outbreaks are presented and the gaps and weakness of current control programmes are discussed.

  3. Haemoglobinopathies in Greece: prevention programme over the past 35 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukopoulos, Dimitris

    2011-10-01

    At present, prevention of thalassaemia and sickle cell disease is the only realistic approach to control the birth of new patients in countries having high numbers of carriers. This is fully justified because avoiding the birth of an ever increasing number of patients may allow a more effective use of the available resources in improving the management of the patients surviving today and alleviate the already overloaded public health system from the inevitable tremendous and ever increasing cost. Moreover, prenatal diagnosis may help couples at risk to have non-thalassaemic children. Greece is one of the countries where the mean frequency of carriers is approximately 7.5 per cent (population 11 million) and has set up a nationwide programme for carrier identification in the early seventies; this is provided through a dozen of specific Units attached to the major Blood Transfusion Services of the country, on a voluntary basis and free of charge. Spread of information through mass media, the schools, and other groups has greatly contributed in creating the necessary sensitization; obstetricians and antenatal Clinics are also instrumental to this effect. Prenatal diagnosis is offered centrally (Athens) and covers satisfactorily the estimated needs (500-600 annually); the total number has already exceeded 35,000. According to information obtained from the major paediatric hospitals all over the country, the number of thalassaemia major or SCD admitted for treatment over the last ten years has been around 15 yearly (instead of an estimate of 120-130).

  4. Monitoring and evaluation of strategic change programme implementation-Lessons from a case analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Jan; Robson, Andrew; Sloan, Diane

    2018-02-01

    This study considered the monitoring and evaluation of a large-scale and domestic and global strategic change programme implementation. It considers the necessary prerequisites to overcome challenges and barriers that prevent systematic and effective monitoring and evaluation to take place alongside its operationalisation. The work involves a case study based on a major industrial company from the energy sector. The change programme makes particular reference to changes in business models, business processes, organisation structures as well as Enterprise Resource Planning infrastructure. The case study focussed on the summative evaluation of the programme post-implementation. This assessment involved 25 semi-structured interviews with employees across a range of managerial strata capturing more than 65 roles within the change programme at both local and global levels. Data relating to their perception of evaluation effectiveness and shortcomings were analysed by means of template analysis. The study identifies responsibilities for executing an evaluation alongside various methods and tools that are appropriate, thereby focussing on the "Who" (roles, responsibility for particular activities) and "How" (methods and tools) rather than "What" to monitor and evaluate. The findings are presented generically so they offer new insights and transferability for practitioners involved in managing strategic change and its associated evaluation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Simalelo Peer Education Programme for HIV prevention: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the project was to evaluate a peer education programme in Zambia run by local people in relation to changes in behaviours, the effects of the programme on the community and the dynamics of peer health promotion. A qualitative process evaluation using focus groups consisting of both participants in the peer ...

  6. Effect of a universal anxiety prevention programme (FRIENDS) on children's academic performance: results from a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skryabina, Elena; Taylor, Gordon; Stallard, Paul

    2016-11-01

    Evaluations of school-based anxiety prevention programmes have reported improvements in psychological functioning although little is known about their effect upon educational outcomes. One thousand three hundred and sixty-two children from 40 primary schools in England took part in the randomised controlled trial, Preventing Anxiety in Children through Education in Schools. The trial investigated the effectiveness of a universal school-based cognitive behaviour therapy prevention programme, FRIENDS, delivered by health care staff or school staff compared with usual personal, social, health and education (PSHE) lessons. Self-report psychological outcomes and educational attainment on national standardised attainment tests in reading, writing and maths were collected 12 months postintervention. Analysis was performed at individual level using multivariable mixed effect models controlling for gender, type of intervention and school effect. Registered trial: ISRCTN: 23563048. At 12 months, anxiety reduced in the health-led FRIENDS group compared to school-led FRIENDS and PSHE. There were no between-group differences in academic performance regardless of gender, deprivation, ethnicity and additional educational needs. School-based mental health interventions should assess psychological and educational outcomes. Further research should directly compare the effects of interventions led by health and school staff. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  7. A systematic review of education programmes to prevent concussion in rugby union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraas, Michael R; Burchiel, Jessica

    2016-11-01

    There is a high incidence of concussion sustained by athletes participating in rugby union, many of which go unreported. A lack of sufficient knowledge about concussion injuries may explain athletes' failure to report. Several rugby union-playing countries have developed injury education and prevention programmes to address this issue. The aim of the current review was to systematically assess the content and level of evidence on concussion education/prevention programmes in rugby union and to make recommendations for the quality, strength, and consistency of this evidence. We searched PubMed, PsycInfo, MEDLINE, SPORTDiscuss, Webofscience, and conducted a manual search for articles. Ten articles were included for review. Of these, six focused on the BokSmart injury prevention programme in South Africa, two focused on the RugbySmart injury prevention programme in New Zealand, one was an analysis of prevention programmes, and one was a systematic review of rugby injury prevention strategies. Despite the initiative to develop concussion education and prevention programmes, there is little evidence to support the effectiveness of such programmes. There is evidence to support education of coaches and referees. In addition, there is scant evidence to suggest that education and rule changes may have the benefit of changing athlete behaviours resulting in a reduction in catastrophic injury.

  8. Industry sponsored youth smoking prevention programme in Malaysia: a case study in duplicity

    OpenAIRE

    Assunta, M; Chapman, S

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To review tobacco company strategies of using youth smoking prevention programmes to counteract the Malaysian government's tobacco control legislation and efforts in conducting research on youth to market to them.

  9. Abstinence And Faithfulness Programmes For Prevention Of Hiv ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Questions have been raised on whether abstinence and faithfulness programs work, particularly for young people. Research is needed for evidence-based documentation of the effectiveness or otherwise of abstinence and faithfulness programmes in young people. This review was conducted in three stages: identification ...

  10. Trialling a shaken baby syndrome prevention programme in the Auckland District Health Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Patrick; Wilson, Kati; Mowjood, Aqeela; Friedman, Joshua; Reed, Peter

    2016-02-19

    To describe and evaluate a shaken baby prevention programme trialled in the Auckland District Health Board from January 2010, to December 2011. Development and implementation of the programme, telephone survey of a sample of caregivers and written survey of a sample of providers. At least 2,592 caregivers received the trial programme. 150 (6%) were surveyed by telephone a median of 6 weeks later. 128 (85%) remembered at least one key message, unprompted; most commonly "It's OK to walk away" (94/150, 63%). When asked, 92% had made a plan for what to do when frustrated and 63% had shared the information with others. Only 98/150 (65%) watched the programme DVD. Many said they already knew about the risks of shaking a baby, but still found the programme highly relevant. Thirty-one nurses were surveyed. There was a high degree of agreement that the programme was relevant. Barriers to programme delivery included time, workload and the documentation required. A shaken baby prevention programme adapted to New Zealand can be introduced in a District Health Board and is acceptable to caregivers and health professionals. Further research is needed to evaluate the content, mode of delivery and effectiveness of this programme.

  11. [Preliminary results of a community fall prevention programme: Precan study (falls prevention in La Ribera)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ros, Pilar; Martínez-Arnau, Francisco; Tormos Miñana, Immaculada; López Aracil, Aranzazu; Oltra Sanchis, M Carmen; Pechene Mera, Leidy E; Tarazona-Santabalbina, Francisco José

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the results of a fall prevention programme designed to be applied to the elderly living in the community. The sample consisted of 249 participants ≥70 years of age, who were randomly assigned to one of three groups. The monthly intervention group (GIM): instructions on fall prevention and healthy exercises to improve physical function and balance at beginning of the study, and a monthly theoretical and practical refresher session. The quarterly intervention group (GIT), with the same beginning intervention and a refresher session every three months. The control group (GC), the same beginning intervention but no refresher sessions. The mean age of the sample was 74.47 years (SD 5.33), with 64% women. The incidence of falls was reduced from 0.64 per patient year in the previous year to 0.39 in the post-intervention year in GIM, from 0.49 to 0.47 in GIT, and in the GC it remained at 0.47 before and twelve months after, but with no significant differences in the reduction between groups (P=.062). At the end of the study there was a decrease in Rizzo scale of 0.72 points (95% CI: 0.57-0.88, Pfalls. Further studies are required to continue research into the incidence of falls in the elderly living in the community. Copyright © 2013 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. [Participant structure and economic benefit of prevention bonus programmes in company health insurance funds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrichs, M; Friedel, H; Bödeker, W

    2009-10-01

    This study investigates differences in sex, age, and educational level between participants and non-participants of prevention bonus programmes. The differences in the utilisation of drugs, hospital care, and sickness absence before the start of the programmes between these groups are also shown. Finally the economic benefit of the health insurance funds attributed to these programmes is estimated. Data from some 5.2 million insured subjects of 74 company health insurance funds in Germany were linked to information on enrollment into a prevention bonus programme anonymously. In a descriptive analysis the differences in the sociodemographic patterns between both groups are shown as well as the differences in costs to the health insurances in the three sectors mentioned above. The benefit to the health insurance funds is estimated by means of an analysis of covariance. Prevention bonus programmes yields an annual benefit of at least 129 euro per participant. Men aged 40 and older and women aged 30 and older are more likely to opt into such a programme. The same is true for persons with a higher educational level. There are only few differences in health-care utilisation between the participants and non-participants of the programmes before enrollment. Only 1.4% of all insured persons participated in the programmes. There is at least a short-term gain to both involved parties: the insured and the health insurance funds. The programmes are not dominated by deadweight effects. Long-term effects and effectiveness of prevention bonus programmes still have to be investigated. Copyright Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart . New York.

  13. A pressure ulcer prevention programme specially designed for nursing homes: does it work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Enid W-Y; Lau, Ada T-Y; Lee, Rainbow L-P; Kwan, Rick Y-C

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a pressure ulcer prevention programme for nursing homes to ascertain the feasibility of its implementation, impact on care staff and outcomes for pressure ulcer knowledge and skills and pressure ulcer reduction. No pressure ulcer prevention protocol for long-term care settings has been established to date. The first author of this study thus developed a pressure ulcer prevention programme for nursing homes. A quasi-experimental pretest and post-test design was adopted. Forty-one non-licensed care providers and eleven nurses from a government-subsidised nursing home voluntarily participated in the study. Knowledge and skills of the non-licensed care providers were assessed before, immediately after and six weeks after the training course, and pressure ulcer prevalence and incidence were recorded before and during the protocol implementation. At the end of the programme implementation, focus group interviews with the subjects were conducted to explore their views on the programme. A statistically significant improvement in knowledge and skills scores amongst non-licensed care providers was noted. Pressure ulcer prevalence and incidence rates dropped from 9-2·5% and 2·5-0·8%, respectively, after programme implementation. The focus group findings indicated that the programme enhanced the motivation of non-licensed care providers to improve their performance of pressure ulcer prevention care and increased communication and cooperation amongst care staff, but use of the modified Braden scale was considered by nurses to increase their workload. A pressure ulcer prevention programme for nursing homes, which was feasible and acceptable, with positive impact and outcome in a nursing home was empirically developed. The study findings can be employed to modify the programme and its outcomes for an evaluation of effectiveness of the programme through a randomised controlled trial. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Preventive medical programmes to personnel exposed to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrada F, E.

    1996-01-01

    The increasing use of ionizing radiation in the medical field as well as in industry and research grants has special importance to the security aspects related to the individual as well as his surroundings, reason for which the implementation of effective Occupational Radiation Protection Programmes constitutes a priority. Presently, in Guatemala, an Occupational Medicine Programme, directed to the Radiosanitary watch over of occupationally exposed personnel does not exist. It is the goal in this project to organize and establish such programme, based on protective and training actions focused toward the employee as the main entity, his specific activities and his work surroundings. Medical watch over together with Radiation Protection will permit the reduction of the occurrence probability of accidents or incidents, as well as the limitation of stochastic effects to the undermost values. The application scope of the present project is, in the first place, directed to the occupationally exposed personnel of the Direcci[n General de Energ[a Nuclear, as regulatory entity of these activities, and afterwards, its application in the different institutions which work with ionizing radiations. All the previously exposed is based on the Nuclear Legislation prevailing in Guatemala as well as the recommendations of international organizations. (author)

  15. ICMR programme on Antibiotic Stewardship, Prevention of Infection & Control (ASPIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandy, Sujith J; Michael, Joy Sarojini; Veeraraghavan, Balaji; Abraham, O C; Bachhav, Sagar S; Kshirsagar, Nilima A

    2014-02-01

    Antimicrobial resistance and hospital infections have increased alarmingly in India. Antibiotic stewardship and hospital infection control are two broad strategies which have been employed globally to contain the problems of resistance and infections. For this to succeed, it is important to bring on board the various stakeholders in hospitals, especially the clinical pharmacologists. The discipline of clinical pharmacology needs to be involved in themes such as antimicrobial resistance and hospital infection which truly impact patient care. Clinical pharmacologists need to collaborate with faculty in other disciplines such as microbiology to achieve good outcomes for optimal patient care in the hospital setting. The ASPIC programme was initiated by the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) in response to the above need and was designed to bring together faculty from clinical pharmacology, microbiology and other disciplines to collaborate on initiating and improving antibiotic stewardship and concurrently curbing hospital infections through feasible infection control practices. This programme involves the participation of 20 centres per year throughout the country which come together for a training workshop. Topics pertaining to the above areas are discussed in addition to planning a project which helps to improve antibiotic stewardship and infection control practices in the various centres. It is hoped that this programme would empower hospitals and institutions throughout the country to improve antibiotic stewardship and infection control and ultimately contain antimicrobial resistance.

  16. Using the intervention mapping protocol to develop a maintenance programme for the SLIMMER diabetes prevention intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsman, Ellen B M; Leerlooijer, Joanne N; Ter Beek, Josien; Duijzer, Geerke; Jansen, Sophia C; Hiddink, Gerrit J; Feskens, Edith J M; Haveman-Nies, Annemien

    2014-10-27

    Although lifestyle interventions have shown to be effective in reducing the risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus, maintenance of achieved results is difficult, as participants often experience relapse after the intervention has ended. This paper describes the systematic development of a maintenance programme for the extensive SLIMMER intervention, an existing diabetes prevention intervention for high-risk individuals, implemented in a real-life setting in the Netherlands. The maintenance programme was developed using the Intervention Mapping protocol. Programme development was informed by a literature study supplemented by various focus group discussions and feedback from implementers of the extensive SLIMMER intervention. The maintenance programme was designed to sustain a healthy diet and physical activity pattern by targeting knowledge, attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control of the SLIMMER participants. Practical applications were clustered into nine programme components, including sports clinics at local sports clubs, a concluding meeting with the physiotherapist and dietician, and a return session with the physiotherapist, dietician and physical activity group. Manuals were developed for the implementers and included a detailed time table and step-by-step instructions on how to implement the maintenance programme. The Intervention Mapping protocol provided a useful framework to systematically plan a maintenance programme for the extensive SLIMMER intervention. The study showed that planning a maintenance programme can build on existing implementation structures of the extensive programme. Future research is needed to determine to what extent the maintenance programme contributes to sustained effects in participants of lifestyle interventions.

  17. The prevention of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents : a review of interventions and programmes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doak, C M; Visscher, T L S; Renders, C M; Seidell, J C

    Overweight and obesity are serious, large-scale, global, public health concerns requiring population-based childhood overweight and obesity prevention. The overall objective of this review is to identify aspects of successful childhood overweight prevention programmes. This objective will be met by

  18. How effective are exercise-based injury prevention programmes for soccer players?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijsterveldt, A.M.C. van; Horst, N. van der; Port, I.G.L. van de; Backx, F.J.G.

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of soccer (football) injuries is among the highest in sports. Despite this high rate, insufficient evidence is available on the efficacy of preventive training programmes on injury incidence. Objective To systematically study the evidence on preventive exercise-based training

  19. Programmes for the prevention of parent-to-child transmission of HIV in Papua New Guinea: Health system challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tynan, Anna; Vallely, Lisa; Kupul, Martha; Neo, Ruthy; Fiya, Voletta; Worth, Heather; Kariwiga, Grace; Mola, Glen D L; Kaldor, John; Kelly-Hanku, Angela

    2018-01-01

    Prevention of parent-to-child transmission (PPTCT) of HIV is a highly complex package of interventions, which spans services in both maternal and child health programmes. In Papua New Guinea (PNG), a commitment to ensure that all pregnant women and their partners have access to the full range of PPTCT interventions exists; however, efforts to increase access and utilisation of PPTCT remain far from optimal. The aim of this paper is to examine health care worker (HCW) perception of health system factors impacting on the performance of PPTCT programmes. Sixteen interviews were undertaken with HCWs involved in the PPTCT programme. Application of the WHO 6 building blocks of a health system was applied, and further thematic analysis was conducted on the data with assistance from the analysis software NVivo. Broken equipment, problems with access to medication and supplies, and poorly supported workforce were reported as barriers for implementing a successful PPTCT programme. The absence of central coordination of this complex, multistaged programme was also recognised as a key issue. The study findings highlight an important need for investment in appropriately trained and supported HCWs and integration of services at each stage of the PPTCT programme. Lessons from the PPTCT experience in PNG may inform policy discussions and considerations in other similar contexts. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Cluster randomised controlled trial of 'whole school' child maltreatment prevention programme in primary schools in Northern Ireland: study protocol for Keeping Safe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElearney, Aisling; Brennan-Wilson, Aoibheann; Murphy, Christina; Stephenson, Phyllis; Bunting, Brendan

    2018-05-03

    Child maltreatment has a pervasive, detrimental impact on children's wellbeing. Despite a growing focus on prevention through school based education, few programmes adopt a whole- school approach, are multi-component, seek to address all forms of maltreatment, or indeed have been robustly evaluated. This paper describes a cluster randomised controlled trial designed to evaluate a school based child maltreatment prevention programme: 'Keeping Safe' in primary schools in Northern Ireland. The intervention has been designed by a non-profit agency. Programme resources include 63 lessons taught incrementally to children between four and 11 years old, and is premised on three core themes: healthy relationships, my body, and being safe. There are programme resources to engage parents and to build the capacity and skills of school staff. A cluster Randomised Controlled Trial (RCT) will be conducted with children in 80 schools over a two-year period. The unit of randomisation is the school. Schools will be allocated to intervention or wait-list control groups using a computer-generated list. Data will be collected at three time points: baseline, end of year one, and end of year two of programme implementation. Primary outcomes will include: children's understanding of key programme concepts, self-efficacy to keep safe in situations of maltreatment, anxiety arising from programme participation, and disclosure of maltreatment. Secondary outcomes include teachers' comfort and confidence in teaching the programme and parents' confidence in talking to their children about programme concepts. This RCT will address gaps in current practice and evidence regarding school based child maltreatment prevention programmes. This includes the use of a whole- school approach and multi-component programme that addresses all maltreatment concepts, a two-year period of programme implementation, and the tracking of outcomes for children, parents, and teachers. Methodologically, it will extend

  1. Organisational strategies to implement hospital pressure ulcer prevention programmes: findings from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soban, Lynn M; Kim, Linda; Yuan, Anita H; Miltner, Rebecca S

    2017-09-01

    To describe the presence and operationalisation of organisational strategies to support implementation of pressure ulcer prevention programmes across acute care hospitals in a large, integrated health-care system. Comprehensive pressure ulcer programmes include nursing interventions such as use of a risk assessment tool and organisational strategies such as policies and performance monitoring to embed these interventions into routine care. The current literature provides little detail about strategies used to implement pressure ulcer prevention programmes. Data were collected by an e-mail survey to all chief nursing officers in Veterans Health Administration acute care hospitals. Descriptive and bivariate statistics were used to summarise survey responses and evaluate relationships between some variables. Organisational strategies that support implementation of a pressure ulcer prevention programme (policy, committee, staff education, wound care specialists, and use of performance data) were reported at high levels. Considerable variations were noted in how these strategies were operationalised within individual hospitals. Organisational strategies to support implementation of pressure ulcer preventive programmes are often not optimally operationalised to achieve consistent, sustainable performance. The results of the present study highlight the role and influence of nurse leaders on pressure ulcer prevention program implementation. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  2. Programme

    OpenAIRE

    Hobday, E, fl. 1905, artist

    2003-01-01

    A photograph of an illustrated programme listing dances. The illustration shows a snake charmer playing to a snake while another man watches. Buildings and trees can be seen behind a wall in the distance. In the lower right-hand corner of the programme is the signature 'E. Hobday'. The programme is almost certainly related to the Punjab Ball, Lahore. It is placed next to the Punjab Ball Menu in the album and the Menu is also illustrated by 'E. Hobday'.

  3. International institutions, global health initiatives and the challenge of sustainability: lessons from the Brazilian AIDS programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Loup, G; Fleury, S; Camargo, K; Larouzé, B

    2010-01-01

    The sustainability of successful public health programmes remains a challenge in low and middle income settings. These programmes are often subjected to mobilization-demobilization cycle. Indeed, political and organizational factors are of major importance to ensure this sustainability. The cooperation between the World Bank and the Brazilian AIDS programme highlights the role of international institutions and global health initiatives (GHI), not only to scale up programmes but also to guarantee their stability and sustainability, at a time when advocacy is diminishing and vertical programmes are integrated within health systems. This role is critical at the local level, particularly when economic crisis may hamper the future of public health programmes. Political and organizational evolution should be monitored and warnings should trigger interventions of GHI before the decline of these programmes.

  4. Effects of a suicide prevention programme for hospitalised patients with mental illness in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Won Hee; Lee, Eun Ju; Park, Jeong Soon

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the effects of a suicide prevention programme on the levels of depression, self-esteem, suicidal ideation and spirituality in patients with mental illness. Instances of suicide have significant correlations with depression, low self-esteem, suicidal ideation and a low level of spirituality in the victims. Therefore, addressing depression, low self-esteem and suicidal ideation as suicide risk factors and increasing levels of spirituality can constitute an effective programme to prevent suicide among patients with mental illness. The study was a quasi-experimental study with a nonequivalent control group, nonsynchronised design. The study sample consisted of 45 patients with mental illness who had been admitted to the psychiatric unit in a university hospital in South Korea. The patients were assigned to control and experimental groups of 23 and 22 members, respectively. The suicide prevention programme was conducted with the experimental group over four weeks and included eight sessions (two per week). The control group received only routine treatments in the hospital. The experimental group that participated in the programme had significantly decreased mean scores for depression and suicidal ideation compared with the control group. However, there were no significant differences in the mean scores for self-esteem and spirituality between the groups. The suicide prevention programme might be usefully applied as a nursing intervention for patients hospitalised in psychiatric wards or clinics where the goals are to decrease depression and suicidal ideation. Typical treatments for hospitalised patients with mental illness are not enough to prevent suicide. Intervention for suicide prevention needs to apply an integrated approach. The suicide prevention programme using an integrated approach is more effective in reducing depression and suicidal ideation in patients with mental illness than applying routine treatments in the hospital. © 2013 John Wiley

  5. Preparing people to make a difference: Transferable lessons from a first-year student leadership development programme in New Zealand. A Practice Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham Elnagar

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The transition from a secondary to a university education environment is one rife with opportunity and novelty. It can be a difficult time for students as they begin to participate and take part in a new culture. Lessons learned from a specific programme for first-year students, the Emerging Leaders Development Programme (ELDP, provide an example of an initiative that not only assists with the transition, but also offers leadership development opportunities. Data collected from ELDP participants suggests that there are valuable, relatable, and transferable ideas that can inform the design and implementation of other transition programmes generally, and leadership development programmes specifically.   

  6. A cost-outcome approach to pre and post-implementation of national sports injury prevention programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianotti, Simon; Hume, Patria A

    2007-12-01

    In New Zealand (NZ), the Accident Compensation Corporation (ACC) has developed a pre and post-implementation cost-outcome formulae for sport injury prevention to provide information regarding the success of a prevention programme. The ACC provides for the cost of all personal injuries in NZ and invests in prevention programmes to offset 1.6 million annual claims that cost $NZD 1.9 billion. The ACC invests in nine national community sport injury prevention programmes that represent 40% of sport claims and costs. Pre-implementation is used to determine the decision whether to invest in implementation and to determine the level of such investment for the injury prevention programme. Post-implementation is calculated two ways: unadjusted, assuming ceteris paribus; and adjusted assuming no prevention programme was in place. Post-implementation formulae provide a return on investment (ROI) for each dollar invested in the programme and cost-savings. The cost-outcome formulae approach allows ACC to manage expectations of the prevention programme as well as when it will provide a ROI, allowing it to take a long-term view for investment in sport injury prevention. Originally developed for its sport injury prevention programmes, the cost-outcome formulae have now been applied to the other prevention programmes ACC invests in such as home, road and workplace injury prevention.

  7. School-based smoking prevention programmes: ethical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotrean, Lucia Maria; Trofor, Antigona; Mihălţan, Florin; Santillan, Edna Arillo

    2011-01-01

    School-based health education has the potential to inform and educate young people, in order to promote healthy behaviours among them, which will help to prevent diseases and social problems. The present study gives an overview of several ethical issues which must be considered in different phases of school-based smoking prevention programs. This will help health educators, public health professionals and researchers in their activity of health education in schools. The ethical issues must be taken into consideration during all the activities and refer to the involvement of officials, schools, parents, young people who participate into the program, authors and persons/institutions responsible with the implementation, evaluation or funding of the programs. The application into practice of these ethical principles, influence the quality of the health education, its acceptability BY the target group and the correctness of results. Also, it prevents possible problems and misunderstandings between persons and institutions involved in the health education and smoking prevention process, which could seriously affect and even destroy implementation of such health education activities.

  8. Five typologies of alcohol and drug prevention programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob Johan; Laura Marie, Schierff

    2018-01-01

    Adolescents exhibit a high rate of use of alcohol and illicit drugs. Effect studies rarely describe the actual content of the interventions in detail. Less is known about what was actually done in the prevention than about their effects. Aim: This study is a review study grouping the qualitatively...

  9. From transmission to transition: lessons learnt from the Thai paediatric antiretroviral programme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Tulloch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Thai HIV programme is a leader in the public health approach to HIV treatment. Starting at transmission of HIV and ending with transition to adult services this paper assesses the paediatric HIV treatment continuum from three perspectives: service-user, provider and policy maker, to understand what works well and why. METHODS: A qualitative research design was used to assess and triangulate the stakeholder perspectives. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ART service-users (n = 35, policy actors (n = 20; telephone interviews with prior caregivers of orphans (n = 10; and three focus group discussions with service-providers (hospital staff and volunteers from a district, provincial and a university hospital. FINDINGS: Children accessing HIV care were often orphaned, cared for by elderly relatives and experiencing multiple vulnerabilities. Services were divided into three stages, 1. Diagnosis and linkage: Despite strong policies there were supply and demand-side gaps in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission 'cascade' preventing early diagnosis and/or treatment. 2. Maintenance on ART - Children did well on treatment; caregivers took adherence seriously and valued the quality of services. Drug resistance, adherence and psychosocial issues were important concerns from all perspectives. 3. Adolescents and transition: Adolescent service-users faced greater complexity in their physical and emotional lives for which providers lacked skills; transition from the security of paediatric clinic was a daunting prospect. Dedicated healthcare providers felt they struggled to deliver services that met service-users' diverse needs at all stages. Child- and adolescent-specific elements of HIV policy were considered low priority. CONCLUSIONS: Using the notion of the continuum of care a number of strengths and weaknesses were identified. Features of paediatric services need to evolve alongside the changing needs of service users

  10. Embedding operational research into national disease control programme: lessons from 10 years of experience in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yodi Mahendradhata

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available There is growing recognition that operational research (OR should be embedded into national disease control programmes. However, much of the current OR capacity building schemes are still predominantly driven by international agencies with limited integration into national disease control programmes. We demonstrated that it is possible to achieve a more sustainable capacity building effort across the country by establishing an OR group within the national tuberculosis (TB control programme in Indonesia. Key challenges identified include long-term financial support, limited number of scientific publications, and difficulties in documenting impact on programmatic performance. External evaluation has expressed concerns in regard to utilisation of OR in policy making. Efforts to address this concern have been introduced recently and led to indications of increased utilisation of research evidence in policy making by the national TB control programme. Embedding OR in national disease control programmes is key in establishing an evidence-based disease control programme.

  11. Nutraceuticals in cardiovascular prevention: lessons from studies on endothelial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuchi, Cinzia; Ambrosio, Giuseppe; Lüscher, Thomas F; Landmesser, Ulf

    2010-08-01

    An "unhealthy" diet is considered as a main cause of increased atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in the industrialized countries. There is a substantial interest in the potential cardiovascular protective effects of "nutraceuticals," that is food-derived substances that exert beneficial health effects. The correct understanding of cardiovascular effects of these compounds will have important implications for cardiovascular prevention strategies. Endothelial dysfunction is thought to play an important role in development and progression of atherosclerosis, and the characterization of the endothelial effects of several nutraceuticals may provide important insights into their potential role in cardiovascular prevention. At the same time, the analysis of the endothelial effects of nutraceuticals may also provide valuable insights into mechanisms of why certain nutraceuticals may not be effective in cardiovascular prevention, and it may aid in the identification of food-derived substances that may have detrimental cardiovascular effects. These findings further support the notion that nutraceuticals do need support from large clinical outcome trials with respect to their efficacy and safety profile for cardiovascular prevention, before their widespread use can be recommended. In fact, the term nutraceutical was coined to encourage an extensive and profound research activity in this field, and numerous large-scale clinical outcome trials to examine the effects of nutraceuticals on cardiovascular events have now been performed or are still ongoing. Whereas it is possible that single nutraceuticals may be effective in cardiovascular prevention, this field of research provides also valuable insights into which food components may be particularly important for cardiovascular prevention, to further advice the composition of a particularly healthy diet. The present review summarizes recent studies on the endothelial effects of several nutraceuticals, that have been

  12. Scale-up of a comprehensive harm reduction programme for people injecting opioids: lessons from north-eastern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalmuanpuii, Melody; Biangtung, Langkham; Mishra, Ritu Kumar; Reeve, Matthew J; Tzudier, Sentimoa; Singh, Angom L; Sinate, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Problem Harm reduction packages for people who inject illicit drugs, including those infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), are cost-effective but have not been scaled up globally. In the north-eastern Indian states of Manipur and Nagaland, the epidemic of HIV infection is driven by the injection of illicit drugs, especially opioids. These states needed to scale up harm reduction programmes but faced difficulty doing so. Approach In 2004, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation funded Project ORCHID to scale up a harm reduction programme in Manipur and Nagaland. Local setting In 2003, an estimated 10 000 and 16 000 people were injecting drugs in Manipur and Nagaland, respectively. The prevalence of HIV infection among people injecting drugs was 24.5% in Manipur and 8.4% in Nagaland. Relevant changes By 2012, the harm reduction programme had been scaled up to an average of 9011 monthly contacts outside clinics (80% of target); an average of 1709 monthly clinic visits (15% of target, well above the 5% monthly goal) and an average monthly distribution of needles and syringes of 16 each per programme participant. Opioid agonist maintenance treatment coverage was 13.7% and retention 6 months after enrolment was 63%. Antiretroviral treatment coverage for HIV-positive participants was 81%. Lessons learnt A harm reduction model consisting of community-owned, locally relevant innovations and business approaches can result in good harm reduction programme scale-up and influence harm reduction policy. Project ORCHID has influenced national harm reduction policy in India and contributed to the development of harm reduction guidelines. PMID:23599555

  13. Prevention of violence against women and girls: lessons from practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michau, Lori; Horn, Jessica; Bank, Amy; Dutt, Mallika; Zimmerman, Cathy

    2015-04-25

    This Series paper describes programming to prevent violence against women and girls, and emphasises the importance of systematic, sustained programming across the social ecology (ie, the delicate equilibrium of interacting social, institutional, cultural, and political contexts of people's lives) to transform gender-power inequalities. Effective prevention policy and programming is founded on five core principles: first, analysis and actions to prevent violence across the social ecology (individual, interpersonal, community, and societal); second, intervention designs based on an intersectional gender-power analysis; third, theory-informed models developed on the basis of evidence; fourth, sustained investment in multisector interventions; and finally, aspirational programming that promotes personal and collective thought, and enables activism on women's and girls' rights to violence-free lives. Prevention programming of the future will depend on all of us having a vision of, and a commitment to, gender equality to make violence-free lives for women and girls a reality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Child Soldiers - Lessons Learned on Prevention, Demobilization, and Reintegration

    OpenAIRE

    Verhey, Beth

    2002-01-01

    As highlighted in the seminal UN study on the "Impact of armed conflict on children," an increased involvement of recent decades, stands as one of the most egregious child rights violations. Yet, a new study "Child soldiers: preventing, demobilizing, and reintegrating," demonstrates that children, and youth involved in armed conflict can re-engage positive social relations, and productive ...

  15. Developing a diabetes prevention education programme for community health-care workers in Thailand: formative findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sranacharoenpong, Kitti; Hanning, Rhona M

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate barriers to and supports for implementing a diabetes prevention education programme for community health-care workers (CHCWs) in Chiang Mai province, Thailand. The study also aimed to get preliminary input into the design of a tailored diabetes prevention education programme for CHCWs. Thailand has faced under-nutrition and yet, paradoxically, the prevalence of diseases of over-nutrition, such as obesity and diabetes, has escalated. As access to diabetes prevention programme is limited in Thailand, especially in rural and semi-urban areas, it becomes critical to develop a health information delivery system that is relevant, cost-effective, and sustainable. Health-care professionals (n = 12) selected from health centres within one district participated in in-depth interviews. In addition, screened people at risk for diabetes participated in interviews (n = 8) and focus groups (n = 4 groups, 23 participants). Coded transcripts from audio-taped interviews or focus groups were analysed by hand and using NVivo software. Concept mapping illustrated the findings. Health-care professionals identified potential barriers to programme success as a motivation for regular participation, and lack of health policy support for programme sustainability. Health-care professionals identified opportunities to integrate health promotion and disease prevention into CHCWs' duties. Health-care professionals recommended small-group workshops, hands-on learning activities, case studies, and video presentations that bring knowledge to practice within their cultural context. CHCWs should receive a credit for continuing study. People at risk for diabetes lacked knowledge of nutrition, diabetes risk factors, and resources to access health information. They desired two-way communication with CHCWs. Formative research supports the need for an effective, sustainable programme to support knowledge translation to CHCWs and at-risk populations in the

  16. Pilot evaluation of an adolescent risk and injury prevention programme incorporating curriculum and school connectedness components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, R L; Buckley, L; Sheehan, M; Shochet, I M

    2013-08-01

    School connectedness is an important protective factor for adolescent risk-taking behaviour. This study examined a pilot version of the Skills for Preventing Injury in Youth (SPIY) programme, combining teacher professional development (PD) for increasing school connectedness (connectedness component) with a risk and injury prevention curriculum for early adolescents (curriculum component). A process evaluation was conducted on the connectedness component, involving assessments of programme reach, participant receptiveness and initial use, and a preliminary impact evaluation was conducted on the combined connectedness and curriculum programme. The connectedness component was well received by teacher participants, who saw benefits for both themselves and their students. Classroom observation also showed that teachers who received PD made use of the programme strategies. Grade 8 students who participated in the SPIY programme were less likely to report violent behaviour at 6-month follow-up than were control students, and trends also suggested reduced transport injuries. The results of this research support the use of the combined SPIY connectedness and curriculum components in a large-scale effectiveness trial to assess the impact of the programme on students' connectedness, risk-taking and associated injuries.

  17. [Characteristics of elderly leaders volunteering to participate in a fall prevention programme].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimanuki, Hideki; Ueki, Shouzoh; Ito, Tunehisa; Honda, Haruhiko; Takato, Jinro; Kasai, Toshiyuki; Sakamoto, Yuzuru; Niino, Naoakira; Haga, Hiroshi

    2005-09-01

    This study was conducted to assess characteristics of elderly leaders volunteering to participate in a fall prevention programme. We surveyed 1,503 individuals (75 elderly leaders volunteering to participate in a fall prevention programme and 1,428 non-leader elderly) among the elderly population living in a rural community, Miyagi Prefecture. Subjects were aged 70-84 years. The questionnaire covered socio-demographic factors, as well as physical, psychology and social variables. To analyze the characteristics of the elderly leaders volunteering to participate in this programme, the relationships of socio-demographic, physical, psychology and social factors to whether the elderly were leaders in the programme were analyzed using logistic regression. As a result of multiple logistic regression analysis, the characteristics of elderly leaders volunteering to participate in the fall prevention programme were as follows; 1) being male (OR = 0.25, 95%CI 0.14-0.44); 2) young age (OR=0.43, 95%CI 0.25-0.73); 3) having a high intellectual activity (OR = 2.72, 95%CI 1.65-4.48); 4) being well satisfied with their health (OR = 1.45, 95%CI 1.02-2.07), and 5) having a high IKIGAI (OR = 1.06, 95%CI 1.01-1.13). Only elderly individuals capable of high-level intellectual activities can fill the roles of elderly volunteer group leaders discussed in this study.

  18. Application of a child abuse prevention programme in an educational context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M. Moreno-Manso

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses the effectiveness of a child abuse prevention programme in an educational context. The proposal for action is based on the use of stories as an instrument of primary prevention. The programme aims to improve a child's capacity to face potentially threatening situations and was applied in 10 primary schools of Extremadura (Spain to 317 pupils aged 9 and 10 years old. There were 12 sessions whose aim was for the children to gain an awareness of abuse, identify situations of abuse and learn strategies to face them. This was done through the use of tutorials and by linking the programme to the aims of the pupils' educational stage. The evaluation of the programme shows that the pupils in the experimental group resolved the situations with increasing skill, confidence and determination; and that they could see more clearly where to look for help in terms of protection measures. The tutors evaluated the programme positively, considering the contents useful for prevention.

  19. The theoretical model of the school-based prevention programme Unplugged.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadrucci, Serena; Vigna-Taglianti, Federica D; van der Kreeft, Peer; Vassara, Maro; Scatigna, Maria; Faggiano, Fabrizio; Burkhart, Gregor

    2016-12-01

    Unplugged is a school-based prevention programme designed and tested in the EU-Dap trial. The programme consists of 12 units delivered by class teachers to adolescents 12-14 years old. It is a strongly interactive programme including a training of personal and social skills with a specific focus on normative beliefs. The aim of this work is to define the theoretical model of the program, the contribution of the theories to the units, and the targeted mediators. The programme integrates several theories: Social Learning, Social Norms, Health Belief, theory of Reasoned Action-Attitude, and Problem Behaviour theory. Every theory contributes to the development of the units' contents, with specific weights. Knowledge, risk perception, attitudes towards drugs, normative beliefs, critical and creative thinking, relationship skills, communication skills, assertiveness, refusal skills, ability to manage emotions and to cope with stress, empathy, problem solving and decision making skills are the targeted mediators of the program. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Lessons for Implementation from the World's Most Successful Programme: The Global Eradication of Smallpox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, David

    1999-01-01

    Focuses on lessons educators might learn from the Intensified Campaign for the Global Eradication of Smallpox. Outlines the history of smallpox eradication. Discusses the eradication effort's obstacles, campaign, and costs and benefits. Considers five factors relevant to the successful implementation of educational programs. (CMK)

  1. Nuclear Security Summit and Workshop 2015: Preventing, Understanding and Recovering from Nuclear Accidents lessons learned from Chernobyl and Fukushima

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Workshop 2015 "Preventing, Understanding and Recovering from Nuclear Accidents"--lessons learned from Chernobyl and Fukushima Distribution Statement...by the factor to get the U.S. customary unit. “Preventing, Understanding and Recovering from Nuclear Accidents” – lessons learned from Chernobyl ...and Fukushima NUCLEAR SECURITY SUMMIT & WORKSHOP 2015 2 Background The 1986 Chernobyl and the 2011 Fukushima accidents provoked world-wide concern

  2. Parental Support for Teenage Pregnancy Prevention Programmes in South Carolina Public Middle Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, India; Prince, Mary; Flynn, Shannon; Kershner, Sarah; Taylor, Doug

    2014-01-01

    Teenage pregnancy is a major public health issue in the USA; this is especially true in the state of South Carolina (SC). Research shows that well developed, good-quality teenage pregnancy prevention (TPP) programmes can be effective in modifying young people's sexual behaviour. While several quantitative studies have examined parents' perceptions…

  3. Community Screening for Preschool Child Inhibition to Offer the "Cool Little Kids" Anxiety Prevention Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatson, Ruth M.; Bayer, Jordana K.; Perry, Alexandra; Mathers, Megan; Hiscock, Harriet; Wake, Melissa; Beesley, Kate; Rapee, Ronald M.

    2014-01-01

    Temperamental inhibition has been identified as a key risk factor for childhood anxiety and internalizing problems. An efficacious early prevention programme for shy/inhibited children has been developed; however, accurate, efficient and acceptable screening is needed to support wider implementation. We explore community screening options in the…

  4. The Prevent programme: an ethical dilemma for teachers as well as psychiatrists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Stephanie

    2016-04-01

    The UK government's Prevent programme affects professionals and the people who rely on their services across the public sector, particularly now that workers are legally bound to report their concerns about individuals they believe to be at risk of radicalisation. This article discusses the risks that the strategy presents to the work of teachers and the bonds of trusts between staff and students.

  5. HIV prevention policy and programme planning: What can mathematical modelling contribute?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hankins, C.A.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis explores the potential contribution of mathematical modelling to informed decision-making on policy and programme planning for novel HIV prevention tools. Its hypothesis is that, under certain conditions, modelling results can be a useful addition to the evidence and other factors that

  6. Romantic Relationships: An Important Context for HIV/STI and Pregnancy Prevention Programmes with Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Karin K.; Anderson, Pamela M.; Franks, Heather M.; Glassman, Jill; Walker, James D.; Charles, Vignetta Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    Romantic relationships are central in the lives of young people. This paper uses data on romantic relationships from urban youth in the USA to illustrate how using a relationships perspective in HIV/STI and pregnancy prevention programmes broadens the skills and content covered, and contextualises the learning to enhance relevance and use.…

  7. Universal alcohol misuse prevention programmes for children and adolescents: Cochrane systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxcroft, David R; Tsertsvadze, Alexander

    2012-05-01

    Alcohol misuse by young people causes significant health and social harm, including death and disability. Therefore, prevention of youth alcohol misuse is a policy aim in many countries. Our aim was to examine the effectiveness of (1) school-based, (2) family-based and (3) multi-component universal alcohol misuse prevention programmes in children and adolescents. Three Cochrane systematic reviews were performed: searches in MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Project CORK and the Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials up to July 2010, including randomised trials evaluating universal alcohol misuse prevention programmes in school, family or multiple settings in youths aged 18 years or younger. Two independent reviewers identified eligible studies and any discrepancies were resolved via discussion. A total of 85 trials were included in the reviews of school (n = 53), family (n = 12) and multi-component (n = 20) programmes. Meta-analysis was not performed due to study heterogeneity. Most studies were conducted in North America. Risk of bias assessment revealed problems related to inappropriate unit of analysis, moderate to high attrition, selective outcome reporting and potential confounding. Certain generic psychosocial and life skills school-based programmes were effective in reducing alcohol use in youth. Most family-based programmes were effective. There was insufficient evidence to conclude that multiple interventions provided additional benefit over single interventions. In these Cochrane reviews, some school, family or multi-component prevention programmes were shown to be effective in reducing alcohol misuse in youths. However, these results warrant a cautious interpretation, since bias and/or contextual factors may have affected the trial results. Further research should replicate the most promising studies identified in these reviews and pay particular attention to content and context factors through rigorous evaluation.

  8. Teachers' Social Capital as a Resource for Curriculum Development: Lessons Learnt in the Implementation of a Child-Friendly Schools Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modipane, Mpho; Themane, Mahlapahlapana

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on lessons learnt in the use of teachers' social capital as a resource for curriculum development, in the implementation of the Child-Friendly Schools (CFS) programme in South Africa. The researchers in this study were amongst the trainers. The study followed a qualitative research approach, where a descriptive research design…

  9. How effective are exercise-based injury prevention programmes for soccer players? : A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beijsterveldt, A M C; van der Horst, Nick; van de Port, Ingrid G L; Backx, Frank J G

    2013-04-01

    The incidence of soccer (football) injuries is among the highest in sports. Despite this high rate, insufficient evidence is available on the efficacy of preventive training programmes on injury incidence. To systematically study the evidence on preventive exercise-based training programmes to reduce the incidence of injuries in soccer. The databases EMBASE/MEDLINE, PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of controlled trials, PEDro and SPORTDiscus™ were searched for relevant articles, from inception until 20 December 2011. The methodological quality of the included studies was assessed using the PEDro scale. The inclusion criteria for this review were (1) randomized controlled trials or controlled clinical trials; (2) primary outcome of the study is the number of soccer injuries and/or injury incidence; (3) intervention focusing on a preventive training programme, including a set of exercises aimed at improving strength, coordination, flexibility or agility; and (4) study sample of soccer players (no restrictions as to level of play, age or sex). The exclusion criteria were: (1) the article was not available as full text; (2) the article was not published in English, German or Dutch; and (3) the trial and/or training programme relates only to specific injuries and/or specific joints. To compare the effects of the different interventions, we calculated the incidence risk ratio (IRR) for each study. Six studies involving a total of 6,099 participants met the inclusion criteria. The results of the included studies were contradictory. Two of the six studies (one of high and one of moderate quality) reported a statistical significant reduction in terms of their primary outcome, i.e. injuries overall. Four of the six studies described an overall preventive effect (IRRbased programmes to prevent soccer injuries. Some reasons for the contradictory findings could be different study samples (in terms of sex and soccer type) in the included studies, differences between

  10. Science Teacher Training Programme in Rural Schools: An ODL Lesson from Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Misheck Mhishi; Crispen Erinos Bhukuvhani; Abel Farikai Sana

    2012-01-01

    This case study looked at 76 randomly selected preservice science teachers from Mbire and Guruve districts who were learning at the Mushumbi Centre in Zimbabwe and assessed their motivations for enrolling under the Bindura University of Science Education (BUSE)’s Virtual and Open Distance Learning (VODL) programme. It also looked at the challenges they faced, their views on how instruction under the programme can be improved, and their deployment preferences after graduation. The districts ar...

  11. Voluntary agreements - a measure for energy-efficiency in industry? Lessons from a Swedish programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linden, Anna- Lisa [Department of Sociology, Lund University P.O. Box 114, SE-221 00, Lund, (Sweden); Carlsson-Kanyama, Annika [Environmental Strategies Research Group, P.O. Box 2142, SE-103 14, Stockholm, (Sweden)

    2002-08-01

    Voluntary agreements represent a policy instrument for applying new knowledge, routines or technology to specified issues. The traditional role of an authority when using information, and taking economic, or administrative measures is that of an initiator and controller. Voluntary agreements, on the other hand, represent a communication process between an authority and a partner where relations of dependency and mutuality are more important in advancing the programme. This article analyses and discusses the motivational aspects of voluntary agreements, the role of the contract, advising, information, education, time planning and the importance of reporting and evaluation in energy-efficiency programmes. Besides sociological and communication theories, the discussion is based on the outcome of an evaluation of a Swedish energy-efficiency programme. Among the conclusions are that communication processes have to be planned and implemented in time sequences and steps of measures, which was partially neglected in the Swedish programme. Also, agreements between partners have to be defined in ways valid for all partners. In the Swedish programme, quantitative goals, at least measured in kWh, were impossible to achieve for some industries. On the other hand, most industries reported progress in side effects of energy efficiency as for example transportation policy for products, recirculation of waste material, lighting policy and behaviour, qualifications for ISO labelling. Information in combination with voluntary agreements can be efficient for industrial energy conservation. The education and auditing that was part of the Swedish programme were highly appreciated and added to the achievements. (Author)

  12. Oil spill response, prevention and impact: lesson from Tasman spirit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raja, I.A.; Doggar, M.G.

    2005-01-01

    Nearly half of the world oil is transported is transported by sea. Due to high shipping density coastal water is at high risk. Oil spills in the coastal areas endanger public health, devastate natural resources, and disrupt local economy. The Pakistani coast was hit by the worst ever ecological disaster on 27th July 03, when The Greek vessel 'Tasman Spirit', carrying 67,000 tonnes of crude oil grounded at Karachi port. High concentration of oil vapours along the affected shoreline caused discomfort. The contamination and losses could further be limited by taking appropriate actions. There is a need bring in significant improvements in oil spill prevention and response planning. This paper described the risks associated with oils spill and contingency planning to meet this situation. (author)

  13. Teacher Experiences of Delivering an Obesity Prevention Programme (The WAVES Study Intervention) in a Primary School Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Tania L; Clarke, Joanne L; Lancashire, Emma R; Pallan, Miranda J; Passmore, Sandra; Adab, Peymane

    2015-01-01

    Objective: There has been a wealth of childhood obesity prevention studies in school-based settings. However, few have investigated the experiences of school staff charged with delivery of such programmes. This study aimed to elicit teachers' experiences of delivering a childhood obesity prevention programme for children aged 6-7 years. Design:…

  14. A parenting programme to prevent abuse of adolescents in South Africa: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Cluver, L; Meinck, F; Shenderovich, Y; Ward, CL; Herrero Romero, R; Lombard, C; Doubt, JS; Steinert, J; Catanho, R; Wittesaele, C; DeStone, S; Salah, N; Mpimilashe, P; Lachman, J; Loening, H

    2016-01-01

    Background An estimated one billion children experience child abuse each year, with the highest rates in low- and middle-income countries. The Sinovuyo Teen programme is part of Parenting for Lifelong Health, a WHO/UNICEF initiative to develop and test violence-prevention programmes for implementation in low-resource contexts. The objectives of this parenting support programme are to prevent the abuse of adolescents, improve parenting and reduce adolescent behavioural problems. This trial aim...

  15. Issues and Challenges of HIV/AIDS Prevention and Treatment Programme in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Wasti, Sharada Prasad; Simkhada, Padam; Randall, Julian; Van Teijlingen, Edwin

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores some of the key issues and challenges of government HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment programme in Nepal. Providing HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment services in Nepal is associated with a number of issues and challenges which are shaped mostly on cultural and managerial issues from grass root to policy level.\\ud Numerous efforts have been done and going on by Nepal government and non-government organization but still HIV\\ud prevention and treatment service is not able to ...

  16. Preventing anxiety and depression in adolescents: A randomised controlled trial of two school based Internet-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Wong

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the current study were to 1 establish the efficacy of two Internet-based prevention programmes to reduce anxiety and depressive symptoms in adolescents; and 2 investigate the distribution of psychological symptoms in a large sample of Australian adolescents prior to the implementation of the intervention. A cluster randomised controlled trial was conducted with 976 Year 9–10 students from twelve Australian secondary schools in 2009. Four schools were randomly allocated to the Anxiety Internet-based prevention programme (n = 372, five schools to the Depression Internet-based prevention programme (n = 380 and three to their usual health classes (n = 224. The Thiswayup Schools for Anxiety and Depression prevention courses were presented over the Internet and consist of 6–7 evidence-based, curriculum consistent lessons to improve the ability to manage anxiety and depressive symptoms. Participants were assessed at baseline and post-intervention. Data analysis was constrained by both study attrition and data corruption. Thus post-intervention data were only available for 265/976 students. Compared to the control group, students in the depression intervention group showed a significant improvement in anxiety and depressive symptoms at the end of the course, whilst students in the anxiety intervention demonstrated a reduction in symptoms of anxiety. No significant differences were found in psychological distress. The Thiswayup Schools Depression and Anxiety interventions appear to reduce anxiety and depressive symptoms in adolescents using a curriculum based, blended online and offline cognitive behavioural therapy programme that was implemented by classroom teachers. Given the study limitations, particularly the loss of post-intervention data, these findings can only be considered preliminary and need to be replicated in future research.

  17. Industry sponsored youth smoking prevention programme in Malaysia: a case study in duplicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunta, M; Chapman, S

    2004-12-01

    To review tobacco company strategies of using youth smoking prevention programmes to counteract the Malaysian government's tobacco control legislation and efforts in conducting research on youth to market to them. Systematic keyword and opportunistic website searches of formerly private internal industry documents. Search terms included Malay, cmtm, jaycees, YAS, and direct marketing; 195 relevant documents were identified for this paper. Industry internal documents reveal that youth anti-smoking programmes were launched to offset the government's tobacco control legislation. The programme was seen as a strategy to lobby key politicians and bureaucrats for support in preventing the passage of legislation. However, the industry continued to conduct research on youth, targeted them in marketing, and considered the teenage market vital for its survival. Promotional activities targeting youth were also carried out such as sports, notably football and motor racing, and entertainment events and cash prizes. Small, affordable packs of cigarettes were crucial to reach new smokers. The tobacco industry in Malaysia engaged in duplicitous conduct in regard to youth. By buying into the youth smoking issue it sought to move higher on the moral playing field and strengthen its relationship with government, while at the same time continuing to market to youth. There is no evidence that industry youth smoking prevention programmes were effective in reducing smoking; however, they were effective in diluting the government's tobacco control legislation.

  18. Pesticide leaching through sandy and loamy fields – Long-term lessons learnt from the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenbom, Annette E.; Olsen, Preben; Plauborg, Finn; Grant, Ruth; Juhler, René K.; Brüsch, Walter; Kjær, Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    The European Union authorization procedure for pesticides includes an assessment of the leaching risk posed by pesticides and their degradation products (DP) with the aim of avoiding any unacceptable influence on groundwater. Twelve-year's results of the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme reveal shortcomings to the procedure by having assessed leaching into groundwater of 43 pesticides applied in accordance with current regulations on agricultural fields, and 47 of their DP. Three types of leaching scenario were not fully captured by the procedure: long-term leaching of DP of pesticides applied on potato crops cultivated in sand, leaching of strongly sorbing pesticides after autumn application on loam, and leaching of various pesticides and their DP following early summer application on loam. Rapid preferential transport that bypasses the retardation of the plow layer primarily in autumn, but also during early summer, seems to dominate leaching in a number of those scenarios. - Highlights: • Field-results reveal shortcomings in the EU authorization procedure for pesticides. • The plough layer can be bypassed via preferential transport in e.g. wormholes. • Pesticides properties are decisive for leaching pattern on the sandy fields. • The hydrogeological settings control the leaching patterns on the loamy fields. • Pesticide detection frequency seems to be independent of the month of the year. - Long-term lessons learnt from the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme reveals shortcomings in the European Union authorization procedure for pesticides

  19. How to Assess Children's Virtue Literacy: Methodological Lessons Learnt from the Knightly Virtues Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Ian; Harrison, Tom; Hayes, Dan; Higgins, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    Character education is of growing importance in educational discourse. The Knightly Virtues programme draws on selected classic stories to teach eight moral virtues to nine- to 11-year-olds; it has proved to be hugely popular with UK schools. A finding of the trial was the different levels of "virtue literacy" in faith and non-faith…

  20. Lessons on transdiciplinary research in a co-innovation programme in the New Zealand agricultural sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botha, N.; Klerkx, L.W.A.; Small, B.; Turner, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    A recently implemented research and development (R&D) programme in New Zealand is attempting to implement co-innovation principles throughout the country’s agricultural sector. It is based on an agricultural innovation systems (AIS) approach, using five innovation platforms (IPs) based in the

  1. Science Teacher Training Programme in Rural Schools: An ODL Lesson from Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misheck Mhishi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This case study looked at 76 randomly selected preservice science teachers from Mbire and Guruve districts who were learning at the Mushumbi Centre in Zimbabwe and assessed their motivations for enrolling under the Bindura University of Science Education (BUSE’s Virtual and Open Distance Learning (VODL programme. It also looked at the challenges they faced, their views on how instruction under the programme can be improved, and their deployment preferences after graduation. The districts are located in the remote Zambezi Valley, which is characterized by poor infrastructure, pests and diseases, frequent attacks by wild animals on people, domestic animals, and crops, harsh climatic conditions, and seasonal floods, which make it very difficult to attract and retain qualified teachers. Through targeted recruitment, BUSE’s VODL programme sought to train relief teachers already serving in the area in the hope that personal history and family connections would entice them to continue teaching in these areas after attaining their teacher certification. Data was collected using a questionnaire with closed and open-ended questions. Results obtained indicate that despite a lack of funding, a shortage of reading materials, and the nonavailability of e-learning facilities, the students were motivated to join the programme for personal and professional motives and that the students, the majority of whom had taught for two or more years in the districts, would prefer deployments in the area after graduation. The study therefore recommends that deliberate efforts be directed toward the targeted recruitment of school leavers and relief teachers from disadvantaged rural areas who possess the requisite minimum entry qualifications to train as science teachers in order to improve teacher retention in remote areas. Further research into the intrinsic problems in BUSE’s VODL programme and a close scrutiny of its course development techniques are also

  2. Lessons learnt on implementing an interdisciplinary doctoral programme in water sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Gemma; Loucks, Daniel Pete; Blaschke, Alfred Paul; Bucher, Christian; Farnleitner, Andreas; Fürnkranz-Prskawetz, Alexia; Parajka, Juraj; Pfeifer, Norbert; Rechberger, Helmut; Wagner, Wolfgang; Zessner, Matthias; Blöschl, Günter

    2015-04-01

    Using the Vienna Doctoral Programme on Water Resource Systems as a case study, this work describes how the characteristics of the programme can be evaluated to identify which process features are important for developing interdisciplinary research at the doctoral level. The Programme has been running since 2009, and to date has engaged 35 research students, three post-docs and ten faculty members from ten research fields (aquatic microbiology, hydrology, hydro-climatology, hydro-geology, mathematical economics, photogrammetry, remote sensing, resource management, structural mechanics, and water quality). Collaborative, multi-disciplinary research is encouraged and supported through various mechanisms - shared offices, study programme, research cluster groups that hold regular meetings, joint study sites, annual and six-month symposia that bring all members of the programme together, seminar series, joint supervision, and social events. Interviews were conducted with 12 students and recent graduates to explore individual experiences of doing interdisciplinary research within the Programme, and to identify which mechanisms are perceived to be of the greatest benefit for collaborative work. Analysis revealed four important process features. Firstly, students noted that joint supervision and supervisors who are motivated to collaborate are essential for multi-disciplinary collaborative work. Secondly, interviewees described that they work with the people they sit close to or see most regularly. Physical places for collaboration between different discipline researchers such as shared offices and shared study sites are therefore important. Thirdly, the costs and benefits to doing interdisciplinary work were highlighted. Students make a trade-off when deciding if their time investment to develop their understanding of a new research field will support them in addressing their research question. The personal characteristics of the researcher seem to be particularly

  3. Development and formative evaluation of a family-centred adolescent HIV prevention programme in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Maretha; Thurman, Tonya R; Spyrelis, Alexandra; Taylor, Tory M; Nice, Johanna K; Finestone, Michelle

    2018-03-06

    Preventing HIV among young people is critical to achieving and sustaining global epidemic control. Evidence from Western settings suggests that family-centred prevention interventions may be associated with greater reductions in risk behaviour than standard adolescent-only models. Despite this, family-centred models for adolescent HIV prevention are nearly non-existent in South Africa - home to more people living with HIV than any other country. This paper describes the development and formative evaluation of one such intervention: an evidence-informed, locally relevant, adolescent prevention intervention engaging caregivers as co-participants. The programme, originally consisting of 19 sessions for caregivers and 14 for adolescents, was piloted with 12 groups of caregiver-adolescent dyads by community-based organizations (CBOs) in KwaZulu-Natal and Gauteng provinces. Literature and expert reviews were employed in the development process, and evaluation methods included analysis of attendance records, session-level fidelity checklists and facilitator feedback forms collected during the programme pilot. Facilitator focus group discussions and an implementer programme workshop were also held. Results highlighted the need to enhance training content related to cognitive behavioural theory and group management techniques, as well as increase the cultural relevance of activities in the curriculum. Participant attendance challenges were also identified, leading to a shortened and simplified session set. Findings overall were used to finalize materials and guidance for a revised 14-week group programme consisting of individual and joint sessions for adolescents and their caregivers, which may be implemented by community-based facilitators in other settings. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Public health genomics and personalized prevention: lessons from the COGS project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashayan, N; Hall, A; Chowdhury, S; Dent, T; Pharoah, P D P; Burton, H

    2013-11-01

    Using the principles of public health genomics, we examined the opportunities and challenges of implementing personalized prevention programmes for cancer at the population level. Our model-based estimates indicate that polygenic risk stratification can potentially improve the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of screening programmes. However, compared with 'one-size-fits-all' screening programmes, personalized screening adds further layers of complexity to the organization of screening services and raises ethical, legal and social challenges. Before polygenic inheritance is translated into population screening strategy, evidence from empirical research and engagement with and education of the public and the health professionals are needed. © 2013 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  5. Evaluating nurses' knowledge, attitude and competency after an education programme on suicide prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Sally Wai-chi; Chien, Wai-tong; Tso, Steve

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate an education programme on suicide prevention for nurses working in general hospitals. A mixed method design that included a single group pretest-posttest analysis and focus group interviews was used. A convenient sample of 54 registered nurses was recruited from the medical and surgical units of two regional general hospitals. An 18-hour education programme on suicide prevention based on reflective learning principles was provided to the participants. The outcome measures used included participants' attitudes towards, knowledge of, competence in and stress levels arising from suicide prevention and management. Eighteen participants joined the focus group interviews. There were statistically significant positive changes in the pre- and post-test measures of participants' attitudes and competence levels. Qualitative data showed that participants had applied the new knowledge they acquired in clinical practice. They perceived themselves as being more aware of the problem of suicide and more competent in managing suicide risk. Participants highlighted certain barriers that exist to providing optimal care, including inadequate manpower, lack of support from senior staff and a lack of guidelines. Ongoing education may be necessary to expedite changes. The education programme provided can be delivered to other health care professional groups and the results further evaluated.

  6. Outcome based commissioning: lessons from contracting out employment and skills programmes in Australia and the USA

    OpenAIRE

    Finn, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Despite the relative effectiveness of recent reforms to the employment and skills system the Leitch Review (1996)identified some key problems. Welfare to work programmes had few incentives to focus on skills, job retention and progression; the skills system had little focus on employment outcomes; and the targets and incentives in both systems did not encourage a joined-up service for individuals or employers. The UK Commission for Employment and Skills (UKCES) subsequently proposed the integ...

  7. An overview of international siting programmes for radioactive waste disposal facilities: Possible lessons for Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, P.J.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this short report is to examine methodologies used in countries other than Sweden which are following a process of site selection for nuclear waste management and disposal facilities. It is planned here to identify possible countries and methodologies which may offer the authorities in Sweden suggestions for the future, and it is hoped that further work, possibly involving in-country visits and detailed reviews will follow. The end result of this exercise is to learn from the efforts (successes and/or mistakes) of other countries, thereby enabling Sweden to pursue a siting policy which involves as many stakeholders as possible, resulting in a programme which Swedish citizens can feel they truly own. First, the classification of siting methodologies is reviewed, both those of the past and those currently in use. Examples from programmes around the world are given. The distinction between Public Involvement and Public Participation in the siting process is discussed, in light of the programmes reviewed. Methodologies worthy of further study for adaptation to the Swedish situation are then highlighted in the context of a general discussion of the issues raised. Finally, a series of recommendations as to further investigations are given, which could be carried out as a part of this project. Particular methodologies in particular countries and their relevance to the Swedish situation are discussed. 66 refs

  8. Applying the Innov8 approach for reviewing national health programmes to leave no one behind: lessons learnt from Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint, Victoria; Floranita, Rustini; Koemara Sakti, Gita Maya; Pambudi, Imran; Hermawan, Lukas; Villar, Eugenio; Magar, Veronica

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT The World Health Organization’s Innov8 Approach for Reviewing National Health Programmes to Leave No One Behind is an eight-step process that supports the operationalization of the Sustainable Development Goals’ commitment to ‘leave no one behind’. In 2014–2015, Innov8 was adapted and applied in Indonesia to review how the national neonatal and maternal health action plans could become more equity-oriented, rights-based and gender-responsive, and better address critical social determinants of health. The process was led by the Indonesian Ministry of Health, with the support of WHO. It involved a wide range of actors and aligned with/fed into the drafting of the maternal newborn health action plan and the implementation planning of the newborn action plan. Key activities included a sensitization meeting, diagnostic checklist, review workshop and in-country work by the review teams. This ‘methods forum’ article describes this adaptation and application process, the outcomes and lessons learnt. In conjunction with other sources, Innov8 findings and recommendations informed national and sub-national maternal and neonatal action plans and programming to strengthen a ‘leave no one behind’ approach. As follow-up during 2015–2017, components of the Innov8 methodology were integrated into district-level planning processes for maternal and newborn health, and Innov8 helped generate demand for health inequality monitoring and its use in planning. In Indonesia, Innov8 enhanced national capacity for equity-oriented, rights-based and gender-responsive approaches and addressing critical social determinants of health. Adaptation for the national planning context (e.g. decentralized structure) and linking with health inequality monitoring capacity building were important lessons learnt. The pilot of Innov8 in Indonesia suggests that this approach can help operationalize the SDGs’ commitment to leave no one behind, in particular in relation to

  9. Putting solar home system programmes into perspective: What lessons are relevant?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vleuten, F. van der; Stam, N.; Plas, R. van der

    2007-01-01

    Solar Home Systems (SHSs) have gradually become a household name in Africa. Pioneering efforts to make a new technology available to rural households have over the years developed into a few mass markets for the 'base of the pyramid'. This paper focuses on the lessons that can be learned from these experiences. Have policy makers and donors supported SHSs in an efficient way? Are they a luxury item or an essential element in the development process? Can they trigger or facilitate rural electrification? The answer to these questions is that photovoltaic (PV) systems can play a useful role for rural development and rural electrification purposes, but the desire to deploy them on a more massive scale to rural Africans demands a new type of energy policy support, creating new partnerships with local SMEs

  10. Setting research priorities to reduce malaria burden in a post graduate training programme: lessons learnt from the Nigeria field epidemiology and laboratory training programme scientific workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawole, Olufunmilayo I; Ajumobi, Olufemi; Poggensee, Gabriele; Nguku, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Although several research groups within institutions in Nigeria have been involved in extensive malaria research, the link between the research community and policy formulation has not been optimal. The workshop aimed to assist post graduate students to identify knowledge gaps and to develop relevant Malaria-related research proposals in line with identified research priorities. A training needs assessment questionnaire was completed by 22 students two week prior to the workshop. Also, a one page concept letter was received from 40 residents. Thirty students were selected based the following six criteria: - answerability and ethics; efficacy and impact; deliverability, affordability; scalability, sustainability; health systems, partnership and community involvement; and equity in achieved disease burden reduction. The workshop was over a three day period. The participants at the workshop were 30 Nigeria Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programme (NFELTP) residents from cohorts 4 and 5. Ten technical papers were presented by the experts from the academia, National Malaria Elimination (NMEP) Programme, NFELTP Faculty and Implementing partners including CDC/PMI. Draft proposals were developed and presented by the residents. The "strongest need" for training was on malaria prevention, followed by malaria diagnosis. Forty seven new research questions were generated, while the 19 developed by the NMEP were shared. Evaluation revealed that all (100%) students either "agreed" that the workshop objectives were met. Full proposals were developed by some of the residents. A debriefing meeting was held with the NMEP coordinator to discuss funding of the projects. Future collaborative partnership has developed as the residents have supported NMEP to develop a research protocol for a national evaluation. Research prioritization workshops are required in most training programmes to ensure that students embark on studies that address the research needs of their country

  11. Evaluation of a comprehensive slip, trip and fall prevention programme for hospital employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Jennifer L; Collins, James W; Wolf, Laurie; Gronqvist, Raoul; Chiou, Sharon; Chang, Wen-Ruey; Sorock, Gary S; Courtney, Theodore K; Lombardi, David A; Evanoff, Bradley

    2008-12-01

    In 2007, the Bureau of Labor Statistics reported that the incidence rate of lost workday injuries from slips, trips and falls (STFs) on the same level in hospitals was 35.2 per 10,000 full-time equivalents (FTE), which was 75% greater than the average rate for all other private industries combined (20.2 per 10,000 FTEs). The objectives of this 10-year (1996-2005) longitudinal study were to: 1) describe occupational STF injury events in hospitals; 2) evaluate the effectiveness of a comprehensive programme for reducing STF incidents among hospital employees. The comprehensive prevention programme included analysis of injury records to identify common causes of STFs, on-site hazard assessments, changes to housekeeping procedures and products, introduction of STF preventive products and procedures, general awareness campaigns, programmes for external ice and snow removal, flooring changes and slip-resistant footwear for certain employee subgroups. The hospitals' total STF workers' compensation claims rate declined by 58% from the pre-intervention (1996-1999) rate of 1.66 claims per 100 FTE to the post-intervention (2003-2005) time period rate of 0.76 claims per 100 FTE (adjusted rate ratio = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.33-0.54). STFs due to liquid contamination (water, fluid, slippery, greasy and slick spots) were the most common cause (24%) of STF claims for the entire study period 1996-2005. Food services, transport/emergency medical service and housekeeping staff were at highest risk of a STF claim in the hospital environment. Nursing and office administrative staff generated the largest numbers of STF claims. STF injury events in hospitals have a myriad of causes and the work conditions in hospitals are diverse. This research provides evidence that implementation of a broad-scale prevention programme can significantly reduce STF injury claims.

  12. The DARE programme, success ans lessons learned from libraries to libratories

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    The DARE Programme is the Dutch national OAI program. It started January 2003 with a budget of MEuro 5.9 and will last until December 2006. Renowned successes are the national sites DAREnet, harvesting the openly available content of the IR's of all universities and some national research organisations, and Keur der Wetenschap/Cream of Science, exhibiting the complete oeuvre of more than 200 Dutch top scientists (see: www.darenet.nl). Recently we started project LOREnet, the equivalent of DAREnet for the educational community. The presentation will tell about the successes, the experiences and the transformation from libraries to 'libratories'.

  13. Community-based interventions for obesity prevention: lessons learned by Australian policy-makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haby Michelle M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interest in community-based interventions (CBIs for health promotion is increasing, with a lot of recent activity in the field. This paper aims, from a state government perspective, to examine the experience of funding and managing six obesity prevention CBIs, to identify lessons learned and to consider the implications for future investment. Specifically, we focus on the planning, government support, evaluation, research and workforce development required. Methods The lessons presented in this paper come from analysis of key project documents, the experience of the authors in managing the projects and from feedback obtained from key program stakeholders. Results CBIs require careful management, including sufficient planning time and clear governance structures. Selection of interventions should be based on evidence and tailored to local needs to ensure adequate penetration in the community. Workforce and community capacity must be assessed and addressed when selecting communities. Supporting the health promotion workforce to become adequately skilled and experienced in evaluation and research is also necessary before implementation. Comprehensive evaluation of future projects is challenging on both technical and affordability grounds. Greater emphasis may be needed on process evaluation complemented by organisation-level measures of impact and monitoring of nutrition and physical activity behaviours. Conclusions CBIs offer potential as one of a mix of approaches to obesity prevention. If successful approaches are to be expanded, care must be taken to incorporate lessons from existing and past projects. To do this, government must show strong leadership and work in partnership with the research community and local practitioners.

  14. Research Market Gap in Law Enforcement Technology: Lessons from Czech Security Research Funding Programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luděk Moravec

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available While security research funding schemes are nothing new to the EU (Horizon 2020 and FP7, or to several Member States, their priorities and procedures are usually decided administratively or shaped by advisory groups of varying membership. Only recently did the EU shift its focus to the role of end users in security research programmes, seeking their input in order to maximise the utility of funded solutions. Such a hint to limited usefulness of some industrial solutions is not exactly inconspicuous. This paper discusses the gap between the stated needs of law enforcement agencies in terms of R&D funding and the grant project applications in the area of law enforcement. It aims to define and describe the gap, and consequently the market opportunities, between the supply and demand sides represented by industry-driven grant project applications and end-user-formulated calls. The study is based on empirical data from two Czech security research funding programmes that have been running since 2010 and should deliver their results by 2015. It seeks to contribute some preliminary observations about the structure of both end user needs and industry capabilities in such a particular area as law enforcement technology.

  15. Cost-benefit analysis of a Haemophilus influenzae type b meningitis prevention programme in The Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limcangco, M R; Armour, C L; Salole, E G; Taylor, S J

    2001-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis is associated with high mortality and serious sequelae in children under 5 years of age. Vaccines which can prevent this infection are available. To evaluate the costs and benefits of a 3-dose immunisation schedule in Manila, Philippines. Government and societal perspectives. A cost-benefit analysis based on a birth cohort of 100,000 children. The state of health of the cohort with and without a Hib immunisation programme was modelled over a 5-year period. A survey of medical records of patients with Hib in Manila provided data on the extent and cost of sequelae following infection. A 3-dose Hib vaccination programme given at ages 2, 3 and 4 months. The model predicted that vaccinating children against Hib meningitis would prevent 553 cases per year in a birth cohort of 100,000, at a cost of 56,200 Philippine pesos (PHP) [$US1,605; 1998 exchange rate] per case (base case assumptions of 90% vaccine efficacy rate, 95 per 100,000 Hib incidence rate, 85% vaccination coverage). Results from the cost-benefit analyses indicated that the saving to the government would be around PHP39 million ($US1.11 million), and the saving to society would be PHP255 million ($US7.28 million). There would be a positive economic benefit for the Philippine government and for the Filipino society if a Hib vaccination programme was introduced in Manila.

  16. Preventing plane-assisted suicides through the lessons of research on homicide and suicide-homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Timothy R; Sher, Leo

    2016-08-01

    The Germanwings 9525 incident drew significant attention to the 'plane-assisted suicide' construct, yet little scientific literature exists on this topic. This paper reviews the available literature and applies lessons from the suicide-homicide and men's mental health literature to better understand this construct from a scientific perspective. A systematic review of the relevant clinical literature was undertaken. Multiple lines of evidence suggests the applicability and relevance of suicide-homicide research and men's mental health to the plane-assisted suicide phenomenon. Plane-assisted suicides occur within an overwhelmingly male, middle aged population who, in addition to suicide, commit large scale acts of murder. Issues of divorce, separation, and threats to masculinity appear integral to an effective prevention program. Further research in the understanding of plane-assisted suicide as a product of neuropsychiatric disorder may advance such prevention efforts and have the opportunity to reduce the loss of life in future tragedies.

  17. Young Women's Lived Experience of Participating in a Positive Youth Development Programme: The "Teens & Toddlers" Pregnancy Prevention Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorhaindo, Annik; Mitchell, Kirstin; Fletcher, Adam; Jessiman, Patricia; Keogh, Peter; Bonell, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Evaluation of the Teens & Toddlers (T&T) positive youth development (PYD) and teenage pregnancy prevention programme suggested that the intervention had minimal effectiveness partly due to its unclear theory of change. The purpose of this paper is to examine the lived experiences of young women participating in the programme to…

  18. Monitoring HIV Prevention Programme Outcomes among Key Populations in Kenya: Findings from a National Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parinita Bhattacharjee

    Full Text Available In preparation for the implementation of the Kenya AIDS Strategic Framework 2014/15-2018/19, the Kenya National AIDS and STI Control Programme facilitated a national polling booth survey as part of a baseline assessment of HIV-related risk behaviours among FSWs, MSM, and PWID, and their utilization of existing preventive interventions, as well as structural factors that may influence KPs' vulnerability to HIV. The survey was conducted among "key populations" (female sex workers, men who have sex with men, and people who inject drugs to understand current HIV risk and prevention behaviours, utilization of existing programmes and services, and experiences of violence. In total, 3,448 female sex workers, 1,308 men who have sex with men, and 690 people who inject drugs were randomly selected to participate in polling booth survey sessions from seven priority sites. Survey responses were aggregated and descriptive statistics derived. In general, reported condom use among all key populations was quite high with paying clients, and lower with regular, non-paying partners. Many participants reported unavailability of condoms or clean injecting equipment within the past month. Exposure to, and utilization of, existing HIV prevention services varied significantly among the groups, and was reported least commonly by female sex workers. Encouragingly, approximately three-quarters of all key population members reported receiving an HIV test in the past three months. All key population groups reported experiencing high levels of physical and sexual violence from partners/clients, and/or arrest and violence by law enforcement officials. Although some of the findings are encouraging, there is room for improvement in HIV prevention programmes and services for key populations across Kenya.

  19. Effect of specific exercise-based football injury prevention programmes on the overall injury rate in football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorborg, Kristian; Krommes, Kasper Kühn; Esteve, Ernest

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of FIFA injury prevention programmes in football (FIFA 11 and FIFA 11+). Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Randomised controlled trials comparing the FIFA injury prevention programmes with a control (no or sham...... intervention) among football players. Data sources MEDLINE via PubMed, EMBASE via OVID, CINAHL via Ebsco, Web of Science, SportDiscus and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, from 2004 to 14 March 2016. Results 6 cluster-randomised controlled trials had assessed the effect of FIFA injury prevention...... programmes compared with controls on the overall football injury incidence in recreational/subelite football. These studies included 2 specific exercise-based injury prevention programmes: FIFA 11 (2 studies) and FIFA 11+ (4 studies). The primary analysis showed a reduction in the overall injury risk ratio...

  20. The potential and reality of the solar water heater programme in South African townships: Lessons from the City of Tshwane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curry, Claire; Cherni, Judith A.; Mapako, Maxwell

    2017-01-01

    The South African solar water heater (SWH) programme is part of national policy to improve the country's electricity security, an innovative strategy to provide indigent households with free solar water heaters. The study assesses the effects of the government programme for poor townships on reduction of household electricity consumption, decline in energy poverty, and reduction in CO2 emissions; and estimates the impact of SWH on reducing electricity demand nationwide. It reports results from fieldwork carried out in the City of Tshwane to measure both quantitatively and qualitatively the success of the project's deployment in townships. Although households register average savings of 27% on their monthly electricity bills and off-peak electricity demand has reduced significantly in the area, a variety of problems prevented the project from attaining the desired level of impact. Difficulties encountered include technical faults with the heaters combined with nonavailability of maintenance; a rise in water consumption; lack of community engagement leading to apathy; and dearth of owner training leading to underuse. The gap between inflated estimates and real savings is discussed. Expanding the programme could generate jobs but significant challenges remain. - Highlights: • The government's aim of saving electricity and reducing utility bills partly achieved. • Savings of electricity are estimated at about 25% less than the potential saving. • Wrong assumption that peak time is only 1 h produced savings 5 times larger. • ESKOM & government overlooked providing Information on the SWH to the householders. • No maintenance led to abandonment by many or water leaking increasing utility bills.

  1. General medicine advanced training: lessons from the John Hunter training programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackel, D; Attia, J; Pickles, R

    2014-03-01

    Recent years have seen a rapid growth in the number of advanced trainees pursuing general medicine as a specialty. This reflects an awareness of the need for broader training experiences to equip future consultant physicians with the skills to manage the healthcare challenges arising from the demographic trends of ageing and increasing comorbidity. The John Hunter Hospital training programme in general medicine has several characteristics that have led to the success in producing general physicians prepared for these challenges. These include support from a core group of committed general physicians, an appropriate and sustainable funding model, flexibility with a focus on genuine training and developing awareness of a systems approach, and strong links with rural practice. © 2014 The Authors; Internal Medicine Journal © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  2. Lessons learned from England's Health Checks Programme: using qualitative research to identify and share best practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Hanif; Kelly, Shona

    2015-10-20

    This study aimed to explore the challenges and barriers faced by staff involved in the delivery of the National Health Service (NHS) Health Check, a systematic cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk assessment and management program in primary care. Data have been derived from three qualitative evaluations that were conducted in 25 General Practices and involved in depth interviews with 58 staff involved all levels of the delivery of the Health Checks. Analysis of the data was undertaken using the framework approach and findings are reported within the context of research and practice considerations. Findings indicated that there is no 'one size fits all' blueprint for maximising uptake although success factors were identified: evolution of the programme over time in response to local needs to suit the particular characteristics of the patient population; individual staff characteristics such as being proactive, enthusiastic and having specific responsibility; a supportive team. Training was clearly identified as an area that needed addressing and practitioners would benefit from CVD specific baseline training and refresher courses to keep them up to date with recent developments in the area. However there were other external factors that impinged on an individual's ability to provide an effective service, some of these were outside the control of individuals and included cutbacks in referral services, insufficient space to run clinics or general awareness of the Health Checks amongst patients. The everyday experiences of practitioners who participated in this study suggest that overall, Health Check is perceived as a worthwhile exercise. But, organisational and structural barriers need to be addressed. We also recommend that clear referral pathways be in place so staff can refer patients to appropriate services (healthy eating sessions, smoking cessation, and exercise referrals). Local authorities need to support initiatives that enable data sharing and linkage so that

  3. Development of a national injury prevention/safe community programme in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luau, H C; Svanström, L; Ekman, R; Duong, H L; Nguyen, O C; Dahlgren, G; Hoang, P

    2001-03-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the initiation of a national programme on injury prevention/safe community (IP/SC). Market economy, Doi Moi, was introduced in Vietnam in 1986, and since then the injury pattern has been reported to have changed. The number of traffic injury deaths has increased three-fold from 1980 to 1996 and traffic injuries more than four-fold. Injuries are now the leading cause of mortality in hospitals. There are difficulties in obtaining a comprehensive picture of the injury pattern from official statistics and, in conjunction with the work initiated by the Ministry of Health, a number of local reporting systems have already been developed. Remarkable results have been achieved within the IP/SC in a very short time, based on 20 years of experience. An organizational construction system has been built from province to local community areas. Management is based on administrative and legislative documents. IP/SC implementation is considered the duty of the whole community, local authorities and people committees, and should be incorporated into local action plans. The programme is a significant contribution towards creating a safe environment in which everybody may live and work, allowing the stability for society to develop. Implementation of the programme in schools is a special characteristic. The programme will be developed in 800 schools with a large number of pupils (25% of the population). This model for safer schools is considerably concerned and is a good experience to disseminate. The recommendations are that more pilot models of IP/SC should be conducted in other localities and that the programme should be expanded to a national scale. Furthermore, co-operation between sectors and mass organizations should be encouraged and professional skills of key SC members at all levels should be raised.

  4. Predicting the life-time benefit of school-based smoking prevention programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jit, Mark; Aveyard, Paul; Barton, Pelham; Meads, Catherine A

    2010-06-01

    School-based smoking prevention programmes may delay the age of smoking initiation, but do not appear to achieve lasting reductions in smoking prevalence beyond school-leaving age. We explored whether delaying the age at which someone initiates smoking may have life-time benefits by increasing the likelihood of quitting in later life. Data from the General Household Survey of Great Britain were used in a logistic regression model to examine the association between age at which someone initiates regular smoking and the probability that the person will quit smoking later in life. The effect of confounding variables (sex, ethnicity, socio-economic class, education and geographical location) was taken into account. The predicted relationship was used in a cohort model to estimate the life-time reduction in smoking prevalence and all-cause mortality of a school-based smoking prevention programme. Age of regular smoking initiation was associated strongly with the probability of quitting later in life (coefficient -0.103, P < 0.001). The strength of the association was slightly reduced but still significant when confounding variables were included (coefficient -0.075, P < 0.001). An intervention that delays smoking initiation without decreasing smoking prevalence at age 18 may reduce adult smoking prevalence by 0.13-0.32% (depending on age) and all-cause mortality by 0.09% over the life-time of the sample. School-based smoking prevention programmes have potential for a beneficial effect over the life-time of the participants even if they have no apparent effect at school-leaving age.

  5. THE EFFECTS OF OTAGO EXERCISE PROGRAMME FOR FALL PREVENTION IN ELDERLY PEOPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy N. Patel

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ‘Otago exercise programme’ (OEP is a strength and balance retraining programme designed to prevent falls in older people living in the community. The aim of this study was to find the effects of Otago exercise programme for fall prevention in community dwelling elderly people. Method: The sample comprised 30 community dwelling elderly around sinhgad road, pune (out of 30, 4 were dropouts aged over 60 years both male and female falling under moderate fall risk measured by Tinetti Performance Oriented Mobility Assessment. The intervention consisted mainly strength and balance training. Intervention was done for 1 hr every day, 5 days per week for 6weeks. Outcome measure assessment was done pre, 3rd week and post intervention. Pre and post comparison of following three outcome measures was done. Outcome measures: Tinetti Performance Oriented Mobility Assessment, 10RM and Chair stand test. Result: Paired t-test was done. Results of p value for 10RM (p value = 0.00, Tinetti performance oriented mobility assessment (p value = 0.00 and chair stand test (p value = 0.01 was found to be highly significant. Out of 26 subjects with moderate risk of fall pre intervention, 24 subjects showed low risk of fall during post intervention assessment of Tinetti Performance Oriented Mobility Assessment. Conclusion: The Otago exercise programme is significantly effective increasing strength of lower limb and improving in balance, gait and therefore ultimately preventing fall in community dwelling Indian elder people. Hence, Otago exercise protocol can be used in day to day clinical practice and also as a home exercise program.

  6. Child, Teacher and Parent Perceptions of the FRIENDS Classroom-Based Universal Anxiety Prevention Programme: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skryabina, Elena; Morris, Joanna; Byrne, Danielle; Harkin, Nicola; Rook, Sarah; Stallard, Paul

    2016-01-01

    School-based mental health prevention programmes can be effective but their adoption within schools will depend on their social acceptability. We report a qualitative evaluation summarising the views of children (115), parents (20) and school staff (47) about a universal school-based anxiety prevention programme FRIENDS. This study was conducted as part of a large scale randomised controlled trial ( n  = 1362) involving 40 schools in the UK providing primary education to children aged 7-11. Reported overall experience of the programme was very positive, with all three major components of the cognitive behaviour therapy programme (emotional, cognitive, and behavioural) being accepted well and understood by children. The programme was considered to be enjoyable and valuable in teaching children important skills, particularly emotional regulation and coping. Children provided examples of using the skills learned during FRIENDS to manage their emotions and solve problems. However, teachers were concerned that the programme overlapped with the current school curriculum, required additional time and almost half were unable to identify any tangible changes in the children's behaviour. Whilst this paper provides evidence to support the social validity of the FRIENDS anxiety prevention programme, the concerns raised by teachers question the longer-term sustainability of the programme.

  7. Lessons Learned From a Community–Academic Partnership Addressing Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention in Filipino American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javier, Joyce R.; Chamberlain, Lisa J.; Rivera, Kahealani K.; Gonzalez, Sarah E.; Mendoza, Fernando S.; Huffman, Lynne C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Filipino Americans have more adolescent pregnancies than other Asian-Pacific Islanders (APIs). Few community–academic collaborations have addressed adolescent pregnancy prevention in this community. Objectives We sought to describe the lessons learned from and impact of a community-based teen pregnancy prevention program for Filipino Americans implemented by a Filipina pediatrics resident. Methods We formed a community–academic partnership between the Filipino Youth Coalition, a community-based organization (CBO) in San Jose, California, and the Stanford School of Medicine’s Pediatric Advocacy Program. We developed a culturally tailored parent–teen conference addressing adolescent pregnancy prevention in Filipino Americans. We qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated this intervention by collecting both pre- and post-conference data using a convenience sample design. Lessons Learned Engaging particular aspects of Filipino culture (i.e., religion and intergenerational differences) helped to make this community–academic partnership successful. For physicians-in-training who are conducting community-based participatory research (CBPR), project challenges may include difficulties in building and maintaining academic–community relationships, struggles to promote sustainability, and conflicting goals of “community insiders” and “academic outsiders.” Authors offer insights and implications for residents interested in practicing CBPR. Conclusion CBPR is a key tool for exploring health issues in understudied populations. CBPR experiences can provide meaningful educational opportunities for physicians-in-training and can build sustained capacity in CBOs. They can also help residents to develop analytic skills, directly affect the health of the communities they serve, and, for minority physicians, give back to the communities they call home. PMID:21169708

  8. Isokinetic strength effects of FIFA'a "The 11+" injury prevention training programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brito, João; Figueiredo, Pedro; Fernandes, Luís

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether FIFA's Medical Assessment and Research Centre (F-MARC) injury prevention programme, "The 11+", improves isokinetic strength of the knee extensor and flexor muscles in sub-elite soccer players. Twenty players aged 22.3 ± 4.2 yr performed "The 11+" 3...... significantly improved the conventional H/Q ratio at 60°/s by 14.8{\\%} and the DCR by 13.8% in the non-dominant limb (pknee joint....

  9. Risk assessment for prevention of morbidity and mortality: lessons for pressure ulcer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, T M

    2008-11-01

    Medicine has changed from being a reactive process that attempts to alleviate disease only when it is clinically evident to a proactive one in which it is hoped that early intervention may reduce the impact of disease or even it developing at all. In moving the focus of treatment, this inevitably means that a greater number of individuals with lesser disease burdens are treated. The logical end-point of this process is to provide preventative measures for the entire population but this can only be done if the economic costs and negative effects of treatment are out-weighed by the benefits. In the case of pressure ulcers, it is self-evident that prevention is extremely beneficial to patients. However, the cost of some of the equipment used for prevention can be high, and therefore, the balance between the optimum level of provision, the purposes of prevention and the available funding becomes critical. Consequently a screening mechanism to better match susceptible patients with resources is essential. There are, however, many problems with such screening techniques. By looking at other specialties, we can see that it is vital to know the natural history of the disease: PSA testing reveals many men who would have died never having known they had prostate cancer, thus giving them years of worry and morbidity they would probably not previously have suffered; cardiovascular risk screening is so imprecise that risk estimates are of questionable utility; antenatal Down's syndrome risk screening is prone to data-related problems that can unexpectedly reduce the effectiveness of the test. In pressure ulcer screening, there are many tools currently in use, but few (possibly none) are really effective. Finally, this paper details some suggestions for future research to combine risk tests that may offer a prospect for improving ulcer risk screening tools.

  10. Measures needed to strengthen strategic HIV/AIDS prevention programmes in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, P

    2007-01-01

    This paper traces the commonly believed three phases of the HIV/AIDs epidemic in China from the early 1980s to the present time and reviews how the Chinese Government and NGOs are dealing with the crisis. Transmission routes for HIV infection in China are thought to be via IDUs, blood plasma donors, sexual contacts and from mother-to-child transmissions. The author examined interventions for HIV/ AIDS prevention tried in other countries that could provide useful lessons learned and discussed how they could be adapted or replicated in China. While recognising the need for the treatment of HIV positive persons and AIDS patients, this paper is limited to suggesting a number of proven strategic interventions to prevent new HIV infections in China among the "general population", adolescents in schools, sex workers and their clients, injecting drug users, and, prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV/AIDS to stem the epidemic. An extensive literature search of articles in published academic journals, published and unpublished documents of international agencies and development NGOs and media reports was conducted for data source to this paper. Internet search engines such as ProQuest, PubMed, Google and Yahoo search engines were used as well as hard copies of reports and internal documents available at the UNFPA Country Technical Services Team's Office in Bangkok tapped for information.

  11. Being targeted: Young women's experience of being identified for a teenage pregnancy prevention programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorhaindo, Annik; Bonell, Chris; Fletcher, Adam; Jessiman, Patricia; Keogh, Peter; Mitchell, Kirstin

    2016-06-01

    Research on the unintended consequences of targeting 'high-risk' young people for health interventions is limited. Using qualitative data from an evaluation of the Teens & Toddlers Pregnancy Prevention programme, we explored how young women experienced being identified as at risk for teenage pregnancy to understand the processes via which unintended consequences may occur. Schools' lack of transparency regarding the targeting strategy and criteria led to feelings of confusion and mistrust among some young women. Black and minority ethnic young women perceived that the assessment of their risk was based on stereotyping. Others felt their outgoing character was misinterpreted as signifying risk. To manage these imposed labels, stigma and reputational risks, young women responded to being targeted by adopting strategies, such as distancing, silence and refusal. To limit harmful consequences, programmes could involve prospective participants in determining their need for intervention or introduce programmes for young people at all levels of risk. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of an Ai Chi fall prevention programme for patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-de la Cruz, S; García Luengo, A V; Lambeck, J

    2016-04-01

    One of the main symptoms of Parkinson's disease is the high incidence of falls occurring due to the decline of both static and dynamic balance. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of an Ai Chi programme designed to prevent falls in patients with Parkinson's disease by improving both functional independence and perception of physical pain. Fifteen patients diagnosed with Parkinson's disease (Hoehn and Yahr stages 1-3) participated in a 10-week Ai Chi programme consisting of 30 to 45-minute aquatic exercise sessions twice a week. The assessment measures used in this study were the pain visual analogue scale (VAS), the Tinetti gait and balance assessment tool, and the Timed Get up and Go test. The results were calculated by applying the Friedman test to 3 related measurements: patients at baseline, at post-treatment (at the end of the 10 week programme) and after one month of follow-up. The data obtained showed a significant improvement (p Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. School-based education programmes for the prevention of child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kerryann; Zwi, Karen; Woolfenden, Susan; Shlonsky, Aron

    2015-04-16

    Child sexual abuse is a significant global problem in both magnitude and sequelae. The most widely used primary prevention strategy has been the provision of school-based education programmes. Although programmes have been taught in schools since the 1980s, their effectiveness requires ongoing scrutiny. To systematically assess evidence of the effectiveness of school-based education programmes for the prevention of child sexual abuse. Specifically, to assess whether: programmes are effective in improving students' protective behaviours and knowledge about sexual abuse prevention; behaviours and skills are retained over time; and participation results in disclosures of sexual abuse, produces harms, or both. In September 2014, we searched CENTRAL, Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE and 11 other databases. We also searched two trials registers and screened the reference lists of previous reviews for additional trials. We selected randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cluster-RCTs, and quasi-RCTs of school-based education interventions for the prevention of child sexual abuse compared with another intervention or no intervention. Two review authors independently assessed the eligibility of trials for inclusion, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. We summarised data for six outcomes: protective behaviours; knowledge of sexual abuse or sexual abuse prevention concepts; retention of protective behaviours over time; retention of knowledge over time; harm; and disclosures of sexual abuse. This is an update of a Cochrane Review that included 15 trials (up to August 2006). We identified 10 additional trials for the period to September 2014. We excluded one trial from the original review. Therefore, this update includes a total of 24 trials (5802 participants). We conducted several meta-analyses. More than half of the trials in each meta-analysis contained unit of analysis errors.1. Meta-analysis of two trials (n = 102) evaluating protective behaviours favoured intervention (odds

  14. [Geriatric health promotion and prevention for independently living senior citizens: programmes and target groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapp, U; Anders, J; Meier-Baumgartner, H P; v Renteln-Kruse, W

    2007-08-01

    Nearly all diseases in old age that are epidemiologically important can be reduced or prevented successfully through consequent changes in individual lifestyle, a systematic provision of measures in primary prevention (i.e. vaccination programmes) and the creation of health promoting settings. However, at the moment the amount of potential for preventative interventions is neither systematically nor sufficiently utilised in Germany. Two different preventative approaches: a) multidimensional advice session in small groups through an interdisciplinary team at a geriatric centre (seniors come to seek advice offered at a centre) or b) multidimensional advice at the seniors home through one member of the interdisciplinary team from the geriatric centre (expert takes advice to seniors home) were tested simultaneously with a well-described study sample of 804 independent community-dwelling senior citizens aged 60 years or over, without need of care and cognitive impairments recruited from general practices. Information about target group specific approaches in health promotion and prevention for senior citizens were retrieved from analyses of sociodemographic, medical, psychological and spacial characteristics of this study sample. The majority of the study sample (580 out of 804 or 72.1%) decided to participate: a) 86.7% (503 out of 580) attended at the geriatric centre and sought advice in group sessions and b) 13.3% (77 out of 580) decided to receive advice in a preventive home visit. A total of 224 seniors (224 out of 804 or 27.9%) refused to participate at all. These three target groups were characterised on the basis of their age, gender, education, social background, health status, health behaviour, use of preventive care, self perceived health, functional disabilities, social net and social participation and distance or accessibility of preventative approaches. The 503 senior citizens who participated in small group sessions at the geriatric centre were

  15. Can we reduce preventable heart failure readmissions in patients enrolled in a Disease Management Programme?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Phelan, D

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Disease Management Programmes (DMPs) are successful in reducing hospital readmissions in heart failure (HF). However, there remain a number of patients enrolled in a DMP who are readmitted with HF. The primary aim of the study was to determine the proportion of preventable readmissions (PR). The secondary aim was to recognise patient characteristics which would identify certain patients at risk of having a PR. METHODS: A retrospective chart search was performed on patients readmitted over a 1-year period. RESULTS: 38.5% of readmissions were classified as PR. None of these patients made prior contact with the DMP. Admission levels of BNP, potassium, urea and creatinine were significantly lower in the PR group. CONCLUSION: DMP have proven benefits in reducing hospital readmission nonetheless a significant proportion of these readmissions are preventable. Further work is required to prospectively analyse why these patients fail to contact the DMP.

  16. Noise exposure and hearing loss prevention programmes after 20 years of regulations in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniell, W E; Swan, S S; McDaniel, M M; Camp, J E; Cohen, M A; Stebbins, J G

    2006-05-01

    To evaluate noise exposures and hearing loss prevention efforts in industries with relatively high rates of workers' compensation claims for hearing loss. Washington State workers' compensation records were used to identify up to 10 companies in each of eight industries. Each company (n = 76) was evaluated by a management interview, employee personal noise dosimetry (n = 983), and employee interviews (n = 1557). Full-shift average exposures were > or =85 dBA for 50% of monitored employees, using Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) parameters with a 5 dB exchange rate (L(ave)), but 74% were > or =85 dBA using a 3 dB exchange rate (L(eq)). Only 14% had L(ave) > or =90 dBA, but 42% had L(eq) > or =90 dBA. Most companies conducted noise measurements, but most kept no records, and consideration of noise controls was low in all industries. Hearing loss prevention programmes were commonly incomplete. Management interview scores (higher score = more complete programme) showed significant associations with percentage of employees having L(ave) > or =85 dBA and presence of a union (multiple linear regression; R2 = 0.24). Overall, 62% of interviewed employees reported always using hearing protection when exposed. Protector use showed significant associations with percentage of employees specifically required to use protection, management score, and average employee time spent > or =95 dBA (R2 = 0.65). The findings raise serious concerns about the adequacy of prevention, regulation, and enforcement strategies in the United States. The percentage of workers with excessive exposure was 1.5-3 times higher using a 3 dB exchange rate instead of the OSHA specified 5 dB exchange rate. Most companies gave limited or no attention to noise controls and relied primarily on hearing protection to prevent hearing loss; yet 38% of employees did not use protectors routinely. Protector use was highest when hearing loss prevention programmes were most complete, indicating that

  17. Lessons in Suicide Prevention from the Golden Gate Bridge: Means Restriction, Public Health, and the School Psychologist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David N.

    2013-01-01

    Youth suicide is a global public health problem and some lessons for more effectively preventing it can be found in a perhaps unlikely source: the Golden Gate Bridge. Issues discussed include means restriction and method substitution, the stigma associated with suicide and the consequences of it, myths and misconceptions regarding suicide, and…

  18. Design and Implementation of a Pilot Obesity Prevention Program in a Low-Resource School: Lessons Learned and Research Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin, Monica L.; Zunker, Christie; Worley, Courtney B.; Dial, Brenda; Kimbrough, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to describe the design, implementation, and lessons learned from an obesity prevention pilot program delivered in a low resource school in the USA. Design/methodology/approach: A planned program evaluation was conducted to: document explicitly the process of designing and implementing the program; and assess the…

  19. Do exercises used in injury prevention programmes modify cutting task biomechanics? A systematic review with meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Evangelos; Nightingale, Elizabeth J; Simic, Milena; Ford, Kevin R; Hewett, Timothy E; Myer, Gregory D

    2015-05-01

    Some injury prevention programmes aim to reduce the risk of ACL rupture. Although the most common athletic task leading to ACL rupture is cutting, there is currently no consensus on how injury prevention programmes influence cutting task biomechanics. To systematically review and synthesise the scientific literature regarding the influence of injury prevention programme exercises on cutting task biomechanics. The three largest databases (Medline, EMBASE and CINAHL) were searched for studies that investigated the effect of injury prevention programmes on cutting task biomechanics. When possible meta-analyses were performed. Seven studies met the inclusion criteria. Across all studies, a total of 100 participants received exercises that are part of ACL injury prevention programmes and 76 participants served in control groups. Most studies evaluated variables associated with the quadriceps dominance theory. The meta-analysis revealed decreased lateral hamstrings electromyography activity (p ≤ 0.05) while single studies revealed decreased quadriceps and increased medial hamstrings activity and decreased peak knee flexion moment. Findings from single studies reported that ACL injury prevention exercises reduce neuromuscular deficits (knee valgus moment, lateral trunk leaning) associated with the ligament and trunk dominance theories, respectively. The programmes we analysed appear most effective when they emphasise individualised biomechanical technique correction and target postpubertal women. The exercises used in injury prevention programmes have the potential to improve cutting task biomechanics by ameliorating neuromuscular deficits linked to ACL rupture, especially when they emphasise individualised biomechanical technique correction and target postpubertal female athletes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Economic evaluation of type 2 diabetes prevention programmes: Markov model of low- and high-intensity lifestyle programmes and metformin in participants with different categories of intermediate hyperglycaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Samantha; Craig, Dawn; Adler, Amanda; McPherson, Klim; Greenhalgh, Trisha

    2018-01-30

    National guidance on preventing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the UK recommends low-intensity lifestyle interventions for individuals with intermediate categories of hyperglycaemia defined in terms of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or 'at-risk' levels of HbA1c. In a recent systematic review of economic evaluations of such interventions, most studies had evaluated intensive trial-based lifestyle programmes in participants with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). This study examines the costs and effects of different intensity lifestyle programmes and metformin in participants with different categories of intermediate hyperglycaemia. We developed a decision tree and Markov model (50-year horizon) to compare four approaches, namely (1) a low-intensity lifestyle programme based on current NICE guidance, (2) a high-intensity lifestyle programme based on the US Diabetes Prevention Program, (3) metformin, and (4) no intervention, modelled for three different types of intermediate hyperglycaemia (IFG, IGT and HbA1c). A health system perspective was adopted and incremental analysis undertaken at an individual and population-wide level, taking England as a case study. Low-intensity lifestyle programmes were the most cost-effective (£44/QALY, £195/QALY and £186/QALY compared to no intervention in IGT, IFG and HbA1c, respectively). Intensive lifestyle interventions were also cost-effective compared to no intervention (£2775/QALY, £6820/QALY and £7376/QALY, respectively, in IGT, IFG and HbA1c). Metformin was cost-effective relative to no intervention (£5224/QALY, £6842/QALY and £372/QALY in IGT, IFG and HbA1c, respectively), but was only cost-effective relative to other treatments in participants identified with HbA1c. At a willingness-to-pay threshold of £20,000/QALY, low- and high-intensity lifestyle programmes were cost-effective 98%, 99% and 98% and 81%, 81% and 71% of the time in IGT, IFG and HbA1c, respectively. An England-wide programme for 50-59 year olds

  1. Adolescents' perceptions about smoking prevention strategies: a comparison of the programmes of the American Lung Association and the Tobacco Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBon, M; Klesges, R C

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate components of the teenage smoking prevention programmes of the American Lung Association (ALA) and the Tobacco Institute (TI). Group administration of written questionnaires in school. The components of the ALA's and TI's programmes were presented to students in seven strategy vignettes, covering the following topics: peer pressure/enhanced communication; parents as role models; health consequences of smoking; cost of smoking; smoking as an illegal act; tips for quitting smoking; and responsible decision making. 172 seventh-grade students (mean age = 12.3 years) from six parochial schools in Memphis, Tennessee, United States. Student ratings of the perceived effectiveness of the ALA and TI approaches (in helping to stop teens from smoking) within each strategy vignette, and students' choice between these two approaches as to which was the better smoking prevention technique. Although there were some moderating effects of gender and race, participants overall strongly favoured the ALA programme over that of the TI. Of the seven programme components, the ALA's approach was rated more effective on six (peer pressure, parents as role models, the health consequences of smoking, the cost of smoking, tips for quitting smoking, responsible decision making) and the TI's was rated more effective on one (not smoking because it is illegal). The ALA's programme was perceived to be much more effective than the TI's programme by those whom these programmes are ultimately intended to influence-young people. Future research in this area should pursue longitudinal designs to determine if programme endorsement is predictive of smoking status.

  2. Lessons From a Pilot Community-Driven Approach for Obesity Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgendorf, Amy; Stedman, John; Inzeo, Paula Tran; McCall, Ann; Burrows, Judy; Krueger, Scott; Christens, Brian; Pollard, Ethen; Meinen, Amy; Korth, Amy; Wolf, Lesley; Adams, Alexandra

    2016-11-01

    The Wisconsin Obesity Prevention Initiative has piloted a novel approach for community action for obesity prevention that incorporates both coalition and community organizing efforts in 2 counties. This article describes lessons learned to date from this experience. A description of the progress made in these communities and the support provided by Initiative staff and other partners are drawn from process evaluation of the pilot from November 2014 through December 2015, as well as the reflections of community partners. In Marathon County, building towards coalition action required thoughtful re-engagement and restructuring of an existing obesity-focused coalition. Community organizing surfaced local concerns related to the root causes of obesity, including poverty and transit. In Menominee County, coalition and community organizing efforts both have drawn attention to cultural assets for health promotion, such as traditional food practices, as well as the links between cultural loss and obesity. Building coalition action and community organizing varies across community contexts and requires addressing various steps and challenges. Both approaches require critical local examination of existing community action and stakeholders, attention to relationship building, and support from outside partners. In coalition action, backbone staff provide important infrastructure, including member recruitment and facilitating group processes towards collaboration. Community organizing involves broad resident engagement to identify shared interests and concerns and build new leadership. A community-driven systems change model offers potential to increase community action for obesity prevention.

  3. Cognitive and physical resources are important in order to complete a geriatric fall prevention programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhoff, Marianne; Damgaard, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    It is well documented that falls may be prevented, but effectiveness in reducing the risk of falling depends on the uptake of and the adherence to preventive actions. 65+-year-old fallers identified by screening for fall risk were offered referral to a geriatric fall clinic together with fallers referred from general practitioners (GPs). They were assessed to identify individual risk factors for falling, and appropriate interventions were planned, including exercise classes. A total of 811 persons were identified by screening, 342 of whom accepted referral. Furthermore, 176 were referred from GPs. Only 402 of 518 fallers attended the clinic. A total of 65 dropped out by their own request, 29 stopped because they became seriously ill or died. Another 62 patients were discharged before fulfilling the programme as they were unable to participate due to physical or cognitive problems. Indicators of cessation were cognitive or physical weakness. Geriatric fall prevention is resource-consuming both in terms of staff needed and with respect to demands made on the patients, and the frailest part of the fall population cannot comply. It is necessary to differentiate fall prevention services for the population of elderly fallers as interventions in primary healthcare have been shown to be more effective among the most frail elderly fallers. The project received funding from the Danish Ministry of the Interior and Health and from The Fund for Scientific Work in the Geriatric Field within the former Copenhagen Hospital Corporation. not relevant.

  4. What childhood obesity prevention programmes work? A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Cai, L.; Wu, Y.; Wilson, R. F.; Weston, C.; Fawole, O.; Bleich, S. N.; Cheskin, L. J.; Showell, N. N.; Lau, B. D.; Chiu, D. T.; Zhang, A.; Segal, J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Previous reviews of childhood obesity prevention have focused largely on schools and findings have been inconsistent. Funded by the US Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) and the National Institutes of Health, we systematically evaluated the effectiveness of childhood obesity prevention programmes conducted in high-income countries and implemented in various settings. We searched MEDLINE®, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL®, ClinicalTrials.gov and the Cochrane Library from inception through 22 April 2013 for relevant studies, including randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental studies and natural experiments, targeting diet, physical activity or both, and conducted in children aged 2–18 in high-income countries. Two reviewers independently abstracted the data. The strength of evidence (SOE) supporting interventions was graded for each study setting (e.g. home, school). Meta-analyses were performed on studies judged sufficiently similar and appropriate to pool using random effect models. This paper reported our findings on various adiposity-related outcomes. We identified 147 articles (139 intervention studies) of which 115 studies were primarily school based, although other settings could have been involved. Most were conducted in the United States and within the past decade. SOE was high for physical activity-only interventions delivered in schools with home involvement or combined diet–physical activity interventions delivered in schools with both home and community components. SOE was moderate for school-based interventions targeting either diet or physical activity, combined interventions delivered in schools with home or community components or combined interventions delivered in the community with a school component. SOE was low for combined interventions in childcare or home settings. Evidence was insufficient for other interventions. In conclusion, at least moderately strong evidence supports the effectiveness of school

  5. Determinants of participation in a fall assessment and prevention programme among elderly fallers in Hong Kong: prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Eliza L Y; Woo, Jean; Cheung, Annie W L; Yeung, Pui-Yi

    2011-04-01

    The study was undertaken to estimate the uptake rate of a fall prevention programme among older fallers and explore related factors. Fall injuries are a major cause nationally of the loss of independence in old age, but they are preventable. Acceptance of fall prevention programmes is therefore important to reduce the risk of falling. Patients aged ≥60 attending the Department of Accident & Emergency of a regional hospital in Hong Kong between 2006 and 2007 were recruited. The study included a baseline interview, focus group interview and a cross-sectional 1-year follow-up telephone survey to assess uptake and its related factors. A total 68% of 1194 older people attended the fall programme. Factors associated with programme participation included the perception of fall as being preventable [OR=3.47, 95% CI (1.59-7.56)] or recoverable [OR=1.73, 95% CI (1.06-2.82)], a safe outside environment; absence of chronic illness, and ability to walk without aids. Old-age people, those living in old-age homes and of lower education level were less likely to join the programme. Older people with the selected characteristics were less likely to attend the fall prevention programme, thus were less likely to benefit from them. Support from family/carers may be an important element in participation. In a nursing context, in primary care practice, all of these factors should be taken into account in any future development of a fall prevention programme in Hong Kong of this nature. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Guide: Monitoring Programme for unannounced inspections undertaken against the National Standards for the Prevention and Control of Healthcare Associated Infections

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This is a guide to the Health Information and Quality Authority?s (the Authority) programme of monitoring service providers? compliance with the National Standards for the Prevention and Control of Healthcare Associated Infections (referred to in this guide as the Infection, Prevention and Control Standards). This guide explains the approach that the Authority takes when monitoring the compliance of service providers ? including hospitals ? with the Infection, Prevention and Control Standards...

  7. Towards subsidized malaria rapid diagnostic tests. Lessons learned from programmes to subsidise artemisinin-based combination therapies in the private sector: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lussiana, Cristina

    2016-09-01

    The idea of a private sector subsidy programme of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) was first proposed in 2004. Since then, several countries around the world have hosted pilot projects or programmes on subsidized ACTs and/or the Affordable Medicines Facility-malaria programme (AMFm). Overall the private sector subsidy programmes of ACTs have been effective in increasing availability of ACTs in the private sector and driving down average prices but struggled to crowd out antimalarial monotherapies. The results obtained from this ambitious strategy should inform policy makers in the designing of future interventions aimed to control malaria morbidity and mortality. Among the interventions recently proposed, a subsidy of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) in the private sector has been recommended by governments and international donors to cope with over-treatment with ACTs and to delay the emergence of resistance to artemisinin. In order to improve the cost-effectiveness of co-paid RDTs, we should build on the lessons we learned from almost 10 years of private sector subsidy programmes of ACTs in malaria-endemic countries. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.

  8. A childhood obesity prevention programme in Barcelona (POIBA Project): Study protocol of the intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Martínez, Francesca; Juárez, Olga; Serral, Gemma; Valmayor, Sara; Puigpinós, Rosa; Pasarín, María Isabel; Díez, Élia; Ariza, Carles

    2018-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity preventive interventions should promote a healthy diet and physical activity at home and school. This study aims to describe a school-based childhood obesity preventive programme (POIBA Project) targeting 8-to-12- year-olds. Design and methods Evaluation study of a school-based intervention with a pre-post quasi-experimental design and a comparison group. Schools from disadvantaged neighbourhoods are oversampled. The intervention consists of 9 sessions, including 58 activities of a total duration between 9 and 13 hours, and the booster intervention of 2 sessions with 8 activities lasting 3 or 4 hours. They are multilevel (individual, family and school) and multicomponent (classroom, physical activity and family). Data are collected through anthropometric measurements, physical fitness tests and lifestyle surveys before and after the intervention and the booster intervention. In the intervention group, families complete two questionnaires about their children’s eating habits and physical activity. The outcome variable is the cumulative incidence rate of obesity, obtained from body mass index values and body fat assessed by triceps skinfold thickness. The independent variables are socio-demographic, contextual, eating habits, food frequency, intensity of physical activity and use of new technologies. Expected impact for public health It is essential to implement preventive interventions at early ages and to follow its effects over time. Interventions involving diet and physical activity are the most common, being the most effective setting the school. The POIBA Project intervenes in both the school and family setting and focuses on the most disadvantaged groups, in which obesity is most pronounced and difficult to prevent. Significance for public health Overweight and obesity are a major public health concern that predispose affected individuals to the development of chronic diseases. Of importance, obesity is more common among

  9. Core components for effective infection prevention and control programmes: new WHO evidence-based recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Storr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Health care-associated infections (HAI are a major public health problem with a significant impact on morbidity, mortality and quality of life. They represent also an important economic burden to health systems worldwide. However, a large proportion of HAI are preventable through effective infection prevention and control (IPC measures. Improvements in IPC at the national and facility level are critical for the successful containment of antimicrobial resistance and the prevention of HAI, including outbreaks of highly transmissible diseases through high quality care within the context of universal health coverage. Given the limited availability of IPC evidence-based guidance and standards, the World Health Organization (WHO decided to prioritize the development of global recommendations on the core components of effective IPC programmes both at the national and acute health care facility level, based on systematic literature reviews and expert consensus. The aim of the guideline development process was to identify the evidence and evaluate its quality, consider patient values and preferences, resource implications, and the feasibility and acceptability of the recommendations. As a result, 11 recommendations and three good practice statements are presented here, including a summary of the supporting evidence, and form the substance of a new WHO IPC guideline.

  10. Violence and HIV/AIDS prevention among female out-of-school youths in southwestern Nigeria: lessons learnt from interventions targeted at hawkers and apprentices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawole, O I; Ajuwon, A J; Osungbade, K O

    2004-12-01

    Between 1997 and 2003, four studies on hawkers and apprentices in motor parks and work shops in south west, Nigeria were carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions aimed at preventing HIV infection and gender based violence (GBV). The studies were in 3 phases namely baseline survey, intervention and end line survey. Interventions consisting of:--development and distribution of education materials and training programmes for the police, judiciary, instructors, drivers, traders and apprentices/hawkers, including micro-credit facilities were implemented in some of the studies. The major lessons learnt were that: Young girls working in the informal sector of the Nigerian economy face dual risks of HIV infection and GBV and yet they are seldom targets of intervention; Many had been victims of GBV and did not seek redress either because they accept it is their lot, are afraid of being stigmatized or are put off the prolonged legal system; Perpetrators tend to deny their involvement in violence; Despite the challenges involved, interventions implemented among female apprentices and hawkers, especially those that involve multiple stakeholders, made a difference in protecting this group from dual risks of GBV and HIV/AIDS infection. We recommend more intervention programmes for this population, and regulation of activities in the informal sector of the Nigerian economy.

  11. School-based education programmes for the prevention of unintentional injuries in children and young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, Elizabeth; Whitehead, Jessica; Mhizha-Murira, Jacqueline; Clarkson, Mandy; Watson, Michael C; Mulvaney, Caroline A; Staniforth, Joy Ul; Bhuchar, Munish; Kendrick, Denise

    2016-12-27

    Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death in children aged four to 18 years and are a major cause of ill health. The school setting offers the opportunity to deliver preventive interventions to a large number of children and has been used to address a range of public health problems. However, the effectiveness of the school setting for the prevention of different injury mechanisms in school-aged children is not well understood. To assess the effects of school-based educational programmes for the prevention of injuries in children and evaluate their impact on improving children's safety skills, behaviour and practices, and knowledge, and assess their cost-effectiveness. We ran the most recent searches up to 16 September 2016 for the following electronic databases: Cochrane Injuries Group Specialised Register; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials; Ovid MEDLINE(R), Ovid MEDLINE(R) In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations; Ovid MEDLINE(R) Daily and Ovid OLDMEDLINE(R); Embase and Embase Classic (Ovid); ISI Web of Science: Science Citation Index Expanded; ISI Web of Science Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science; ISI Web of Science: Social Sciences Citation Index; ISI Web of Science: Conference Proceedings Citation Index - Social Sciences & Humanities; and the 14 October 2016 for the following electronic databases: Health Economics Evaluations Database (HEED); Health Technology Assessment Database (HTA); CINAHL Plus (EBSCO); ZETOC; LILACS; PsycINFO; ERIC; Dissertation Abstracts Online; IBSS; BEI; ASSIA; CSA Sociological Abstracts; Injury Prevention Web; SafetyLit; EconLit (US); PAIS; UK Clinical Research Network Study Portfolio; Open Grey; Index to Theses in the UK and Ireland; Bibliomap and TRoPHI. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomised controlled trials (non-RCTs), and controlled before-and-after (CBA) studies that evaluated school-based educational programmes aimed at preventing a range of injury mechanisms. The

  12. Scientific rationale for the Finnish Allergy Programme 2008-2018: emphasis on prevention and endorsing tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hertzen, L C; Savolainen, J; Hannuksela, M; Klaukka, T; Lauerma, A; Mäkelä, M J; Pekkanen, J; Pietinalho, A; Vaarala, O; Valovirta, E; Vartiainen, E; Haahtela, T

    2009-05-01

    In similarity to many other western countries, the burden of allergic diseases in Finland is high. Studies worldwide have shown that an environment rich in microbes in early life reduces the subsequent risk of developing allergic diseases. Along with urbanization, such exposure has dramatically reduced, both in terms of diversity and quantity. Continuous stimulation of the immune system by environmental saprophytes via the skin, respiratory tract and gut appears to be necessary for activation of the regulatory network including regulatory T-cells and dendritic cells. Substantial evidence now shows that the balance between allergy and tolerance is dependent on regulatory T-cells. Tolerance induced by allergen-specific regulatory T-cells appears to be the normal immunological response to allergens in non atopic healthy individuals. Healthy subjects have an intact functional allergen-specific regulatory T-cell response, which in allergic subjects is impaired. Evidence on this exists with respect to atopic dermatitis, contact dermatitis, allergic rhinitis and asthma. Restoration of impaired allergen-specific regulatory T-cell response and tolerance induction has furthermore been demonstrated during allergen-specific subcutaneous and sublingual immunotherapy and is crucial for good therapeutic outcome. However, tolerance can also be strengthened unspecifically by simple means, e.g. by consuming farm milk and spending time in nature. Results so far obtained from animal models indicate that it is possible to restore tolerance by administering the allergen in certain circumstances both locally and systemically. It has become increasingly clear that continuous exposure to microbial antigens as well as allergens in foodstuffs and the environment is decisive, and excessive antigen avoidance can be harmful and weaken or even prevent the development of regulatory mechanisms. Success in the Finnish Asthma Programme was an encouraging example of how it is possible to reduce both

  13. School-based education programmes for the prevention of child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwi, K J; Woolfenden, S R; Wheeler, D M; O'brien, T A; Tait, P; Williams, K W

    2007-07-18

    Child sexual abuse is a significant problem that requires an effective means of prevention. To assess: if school-based programmes are effective in improving knowledge about sexual abuse and self-protective behaviours; whether participation results in an increase in disclosure of sexual abuse and/or produces any harm; knowledge retention and the effect of programme type or setting. Electronic searches of Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Sociological Abstracts, Dissertation Abstracts and other databases using MESH headings and text words specific for child sexual assault and randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were conducted in August 2006. RCTs or quasi-RCTs of school-based interventions to prevent child sexual abuse compared with another intervention or no intervention. Meta-analyses and sensitivity analysis, using two imputed intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) (0.1, 0.2), were used for four outcomes: protective behaviours, questionnaire-based knowledge, vignette-based knowledge and disclosure of abuse. Meta-analysis was not possible for retention of knowledge, likelihood of harm, or effect of programme type and setting. Fifteen trials measuring knowledge and behaviour change as a result of school-based child sexual abuse intervention programmes were included. Over half the studies in each initial meta-analysis contained unit of analysis errors. For behaviour change, two studies had data suitable for meta-analysis; results favoured intervention (OR 6.76, 95% CI 1.44, 31.84) with moderate heterogeneity (I(2)=56.0%) and did not change significantly when adjustments using intraclass coefficients were made. Nine studies were included in a meta-analysis evaluating questionnaire-based knowledge. An increase in knowledge was found (SMD 0.59; 0.44, 0.74, heterogeneity (I2=66.4%). When adjusted for an ICC of 0.1 and 0.2 the results were SMD 0.6 (0.45, 0.75) and 0.57 (0.44, 0.71) respectively. Heterogeneity decreased

  14. Programme Costing of a Physical Activity Programme in Primary Prevention: Should the Costs of Health Asset Assessment and Participatory Programme Development Count?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke B. Wolfenstetter

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This analysis aims to discuss the implications of the “health asset concept”, introduced by the WHO, and the “investment for health model” requiring a “participatory approach” of cooperative programme development applied on a physical activity programme for socially disadvantaged women and to demonstrate the related costing issues as well as the relevant decision context. The costs of programme implementation amounted to €48,700. Adding the costs for developing the programme design of €48,800 results in total costs of €97,500; adding on top of that the costs of asset assessment running to €35,600 would total €133,100. These four different cost figures match four different types of potentially relevant decisions contexts. Depending on the decision context the total costs, and hence the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of a health promotion intervention, could differ considerably. Therefore, a detailed cost assessment and the identification of the decision context are of crucial importance.

  15. A prevention programme for somatoform disorders is effective for affective disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Campayo, Javier; Arevalo, Elisa; Claraco, Luis Manuel; Alda, Marta; Lopez del Hoyo, Yolanda

    2010-04-01

    To assess the effectiveness of a psycho-educational programme for the primary prevention of somatoform disorders in healthy primary care patients. Randomized, controlled trial. Participants (N=104) were randomly assigned to: (1) a psycho-educational intervention, or (2) no intervention at all. The primary outcome measure was somatoform disorder psychiatric diagnosis at 5-year follow-up. Secondary outcome measures were hypochondriasis, locus of control and attribution of symptoms and psychological distress. At 3 and 6 months, and 5 years, the intervention group significantly decreased hypochondriasis and somatic attributions; and increased psychological and normalizing attributions and internal locus of control. Five years after baseline, the prevalence of somatoform disorders showed no differences between both groups. Nevertheless, overall psychiatric morbidity was less prevalent in the intervention group (odds ratio: 2.72; 95%CI:1.10-6.72). In addition, a decrease in depression and anxiety subscales and in overall General Health Questionnaire scoring (psomatization seems to be useful, not to decrease somatoform disorders, but to prevent anxiety and depressive disorders. The effects of overlapping psychobiological mechanisms are discussed. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Findings from a comprehensive diarrhoea prevention and treatment programme in Lusaka, Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Bosomprah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Programme for the Awareness and Elimination of Diarrhoea (PAED was a pilot comprehensive diarrhoea prevention and control programme aimed to reduce post-neonatal, all-cause under-five mortality by 15 % in Lusaka Province. Interventions included introduction of the rotavirus vaccine, improved clinical case management of diarrhoea, and a comprehensive community prevention and advocacy campaign on hand washing with soap, exclusive breastfeeding up to 6 months of age, and the use of ORS and Zinc. This study aimed to assess the impact of PAED on under-5 mortality. Methods The study was a pre-post evaluation design. The Demographic and Health Survey style population-based two-stage approach was used to collect data at the beginning of the intervention and 3 years following the start of intervention implementation in Lusaka province. The primary outcome of interest was an all-cause, post-neonatal under-five mortality rate defined as the probability of dying after the 28th day and before the fifth birthday among children aged 1–59 months. The Kaplan-Meier time to event analysis was used to estimate the probability of death; multiplying this probability by 1000 to yield the post-neonatal mortality rate. Survival-time inverse probability weighting model was used to estimate Average Treatment Effect (ATE. Results The percentage of children under age 5 who had diarrhoea in the last 2 weeks preceding the survey declined from 15.8 % (95 % CI: 15.2 %, 16.4 % in 2012 to 12.7 % (95 % CI: 12.3 %, 13.2 % in 2015. Over the same period, mortality in post-neonatal children under 5 years of age declined by 34 %, from an estimated rate of 29 deaths per 1000 live births (95 % CI: (26, 32 death per 1000 live births to 19 deaths per 1000 live births (95 % CI: (16, 21 death per 1000 live births. When every child in the population of children aged 1–59 months is exposed to the intervention, the average time-to-death was estimated to

  17. The “FIFA 11+” warm-up programme for preventing injuries in soccer players: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex de Andrade Fernandes

    Full Text Available Introduction Soccer is among the sports with the highest injury rate. A group of international experts from the Fédération Internationale de Football Association — FIFA’s Medical Assessment and Research Centre — have developed the “FIFA 11+”, a warm-up programme whose main goal is to reduce the risk of common injuries in both male and female soccer players. Objective To conduct a literature review in order to check the efficiency of the “FIFA 11 +” warm-up programme in preventing injuries in soccer players. Methods We conducted a systematic review of studies in the databases MEDLINE/PubMed, SciELO, ScienceDirect and SPORTDiscus, using the following keywords in combination with one another: “injury”, “prevention” and “warm-up”. Results Five studies met the inclusion criteria. In four studies, the authors conclude that the “FIFA 11 +” warm-up programme is effective for preventing injuries in soccer players. In one study, this protective effect was not observed. Conclusion The analyzed studies indicate that the FIFA 11+ warm-up programme for the prevention of sports injuries show positive signs that the use of the programme may help reduce the incidence of injuries in girls aged 13–17 years. In a male children population the results are inconclusive and further research is needed.

  18. Effect of the Dutch school-based education programme 'Taste Lessons' on behavioural determinants of taste acceptance and healthy eating: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battjes-Fries, Marieke C E; Haveman-Nies, Annemien; Renes, Reint-Jan; Meester, Hante J; van 't Veer, Pieter

    2015-08-01

    To assess the effect of the Dutch school-based education programme 'Taste Lessons' on children's behavioural determinants towards tasting unfamiliar foods and eating healthy and a variety of foods. In a quasi-experimental study design, data on behavioural determinants were collected at baseline, four weeks and six months after the intervention in both the intervention and control group. Children completed consecutively three questionnaires in which knowledge, awareness, skills, attitude, emotion, subjective norm and intention towards the two target behaviours were assessed. Teachers implemented on average a third of the programme activities. Multilevel regression analyses were conducted to compare individual changes in the determinants in the intervention group with those in the control group, corrected for children's gender and age. Effect sizes were expressed as Cohen's d. Dutch elementary schools. Forty-nine classes (1183 children, 9-12 years old) in grades 5-8 of twenty-one elementary schools. The intervention group showed a higher increase in knowledge (d=0·26, Peating healthy and a variety of foods. Full and repeated implementation of Taste Lessons in subsequent years might result in larger effects.

  19. The Politics of Prevention: Lessons from the Neglected History of US HIV/AIDS Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padamsee, Tasleem J

    2017-02-01

    The history of government action on HIV/AIDS has much to teach us about the dynamics and possibilities of US public health policy, but it has been insufficiently studied by social scientists of the epidemic. This article draws on a large set of original interviews with policy makers, thousands of news articles, and extensive documentation to reconstruct the history of three areas of debate and decision making about HIV prevention since 1990: needle exchange, HIV testing, and sex education for at-risk groups. These histories illuminate three key lessons. First, scientific evidence has less power to drive public health policy in the United States than in the United Kingdom, which is used as a comparison case to contextualize US choices within a broader range of options. Second, moral concerns weigh so heavily in the United States that a publicly articulated moral argument can countermand the dictates of solid scientific evidence, the voices of experts, and practical considerations to push public health policy in entirely oppositional directions. Third, having the ear of the presidential administration is usually a necessary-although not always sufficient-condition for the success of advocates trying to move US policy in the public health-indicated direction. Copyright © 2017 by Duke University Press.

  20. Assessment of a training programme for the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jam Gatell, M Rosa; Santé Roig, Montserrat; Hernández Vian, Óscar; Carrillo Santín, Esther; Turégano Duaso, Concepción; Fernández Moreno, Inmaculada; Vallés Daunis, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the most frequent nosocomial infection in intensive care units (ICUs). Most published studies have analysed nurses' theoretical knowledge about a specific procedure; however, the transfer of this knowledge to the practice has received little attention. To assess the impact of training session on nurses' knowledge regarding VAP, compliance with VAP preventive measures, VAP incidence and determining whether nursing workload affects compliance. A prospective, quasiexperimental, pre- and post-study of the nursing team in a 16-bed medical/surgical ICU. Pre-intervention phase: a questionnaire to assess nurses' knowledge of VAP prevention measures, direct observation and review of clinical records to assess compliance. Intervention phase: eight training sessions for nurses. The post-intervention phase mirrored the pre-intervention phase. Nurses answered more questions correctly on the post-intervention questionnaire than on the pre-intervention (17·87 ± 2·69 versus 15·91 ± 2·68, p = 0·002). Compliance with the following measures was better during the post-intervention period (p = 0·001): use of the smallest possible nasogastric tube, controlled aspiration of subglottic secretions and endotracheal tube cuff pressure, use of oral chlorhexidine and recording the endotracheal tube fixation number. VAP incidence remained unchanged throughout the study. However, a trend towards lower incidence of late (>4 days after intubation) VAP was observed (4·6 versus 3·1 episodes/1000 ventilation days, p = 0·37). The programme improved both knowledge of and compliance with VAP preventive measures, although improved knowledge did not always result in improved compliance. © 2012 The Authors. Nursing in Critical Care © 2012 British Association of Critical Care Nurses.

  1. Assessment of a training programme for the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jam Gatell, M Rosa; Santé Roig, Montserrat; Hernández Vian, Óscar; Carrillo Santín, Esther; Turégano Duaso, Concepción; Fernández Moreno, Inmaculada; Vallés Daunis, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    Background Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the most frequent nosocomial infection in intensive care units (ICUs). Most published studies have analysed nurses' theoretical knowledge about a specific procedure; however, the transfer of this knowledge to the practice has received little attention. Aim To assess the impact of training session on nurses' knowledge regarding VAP, compliance with VAP preventive measures, VAP incidence and determining whether nursing workload affects compliance. Method A prospective, quasiexperimental, pre- and post-study of the nursing team in a 16-bed medical/surgical ICU. Pre-intervention phase: a questionnaire to assess nurses' knowledge of VAP prevention measures, direct observation and review of clinical records to assess compliance. Intervention phase: eight training sessions for nurses. The post-intervention phase mirrored the pre-intervention phase. Findings Nurses answered more questions correctly on the post-intervention questionnaire than on the pre-intervention (17·87 ± 2·69 versus 15·91 ± 2·68, p = 0·002). Compliance with the following measures was better during the post-intervention period (p = 0·001): use of the smallest possible nasogastric tube, controlled aspiration of subglottic secretions and endotracheal tube cuff pressure, use of oral chlorhexidine and recording the endotracheal tube fixation number. VAP incidence remained unchanged throughout the study. However, a trend towards lower incidence of late (>4 days after intubation) VAP was observed (4·6 versus 3·1 episodes/1000 ventilation days, p = 0·37). Conclusion The programme improved both knowledge of and compliance with VAP preventive measures, although improved knowledge did not always result in improved compliance. PMID:23061618

  2. Estimating the Cost-Effectiveness of HIV Prevention Programmes in Vietnam, 2006-2010: A Modelling Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quang Duy Pham

    Full Text Available Vietnam has been largely reliant on international support in its HIV response. Over 2006-2010, a total of US$480 million was invested in its HIV programmes, more than 70% of which came from international sources. This study investigates the potential epidemiological impacts of these programmes and their cost-effectiveness.We conducted a data synthesis of HIV programming, spending, epidemiological, and clinical outcomes. Counterfactual scenarios were defined based on assumed programme coverage and behaviours had the programmes not been implemented. An epidemiological model, calibrated to reflect the actual epidemiological trends, was used to estimate plausible ranges of programme impacts. The model was then used to estimate the costs per averted infection, death, and disability adjusted life-year (DALY.Based on observed prevalence reductions amongst most population groups, and plausible counterfactuals, modelling suggested that antiretroviral therapy (ART and prevention programmes over 2006-2010 have averted an estimated 50,600 [95% uncertainty bound: 36,300-68,900] new infections and 42,600 [36,100-54,100] deaths, resulting in 401,600 [312,200-496,300] fewer DALYs across all population groups. HIV programmes in Vietnam have cost an estimated US$1,972 [1,447-2,747], US$2,344 [1,843-2,765], and US$248 [201-319] for each averted infection, death, and DALY, respectively.Our evaluation suggests that HIV programmes in Vietnam have most likely had benefits that are cost-effective. ART and direct HIV prevention were the most cost-effective interventions in reducing HIV disease burden.

  3. Estimating the Cost-Effectiveness of HIV Prevention Programmes in Vietnam, 2006-2010: A Modelling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Quang Duy; Wilson, David P.; Kerr, Cliff C.; Shattock, Andrew J.; Do, Hoa Mai; Duong, Anh Thuy; Nguyen, Long Thanh; Zhang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Vietnam has been largely reliant on international support in its HIV response. Over 2006-2010, a total of US$480 million was invested in its HIV programmes, more than 70% of which came from international sources. This study investigates the potential epidemiological impacts of these programmes and their cost-effectiveness. Methods We conducted a data synthesis of HIV programming, spending, epidemiological, and clinical outcomes. Counterfactual scenarios were defined based on assumed programme coverage and behaviours had the programmes not been implemented. An epidemiological model, calibrated to reflect the actual epidemiological trends, was used to estimate plausible ranges of programme impacts. The model was then used to estimate the costs per averted infection, death, and disability adjusted life-year (DALY). Results Based on observed prevalence reductions amongst most population groups, and plausible counterfactuals, modelling suggested that antiretroviral therapy (ART) and prevention programmes over 2006-2010 have averted an estimated 50,600 [95% uncertainty bound: 36,300–68,900] new infections and 42,600 [36,100–54,100] deaths, resulting in 401,600 [312,200–496,300] fewer DALYs across all population groups. HIV programmes in Vietnam have cost an estimated US$1,972 [1,447–2,747], US$2,344 [1,843–2,765], and US$248 [201–319] for each averted infection, death, and DALY, respectively. Conclusions Our evaluation suggests that HIV programmes in Vietnam have most likely had benefits that are cost-effective. ART and direct HIV prevention were the most cost-effective interventions in reducing HIV disease burden. PMID:26196290

  4. Diagnostic inertia in dyslipidaemia: results of a preventative programme in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazón-Bru, Antonio; Sepehri, Armina; Ramírez-Prado, Dolores; Navarro-Cremades, Felipe; Cortés, Ernesto; Rizo-Baeza, Mercedes; Gil-Guillén, Vicente Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Others have analysed the relationship between inadequate behaviour by healthcare professionals in the diagnosis of dyslipidaemia (diagnostic inertia) and the history of cardiovascular risk factors. However, since no study has assessed cardiovascular risk scores as associated factors, we carried out a study to quantify diagnostic inertia in dyslipidaemia and to determine if cardiovascular risk scores are associated with this inertia. In the Valencian Community (Spain), a preventive programme (cardiovascular, gynaecologic and vaccination) was started in 2003 inviting persons aged ≥40 years to undergo a health check-up at their health centre. This cross-sectional study examined persons with no known dyslipidaemia seen during the first six months of the programme (n = 16, 905) but whose total cholesterol (TC) was ≥5.17 mmol/L. Diagnostic inertia was defined as lack of follow-up to confirm/discard the dyslipidaemia diagnosis. Other variables included in the analysis were gender, history of cardiovascular risk factors/cardiovascular disease, counselling (diet/exercise), body mass index (BMI), age, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose and lipids. TC was grouped as ≥/Inertia was quantified and the adjusted odds ratios calculated from multivariate models. In the overall sample, the rate of diagnostic inertia was 52% (95% CI [51.2-52.7]); associated factors were TC ≥ 6.20 mmol/L, high or "not measured" BMI, hypertension, smoking and higher values of fasting blood glucose, systolic blood pressure and TC. In the REGICOR sample, the rate of diagnostic inertia was 51.9% (95% CI [51.1-52.7]); associated factors were REGICOR high and high or "not measured" BMI. In the SCORE sample the rate of diagnostic inertia was 51.7% (95% CI [50.9-52.5]); associated factors were SCORE high and high or "not measured" BMI. Diagnostic inertia existed in over half the patients and was associated with a greater cardiovascular risk.

  5. Study of Patient Information after percutaneous Coronary Intervention (SPICI): should prevention programmes become more effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perk, Joep; Hambraeus, Kristina; Burell, Gunilla; Carlsson, Roland; Johansson, Pelle; Lisspers, Jan

    2015-03-22

    This cross-sectional observational study was designed to evaluate the uptake and outcome of patient education after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). A questionnaire containing 41 items was handed out to consecutive patients from randomly selected Swedish hospitals after PCI. Questions concerned the patient's attribution of the cause of the cardiac event, perception of the information provided by physicians and nurses, and a self-assessment of changes in lifestyle post PCI regarding tobacco, physical activity, food habits and stress. Replies were obtained from 1,073 patients (reply rate 67%). Non-modifiable risk factors (age, heredity) were attributed a higher rate as the cause of disease compared to modifiable factors (smoking, physical activity, food habits). Most patients (67%) perceived they were cured, and 38% perceived from the given information that there was no need to change their habits. A mere 27% reported that they still had cardiovascular disease and needed behavioural change. After PCI, 16% continued to use tobacco; half of these were offered smoking cessation support. In spite of an 80% referral rate to cardiac rehabilitation, one out of two patients did not enrol. Fewer than half were regularly physically active. Nutritional counselling was provided to 71%, but only 40% changed food habits. Stress management programmes were rarely provided. Current preventive practice scarcely meets the challenge posed by the progress in modern invasive cardiology. The Study of Patient Information after percutaneous Coronary Intervention (SPICI) motivates an in-depth revision and adaptation of cardiac rehabilitation programmes in order to improve patient understanding of the disease, and to support greater compliance with a cardioprotective lifestyle.

  6. Internet-based recruitment to a depression prevention intervention: lessons from the Mood Memos study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Amy Joanna; Jorm, Anthony Francis; Mackinnon, Andrew James

    2013-02-12

    Recruiting participants to randomized controlled trials of health interventions can be very difficult. Internet-based recruitment is becoming an increasingly important mode of recruitment, yet there are few detailed accounts of experiences recruiting participants to mental health interventions. To report on our experience with Internet-based recruitment to an online depression prevention intervention and pass on lessons we learned. Participants were recruited to the Mood Memos study, an online preventive depression intervention, purely through Internet-based sources. The study was targeted to adults with subthreshold depression symptoms from several English-speaking countries. A variety of online recruitment sources were trialed, including search engine advertising (Google, Yahoo!, Bing), Facebook advertising, posts in forums and online noticeboards, and promotion through relevant websites and email newsletters of mental health organizations. The study website received visits from 94,808 individuals over the 14-month recruitment period. The recruitment target was reached with 1699 individuals signing up to the randomized controlled trial and 1326 fully enrolling. Most visitors arrived via Google advertising, which promoted a depression-screening questionnaire. Google advertising accounted for nearly half of the total participants who signed up to the study, at an average cost of AUD $12 per participant. Promoting the study through trustworthy organizations and websites known to participants was also effective. Recruitment techniques that were less effective were contacting forums, email groups, and community noticeboards. Several techniques, including Google advertising, were successful in recruiting participants to a trial evaluating an online depression intervention. Results suggest that Internet-based recruitment to mental health interventions is feasible and can be relatively affordable. ACTRN12609000925246.

  7. Internet-Based Recruitment to a Depression Prevention Intervention: Lessons From the Mood Memos Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorm, Anthony Francis; Mackinnon, Andrew James

    2013-01-01

    Background Recruiting participants to randomized controlled trials of health interventions can be very difficult. Internet-based recruitment is becoming an increasingly important mode of recruitment, yet there are few detailed accounts of experiences recruiting participants to mental health interventions. Objective To report on our experience with Internet-based recruitment to an online depression prevention intervention and pass on lessons we learned. Methods Participants were recruited to the Mood Memos study, an online preventive depression intervention, purely through Internet-based sources. The study was targeted to adults with subthreshold depression symptoms from several English-speaking countries. A variety of online recruitment sources were trialed, including search engine advertising (Google, Yahoo!, Bing), Facebook advertising, posts in forums and online noticeboards, and promotion through relevant websites and email newsletters of mental health organizations. Results The study website received visits from 94,808 individuals over the 14-month recruitment period. The recruitment target was reached with 1699 individuals signing up to the randomized controlled trial and 1326 fully enrolling. Most visitors arrived via Google advertising, which promoted a depression-screening questionnaire. Google advertising accounted for nearly half of the total participants who signed up to the study, at an average cost of AUD $12 per participant. Promoting the study through trustworthy organizations and websites known to participants was also effective. Recruitment techniques that were less effective were contacting forums, email groups, and community noticeboards. Conclusions Several techniques, including Google advertising, were successful in recruiting participants to a trial evaluating an online depression intervention. Results suggest that Internet-based recruitment to mental health interventions is feasible and can be relatively affordable. Trial Registration ACTRN

  8. Vaccine-preventable diseases: evaluation of vaccination programmes and optimisation of surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, Nicoline van der

    2018-01-01

    The Netherlands has a National Immunisation Programme (NIP) and a seasonal influenza vaccination programme. Surveillance enables countries to monitor and assess the impact of these programmes. Dutch surveillance is coordinated by the Centre for Infectious Disease Control and consists of 5 pillars,

  9. Parenting Programmes for Preventing Tobacco, Alcohol or Drugs Misuse in Children Less than 18: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, Jane; Bunn, Frances; Byrne, Geraldine

    2007-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review of controlled studies of parenting programmes to prevent tobacco, alcohol or drug abuse in children less than 18. We searched Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, specialized Register of Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group, Pub Med, psych INFO, CINALH and SIGLE. Two reviewers independently screened studies,…

  10. Domestic Violence and Abuse Prevention Programmes in the Early Years Classroom: A Pastoral, Academic and Financial Priority?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Bronagh E.; Mason, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Prevention programmes underpin every child's right to "feel" safe and to "be" safe from all forms of harm. Delivered in schools across the globe, they aim to equip children with knowledge about safety and the skills to seek help early. By drawing upon international prevalence and impact research, as well as the legal, policy…

  11. Evaluating a Pregnancy and STI Prevention Programme in Rural, At-Risk, Middle School Girls in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Julie C.; Lynne-Landsman, Sarah D.; Graber, Julia A.; Johnson, Kelly J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Young people in urban areas are often the focus of pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention programmes because of their high risk of unwanted pregnancy and contracting an STI. Young people in rural areas are far less studied but also have a high risk of similar outcomes. This study evaluates Giving Our Girls…

  12. An economic evaluation of a proprioceptive balance board training programme for the prevention of ankle sprains in volleyball

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, E.A.L.M.; van Tulder, M.; van der Beek, A.J.; Bouter, L.M.; van Mechelen, W.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the cost effectiveness of a proprioceptive balance board training programme for the prevention of ankle sprains in volleyball. METHODS: A total of 116 volleyball teams participated in this study which was carried out during the 2001-2002 volleyball season. Teams were randomly

  13. Impact of a District-Wide Diabetes Prevention Programme Involving Health Education for Children and the Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheeladevi, Sethu; Sagar, Jayanthi; Pujari, Siddharth; Rani, Padmaja Kumari

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To present results from a district-wide diabetes prevention programme involving health education for school children and the local community. Method: The model of health education that was utilized aimed to secure lifestyle changes and the identification of diabetes risk by school children (aged 9-12 years). The children acted as health…

  14. Effects of a School-Based Stress Prevention Programme on Adolescents in Different Phases of Behavioural Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierhaus, Marc; Maass, Asja; Fridrici, Mirko; Lohaus, Arnold

    2010-01-01

    This study examines whether the assumptions of the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) are useful to evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based stress prevention programme in adolescence to promote appropriate coping behaviour. The TTM assumes three consecutive phases in the adoption of behavioural patterns. Progress throughout the phases is promoted…

  15. The effectiveness of a preconditioning programme on preventing running-related injuries in novice runners : a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bredeweg, Steef W.; Zijlstra, Sjouke; Bessem, Bram; Buist, Ida

    Objectives There is no consensus on the aetiology and prevention of running-related injuries in runners. Preconditioning studies among different athlete populations show positive effects on the incidence of sports injuries. Hypothesis A 4-week preconditioning programme in novice runners will reduce

  16. School-based suicide prevention programmes: the SEYLE cluster-randomised, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Danuta; Hoven, Christina W; Wasserman, Camilla; Wall, Melanie; Eisenberg, Ruth; Hadlaczky, Gergö; Kelleher, Ian; Sarchiapone, Marco; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit; Bobes, Julio; Brunner, Romuald; Corcoran, Paul; Cosman, Doina; Guillemin, Francis; Haring, Christian; Iosue, Miriam; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Keeley, Helen; Musa, George J; Nemes, Bogdan; Postuvan, Vita; Saiz, Pilar; Reiter-Theil, Stella; Varnik, Airi; Varnik, Peeter; Carli, Vladimir

    2015-04-18

    Suicidal behaviours in adolescents are a major public health problem and evidence-based prevention programmes are greatly needed. We aimed to investigate the efficacy of school-based preventive interventions of suicidal behaviours. The Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE) study is a multicentre, cluster-randomised controlled trial. The SEYLE sample consisted of 11,110 adolescent pupils, median age 15 years (IQR 14-15), recruited from 168 schools in ten European Union countries. We randomly assigned the schools to one of three interventions or a control group. The interventions were: (1) Question, Persuade, and Refer (QPR), a gatekeeper training module targeting teachers and other school personnel, (2) the Youth Aware of Mental Health Programme (YAM) targeting pupils, and (3) screening by professionals (ProfScreen) with referral of at-risk pupils. Each school was randomly assigned by random number generator to participate in one intervention (or control) group only and was unaware of the interventions undertaken in the other three trial groups. The primary outcome measure was the number of suicide attempt(s) made by 3 month and 12 month follow-up. Analysis included all pupils with data available at each timepoint, excluding those who had ever attempted suicide or who had shown severe suicidal ideation during the 2 weeks before baseline. This study is registered with the German Clinical Trials Registry, number DRKS00000214. Between Nov 1, 2009, and Dec 14, 2010, 168 schools (11,110 pupils) were randomly assigned to interventions (40 schools [2692 pupils] to QPR, 45 [2721] YAM, 43 [2764] ProfScreen, and 40 [2933] control). No significant differences between intervention groups and the control group were recorded at the 3 month follow-up. At the 12 month follow-up, YAM was associated with a significant reduction of incident suicide attempts (odds ratios [OR] 0·45, 95% CI 0·24-0·85; p=0·014) and severe suicidal ideation (0·50, 0·27-0·92; p=0·025

  17. Effectiveness of programmes as part of primary prevention demonstrated on the example of cardiovascular diseases and the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korczak, Dieter; Dietl, Markus; Steinhauser, Gerlinde

    2011-04-01

    The HTA-report (HTA = Health Technology Assessment) deals with the primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus type 2. In 2009 approximately 356,000 people died in Germany due to cardiovascular diseases. According to estimations about 6.3 million people are suffering from diabetes mellitus type 2. The interventions that are subsidized by the public health insurance are mainly focused on sufficient physical activities, healthy nutrition, stress management and the reduction of the consumption of addictive drugs and luxury food. Which lifestyle-related measures and/or programmes for primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases and of the metabolic syndrome are effective? To what extent will the health status be improved by these offers? To what extent will existing health resources and skills be strengthened by these offers? Are there any differences regarding the effectiveness among the interventions with respect to different settings or subgroups? Which lifestyle-related interventions and/or programmes for primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases and of the metabolic syndrome are sustainable and cost-effective? Which outcome parameters are in the view of the contributors decisive for the evaluation of the effectiveness? In the view of the contributor are there different values between the outcome parameters? In the view of the payers and other actors are there different values between the outcome parameters? Which ethical and juridical factors have to be considered? Which social and/or socio-economic parameters influence the use of the services and effectiveness? A systematic literature research is done in 35 databases. For the period 2005 to 2010, reviews, epidemiological and clinical studies as well as economical evaluations which deal with primary prevention programmes regarding cardiovascular diseases or the metabolic syndrome are included. 44 publications meet the inclusion criteria. These studies confirm the effectiveness of the

  18. Effectiveness of programmes as part of primary prevention demonstrated on the example of cardiovascular diseases and the metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korczak, Dieter

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The HTA-report (HTA = Health Technology Assessment deals with the primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus type 2. In 2009 approximately 356,000 people died in Germany due to cardiovascular diseases. According to estimations about 6.3 million people are suffering from diabetes mellitus type 2. The interventions that are subsidized by the public health insurance are mainly focused on sufficient physical activities, healthy nutrition, stress management and the reduction of the consumption of addictive drugs and luxury food. Objectives: Which lifestyle-related measures and/or programmes for primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases and of the metabolic syndrome are effective? To what extent will the health status be improved by these offers? To what extent will existing health resources and skills be strengthened by these offers? Are there any differences regarding the effectiveness among the interventions with respect to different settings or subgroups? Which lifestyle-related interventions and/or programmes for primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases and of the metabolic syndrome are sustainable and cost-effective? Which outcome parameters are in the view of the contributors decisive for the evaluation of the effectiveness? In the view of the contributor are there different values between the outcome parameters? In the view of the payers and other actors are there different values between the outcome parameters? Which ethical and juridical factors have to be considered? Which social and/or socio-economic parameters influence the use of the services and effectiveness? Methods: A systematic literature research is done in 35 databases. For the period 2005 to 2010, reviews, epidemiological and clinical studies as well as economical evaluations which deal with primary prevention programmes regarding cardiovascular diseases or the metabolic syndrome are included. Results: 44 publications meet the

  19. Engaging Parents in Parentline Plus' Time to Talk Community Programme as Part of England's Teenage Pregnancy Strategy: Lessons for Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Mairi Ann; Davis, Liz; Lindsay, Geoff; Davis, Hilton

    2012-01-01

    Based on 65 interviews with professionals and parents conducted during 2007-2008, this 16-month, mainly qualitative evaluation of Parentline Plus' Time to Talk Community Programme (a preventative initiative within England's teenage pregnancy strategy) found that a community development approach and an ethos of partnership with parents and…

  20. Difficulties experienced in setting and achieving goals by participants of a falls prevention programme: a mixed-methods evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Romi; Mason, Wendy; Haines, Terry P

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the ability of participants of a falls prevention programme to set and achieve goals. The study used a prospective longitudinal design and a mixed-methods approach to data collection. Study participants were (1) 220 older adults participating in a 15-week combined exercise and education falls prevention programme and (2) 9 practitioners (3 home-care nurses, 5 community workers, and an exercise physiologist) involved in delivering the programme. Data from goal-setting forms were analyzed, and descriptive statistics were used to determine the number of appropriate goals set and achieved. Data were analyzed according to programme setting (home- or group-based) and whether or not participants were classified as being from a Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CALD) background in the Australian context. Semi-structured interviews with programme practitioners were thematically analyzed. A total of 144 respondents (n=75 CALD group, n=41 non-CALD group, n=6 CALD home, n=22 non-CALD home) set 178 goals. Only 101 (57%) goals could be evaluated according to achievement, because participants set goals that focused on health state instead of behaviour, set goals not relevant to falls prevention, used inappropriate constructs to measure goal achievement, and either did not review their goals or dropped out of the programme before goal review. Of these 101 goals, 64 were achieved. Practitioners described their own difficulties in understanding the process of setting health behaviour goals along with communication, cultural, and logistic difficulties. Both CALD and non-CALD participants and those participating in both group- and home-based programmes experienced difficulty in setting and achieving goals to facilitate behaviour change for falls prevention. Data suggest that home-based participants had more difficulty in setting goals than their group-based counterparts and, to a lesser extent, that CALD participants experienced more difficulty in setting goals than

  1. Achieving the HIV Prevention Impact of Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision: Lessons and Challenges for Managing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgaier, Sema K.; Reed, Jason B.; Thomas, Anne; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) is capable of reducing the risk of sexual transmission of HIV from females to males by approximately 60%. In 2007, the WHO and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) recommended making VMMC part of a comprehensive HIV prevention package in countries with a generalized HIV epidemic and low rates of male circumcision. Modeling studies undertaken in 2009–2011 estimated that circumcising 80% of adult males in 14 priority countries in Eastern and Southern Africa within five years, and sustaining coverage levels thereafter, could avert 3.4 million HIV infections within 15 years and save US$16.5 billion in treatment costs. In response, WHO/UNAIDS launched the Joint Strategic Action Framework for accelerating the scale-up of VMMC for HIV prevention in Southern and Eastern Africa, calling for 80% coverage of adult male circumcision by 2016. While VMMC programs have grown dramatically since inception, they appear unlikely to reach this goal. This review provides an overview of findings from the PLOS Collection “Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention: Improving Quality, Efficiency, Cost Effectiveness, and Demand for Services during an Accelerated Scale-up.” The use of devices for VMMC is also explored. We propose emphasizing management solutions to help VMMC programs in the priority countries achieve the desired impact of averting the greatest possible number of HIV infections. Our recommendations include advocating for prioritization and funding of VMMC, increasing strategic targeting to achieve the goal of reducing HIV incidence, focusing on programmatic efficiency, exploring the role of new technologies, rethinking demand creation, strengthening data use for decision-making, improving governments' program management capacity, strategizing for sustainability, and maintaining a flexible scale-up strategy informed by a strong monitoring, learning, and evaluation platform. PMID:24800840

  2. Perspectives of rural health and human service practitioners following suicide prevention training programme in Australia: A thematic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Martin; Ferguson, Monika; Walsh, Sandra; Martinez, Lee; Marsh, Michael; Cronin, Kathryn; Procter, Nicolas

    2018-05-01

    There are well-established training programmes available to support health and human services professionals working with people vulnerable to suicide. However, little is known about involving people with lived experience in the delivery of suicide prevention training with communities with increased rates of suicide. The aim of this paper was to report on a formative dialogical evaluation that explored the views of health and human services workers with regard to a suicide prevention training programme in regional (including rural and remote areas) South Australia which included meaningful involvement of a person with lived experience in the development and delivery of the training. In 2015, eight suicide prevention training workshops were conducted with health and human services workers. All 248 participants lived and worked in South Australian regional communities. We interviewed a subsample of 24 participants across eight sites. A thematic analysis of the interviews identified five themes: Coproduction is key, It is okay to ask the question, Caring for my community, I can make a difference and Learning for future training. The overall meta-theme was "Involvement of a person with lived experience in suicide prevention training supports regional communities to look out for people at risk of suicide." This paper highlights the need for suicide prevention training and other workforce development programmes to include lived experience participation as a core component in development and delivery. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Lessons Learned from PISA: A Systematic Review of Peer-Reviewed Articles on the Programme for International Student Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopfenbeck, Therese N.; Lenkeit, Jenny; El Masri, Yasmine; Cantrell, Kate; Ryan, Jeanne; Baird, Jo-Anne

    2018-01-01

    International large-scale assessments are on the rise, with the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) seen by many as having strategic prominence in education policy debates. The present article reviews PISA-related English-language peer-reviewed articles from the programme's first cycle in 2000 to its most current in 2015. Five…

  4. Collaborative Framework for Designing a Sustainability Science Programme: Lessons Learned at the National Autonomous University of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charli-Joseph, Lakshmi; Escalante, Ana E.; Eakin, Hallie; Solares, Ma. José; Mazari-Hiriart, Marisa; Nation, Marcia; Gómez-Priego, Paola; Pérez-Tejada, César A. Domínguez; Bojórquez-Tapia, Luis A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The authors describe the challenges and opportunities associated with developing an interdisciplinary sustainability programme in an emerging economy and illustrate how these are addressed through the approach taken for the development of the first postgraduate programme (MSc and PhD) in sustainability science at the National Autonomous…

  5. GIS in Public Health: applications in the Legionnaires' disease prevention programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliano Aránguez Ruiz

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This experience has been developed by the Public Health Institute of the Community of Madrid in order to use the GIS tools in the Legionnaires’ disease prevention programme and specifically in three work areas: epidemiologic surveillance, cooling towers environmental control and plans of intervention in case of an outbreak of Legionnaires’ disease.After having considered different strategies with their advantages the selected model have been the use of map viewers in the intranet with a different configuration format depending on its goals: images map viewers for systematic non-outbreak cases and cooling towers surveillance, viewers that allow an easier and usual consultation and, in the other hand, layers map viewers, better adapted to more complex users’ necessities and so designed to work in emergency situations. Both models are implemented to decentralise the use of these indispensable tools and make them closer of the public health professionals.Some methodological proposals to study spatial association of Legionaires’disease outbreaks are also presented and discussed in this paper.

  6. Controlled ecological evaluation of an implemented exercise training programme to prevent lower limb injuries in sport: differences in implementation activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Alex; Gabbe, Belinda J; Lloyd, David G; Cook, Jill; Finch, Caroline F

    2018-04-24

    The public health benefits of injury prevention programmes are maximised when programmes are widely adopted and adhered to. Therefore, these programmes require appropriate implementation support. This study evaluated implementation activity outcomes associated with the implementation of FootyFirst, an exercise training injury prevention programme for community Australian football, both with (FootyFirst+S) and without (FootyFirst+NS) implementation support. An evaluation plan based on the Reach Effectiveness Adoption Implementation Maintenance (RE-AIM) Sports Setting Matrix was applied in a controlled ecological evaluation of the implementation of FootyFirst. RE-AIM dimension-specific (range: 0-2) and total RE-AIM scores (range: 0-10) were derived by triangulating data from a number of sources (including surveys, interviews, direct observations and notes) describing FootyFirst implementation activities. The mean dimension-specific and total scores were compared for clubs in regions receiving FootyFirst+S and FootyFirst+NS, through analysis of variance. The mean total RE-AIM score forclubs in the FootyFirst+S regions was 2.4 times higher than for clubs in the FootyFirst+NS region (4.73 vs 1.94; 95% CI for the difference: 1.64 to 3.74). Similarly, all dimension-specific scores were significantly higher for clubs in the FootyFirst+S regions compared with clubs in the FootyFirst+NS region. In all regions, the dimension-specific scores were highest for reach and adoption, and lowest for implementation. Implementing exercise training injury prevention programmes in community sport is challenging. Delivering programme content supported by a context-specific and evidence-informed implementation plan leads to greater implementation activity, which is an important precursor to injury reductions. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise

  7. Proposal of procedures to prevent errors in radiotherapy based in learned lessons of accidental expositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueno, Giselle Oliveira Vieira

    2007-01-01

    In order to consider some procedures to prevent errors in radiotherapy based in learned lessons of accidental expositions and in accordance with information contained in international reports elaborated by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and of the data base availability by the European group Radiation Oncology Safety Information System (ROSIS) on the events, a research of the occurred errors was performed. For the evaluation of the incidents a data base based in the ROSIS and added plus a parameter was created 'type of error'. All the stored data make possible the evaluation of the 839 incidents in terms of frequency of the type of error, the process of detention, the number of reached patients and the degree of severity. Of the 50 types of found errors, the type of error more frequently was 'incorrect treatment coordinate', confirmed with the data of literature and representing 28,96 por cent of the total of the incidents. The results showed 44,44 por cent are discovered at the moment of the treatment and that the process of verification of the fiche or clinical revision of the patient is a verification more occurred insurance and in 43,33 por cent of the searched events. The results indicated that more than 50 por cent of the incidents the severity degree are void and approximately 62 por cent a patient are affected during the accomplishment of the radiotherapy. This work showed that to analyze the data base according to methodology proposal for Klein et al.; for Reason, and Dunscombe et al. is interesting to insert more characteristic detailed in the data base such as: the number of fractions for affected patient, number of fields of treatment for fraction that was affected, shunting line of the prescribed dose and shunting line of the volume prescribed in all the registered in cadastral map events. Some causes exist that can lead the errors when patient they are submitted to the radiotherapy. Some measures can be taken so that these errors do not

  8. Diagnostic inertia in dyslipidaemia: results of a preventative programme in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Palazón-Bru

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Others have analysed the relationship between inadequate behaviour by healthcare professionals in the diagnosis of dyslipidaemia (diagnostic inertia and the history of cardiovascular risk factors. However, since no study has assessed cardiovascular risk scores as associated factors, we carried out a study to quantify diagnostic inertia in dyslipidaemia and to determine if cardiovascular risk scores are associated with this inertia. In the Valencian Community (Spain, a preventive programme (cardiovascular, gynaecologic and vaccination was started in 2003 inviting persons aged ≥40 years to undergo a health check-up at their health centre. This cross-sectional study examined persons with no known dyslipidaemia seen during the first six months of the programme (n = 16, 905 but whose total cholesterol (TC was ≥5.17 mmol/L. Diagnostic inertia was defined as lack of follow-up to confirm/discard the dyslipidaemia diagnosis. Other variables included in the analysis were gender, history of cardiovascular risk factors/cardiovascular disease, counselling (diet/exercise, body mass index (BMI, age, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose and lipids. TC was grouped as ≥/<6.20 mmol/L. In patients without cardiovascular disease and <75/≤65 years (n = 15, 778/13, 597, the REGICOR (REgistre GIroní del COr/SCORE (Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation cardiovascular risk functions were used to classify risk (high/low. Inertia was quantified and the adjusted odds ratios calculated from multivariate models. In the overall sample, the rate of diagnostic inertia was 52% (95% CI [51.2–52.7]; associated factors were TC ≥ 6.20 mmol/L, high or “not measured” BMI, hypertension, smoking and higher values of fasting blood glucose, systolic blood pressure and TC. In the REGICOR sample, the rate of diagnostic inertia was 51.9% (95% CI [51.1–52.7]; associated factors were REGICOR high and high or “not measured” BMI. In the SCORE sample the rate of diagnostic

  9. Overdose prevention for injection drug users: lessons learned from naloxone training and distribution programs in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Tinka Markham; Rudenstine, Sasha; Stancliff, Sharon; Sherman, Susan; Nandi, Vijay; Clear, Allan; Galea, Sandro

    2007-01-25

    Fatal heroin overdose is a significant cause of mortality for injection drug users (IDUs). Many of these deaths are preventable because opiate overdoses can be quickly and safely reversed through the injection of Naloxone [brand name Narcan], a prescription drug used to revive persons who have overdosed on heroin or other opioids. Currently, in several cities in the United States, drug users are being trained in naloxone administration and given naloxone for immediate and successful reversals of opiate overdoses. There has been very little formal description of the challenges faced in the development and implementation of large-scale IDU naloxone administration training and distribution programs and the lessons learned during this process. During a one year period, over 1,000 participants were trained in SKOOP (Skills and Knowledge on Opiate Prevention) and received a prescription for naloxone by a medical doctor on site at a syringe exchange program (SEP) in New York City. Participants in SKOOP were over the age of 18, current participants of SEPs, and current or former drug users. We present details about program design and lessons learned during the development and implementation of SKOOP. Lessons learned described in the manuscript are collectively articulated by the evaluators and implementers of the project. There were six primary challenges and lessons learned in developing, implementing, and evaluating SKOOP. These include a) political climate surrounding naloxone distribution; b) extant prescription drug laws; c) initial low levels of recruitment into the program; d) development of participant appropriate training methodology; e) challenges in the design of a suitable formal evaluation; and f) evolution of program response to naloxone. Other naloxone distribution programs may anticipate similar challenges to SKOOP and we identify mechanisms to address them. Strategies include being flexible in program planning and implementation, developing evaluation

  10. Overdose prevention for injection drug users: Lessons learned from naloxone training and distribution programs in New York City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandi Vijay

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fatal heroin overdose is a significant cause of mortality for injection drug users (IDUs. Many of these deaths are preventable because opiate overdoses can be quickly and safely reversed through the injection of Naloxone [brand name Narcan], a prescription drug used to revive persons who have overdosed on heroin or other opioids. Currently, in several cities in the United States, drug users are being trained in naloxone administration and given naloxone for immediate and successful reversals of opiate overdoses. There has been very little formal description of the challenges faced in the development and implementation of large-scale IDU naloxone administration training and distribution programs and the lessons learned during this process. Methods During a one year period, over 1,000 participants were trained in SKOOP (Skills and Knowledge on Opiate Prevention and received a prescription for naloxone by a medical doctor on site at a syringe exchange program (SEP in New York City. Participants in SKOOP were over the age of 18, current participants of SEPs, and current or former drug users. We present details about program design and lessons learned during the development and implementation of SKOOP. Lessons learned described in the manuscript are collectively articulated by the evaluators and implementers of the project. Results There were six primary challenges and lessons learned in developing, implementing, and evaluating SKOOP. These include a political climate surrounding naloxone distribution; b extant prescription drug laws; c initial low levels of recruitment into the program; d development of participant appropriate training methodology; e challenges in the design of a suitable formal evaluation; and f evolution of program response to naloxone. Conclusion Other naloxone distribution programs may anticipate similar challenges to SKOOP and we identify mechanisms to address them. Strategies include being flexible in

  11. Lessons from reproductive health to inform multipurpose prevention technologies: don't reinvent the wheel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Martha; Manning, Judy

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents the public health rationale for multipurpose prevention technologies (MPTs) for sexual and reproductive health (SRH) based on regional trends in demographic and SRH indicators. It then distils important lessons gleaned from the introduction of contraceptive and reproductive health products over the past several decades in order to inform the development and future introduction of MPTs for SRH. A comparison of current demographic and public health regional data clearly revealed that the greatest confluence of women's SRH concerns occurs in sub-Saharan Africa and South/West Asia. These regional overlaps of SRH risks and outcomes present a strong rationale for developing MPTs designed to simultaneously protect against unintended pregnancy, HIV and other STIs. Information from acceptability, marketing, and operations research on the female condom, emergency contraception, pills and intravaginal rings identified key product characteristics and socio-behavioral issues to be considered in the development and introduction of MPTs. Product characteristics such as formulation, duration of action, presence and magnitude of side effects, prescription status (over-the-counter vs. prescribed), provider type and training and user perspectives, all contributed in varying degrees to both provider and user bias, and subsequent uptake of these family planning methods. Underlying socio-behavioral issues, including risk perception, ambivalence, and social costs also contributed to demand and use. Early identification of target populations will be critical to market shaping, demand creation and defining appropriate service delivery channels for MPTs. Ultimately, knowledge, attitudes, perceptions and practices of users (and their partners) will drive the success- or failure- of product introduction. MPTs provide a compelling response to the multiple and reinforcing SRH risks faced by women in key regions of the world, but specific product characteristics and their

  12. The convergence of American and Nigerian religious conservatism in a biopolitical shaping of Nigeria's HIV/AIDS prevention programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jappah, Jlateh V

    2013-01-01

    Nigeria has the largest number of HIV/AIDS cases in West Africa, with 3.3 million people estimated to be living with the disease. The country remains a fragile democratic state and has allocated insufficient resources to combat the spread of HIV/AIDS among its citizens. The preponderance of President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) dollars, expert knowledge, conservative ideology and activities has shaped the direction of HIV/AIDS sexual-transmission prevention programmes in Nigeria. PEPFAR channels significant resources through Nigerian faith-based organisations (FBOs), and considers these organisations integral for HIV prevention strategies. In many instances, HIV/AIDS prevention programmes managed by FBOs reflect their ideologies of morality and sexuality. There is a convergence of religious ideology concerning morality and HIV infectivity between American and Nigerian conservatives; this produces a fertile ground for the influence and expansion of the conservative activities of PEPFAR in Nigeria. The paper highlights this nexus and draws attention to the biopolitical underpinning of PEPFAR in shaping Nigeria's HIV prevention programmes. The paper further notes both positive and negative effects of PEPFAR activities and attempts by the Obama administration to redirect PEPFAR to a more holistic approach in order to optimise outcomes.

  13. Family-based programmes for preventing smoking by children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Roger E; Baker, Philip R A; Thomas, Bennett C; Lorenzetti, Diane L

    2015-02-27

    groups of studies were considered separately.Most studies had a judgement of 'unclear' for at least one risk of bias criteria, so the quality of evidence was downgraded to moderate. Although there was heterogeneity between studies there was little evidence of statistical heterogeneity in the results. We were unable to extract data from all studies in a format that allowed inclusion in a meta-analysis.There was moderate quality evidence family-based interventions had a positive impact on preventing smoking when compared to a no intervention control. Nine studies (4810 participants) reporting smoking uptake amongst baseline non-smokers could be pooled, but eight studies with about 5000 participants could not be pooled because of insufficient data. The pooled estimate detected a significant reduction in smoking behaviour in the intervention arms (risk ratio [RR] 0.76, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.68 to 0.84). Most of these studies used intensive interventions. Estimates for the medium and low intensity subgroups were similar but confidence intervals were wide. Two studies in which some of the 4487 participants already had smoking experience at baseline did not detect evidence of effect (RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.17).Eight RCTs compared a combined family plus school intervention to a school intervention only. Of the three studies with data, two RCTS with outcomes for 2301 baseline never smokers detected evidence of an effect (RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.75 to 0.96) and one study with data for 1096 participants not restricted to never users at baseline also detected a benefit (RR 0.60, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.94). The other five studies with about 18,500 participants did not report data in a format allowing meta-analysis. One RCT also compared a family intervention to a school 'good behaviour' intervention and did not detect a difference between the two types of programme (RR 1.05, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.38, n = 388).No studies identified any adverse effects of intervention. There is moderate

  14. Older people's perception of and coping with falling, and their motivation for fall-prevention programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Dorte; Hendriksen, Carsten; Borup, Ina

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to investigate older people's perceptions of and coping with falls, and what motivates them to join such programmes.......This study aims to investigate older people's perceptions of and coping with falls, and what motivates them to join such programmes....

  15. Evaluation of programmes for the prevention of behavioural problems and for development of social competences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsmoen, Hege; Holth, Per; Nissen, Poul

    2006-01-01

    Rapport om forskningsbaseret vurdering af programmer med henblik på reduktion af problemadfærd og udvikling af social kompetence i Norge......Rapport om forskningsbaseret vurdering af programmer med henblik på reduktion af problemadfærd og udvikling af social kompetence i Norge...

  16. Study of compliance with a new, targeted antenatal D immunization prevention programme in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkjaer, M B; Perslev, A; Clausen, F B

    2012-01-01

    A targeted routine antenatal anti-D prophylaxis programme was implemented in Denmark where anti-D immunoglobulin is given based on the result from noninvasive antenatal screening for fetal RHD. Our objective was to evaluate compliance with this new programme right after its initiation. Materials and...

  17. Planning the diffusion of a neck-injury prevention programme among community rugby union coaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Alex; Poulos, Roslyn G

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a theory-informed and evidence-informed, context-specific diffusion plan for the Mayday Safety Procedure (MSP) among community rugby coaches in regional New South Wales, Australia. Step 5 of Intervention Mapping was used to plan strategies to enhance MSP adoption and implementation. Coaches were identified as the primary MSP adopters and implementers within a system including administrators, players and referees. A local advisory group was established to ensure context relevance. Performance objectives (eg, attend MSP training for coaches) and determinants of adoption and implementation behaviour (eg, knowledge, beliefs, skills and environment) were identified, informed by Social Cognitive Theory. Adoption and implementation matrices were developed and change-objectives for coaches were identified (eg, skills to deliver MSP training to players). Finally, intervention methods and specific strategies (eg, coach education, social marketing and policy and by-law development) were identified based on advisory group member experience, evidence of effective coach safety behaviour-change interventions and Diffusion of Innovations theory. This is the first published example of a systematic approach to plan injury prevention programme diffusion in community sports. The key strengths of this approach were an effective researcher-practitioner partnership; actively engaging local sports administrators; targeting specific behaviour determinants, informed by theory and evidence; and taking context-related practical strengths and constraints into consideration. The major challenges were the time involved in using a systematic diffusion planning approach for the first time; and finding a planning language that was acceptable and meaningful to researchers and practitioners.

  18. Multidrug resistant Salmonella enterica isolated from conventional pig farms using antimicrobial agents in preventative medicine programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron-Veas, Karla; Fraile, Lorenzo; Napp, Sebastian; Garrido, Victoria; Grilló, María Jesús; Migura-Garcia, Lourdes

    2018-04-01

    A longitudinal study was conducted to investigate the presence of multidrug antimicrobial resistance (multi-AR) in Salmonella enterica in pigs reared under conventional preventative medicine programmes in Spain and the possible association of multi-AR with ceftiofur or tulathromycin treatment during the pre-weaning period. Groups of 7-day-old piglets were treated by intramuscular injection with ceftiofur on four farms (n=40 piglets per farm) and with tulathromycin on another four farms (n=40 piglets per farm). A control group of untreated piglets (n=30 per farm) was present on each farm. Faecal swabs were collected for S. enterica culture prior to treatment, at 2, 7 and 180days post-treatment, and at slaughter. Minimal inhibitory concentrations of 14 antimicrobial agents, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and detection of resistance genes representing five families of antimicrobial agents were performed. Plasmids carrying cephalosporin resistant (CR) genes were characterised. Sixty-six S. enterica isolates were recovered from five of eight farms. Forty-seven isolates were multi-AR and four contained bla CTX-M genes harboured in conjugative plasmids of the IncI1 family; three of these isolates were recovered before treatment with ceftiofur. The most frequent AR genes detected were tet(A) (51/66, 77%), sul1 (17/66, 26%); tet(B) (15/66, 23%) and qnrB (10/66, 15%). A direct relation between the use of ceftiofur in these conditions and the occurrence of CR S. enterica was not established. However, multi-AR was common, especially for ampicillin, streptomycin, sulphonamides and tetracycline. These antibiotics are used frequently in veterinary medicine in Spain and, therefore, should be used sparingly to minimise the spread of multi-AR. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. The effectiveness of a preconditioning programme on preventing running-related injuries in novice runners: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredeweg, Steef W; Zijlstra, Sjouke; Bessem, Bram; Buist, Ida

    2012-09-01

    There is no consensus on the aetiology and prevention of running-related injuries in runners. Preconditioning studies among different athlete populations show positive effects on the incidence of sports injuries. A 4-week preconditioning programme in novice runners will reduce the incidence of running-related injuries. Randomised controlled clinical trial; level of evidence, 1. Novice runners (N=432) prepared for a four-mile recreational running event. Participants were allocated to the 4-week preconditioning (PRECON) group (N=211) or the control group (N=221). The PRECON group started a 4-week training programme, prior to the running programme, with walking and hopping exercises. After the 4-week period both groups started a 9-week running programme. In both groups information was registered on running exposure and running-related injuries (RRIs) using an internet-based running log. Primary outcome measure was RRIs per 100 runners. An RRI was defined as any musculoskeletal complaint of the lower extremity or lower back causing restriction of running for at least a week. The incidence of RRIs was 15.2% in the PRECON group and 16.8% in the control group. The difference in RRIs between the groups was not significant (χ(2)=0.161, df=1, p=0.69). This prospective study demonstrated that a 4-week PRECON programme with walking and hopping exercises had no influence on the incidence of RRIs in novice runners.

  20. United States Support Programme (USSP): Lessons Learned from the Management of Complex, Multi-Stakeholder Projects for International Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, R.; Tackentien, J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper will review USSP experiences, lessons learned, and proposed future strategies on the management of complex projects including the Universal Non-Destructive Assay Data Acquisition Platform (UNAP) instrument development task. The focus will be on identifying lessons learned to formulate strategies to minimize risk and maximize the potential of commercial success for future complex projects. Topics planned for inclusion are: 1. Initial agreement amongst all stakeholders on the justification of the need of the development including market studies of existing/near term future COTS technology capabilities; 2. Initial confirmation that there is a market for the product other than the IAEA to reduce investment risk; 3. Agreement on an accelerated initial project schedule from request acceptance to commercial unit production including per unit cost and quantities; 4. During product development, obtaining periodic customer reaffirmation of the need and quantities for the product per the existing schedule and per unit price. (author)

  1. Intermittent preventive treatment for malaria among children in a refugee camp in Northern Uganda: lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coldiron, Matthew E; Lasry, Estrella; Bouhenia, Malika; Das, Debashish; Okui, Peter; Nyehangane, Dan; Mwanga, Juliet; Langendorf, Celine; Elder, Greg; Salumu, Léon; Grais, Rebecca F

    2017-05-23

    Northern Uganda hosts a large population of refugees from South Sudan, and malaria is one of the major health problems in the area. In 2015, intermittent preventive treatment for malaria (IPTc) was implemented in two refugee camps among children aged 6 months to 14 years. Three distributions of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) were conducted at 8-week intervals. The first dose was directly administered at IPTc distribution sites and the second and third doses were given to caregivers to administer at home. A multi-faceted evaluation was implemented, including coverage surveys, malaria prevalence surveys, reinforced surveillance, and pharmacovigilance. Programme coverage exceeded 90% during all three distributions with a total of 40,611 participants. Compared to same period during the previous year (only available data), the incidence of malaria in the target populations was reduced (IRR 0.73, 95% CI 0.69-0.77 among children under 5 years old; IRR 0.70, 95% CI 0.67-0.72 among children aged 5-14 years). Among those not targeted for intervention, the incidence between the 2 years increased (IRR 1.49, 95% CI 1.42-1.56). Cross-sectional surveys showed a prevalence of parasitaemia (microscopy or PCR) of 12.9-16.4% (95% CI 12.6-19.3) during the intervention, with the highest prevalence among children aged 5-14 years, but with a large increase 8 weeks after the final distribution. A total of 57 adverse events were reported during the intervention period, including one severe adverse event (death from varicella). Adverse events were of mild to moderate severity, and were mainly dermatologic and gastrointestinal. This is the first documentation of an IPTc programme in a refugee camp. The positive impact of DP on the incidence of malaria, together with its favourable safety profile, should lead to further use of IPTc in similar settings. Expanding coverage groups and decreasing intervals between distributions might provide more benefit, but would need to be balanced

  2. A programme of research to set priorities and reduce uncertainties for the prevention and treatment of skin disease

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, K. S.; Batchelor, J. M.; Bath-Hextall, F.; Chalmers, J. R.; Clarke, T.; Crowe, S.; Delamere, F. M.; Eleftheriadou, V.; Evans, N.; Firkins, L.; Greenlaw, N.; Lansbury, L.; Lawton, S.; Layfield, C.; Leonardi-Bee, J.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Skin diseases are very common and can have a large impact on the quality of life of patients and caregivers. This programme addressed four diseases: (1) eczema, (2) vitiligo, (3) squamous cell skin cancer (SCC) and (4) pyoderma gangrenosum (PG). OBJECTIVE: To set priorities and reduce uncertainties for the treatment and prevention of skin disease in our four chosen diseases. DESIGN: Mixed methods including eight systematic reviews, three prioritisation exercises, tw...

  3. A parenting programme to prevent abuse of adolescents in South Africa: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluver, Lucie; Meinck, Franziska; Shenderovich, Yulia; Ward, Catherine L; Romero, Rocio Herrero; Redfern, Alice; Lombard, Carl; Doubt, Jenny; Steinert, Janina; Catanho, Ricardo; Wittesaele, Camille; De Stone, Sachin; Salah, Nasteha; Mpimpilashe, Phelisa; Lachman, Jamie; Loening, Heidi; Gardner, Frances; Blanc, Daphnee; Nocuza, Mzuvekile; Lechowicz, Meryn

    2016-07-19

    An estimated one billion children experience child abuse each year, with the highest rates in low- and middle-income countries. The Sinovuyo Teen programme is part of Parenting for Lifelong Health, a WHO/UNICEF initiative to develop and test violence-prevention programmes for implementation in low-resource contexts. The objectives of this parenting support programme are to prevent the abuse of adolescents, improve parenting and reduce adolescent behavioural problems. This trial aims to evaluate the effectiveness of Sinovuyo Teen compared to an attention-control group of a water hygiene programme. This is a pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial, with stratified randomisation of 37 settlements (rural and peri-urban) with 40 study clusters in the Eastern Cape of South Africa. Settlements receive either a 14-session parenting support programme or a 1-day water hygiene programme. The primary outcomes are child abuse and parenting practices, and secondary outcomes include adolescent behavioural problems, mental health and social support. Concurrent process evaluation and qualitative research are conducted. Outcomes are reported by both primary caregivers and adolescents. Brief follow-up measures are collected immediately after the intervention, and full follow-up measures collected at 3-8 months post-intervention. A 15-24-month follow-up is planned, but this will depend on the financial and practical feasibility given delays related to high levels of ongoing civil and political violence in the research sites. This is the first known trial of a parenting programme to prevent abuse of adolescents in a low- or middle-income country. The study will also examine potential mediating pathways and moderating factors. Pan-African Clinical Trials Registry PACTR201507001119966. Registered on 27 April 2015. It can be found by searching for the key word 'Sinovuyo' on their website or via the following link: http://www.pactr.org/ATMWeb/appmanager/atm

  4. Obesity Prevention in a City State: Lessons from New York City during the Bloomberg Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Paul M; Davies, Anna; Greig, Alexandra J M; Lee, Karen K

    2016-01-01

    To illuminate the key components of multi-sector reform to address the obesogenic environment in New York City during the administration of Mayor Michael Bloomberg from 2002 to 2013, we conducted a case study consisting of interviews with and a critical analysis of the experiences of leading decision makers and implementers. Key informant interviews (N = 41) conducted in 2014 were recorded, transcribed, coded, and thematically analyzed. Participants included officials from the Health Department and other New York City Government agencies, academics, civil society members, and private sector executives. Participants described Mayor Bloomberg as a data-driven politician who wanted to improve the lives of New Yorkers. He appointed talented Commissioners and encouraged them and their staff to be bold, innovative, and collaborative. Multiple programs spanning multiple sectors, with varied approaches and targets, were supported. This study found that much of the work relied on loose coalitions across City Government, with single agencies responsible for their own agendas, some with health co-benefits. Many policies were implemented through non-legislative mechanisms such as executive orders and the Health Code. Despite support from academic and some civil society groups, strong lobbying from industry and an unfavorable media led to some reforms being modified, legally challenged or blocked completely, particularly food environment modifiers. In contrast, reforms of the physical environment were described as highly consultative across and outside government and resulted in slower but more sustained reform. The Bloomberg administration was a "window of opportunity" with the imprimatur of the executive to progress a long-term, multi-faceted obesity prevention strategy, which has successfully reversed childhood trends. Through the involvement of external researchers and the extensive use of empirical data from a wide range of participants, this study offers a unique

  5. [Primary Prevention of Mental Disorders in Children of Mentally Ill Parents. The Kanu Programme "Canoe--Moving Jointly Forward"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linthorst, K; Bauer, U; Osipov, I; Pinheiro, P; Rehder, M

    2015-09-01

    Children of parents who suffer from mental health disorders are more likely to develop mental disorders than children of parents not suffering from mental disorders. For children at risk, preventive strategies are hardly available and, if available, rarely supported by a scientific evaluation. "Kanu - Gemeinsam weiterkommen (canoe - moving jointly forward)" is a preventive strategy that was developed within a research project focusing on primary prevention in children who live in families with parents affected by mental disorders. The intervention is characterised by a multi-modular concept and was tested in the adult psychiatric setting. Preliminary results indicate a preventive impact of the intervention programme. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Costs and longer-term savings of parenting programmes for the prevention of persistent conduct disorder: a modelling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beecham Jennifer

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conduct disorders are the most common psychiatric disorders in children and may persist into adulthood in about 50% of cases. The costs to society are high and impact many public sector agencies. Parenting programmes have been shown to positively affect child behaviour, but little is known about their potential long-term cost-effectiveness. We therefore estimate the costs of and longer-term savings from evidence-based parenting programmes for the prevention of persistent conduct disorder. Methods A decision-analytic Markov model compares two scenarios: 1 a 5-year old with clinical conduct disorder receives an evidence-based parenting programme; 2 the same 5-year old does not receive the programme. Cost-savings analysis is performed by comparing the probability that conduct disorder persists over time in each scenario, adopting both a public sector and a societal perspective. If the intervention is successful in reducing persistent conduct disorder, cost savings may arise from reduced use of health services, education support, social care, voluntary agencies and from crimes averted. Results Results strongly suggest that parenting programmes reduce the chance that conduct disorder persists into adulthood and are cost-saving to the public sector within 5-8 years under base case conditions. Total savings to society over 25 years are estimated at £16,435 per family, which compares with an intervention cost in the range of £952-£2,078 (2008/09 prices. Conclusions Effective implementation of evidence-based parenting programmes is likely to yield cost savings to the public sector and society. More research is needed to address evidence gaps regarding the current level of provision, longer-term effectiveness and questions of implementation, engagement and equity.

  7. Integrating multiple programme and policy approaches to hepatitis C prevention and care for injection drug users: a comprehensive approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkhead, Guthrie S; Klein, Susan J; Candelas, Alma R; O'Connell, Daniel A; Rothman, Jeffrey R; Feldman, Ira S; Tsui, Dennis S; Cotroneo, Richard A; Flanigan, Colleen A

    2007-10-01

    New York State is home to an estimated 230,000 individuals chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and roughly 171,500 active injection drug users (IDUs). HCV/HIV co-infection is common and models of service delivery that effectively meet IDUs' needs are required. A HCV strategic plan has stressed integration. HCV prevention and care are integrated within health and human service settings, including HIV/AIDS organisations and drug treatment programmes. Other measures that support comprehensive HCV services for IDUs include reimbursement, clinical guidelines, training and HCV prevention education. Community and provider collaborations inform programme and policy development. IDUs access 5 million syringes annually through harm reduction/syringe exchange programmes (SEPs) and a statewide syringe access programme. Declines in HCV prevalence amongst IDUs in New York City coincided with improved syringe availability. New models of care successfully link IDUs at SEPs and in drug treatment to health care. Over 7000 Medicaid recipients with HCV/HIV co-infection had health care encounters related to their HCV in a 12-month period and 10,547 claims for HCV-related medications were paid. The success rate of transitional case management referrals to drug treatment is over 90%. Training and clinical guidelines promote provider knowledge about HCV and contribute to quality HCV care for IDUs. Chart reviews of 2570 patients with HIV in 2004 documented HCV status 97.4% of the time, overall, in various settings. New HCV surveillance systems are operational. Despite this progress, significant challenges remain. A comprehensive, public health approach, using multiple strategies across systems and mobilizing multiple sectors, can enhance IDUs access to HCV prevention and care. A holisitic approach with integrated services, including for HCV-HIV co-infected IDUs is needed. Leadership, collaboration and resources are essential.

  8. Replacing Concrete with Natural and Social Engineering: Learning the Lessons of Stakeholder Engagement from South West Water's Upland Catchment Management Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David; Grand-Clement, Emile; Brazier, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Replacing Concrete with Natural and Social Engineering: Learning the Lessons of Stakeholder Engagement from South West Water's Upland Catchment Management Programme Smith, D., Grand-Clement, E., Anderson, K., Luscombe, D., G, N., Bratis, Brazier, R.E Peatlands in the South West of the British Isles have been extensively drained for agricultural reclamation and peat cutting. The improvement in food production resulting from this management practice has never clearly been observed. Instead, we are now faced with several detrimental consequences on a whole suite of ecosystem services, such as the delivery of water, water quality, biodiversity and carbon storage. Alongside the direct environmental implications, poor water quality is increasing water treatment costs and will drive significant future investment. As a result, water companies now need to find appropriate solutions to varying water levels and decreasing water quality through catchment management. The Mires Project, the catchment management programme used by South West Water (SWW) is working with a wide range of stakeholders to restore the hydrological functioning of peatlands, and the ecosystem services they provide. This programme is driven by overarching legal requirements (i.e. the water framework directive, Natura 2000), future climate change predictions, corporate responsibility and commercial needs. Post-restoration scientific monitoring is at the heart of the project improving of our understanding of the eco-hydrological and chemical process driving changes in management practice. The challenges faced from the involvement of a wide range of stakeholders will be explored, focusing on the benefits from stakeholder involvement in catchment management and hydrological research, but also considering the difficulties to be overcome. SWW is working with private land-owners, government agencies, local and national park Authorities, community and single interest groups and research institutions to achieve its

  9. Towards an Online Bachelor of Information Science Degree Programme in a Nigerian University: Part 2--Lessons from a Market Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiamiyu, Mutawakilu; Ajiferuke, Isola; Longe, Folake; Nwagwu, Williams; Ogunsola, Kemi; Opesade, Adeola; Olatokun, Wole

    2012-01-01

    This is the second of two articles that reports aspects of a study that was undertaken to assess the information industry and job market needs that the curriculum of the proposed programme must target. The first article specified the research problem and objectives, reviewed some key definitions and methodologies that were used, and the findings,…

  10. Improving homeless persons’ utilization of primary care : Lessons to be learned from an outreach programme in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elissen, A.M.J.; van Raak, A.J.A.; Derck, E.W.C.C.; Vrijhoef, H.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Faced with rising homelessness, countries around the world are in need of innovative approaches to caring for those without shelter, who, more often than not, suffer from severe health problems. We conducted a case study of an innovative Dutch Primary Care for the Homeless (PCH) programme to gain

  11. Evaluating the effect of policies and interventions to address inequalities in health: lessons from a Dutch programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stronks, Karien; Mackenbach, Johan P.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Many initiatives have been taken in European countries that are designed to reduce inequalities in health. However, the effects of only a very few of these initiatives have been assessed. The main aim of a Dutch research and development programme was to systematically investigate and

  12. Lost in translation? Theory, policy and practice in systems-based environmental approaches to obesity prevention in the Healthy Towns programme in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sautkina, Elena; Goodwin, Denise; Jones, Andy; Ogilvie, David; Petticrew, Mark; White, Martin; Cummins, Steven

    2014-09-01

    This paper explores how system-wide approaches to obesity prevention were 'theorised' and translated into practice in the 'Healthy Towns' programme implemented in nine areas in England. Semi-structured interviews with 20 informants, purposively selected to represent national and local programme development, management and delivery were undertaken. Results suggest that informants articulated a theoretical understanding of a system-wide approach to obesity prevention, but simplifying this complex task in the context of uncertainty over programme aims and objectives, and absence of a clear direction from the central government, resulted in local programmes relying on traditional multi-component approaches to programme delivery. The development of clear, practical guidance on implementation should form a central part of future system-wide approaches to obesity prevention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Scale-up of a comprehensive harm reduction programme for people injecting opioids: lessons from north-eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalmuanpuii, Melody; Biangtung, Langkham; Mishra, Ritu Kumar; Reeve, Matthew J; Tzudier, Sentimoa; Singh, Angom L; Sinate, Rebecca; Sgaier, Sema K

    2013-04-01

    Harm reduction packages for people who inject illicit drugs, including those infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), are cost-effective but have not been scaled up globally. In the north-eastern Indian states of Manipur and Nagaland, the epidemic of HIV infection is driven by the injection of illicit drugs, especially opioids. These states needed to scale up harm reduction programmes but faced difficulty doing so. In 2004, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation funded Project ORCHID to scale up a harm reduction programme in Manipur and Nagaland. In 2003, an estimated 10 000 and 16 000 people were injecting drugs in Manipur and Nagaland, respectively. The prevalence of HIV infection among people injecting drugs was 24.5% in Manipur and 8.4% in Nagaland. By 2012, the harm reduction programme had been scaled up to an average of 9011 monthly contacts outside clinics (80% of target); an average of 1709 monthly clinic visits (15% of target, well above the 5% monthly goal) and an average monthly distribution of needles and syringes of 16 each per programme participant. Opioid agonist maintenance treatment coverage was 13.7% and retention 6 months after enrolment was 63%. Antiretroviral treatment coverage for HIV-positive participants was 81%. A harm reduction model consisting of community-owned, locally relevant innovations and business approaches can result in good harm reduction programme scale-up and influence harm reduction policy. Project ORCHID has influenced national harm reduction policy in India and contributed to the development of harm reduction guidelines.

  14. The preventive effect of the bounding exercise programme on hamstring injuries in amateur soccer players: the design of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Hoef, S; Huisstede, B M A; Brink, M S; de Vries, N; Goedhart, E A; Backx, F J G

    2017-08-22

    Hamstring injuries are the most common muscle injury in amateur and professional soccer. Most hamstring injuries occur in the late swing phase, when the hamstring undergoes a stretch-shortening cycle and the hamstring does a significant amount of eccentric work. The incidence of these injuries has not decreased despite there being effective injury prevention programmes focusing on improving eccentric hamstring strength. As this might be because of poor compliance, a more functional injury prevention exercise programme that focuses on the stretch-shortening cycle might facilitate compliance. In this study, a bounding exercise programme consisting of functional plyometric exercises is being evaluated. A cluster-randomized controlled trial (RCT). Male amateur soccer teams (players aged 18-45 years) have been randomly allocated to intervention and control groups. Both groups are continuing regular soccer training and the intervention group is additionally performing a 12-week bounding exercise programme (BEP), consisting of a gradual build up and maintenance programme for the entire soccer season. The primary outcome is hamstring injury incidence. Secondary outcome is compliance with the BEP during the soccer season and 3 months thereafter. Despite effective hamstring injury prevention programmes, the incidence of these injuries remains high in soccer. As poor compliance with these programmes may be an issue, a new plyometric exercise programme may encourage long-term compliance and is expected to enhance sprinting and jumping performance besides preventing hamstring injuries. NTR6129 . Retrospectively registered on 1 November 2016.

  15. Political epidemiology: strengthening socio-political analysis for mass immunisation - lessons from the smallpox and polio programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S

    2009-01-01

    Control and reduction of infectious diseases is a key to attaining the Millennium Development Goals. An important element of this work is the successful immunisation, especially in resource-poor countries. Mass immunisation, most intensively in the case of eradication, depends on a combination of reliable demand (e.g. public willingness to comply with the vaccine protocol) and effective supply (e.g. robust, generally state-led, vaccine delivery). This balance of compliance and enforceability is, quintessentially, socio-political in nature - conditioned by popular perceptions of disease and risk, wider conditions of economic development and poverty, technical aspects of vaccine delivery, and the prevailing international norms regarding power relations between states and peoples. In the past 100 years, three out of six disease eradication programmes have failed. The explanations for failure have focused on biotechnical and managerial or financial issues. Less attention is paid to socio-political aspects. Yet socio-political explanations are key. Eradication is neither inherently prone to failure, nor necessarily doomed in the case of polio. However, eradication, and similar mass immunisation initiatives, which fail to address social and political realities of intervention may be. A comparison of the smallpox and polio eradication programmes illustrates the importance of disease-specific socio-political analysis in programme conceptualisation, design, and management.

  16. Impact and economic evaluations of a combination prevention programme for men who have sex with men in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colchero, M Arantxa; Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio; Cortés-Ortiz, María A; Romero-Martinez, Martín; Salas, Jessica; Sosa-Rubí, Sandra G; Uribe, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Despite the high-profile support for combination prevention programmes (CPPs) since 2008, there is little rigorous evidence on their impact and cost-effectiveness. In 2010, Mexico received funds from the Global Fund to implement a series of behavioural, biomedical, and structural interventions over 3 years targeted to men who have sex with men. The aims of the study were to estimate the impact of the programme across a range of outcomes and cost-effectiveness. A quasi-experiment was designed before the implementation of the CPP, in which 24 cities were randomly selected for impact evaluation and 12 pairs of cities were matched. In practice, though, implementation of the programme was staggered over 1 year. Therefore, we used two different approaches to estimate impact: a difference-in-difference estimation comparing both groups and a dose-response approach using time exposure to the programme at the city level. Results from the difference-in-difference estimation showed modest impact on condom use. However, the dose-response findings revealed a 7.5% increase in HIV testing per additional year exposed to the programme, relative to baseline coverage; an increase in awareness of HIV status among HIV-positive individuals of 6.6%; a 6.4% increase in HIV-positive individuals on treatment; and an 8% reduction in the perception of stigma/discrimination from healthcare personnel. The cost per person not exposed to an untreated HIV-positive individual was gauged to be US$400. The study provides evidence of the effectiveness and cost of a CPP along the HIV treatment cascade: access to HIV tests, awareness of HIV status, and antiretroviral therapy initiation.

  17. Strengthening capacity to research the social determinants of health in low- and middle-income countries: lessons from the INTREC programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henschke, Nicholas; Mirny, Anna; Haafkens, Joke A; Ramroth, Heribert; Padmawati, Siwi; Bangha, Martin; Berkman, Lisa; Trisnantoro, Laksono; Blomstedt, Yulia; Becher, Heiko; Sankoh, Osman; Byass, Peter; Kinsman, John

    2017-05-25

    The INDEPTH Training & Research Centres of Excellence (INTREC) collaboration developed a training programme to strengthen social determinants of health (SDH) research in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). It was piloted among health- and demographic researchers from 9 countries in Africa and Asia. The programme followed a blended learning approach and was split into three consecutive teaching blocks over a 12-month period: 1) an online course of 7 video lectures and assignments on the theory of SDH research; 2) a 2-week qualitative and quantitative methods workshop; and 3) a 1-week data analysis workshop. This report aims to summarise the student evaluations of the pilot and to suggest key lessons for future approaches to strengthen SDH research capacity in LMICs. Semi-structured interviews and questionnaires with 24 students from 9 countries in Africa and Asia were used to evaluate each teaching block. Information was collected about the students' motivation and interest in studying SDH, any challenges they faced during the consecutive teaching blocks, and suggestions they had for future courses on SDH. Of the 24 students who began the programme, 13 (54%) completed all training activities. The students recognised the need for such a course and its potential to improve their skills as health researchers. The main challenges with the online course were time management, prior knowledge and skills required to participate in the course, and the need to get feedback from teaching staff throughout the learning process. All students found the face-to-face workshops to be of high quality and value for their work, because they offered an opportunity to clarify SDH concepts taught during the online course and to gain practical research skills. After the final teaching block, students felt they had improved their data analysis skills and were better able to develop research proposals, scientific manuscripts, and policy briefs. The INTREC programme has trained a

  18. Strengthening capacity to research the social determinants of health in low- and middle-income countries: lessons from the INTREC programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Henschke

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The INDEPTH Training & Research Centres of Excellence (INTREC collaboration developed a training programme to strengthen social determinants of health (SDH research in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs. It was piloted among health- and demographic researchers from 9 countries in Africa and Asia. The programme followed a blended learning approach and was split into three consecutive teaching blocks over a 12-month period: 1 an online course of 7 video lectures and assignments on the theory of SDH research; 2 a 2-week qualitative and quantitative methods workshop; and 3 a 1-week data analysis workshop. This report aims to summarise the student evaluations of the pilot and to suggest key lessons for future approaches to strengthen SDH research capacity in LMICs. Methods Semi-structured interviews and questionnaires with 24 students from 9 countries in Africa and Asia were used to evaluate each teaching block. Information was collected about the students’ motivation and interest in studying SDH, any challenges they faced during the consecutive teaching blocks, and suggestions they had for future courses on SDH. Results Of the 24 students who began the programme, 13 (54% completed all training activities. The students recognised the need for such a course and its potential to improve their skills as health researchers. The main challenges with the online course were time management, prior knowledge and skills required to participate in the course, and the need to get feedback from teaching staff throughout the learning process. All students found the face-to-face workshops to be of high quality and value for their work, because they offered an opportunity to clarify SDH concepts taught during the online course and to gain practical research skills. After the final teaching block, students felt they had improved their data analysis skills and were better able to develop research proposals, scientific manuscripts, and policy

  19. The economic evaluation of a Participatory Ergonomics programme to prevent low back and neck pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, M.; Bosmans, J.; Proper, K.; Anema, J.; Bongers, P.; Beek, A. van der

    2012-01-01

    This study was an economic evaluation conducted alongside a cluster randomised controlled trial with a follow-up of 12 months. The aim was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit of the Stay@Work Participatory Ergonomics programme (PE) compared to a control group (no PE). In total, 37

  20. Rational Emotive Behavior Based on Academic Procrastination Prevention: Training Programme of Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düsmez, Ihsan; Barut, Yasar

    2016-01-01

    The research is an experimental study which has experimental and control groups, and based on pre-test, post-test, monitoring test model. Research group consists of second and third grade students of Primary School Education and Psychological Counseling undergraduate programmes in Giresun University Faculty of Educational Sciences. The research…

  1. An appraisal of female sex work in Nigeria--implications for designing and scaling up HIV prevention programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikpeazu, Akudo; Momah-Haruna, Amaka; Madu Mari, Baba; Thompson, Laura H; Ogungbemi, Kayode; Daniel, Uduak; Aboki, Hafsatu; Isac, Shajy; Gorgens, Marelize; Mziray, Elizabeth; Njie, Ndella; Akala, Francisca Ayodeji; Emmanuel, Faran; Odek, Willis Omondi; Blanchard, James F

    2014-01-01

    The HIV epidemic in Nigeria is complex with diverse factors driving the epidemic. Accordingly, Nigeria's National Agency for the Control of AIDS is coordinating a large-scale initiative to conduct HIV epidemic appraisals across all states. These appraisals will help to better characterize the drivers of the epidemic and ensure that the HIV prevention programmes match the local epidemic context, with resources allocated to interventions that have the greatest impact locally. Currently, the mapping and size estimation of Female Sex Workers (FSWs)--a major component of the appraisal has been completed in seven states. These states are using the data generated to plan, prioritize and scale-up sub-national HIV prevention programmes. It involved a two-level process of identifying and validating locations where FSWs solicit and/or meet clients ("hotspots"). In the first level, secondary key informants were interviewed to collect information about the geographic location and description of the hotspots. For the second level, FSWs were interviewed at each hotspot and information on population size estimates, typologies and operational dynamics of the FSWs were collected. Across the seven states, a total of 17,266 secondary key informants and 5,732 FSWs were interviewed. 10,233 hotspots were identified with an estimated 126,489 FSWs ranging from 5,920 in Anambra to 46,691 in Lagos. The most common hotspots were bars/nightclubs (30%), hotels/lodges (29.6%), streets (16.6%), and brothels (14.6%). Furthermore, the population density of FSWs (per thousand adult men) across the states ranged from 2 in Anambra to 17 in the Federal Capital Territory. FSW populations in Nigeria are large and diverse, with substantial differences between and within states. Improved understanding of the location, population size, density, organizational typologies and clients of sex work has informed and is central to Nigeria's planning process for scaling up focused HIV prevention programmes.

  2. An Appraisal of Female Sex Work in Nigeria - Implications for Designing and Scaling Up HIV Prevention Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikpeazu, Akudo; Momah-Haruna, Amaka; Madu Mari, Baba; Thompson, Laura H.; Ogungbemi, Kayode; Daniel, Uduak; Aboki, Hafsatu; Isac, Shajy; Gorgens, Marelize; Mziray, Elizabeth; Njie, Ndella; Akala, Francisca Ayodeji; Emmanuel, Faran; Odek, Willis Omondi; Blanchard, James F.

    2014-01-01

    Background The HIV epidemic in Nigeria is complex with diverse factors driving the epidemic. Accordingly, Nigeria's National Agency for the Control of AIDS is coordinating a large-scale initiative to conduct HIV epidemic appraisals across all states. These appraisals will help to better characterize the drivers of the epidemic and ensure that the HIV prevention programmes match the local epidemic context, with resources allocated to interventions that have the greatest impact locally. Currently, the mapping and size estimation of Female Sex Workers (FSWs) - a major component of the appraisal has been completed in seven states. These states are using the data generated to plan, prioritize and scale-up sub-national HIV prevention programmes. Methodology It involved a two-level process of identifying and validating locations where FSWs solicit and/or meet clients (“hotspots”). In the first level, secondary key informants were interviewed to collect information about the geographic location and description of the hotspots. For the second level, FSWs were interviewed at each hotspot and information on population size estimates, typologies and operational dynamics of the FSWs were collected. Results Across the seven states, a total of 17,266 secondary key informants and 5,732 FSWs were interviewed. 10,233 hotspots were identified with an estimated 126,489 FSWs ranging from 5,920 in Anambra to 46,691 in Lagos. The most common hotspots were bars/nightclubs (30%), hotels/lodges (29.6%), streets (16.6%), and brothels (14.6%). Furthermore, the population density of FSWs (per thousand adult men) across the states ranged from 2 in Anambra to 17 in the Federal Capital Territory. Conclusion FSW populations in Nigeria are large and diverse, with substantial differences between and within states. Improved understanding of the location, population size, density, organizational typologies and clients of sex work has informed and is central to Nigeria's planning process for

  3. An appraisal of female sex work in Nigeria--implications for designing and scaling up HIV prevention programmes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akudo Ikpeazu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The HIV epidemic in Nigeria is complex with diverse factors driving the epidemic. Accordingly, Nigeria's National Agency for the Control of AIDS is coordinating a large-scale initiative to conduct HIV epidemic appraisals across all states. These appraisals will help to better characterize the drivers of the epidemic and ensure that the HIV prevention programmes match the local epidemic context, with resources allocated to interventions that have the greatest impact locally. Currently, the mapping and size estimation of Female Sex Workers (FSWs--a major component of the appraisal has been completed in seven states. These states are using the data generated to plan, prioritize and scale-up sub-national HIV prevention programmes. METHODOLOGY: It involved a two-level process of identifying and validating locations where FSWs solicit and/or meet clients ("hotspots". In the first level, secondary key informants were interviewed to collect information about the geographic location and description of the hotspots. For the second level, FSWs were interviewed at each hotspot and information on population size estimates, typologies and operational dynamics of the FSWs were collected. RESULTS: Across the seven states, a total of 17,266 secondary key informants and 5,732 FSWs were interviewed. 10,233 hotspots were identified with an estimated 126,489 FSWs ranging from 5,920 in Anambra to 46,691 in Lagos. The most common hotspots were bars/nightclubs (30%, hotels/lodges (29.6%, streets (16.6%, and brothels (14.6%. Furthermore, the population density of FSWs (per thousand adult men across the states ranged from 2 in Anambra to 17 in the Federal Capital Territory. CONCLUSION: FSW populations in Nigeria are large and diverse, with substantial differences between and within states. Improved understanding of the location, population size, density, organizational typologies and clients of sex work has informed and is central to Nigeria's planning

  4. Radioactive waste management and public participation in the EU. Lessons learnt from the EURATOM research framework programmes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferraro, Gianluca [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Petten (Netherlands); Martell, Meritxell [Merience SCP, Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-12-15

    Since 2000, the EURATOM Framework Programmes have dedicated political attention and economic support to public participation in radioactive waste management (RWM). Although a one-fit-all solution for a participatory RWM does not exist, the diversity that characterizes the European Union (EU) offers a relevant pool of knowledge and experience. The Joint Research Centre has used the knowledge and experience cumulated by relevant EURATOM projects to define a list of general principles for a more participatory approach to RWM. The principles explained in this article can ultimately work as indications for the changes and strategic actions that are needed for a better RWM in the EU.

  5. Radioactive waste management and public participation in the EU. Lessons learnt from the EURATOM research framework programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraro, Gianluca; Martell, Meritxell

    2015-01-01

    Since 2000, the EURATOM Framework Programmes have dedicated political attention and economic support to public participation in radioactive waste management (RWM). Although a one-fit-all solution for a participatory RWM does not exist, the diversity that characterizes the European Union (EU) offers a relevant pool of knowledge and experience. The Joint Research Centre has used the knowledge and experience cumulated by relevant EURATOM projects to define a list of general principles for a more participatory approach to RWM. The principles explained in this article can ultimately work as indications for the changes and strategic actions that are needed for a better RWM in the EU.

  6. A quasi-experimental study on a community-based stroke prevention programme for clients with minor stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sit, Janet W H; Yip, Vera Y B; Ko, Stanley K K; Gun, Amy P C; Lee, Judy S H

    2007-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a community-based stroke prevention programme in (1) improving knowledge about stroke; (2) improving self-health-monitoring practice; (3) maintaining behavioural changes when adopting a healthy lifestyle for stroke prevention. People with minor stroke (or transient ischaemic attack) tend to under-estimate the long-term impact of this on their health. The challenge for nurses is to prevent subsequent strokes by finding ways to promote and sustain appropriate behaviours. Educational intervention is of paramount importance in equipping those at risk with relevant knowledge and self-care strategies for secondary stroke prevention. This study adopted a quasi-experimental design. One hundred and ninety subjects were recruited, of whom 147 (77 in the intervention group and 70 in the control group) completed the study. Data were obtained at three time points: baseline (T0); one week after (T1) and three months after (T2) the intervention. The intervention programme consisted of eight weekly two-hour sessions, with the aims of improving the participants' awareness of their own health signals and of actively involving them in self-care management of their own health for secondary stroke prevention. Significant positive changes were found among participants of the intervention group in the knowledge on stroke warning signs (P lifestyle modification of dietary habits (reduction in salted food intake, P = 0.004). No significant improvement was found in walking exercise participation in the intervention group, yet a significant decrease was detected among the control group. This study found a three-month-sustained effect of positive changes in knowledge and skill from participants who undertook a nurse-led community-based stroke prevention programme. Effective educational intervention by professional nurses helped clients integrate their learned knowledge into their real-life practice. This empowering, that is, the

  7. Rabies prevention and management of cats in the context of trap-neuter-vaccinate-release programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roebling, A D; Johnson, D; Blanton, J D; Levin, M; Slate, D; Fenwick, G; Rupprecht, C E

    2014-06-01

    Domestic cats are an important part of many Americans' lives, but effective control of the 60-100 million feral cats living throughout the country remains problematic. Although trap-neuter-vaccinate-return (TNVR) programmes are growing in popularity as alternatives to euthanizing feral cats, their ability to adequately address disease threats and population growth within managed cat colonies is dubious. Rabies transmission via feral cats is a particular concern as demonstrated by the significant proportion of rabies post-exposure prophylaxis associated with exposures involving cats. Moreover, TNVR has not been shown to reliably reduce feral cat colony populations because of low implementation rates, inconsistent maintenance and immigration of unsterilized cats into colonies. For these reasons, TNVR programmes are not effective methods for reducing public health concerns or for controlling feral cat populations. Instead, responsible pet ownership, universal rabies vaccination of pets and removal of strays remain integral components to control rabies and other diseases. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Challenges faced by health workers in implementing the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) programme in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuwagaba-Biribonwoha, H; Mayon-White, R T; Okong, P; Carpenter, L M

    2007-09-01

    To report the experience of health workers who had played key roles in the early stages of implementing the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission services (PMTCT) in Uganda. Interviews were conducted with 15 key informants including counsellors, obstetricians and PMTCT coordinators at the five PMTCT test sites in Uganda to investigate the benefits, challenges and sustainability of the PMTCT programme. Audio-taped interviews were held with each informant between January and June 2003. These were transcribed verbatim and manually analysed using the framework approach. The perceived benefits reported by informants were improvement of general obstetric care, provision of antiretroviral prophylaxis for HIV-positive mothers, staff training and community awareness. The main challenges lay in the reluctance of women to be tested for HIV, incomplete follow-up of participants, non-disclosure of HIV status and difficulties with infant feeding for HIV-positive mothers. Key informants thought that the programme's sustainability depended on maintaining staff morale and numbers, on improving services and providing more resources, particularly antiretroviral therapy for the HIV-positive women and their families. Uganda's experience in piloting the PMTCT programme reflected the many challenges faced by health workers. Potentially resource-sparing strategies such as the 'opt-out' approach to HIV testing required further evaluation.

  9. Men's perspectives on fall risk and fall prevention following participation in a group-based programme conducted at Men's Sheds, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddle, Jeannine L M; Lovarini, Meryl; Clemson, Lindy M; Jang, Haeyoung; Willis, Karen; Lord, Stephen R; Sherrington, Catherine

    2017-05-01

    Research on older men's views regarding fall prevention is limited. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the experiences and perspectives of older men regarding fall risk and prevention so that fall prevention programmes can better engage older men. Eleven men who had taken part in a group-based fall prevention programme called Stepping On conducted at Men's Sheds in Sydney, Australia, participated in semi-structured interviews during June and July 2015 which were audio-recorded and transcribed. Data were coded and analysed using constant comparative methods. Over-arching theoretical categories were developed into a conceptual framework linking programme context and content with effects of programme participation on men. Men's Sheds facilitated participation in the programme by being inclusive, male-friendly places, where Stepping On was programmed into regular activities and was conducted in an enjoyable, supportive atmosphere. Programme content challenged participants to think differently about themselves and their personal fall risk, and provided practical options to address fall risk. Two major themes were identified: adjusting the mindset where men adopted a more cautious mindset paying greater attention to potential fall risks, being careful, concentrating and slowing down; and changing the ways where men acted purposefully on environmental hazards at home and incorporated fall prevention exercises into their routine schedules. Practitioners can engage and support older men to address falls by better understanding men's perspectives on personal fall risk and motivations for action. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. A cluster randomised school-based lifestyle intervention programme for the prevention of childhood obesity and related early cardiovascular disease (JuvenTUM 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haller Bernhard

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity is not only associated with adult obesity but also with increased risk of adult onset of type 2 diabetes and subsequent coronary heart disease. The potential effects of school-based health intervention programmes on cardiovascular risk and surrogate markers are unclear, as only few studies have attempted to investigate a complete risk profile including a detailed laboratory analysis or micro- and macrovascular function. In this study a comprehensive school-based randomized intervention programme will be investigated in 10-14-year old children addressing the influence of lifestyle intervention on inactivity, cardiometabolic risk factors and early signs of vascular disease. Methods/Design 15 secondary schools in Southern Germany are randomly assigned to intervention or control schools. Children in the fifth grade (10-11 years will be observed over four years. The study combines a school-based with a home-based approach, aiming at children, teachers and parents. The main components are weekly lifestyle-lessons for children, taught by regular classroom teachers to increase physical activity in- and outside of school, to improve eating patterns at school and at home, to reduce media consumption and to amplify well-being. In 4-6 annual meetings, teachers receive information about health-related topics with worksheets for children and supporting equipment, accounting for school-specific needs and strategies. Parents' trainings are provided on a regular basis. All examinations are performed at the beginning and at the end of every school year. Anthropometry includes measurements of BMI, waist and upper arm circumferences, skinfold thickness as well as peripheral blood pressure. Blood sampling includes lipid parameters, insulin, glucose, hsCRP, adiponectin, and IL-6 as well as testosteron and estrogen to determine maturation status. Vascular function is non-invasively assessed by measuring arterial stiffness in large

  11. Efficacy of a movement control injury prevention programme in adult men's community rugby union: a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attwood, Matthew J; Roberts, Simon P; Trewartha, Grant; England, Mike E; Stokes, Keith A

    2018-03-01

    Exercise programmes aimed at reducing injury have been shown to be efficacious for some non-collision sports, but evidence in adult men's collision sports such as rugby union is lacking. To evaluate the efficacy of a movement control injury prevention exercise programme for reducing match injuries in adult men's community rugby union players. 856 clubs were invited to participate in this prospective cluster randomised (single-blind) controlled trial where clubs were the unit of randomisation. 81 volunteered and were randomly assigned (intervention/control). A 42-week exercise programme was followed throughout the season. The control programme reflected 'normal practice' exercises, whereas the intervention focused on proprioception, balance, cutting, landing and resistance exercises.Outcome measures were match injury incidence and burden for: (1) all ≥8 days time-loss injuries and (2) targeted (lower limb, shoulder, head and neck, excluding fractures and lacerations) ≥8 days time-loss injuries. Poisson regression identified no clear effects on overall injury outcomes. A likely beneficial difference in targeted injury incidence (rate ratio (RR), 90% CI=0.6, 0.4 to 1.0) was identified, with a 40% reduction in lower-limb incidence (RR, 90% CI=0.6, 0.4 to 1.0) and a 60% reduction in concussion incidence (RR, 90% CI=0.4, 0.2 to 0.7) in the intervention group. Comparison between arms for clubs with highest compliance (≥median compliance) demonstrated very likely beneficial 60% reductions in targeted injury incidence (RR, 90% CI=0.4, 0.2 to 0.8) and targeted injury burden (RR, 90% CI=0.4, 0.2 to 0.7). The movement control injury prevention programme resulted in likely beneficial reductions in lower-limb injuries and concussion. Higher intervention compliance was associated with reduced targeted injury incidence and burden. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is

  12. Salt fortified with diethylcarbamazine (DEC) as an effective intervention for lymphatic filariasis, with lessons learned from salt iodization programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, R

    2000-01-01

    DEC-fortified salt has been used successfully as a principal public health tool to eliminate lymphatic filariasis (LF) in China and, less extensively, in several other countries. Studies from 1967 to the present conducted in Brazil, Japan, Tanzania, India, China, and Taiwan involving administration of DEC salt for 18 days to 1 year, have shown this intervention to be effective for both bancroftian and brugian filariasis, as measured by reductions in both microfilarial density and positivity, and in some studies through reduction in mosquito positivity rates as well. Furthermore, studies suggest specific advantages from using DEC salt, including lack of side effects, particularly for bancroftian filariasis, and ability to reduce prevalence below 1% when used in conjunction with standard regimens of DEC tablets. However, use of DEC salt as a control tool suffers from a concern that health authorities might find it difficult to manage a programme involving a commodity such as salt. In the past decade, the very successful global efforts to eliminate iodine deficiency through universal salt iodization have demonstrated that partnership with the salt industry can be both successful and effective as a public health tool. Use of DEC salt can be most successfully implemented in areas in which (a) there is adequate governmental support for its use and for elimination of filariasis, (b) filariasis-endemic areas are clearly defined, (c) political leaders, health officials and the salt industry agree that DEC salt is an appropriate intervention, (d) the salt industry is well-organized and has known distribution patterns, (e) a successful national salt iodization effort exists, (f) a monitoring system exists that ensures adequacy of salt iodine content during production and that can also measure household coverage, and (g) measurement of impact on transmission of LF with the new antigen or filarial DNA detection methods can be established. There are advantages and disadvantages

  13. Implementation of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV programme through private hospitals of Delhi--policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, A K; Garg, C R; Joshi, B C; Rawat, N; Dabla, V; Gupta, A

    2015-01-01

    In India, programme for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV is primarily implemented through public health system. State AIDS Control Societies (SACSs) encourage private hospitals to set up integrated counselling and testing centres (ICTCs). However, private hospitals of Delhi did not set up ICTCs. Consequently, there is no information on PMTCT interventions in private hospitals of Delhi. This study was undertaken by Delhi SACS during March 2013 through September 2013 to assess status of implementation of PMTCT programme in various private hospitals of Delhi to assist programme managers in framing national policy to facilitate uniform implementation of National PMTCT guidelines. Out of total 575 private hospitals registered with Government of Delhi, 336 (58.4%) catering to pregnant women were identified. About 100 private hospitals with facility of antenatal care, vaginal/caesarean delivery and postnatal care and minimum 10 indoor beds were selected for study. Study sample comprised of large corporate hospitals (≥100 beds; n = 29), medium-sized hospitals (25 to women tested, 52 (0.14%) were detected HIV-positive. However, against National Policy, HIV testing was done without pre/post-test counselling/or consent of women, no PMTCT protocol existed, delivery of HIV-positive women was not undertaken and no efforts were made to link HIV-positive women to antiretroviral treatment. Major intervention observed was medical termination of pregnancy, which indicates lack of awareness in private hospitals about available interventions under national programme. The role of private hospitals in management of HIV in pregnant women must be recognized and mainstreamed in HIV control efforts. There is an urgent need for capacity building of private health care providers to improve standards of practice. National AIDS Control Organization may consider establishing linkages or adopting model developed by some countries with generalized epidemic for delivering

  14. Pesticide leaching through sandy and loamy fields - long-term lessons learnt from the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbom, Annette E; Olsen, Preben; Plauborg, Finn; Grant, Ruth; Juhler, René K; Brüsch, Walter; Kjær, Jeanne

    2015-06-01

    The European Union authorization procedure for pesticides includes an assessment of the leaching risk posed by pesticides and their degradation products (DP) with the aim of avoiding any unacceptable influence on groundwater. Twelve-year's results of the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme reveal shortcomings to the procedure by having assessed leaching into groundwater of 43 pesticides applied in accordance with current regulations on agricultural fields, and 47 of their DP. Three types of leaching scenario were not fully captured by the procedure: long-term leaching of DP of pesticides applied on potato crops cultivated in sand, leaching of strongly sorbing pesticides after autumn application on loam, and leaching of various pesticides and their DP following early summer application on loam. Rapid preferential transport that bypasses the retardation of the plow layer primarily in autumn, but also during early summer, seems to dominate leaching in a number of those scenarios. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A concept mapping approach to identifying the barriers to implementing an evidence-based sports injury prevention programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Alex; Callaghan, Aisling; Bizzini, Mario; Jowett, Andrew; Keyzer, Patrick; Nicholson, Matthew

    2018-01-20

    Understanding the barriers to programme use is important to facilitate implementation of injury prevention programmes in real-word settings. This study investigated the barriers to coaches of adolescent female soccer teams, in Victoria, Australia, implementing the evidence-based FIFA 11+ injury prevention programme. Concept mapping with data collected from 19 soccer coaches and administrators. Brainstorming generated 65 statements as barriers to 11+ implementation. After the statements were synthesised and edited, participants sorted 59 statements into groups (mean, 6.2 groups; range, 3-10 groups). Multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analysis identified a six-cluster solution: Lack of 11+ knowledge among coaches (15 statements), Lack of player enjoyment and engagement (14), Lack of link to football-related goals (11), Lack of facilities and resources (8), Lack of leadership (6) and Lack of time at training (5). Statements in the 'Lack of 11+ knowledge among coaches' cluster received the highest mean importance (3.67 out of 5) and feasibility for the Football Federation to address (3.20) rating. Statements in the 'Lack of facilities and resources' cluster received the lowest mean importance rating (2.23), while statements in the 'Lack of time at training' cluster received the lowest mean feasibility rating (2.19). A multistrategy, ecological approach to implementing the 11+-with specific attention paid to improving coach knowledge about the 11+ and how to implement it, linking the 11+ to the primary goal of soccer training, and organisational leadership-is required to improve the uptake of the 11+ among the targeted coaches. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. Perspectives of older people engaging in nurse-led cardiovascular prevention programmes: a qualitative study in primary care in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligthart, Suzanne A.; van den Eerenbeemt, Karin D. M.; Pols, Jeanette; van Bussel, Emma F.; Richard, Edo; Moll van Charante, Eric P.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular prevention programmes are increasingly being offered to older people. To achieve the proposed benefits, adherence is crucial. Understanding the reasons for adherence and non-adherence can improve preventive care. To gain insight into what motivates older people living in the community

  17. Perspectives of older people engaging in nurse-led cardiovascular prevention programmes: a qualitative study in primary care in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligthart, S.A.; Eerenbeemt, K.D. van den; Pols, J.; Bussel, E.F. van; Richard, E.; Moll van Charante, E.P.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular prevention programmes are increasingly being offered to older people. To achieve the proposed benefits, adherence is crucial. Understanding the reasons for adherence and non-adherence can improve preventive care. AIM: To gain insight into what motivates older people living

  18. Key principles to improve programmes and interventions in complementary feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutter, Chessa K; Iannotti, Lora; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary; Guyon, Agnes; Daelmans, Bernadette; Robert, Rebecca; Haider, Rukhsana

    2013-09-01

    Although there are some examples of successful complementary feeding programmes to promote healthy growth and prevent stunting at the community level, to date there are few, if any, examples of successful programmes at scale. A lack of systematic process and impact evaluations on pilot projects to generate lessons learned has precluded scaling up of effective programmes. Programmes to effect positive change in nutrition rarely follow systematic planning, implementation, and evaluation (PIE) processes to enhance effectiveness over the long term. As a result a set of programme-oriented key principles to promote healthy growth remains elusive. The purpose of this paper is to fill this gap by proposing a set of principles to improve programmes and interventions to promote healthy growth and development. Identifying such principles for programme success has three requirements: rethinking traditional paradigms used to promote improved infant and young child feeding; ensuring better linkages to delivery platforms; and, improving programming. Following the PIE model for programmes and learning from experiences from four relatively large-scale programmes described in this paper, 10 key principles are identified in the areas of programme planning, programme implementation, programme evaluation, and dissemination, replication, and scaling up. Nonetheless, numerous operational research questions remain, some of which are highlighted in this paper. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. A survey of energy drinks consumption practices among student -athletes in Ghana: lessons for developing health education intervention programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Globally, young adults and college athletes are primary targets of the marketing campaigns of energy drink companies. Consequently, it is reported that young adults and college athletes consume energy drinks frequently. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of energy drink consumption among student-athletes selected from seven public universities in Ghana. The study assessed the energy drink consumption patterns, types usually consumed, frequency of consumption and reasons why athletes consumed energy drinks. Methods A total number of 180 student-athletes gave their consent to participate in the study and completed a questionnaire which was administered during an inter-university sports competition. Results Most of the participants (62.2%) reported consuming at least one can of energy drink in a week. A high proportion (53.6%) of the respondents who drink energy drinks indicated that they did so to replenish lost energy after training or a competition. Other reasons given as to why energy drinks were consumed by the study participants included to provide energy and fluids to the body (25.9%), to improve performance (9.8%) and to reduce fatigue (5.4%). Conclusion These results suggest the need to plan health education programmes to particularly correct some wrong perceptions that athletes have regarding the benefits of energy drinks and also create awareness among student-athletes about the side effects of excessive intake of energy drinks. PMID:22444601

  20. LESSONS FROM THE EVALUATION OF A PUBLIC OUT-PATIENT SUBSTANCE ABUSE TREATMENT PROGRAMME IN THE WESTERN CAPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strebel, Anna

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Substance abuse is widely regarded as a major health and social problem in South Africa, and particularly in the Western Cape (Corrigall, Ward, Stinson, Struthers, Frantz, Lund, Flisher & Joska, 2007; Myers, Fakier & Louw, 2009. The complex nature of patterns of substance abuse, as well as the particular problems associated with this abuse, has implications for the development and implementation of treatment interventions. The most common primary drug of abuse in the Western Cape amongst patients admitted to treatment programmes is methamphetamine (known locally as “tik” (Dada, Plüddemann, Parry, Vawda & Fourie, 2012. The previous decade saw a dramatic rise in methamphetamine (hereafter indicated as MA use, particularly among youths, with over half the patients in treatment for MA abuse being younger than 25 years (Plüddemann, Parry, Dada, Bhana, Bachoo & Fourie, 2010. MA is also often used in combination with other drugs, and this prevalence of poly-substance abuse needs to be taken into account in the planning of services (Harker, Kader, Myers, Falkier, Parry, Flisher, Peltzer, Ramlagan & Davids, 2008.

  1. A survey of energy drinks consumption practices among student -athletes in Ghana: lessons for developing health education intervention programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buxton Christiana

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Globally, young adults and college athletes are primary targets of the marketing campaigns of energy drink companies. Consequently, it is reported that young adults and college athletes consume energy drinks frequently. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of energy drink consumption among student-athletes selected from seven public universities in Ghana. The study assessed the energy drink consumption patterns, types usually consumed, frequency of consumption and reasons why athletes consumed energy drinks. Methods A total number of 180 student-athletes gave their consent to participate in the study and completed a questionnaire which was administered during an inter-university sports competition. Results Most of the participants (62.2% reported consuming at least one can of energy drink in a week. A high proportion (53.6% of the respondents who drink energy drinks indicated that they did so to replenish lost energy after training or a competition. Other reasons given as to why energy drinks were consumed by the study participants included to provide energy and fluids to the body (25.9%, to improve performance (9.8% and to reduce fatigue (5.4%. Conclusion These results suggest the need to plan health education programmes to particularly correct some wrong perceptions that athletes have regarding the benefits of energy drinks and also create awareness among student-athletes about the side effects of excessive intake of energy drinks.

  2. HIV epidemic appraisals for assisting in the design of effective prevention programmes: shifting the paradigm back to basics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmistha Mishra

    Full Text Available To design HIV prevention programmes, it is critical to understand the temporal and geographic aspects of the local epidemic and to address the key behaviours that drive HIV transmission. Two methods have been developed to appraise HIV epidemics and guide prevention strategies. The numerical proxy method classifies epidemics based on current HIV prevalence thresholds. The Modes of Transmission (MOT model estimates the distribution of incidence over one year among risk-groups. Both methods focus on the current state of an epidemic and provide short-term metrics which may not capture the epidemiologic drivers. Through a detailed analysis of country and sub-national data, we explore the limitations of the two traditional methods and propose an alternative approach.We compared outputs of the traditional methods in five countries for which results were published, and applied the numeric and MOT model to India and six districts within India. We discovered three limitations of the current methods for epidemic appraisal: (1 their results failed to identify the key behaviours that drive the epidemic; (2 they were difficult to apply to local epidemics with heterogeneity across district-level administrative units; and (3 the MOT model was highly sensitive to input parameters, many of which required extraction from non-regional sources. We developed an alternative decision-tree framework for HIV epidemic appraisals, based on a qualitative understanding of epidemiologic drivers, and demonstrated its applicability in India. The alternative framework offered a logical algorithm to characterize epidemics; it required minimal but key data.Traditional appraisals that utilize the distribution of prevalent and incident HIV infections in the short-term could misguide prevention priorities and potentially impede efforts to halt the trajectory of the HIV epidemic. An approach that characterizes local transmission dynamics provides a potentially more effective tool with

  3. Effect of nationwide injury prevention programme on serious spinal injuries in New Zealand rugby union: ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarrie, Kenneth L; Gianotti, Simon M; Hopkins, Will G; Hume, Patria A

    2007-06-02

    To investigate the effect of RugbySmart, a nationwide educational injury prevention programme, on the frequency of spinal cord injuries. Ecological study. New Zealand rugby union. Population at risk of injury comprised all New Zealand rugby union players. From 2001, all New Zealand rugby coaches and referees have been required to complete RugbySmart, which focuses on educating rugby participants about physical conditioning, injury management, and safe techniques in the contact phases of rugby. Numbers of all spinal injuries due to participation in rugby union resulting in permanent disablement in 1976-2005, grouped into five year periods; observed compared with predicted number of spinal injuries in 2001-5. Eight spinal injuries occurred in 2001-5, whereas the predicted number was 18.9 (relative rate=0.46, 95% confidence interval 0.19 to 1.14). Only one spinal injury resulted from scrums over the period; the predicted number was 9.0 (relative rate=0.11, 0.02 to 0.74). Corresponding observed and predicted rates for spinal injuries resulting from other phases of play (tackle, ruck, and maul) were 7 and 9.0 (relative rate=0.83, 0.29 to 2.36). The introduction of the RugbySmart programme coincided with a reduction in the rate of disabling spinal injuries arising from scrums in rugby union. This study exemplifies the benefit of educational initiatives in injury prevention and the need for comprehensive injury surveillance systems for evaluating injury prevention initiatives in sport.

  4. Lost opportunities in HIV prevention: programmes miss places where exposures are highest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandøy, Ingvild F; Siziya, Seter; Fylkesnes, Knut

    2008-01-01

    Background Efforts at HIV prevention that focus on high risk places might be more effective and less stigmatizing than those targeting high risk groups. The objective of the present study was to assess risk behaviour patterns, signs of current preventive interventions and apparent gaps in places where the risk of HIV transmission is high and in communities with high HIV prevalence. Methods The PLACE method was used to collect data. Inhabitants of selected communities in Lusaka and Livingstone were interviewed about where people met new sexual partners. Signs of HIV preventive activities in these places were recorded. At selected venues, people were interviewed about their sexual behaviour. Peer educators and staff of NGOs were also interviewed. Results The places identified were mostly bars, restaurants or sherbeens, and fewer than 20% reported any HIV preventive activity such as meetings, pamphlets or posters. In 43% of places in Livingstone and 26% in Lusaka, condoms were never available. There were few active peer educators. Among the 432 persons in Lusaka and 676 in Livingstone who were invited for interview about sexual behaviour, consistent condom use was relatively high in Lusaka (77%) but low in Livingstone (44% of men and 34% of women). Having no condom available was the most common reason for not using one. Condom use in Livingstone was higher among individuals socializing in places where condoms always were available. Conclusion In the places studied we found a high prevalence of behaviours with a high potential for HIV transmission but few signs of HIV preventive interventions. Covering the gaps in prevention in these high exposure places should be given the highest priority. PMID:18218124

  5. Sickness absence in student nursing assistants following a preventive intervention programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, A L; Marott, J L; Suadicani, P

    2011-01-01

    reduced SF-36 scores for general health perception [general health (GH)], psychological well-being [mental health (MH)] and energy/fatigue [vitality (VT)] compared with the intervention group, which remained at the baseline level for all three measures. AIMS: To ascertain whether this effect remained......BACKGROUND: We have previously shown that a multidimensional programme combining physical training, patient transfer techniques and stress management significantly reduced sickness absence rates in student nurse assistants (NAs) after 14 months of follow-up. At follow-up, the control group had...... after a further 36 months of follow-up and to analyse the association of GH, MH and VT scores with sickness absence. METHODS: This was a cluster randomized prospective study. The original study involved assessment at baseline and follow-up at 14 months (the duration of the student NA course). Of 568...

  6. Gender-informed, psychoeducational programme for couples to prevent postnatal common mental disorders among primiparous women: cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jane; Rowe, Heather; Wynter, Karen; Tran, Thach; Lorgelly, Paula; Amir, Lisa H; Proimos, Jenny; Ranasinha, Sanjeeva; Hiscock, Harriet; Bayer, Jordana; Cann, Warren

    2016-03-07

    Interventions to prevent postpartum common mental disorders (PCMD) among unselected populations of women have had limited success. The aim was to determine whether What Were We Thinking (WWWT) a gender-informed, psychoeducational programme for couples and babies can prevent PCMD among primiparous women 6 months postpartum. Cluster-randomised controlled trial. 48 Maternal and Child Health Centres (MCHCs) from 6 Local Government Areas in Melbourne, Australia were allocated randomly to usual care (24) or usual care plus WWWT (24). English-speaking primiparous women receiving primary care at trial MCHCs were recruited to the intervention (204) and control (196) conditions. Of these, 187 (91.7%) and 177 (90.3%) provided complete data. WWWT is a manualised programme comprising primary care from a trained nurse, print materials and a face-to-face seminar. Data sources were standardised and study-specific measures collected in blinded computer-assisted telephone interviews at 6 and 26 weeks postpartum. The primary outcome was PCMD assessed by Composite International Diagnostic Interviews and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) Depression and Generalised Anxiety Disorder modules. In intention-to-treat analyses the adjusted OR (AOR) of PCMD in the intervention compared to the usual care group was 0.78 (95% CI 0.38 to 1.63, ns), but mild to moderate anxiety symptoms (AOR 0.58, 95% CI 0.35 to 0.97) and poor self-rated health (AOR 0.46, 95% CI 0.22 to 0.97) were significantly lower. In a per protocol analysis, comparing the full (three component) intervention and usual care groups, the AOR of PCMD was 0.36, (95% CI 0.14 to 0.95). The WWWT seminar was appraised as salient, comprehensible and useful by >85% participants. No harms were detected. WWWT is readily integrated into primary care, enables inclusion of fathers and addresses modifiable risks for PCMD directly. The full intervention appears a promising programme for preventing PCMD, optimising family functioning, and as the

  7. Implementation lessons: the importance of assessing organizational "fit" and external factors when implementing evidence-based teen pregnancy prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demby, Hilary; Gregory, Alethia; Broussard, Marsha; Dickherber, Jennifer; Atkins, Shantice; Jenner, Lynne W

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, the demand for evidence-based teen pregnancy prevention programs has increased, but practitioners often struggle to replicate and implement them as designed in real-world community settings. The purpose of this article is to describe the barriers and facilitators encountered during pilot year attempts to implement an evidence-based teen pregnancy prevention program within three types of organizations: (1) small community-based organizations; (2) a school-based organization; and (3) a large decentralized city-sponsored summer youth program. We frame our discussion of these experiences within the context of a systemic, multilevel framework for implementation consisting of (1) core implementation components; (2) organizational components; and (3) external factors. This article explores the organizational and external implementation factors we experienced during the implementation process, describes our lessons learned throughout this process, and offers strategies for other practitioners to proactively address these factors from the start of program planning. These findings may provide useful insight for other organizations looking to implement multi-session, group-level interventions with fidelity. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

  8. Alcohol Prevention: What Can Be Expected of a Harm Reduction Focused School Drug Education Programme?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midford, Richard; Cahill, Helen; Ramsden, Robyn; Davenport, Gillian; Venning, Lynne; Lester, Leanne; Murphy, Bernadette; Pose, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Aim: This pilot study investigated what alcohol prevention benefits could be achieved by a harm reduction focused school drug education intervention that addressed all drug use, both licit and illicit. Method: The study population comprised a cohort of 225 students in three intervention secondary schools and 93 students in a matched control school…

  9. Burden of NCDs, Policies and Programme for Prevention and Control of NCDs in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R K Srivastava

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Noncommunicable diseases and injuries account for 52% of deaths in India. Burden of noncommunicable diseases and resultant mortality is expected to increase unless massive efforts are made to prevent and control NCDs and their risk factors. Based on available evidence, cancer, diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic kidney disease, mental disorders and trauma are the leading causes of morbidity, disability and mortality in India. Government of India had supported the States in prevention and control of NCDs through several vertical programs since 1980s. However, during the 11 th plan, there was considerable upsurge to prevent and control NCDs. New programs were started on a low scale in limited number of districts. However, there has not been any considerable change in the burden of NCDs. Based on experiences in the past, there is need to emphasize on health promotion and preventive measures to reduce exposure to risk factors. Facilities and capacity for screening, early diagnosis and effective management are required within the public health care system. Public awareness program, integrated management and strong monitoring system would be required for successful implementation of the program and making services universally accessible in the country.

  10. Clinical Trials and Tribulations: Lessons Learned from Recruiting Pregnant Ex-Smokers for Relapse Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez, Elena N.; Simmons, Vani Nath; Quinn, Gwendolyn P.; Meade, Cathy D.; Chirikos, Thomas N.; Brandon, Thomas H.

    2008-01-01

    The development of smoking cessation and relapse-prevention interventions for pregnant and postpartum women is a public health priority. However, researchers have consistently reported substantial difficulty in accruing this population into clinical trials. The problem is particularly acute for relapse-prevention studies, which must recruit women who have already quit smoking because of their pregnancy. Although an important target for tobacco control efforts, these individuals represent an e...

  11. Improving ethical and participatory practice for marginalized populations in biomedical HIV prevention trials: lessons from Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Allman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This paper presents findings from a qualitative investigation of ethical and participatory issues related to the conduct of biomedical HIV prevention trials among marginalized populations in Thailand. This research was deemed important to conduct, as several large-scale biomedical HIV prevention trials among marginalized populations had closed prematurely in other countries, and a better understanding of how to prevent similar trial closures from occurring in the future was desired. METHODS: In-depth key informant interviews were held in Bangkok and Chiang Mai, Thailand. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, translated and thematically analyzed. The Good Participatory Practice Guidelines for Biomedical HIV Prevention Trials (GPP guided this work. RESULTS: Fourteen interviews were conducted: 10 with policymakers, academic and community-based researchers and trial staff and four with representatives of non-governmental organizations (NGOs. Suggested ways to improve ethical and participatory practice centered on standards of HIV prevention, informed consent, communication and human rights. In particular, the need to overcome language and literacy differences was identified. Key informants felt communication was the basis of ethical understanding and trust within biomedical HIV prevention trial contexts, and thus fundamental to trial participants' ability to exercise free will. DISCUSSION: Biomedical HIV prevention trials present opportunities for inclusive and productive ethical and participatory practice. Key informants suggested that efforts to improve practice could result in better relationships between research stakeholders and research investigative teams and by extension, better, more ethical participatory trials. This research took place in Thailand and its findings apply primarily to Thailand. However, given the universality of many ethical considerations, the results of this study can inform the improvement of ethical

  12. Improving ethical and participatory practice for marginalized populations in biomedical HIV prevention trials: lessons from Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allman, Dan; Ditmore, Melissa Hope; Kaplan, Karyn

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a qualitative investigation of ethical and participatory issues related to the conduct of biomedical HIV prevention trials among marginalized populations in Thailand. This research was deemed important to conduct, as several large-scale biomedical HIV prevention trials among marginalized populations had closed prematurely in other countries, and a better understanding of how to prevent similar trial closures from occurring in the future was desired. In-depth key informant interviews were held in Bangkok and Chiang Mai, Thailand. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, translated and thematically analyzed. The Good Participatory Practice Guidelines for Biomedical HIV Prevention Trials (GPP) guided this work. Fourteen interviews were conducted: 10 with policymakers, academic and community-based researchers and trial staff and four with representatives of non-governmental organizations (NGOs). Suggested ways to improve ethical and participatory practice centered on standards of HIV prevention, informed consent, communication and human rights. In particular, the need to overcome language and literacy differences was identified. Key informants felt communication was the basis of ethical understanding and trust within biomedical HIV prevention trial contexts, and thus fundamental to trial participants' ability to exercise free will. Biomedical HIV prevention trials present opportunities for inclusive and productive ethical and participatory practice. Key informants suggested that efforts to improve practice could result in better relationships between research stakeholders and research investigative teams and by extension, better, more ethical participatory trials. This research took place in Thailand and its findings apply primarily to Thailand. However, given the universality of many ethical considerations, the results of this study can inform the improvement of ethical and participatory practice in other parts of the world where

  13. The effective of preventive training programme on the incidence of anterior cruciate ligament injuries in female soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atakan Çağlayan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to prevent non-contact Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL injuries that occur more frequently because of anatomic, hormonal and muscular differences in female athletes, with a training programme including neuromuscular, proprioceptive and flexilibity training drills and seeing the changes on physical and physiological parameters on female athletes. Material and Methods: Our study consists of 76 female soccer players (Experimental Group (EG: 20, age:17.2±3.38years and Control Group (CG: 56, age:17.5±3.14years whom participated in Turkish Female Soccer 1. League. EG were given a training programme for six weeks, three days a week, nearly 30 minutes. Retrospective questionnaire that enclosed six months was applied to both EG and CG. For the assesment of physical and physological affects of training programme; leg strength, speed, vertical jump, aerobic and anaerobic capacity, balance, flexibility, height, weight and skinfold thickness were measured. Results: As a result of statistical analysises there wasn’t seen any significant difference on the incidence of ACL injury between EG and CG (p>0.05. A significant difference was detected on vertical jump, aerobic-anaerobic power, balance, leg strength and body fat percentage at the level of (p<0.01, speed and flexibility at the level of p<0.05. Conclusion: After six-week recovery training program there was’t not seen any ACL injury until the end of the season. Furthermore, we observed significant differences after evaulation of biomotor properties of female athletes. We suggest that this kind of researchs must be made perennial with the participation of more athletes with multidisipliner workship.

  14. Programme potential for the prevention of and response to sexual violence among female refugees: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbers, Gianna Maxi Leila; Morgan, Alison

    2017-11-01

    Continuing international conflict has resulted in several million people seeking asylum in other countries each year, over half of whom are women. Their reception and security in overburdened camps, combined with limited information and protection, increases their risk and exposure to sexual violence (SV). This literature review explores the opportunities to address SV against female refugees, with a particular focus on low-resource settings. A systematic literature review of articles published between 2000 and 2016 was conducted following PRISMA guidelines. Databases including Medline (Ovid), PubMed, Scopus, PsychINFO, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library. Grey literature from key refugee websites were searched. Studies were reviewed for quality and analysed according to the framework outlined in the UNHCR Guidelines on Prevention and Response of Sexual Violence against Refugees. Twenty-nine studies met the inclusion criteria, of which 7 studies addressed prevention, 14 studies response and 8 addressed both. There are limited numbers of rigorously evaluated SV prevention and response interventions available, especially in the context of displacement. However, emerging evidence shows that placing a stronger emphasis on programmes in the category of engagement/participation and training/education has the potential to target underlying causes of SV. SV against female refugees is caused by factors including lack of information and gender inequality. This review suggests that SV interventions that engage community members in their design and delivery, address harmful gender norms through education and advocacy, and facilitate strong cooperation between stakeholders, could maximise the efficient use of limited resources.

  15. Guide: Monitoring Programme for unannounced inspections undertaken against the National Standards for the Prevention and Control of Healthcare Associated Infections

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Brien, D

    2009-10-01

    All medical doctors have an important role to play in the diagnosis, management and prevention of healthcare-associated infection (HCAI). Strengthening the contribution of medical doctors and medical students to HCAI prevention programmes should include measures that enhance knowledge, improve practice and develop appropriate attitudes to the safety and quality of patient care. The Hospital Infection Society (HIS) funded a review of medical education on HCAI throughout medical schools in the UK and the Republic of Ireland. A questionnaire was drafted and circulated to all medical schools and 31 of 38 (82%) responded. The prevalence and transmission of HCAI were taught by 97% and 100% of medical schools, respectively, but the importance of HCAI as a quality and safety issue was covered in only 60% of medical schools. Multiple choice questions (MCQs) and objective structure clinical examinations (OSCEs) were the most popular methods of assessment. Lectures, discussion of cases and practical demonstrations were considered useful by >90% of respondents and online material and log books by 67% and 60%, respectively. More than 80% were willing to share a common pool of educational resources. An agreed curriculum should be developed for educating medical students in HCAI prevention and control, to outline optimum methods for assessment and develop a shared pool of educational resources.

  16. Integration of comprehensive women's health programmes into health systems: cervical cancer prevention, care and control in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binagwaho, Agnes; Ngabo, Fidele; Wagner, Claire M; Mugeni, Cathy; Gatera, Maurice; Nutt, Cameron T; Nsanzimana, Sabin

    2013-09-01

    Although it is highly preventable and treatable, cervical cancer is the most common and most deadly cancer among women in Rwanda. By mobilizing a diverse coalition of partnerships, Rwanda became the first country in Africa to develop and implement a national strategic plan for cervical cancer prevention, screening and treatment. Rwanda - a small, landlocked nation in East Africa with a population of 10.4 million - is well positioned to tackle a number of "high-burden" noncommunicable diseases. The country's integrated response to infectious diseases has resulted in steep declines in premature mortality over the past decade. In 2011-2012, Rwanda vaccinated 227,246 girls with all three doses of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. Among eligible girls, three-dose coverage rates of 93.2% and 96.6% were achieved in 2011 and 2012, respectively. The country has also initiated nationwide screening and treatment programmes that are based on visual inspection of the cervix with acetic acid, testing for HPV DNA, cryotherapy, the loop electrosurgical excision procedure and various advanced treatment options. Low-income countries should begin to address cervical cancer by integrating prevention, screening and treatment into routine women's health services. This requires political will, cross-sectoral collaboration and planning, innovative partnerships and robust monitoring and evaluation. With external support and adequate planning, high nationwide coverage rates for HPV vaccination and screening for cervical cancer can be achieved within a few years.

  17. The Polish National Investment Fund Programme: Mass Privatisation With a Difference?

    OpenAIRE

    Iraj Hashi

    2000-01-01

    The Polish mass privatisation programme (MPP), though debated at length in the early phase of transition, was implemented with a long delay which led to the deterioration of the financial position of many of the companies in the scheme and the loss of, at least, some of the potential benefits of such schemes. The most important lesson of the programme for other countries is that mass privatisation should be implemented quickly in order to avoid uncertainty and to prevent opportunistic behavio...

  18. The Capacity Building programmes of GITEWS – visions, goals, lessons learned, and re-iterated needs and demands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Schlurmann

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available It was envisioned that the framework of the German-Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS should achieve an integral architecture and overarching technical design of an end-to-end tsunami early warning system (TEWS. In order to achieve this ambitious goal on a national and local level, a tailored set of capacity building measures has been started and implemented. The programme was meant and designed to meet requirements and urgent needs considering awareness raising campaigns, technical trainings and higher level education programs. These components have been integrated as complementary modules in order to ensure facilitating the early warning system to be operated, maintained and improved, and that institutions and people in coastal areas will respond adequately and timely in case of future tsunamis. Remarkable progress has been accomplished as well as programs and campaigns are being implemented in regard to a sustainable capacity development conducted by national institutions in Indonesia. Yet, local administrative and preparedness efforts on the Indonesian coastlines are still underdeveloped. This stems from the fact of missing links towards sustainable coastal zone management schemes on a broad local level. Yet, the demand and urgent need for an adequate and integrated disaster risk reduction and management addressing also other hazards in the region of interest is (still substantial. Given the tragic loss of life and severe damages resulting from the December 2004 tsunami and recent series of severe earthquakes, the need for urgent mitigating action in the imperilled coastal regions of Sumatra and Java remains extremely high. The conceptual Capacity Building framework, its anticipated goals in the beginning of the project and, lately, the finally achieved objectives are promising. A significant contribution for mainstreaming scientific approaches and transfer methodological disaster risk reduction attempts towards other regions

  19. Strategies for successful recruitment of young adults to healthy lifestyle programmes for the prevention of weight gain: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, E; Partridge, S R; Allman-Farinelli, M

    2016-02-01

    Recruiting healthy young adults, aged 18-35, to lifestyle programmes for prevention of weight gain is challenging but important given their increasing rates of obesity. This review aimed to examine the success of different recruitment strategies. A systematic literature search identified 26 separate studies using 10 electronic databases. Participant characteristics and efficacy of interventions were well reported in all studies, but reporting of recruitment procedures, costs, times and effectiveness was minimal. Of those reporting recruitment, both active (e.g. face-to-face) and passive (e.g. print-media and mass-mailings) approaches were identified with the latter most frequently employed. Novel strategies such as social media and marketing approaches were identified. Television and radio have potentially high reach but low efficiency with high cost compared with mass-mailings which yield high numbers of participants. Marketing campaigns appeared to be a promising approach. Incentives demonstrated enhanced recruitment. The use of formative research to guide recruitment strategies for interventions is recommended. Reporting of success, cost and timelines for recruitment should be included in reporting of future trials. This first synthesis of recruitment information can be used to inform recruitment frameworks for lifestyle programmes seeking to attract young adults. © 2015 World Obesity.

  20. Roles, responsibilities and characteristics of lay community health workers involved in diabetes prevention programmes: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenburg, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Aim To examine the characteristics of community health workers (CHWs) involved in diabetes prevention programmes (DPPs) and their contributions to expected outcomes. Methods Electronic databases including PubMed-MEDLINE, EBSCOHost, and SCOPUS/EMBASE were searched for studies published between January 2000 and March 2016. All studies that used CHWs to implement DPP in ≥18-year-old participants without diabetes but at high risk for developing the condition, irrespective of the study design, setting or outcomes measured, were included. Results were synthesized narratively. Results Forty papers of 30 studies were identified. Studies were mainly community-based and conducted in minority populations in USA. Sample sizes ranged from 20 participants in a single community to 2369 participants in 46 communities. Although CHWs were generally from the local community, their qualifications, work experience and training received differed across studies. Overall the training was culturally sensitive and/or appropriate, covering topics such as the importance of good nutrition and the benefits of increased physical activity, communication and leadership. CHWs delivered a variety of interventions and also screened or recruited participants. The shared culture and language between CHWs and participants likely contributed to better programme implementation and successful outcomes. Conclusions The complexity of DPPs and the diverse CHW roles preclude attributing specific outcomes to CHW involvement. Nevertheless, documenting potential CHW roles and the relevant training required may optimise CHW contributions and facilitate their involvement in DPPs in the future. PMID:29216263

  1. Roles, responsibilities and characteristics of lay community health workers involved in diabetes prevention programmes: A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian Hill

    Full Text Available To examine the characteristics of community health workers (CHWs involved in diabetes prevention programmes (DPPs and their contributions to expected outcomes.Electronic databases including PubMed-MEDLINE, EBSCOHost, and SCOPUS/EMBASE were searched for studies published between January 2000 and March 2016. All studies that used CHWs to implement DPP in ≥18-year-old participants without diabetes but at high risk for developing the condition, irrespective of the study design, setting or outcomes measured, were included. Results were synthesized narratively.Forty papers of 30 studies were identified. Studies were mainly community-based and conducted in minority populations in USA. Sample sizes ranged from 20 participants in a single community to 2369 participants in 46 communities. Although CHWs were generally from the local community, their qualifications, work experience and training received differed across studies. Overall the training was culturally sensitive and/or appropriate, covering topics such as the importance of good nutrition and the benefits of increased physical activity, communication and leadership. CHWs delivered a variety of interventions and also screened or recruited participants. The shared culture and language between CHWs and participants likely contributed to better programme implementation and successful outcomes.The complexity of DPPs and the diverse CHW roles preclude attributing specific outcomes to CHW involvement. Nevertheless, documenting potential CHW roles and the relevant training required may optimise CHW contributions and facilitate their involvement in DPPs in the future.

  2. Effectiveness of health education programme: Level of knowledge about prevention of cervical cancer among Saudi female healthcare students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shaikh, Ghadeer Khaled; Syed, Sadiqa Badar; Fayed, Amel Ahmed; Al-Shaikh, Reem Ali; Al-Mussaed, Eman Mohammed; Khan, Farida Habib; Elmorshedy, Hala Nasser

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of health education programme on the knowledge of human papilloma virus among female medical students. This quasi-experimental study was conducted in 2014 at the Princess Nourah bint Abulrahman University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and comprised female medical students. An intervention programme was implemented in the form of lectures, videos, posters, etc. on human papillomavirus. SPSS 20 was used for data analysis. There were 535 participants in the study. There mean age was 20.3±1.3 years. After the intervention, there was a significant increase in the level of knowledge. Of all, 495(92%) students recognised avoidance of sexually transmitted disease, vaccination and screening as effective preventive measures. In comparison to pre-intervention results, significantly higher percentage of students defined risk factors: sexually transmitted disease 392(73.3%) versus 329(61.8%), and human papillomavirus 293(54.8%) versus 151(28.4%). Knowledge regarding sensitivity, 280(52.3%) after the campaign versus 160(30.1%)before, and time to perform Pap smear,229(42.8%) versus 113(21.1%),increased significantly (plevel of knowledge on human papillomavirus.

  3. National doping prevention guidelines: Intent, efficacy and lessons learned - A 4-year evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wippert, Pia-Maria; Fließer, Michael

    2016-10-10

    Doping presents a potential health risk for young athletes. Prevention programs are intended to prevent doping by educating athletes about banned substances. However, such programs have their limitations in practice. This led Germany to introduce the National Doping Prevention Plan (NDPP), in hopes of ameliorating the situation among young elite athletes. Two studies examined 1) the degree to which the NDPP led to improved prevention efforts in elite sport schools, and 2) the extent to which newly developed prevention activities of the national anti-doping agency (NADA) based on the NDPP have improved knowledge among young athletes within elite sports schools. The first objective was investigated in a longitudinal study (Study I: t0 = baseline, t1 = follow-up 4 years after NDPP introduction) with N = 22 teachers engaged in doping prevention in elite sports schools. The second objective was evaluated in a cross-sectional comparison study (Study II) in N = 213 elite sports school students (54.5 % male, 45.5 % female, age M = 16.7 ± 1.3 years (all students had received the improved NDDP measure in school; one student group had received additionally NADA anti-doping activities and a control group did not). Descriptive statistics were calculated, followed by McNemar tests, Wilcoxon tests and Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA). Results indicate that 4 years after the introduction of the NDPP there have been limited structural changes with regard to the frequency, type, and scope of doping prevention in elite sport schools. On the other hand, in study II, elite sport school students who received further NADA anti-doping activities performed better on an anti-doping knowledge test than students who did not take part (F(1, 207) = 33.99, p doping-prevention in elite sport schools as part of the NDPP was only partially successful. The results of the evaluation indicate that the introduction of the NDPP has contributed more to a change in the

  4. What can transaction costs tell us about governance in the delivery of large scale HIV prevention programmes in southern India?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinness, Lorna

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to understand the transaction costs implications of two different governance modes for large scale contracting of HIV prevention services to non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in 2 states in India as part of the National AIDS Control Programme between 2001 and 2003. Interviews at purposively selected case study NGOs, contracting agencies and key informants as well as document review were used to compile qualitative data and make comparisons between the states on five themes theoretically proposed to shape transaction costs: institutional environment, informational problems, opportunism, scale of activity and asset specificity (the degree to which investments made specifically for the contract have value elsewhere). The State AIDS Control Society (SACS) in state Y used a management agency to manage the NGO contracts whereas the SACS in state X contracted directly with the NGOs. A high level of uncertainty, endemic corruption and weak information systems served to weaken the contractual relationships in both states. The management agency in state Y enabled the development of a strong NGO network, greater transparency and control over corrupt practises than the contract model in state X. State X’s contractual process was further weakened by inadequate human resources. The application of the transaction cost framework to contracting out public services to NGOs identified the key costs associated with the governance of HIV prevention services through NGO contracts in India. A more successful form of relational contract evolved within the network of the contract management agency and the NGOs. This led to improved flows of information and perceived quality, and limited corrupt practises. It is unlikely that the SACS on its own, with broader responsibilities and limited autonomy can achieve the same ends. The management agency approach therefore appears to be both transaction cost reducing and better able to cope with the large scale of these

  5. Population Based Cancer Screening Programmes as a Teachable Moment for Primary Prevention Interventions. A Review of the Literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senore, Carlo; Giordano, Livia; Bellisario, Cristina; Di Stefano, Francesca; Segnan, Nereo, E-mail: carlo.senore@cpo.it [Epidemiologia dei Tumori II, AOU S Giovanni Battista – CPO Piemonte, Torino (Italy)

    2012-05-08

    Background and aim: Unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, and smoking are key risk factors for the major non-communicable diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes. The screening procedure may represent an ideal setting for promoting healthy lifestyles as it represents a time when subjects are probably more inclined to consider a relationship between their own habits and their effects on health. The aim of this study is to review available evidence concerning interventions combining screening and primary prevention interventions, aimed at promoting the adoption of healthy lifestyles. Methods: We searched the MEDLINE and Cochrane library electronic databases for intervention studies of primary prevention interventions implemented in the context of established screening programmes, or of pilot screening projects, where the study design included a comparison group. Results: Comprehensive interventions are acceptable for asymptomatic subjects targeted for cancer screening, can result in improvements and may be cost–effective. A positive impact of these interventions in favoring the adoption of cancer protective dietary behaviors was observed in all studies. Conflicting results were instead reported with respect to physical activity, while no impact could be observed for interventions aimed to favor smoking cessation. Conclusions: The retrieved studies suggest that the screening setting may offer valuable opportunities to provide credible, potentially persuasive life style advice, reaching a wide audience. A multiple risk factor approach may maximize the benefit of behavioral change, as the same health related habits are associated not only with cancers targeted by screening interventions, but also with other cancers, coronary artery disease, and other chronic conditions, while unhealthy behaviors may be mutually reinforcing. In order to cover a maximum number of possibilities, health education programmes should include multiple strategies

  6. What can transaction costs tell us about governance in the delivery of large scale HIV prevention programmes in southern India?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinness, Lorna

    2011-06-01

    This paper aims to understand the transaction costs implications of two different governance modes for large scale contracting of HIV prevention services to non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in 2 states in India as part of the National AIDS Control Programme between 2001 and 2003. Interviews at purposively selected case study NGOs, contracting agencies and key informants as well as document review were used to compile qualitative data and make comparisons between the states on five themes theoretically proposed to shape transaction costs: institutional environment, informational problems, opportunism, scale of activity and asset specificity (the degree to which investments made specifically for the contract have value elsewhere). The State AIDS Control Society (SACS) in state Y used a management agency to manage the NGO contracts whereas the SACS in state X contracted directly with the NGOs. A high level of uncertainty, endemic corruption and weak information systems served to weaken the contractual relationships in both states. The management agency in state Y enabled the development of a strong NGO network, greater transparency and control over corrupt practises than the contract model in state X. State X's contractual process was further weakened by inadequate human resources. The application of the transaction cost framework to contracting out public services to NGOs identified the key costs associated with the governance of HIV prevention services through NGO contracts in India. A more successful form of relational contract evolved within the network of the contract management agency and the NGOs. This led to improved flows of information and perceived quality, and limited corrupt practises. It is unlikely that the SACS on its own, with broader responsibilities and limited autonomy can achieve the same ends. The management agency approach therefore appears to be both transaction cost reducing and better able to cope with the large scale of these

  7. Population Based Cancer Screening Programmes as a Teachable Moment for Primary Prevention Interventions. A Review of the Literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senore, Carlo; Giordano, Livia; Bellisario, Cristina; Di Stefano, Francesca; Segnan, Nereo

    2012-01-01

    Background and aim: Unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, and smoking are key risk factors for the major non-communicable diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes. The screening procedure may represent an ideal setting for promoting healthy lifestyles as it represents a time when subjects are probably more inclined to consider a relationship between their own habits and their effects on health. The aim of this study is to review available evidence concerning interventions combining screening and primary prevention interventions, aimed at promoting the adoption of healthy lifestyles. Methods: We searched the MEDLINE and Cochrane library electronic databases for intervention studies of primary prevention interventions implemented in the context of established screening programmes, or of pilot screening projects, where the study design included a comparison group. Results: Comprehensive interventions are acceptable for asymptomatic subjects targeted for cancer screening, can result in improvements and may be cost–effective. A positive impact of these interventions in favoring the adoption of cancer protective dietary behaviors was observed in all studies. Conflicting results were instead reported with respect to physical activity, while no impact could be observed for interventions aimed to favor smoking cessation. Conclusions: The retrieved studies suggest that the screening setting may offer valuable opportunities to provide credible, potentially persuasive life style advice, reaching a wide audience. A multiple risk factor approach may maximize the benefit of behavioral change, as the same health related habits are associated not only with cancers targeted by screening interventions, but also with other cancers, coronary artery disease, and other chronic conditions, while unhealthy behaviors may be mutually reinforcing. In order to cover a maximum number of possibilities, health education programmes should include multiple strategies

  8. Assessment of a training programme for the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Jam Gatell, M Rosa; Santé Roig, Montserrat; Hernández Vian, Óscar; Carrillo Santín, Esther; Turégano Duaso, Concepción; Fernández Moreno, Inmaculada; Vallés Daunis, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    Background Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the most frequent nosocomial infection in intensive care units (ICUs). Most published studies have analysed nurses' theoretical knowledge about a specific procedure; however, the transfer of this knowledge to the practice has received little attention. Aim To assess the impact of training session on nurses' knowledge regarding VAP, compliance with VAP preventive measures, VAP incidence and determining whether nursing workload affects complia...

  9. Promotion of Preventive Measures in Public Nursery Schools: Lessons From the H1N1 Pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michail, Koralia A; Ioannidou, Christina; Galanis, Petros; Tsoumakas, Kostantinos; Pavlopoulou, Ioanna D

    2017-09-01

    Nursery schools serve as reservoirs of transmission of infectious diseases, and teachers should be able to implement and monitor hygiene measures to prevent them. The aim of the present study was to assess the compliance of nursery school teachers on promoting preventive interventions and to identify associated factors, during the novel H1N1 influenza pandemic. A secondary objective was to evaluate their knowledge and vaccination status regarding the novel virus. A cross-sectional study was performed, with the use of a predesigned anonymous, questionnaire, and distributed to all public nursery teachers of Athens, Greece. General etiquette practices were highly acceptable to over 92% of teachers. Those with longer teaching experience promoted simple preventive measures, such as hand washing and use of hand sanitizer, more often while older children were more likely to familiarize with them. However, teachers presented inadequate knowledge concerning the novel virus and their vaccination rates with the pandemic vaccine were unacceptably low (1.1%). Our study showed that promotion of simple preventive measures is feasible and may contribute to the prevention of outbreaks in nursery schools, although knowledge gaps and fear concerning the pandemic vaccine highlight communication issues.

  10. [Smoking and young people; effectiveness of smoking prevention and cessation programmes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monshouwer, K; Onrust, S; Rikkers-Mutsaerts, E; Lammers, J

    2017-01-01

    - In this article, we discuss the scientific knowledge on the effects of interventions that help young people to quit smoking and interventions that should prevent young people from starting to smoke.- We also describe the interventions in the Netherlands that, after a quality assessment, have been included in the database of the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) Centre for Healthy Living.- Interventions have varying degrees of success in helping young people to quit smoking. There are only indications of a modest effect of behavioural interventions.- Preventive interventions mostly occur in a school setting and are making a modest contribution to the reduction of the number of young people that start smoking.- There are preliminary indications of the effectiveness of interventions in a medical setting. However, research into this is rare and there is no insight in long-term effects.- The database of the RIVM Centre for Healthy Living includes mainly preventive interventions in a school setting and only one smoking cessation intervention.

  11. Balancing the need to rapidly scale-up and improve clinical outcomes in antiretroviral programmes in developing countries: lessons from an Indian programmatic cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Peter; Beyers, Nulda; Fidler, Sarah

    2014-10-01

    Antiretroviral treatment (ART) is highly effective reducing mortality and AIDS-related morbidity in HIV-infected people and at preventing transmission of HIV between individuals. The article reviewed for this commentary reported on data from an Indian ART cohort that showed low median baseline CD4 counts and high rates of mortality and loss to follow-up. Programme implementers in developing regions need to balance the need for rapid scale-up and simultaneous improvement in clinical outcomes. Challenges outlined support HIV treatment strategies that combine improved HIV diagnosis, linkage to care and provision of ART with a strong community-based component. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. A web-based computer-tailored smoking prevention programme for primary school children: intervention design and study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Although the number of smokers has declined in the last decade, smoking is still a major health problem among youngsters and adolescents. For this reason, there is a need for effective smoking prevention programmes targeting primary school children. A web-based computer-tailored feedback programme may be an effective intervention to stimulate youngsters not to start smoking, and increase their knowledge about the adverse effects of smoking and their attitudes and self-efficacy regarding non-smoking. Methods & design This paper describes the development and evaluation protocol of a web-based out-of-school smoking prevention programme for primary school children (age 10-13 years) entitled ‘Fun without Smokes’. It is a transformation of a postal mailed intervention to a web-based intervention. Besides this transformation the effects of prompts will be examined. This web-based intervention will be evaluated in a 2-year cluster randomised controlled trial (c-RCT) with three study arms. An intervention and intervention + prompt condition will be evaluated for effects on smoking behaviour, compared with a no information control condition. Information about pupils’ smoking status and other factors related to smoking will be obtained using a web-based questionnaire. After completing the questionnaire pupils in both intervention conditions will receive three computer-tailored feedback letters in their personal e-mail box. Attitudes, social influences and self-efficacy expectations will be the content of these personalised feedback letters. Pupils in the intervention + prompt condition will - in addition to the personalised feedback letters - receive e-mail and SMS messages prompting them to revisit the ‘Fun without Smokes’ website. The main outcome measures will be ever smoking and the utilisation of the ‘Fun without Smokes’ website. Measurements will be carried out at baseline, 12 months and 24 months of follow-up. Discussion The present study

  13. A web-based computer-tailored smoking prevention programme for primary school children: intervention design and study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cremers Henricus-Paul

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the number of smokers has declined in the last decade, smoking is still a major health problem among youngsters and adolescents. For this reason, there is a need for effective smoking prevention programmes targeting primary school children. A web-based computer-tailored feedback programme may be an effective intervention to stimulate youngsters not to start smoking, and increase their knowledge about the adverse effects of smoking and their attitudes and self-efficacy regarding non-smoking. Methods & design This paper describes the development and evaluation protocol of a web-based out-of-school smoking prevention programme for primary school children (age 10-13 years entitled ‘Fun without Smokes’. It is a transformation of a postal mailed intervention to a web-based intervention. Besides this transformation the effects of prompts will be examined. This web-based intervention will be evaluated in a 2-year cluster randomised controlled trial (c-RCT with three study arms. An intervention and intervention + prompt condition will be evaluated for effects on smoking behaviour, compared with a no information control condition. Information about pupils’ smoking status and other factors related to smoking will be obtained using a web-based questionnaire. After completing the questionnaire pupils in both intervention conditions will receive three computer-tailored feedback letters in their personal e-mail box. Attitudes, social influences and self-efficacy expectations will be the content of these personalised feedback letters. Pupils in the intervention + prompt condition will - in addition to the personalised feedback letters - receive e-mail and SMS messages prompting them to revisit the ‘Fun without Smokes’ website. The main outcome measures will be ever smoking and the utilisation of the ‘Fun without Smokes’ website. Measurements will be carried out at baseline, 12 months and 24 months of follow

  14. Process evaluation of a participatory ergonomics programme to prevent low back pain and neck pain among workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Driessen Maurice T

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both low back pain (LBP and neck pain (NP are major occupational health problems. In the workplace, participatory ergonomics (PE is frequently used on musculoskeletal disorders. However, evidence on the effectiveness of PE to prevent LBP and NP obtained from randomised controlled trials (RCTs is scarce. This study evaluates the process of the Stay@Work participatory ergonomics programme, including the perceived implementation of the prioritised ergonomic measures. Methods This cluster-RCT was conducted at the departments of four Dutch companies (a railway transportation company, an airline company, a steel company, and a university including its university medical hospital. Directly after the randomisation outcome, intervention departments formed a working group that followed the steps of PE during a six-hour working group meeting. Guided by an ergonomist, working groups identified and prioritised risk factors for LBP and NP, and composed and prioritised ergonomic measures. Within three months after the meeting, working groups had to implement the prioritised ergonomic measures at their department. Data on various process components (recruitment, reach, fidelity, satisfaction, and implementation components, i.e., dose delivered and dose received were collected and analysed on two levels: department (i.e., working group members from intervention departments and participant (i.e., workers from intervention departments. Results A total of 19 intervention departments (n = 10 with mental workloads, n = 1 with a light physical workload, n = 4 departments with physical and mental workloads, and n = 4 with heavy physical workloads were recruited for participation, and the reach among working group members who participated was high (87%. Fidelity and satisfaction towards the PE programme rated by the working group members was good (7.3 or higher. The same was found for the Stay@Work ergocoach training (7.5 or higher. In total, 66

  15. Efficacy of infant simulator programmes to prevent teenage pregnancy: a school-based cluster randomised controlled trial in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, Sally A; Johnson, Sarah E; Codde, James P; Hart, Michael B; Straton, Judith A; Mittinty, Murthy N; Silburn, Sven R

    2016-11-05

    Infant simulator-based programmes, which aim to prevent teenage pregnancy, are used in high-income as well as low-income and middle-income countries but, despite growing popularity, no published evidence exists of their long-term effect. The aim of this trial was to investigate the effect of such a programme, the Virtual Infant Parenting (VIP) programme, on pregnancy outcomes of birth and induced abortion in Australia. In this school-based pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial, eligible schools in Perth, Western Australia, were enrolled and randomised 1:1 to the intervention and control groups. Randomisation using a table of random numbers without blocking, stratification, or matching was done by a researcher who was masked to the identity of the schools. Between 2003 and 2006, the VIP programme was administered to girls aged 13-15 years in the intervention schools, while girls of the same age in the control schools received the standard health education curriculum. Participants were followed until they reached 20 years of age via data linkage to hospital medical and abortion clinic records. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of pregnancy during the teenage years. Binomial and Cox proportional hazards regression was used to test for differences in pregnancy rates between study groups. This study is registered as an international randomised controlled trial, number ISRCTN24952438. 57 (86%) of 66 eligible schools were enrolled into the trial and randomly assigned 1:1 to the intervention (28 schools) or the control group (29 schools). Then, between Feb 1, 2003, and May 31, 2006, 1267 girls in the intervention schools received the VIP programme while 1567 girls in the control schools received the standard health education curriculum. Compared with girls in the control group, a higher proportion of girls in the intervention group recorded at least one birth (97 [8%] of 1267 in the intervention group vs 67 [4%] of 1567 in the control group) or at least one

  16. Translational models of infection prevention and control: lessons from studying high risk aging populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mody, Lona

    2018-06-13

    The present review describes our research experiences and efforts in advancing the field of infection prevention and control in nursing facilities including postacute and long-term care settings. There are over two million infections in postacute and long-term care settings each year in the United States and $4 billion in associated costs. To define a target group most amenable to infection prevention and control interventions, we sought to quantify the relation between indwelling device use and microbial colonization in nursing facility patients. Using various methodologies including survey methods, observational epidemiology, randomized controlled studies, and collaboratives, we showed that indwelling device type is related to the site of multidrug-resistant organism (MDRO) colonization; multianatomic site colonization with MDROs is common; community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) appeared in the nursing facility setting almost immediately following its emergence in acute care; (4) MDRO prevalence and catheter-associated infection rates can be reduced through a multimodal targeted infection prevention intervention; and (5) using a collaborative approach, such an intervention can be successfully scaled up. Our work advances the infection prevention field through translational research utilizing various methodologies, including quantitative and qualitative surveys, patient-oriented randomized controlled trials, and clinical microbiologic and molecular methods. The resulting interventions employ patient-oriented methods to reduce infections and antimicrobial resistance, and with partnerships from major national entities, can be implemented nationally.

  17. Lessons learned from the development of technological support for PTSD prevention : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vakili, V.; Brinkman, W.P.; Neerincx, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    This review2 describes the state-of-the-arttechnologiesthat support mental resilience training for PTSD prevention. It characterizes four current systems across training approaches; seeks insights via interviews with the systemdevelopers; and extracts from thesea set of essential guidelines for

  18. Lessons from france: the cardiovascular prevention clinic in the la pitie-salpetriere hospital in paris.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, M.K.; Rensing, K.L.; Giral, P.; Cramer, M.J.; Bruckert, E.; Twickler, T.B.

    2007-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the principal cause of morbidity and mortality in the Netherlands. In this background, various initiatives have been launched to reduce the frequency of cardiovascular disease. One of those is the creation of clinical units with a special focus on prevention of

  19. Lowbury Lecture 2007: infection prevention and control strategies for tuberculosis in developing countries - lessons learnt from Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehtar, S

    2008-08-01

    The World Health Organization ranks South Africa among the top ten of high-burden countries for tuberculosis (TB). The Western Cape Province has the highest prevalence of TB in the country. Studies performed in healthcare facilities both at Tygerberg Hospital and from Kwa-Zulu Natal province indicate a significant risk for nosocomial transmission of tuberculosis. An audit of provision for infection prevention and control (IPC) programmes revealed that although there were adequate supplies of protective clothing, the greatest need was for training and understanding of IPC principles among healthcare workers. In establishing national IPC guidelines for TB in South Africa, it has become evident that most of these were derived from existing guidelines in developed countries. Though the principles were sound, the practices were not realistic for developing economies and generally not implemented in healthcare facilities. Factors that influence a robust TB management programme are poverty, concurrent human immunodeficiency virus infection, overcrowding, ignorance of the disease and a varied level of health service delivery. It is recommended that a foundation of sound knowledge should be established upon which best practices should be built within the framework of good IPC principles.

  20. Which factors play a role in Dutch health promotion professionals' decision to recruit actively primary schools to use a web-based smoking prevention programme?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremers, Henricus-Paul; Oenema, Anke; Mercken, Liesbeth; Candel, Math; de Vries, Hein

    2013-12-03

    Municipal Health Promotion Organisations (MHPOs) play an important role in promoting and disseminating prevention programmes, such as smoking prevention programmes, in schools. This study identifies factors that may facilitate or hinder MHPOs' willingness to recruit actively primary schools to use a smoking prevention programme. In 2011, 31 Dutch MHPOs were invited to recruit schools to use a smoking prevention programme. All MHPO employees involved in smoking prevention activities (n = 68) were asked to complete a questionnaire assessing psychological factors and characteristics of their organisation that might affect their decision to be involved in active recruitment of schools. T-tests and multivariate analysis of variance assessed potential differences in psychological and organisational factors between active and non-active recruiters. A total of 45 professionals returned the questionnaire (66.2%). Active recruiters (n = 12) had more positive attitudes (p = 0.02), higher self-efficacy expectations (p primary schools, compared with non-active recruiters. Organisational factors did not discriminate between active and non-active recruiters. Primarily psychological factors seem to be associated with MHPOs' decision to recruit schools actively. This indicates that creating more positive attitude, self-efficacy beliefs and formation of plans may help in getting more MHPOs involved in active recruitment procedures.

  1. Strengthening preventive care programs: a permanent challenge for healthcare systems; lessons from PREVENIMSS México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cantón Sonia

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2001, the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS carried out a major reorganization to provide comprehensive preventive care to reinforce primary care services through the PREVENIMSS program. This program divides the population into programmatic age groups that receive specific preventive services: children (0-9 years, adolescents (10-19 years, men (20-59 years, women (20-59 years and older adults (> = 60 years. The objective of this paper is to describe the improvement of the PREVENIMSS program in terms of the increase of coverage of preventive actions and the identification of unmet needs of unsolved and emergent health problems. Methods From 2003 to 2006, four nation-wide cross-sectional probabilistic population based surveys were conducted using a four stage sampling design. Thirty thousand households were visited in each survey. The number of IMSS members interviewed ranged from 79,797 respondents in 2003 to 117,036 respondents in 2006. Results The four surveys showed a substantial increase in coverage indicators for each age group: children, completed schemes of vaccination (> 90%, iron supplementation (17.8% to 65.5%, newborn screening for metabolic disorders (60.3% to 81.6%. Adolescents, measles - rubella vaccine (52.4% to 71.4%, hepatitis vaccine (9.3% to 46.2%, use of condoms (17.9% to 59.9%. Women, measles-rubella vaccine (28.5% to 59-2%, cervical cancer screening (66.7% to 75%, breast cancer screening (> 2.1%. Men, type 2 diabetes screening (38.6% to 57.8% hypertension screening (48-4% to 64.0%. Older adults, pneumococcal vaccine (13.2% to 24.9%, influenza vaccine (12.6% to 52.9 Regarding the unmet needs, the prevalence of anemia in children was 30% and a growing prevalence of overweight and obesity, type 2 diabetes, and hypertension was found in men, women and older adults. Conclusion PREVENIMSS showed an important increase in the coverage of preventive services and stressed the magnitude of the old and

  2. Public involvement in the siting of contentious facilities; Lessons from the radioactive waste repository siting programmes in Canada and the United States, with special reference to the Swedish repository siting process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, P.J.

    1997-08-01

    This report describes the conclusion of a two-part programme, begun in 1994 with the overall aim of assisting in the development of an acceptable public participation strategy for use in Sweden for the siting of contentious facilities, with particular reference to the ongoing siting programme for a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. The first part of the work programme, a global review of siting practice, was reported as SSI Rapport 94-15, in November 1994. This recommended further detailed studies of at least two individual programmes, which have now been carried out in Canada and the United States, and are reported on here. They involved face to face meetings with many of the main stake holders in the two programmes and enabled valuable insight to be gained into the potential problems associated with increased public participation, as well as identifying good practice where it exists. The lessons learned have then been applied to the evolving repository siting process in Sweden. 35 refs

  3. Public involvement in the siting of contentious facilities; Lessons from the radioactive waste repository siting programmes in Canada and the United States, with special reference to the Swedish repository siting process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, P J [Geosciences for Development and the Environment (United Kingdom)

    1997-08-01

    This report describes the conclusion of a two-part programme, begun in 1994 with the overall aim of assisting in the development of an acceptable public participation strategy for use in Sweden for the siting of contentious facilities, with particular reference to the ongoing siting programme for a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. The first part of the work programme, a global review of siting practice, was reported as SSI Rapport 94-15, in November 1994. This recommended further detailed studies of at least two individual programmes, which have now been carried out in Canada and the United States, and are reported on here. They involved face to face meetings with many of the main stake holders in the two programmes and enabled valuable insight to be gained into the potential problems associated with increased public participation, as well as identifying good practice where it exists. The lessons learned have then been applied to the evolving repository siting process in Sweden. 35 refs.

  4. CMAM integration: Lessons learned from a case study on community-based child survival programmes in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadler, Kate; Puett, Chloe; Myatt, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Bangladesh ranks among the five countries with the highest burden of acute malnutrition in the world. Barisal Division is one of the poorest areas of southern Bangladesh, with low access to health care and high prevalence of malnutrition. This prospective cohort study examined the effectiveness and feasibility of adding the diagnosis and treatment of severe acute malnutrition (SAM) to the community case management (CCM) package delivered by community health workers (CHWs) outside health facilities in Bhola District, Barisal Division. CHWs were paid a monthly stipend of 800 Taka (US$11.80). A mid-upper arm circumference measurement and an oedema check for all children under three years old were introduced into routine CHW activities, including monthly growth monitoring and promotion sessions and household visits. CHWs provided ongoing sensitization to households and community members on the causes and consequences of SAM, encouraging early treatment seeking. Integration into the CCM package of services supported high quality of care for cases of SAM, and promoted program effectiveness. The recovery rate (92%), length of stay (37.4 days) and rate of weight gain (6.7 g/kg/day) were all significantly better than international Sphere standards. Further, the coverage achieved by CHWs in this program was 89% (CI 78%–96%), one of the highest levels achieved by SAM treatment services. CHWs achieved high quality of care, with 89% of workers attaining 90% error-free case management or higher in managing cases of SAM. In receiving SAM treatment within a package of integrated services, children treated by CHWs in this study had low levels of complications and co-morbidities. Doorstep delivery promoted early treatment in this remote area. Therefore cases were easier to treat and average caseloads appeared to be manageable for CHWs. While SAM treatment increased CHW workloads, this did not negatively affect the quality of other preventive and curative services delivered

  5. Cardiovascular disease prevention in low resource settings: lessons from the Heartfile experience in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishtar, Sania

    2003-01-01

    This paper outlines activities of the Heartfile Program in Pakistan (http://heartfile.org). The program focuses on cardiovascular disease prevention and health promotion, and includes several initiatives that encompass building policy, reorienting health services, and developing community interventions that utilize the print and electronic media and outreach at the grass-root level to incorporate social marketing approaches. Initiated by the nonprofit private sector, the program now links with major public sector primary healthcare programs, and is currently spearheading formulation of the National Action Plan on Noncommunicable Disease Prevention and Control in Pakistan. In addition, the program is being refined, validated, and packaged as a replicable model for other developing countries and in low resource settings, utilizing appropriate principles of franchising with inbuilt components sensitive to cultural and social adaptations. A review of the planning process, implementation strategy, and fund-raising experience is presented. Strategies unique to low resource settings, such as the development of cost- and time-efficient strategic alliances and partnerships, have also been highlighted. In addition, specific caveats are identified as being helpful to private sector development of chronic disease prevention programs in resource-constrained settings, and a road map to a sustainable public-private sector partnership is provided.

  6. The critical role of communications in a multilevel obesity-prevention intervention: Lessons learned for alcohol educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, Daniel P; Sliwa, Sarah A; Folta, Sara C; Economos, Christina D; Goldberg, Jeanne P

    2017-01-01

    Multilevel interventions to prevent underage drinking are more effective than individual-level strategies, and messaging campaigns are key to such approaches. Recognizing the benefits of translating best practices across public health domains, this paper details the communications campaign from Shape Up Somerville (SUS), an exemplar for multilevel community-based approaches to address pediatric obesity, highlighting lessons learned for alcohol educators. All elements of SUS, including the communications strategy, were developed collaboratively with local partners. Communication initiatives included community-engaged brand development to unify diverse intervention components; school-based communications to promote new opportunities for healthy eating and physical activity; and media partnerships to promote healthy behaviors community-wide. The overall SUS intervention was effective in reducing prevalence of overweight/obesity among first- to third-graders in Somerville relative to control communities. Process evaluation showed that communications successfully reached diverse community segments and raised awareness of and receptivity to changes. Communications campaigns are essential components of multilevel interventions addressing public health challenges including obesity and underage drinking. Such communications should be developed collaboratively with the target audience and stakeholders, designed to engage community members at multiple levels through multiple channels within a systems framework, and sustained through local partnerships. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Findings and lessons learned from a multi-partner collaboration to increase cervical cancer prevention efforts in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stormo, Analia R; Espey, David; Glenn, Jeffrey; Lara-Prieto, Elisa; Moreno, Amanda; Nuñez, Fernando; Padilla, Haydee; Waxman, Alan; Flowers, Lisa; Santos, Carlos; Soria, Milton; Luciani, Silvana; Saraiya, Mona

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a leading cause of cancer death among women in Bolivia, where cytology based screening has not performed well due to health-systems constraints. In response, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Pan American Health Organization partnered with the Bolivian Ministry of Health and the Peruvian Cancer Institute (INEN) to build capacity in Bolivia for the use of visual inspection of the cervix with acetic acid (VIA) and cryotherapy. Four 5-day courses on basic clinical skills to perform these procedures, provide related counseling, and manage side effects and infections were conducted from September 2010 to December 2012 for 61 Bolivian nurses and physicians. Of these courses, two were conducted by Bolivian trainers that were certified through a Training-of-Trainers course taught by the INEN. Classroom didactic sessions included lectures and practice with anatomic models followed by clinical practice sessions to provide trainees with practical experience in VIA and cryotherapy. Pre- and post-training evaluations were administered to ascertain knowledge gained. Evaluation of competency was conducted during simulation exercises in the classroom and during supervised performances of procedures in clinical settings. This report summarizes findings and lessons learned that will be useful for planning the supervision and monitoring phase of this project as well as for future partnerships in the Latin American and the Caribbean region.

  8. Capacity-building of the allied health workforce to prevent and control diabetes: Lessons learnt from the National Initiative to Reinforce and Organize General Diabetes Care in Sri Lanka (NIROGI Lanka) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijeyaratne, Chandrika; Arambepola, Carukshi; Karunapema, Palitha; Periyasamy, Kayathri; Hemachandra, Nilmini; Ponnamperuma, Gominda; Beneragama, Hemantha; de Alwis, Sunil

    2016-04-01

    In 2008, to tackle the exponential rise in the clinical burden of diabetes that was challenging the health systems in Sri Lanka, a shift in focus towards patient-centred care linked with community health promotion was initiated by the National Initiative to Reinforce and Organize General Diabetes Care in Sri Lanka (NIROGI Lanka) project of the Sri Lanka Medical Association. Specific training of "diabetes educator nursing officers" (DENOs), field staff in maternal and child health, footwear technicians, and health promoters from the community, was instituted to improve knowledge, skills and attitudes in the area of control and prevention of diabetes. This article highlights some of the activities carried out to date with the allied health workforce and volunteer community. Specifically, it describes experiences with the DENO programme: the educational and administrative processes adopted, challenges faced and lessons learnt. It also highlights an approach to prevention and management of complications of chronic diabetic foot through training a cohort of prosthetics and orthotics technicians, in the absence of podiatrists, and an initiative to provide low-cost protective footwear. Harnessing the enthusiasm of volunteers - adults and schoolchildren - to address behavioural risk factors in a culturally appropriate fashion has also been a key part of the NIROGI Lanka strategy.

  9. Effectiveness of an injury prevention programme for adult male amateur soccer players: a cluster-randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beijsterveldt, Anna M C; van de Port, Ingrid G L; Krist, Mark R; Schmikli, Sandor L; Stubbe, Janine H; Frederiks, Janet E; Backx, Frank J G

    2012-01-01

    Background The incidence rate of soccer injuries is among the highest in sports, particularly for adult male soccer players. Purpose To investigate the effect of the ‘The11’ injury prevention programme on injury incidence and injury severity in adult male amateur soccer players. Study design Cluster-randomised controlled trial. Methods Teams from two high-level amateur soccer competitions were randomly assigned to an intervention (n=11 teams, 223 players) or control group (n=12 teams, 233 players). The intervention group was instructed to perform The11 in each practice session during one soccer season. The11 focuses on core stability, eccentric training of thigh muscles, proprioceptive training, dynamic stabilisation and plyometrics with straight leg alignment. All participants of the control group continued their practice sessions as usual. Results In total, 427 injuries were recorded, affecting 274 of 456 players (60.1%). Compliance with the intervention programme was good (team compliance=73%, player compliance=71%). Contrary to the hypothesis, injury incidences were almost equal between the two study groups: 9.6 per 1000 sports hours (8.4–11.0) for the intervention group and 9.7 (8.5–11.1) for the control group. No significant differences were found in injury severity, but a significant difference was observed in the location of the injuries: players in the intervention group sustained significantly less knee injuries. Conclusions This study did not find significant differences in the overall injury incidence or injury severity between the intervention and control group of adult male soccer players. More research is recommended, focusing on injury aetiology and risk factors in adult male amateur soccer players. PMID:22878257

  10. Lessons learned from successful Papanicolaou cytology cervical cancer prevention in the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suba, Eric J; Raab, Stephen S

    2012-04-01

    In 1996, we documented that the burden of cervical cancer in Vietnam was associated with troop movements during the Vietnam War. Subsequently, establishment of Papanicolaou screening in southern Vietnam was associated with reductions in cervical cancer incidence from 29.2/100,000 in 1998 to 16/100,000 in 2003. This is one of the first English-language reports of a real-world cervical cancer prevention effort associated with a decisive impact on health outcomes in a contemporary developing country. if our ideological commitment is to improve health outcomes as rapidly as possible among as many people as possible, then Papanicolaou screening (with or without HPV or visual screening) must be implemented without further delay in any setting where cervical screening is appropriate but unavailable; consideration must be given to HPV vaccination after, rather than before, full coverage of target demographic groups by screening services has been achieved and/or the possibility has been excluded that HPV vaccination may be ineffective for cancer prevention. Competing ideological commitments engender imprudent yet commercially useful alternative strategies prone to decelerate global reductions in mortality by suppressing the more-rapid uptake of less-expensive open-source technology in favor of the less-rapid uptake of more-expensive proprietary technologies with uncertain real-world advantages and unfavorable real-world operational limitations. Global cervical cancer prevention efforts will become more effective if global health leaders, including the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, embrace an ideological commitment to improving health outcomes as rapidly as possible among as many people as possible and assimilate the policy implications of that commitment. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Implementing three evidence-based program models: early lessons from the Teen Pregnancy Prevention Replication Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, Meredith; Layzer, Jean

    2014-03-01

    This article describes some of the early implementation challenges faced by nine grantees participating in the Teen Pregnancy Prevention Replication Study and their response to them. The article draws on information collected as part of a comprehensive implementation study. Sources include site and program documents; program officer reports; notes from site investigation, selection and negotiation; ongoing communications with grantees as part of putting the study into place; and semi-structured interviews with program staff. The issues faced by grantees in implementing evidence-based programs designed to prevent teen pregnancy varied by program model. Grantees implementing a classroom-based curriculum faced challenges in delivering the curriculum within the constraints of school schedules and calendars (program length and size of class). Grantees implementing a culturally tailored curriculum faced a series of challenges, including implementing the intervention as part of the regular school curriculum in schools with diverse populations; low attendance when delivered as an after-school program; and resistance on the part of schools to specific curriculum content. The third set of grantees, implementing a program in clinics, faced challenges in identifying and recruiting young women into the program and in retaining young women once they were in the program. The experiences of these grantees reflect some of the complexities that should be carefully considered when choosing to replicate evidence-based programs. The Teen Pregnancy Prevention replication study will provide important context for assessing the effectiveness of some of the more widely replicated evidence-based programs. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

  12. The BokSmart intervention programme is associated with improvements in injury prevention behaviours of rugby union players: an ecological cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, J.C.; Gardner-Lubbe, S.; Lambert, M.I.; van Mechelen, W.; Verhagen, E.A.L.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background/aim Participants of rugby union (‘rugby’) have an above-average risk of injury compared with other popular sports. Thus, BokSmart, a nationwide injury prevention programme for rugby, was introduced in South Africa in 2009. Improvements in injurypreventing behaviour of players are critical

  13. "Now That I'm Pregnant, I'm No Longer an Example": Peer Educator Experiences of an HIV Prevention Programme in Cape Town, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Kimberly; Africa, Adelene

    2017-01-01

    Despite the popularity of peer education as an HIV prevention strategy across a range of contexts, understanding of the experiences of those intimately placed within these programmes is limited. Instead, the majority of research in this field relies on hegemonic notions of rational human behaviour that operate under the assumption that knowledge…

  14. The First-aid Advice and Safety Training (FAST) parents programme for the prevention of unintentional injuries in preschool children: a protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mytton, Julie A; Towner, Elizabeth Ml; Kendrick, Denise; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Emond, Alan; Ingram, Jenny; Blair, Peter S; Powell, Jane; Mulvaney, Caroline; Thomas, James; Deave, Toity; Potter, Barbara

    2014-02-01

    Unintentional injury is the leading cause of preventable death in children in the UK, and 0-4-year-olds frequently attend emergency departments following injuries in the home. Parenting programmes designed to support parents, promote behaviour change and enhance parent-child relationships have been shown to improve health outcomes in children. It is not known whether group-based parenting programmes have the potential to prevent unintentional injuries in preschool children. A study to develop a group-based parenting programme to prevent unintentional home injuries in preschool children, and assess the feasibility of evaluation through a cluster-randomised controlled trial. The intervention, designed for parents of children who have sustained a medically attended injury, will be developed with two voluntary sector organisations. The feasibility study will assess ability to recruit parents, deliver the programme and follow-up participants. Participants will complete questionnaires at baseline, 3 months and 6 months, and report injuries in their preschool children using a tool designed and validated for this study. Qualitative methods will assess user and deliverer perceptions of the programme. This study will develop the first group-based parenting programme to prevent injuries in preschool children, and design tools for parent-reported injury outcomes. A key challenge will be to recruit parents to participate in a manner that is non-stigmatising, and does not result in feelings of guilt or belief that they are perceived to be a bad parent. The findings will be used to prepare a trial to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the intervention.

  15. Prevention of Tetanus Outbreak Following Natural Disaster in Indonesia: Lessons Learned from Previous Disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascapurnama, Dyshelly Nurkartika; Murakami, Aya; Chagan-Yasutan, Haorile; Hattori, Toshio; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Egawa, Shinichi

    2016-03-01

    In Indonesia, the Aceh earthquake and tsunami in 2004 killed 127,000 people and caused half a million injuries, while the Yogyakarta earthquake in 2006 caused 5,700 deaths and 37,000 injuries. Because disaster-affected areas are vulnerable to epidemic-prone diseases and tetanus is one such disease that is preventable, we systematically reviewed the literature related to tetanus outbreaks following previous two natural disasters in Indonesia. Based on our findings, recommendations for proper vaccination and education can be made for future countermeasures. Using specified keywords related to tetanus and disasters, relevant documents were screened from PubMed, the WHO website, and books. Reports offering limited data and those released before 2004 were excluded. In all, 16 publications were reviewed systematically. Results show that 106 cases of tetanus occurred in Aceh, with a case fatality ratio (CFR) of 18.9%; 71 cases occurred in Yogyakarta, with CFR of 36.6%. For both outbreaks, most patients had been wounded during scavenging or evacuation after the disaster occurred. Poor access to health care because of limited transportation or hospital facilities, and low vaccination coverage and lack of awareness of tetanus risk contributed to delayed treatment and case severity. Tetanus outbreaks after disasters are preventable by increasing vaccination coverage, improving wound care treatment, and establishing a regular surveillance system, in addition to good practices of disaster management and supportive care following national guidelines. Furthermore, health education for communities should be provided to raise awareness of tetanus risk reduction.

  16. Preventing alcohol misuse in young people aged 9-11 years through promoting family communication: an exploratory evaluation of the Kids, Adults Together (KAT Programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segrott Jeremy

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol misuse by young people is an important public health issue, and has led to the development of a range of prevention interventions. Evidence concerning the most effective approaches to intervention design and implementation is limited. Parental involvement in school-based interventions is important, but many programmes fail to recruit large numbers of parents. This paper reports findings from an exploratory evaluation of a new alcohol misuse prevention programme - Kids, Adults Together (KAT, which comprised a classroom component, engagement with parents through a fun evening for families with children aged 9-11 years, and a DVD. The evaluation aimed to establish the programme's theoretical basis, explore implementation processes and acceptability, and identify plausible precursors of the intended long-term outcomes. Methods Documentary analysis and interviews with key personnel examined the programme's development. Classroom preparation and KAT family events in two schools were observed. Focus groups with children, and interviews with parents who attended KAT family events were held immediately after programme delivery, and again after three months. Interviews with head teachers and with teachers who delivered the classroom preparation were conducted. Follow-up interviews with programme personnel were undertaken. Questionnaires were sent to parents of all children involved in classroom preparation. Results KAT achieved high levels of acceptability and involvement among both children and parents. Main perceived impacts of the programme were increased pro-social communication within families (including discussions about harmful parental alcohol consumption, heightened knowledge and awareness of the effects of alcohol consumption and key legal and health issues, and changes in parental drinking behaviours. Conclusions KAT demonstrated promise as a prevention intervention, primarily through its impact on knowledge and

  17. Countermarketing Alcohol and Unhealthy Food: An Effective Strategy for Preventing Noncommunicable Diseases? Lessons from Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmedo, P Christopher; Dorfman, Lori; Garza, Sarah; Murphy, Eleni; Freudenberg, Nicholas

    2017-03-20

    Countermarketing campaigns use health communications to reduce the demand for unhealthy products by exposing motives and undermining marketing practices of producers. These campaigns can contribute to the prevention of noncommunicable diseases by denormalizing the marketing of tobacco, alcohol, and unhealthy food. By portraying these activities as outside the boundaries of civilized corporate behavior, countermarketing can reduce the demand for unhealthy products and lead to changes in industry marketing practices. Countermarketing blends consumer protection, media advocacy, and health education with the demand for corporate accountability. Countermarketing campaigns have been demonstrated to be an effective component of comprehensive tobacco control. This review describes common elements of tobacco countermarketing such as describing adverse health consequences, appealing to negative emotions, highlighting industry manipulation of consumers, and engaging users in the design or implementation of campaigns. It then assesses the potential for using these elements to reduce consumption of alcohol and unhealthy foods.

  18. Needle syringe programmes and opioid substitution therapy for preventing hepatitis C transmission in people who inject drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Lucy; Minozzi, Silvia; Reed, Jennifer; Vickerman, Peter; Hagan, Holly; French, Clare; Jordan, Ashly; Degenhardt, Louisa; Hope, Vivian; Hutchinson, Sharon; Maher, Lisa; Palmateer, Norah; Taylor, Avril; Bruneau, Julie; Hickman, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Background Needle syringe programmes and opioid substitution therapy for preventing hepatitis C transmission in people who inject drugs Needle syringe programmes (NSP) and opioid substitution therapy (OST) are the primary interventions to reduce hepatitis C (HCV) transmission in people who inject drugs. There is good evidence for the effectiveness of NSP and OST in reducing injecting risk behaviour and increasing evidence for the effectiveness of OST and NSP in reducing HIV acquisition risk, but the evidence on the effectiveness of NSP and OST for preventing HCV acquisition is weak. Objectives To assess the effects of needle syringe programmes and opioid substitution therapy, alone or in combination, for preventing acquisition of HCV in people who inject drugs. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Drug and Alcohol Register, CENTRAL, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR), the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE), the Health Technology Assessment Database (HTA), the NHS Economic Evaluation Database (NHSEED), MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, Global Health, CINAHL, and the Web of Science up to 16 November 2015. We updated this search in March 2017, but we have not incorporated these results into the review yet. Where observational studies did not report any outcome measure, we asked authors to provide unpublished data. We searched publications of key international agencies and conference abstracts. We reviewed reference lists of all included articles and topic-related systematic reviews for eligible papers. Selection criteria We included prospective and retrospective cohort studies, cross-sectional surveys, case-control studies and randomised controlled trials that measured exposure to NSP and/or OST against no intervention or a reduced exposure and reported HCV incidence as an outcome in people who inject drugs. We defined interventions as current OST (within previous 6 months), lifetime use of OST and high NSP coverage (regular attendance at

  19. Assessment of topical microbicides to prevent HIV-1 transmission: concepts, testing, lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, David R; Kiser, Patrick F

    2013-09-01

    The development of topically applied products capable of preventing vaginal and rectal transmission of HIV-1 has been on-going for nearly 20 years. Despite this, only one clinical trial has demonstrated protection against sexual transmission of HIV-1 in women. This review covers the development of microbicides, also referred to as topical pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), through three stages. The first stage focused on nonspecific agents, including surfactants such as nonoxynol-9 (N-9), to prevent HIV-1 transmission. Unfortunately, N-9 enhanced susceptibility to sexual transmission of HIV-1 when evaluated for efficacy. Soon thereafter, other nonspecific agents (polyanions) were quickly moved into large efficacy trials. Due to a lack of coordination among investigators and funders, a large investment was made in a class of compounds shown ultimately to be ineffective, although poor adherence may have contributed to these findings. The second stage involved the assessment of the antiretroviral drug tenofovir, formulated as a vaginal gel, which was found to be modestly effective in a Phase IIb trial (CAPRISA-004) when dosed in a coitally-dependent manner. In another Phase IIb trial, VOICE (MTN-003), tenofovir gel was found to be ineffective when dosed once-daily in a coitally-independent manner. Based on pharmacokinetic data, it was concluded the participants were poorly adherent to this dosing regimen, leading to a lack of efficacy. Tenofovir gel is currently in a Phase III safety and efficacy trial in South Africa (FACTS-001), using the coitally-dependent dosing regimen employed in CAPRISA-004. We are now in the third stage of microbicide research. The antiretroviral drug dapivirine is currently in two Phase III safety and efficacy studies formulated as a vaginal ring. It is hoped that the once-monthly dosing regimen will lead to higher adherence than found in the VOICE study. It is now clear that product adherence could be the greatest challenge to demonstrating

  20. Patterns of disclosure and antiretroviral treatment adherence in a South African mining workplace programme and implications for HIV prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagwanjee, Anil; Govender, Kaymarlin; Akintola, Olagoke; Petersen, Inge; George, Gavin; Johnstone, Leigh; Naidoo, Kerisha

    2011-01-01

    Social and psychological barriers to the disclosure of one's seropositive HIV status to significant others and poor adherence to taking medications pose significant challenges to the scaling-up of access to antiretroviral treatment (ART) in the workplace. Such barriers are predictive of sub-optimal treatment outcomes and bedevil HIV-prevention interventions at a societal level. Against this background, this article explores the lived experiences of 19 HIV-positive male participants, between the ages of 33 and 57 years, who were enrolled in an ART programme managed at an occupational health clinic at a mining company in South Africa. The majority of these mineworkers had been aware of their HIV status for between 5 and 7 years. The study explored psychological and relational factors, as aspects of these participants lived experiences, which had a bearing on their adherence to their ART regimen and the disclosure choices that they made regarding their HIV status. In our sample, those participants who were adherent demonstrated higher levels of control and acceptance of their HIV infection and were more confident in their ability to manage their treatment, while the group who were non-adherent presented with lower levels of adherence motivation and self-efficacy, difficulties in maintaining a healthy lifestyle and significant challenges in maintaining control over their lives. While most of the men favoured disclosing their HIV status to their partners for the sake of treatment support, they were less sure about disclosing to family members and non-family members, respectively, because of their need to protect these persons and due to their fear of being stigmatised. It was evident that treatment adherence choices and behaviours were impacted by psychological and relational factors, including disclosure decisions. We conclude with a bivariate model for understanding the adherence behaviours that influenced different patterns of ART adherence among the sample, and

  1. Youth indoor tanning and skin cancer prevention: lessons from tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidenberg, Andrew B; Mahalingam-Dhingra, Aditya; Weinstock, Martin A; Sinclair, Craig; Geller, Alan C

    2015-02-01

    Youth use of ultraviolet-emitting indoor tanning beds represents a present and emerging public health crisis. Nearly 30% of white female high school students report tanning indoors, and a quarter of high school tanners have used a tanning bed more than 20 times in the past year. Despite the significant health risks of tanning beds, including potentially deadly melanoma and eye problems, limited actions have been taken in the U.S. to protect youth. Tobacco control policies and campaigns, which have sharply reduced youth smoking, may provide a useful framework to control indoor tanning among young people. This article describes several evidence-based tobacco control strategies with potential applicability to indoor tanning within the context of the U.S. Further, current tobacco control policies and current indoor tanning policies in the U.S. are compared, and recommendations on how to curtail youth indoor tanning are discussed. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Guest Commentary: Fat and other taxes, lessons for the implementation of preventive policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraher, Martin; Cowburn, Gill

    2015-08-01

    Fat, sugar or sweetened beverage taxes are part of an overall public health nutrition approach to healthy eating. They are not approaches that on their own are likely to bring about change. Policy evidence from existing food tax implementation suggest that taxes need to be paralleled by subsidies and other interventions to encourage healthy eating. Such dual methods help not only contribute to nutrition outcomes but also ensure political support for food taxes. Politicians and policy makers are suspicious of taxes, using subsidies and revenue monies from taxes to support healthy eating is more likely to encourage both political and public support. Building support for policies is never just a matter of academic evidence. Public health advocates need to show more ambition by developing skills in implementing pricing policies to support healthy eating. Key opponents to taxes are the food industry who use a range of arguments to prevent taxation being implemented. Public health advocates are weak in tackling the issues of corporate power and providing evidence to maintain policy and political support. The public health movement needs to continue to develop the political will among politicians and the public for taxes on food. A new way of looking at policy formation is required and this includes addressing the power of corporate interests and the role of professionals in shaping or combating these influences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Preventive Political Morality and the Ontology of Evil: Some Lessons from Literature and Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krešimir Petković

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article uses different discourses on evil from literature and film to probe Derek Edyvane's political theory that builds a preventive political ethics arguing for "sovereignty of evil". The discussion is limited to a specific evil – violence and violent crime – while its essential causes and consequences in nature and society, and the indicated politics to address it, are subsumed under the term ontology. The underlying idea is that Edyvane must first answer more precisely what evil is and how it works in order to make it sovereign. Avoiding the consequences of evil and building a political consensus around great evils presupposes the understanding of their causes. The method of inquiry that analyses fictional material is legitimated by Edyvane's own employing of art and literature in his study, but more importantly, by special quality and insight of classical films and novels that make them useful in the exploratory phase of research that procreates hypotheses to be tested. After different discourses are explored – ones that see nature, society, politics, or all of them, as roots of violent evil and imply different ideas for its control or eradication – and Edyvane's theory is tested against them, a tentative conclusion is reached that political liberalism is perhaps the best thing that we have to date.

  4. Depression and anxiety, an Indicated Prevention (DIP protocol in homes for the elderly: feasibility and (cost effectiveness of a stepped care programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beekman Aartjan TF

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depressive and anxiety disorders are a very common, serious and underdetected problem in homes for the elderly. Elderly persons in residential homes are at high risk for developing major depressive and anxiety disorders, and, therefore, deserve attention with regard to prevention. Methods/Design This protocol describes a randomised trial on the feasibility and (cost effectiveness of a stepped-care programme for prevention of depressive and anxiety disorders in homes for the elderly. The main outcome measure is the incidence of depressive and anxiety disorder in one year with a two years follow up. Secondary outcomes are symptoms of depression and anxiety, quality of life, direct health care costs and satisfaction with treatment. Discussion The number of studies examining the effects of preventive interventions on the incidence of mental disorders in the elderly population is very small. However, indicated prevention by means of a stepped-care programme seems to be an important option for decreasing the burden of illness for residents and their caregivers. This study contributes to the body of knowledge in this field. Positive effects may contribute to further use and development of tailored, (cost- effective and easy to use interventions in a preventive stepped-care programme. Trial Registration The Dutch Cochrane Centre, ISRCTN27540731

  5. Strategies to improve the implementation of healthy eating, physical activity and obesity prevention policies, practices or programmes within childcare services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfenden, Luke; Jones, Jannah; Williams, Christopher M; Finch, Meghan; Wyse, Rebecca J; Kingsland, Melanie; Tzelepis, Flora; Wiggers, John; Williams, Amanda J; Seward, Kirsty; Small, Tameka; Welch, Vivian; Booth, Debbie; Yoong, Sze Lin

    2016-10-04

    Despite the existence of effective interventions and best-practice guideline recommendations for childcare services to implement policies, practices and programmes to promote child healthy eating, physical activity and prevent unhealthy weight gain, many services fail to do so. The primary aim of the review was to examine the effectiveness of strategies aimed at improving the implementation of policies, practices or programmes by childcare services that promote child healthy eating, physical activity and/or obesity prevention. The secondary aims of the review were to:1. describe the impact of such strategies on childcare service staff knowledge, skills or attitudes;2. describe the cost or cost-effectiveness of such strategies;3. describe any adverse effects of such strategies on childcare services, service staff or children;4. examine the effect of such strategies on child diet, physical activity or weight status. We searched the following electronic databases on 3 August 2015: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, MEDLINE In Process, EMBASE, PsycINFO, ERIC, CINAHL and SCOPUS. We also searched reference lists of included trials, handsearched two international implementation science journals and searched the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (www.who.int/ictrp/) and ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov). We included any study (randomised or non-randomised) with a parallel control group that compared any strategy to improve the implementation of a healthy eating, physical activity or obesity prevention policy, practice or programme by staff of centre-based childcare services to no intervention, 'usual' practice or an alternative strategy. The review authors independently screened abstracts and titles, extracted trial data and assessed risk of bias in pairs; we resolved discrepancies via consensus. Heterogeneity across studies precluded pooling of data and undertaking quantitative

  6. Partners or donors: The perceived roles of Global Fund Principal Recipient NGOs in HIV prevention programmes in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana McGill

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ukraine has one of Europe's fastest growing HIV rates and in 2003–2012 was one of the largest recipients of funding from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GF. Doctoral research recently completed by the author investigates the conduct and practice of international and national nongovernmental organisations (NGOs as Principal Recipients (PRs of GF grants in Ukraine from 2003 to 2012. An ethnographic enquiry including 50 participant interviews was conducted in three oblasts in Ukraine, and in its capital, Kyiv. The paper presents some of the findings that emerged from the analysis. Discussing the PR NGOs roles and practices in delivering HIV prevention programmes funded by GF, the author argues that the anticipated benefits of NGO partnerships between PR NGOs and their Sub-Recipients (SRs have not been achieved. Rather, PRs acted as donors and ran highly discretionary policies in channelling GF funding to SRs that installed competition and vertical relations between NGO-grantors and NGO-grantees. The outcome was a servile civil society that is dependent on external funding and is unable to genuinely represent their communities. With an anticipated GF phasing out from Ukraine, there is a critical lack of advocacy potential of the civil society to articulate and defend the needs of PLHIV when transferring HIV services into state funding.

  7. Implementation of the Preventive Radiation Protection Act; here: Regulation governing ambient radioactivity monitoring subject to the Preventive Radiation Protection Act. Pt. 1. Measuring programme for specified normal operation monitoring (routine measuring programme). BMU circular letter dated 28.07.94 -RS II 6 - 15 603/3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The regulation addresses the competent Federal and Land authorities responsible for implementation of the Preventive Radiation Protection Act, and the competent highest Land authorities. The regulation defines the scope of obligatory measurement of ambient radioactivity during normal operation of installations and determines the measuring techniques to be applied for this purpose. The programme determines compulsory instructions to be observed in the performance of the routine measuring programme by the competent Federal and Land authorities and thus ensures nationwide application of standard procedures

  8. Vasectomy as a proxy: extrapolating health system lessons to male circumcision as an HIV prevention strategy in Papua New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tynan Anna

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Male circumcision (MC has been shown to reduce the risk of HIV acquisition among heterosexual men, with WHO recommending MC as an essential component of comprehensive HIV prevention programs in high prevalence settings since 2007. While Papua New Guinea (PNG has a current prevalence of only 1%, the high rates of sexually transmissible diseases and the extensive, but unregulated, practice of penile cutting in PNG have led the National Department of Health (NDoH to consider introducing a MC program. Given public interest in circumcision even without active promotion by the NDoH, examining the potential health systems implications for MC without raising unrealistic expectations presents a number of methodological issues. In this study we examined health systems lessons learned from a national no-scalpel vasectomy (NSV program, and their implications for a future MC program in PNG. Methods Fourteen in-depth interviews were conducted with frontline health workers and key government officials involved in NSV programs in PNG over a 3-week period in February and March 2011. Documentary, organizational and policy analysis of HIV and vasectomy services was conducted and triangulated with the interviews. All interviews were digitally recorded and later transcribed. Application of the WHO six building blocks of a health system was applied and further thematic analysis was conducted on the data with assistance from the analysis software MAXQDA. Results Obstacles in funding pathways, inconsistent support by government departments, difficulties with staff retention and erratic delivery of training programs have resulted in mixed success of the national NSV program. Conclusions In an already vulnerable health system significant investment in training, resources and negotiation of clinical space will be required for an effective MC program. Focused leadership and open communication between provincial and national government, NGOs and

  9. Recruiting South Asians to a lifestyle intervention trial: experiences and lessons from PODOSA (Prevention of Diabetes & Obesity in South Asians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuomilehto Jaakko

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the growing emphasis on the inclusion of ethnic minority patients in research, there is little published on the recruitment of these populations especially to randomised, community based, lifestyle intervention trials in the UK. Methods We share our experience of recruitment to screening in the PODOSA (Prevention of Diabetes and Obesity in South Asians trial, which screened 1319 recruits (target 1800 for trial eligibility. A multi-pronged recruitment approach was used. Enrolment via the National Health Service included direct referrals from health care professionals and written invitations via general practices. Recruitment within the community was carried out by both the research team and through our partnerships with local South Asian groups and organisations. Participants were encouraged to refer friends and family throughout the recruitment period. Results Health care professionals referred only 55 potential participants. The response to written invitations via general practitioners was 5.2%, lower than reported in other general populations. Community orientated, personal approaches for recruitment were comparatively effective yielding 1728 referrals (82% to the screening stage. Conclusions The PODOSA experience shows that a community orientated, personal approach for recruiting South Asian ethnic minority populations can be successful in a trial setting. We recommend that consideration is given to cover recruitment costs associated with community engagement and other personalised approaches. Researchers should consider prioritising approaches that minimise interference with professionals' work and, particularly in the current economic climate, keep costs to a minimum. The lessons learned in PODOSA should contribute to future community based trials in South Asians. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN25729565

  10. Development of a training programme for home health care workers to promote preventive activities focused on a healthy lifestyle: an intervention mapping approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Maaike E; Dijkstra, Arie; de Winter, Andrea F; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2015-07-09

    Lifestyle is an important aspect in maintaining good health in older adults, and home health care (HHC) workers can play an important role in promoting a healthy lifestyle. However, there is limited evidence in the literature regarding how to develop an effective training programme to improve the physical activity level and fruit and vegetable consumption of older adults within a HHC setting. The aim of this paper is to describe how Intervention Mapping (IM) was used to develop a training programme to promote preventive activities of HHC workers relating to the physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake of older adults living at home. IM, a systematic theory and evidence-based approach was used to develop, implement and evaluate the training programme. This entailed a literature search, a survey, semi-structured interviews and consultation with HHC workers and various field experts, and a pilot training session. The determinants associated with the provision of preventive activities were identified, and an overview was created of those objectives, matching methods and practical applications that could influence these determinants. The performance objectives for the HHC workers were early detection and monitoring, promoting a healthy lifestyle, informing colleagues, continuing allocated preventive activities and referring to other experts and facilities. Findings were translated into a comprehensive training programme for HHC workers focused on motivating older adults to adopt and maintain a healthier lifestyle. IM was a useful tool in the development of a theory-based training programme to promote preventive activities by HHC workers relating to fruit and vegetable intake and physical activity of older adults.

  11. Steps Towards Alcohol Misuse Prevention Programme (STAMPP): a school-based and community-based cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Michael; Agus, Ashley; Cole, Jonathan; Doherty, Paul; Foxcroft, David; Harvey, Séamus; Murphy, Lynn; Percy, Andrew; Sumnall, Harry

    2018-03-09

    To assess the effectiveness of a combined classroom curriculum and parental intervention (the Steps Towards Alcohol Misuse Prevention Programme (STAMPP)), compared with alcohol education as normal (EAN), in reducing self-reported heavy episodic drinking (HED) and alcohol-related harms (ARHs) in adolescents. 105 high schools in Northern Ireland (NI) and in Scotland. Schools were stratified by free school meal provision. Schools in NI were also stratified by school type (male/female/coeducational). Eligible students were in school year 8/S1 (aged 11-12 years) at baseline (June 2012). A classroom-based alcohol education intervention, coupled with a brief alcohol intervention for parents/carers. PRIMARY OUTCOMES: (1) The prevalence of self-reported HED in the previous 30 days and (2) the number of self-reported ARHs in the previous 6 months. Outcomes were assessed using two-level random intercepts models (logistic regression for HED and negative binomial for number of ARHs). At 33 months, data were available for 5160 intervention and 5073 control students (HED outcome), and 5234 and 5146 students (ARH outcome), respectively. Of those who completed a questionnaire at either baseline or 12 months (n=12 738), 10 405 also completed the questionnaire at 33 months (81.7%). Fewer students in the intervention group reported HED compared with EAN (17%vs26%; OR=0.60, 95% CI 0.49 to 0.73), with no significant difference in the number of self-reported ARHs (incident rate ratio=0.92, 95% CI 0.78 to 1.05). Although the classroom component was largely delivered as intended, there was low uptake of the parental component. There were no reported adverse effects. Results suggest that STAMPP could be an effective programme to reduce HED prevalence. While there was no significant reduction in ARH, it is plausible that effects on harms would manifest later. ISRCTN47028486; Post-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article

  12. Study protocol of a cluster randomized controlled trial evaluating the efficacy of a comprehensive pressure ulcer prevention programme for private for-profit nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Enid Wai-yung; Lee, Paul Hong; Yeung, Kwan-mo

    2016-01-18

    Because the demand for government-subsidized nursing homes in Hong Kong outstrips the supply, the number of for-profit private nursing homes has been increasing rapidly. However, the standard of care in such homes is always criticized. Pressure ulcers are a major long-term care issue that is closely associated with the quality of care delivered in nursing home settings. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a pressure ulcer prevention programme for residents in private for-profit nursing homes. This is a two-arm cluster randomized controlled trial with an estimated sample size of 1088 residents and 74 care staff from eight for-profit private nursing homes. Eligible nursing homes will be those classified as category A2 homes in the Enhanced Bought Place Scheme (EBPS), having a capacity of around 130-150 beds, and no structured PU prevention protocol and/or programmes in place. Care staff will be health workers, personal care workers, and nurses who are front-line staff providing direct care to residents. Eight nursing homes will be randomly assigned to either an experimental or control group. The experimental group will be provided with an intensive training programme and will be involved in the implementation of a 16-week pressure ulcer prevention protocol, while the control group will deliver the usual pressure ulcer prevention care. The study outcomes are the pressure ulcer prevention knowledge and skills of the care staff and the prevalence and incidence of pressure ulcers. Data on the knowledge and skills of care staff, and prevalence of pressure ulcer will be collected at the base line, and then at the 8(th) week and at completion of the implementation of the protocol. The assessment of the incidence of pressures will start from before the commencement of the intensive training course to the end of the implementation of the protocol. In view of the negative impact of pressure ulcers, it is important to have an effective and evidence

  13. Secondary prevention lifestyle interventions initiated within 90 days after TIA or 'minor' stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis of rehabilitation programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, Neil; Kee, Frank; Cardwell, Christopher; Tully, Mark A; Donnelly, Michael; Cupples, Margaret E

    2017-01-01

    Strokes are often preceded by a transient ischaemic attack (TIA) or 'minor' stroke. The immediate period after a TIA/minor stroke is a crucial time to initiate secondary prevention. However, the optimal approach to prevention, including non-pharmacological measures, after TIA is not clear. To systematically review evidence about the effectiveness of delivering secondary prevention, with lifestyle interventions, in comprehensive rehabilitation programmes, initiated within 90 days of a TIA/minor stroke. Also, to categorise the specific behaviour change techniques used. The review identified randomised controlled trials by searching the Cochrane Library, Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, Web of Science, EBSCO CINAHL and Ovid PsycINFO. Two review authors independently screened titles and abstracts for eligibility (programmes initiated within 90 days of event; outcomes reported for TIA/minor stroke) and extracted relevant data from appraised studies; a meta-analysis was used to synthesise the results. A total of 31 potentially eligible papers were identified and four studies, comprising 774 patients post-TIA or minor stroke, met the inclusion criteria; two had poor methodological quality. Individual studies reported increased aerobic capacity but meta-analysis found no significant change in resting and peak systolic blood pressure, resting heart rate, aerobic capacity, falls, or mortality. The main behaviour change techniques were goal setting and instructions about how to perform given behaviours. There is limited evidence of the effectiveness of early post-TIA rehabilitation programmes with preventive lifestyle interventions. Further robust randomised controlled trials of comprehensive rehabilitation programmes that promote secondary prevention and lifestyle modification immediately after a TIA are needed. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.

  14. The Effectiveness and Sustainability of a Universal School-Based Programme for Preventing Depression in Chinese Adolescents: A Follow-Up Study Using Quasi-Experimental Design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza S Y Lai

    Full Text Available A pilot study about the effectiveness of a universal school-based programme, "The Little Prince is Depressed", for preventing depression in Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong was conducted and reported previously. This study used a larger sample to examine the effectiveness and sustainability of the programme.This study used quasi-experimental design. Twelve schools enrolled in "The Little Prince is Depressed" programme either as an intervention or a control condition. The intervention schools carried out the 12-session programme in two phases: the professional-led first phase and the teacher-led second phase. All participants were required to complete a questionnaire at three time points measuring their (1 depressive, anxiety, and stress levels; (2 knowledge of mental health; (3 attitudes towards mental illness; (4 perceived social support; and (5 help-seeking behaviours.A total of 3,391 students participated in the study. The level of depressive symptoms did not reduce significantly at post-intervention; however, a delayed effect was observed at follow-up assessment for the participants of the teacher-led group in reducing anxiety and stress levels. Also, the knowledge of mental health and attitudes towards mental illness of the intervention-group participants significantly improved at post-test, and the outcomes were maintained at 4 to 5 months after the intervention in both the professional-led and the teacher-led conditions (p<.05. A preference among schoolchildren for whom to seek help from was identified.The universal depression prevention programme was effective in enhancing knowledge of mental health and promoting a more positive attitude towards mental illness among adolescents in Hong Kong. In particular, the teacher-led group showed better outcomes than the professional-led group in reducing students' anxiety and stress at follow-up period. The programme can achieve sustainability in schools if teachers are provided with adequate

  15. The effectiveness of suicide prevention programmes: urban and gender disparity in age-specific suicide rates in a Taiwanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung, F-W; Liao, S-C; Wu, C-Y; Lee, M-B

    2017-06-01

    The effectiveness of suicide prevention programmes is an important issue worldwide today. The impact of urbanization and gender is controversial in suicide rates. Hence, this study adjusted on potential risk factors and secular changes for suicide rates in gender and rural/urban areas. Observational study. A Suicide Prevention Center was established by the Executive Yuan in Taiwan in 2005 and tried to carry out suicidal intervention in the community in every city and town. There were two phases, including the first phase of the programme from 2005 to 2008, and the second phase of the programme from 2009 to 2013. The crude suicide rates data from the period of 1991-2013, which recruited nine urban and 14 rural areas in Taiwan, were extracted from the Taiwanese national mortality data file. The suicide rates in two areas of Taiwan (Taipei city and Yilan County) were further used to compare the differences between urban and rural areas. The results show that unemployment increased the suicide rate in men aged 45-64 years and in women older than 65 years of age in Taiwan. High divorce and unemployment rates resulted in increased suicide rates in men in the city, whereas emotional distress was the main cause of suicides in men in rural areas. The main method of suicide was jumping from a high building for both sexes in the city, whereas drowning was the most common method of suicide for men in rural areas. Following the intervention programme, suicide behaviour began to decrease in all urban and rural areas of Taiwan. This study showed the cumulative effect of the intervention programme in decreasing the suicide rate in Taiwan. Moreover, the gender-specific suicidal rate and disparity in suicidal methods in urban and rural areas should be considered in further preventive strategies in Taiwan. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Two cross-sectional studies in south India assessing the effect of an HIV prevention programme for female sex workers on reducing syphilis among their clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaram, Subramanian Potty; Banandur, Pradeep; Thammattoor, Usha K; Thomas, Tinku; Mainkar, Mandar K; Paranjape, Ramesh; Adhikary, Rajatashurva; Duchesne, Thierry; Ramesh, Banadakoppa M; Isac, Shajy; Moses, Stephen; Alary, Michel

    2014-11-01

    To assess the impact of the Avahan HIV prevention programme for female sex workers (FSWs) in south India on reducing syphilis prevalence among their clients, by comparing rates of syphilis over time as reported in two large-scale surveys of FSWs' clients. A random-effect multilevel logistic regression analysis was performed using syphilis as the dependent variable, with individual independent variables (from the two survey rounds) at level 1 and the district-level programme (from the Avahan computerised monitoring and information system) and contextual variables (from Indian government datasets) at level 2. Programme variables included their 2006 value and their difference in value between 2008 and 2006, as well as the interaction between the latter and the study round. The analysis also controlled for baseline syphilis prevalence and its interaction with the study round. Syphilis decreased significantly among FSWs' clients, from 4.8% (round 1) to 2.6% (round 2), p<0.001. The OR of the interaction term between the difference in programme coverage of FSWs and the round was 0.98 (p=0.023), suggesting that increased coverage was associated with a reduced incidence of syphilis. This study suggests that the Avahan intervention programme among FSWs reduced syphilis rates among their clients. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. A systematic review of the effectiveness of school-based obesity prevention programmes for First Nations, Inuit and Métis youth in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, K; Leatherdale, S T; Elton-Marshall, T

    2015-06-01

    First Nations, Inuit and Métis (FNIM) youth are disproportionately affected by obesity and represent known a high-risk group in Canada. School-based prevention programmes may have the potential to effectively influence obesity-related health behaviours (i.e. healthy eating and physical activity) among this population. We conducted a systematic review of nine electronic databases (2003-2014) to identify studies that describe school-based programmes that have been developed to improve obesity-related health behaviours and outcomes among FNIM youth in Canada. The objectives of this review were to identify and evaluate the effectiveness of these programmes and assess the strength of the methodologies used to evaluate them. Fifteen studies, representing seven distinct interventions, met our inclusion criteria. The majority of these programmes did not result in significant improvements in outcomes related to obesity, healthy eating, or physical activity among FNIM youth. The studies varied in design rigour and use of evaluation activities. The lack of literature on effective school-based programmes for FNIM youth in Canada that target obesity-related outcomes highlights a priority area for future intervention development, evaluation and dissemination within the peer-reviewed literature. Further research is needed on interventions involving Métis and Inuit youth, secondary school-aged FNIM youth and FNIM youth living in urban settings. © 2015 World Obesity.

  18. Nature Study, Aborigines and the Australian Kindergarten: Lessons from Martha Simpson's "Australian Programme Based on the Life and Customs of the Australian Black"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This article examines an experimental kindergarten programme "Work in the Kindergarten: An Australian Programme based on the Life and Customs of the Australian Black" developed by Martha Simpson in early twentieth-century Australia. Here Simpson adapted international Revisionist Froebelian approaches to cultural epoch theory and nature…

  19. A multicentre randomised controlled trial of day hospital-based falls prevention programme for a screened population of community-dwelling older people at high risk of falls

    OpenAIRE

    Conroy, Simon; Kendrick, Denise; Harwood, Rowan; Gladman, John; Coupland, Carol; Sach, Tracey; Drummond, Avril; Youde, Jane; Edmans, Judi; Masud, Tahir

    2010-01-01

    Objective: to determine the clinical effectiveness of a day hospital-delivered multifactorial falls prevention programme, for community-dwelling older people at high risk of future falls identified through a screening process. Design: multicentre randomised controlled trial. Setting: eight general practices and three day hospitals based in the East Midlands, UK. Participants: three hundred and sixty-four participants, mean age 79 years, with a median of three falls risk factors per person at ...

  20. Influence of a preschool preventive dental programme on caries prevalence, oral care and secretory immunity to Streptococcus mutans in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aida, K L; de Paula Ramos, S; Seixas, G F; Bozza, A; Couto de Almeida, R S; Dezan Garbelini, C C

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate oral hygiene habits, decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) and surfaces (DMFS), dental care, dietetic habits and anti-Streptococcus mutans salivary secretory Immunoglobulin A (SIgA) in young adults who attended a preventive programme during preschool age. The study group (Baby Clinic) comprised 72 patients, aged 18-25 years, who had participated in the Baby Clinic preventive programme. The control group was age- and gender-matched. The patients were examined and unstimulated whole saliva was sampled for detection of anti-S. mutansSIgA antibodies. Control patients presented increased DMFS scores (P  .05). Baby Clinic patients presented better periodontal status (P < .005), less calculus (P < .005) and bleeding on probing (P < .005), and reported visiting dental services more regularly (P < .05). Adjusted multivariate linear regression analysis demonstrated that DMFT was associated with study group (P < .05), gender (P < .05), parents' education (P < .05), carbohydrate intake (P < .001) and levels of anti-S. mutansSIgA (P < .007). DMFS was associated with time elapsed since the last visit to the dentist (P < .005) and weekly carbohydrate intake (P < .005). Preventive programmes for preschool children positively impact on DMFS and periodontal status in young adults, but have no long-term effects on dietary or hygiene habits. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Adult Literacy: Policies, Programs and Practices. Lessons Learned. Final Report = Alphabetisation des adultes: politiques, programmes et pratiques. Etude bilan. Rapport final.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001

    Studies and reports examining the problems associated with adult literacy and efforts to address those problems were reviewed to identify lessons for adult literacy programs in Canada and elsewhere. Low literacy levels were linked to above-average rates of personal and/or learning difficulties, low self-esteem, associated social problems, and…

  2. Effect of an allergy prevention programme on incidence of atopic symptoms in infancy. A prospective study of 159 "high-risk" infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A; Hansen, L G

    1992-01-01

    unrestricted diet. Avoidance of daily exposure to tobacco smoke, furred pets and dust-collecting materials in the bedroom were advised. This prevention group was compared with a control group consisting of 54 identically defined "high-risk" infants born in 1985 in the same area. All infants had either severe...... comparable. The parents were highly motivated and compliance was good. The rate of participation was 97%, and 85% followed the dietary measures strictly. The cumulative prevalence of atopic symptoms was significantly lower at 18 months in the prevention group (32%), as compared with the control group (74...... single atopic predisposition combined with cord blood IgE > or = 0.5 KU/l or biparental atopic predisposition. The control group had unrestricted diet and was not advised about environmental factors. Apart from the prevention programme and year of birth the prevention group and the control group were...

  3. Randomised controlled trial of a general practice programme of home based exercise to prevent falls in elderly women.

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, A. J.; Robertson, M. C.; Gardner, M. M.; Norton, R. N.; Tilyard, M. W.; Buchner, D. M.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of a home exercise programme of strength and balance retraining exercises in reducing falls and injuries in elderly women. DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial of an individually tailored programme of physical therapy in the home (exercise group, n = 116) compared with the usual care and an equal number of social visits (control group, n = 117). SETTING: 17 general practices in Dunedin, New Zealand. SUBJECTS: Women aged 80 years and older living in the co...

  4. Efficacy of a movement control injury prevention programme in adult men’s community rugby union: a cluster randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attwood, Matthew J; Roberts, Simon P; Trewartha, Grant; England, Mike E; Stokes, Keith A

    2018-01-01

    Background Exercise programmes aimed at reducing injury have been shown to be efficacious for some non-collision sports, but evidence in adult men’s collision sports such as rugby union is lacking. Objective To evaluate the efficacy of a movement control injury prevention exercise programme for reducing match injuries in adult men’s community rugby union players. Methods 856 clubs were invited to participate in this prospective cluster randomised (single-blind) controlled trial where clubs were the unit of randomisation. 81 volunteered and were randomly assigned (intervention/control). A 42-week exercise programme was followed throughout the season. The control programme reflected ‘normal practice’ exercises, whereas the intervention focused on proprioception, balance, cutting, landing and resistance exercises. Outcome measures were match injury incidence and burden for: (1) all ≥8 days time-loss injuries and (2) targeted (lower limb, shoulder, head and neck, excluding fractures and lacerations) ≥8 days time-loss injuries. Results Poisson regression identified no clear effects on overall injury outcomes. A likely beneficial difference in targeted injury incidence (rate ratio (RR), 90% CI=0.6, 0.4 to 1.0) was identified, with a 40% reduction in lower-limb incidence (RR, 90% CI=0.6, 0.4 to 1.0) and a 60% reduction in concussion incidence (RR, 90% CI=0.4, 0.2 to 0.7) in the intervention group. Comparison between arms for clubs with highest compliance (≥median compliance) demonstrated very likely beneficial 60% reductions in targeted injury incidence (RR, 90% CI=0.4, 0.2 to 0.8) and targeted injury burden (RR, 90% CI=0.4, 0.2 to 0.7). Conclusions The movement control injury prevention programme resulted in likely beneficial reductions in lower-limb injuries and concussion. Higher intervention compliance was associated with reduced targeted injury incidence and burden. PMID:29055883

  5. A falls prevention programme to improve quality of life, physical function and falls efficacy in older people receiving home help services: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerk, Maria; Brovold, Therese; Skelton, Dawn A; Bergland, Astrid

    2017-08-14

    Falls and fall-related injuries in older adults are associated with great burdens, both for the individuals, the health care system and the society. Previous research has shown evidence for the efficiency of exercise as falls prevention. An understudied group are older adults receiving home help services, and the effect of a falls prevention programme on health-related quality of life is unclear. The primary aim of this randomised controlled trial is to examine the effect of a falls prevention programme on quality of life, physical function and falls efficacy in older adults receiving home help services. A secondary aim is to explore the mediating factors between falls prevention and health-related quality of life. The study is a single-blinded randomised controlled trial. Participants are older adults, aged 67 or older, receiving home help services, who are able to walk with or without walking aids, who have experienced at least one fall during the last 12 months and who have a Mini Mental State Examination of 23 or above. The intervention group receives a programme, based on the Otago Exercise Programme, lasting 12 weeks including home visits and motivational telephone calls. The control group receives usual care. The primary outcome is health-related quality of life (SF-36). Secondary outcomes are leg strength, balance, walking speed, walking habits, activities of daily living, nutritional status and falls efficacy. All measurements are performed at baseline, following intervention at 3 months and at 6 months' follow-up. Sample size, based on the primary outcome, is set to 150 participants randomised into the two arms, including an estimated 15-20% drop out. Participants are recruited from six municipalities in Norway. This trial will generate new knowledge on the effects of an exercise falls prevention programme among older fallers receiving home help services. This knowledge will be useful for clinicians, for health managers in the primary health care service

  6. Analysis of emergency response after the Chernobyl accident in Belarus: observed and prevented medical consequences, lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buglova, E.; Kenigsberg, J.

    1997-01-01

    Belarus is one of the most contaminated Republic due to the Chernobyl accident. 23% of the entire area of Belarus was contaminated with radionuclides. To protect the population after the accident different types of protective actions were performed during all phases, based on various temporary dose limits. An analysis of conducted protective actions and lessons obtained during the emergency response is briefly presented

  7. Integrating national community-based health worker programmes into health systems: a systematic review identifying lessons learned from low-and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulu, Joseph Mumba; Kinsman, John; Michelo, Charles; Hurtig, Anna-Karin

    2014-09-22

    Despite the development of national community-based health worker (CBHW) programmes in several low- and middle-income countries, their integration into health systems has not been optimal. Studies have been conducted to investigate the factors influencing the integration processes, but systematic reviews to provide a more comprehensive understanding are lacking. We conducted a systematic review of published research to understand factors that may influence the integration of national CBHW programmes into health systems in low- and middle-income countries. To be included in the study, CBHW programmes should have been developed by the government and have standardised training, supervision and incentive structures. A conceptual framework on the integration of health innovations into health systems guided the review. We identified 3410 records, of which 36 were finally selected, and on which an analysis was conducted concerning the themes and pathways associated with different factors that may influence the integration process. Four programmes from Brazil, Ethiopia, India and Pakistan met the inclusion criteria. Different aspects of each of these programmes were integrated in different ways into their respective health systems. Factors that facilitated the integration process included the magnitude of countries' human resources for health problems and the associated discourses about how to address these problems; the perceived relative advantage of national CBHWs with regard to delivering health services over training and retaining highly skilled health workers; and the participation of some politicians and community members in programme processes, with the result that they viewed the programmes as legitimate, credible and relevant. Finally, integration of programmes within the existing health systems enhanced programme compatibility with the health systems' governance, financing and training functions. Factors that inhibited the integration process included a rapid

  8. Feasibility and effectiveness of the implementation of a primary prevention programme for type 2 diabetes in routine primary care practice: a phase IV cluster randomised clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchez Alvaro

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study is to perform an independent evaluation of the feasibility and effectiveness of an educational programme for the primary prevention of type 2 diabetes (DM2 in high risk populations in primary care settings, implanted within the Basque Health Service - Osakidetza. Methods/design This is a prospective phase IV cluster clinical trial conducted under routine conditions in 14 primary health care centres of Osakidetza, randomly assigned to an intervention or control group. We will recruit a total sample of 1089 individuals, aged between 45 and 70 years old, without diabetes but at high risk of developing the condition (Finnish Diabetes Risk Score, FINDRISC ≥ 14 and follow them up for 2 years. Primary health care nursing teams of the intervention centres will implement DE-PLAN, a structured educational intervention program focused on changing healthy lifestyles (diet and physical activity; while the patients in the control centres will receive the usual care for the prevention and treatment of DM2 currently provided in Osakidetza. The effectiveness attributable to the programme will be assessed by comparing the changes observed in patients exposed to the intervention and those in the control group, with respect to the risk of developing DM2 and lifestyle habits. In terms of feasibility, we will assess indicators of population coverage and programme implementation. Discussion The aim of this study is to provide the scientific basis for disseminate the programme to the remaining primary health centres in Osakidetza, as a novel way of addressing prevention of DM2. The study design will enable us to gather information on the effectiveness of the intervention as well as the feasibility of implementing it in routine practice. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01365013

  9. Enhancing the effectiveness of HIV/AIDS prevention programs targeted to unique population groups in Thailand: lessons learned from applying concepts of diffusion of innovation and social marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svenkerud, P J; Singhal, A

    1998-01-01

    Diffusion of innovations theory and social marketing theory have been criticized for their limited applicability in influencing unique population groups (e.g., female commercial sex workers (CSWs) working in low-class brothels). This study investigated the applicability of these two theoretical frameworks in outreach efforts directed to unique populations at high risk for HIV/AIDS in Bangkok, Thailand. Further, this study examined Thai cultural characteristics that influence communication about HIV/AIDS prevention. The results suggest that certain concepts and strategies drawn from the two frameworks were used more or less by effective outreach programs, providing several policy-relevant lessons. Cultural constraints, such as the lack of visibility of the disease and traditional sexual practices, influenced communication about HIV/AIDS prevention.

  10. The Effectiveness and Sustainability of a Universal School-Based Programme for Preventing Depression in Chinese Adolescents: A Follow-Up Study Using Quasi-Experimental Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Eliza S Y; Kwok, Chi-Leung; Wong, Paul W C; Fu, King-Wa; Law, Yik-Wa; Yip, Paul S F

    2016-01-01

    A pilot study about the effectiveness of a universal school-based programme, "The Little Prince is Depressed", for preventing depression in Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong was conducted and reported previously. This study used a larger sample to examine the effectiveness and sustainability of the programme. This study used quasi-experimental design. Twelve schools enrolled in "The Little Prince is Depressed" programme either as an intervention or a control condition. The intervention schools carried out the 12-session programme in two phases: the professional-led first phase and the teacher-led second phase. All participants were required to complete a questionnaire at three time points measuring their (1) depressive, anxiety, and stress levels; (2) knowledge of mental health; (3) attitudes towards mental illness; (4) perceived social support; and (5) help-seeking behaviours. A total of 3,391 students participated in the study. The level of depressive symptoms did not reduce significantly at post-intervention; however, a delayed effect was observed at follow-up assessment for the participants of the teacher-led group in reducing anxiety and stress levels. Also, the knowledge of mental health and attitudes towards mental illness of the intervention-group participants significantly improved at post-test, and the outcomes were maintained at 4 to 5 months after the intervention in both the professional-led and the teacher-led conditions (psustainability in schools if teachers are provided with adequate support.

  11. Preliminary evaluation of the impact of a Web-based HIV testing programme in Abruzzo Region on the prevention of late HIV presentation and associated mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polilli, Ennio; Sozio, Federica; Di Stefano, Paola; Clerico, Luigi; Di Iorio, Giancarlo; Parruti, Giustino

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to analyze the efficacy of a Web-based testing programme in terms of the prevention of late HIV presentation. The clinical characteristics of patients diagnosed with HIV via the Web-based testing programme were compared to those of patients diagnosed in parallel via standard diagnostic care procedures. This study included the clinical and demographic data of newly diagnosed HIV patients enrolled at the study clinic between February 2014 and June 2017. These patients were diagnosed either via standard diagnostic procedures or as a result of the Web-based testing programme. Eighty-eight new cases of HIV were consecutively enrolled; their mean age was 39.1±13.0 years. Fifty-nine patients (67%) were diagnosed through standard diagnostic procedures and 29 (33%) patients came from the Web-based testing programme. Late presentation (62% vs. 34%, p=0.01) and AIDS-defining conditions at presentation (13 vs. 1, p=0.02) were significantly more frequent in the standard care group than in the Web-based group; four of 13 patients with AIDS diagnosed under standard diagnostic procedures died, versus none in the Web-based testing group (pWeb-based recruitment for voluntary and free HIV testing helped to diagnose patients with less advanced HIV disease and no risk of death, from all at-risk groups, in comparison with standard care testing. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. The current and potential health benefits of the National Health Service Health Check cardiovascular disease prevention programme in England: A microsimulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mytton, Oliver T; Jackson, Christopher; Steinacher, Arno; Goodman, Anna; Langenberg, Claudia; Griffin, Simon; Wareham, Nick; Woodcock, James

    2018-03-01

    The National Health Service (NHS) Health Check programme was introduced in 2009 in England to systematically assess all adults in midlife for cardiovascular disease risk factors. However, its current benefit and impact on health inequalities are unknown. It is also unclear whether feasible changes in how it is delivered could result in increased benefits. It is one of the first such programmes in the world. We sought to estimate the health benefits and effect on inequalities of the current NHS Health Check programme and the impact of making feasible changes to its implementation. We developed a microsimulation model to estimate the health benefits (incident ischaemic heart disease, stroke, dementia, and lung cancer) of the NHS Health Check programme in England. We simulated a population of adults in England aged 40-45 years and followed until age 100 years, using data from the Health Survey of England (2009-2012) and the English Longitudinal Study of Aging (1998-2012), to simulate changes in risk factors for simulated individuals over time. We used recent programme data to describe uptake of NHS Health Checks and of 4 associated interventions (statin medication, antihypertensive medication, smoking cessation, and weight management). Estimates of treatment efficacy and adherence were based on trial data. We estimated the benefits of the current NHS Health Check programme compared to a healthcare system without systematic health checks. This counterfactual scenario models the detection and treatment of risk factors that occur within 'routine' primary care. We also explored the impact of making feasible changes to implementation of the programme concerning eligibility, uptake of NHS Health Checks, and uptake of treatments offered through the programme. We estimate that the NHS Health Check programme prevents 390 (95% credible interval 290 to 500) premature deaths before 80 years of age and results in an additional 1,370 (95% credible interval 1,100 to 1,690) people

  13. Comparing HIV prevalence estimates from prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission programme and the antenatal HIV surveillance in Addis Ababa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirkuzie Alemnesh H

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the absence of reliable data, antenatal HIV surveillance has been used to monitor the HIV epidemic since the late 1980s. Currently, routine data from Prevention of Mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT programmes are increasingly available. Evaluating whether the PMTCT programme reports provide comparable HIV prevalence estimates with the antenatal surveillance reports is important. In this study, we compared HIV prevalence estimates from routine PMTCT programme and antenatal surveillance in Addis Ababa with the aim to come up with evidence based recommendation. Methods Summary data were collected from PMTCT programmes and antenatal surveillance reports within the catchment of Addis Ababa. The PMTCT programme data were obtained from routine monthly reports from 2004 to 2009 and from published antenatal HIV surveillance reports from 2003 to 2009. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Results In Addis Ababa, PMTCT sites had increased from six in 2004 to 54 in 2009. The site expansion was accompanied by an increased number of women testing. There were marked increases in the rate of HIV testing following the introduction of routine opt-out HIV testing approach. Paralleling these increases, the HIV prevalence showed a steady decline from 10.0% in 2004 to 4.5% in 2009. There were five antenatal surveillance sites from 2003 to 2007 in Addis Ababa and they increased to seven by 2009. Four rounds of surveillance data from five sites showed a declining trend in HIV prevalence over the years. The overall antenatal surveillance data also showed that the HIV prevalence among antenatal attendees had declined from 12.4% in 2003 to 5.5% in 2009. The HIV prevalence estimates from PMTCT programme were 6.2% and 4.5% and from antenatal surveillance 6.1 and 5.5% in 2008 and 2009 respectively. Conclusions There were consistent HIV prevalence estimates from PMTCT programme and from antenatal surveillance reports. Both data sources

  14. Favourable outcomes of a preventive screening and counselling programme for older people in underprivileged areas in the Netherlands: The PRIMUS project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.J. Annemarie van Dijk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An aging population is associated with an increased prevalence of diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and depression. Important aspects of programmes targeted at older people are: to reach those at risk, effective screening, optimising advice, and referral to local interventions. We examined the effect of a preventive health consultation (PRIMUS, a multi-behavioural screening programme for persons aged 55–74 years in primary care. In a multi-centre randomised controlled trial, the effects of participating in the PRIMUS intervention were compared to a comparison group receiving personalised summaries and advice by postal mail, both preceded by a health risk assessment via a questionnaire. The intervention consisted of a baseline health risk assessment, followed by a preventive health consultation (after 4 weeks, and a follow-up visit (2 weeks later in the primary care centre. A newly developed web-based computer-tailored programme supported the nurse practitioner during the consultation. Main outcomes measures were awareness of, and compliance with referral advice for changing unhealthy lifestyles. The PRIMUS preventive health consultation was successful in older people at risk for cardio metabolic diseases compared to the comparison group (compliance: RR 1.43; 95% CI 1.12–1.79; p < 0.05. The intervention was less successful in older people at risk for mental health problems. This preventive health consultation for older people resulted in positive changes in unhealthy behaviours by optimising reach, raising awareness, motivating and assisting individuals to change, and referring to local interventions.

  15. A rabies lesson improves rabies knowledge amongst primary school children in Zomba, Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdon Bailey, Jordana L; Gamble, Luke; Gibson, Andrew D; Bronsvoort, Barend M deC; Handel, Ian G; Mellanby, Richard J; Mazeri, Stella

    2018-03-01

    Rabies is an important neglected disease, which kills around 59,000 people a year. Over a third of these deaths are in children less than 15 years of age. Almost all human rabies deaths in Africa and Asia are due to bites from infected dogs. Despite the high efficacy of current rabies vaccines, awareness about rabies preventive healthcare is often low in endemic areas. It is therefore common for educational initiatives to be conducted in conjunction with other rabies control activities such as mass dog vaccination, however there are few examples where the efficacy of education activities has been assessed. Here, primary school children in Zomba, Malawi, were given a lesson on rabies biology and preventive healthcare. Subsequently, a mass dog vaccination programme was delivered in the same region. Knowledge and attitudes towards rabies were assessed by a questionnaire before the lesson, immediately after the lesson and 9 weeks later to assess the impact the lesson had on school children's knowledge and attitudes. This assessment was also undertaken in children who were exposed to the mass dog vaccination programme but did not receive the lesson. Knowledge of rabies and how to be safe around dogs increased following the lesson (both prabies and how to be safe around dogs was greater amongst school children who had received the lesson compared to school children who had not received the lesson, but had been exposed to a rabies vaccination campaign in their community (both prabies can improve short and medium-term rabies knowledge and attitudes of Malawian schoolchildren.

  16. A rabies lesson improves rabies knowledge amongst primary school children in Zomba, Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdon Bailey, Jordana L.; Gamble, Luke; Gibson, Andrew D.; Bronsvoort, Barend M. deC.; Handel, Ian G.; Mellanby, Richard J.; Mazeri, Stella

    2018-01-01

    Rabies is an important neglected disease, which kills around 59,000 people a year. Over a third of these deaths are in children less than 15 years of age. Almost all human rabies deaths in Africa and Asia are due to bites from infected dogs. Despite the high efficacy of current rabies vaccines, awareness about rabies preventive healthcare is often low in endemic areas. It is therefore common for educational initiatives to be conducted in conjunction with other rabies control activities such as mass dog vaccination, however there are few examples where the efficacy of education activities has been assessed. Here, primary school children in Zomba, Malawi, were given a lesson on rabies biology and preventive healthcare. Subsequently, a mass dog vaccination programme was delivered in the same region. Knowledge and attitudes towards rabies were assessed by a questionnaire before the lesson, immediately after the lesson and 9 weeks later to assess the impact the lesson had on school children’s knowledge and attitudes. This assessment was also undertaken in children who were exposed to the mass dog vaccination programme but did not receive the lesson. Knowledge of rabies and how to be safe around dogs increased following the lesson (both prabies and how to be safe around dogs was greater amongst school children who had received the lesson compared to school children who had not received the lesson, but had been exposed to a rabies vaccination campaign in their community (both prabies can improve short and medium-term rabies knowledge and attitudes of Malawian schoolchildren. PMID:29522517

  17. Sandia National Laboratories cask drop test programme: a demonstration of fracture mechanics principles for the prevention of brittle fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, P.; Sorenson, K.B.

    1995-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories recently completed a cask drop test programme. The aims of the programme were (1) to demonstrate the applicability of a fracture mechanics-based methodology for ensuring cask integrity, and (2) to assess the viability of using a ferritic materials for cask containment. The programme consisted of four phases: (i) materials characterisation; (ii) non-destructive examination of the cask; (iii) finite element analyses of the drop events; and (iv) a series of drop tests of a ductile iron cask. The first three phases of the programme provided information for fracture mechanics analyses and predictions for the drop test phase. The drop tests were nominally based upon the IAEA 9 m drop height hypothetical accident scenario although one drop test was from 18 m. All tests were performed in the side drop orientation at a temperature of -29 o C. A circumferential, mid-axis flaw was introduced into the cask body for each drop test. Flaw depth ranged from 19 to 76 mm. Steel saddles were welded to the side wall of the cask to enhance the stresses imposed upon the cask in the region of the introduced flaw. The programme demonstrated the applicability of a fracture mechanics methodology for predicting the conditions under which brittle fracture may occur and thereby the utility of fracture mechanics design for ensuring cask structural integrity by ensuring an appropriate margin of safety. Positive assessments of ductile iron for cask containment and the quality of the casting process for producing ductile iron casks were made. The results of this programme have provided data to support IAEA efforts to develop brittle fracture acceptance criteria for cask containment. (author)

  18. Demand generation and social mobilisation for integrated community case management (iCCM) and child health: Lessons learned from successful programmes in Niger and Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Alyssa B; Martin, Sandrine; Cerveau, Teresa; Wetzler, Erica; Berzal, Rocio

    2014-12-01

    We present the approaches used in and outcomes resulting from integrated community case management (iCCM) programmes in Niger and Mozambique with a strong focus on demand generation and social mobilisation. We use a case study approach to describe the programme and contextual elements of the Niger and Mozambique programmes. Awareness and utilisation of iCCM services and key family practices increased following the implementation of the Niger and Mozambique iCCM and child survival programmes, as did care-seeking within 24 hours and care-seeking from appropriate, trained providers in Mozambique. These approaches incorporated interpersonal communication activities and community empowerment/participation for collective change, partnerships and networks among key stakeholder groups within communities, media campaigns and advocacy efforts with local and national leaders. iCCM programmes that train and equip community health workers and successfully engage and empower community members to adopt new behaviours, have appropriate expectations and to trust community health workers' ability to assess and treat illnesses can lead to improved care-seeking and utilisation, and community ownership for iCCM.

  19. Demand generation and social mobilisation for integrated community case management (iCCM and child health: Lessons learned from successful programmes in Niger and Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa B Sharkey

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We present the approaches used in and outcomes resulting from integrated community case management (iCCM programmes in Niger and Mozambique with a strong focus on demand generation and social mobilisation. We use a case study approach to describe the programme and contextual elements of the Niger and Mozambique programmes. Awareness and utilisation of iCCM services and key family practices increased following the implementation of the Niger and Mozambique iCCM and child survival programmes, as did care–seeking within 24 hours and care–seeking from appropriate, trained providers in Mozambique. These approaches incorporated interpersonal communication activities and community empowerment/participation for collective change, partnerships and networks among key stakeholder groups within communities, media campaigns and advocacy efforts with local and national leaders. iCCM programmes that train and equip community health workers and successfully engage and empower community members to adopt new behaviours, have appropriate expectations and to trust community health workers’ ability to assess and treat illnesses can lead to improved care–seeking and utilisation, and community ownership for iCCM.

  20. Analysis of emergency response after the Chernobyl accident in Belarus: observed and prevented medical consequences, lessons learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buglova, E.; Kenigsberg, J. [Research Clinical Inst. of Radiation Medicine and Endocrinology, Minsk (Belarus)

    1997-12-31

    Belarus is one of the most contaminated Republic due to the Chernobyl accident. 23% of the entire area of Belarus was contaminated with radionuclides. To protect the population after the accident different types of protective actions were performed during all phases, based on various temporary dose limits. An analysis of conducted protective actions and lessons obtained during the emergency response is briefly presented 9 refs.

  1. Trial baseline characteristics of a cluster randomised controlled trial of a school-located obesity prevention programme; the Healthy Lifestyles Programme (HeLP trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Lloyd

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have developed a healthy lifestyles programme (HeLP for primary school aged children (9–10 years, currently being evaluated in a definitive cluster randomised controlled trial. This paper descriptively presents the baseline characteristics of trial children (BMI, waist circumference, % body fat, diet and physical activity by gender, cluster level socio-economic status, school size and time of recruitment into the trial. Methods Schools were recruited from across the South West of England and allocated 1:1 to either intervention (HeLP or control (usual practice stratified by the proportion of children eligible for free school meals (FSM, 1 Year 5 class. The primary outcome is change in body mass index standard deviation score (BMI sds at 24 months post-randomisation. Secondary outcomes are BMI sds at 18 months, waist circumference and percentage body fat sds at 18 and 24 months, proportion of children classified as underweight, overweight and obese at 18 and 24 months, physical activity (for a sub-sample and food intake at 18 months. Results At baseline 11.4% and 13.6% of children were categorised as overweight or obese respectively. A higher percentage of girls than boys (25.3% vs 24.8% and children from schools in FSM category 2 (28.2% vs 23.2% were overweight or obese. Children were consuming a mean (range of 4.15 (0–13 energy dense snacks (EDS and 3.23 (0–9 healthy snacks (HS per day with children from schools in FSM category 2 consuming more EDS and negative food markers and less HS and positive food markers. Children spent an average 53.6 min per day (11.9 to 124.8 in MVPA and thirteen hours (779.3 min per day (11 h to 15 h doing less than ‘light’ intensity activity. Less than 5% of children achieved the Departments of Health’s recommendation of 60 min of MVPA every day. Conclusion We have excellent completeness of baseline data for all measures and have achieved compliance to accelerometry not

  2. The Effectiveness and Sustainability of a Universal School-Based Programme for Preventing Depression in Chinese Adolescents: A Follow-Up Study Using Quasi-Experimental Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Eliza S. Y.; Kwok, Chi-Leung; Wong, Paul W. C.; Fu, King-Wa; Law, Yik-Wa; Yip, Paul S. F.

    2016-01-01

    Background A pilot study about the effectiveness of a universal school-based programme, “The Little Prince is Depressed”, for preventing depression in Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong was conducted and reported previously. This study used a larger sample to examine the effectiveness and sustainability of the programme. Methods This study used quasi-experimental design. Twelve schools enrolled in “The Little Prince is Depressed” programme either as an intervention or a control condition. The intervention schools carried out the 12-session programme in two phases: the professional-led first phase and the teacher-led second phase. All participants were required to complete a questionnaire at three time points measuring their (1) depressive, anxiety, and stress levels; (2) knowledge of mental health; (3) attitudes towards mental illness; (4) perceived social support; and (5) help-seeking behaviours. Results A total of 3,391 students participated in the study. The level of depressive symptoms did not reduce significantly at post-intervention; however, a delayed effect was observed at follow-up assessment for the participants of the teacher-led group in reducing anxiety and stress levels. Also, the knowledge of mental health and attitudes towards mental illness of the intervention-group participants significantly improved at post-test, and the outcomes were maintained at 4 to 5 months after the intervention in both the professional-led and the teacher-led conditions (pmental health and promoting a more positive attitude towards mental illness among adolescents in Hong Kong. In particular, the teacher-led group showed better outcomes than the professional-led group in reducing students’ anxiety and stress at follow-up period. The programme can achieve sustainability in schools if teachers are provided with adequate support. PMID:26921275

  3. Implementation Process and Acceptance of a Setting Based Prevention Programme to Promote Healthy Lifestyle in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Birgit; Strauss, Angelika; Mayer, Andrea; Duvinage, Kristin; Mitschek, Christine; Koletzko, Berthold

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Evaluation of the implementation process of a kindergarten-based intervention ("TigerKids") to promote a healthy lifestyle. Design: Questionnaire survey among kindergarten teachers about programme implementation and acceptance. Setting: Kindergartens in Bavaria, Germany. Methods: Two hundred and fifteen kindergartens were…

  4. Effectiveness of the 'Healthy School and Drugs' prevention programme on adolescents' substance use: a randomized clustered trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malmberg, M.; Kleinjan, M.; Overbeek, G.; Vermulst, A.; Monshouwer, K.; Lammers, J.; Vollebergh, W.A.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of the Healthy School and Drugs programme on alcohol, tobacco and marijuana use among Dutch early adolescents. Design: Randomized clustered trial with two intervention conditions (i.e. e-learning and integral). Setting: General population of 11-15-year-old

  5. Effectiveness of the 'Healthy School and Drugs' prevention programme on adolescents' substance use : A randomized clustered trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malmberg, Monique; Kleinjan, Marloes; Overbeek, Geertjan; Vermulst, Ad; Monshouwer, Karin; Lammers, Jeroen; Vollebergh, Wilma A M; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of the Healthy School and Drugs programme on alcohol, tobacco and marijuana use among Dutch early adolescents. Design: Randomized clustered trial with two intervention conditions (i.e. e-learning and integral). Setting: General population of 11-15-year-old

  6. Effectiveness of the 'Healthy School and Drugs' prevention programme on adolescents' substance use: a randomized clustered trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malmberg, M.; Kleinjan, M.; Overbeek, G.J.; Vermulst, A.A.; Monshouwer, K.; Lammers, J.; Vollebergh, W.A.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2014-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the effectiveness of the Healthy School and Drugs programme on alcohol, tobacco and marijuana use among Dutch early adolescents. Design Randomized clustered trial with two intervention conditions (i.e. e-learning and integral). Setting General population of 11-15-year-old adolescents

  7. Supervised Agricultural Experience Programmes (SAEP) and Work Linked Education (WLE): Panacea for Empowering Youths and Preventing Joblessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famiwole, Remigius O.

    2015-01-01

    Youths from Nigerian schools and tertiary institutions are usually unemployable after schooling because they are not empowered with the required saleable skills to earn them a job or with which to establish as entrepreneurs. This paper examines the relevance of Supervised Agricultural Experience Programme (SAEP) and Work Linked Education (WLE) as…

  8. Safe communities in China as a strategy for injury prevention and safety promotion programmes in the era of rapid economic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu-Mei; Dalal, Koustuv

    2013-02-01

    Due to its rapid economic development, China is facing a huge health, social, and economic burden resulting from injuries. The study's objective was to examine Safe Communities in China as a strategy for injury prevention and safety promotion programmes in the era of rapid economic growth. Literature searches in English and Chinese, which included grey literature, were performed on the Chinese Journal Full-text Search System and Medline, using the words "Safe Community", "injury", "economics", and "prevention". The results showed that the existing 35 recognized members of the International Safe Community Network have not placed due emphasis on suicide prevention, which is one of the leading problems in both rural and urban China. A few groups, such as children, the elderly, cyclists, and pedestrians, have received due emphasis, while other vulnerable groups, such as migrant workers, motorcyclists, students, players, and farmers have not received the necessary attention from the Safe Community perspective. As the evidence describes, Safe Communities in China can be a very effective strategy for injury prevention, but four aspects need to be strengthened in the future: (1) establish and strengthen the policy and regulations in terms of injury prevention at the national level; (2) create a system to involve professional organizations and personnel in projects; (3) consider the economic development status of different parts of China; and (4) intentional injury prevention should receive greater attention.

  9. Process and impact evaluation of the Romp & Chomp obesity prevention intervention in early childhood settings: lessons learned from implementation in preschools and long day care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Silva-Sanigorski, Andrea M; Bell, Andrew C; Kremer, Peter; Park, Janet; Demajo, Lisa; Smith, Michael; Sharp, Sharon; Nichols, Melanie; Carpenter, Lauren; Boak, Rachel; Swinburn, Boyd

    2012-06-01

    The Romp & Chomp controlled trial, which aimed to prevent obesity in preschool Australian children, was recently found to reduce the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity and improve children's dietary patterns. The intervention focused on capacity building and policy implementation within various early childhood settings. This paper reports on the process and impact evaluation of this trial and the lessons learned from this complex community intervention. Process data was collected throughout and audits capturing nutrition and physical activity-related environments and practices were completed postintervention by directors of Long Day Care (LDC) centers (n = 10) and preschools (n = 41) in intervention and comparison (n = 161 LDC and n = 347 preschool) groups. The environmental audits demonstrated positive impacts in both settings on policy, nutrition, physical activity opportunities, and staff capacity and practices, although results varied across settings and were more substantial in the preschool settings. Important lessons were learned in relation to implementation of such community-based interventions, including the significant barriers to implementing health-promotion interventions in early childhood settings, lack of engagement of for-profit LDC centers in the evaluation, and an inability to attribute direct intervention impacts when the intervention components were delivered as part of a health-promotion package integrated with other programs. These results provide confidence that obesity prevention interventions in children's settings can be effective; however, significant efforts must be directed toward developing context-specific strategies that invest in policies, capacity building, staff support, and parent engagement. Recognition by funders and reviewers of the difficulties involved in implementing and evaluating such complex interventions is also critical to strengthening the evidence base on the effectiveness of such public health

  10. FAMILY–TEACHER PARTNERSHIP IN FOSTERING THE DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN`S SOCIAL SKILLS USING THE BULLYING PREVENTION PROGRAMME “FREE FROM BULLYING” IN ESTONIAN SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leida Talts

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This research focused on the most important topics areas in parents` communication with the teachers and their assessments of the values prevailing in the classroom of second grade children using the programme “Free of Bullying”. The Free of Bullying methodology is fostering the development of children`s social skills, where family-teacher partnership plays essential role. The bullying prevention programme, initiated in the Kingdom of Denmark in 2007 and implemented in kindergartens in Estonia since 2010 and in schools since 2013. The main goal of the Free of Bullying methodology is to develop a behavioural culture that fosters respect toward oneself, fellow-pupils and adults, and works through mutual consideration. Creating a trusting relationship with parents and attaching importance to their role in creating a safe classroom atmosphere is essential for preventing the situation where parents are integrated in this process only when painful and negative problem situations occur. The current research sample consists of the parents of second grade children attending the “Free from bullying” pilot schools. The research revealed that from the bullying prevention point of view parents highly appreciate care, tolerance and respect. The most frequent topics of parent-teacher discussion are joint activities of the class and bullying between children. Thus it appears that parents who have been more actively involved through the measures of “Bullying-free school” project more frequently discuss aspects of the social structure of classroom climate with the teacher.

  11. Towards an Online Bachelor of Information Science Degree Programme in a Nigerian University: Part 1--Lessons from the Literature and Existing Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajiferuke, Isola; Tiamiyu, Mutawakilu; Longe, Folake; Nwagwu, Williams; Ogunsola, Kemi; Opesade, Adeola; Olatokun, Wole

    2012-01-01

    Training programmes for the information professions worldwide have been shifting and diversifying the scope of their claimed domains and curricula in order to empower their graduates with diverse knowledge and versatile technical skills required to compete successfully in the highly competitive job markets in the information industries. In line…

  12. Prevalence of adenomas and hyperplastic polyps in mismatch repair mutation carriers among CAPP2 participants: report by the colorectal adenoma/carcinoma prevention programme 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liljegren, Annelie; Barker, Gail; Elliott, Faye

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of adenomatous and hyperplastic polyps in a large cohort of individuals with a germline mutation in a mismatch repair (MMR) gene, the major genetic determinant of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). These prevalences have been estimated previously...... in smaller studies, and the results have been found to be variable. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Colorectal Adenoma/Carcinoma Prevention Programme 2 trial is a chemoprevention trial in people classified as having HNPCC. The 695 patients with a proven germline MMR mutation and documented screening history before...

  13. Cost-effectiveness of a cardiovascular disease primary prevention programme in a primary health care setting. Results of the Polish part of the EUROACTION project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sović, Nevena; Pająk, Andrzej; Jankowski, Piotr; Duenas, Alejandra; Kawecka-Jaszcz, Kalina; Wolfshaut-Wolak, Renata; Stepaniak, Urszula; Kawalec, Paweł

    2013-01-01

    Well designed cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention programmes appear to be generally applicable and effective in reducing exposure to risk factors and the incidence of disease. However, introducing them broadly into clinical practice would have a significant impact on the healthcare budget, and requires careful consideration. The purpose of this health economic analysis was to assess the potential cost-effectiveness of the model nurse-led, comprehensive CVD primary prevention programme which was prepared and introduced in the EUROACTION project, in high-risk patients in Poland. A Markov model was developed to assess the long-term costs of preventive intervention. The health states modelled were: event-free (all patients at the beginning of observation), stable angina first year, acute myocardial infarction, stable angina subsequent year, myocardial infarction subsequent year, CVD death, and other causes of death. Health benefits from the reduction in risk factors were estimated based on Framingham risk function assuming the probability of defined health states according to British registers. The time horizon of the analysis was ten years, and one Markov cycle length was one year. The analysis was prepared from the healthcare payer's perspective. A willingness to pay threshold of three gross domestic product (GDP) per capita / quality-adjusted life years (QALY) was used. Univariate sensitivity analysis was conducted. Results were presented as an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) expressed as an incremental cost per QALY. In Poland, EUROACTION intervention resulted mainly in reductions in the prevalence of smoking (by 14%) and high blood pressure (by 7%). Intervention on other risk factors, including blood lipids, was found to be less effective. Estimated ICERs were 19,524 PLN for men and 82,262 PLN for women. The programme was even more cost-effective in smokers i.e. estimated ICERs were 12,377 PLN in men and 53,471 PLN in women. The results were most

  14. Cost-effectiveness of HIV prevention for high-risk groups at scale: an economic evaluation of the Avahan programme in south India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassall, Anna; Pickles, Michael; Chandrashekar, Sudhashree; Boily, Marie-Claude; Shetty, Govindraj; Guinness, Lorna; Lowndes, Catherine M; Bradley, Janet; Moses, Stephen; Alary, Michel; Vickerman, Peter

    2014-09-01

    Avahan is a large-scale, HIV preventive intervention, targeting high-risk populations in south India. We assessed the cost-effectiveness of Avahan to inform global and national funding institutions who are considering investing in worldwide HIV prevention in concentrated epidemics. We estimated cost effectiveness from a programme perspective in 22 districts in four high-prevalence states. We used the UNAIDS Costing Guidelines for HIV Prevention Strategies as the basis for our costing method, and calculated effect estimates using a dynamic transmission model of HIV and sexually transmitted disease transmission that was parameterised and fitted to locally observed behavioural and prevalence trends. We calculated incremental cost-effective ratios (ICERs), comparing the incremental cost of Avahan per disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) averted versus a no-Avahan counterfactual scenario. We also estimated incremental cost per HIV infection averted and incremental cost per person reached. Avahan reached roughly 150 000 high-risk individuals between 2004 and 2008 in the 22 districts studied, at a mean cost per person reached of US$327 during the 4 years. This reach resulted in an estimated 61 000 HIV infections averted, with roughly 11 000 HIV infections averted in the general population, at a mean incremental cost per HIV infection averted of $785 (SD 166). We estimate that roughly 1 million DALYs were averted across the 22 districts, at a mean incremental cost per DALY averted of $46 (SD 10). Future antiretroviral treatment (ART) cost savings during the lifetime of the cohort exposed to HIV prevention were estimated to be more than $77 million (compared with the slightly more than $50 million spent on Avahan in the 22 districts during the 4 years of the study). This study provides evidence that the investment in targeted HIV prevention programmes in south India has been cost effective, and is likely to be cost saving if a commitment is made to provide ART to all

  15. Impact challenges in community science-with-practice: lessons from PROSPER on transformative practitioner-scientist partnerships and prevention infrastructure development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoth, Richard; Greenberg, Mark

    2011-09-01

    At present, evidence-based programs (EBPs) to reduce youth violence are failing to translate into widespread community practice, despite their potential for impact on this pervasive public health problem. In this paper we address two types of challenges in the achievement of such impact, drawing upon lessons from the implementation of a partnership model called PROSPER. First, we address five key challenges in the achievement of community-level impact through effective community planning and action: readiness and mobilization of community teams; maintaining EBP implementation quality; sustaining community teams and EBPs; demonstrating community-level impact; and continuous, proactive technical assistance. Second, we consider grand challenges in the large-scale translation of EBPs: (1) building, linking and expanding existing infrastructures to support effective EBP delivery systems, and (2) organizing networks of practitioner-scientist partnerships-networks designed to integrate diffusion of EBPs with research that examines effective strategies to do so. The PROSPER partnership model is an evidence-based delivery system for community-based prevention and has evolved through two decades of NIH-funded research, assisted by land grant universities' Cooperative Extension Systems. Findings and lessons of relevance to each of the challenges are summarized. In this context, we outline how practitioner-scientist partnerships can serve to transform EBP delivery systems, particularly in conjunction with supportive federal policy.

  16. Ensuring implementation success: how should coach injury prevention education be improved if we want coaches to deliver safety programmes during training sessions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Peta E; Otago, Leonie; Saunders, Natalie; Romiti, Maria; Donaldson, Alex; Ullah, Shahid; Finch, Caroline F

    2014-03-01

    Coaches play a major role in encouraging and ensuring that participants of their teams adopt appropriate safety practices. However, the extent to which the coaches undertake this role will depend upon their attitudes about injury prevention, their perceptions of what the other coaches usually do and their own beliefs about how much control they have in delivering such programmes. Fifty-one junior netball coaches were surveyed about incorporating the teaching of correct (safe) landing technique during their delivery of training sessions to junior players. Overall, >94% of coaches had strongly positive attitudes towards teaching correct landing technique and >80% had strongly positive perceptions of their own control over delivering such programmes. Coaches' ratings of social norms relating to what others think about teaching safe landing were more positive (>94%) than those relating to what others actually do (63-74%). In conclusion, the junior coaches were generally receptive towards delivering safe landing training programmes in the training sessions they led. Future coach education could include role modelling by prominent coaches so that more community-level coaches are aware that this is a behaviour that many coaches can, and do, engage in.

  17. Improving malaria treatment and prevention in India by aiding district managers to manage their programmes with local information: a trial assessing the impact of Lot Quality Assurance Sampling on programme outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadez, Joseph J; Devkota, Baburam; Pradhan, Madan Mohan; Meherda, Pramod; Sonal, G S; Dhariwal, Akshay; Davis, Rosemary

    2014-10-01

    This paper reports the first trial of Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) assessing associations between access to LQAS data and subsequent improvements in district programming. This trial concerns India's approach to addressing an increase in malaria-attributable deaths by training community health workers to diagnose, treat and prevent malaria, while using LQAS to monitor sub-district performance and make programme improvements. The Ministry of Health introduced LQAS into four matched high malaria burden districts (Annual Parasite Incidence >5) (N > 5 million). In each sub-district, we sampled four populations in three 6-monthly surveys: households, children LQAS results appeared to support district managers to increase coverage in underperforming areas, especially for vertical strategies in the presence of diligent managers. © 2014 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. A tool box for operational mosquito larval control: preliminary results and early lessons from the Urban Malaria Control Programme in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govella Nico J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As the population of Africa rapidly urbanizes, large populations could be protected from malaria by controlling aquatic stages of mosquitoes if cost-effective and scalable implementation systems can be designed. Methods A recently initiated Urban Malaria Control Programme in Dar es Salaam delegates responsibility for routine mosquito control and surveillance to modestly-paid community members, known as Community-Owned Resource Persons (CORPs. New vector surveillance, larviciding and management systems were designed and evaluated in 15 city wards to allow timely collection, interpretation and reaction to entomologic monitoring data using practical procedures that rely on minimal technology. After one year of baseline data collection, operational larviciding with Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis commenced in March 2006 in three selected wards. Results The procedures and staff management systems described greatly improved standards of larval surveillance relative to that reported at the outset of this programme. In the first year of the programme, over 65,000 potential Anopheles habitats were surveyed by 90 CORPs on a weekly basis. Reaction times to vector surveillance at observations were one day, week and month at ward, municipal and city levels, respectively. One year of community-based larviciding reduced transmission by the primary malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae s.l., by 31% (95% C.I. = 21.6–37.6%; p = 0.04. Conclusion This novel management, monitoring and evaluation system for implementing routine larviciding of malaria vectors in African cities has shown considerable potential for sustained, rapidly responsive, data-driven and affordable application. Nevertheless, the true programmatic value of larviciding in urban Africa can only be established through longer-term programmes which are stably financed and allow the operational teams and management infrastructures to mature by learning from experience.

  19. A police education programme to integrate occupational safety and HIV prevention: protocol for a modified stepped-wedge study design with parallel prospective cohorts to assess behavioural outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strathdee, Steffanie A; Arredondo, Jaime; Rocha, Teresita; Abramovitz, Daniela; Rolon, Maria Luisa; Patiño Mandujano, Efrain; Rangel, Maria Gudelia; Olivarria, Horcasitas Omar; Gaines, Tommi; Patterson, Thomas L; Beletsky, Leo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Policing practices are key drivers of HIV among people who inject drugs (PWID). This paper describes the protocol for the first study to prospectively examine the impact of a police education programme (PEP) to align law enforcement and HIV prevention. PEPs incorporating HIV prevention (including harm reduction programmes like syringe exchange) have been successfully piloted in several countries but were limited to brief pre–post assessments; the impact of PEPs on policing behaviours and occupational safety is unknown. Objectives Proyecto ESCUDO (SHIELD) aims to evaluate the efficacy of the PEP on uptake of occupational safety procedures, as assessed through the incidence of needle stick injuries (NSIs) (primary outcome) and changes in knowledge of transmission, prevention and treatment of HIV and viral hepatitis; attitudes towards PWID, adverse behaviours that interfere with HIV prevention and protective behaviours (secondary outcomes). Methods/analysis ESCUDO is a hybrid type I design that simultaneously tests an intervention and an implementation strategy. Using a modified stepped-wedge design involving all active duty street-level police officers in Tijuana (N=∼1200), we will administer one 3 h PEP course to groups of 20–50 officers until the entire force is trained. NSI incidence and geocoded arrest data will be assessed from department-wide de-identified data. Of the consenting police officers, a subcohort (N=500) will be randomly sampled from each class to undergo pre-PEP and post-PEP surveys with a semiannual follow-up for 2 years to assess self-reported NSIs, attitudes and behaviour changes. The impact on PWIDs will be externally validated through a parallel cohort of Tijuana PWIDs. Ethics/dissemination Research ethics approval was obtained from the USA and Mexico. Findings will be disseminated through open access to protocol materials through the Law Enforcement and HIV Network. Trial registration number NCT02444403. PMID:26260350

  20. Economic evaluation of URMEL-ICE, a school-based overweight prevention programme comprising metabolism, exercise and lifestyle intervention in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesztyüs, Dorothea; Schreiber, Anja; Wirt, Tamara; Wiedom, Martina; Dreyhaupt, Jens; Brandstetter, Susanne; Koch, Benjamin; Wartha, Olivia; Muche, Rainer; Wabitsch, Martin; Kilian, Reinhold; Steinacker, Jürgen M

    2013-04-01

    Measuring the impact of the URMEL-ICE school-based overweight prevention programme on anthropometric measures in primary-school children, computing incremental cost-effectiveness relation (ICER) and net monetary benefit (NMB). This is an intervention study with historical control. Propensity score method is applied to account for group differences. One-year teacher-driven classroom implementation is used, which is based on especially developed teaching material including health education, physical activity breaks and parent involvement. 354 children in the control and 365 children in the intervention group at baseline and follow-up were analysed. Effectiveness is measured as cm waist circumference (WC) and unit (0.01) waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) increase prevented in intervention vs. control group using an adjusted two-level model. Standard cost-effectiveness analysis methods, net benefit regression and a societal perspective for a 1-year time horizon are applied. WC gain was 1.61 cm and WHtR gain was 0.014 significantly less in intervention vs. control group. Intervention costs were euro24.09 per child. ICER was euro11.11 (95% confidence interval (CI) [8.78; 15.02]) per cm WC and euro18.55 (95% CI [14.04; 26.86]) per unit WHtR gain prevented. At a maximum willingness to pay (MWTP) of euro35, both values of the CIs for NMB regarding WC and WHtR are located in the positive range. The study gives new information about the cost-effectiveness of structured health promotion embedded in daily routine at primary schools. Assuming a MWTP of euro35 the intervention is cost-effective with a positive NMB. This result may help decision makers in implementing programmes to prevent childhood overweight in school settings.

  1. Preliminary evaluation of the impact of a Web-based HIV testing programme in Abruzzo Region on the prevention of late HIV presentation and associated mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ennio Polilli

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to analyze the efficacy of a Web-based testing programme in terms of the prevention of late HIV presentation. The clinical characteristics of patients diagnosed with HIV via the Web-based testing programme were compared to those of patients diagnosed in parallel via standard diagnostic care procedures. Methods: This study included the clinical and demographic data of newly diagnosed HIV patients enrolled at the study clinic between February 2014 and June 2017. These patients were diagnosed either via standard diagnostic procedures or as a result of the Web-based testing programme. Results: Eighty-eight new cases of HIV were consecutively enrolled; their mean age was 39.1 ± 13.0 years. Fifty-nine patients (67% were diagnosed through standard diagnostic procedures and 29 (33% patients came from the Web-based testing programme. Late presentation (62% vs. 34%, p = 0.01 and AIDS-defining conditions at presentation (13 vs. 1, p = 0.02 were significantly more frequent in the standard care group than in the Web-based group; four of 13 patients with AIDS diagnosed under standard diagnostic procedures died, versus none in the Web-based testing group (p < 0.001. Conclusions: Web-based recruitment for voluntary and free HIV testing helped to diagnose patients with less advanced HIV disease and no risk of death, from all at-risk groups, in comparison with standard care testing. Keywords: AIDS, HIV, Late presentation, Voluntary and free testing, HIV diagnosis, Sexually transmitted infections

  2. Using intervention mapping to develop a culturally appropriate intervention to prevent childhood obesity: the HAPPY (Healthy and Active Parenting Programme for Early Years) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Natalie J; Sahota, Pinki; Sargent, Judith; Barber, Sally; Loach, Jackie; Louch, Gemma; Wright, John

    2013-12-28

    Interventions that make extensive use of theory tend to have larger effects on behaviour. The Intervention Mapping (IM) framework incorporates theory into intervention design, implementation and evaluation, and was applied to the development of a community-based childhood obesity prevention intervention for a multi-ethnic population. IM was applied as follows: 1) Needs assessment of the community and culture; consideration of evidence-base, policy and practice; 2) Identification of desired outcomes and change objectives following identification of barriers to behaviour change mapped alongside psychological determinants (e.g. knowledge, self-efficacy, intention); 3) Selection of theory-based methods and practical applications to address barriers to behaviour change (e.g., strategies for responsive feeding); 4) Design of the intervention by developing evidence-based interactive activities and resources (e.g., visual aids to show babies stomach size). The activities were integrated into an existing parenting programme; 5) Adoption and implementation: parenting practitioners were trained by healthcare professionals to deliver the programme within Children Centres. HAPPY (Healthy and Active Parenting Programme for Early Years) is aimed at overweight and obese pregnant women (BMI > 25); consists of 12 × 2.5 hr. sessions (6 ante-natal from 24 weeks; 6 postnatal up to 9 months); it addresses mother's diet and physical activity, breast or bottle feeding, infant diet and parental feeding practices, and infant physical activity. We have demonstrated that IM is a feasible and helpful method for providing an evidence based and theoretical structure to a complex health behaviour change intervention. The next stage will be to assess the impact of the intervention on behaviour change and clinical factors associated with childhood obesity. The HAPPY programme is currently being tested as part of a randomised controlled feasibility trial.

  3. How to develop a theory-driven evaluation design? Lessons learned from an adolescent sexual and reproductive health programme in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Belle, Sara B; Marchal, Bruno; Dubourg, Dominique; Kegels, Guy

    2010-11-30

    This paper presents the development of a study design built on the principles of theory-driven evaluation. The theory-driven evaluation approach was used to evaluate an adolescent sexual and reproductive health intervention in Mali, Burkina Faso and Cameroon to improve continuity of care through the creation of networks of social and health care providers. Based on our experience and the existing literature, we developed a six-step framework for the design of theory-driven evaluations, which we applied in the ex-post evaluation of the networking component of the intervention. The protocol was drafted with the input of the intervention designer. The programme theory, the central element of theory-driven evaluation, was constructed on the basis of semi-structured interviews with designers, implementers and beneficiaries and an analysis of the intervention's logical framework. The six-step framework proved useful as it allowed for a systematic development of the protocol. We describe the challenges at each step. We found that there is little practical guidance in the existing literature, and also a mix up of terminology of theory-driven evaluation approaches. There is a need for empirical methodological development in order to refine the tools to be used in theory driven evaluation. We conclude that ex-post evaluations of programmes can be based on such an approach if the required information on context and mechanisms is collected during the programme.

  4. Detecting effects of the indicated prevention Programme for Externalizing Problem behaviour (PEP) on child symptoms, parenting, and parental quality of life in a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanisch, Charlotte; Freund-Braier, Inez; Hautmann, Christopher; Jänen, Nicola; Plück, Julia; Brix, Gabriele; Eichelberger, Ilka; Döpfner, Manfred

    2010-01-01

    Behavioural parent training is effective in improving child disruptive behavioural problems in preschool children by increasing parenting competence. The indicated Prevention Programme for Externalizing Problem behaviour (PEP) is a group training programme for parents and kindergarten teachers of children aged 3-6 years with externalizing behavioural problems. To evaluate the effects of PEP on child problem behaviour, parenting practices, parent-child interactions, and parental quality of life. Parents and kindergarten teachers of 155 children were randomly assigned to an intervention group (n = 91) and a nontreated control group (n = 64). They rated children's problem behaviour before and after PEP training; parents also reported on their parenting practices and quality of life. Standardized play situations were video-taped and rated for parent-child interactions, e.g. parental warmth. In the intention to treat analysis, mothers of the intervention group described less disruptive child behaviour and better parenting strategies, and showed more parental warmth during a standardized parent-child interaction. Dosage analyses confirmed these results for parents who attended at least five training sessions. Children were also rated to show less behaviour problems by their kindergarten teachers. Training effects were especially positive for parents who attended at least half of the training sessions. CBCL: Child Behaviour Checklist; CII: Coder Impressions Inventory; DASS: Depression anxiety Stress Scale; HSQ: Home-situation Questionnaire; LSS: Life Satisfaction Scale; OBDT: observed behaviour during the test; PCL: Problem Checklist; PEP: prevention programme for externalizing problem behaviour; PPC: Parent Problem Checklist; PPS: Parent Practices Scale; PS: Parenting Scale; PSBC: Problem Setting and Behaviour checklist; QJPS: Questionnaire on Judging Parental Strains; SEFS: Self-Efficacy Scale; SSC: Social Support Scale; TRF: Caregiver-Teacher Report Form.

  5. Lessons learned from the use of hydrochemical data for the evaluation of the groundwater-flow models developed within the Swiss L/ILW programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vomvoris, S.; Scholtis, A.; Vinard, P.; Waber, H.N.; Voborny, O.; Schindler, M.; Pearson, F.J.

    1999-01-01

    Hydrochemical data and their interpretations were used within the hydrogeological synthesis of the Swiss low and short-lived intermediate-level radioactive waste site to evaluate and improve the groundwater flow models. The groundwater flow models were developed on the basis of the structural geological models and hydraulic measurements, such as hydraulic conductivity and piezometric head profiles along seven deep boreholes. The hydrochemical interpretation for the deep circulation systems was based on samples collected in the deep boreholes and subsequent chemical and isotopic analyses. The lessons learned from the evaluation, which was abbreviated to the hydrochemical consistency check, result primarily from the fact that two different disciplines, which use models focusing on different processes, were brought together. The hydrochemical consistency check was proven to be very useful, both in terms of improving the groundwater flow models used in the synthesis but also in identifying the best process for performing similar comparisons in the future. (author)

  6. Industrial Pollution Prevention Programme (IPPP) Progress report Visit to Environmental Council of Zambia (ECZ) 20.09.-01.10.98

    OpenAIRE

    Aanes, K.

    1998-01-01

    A visit to ECZ was paid by Mr. Karl Jan Aanes, NIVA, with the intention to assess to capacity of the chosen laboratories in Zambia to analyse water samples in the Water Quality Survey Programme. Along with the visting of laboratories a field trip was carried out to collect water samples from the upper part of Kafue and the main tributaries from mine sites. Parallel samples were taken and analysed both at laboratories in Zambia and at NIVA to conduct a preliminary intercalibration between the ...

  7. Assessment of the population-level effectiveness of the Avahan HIV-prevention programme in South India: a preplanned, causal-pathway-based modelling analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickles, Michael; Boily, Marie-Claude; Vickerman, Peter; Lowndes, Catherine M; Moses, Stephen; Blanchard, James F; Deering, Kathleen N; Bradley, Janet; Ramesh, Banadakoppa M; Washington, Reynold; Adhikary, Rajatashuvra; Mainkar, Mandar; Paranjape, Ramesh S; Alary, Michel

    2013-11-01

    Avahan, the India AIDS initiative of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, was a large-scale, targeted HIV prevention intervention. We aimed to assess its overall effectiveness by estimating the number and proportion of HIV infections averted across Avahan districts, following the causal pathway of the intervention. We created a mathematical model of HIV transmission in high-risk groups and the general population using data from serial cross-sectional surveys (integrated behavioural and biological assessments, IBBAs) within a Bayesian framework, which we used to reproduce HIV prevalence trends in female sex workers and their clients, men who have sex with men, and the general population in 24 South Indian districts over the first 4 years (2004-07 or 2005-08 dependent on the district) and the full 10 years (2004-13) of the Avahan programme. We tested whether these prevalence trends were more consistent with self-reported increases in consistent condom use after the implementation of Avahan or with a counterfactual (assuming consistent condom use increased at slower, pre-Avahan rates) using a Bayes factor, which gave a measure of the strength of evidence for the effectiveness estimates. Using regression analysis, we extrapolated the prevention effect in the districts covered by IBBAs to all 69 Avahan districts. In 13 of 24 IBBA districts, modelling suggested medium to strong evidence for the large self-reported increase in consistent condom use since Avahan implementation. In the remaining 11 IBBA districts, the evidence was weaker, with consistent condom use generally already high before Avahan began. Roughly 32700 HIV infections (95% credibility interval 17900-61600) were averted over the first 4 years of the programme in the IBBA districts with moderate to strong evidence. Addition of the districts with weaker evidence increased this total to 62800 (32000-118000) averted infections, and extrapolation suggested that 202000 (98300-407000) infections were averted

  8. Implementing an Alcohol and Other Drug Use Prevention Program Using University-High School Partnerships: Challenges and Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milroy, Jeffrey J.; Orsini, Muhsin Michael; Wyrick, David L.; Fearnow-Kenney, Melodie; Wagoner, Kimberly G.; Caldwell, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Background: School-based alcohol and other drug use prevention remains an important national strategy. Collaborative partnerships between universities and high schools have the potential to enhance prevention programming; however, there are challenges to sustaining such partnerships. Purpose: The purpose of this commentary is to underscore…

  9. Impact of infectious disease epidemics on tuberculosis diagnostic, management, and prevention services: experiences and lessons from the 2014–2015 Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Ansumana

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization (WHO Global Tuberculosis Report 2015 states that 28% of the world's 9.6 million new tuberculosis (TB cases are in the WHO Africa Region. The Mano River Union (MRU countries of West Africa–Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia–have made incremental sustained investments into TB control programmes over the past two decades. The devastating Ebola virus disease (EVD outbreak of 2014–2015 in West Africa impacted significantly on all sectors of the healthcare systems in the MRU countries, including the TB prevention and control programmes. The EVD outbreak also had an adverse impact on the healthcare workforce and healthcare service delivery. At the height of the EVD outbreak, numerous staff members in all MRU countries contracted EBV at the Ebola treatment units and died. Many healthcare workers were also infected in healthcare facilities that were not Ebola treatment units but were national hospitals and peripheral health units that were unprepared for receiving patients with EVD. In all three MRU countries, the disruption to TB services due to the EVD epidemic will no doubt have increased Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission, TB morbidity and mortality, and decreased patient adherence to TB treatment, and the likely impact will not be known for several years to come. In this viewpoint, the impact that the EVD outbreak had on TB diagnostic, management, and prevention services is described. Vaccination against TB with BCG in children under 5 years of age was affected adversely by the EVD epidemic. The EVD outbreak was a result of global failure and represents yet another ‘wake-up call’ to the international community, and particularly to African governments, to reach a consensus on new ways of thinking at the national, regional, and global levels for building healthcare systems that can sustain their function during outbreaks. This is necessary so that other disease control programmes (like those for TB, malaria

  10. Implementing an exercise-training programme to prevent lower-limb injuries: considerations for the development of a randomised controlled trial intervention delivery plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Caroline F; White, Peta; Twomey, Dara; Ullah, Shahid

    2011-08-01

    To identify important considerations for the delivery of an exercise training intervention in a randomised controlled trial to maximise subsequent participation in that randomised controlled trial and intervention uptake. A cross-sectional survey, with a theoretical basis derived from the Health Belief Model (HBM) and the Reach, Efficacy/Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance (RE-AIM) framework. 374 male senior Australian Football players, aged 17-38 years. Beliefs about lower-limb injury causation/prevention, and the relative value of exercise training for performance and injury prevention. The data are interpreted within HBM constructs and implications for subsequent intervention implementation considered within the RE-AIM framework. Ordinal logistic regression compared belief scores across player characteristics. 74.4% of players agreed that doing specific exercises during training would reduce their risk of lower-limb injury and would be willing to undertake them. However, 64.1% agreed that training should focus more on improving game performance than injury prevention. Younger players (both in terms of age and playing experience) generally had more positive views. Players were most supportive of kicking (98.9%) and ball-handling (97.0%) skills for performance and warm-up runs and cool-downs (both 91.5%) for injury prevention. Fewer than three-quarters of all players believed that balance (69.2%), landing (71.3%) or cutting/stepping (72.8) training had injury-prevention benefits. Delivery of future exercise training programmes for injury prevention aimed at these players should be implemented as part of routine football activities and integrated with those as standard practice, as a means of associating them with training benefits for this sport.

  11. The effectiveness of the cardiovascular disease prevention programme 'KardioPro' initiated by a German sickness fund: a time-to-event analysis of routine data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Witt

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the developed world. To reduce this burden of disease, a German sickness fund ('Siemens-Betriebskrankenkasse', SBK initiated the prevention programme 'KardioPro' including primary (risk factor reduction and secondary (screening prevention and guideline-based treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of 'KardioPro' as it is implemented in the real world.The study is based on sickness fund routine data. The control group was selected from non-participants via propensity score matching. Study analysis was based on time-to-event analysis via Cox proportional hazards regression with the endpoint 'all-cause mortality, acute myocardial infarction (MI and ischemic stroke (1', 'all-cause mortality (2' and 'non-fatal acute MI and ischemic stroke (3'.A total of 26,202 insurants were included, 13,101 participants and 13,101 control subjects. 'KardioPro' enrollment was associated with risk reductions of 23.5% (95% confidence interval (CI 13.0-32.7% (1, 41.7% (95% CI 30.2-51.2% (2 and 3.5% (hazard ratio 0.965, 95% CI 0.811-1.148 (3. This corresponds to an absolute risk reduction of 0.29% (1, 0.31% (2 and 0.03% (3 per year.The prevention programme initiated by a German statutory sickness fund appears to be effective with regard to all-cause mortality. The non-significant reduction in non-fatal events might result from a shift from fatal to non-fatal events.

  12. Training-induced changes in physical performance can be achieved without body mass reduction after eight week of strength and injury prevention oriented programme in volleyball female players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Lehnert

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to analyse the changes in muscle strength, power, and somatic parameters in elite volleyball players after a specific pre-season training programme aimed at improving jumping and strength performance and injury prevention. Twelve junior female volleyball players participated in an 8-week training programme. Anthropometric characteristics, isokinetic peak torque (PT single-joint knee flexion (H and extension (Q at 60º/s and 180º/s, counter movement jump (CMJ, squat jump (SJ, and reactive strength index (RSI were measured before and after intervention. Significant moderate effects were found in flexor concentric PT at 60º/s and at 180 º/s in the dominant leg (DL (18.3±15.1%, likely; 17.8±11.2%, very likely and in extensor concentric PT at 180º/s (7.4%±7.8%, very likely in the DL. In the non-dominant leg (NL significant moderate effects were found in flexor concentric PT at 60º/s and at 180º/s (13.7±11.3%, likely; 13.4±8.0%, very likely and in extensor concentric PT at 180º/s (10.7±11.5%, very likely. Small to moderate changes were observed for H/QCONV in the DL at 60º/s and 180º/s (15.9±14.1%; 9.6±10.4%, both likely and in the NL at 60º/s (moderate change, 9.6±11.8%, likely, and small to moderate decreases were detected for H/QFUNC at 180º/s, in both the DL and NL (-7.0±8.3%, likely; -9.5±10.0%, likely. Training-induced changes in jumping performance were trivial (for RSI to small (for CMJ and SJ. The applied pre-season training programme induced a number of positive changes in physical performance and risk of injury, despite a lack of changes in body mass and composition. CITATION: Lehnert M, Sigmund M, Lipinska P et al. Training-induced changes in physical performance can be achieved without body mass reduction after eight week of strength and injury prevention oriented programme in volleyball female players. Biol Sport. 2017;34(2:205-213.

  13. A randomized controlled trial of a senior centre group programme for increasing social support and preventing depression in elderly people living at home in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bøen Hege

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Late-life depression is a common condition and a challenging public health problem. A lack of social support is strongly associated with psychological distress. Senior centres seem to be suitable arenas for community-based health promotion interventions, although few studies have addressed this subject. The objectives were to examine the effect of a preventive senior centre group programme consisting of weekly meetings, on social support, depression and quality of life. Methods A questionnaire was sent to a random sample of 4,000 persons over 65 in Oslo, and a total of 2,387 completed questionnaires were obtained. These subjects served as a basis for recruitment of participants for a trial, with scores on HSCL-10 being used as a main inclusion criterion. A total of 138 persons were randomized into an intervention group (N = 77 and control group (N = 61. Final analyses included 92 persons. Social support (OSS-3, depression (BDI, life satisfaction and health were measured in interviews at baseline and after 12 months (at the end of the intervention programme. Perceptions of benefits from the intervention were also measured. Mean scores, SD, SE and CI were used to describe the changes in outcomes. Effect sizes were calculated based on the original scales and as Cohen’s d. Paired sample tests and ANOVA were used to test group differences. Results There was an increase in social support in both groups, but greatest in the intervention group. The level of depression increased for both groups, but more so in the control than the intervention group. There was a decrease in life satisfaction, although the decrease was largest among controls. There were almost no differences in reported health between groups. However, effect sizes were small and differences were not statistically significant. In contrast, most of the participants said the intervention meant much to them and led to increased use of the centre. Conclusions In

  14. Preventing Australian football injuries with a targeted neuromuscular control exercise programme: comparative injury rates from a training intervention delivered in a clustered randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Caroline F; Twomey, Dara M; Fortington, Lauren V; Doyle, Tim L A; Elliott, Bruce C; Akram, Muhammad; Lloyd, David G

    2016-04-01

    Exercise-based training programmes are commonly used to prevent sports injuries but programme effectiveness within community men's team sport is largely unknown. To present the intention-to-treat analysis of injury outcomes from a clustered randomised controlled trial in community Australian football. Players from 18 male, non-elite, community Australian football clubs across two states were randomly allocated to either a neuromuscular control (NMC) (intervention n=679 players) or standard-practice (control n=885 players) exercise training programme delivered as part of regular team training sessions (2× weekly for 8-week preseason and 18-week regular-season). All game-related injuries and hours of game participation were recorded. Generalised estimating equations, adjusted for clustering (club unit), were used to compute injury incidence rates (IIRs) for all injuries, lower limb injuries (LLIs) and knee injuries sustained during games. The IIRs were compared across groups with cluster-adjusted Injury Rate Ratios (IRRs). Overall, 773 game injuries were recorded. The lower limb was the most frequent body region injured, accounting for 50% of injuries overall, 96 (12%) of which were knee injuries. The NMC players had a reduced LLI rate compared with control players (IRR: 0.78 (95% CI 0.56 to 1.08), p=0.14.) The knee IIR was also reduced for NMC compared with control players (IRR: 0.50 (95% CI 0.24 to 1.05), p=0.07). These intention-to-treat results indicate that positive outcomes can be achieved from targeted training programmes for reducing knee and LLI injury rates in men's community sport. While not statistically significant, reducing the knee injury rate by 50% and the LLI rate by 22% is still a clinically important outcome. Further injury reductions could be achieved with improved training attendance and participation in the programme. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  15. Setting Research Priorities for HIV/AIDS-related research in a post-graduate training programme: lessons learnt from the Nigeria Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programme scientific workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggensee, Gabriele; Waziri, Ndadilnasiya Endie; Bashorun, Adebobola; Nguku, Patrick Mboya; Fawole, Olufunmilayo Ibitola; Sabitu, Kabir

    2014-01-01

    In Nigeria the current prevalence of HIV is 4.1% with over 3.5 million infected and estimated 1.5 million in need of anti-retroviral treatment. Epidemiological and implementation studies are necessary for monitoring and evaluation of interventions. To define research areas which can be addressed by participants of the Nigeria Field Epidemiology and Training Programme (NFELTP) a workshop was held in April 2013 in Abuja, Nigeria. Priority research areas were identified using criteria lists for ranking of the relevance of research questions. Based on a research matrix, NFELTP residents developed the aims and objectives, study design for HIV-related research proposals. This workshop was the first workshop held by the NFELTP to establish an inventory of research questions which can be addressed by the residents within their training period. This inventory will help to increase HIV/AIDS-related activities of NFELTP which are in accordance with research needs in Nigeria and PEPFAR objectives. PMID:25426209

  16. The Family Festival Prevention Model: Findings from a Pilot of a Teenage Pregnancy Prevention Programme Conceptualised by and for Mexican American Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy-Erby, Yvette; Stauss, Kim; Koh, Eun

    2015-01-01

    Despite an overall reduction in teenage pregnancy rates in the USA, the decrease for young women of Mexican heritage in the USA has been less significant than the decrease for their White and African-American peers. Furthermore, the availability of teenage pregnancy prevention models that are conceptualised specifically for people of Mexican…

  17. How Best to Obtain Valid, Verifiable Data Online From Male Couples? Lessons Learned From an eHealth HIV Prevention Intervention for HIV-Negative Male Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jason; Lee, Ji-Young; Stephenson, Rob

    2016-09-20

    As interest increases in the development of eHealth human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-preventive interventions for gay male couples, Web-based methods must also be developed to help increase the likelihood that couples enrolled and data collected from them represent true unique dyads. Methods to recruit and collect reliable and valid data from both members of a couple are lacking, yet are crucial for uptake of novel sexual health and HIV-prevention eHealth interventions. Methods to describe best practices to recruit male couples using targeted advertisements on Facebook are also lacking in the literature, yet could also help in this uptake. The objective of our study was to describe challenges and lessons learned from experiences from two phases (developmental phase and online randomized controlled trial [RCT]) of an eHealth HIV-prevention intervention for concordant HIV-negative male couples in terms of (1) recruiting male couples using targeted advertisements on Facebook, (2) validating that data came from two partners of the couple, and (3) verifying that the two partners of the couple are in a relationship with each other. The developmental phase refined the intervention via in-person focus groups, whereas the pilot-testing phase included an online RCT. For both phases, couples were recruited via targeted Facebook advertisements. Advertisements directed men to a study webpage and screener; once eligible, participants provided consent electronically. A partner referral system was embedded in the consenting process to recruit the relationship partner of the participant. Both men of the couple had to meet all eligibility criteria-individually and as a couple-before they could enroll in the study. Verification of couples' relationships was assessed via the concurrence of predetermined screener items from both partners, done manually in the developmental phase and electronically in the pilot-testing phase. A system of decision rules was developed to assess the

  18. The role of social risk in an early preventative care programme for infants born very preterm: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spittle, Alicia J; Treyvaud, Karli; Lee, Katherine J; Anderson, Peter J; Doyle, Lex W

    2018-01-01

    To examine the differential effects of an early intervention programme for infants born preterm on neurodevelopment and parental mental health according to family social risk. One hundred and twenty infants born earlier than 30 weeks' gestation were randomized to early intervention (n=61) or control groups (n=59). Cognitive, language, and motor outcomes were assessed by blinded assessors at 2 years, 4 years, and 8 years, and primary caregivers completed questionnaires on their anxiety and depression. Outcomes at each time point were compared between groups using linear regression with an interaction term for social risk (higher/lower). There was evidence of interactions between intervention group and social risk for cognition at 2 years and 4 years, motor function at 4 years, and language at 8 years, with a greater intervention effect in children from higher social risk environments. In contrast, the impact of early intervention on parental depressive symptoms was greater for parents of lower social risk than for those of higher social risk. Effects of early intervention on outcomes for children born preterm and their caregivers varied according to family social risk. Family social risk should be considered when implementing early intervention programmes for children born preterm and their families. Intervention is associated with better early cognitive functioning for children in higher social risk families. Positive effects of intervention for the high risk group were not sustained at school-age. Intervention has a greater effect on primary caregiver mental health in the lower social risk group compared with higher social risk. © 2017 Mac Keith Press.

  19. The outcome of prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV infection programme in Nnewi, southeast Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikechebelu, J I; Ugboaja, J O; Kalu, S O; Ugochukwu, E F

    2011-01-01

    A lot of challenges face the current efforts at reducing Mother to Child transmission of HIV infection (MTCT) in Sub Saharan Africa due to limited access to Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and breast feeding practices. A regular review of progress is necessary in order to identify areas of need. This is a one year prospective descriptive study of seven hundred and twenty six mother-infant pairs managed in the PMTCT programme in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi Southeast Nigeria. The babies HIV status was tested with PCR for HIV DNA while the mothers provided information on infant feeding pattern and the use of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs including prophylaxis for the baby. Information was augmented from the antenatal records. The transmission rate was 2.8% for mothers, who were on HAART, did not breastfeed and whose babies received ARV prophylactic therapy. But for mothers who did not receive HAART, did breastfeed and whose babies did not received ARV prophylactic therapy, the transmission rate was 37.5%. When both the mother and child received ARV drugs, the transmission rate was significantly lower in those who did not breastfeed (2.8%) than in those who breastfed (12.5%)(P < 0.001). When both the mother and child did not receive ARV drugs, the transmission rate significantly lower in those who did not breastfeed (21.1%)than in those who breastfed (37.5%) (P < 0.02). The use of HAART in PMTCT programme in the under resourced areas can achieve similar success rates to that in the industrialized countries. Breastfeeding reduces the efficacy achieved by the use of ARV drugs. Provision of wider access to HAART as well as adequate counselling and support for safer infant feeding practices is recommended.

  20. Strategy and technology to prevent hospital-acquired infections: Lessons from SARS, Ebola, and MERS in Asia and West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Rajakaruna, Sanjeewa Jayachandra; Liu, Wen-Bin; Ding, Yi-Bo; Cao, Guang-Wen

    2017-01-01

    Hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) are serious problems for healthcare systems, especially in developing countries where public health infrastructure and technology for infection preventions remain undeveloped. Here, we characterized how strategy and technology could be mobilized to improve the effectiveness of infection prevention and control in hospitals during the outbreaks of Ebola, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in Asia and West Afr...

  1. The effect of fall prevention exercise programmes on fall induced injuries in community dwelling older adults: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Khoury, Fabienne; Cassou, Bernard; Charles, Marie-Aline; Dargent-Molina, Patricia

    2013-10-29

    To determine whether, and to what extent, fall prevention exercise interventions for older community dwelling people are effective in preventing different types of fall related injuries. Electronic databases (PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Embase, and CINAHL) and reference lists of included studies and relevant reviews from inception to July 2013. Randomised controlled trials of fall prevention exercise interventions, targeting older (>60 years) community dwelling people and providing quantitative data on injurious falls, serious falls, or fall related fractures. Based on a systematic review of the case definitions used in the selected studies, we grouped the definitions of injurious falls into more homogeneous categories to allow comparisons of results across studies and the pooling of data. For each study we extracted or calculated the rate ratio of injurious falls. Depending on the available data, a given study could contribute data relevant to one or more categories of injurious falls. A pooled rate ratio was estimated for each category of injurious falls based on random effects models. 17 trials involving 4305 participants were eligible for meta-analysis. Four categories of falls were identified: all injurious falls, falls resulting in medical care, severe injurious falls, and falls resulting in fractures. Exercise had a significant effect in all categories, with pooled estimates of the rate ratios of 0.63 (95% confidence interval 0.51 to 0.77, 10 trials) for all injurious falls, 0.70 (0.54 to 0.92, 8 trials) for falls resulting in medical care, 0.57 (0.36 to 0.90, 7 trials) for severe injurious falls, and 0.39 (0.22 to 0.66, 6 trials) for falls resulting in fractures, but significant heterogeneity was observed between studies of all injurious falls (I(2)=50%, P=0.04). Exercise programmes designed to prevent falls in older adults also seem to prevent injuries caused by falls, including the most severe ones. Such programmes also reduce the rate of falls leading

  2. Obesity and eating disorders in integrative prevention programmes for adolescents: Protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obesity and eating disorders are public health problems that have lifelong financial and personal costs and common risk factors, for example, body dissatisfaction, weight teasing and disordered eating. Obesity prevention interventions might lead to the development of an eating disorder since focusin...

  3. Process evaluation of a parcipatory ergonomics programme to prevent low back pain and neck pain among workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, M.T.; Proper, K.I.; Anema, J.R.; Bongers, P.M.; van der Beek, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Both low back pain (LBP) and neck pain (NP) are major occupational health problems. In the workplace, participatory ergonomics (PE) is frequently used on musculoskeletal disorders. However, evidence on the effectiveness of PE to prevent LBP and NP obtained from randomised controlled

  4. Process evaluation of a participatory ergonomics programme to prevent low back pain and neck pain among workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, M.T.; Proper, K.I.; Anema, J.R.; Bongers, P.M.; Beek, A.J. van der

    2010-01-01

    Background: Both low back pain (LBP) and neck pain (NP) are major occupational health problems. In the workplace, participatory ergonomics (PE) is frequently used on musculoskeletal disorders. However, evidence on the effectiveness of PE to prevent LBP and NP obtained from randomised controlled

  5. Effects of Training Programme on HIV/AIDS Prevention among Primary Health Care Workers in Oyo State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajuwon, Ademola; Funmilayo, Fawole; Oladepo, Oladimeji; Osungbade, Kayode; Asuzu, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to train primary health care workers to be trainers and implementers of community-based AIDS prevention activities in Oyo State, Nigeria, by describing an evaluation of the project. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 148 primary health care workers recruited from the 33 local government areas (LGA) of the…

  6. Peering into "Spaces for Change": Empowerment, Subversion and Resistance in a Gendered Violence Prevention Education Programme in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobbett-Ondiek, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Changing and challenging social norms is essential to preventing gendered violence, and education is widely regarded as a key means through which this can happen. Whilst good-quality research exploring the outcomes of such educational interventions exists, very little is known about what actually happens inside educational spaces aiming to…

  7. Heading towards the Safer Highways: an assessment of the Avahan prevention programme among long distance truck drivers in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Arvind; Mishra, Ram Manohar; Sahu, Damodar; Benara, Sudhir Kumar; Sengupta, Uttpal; Paranjape, Ramesh S; Gautam, Abhishek; Lenka, Satya Ranjan; Adhikary, Rajatshurva

    2011-12-29

    Using data from two rounds of a cross-sectional, national-level survey of long-distance truck drivers, this paper examines the extent and trend of sexual risk behavior, prevalence of STI/HIV, and the linkage between exposure to HIV prevention programs and safe sex behavior. Following the time location cluster sampling approach, major transshipment locations covering the bulk of India's transport volume along four routes, North-East (NE), North-South (NS), North-West (NW) and South-East (SE) were surveyed. First round of the survey was conducted in 2007 (sample size 2066) whereas the second round was undertaken in 2009-2010 (sample size 2085). Long distance truck drivers were interviewed about their sexual behaviors, condom use practices, exposure to different HIV prevention interventions, and tested for HIV, reactive syphilis serology, Neiserria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis. The key variable of this evaluation study - exposure to HIV prevention interventions was divided into three categories - no exposure, less intensive exposure and intensive exposure. Data were analyzed using multiple logistic regression methods to understand the relationship between risk behavior and exposure to intervention and between program exposure and condom use. The proportion of truckers exposed to HIV prevention interventions has increased over time with much significant increase in the intensive exposure across all the four routes (NE: from 14.9% to 28%, P India and elsewhere. The simultaneous targeted interventions among female sex workers appeared to have contributed to safe sexual practices among truckers.

  8. Players' and coaches' knowledge and awareness of the BokSmart Safe Six injury prevention programme: an ecological cross-sectional questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewry, Nicola; Verhagen, Evert; Lambert, Mike; van Mechelen, Willem; Brown, James

    2017-11-03

    Rugby has a high injury incidence and therefore BokSmart introduced the Safe Six injury prevention programme in 2014 in an attempt to decrease this incidence. In 2015, BokSmart used a 'targeted marketing approach' to increase the awareness and knowledge of the Safe Six . Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the change in the knowledge of coaches and players of the Safe Six programme, compared with the launch year, following a 'targeted marketing approach'. Ecological cross-sectional questionnaire study SETTING: The 2014-2016 South African rugby union youth week tournaments. Questionnaires were completed by 4502 players and coaches who attended any of the four youth week tournaments during 2014-2016. Logistic regression (adjusted OR, 95% CI) was performed in comparison to year prior to targeted marketing, separately for coaches and players, for changes in awareness and knowledge. The awareness of the Safe Six increased significantly for players in 2015 (1.74 times (95% CI 1.49 to 2.04)) and in 2016 (1.54 times (95% CI 1.29 to 1.84)). Similarly for coaches, there was a 3.55 times (95% CI 1.23 to 9.99) increase in 2015 and a 10.11 times (95% CI 2.43 to 42.08) increase in 2016 compared with 2014. Furthermore, a player was significantly more likely to be aware of the Safe Six if his coach was aware of the programme (psocial media were the largest contributors to knowledge in coaches and players. While the 'targeted marketing approach' was associated with an increase in awareness, future studies should determine if this translates into behavioural change. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Predictors of medical student remediation and their underlying causes: early lessons from a curriculum change in the University of Auckland Medical Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grainger, Brian; Yielder, Jill; Reid, Papaarangi; Bagg, Warwick

    2017-08-11

    The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of remediation in a medical programme and assess the underlying causes and the quality of remediation provided within the context of a recent curriculum change. A mixed methods study incorporating a retrospective cohort analysis of demographic predictors of remediation during 2013 and 2014, combined with thematic qualitative analysis of educator perspectives derived by interview on factors underlying remediation and the quality of that currently provided by the faculty. 17.7% of all students required some form of remedial assistance and 93% of all students offered remediation passed their year of study. Multivariate analysis showed international students (OR 4.59 95% CI 2.62-7.98) and students admitted via the Māori and Pacific Admission Scheme (OR 3.43 2.29-5.15) were significantly more likely to require remediation. Male students were also slightly more likely than their female classmates to require assistance. No effect was observed for rural origin students, completion of a prior degree or completion of clinical placement in a peripheral hospital. Knowledge application and information synthesis were the most frequently identified underlying problems. Most faculty believed remediation was successful, however, flexibility in the programme structure, improved diagnostics and improved access to dedicated teaching staff were cited as areas for improvement. Remediation is required by nearly a fifth of University of Auckland medical students, with MAPAS and international students being particularly vulnerable groups. Remediation is largely successful, however, interventions addressing reasoning and knowledge application may improve its effectiveness.

  10. A short history of HIV prevention programs for female sex workers in Ghana: lessons learned over 3 decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wondergem, Peter; Green, Kimberly; Wambugu, Samuel; Asamoah-Adu, Comfort; Clement, Nana Fosua; Amenyah, Richard; Atuahene, Kyeremeh; Szpir, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) in Ghana have a 10-fold greater risk for acquiring HIV than the general adult population, and they contribute a substantial proportion of the new HIV infections in the country. Although researchers have conducted behavioral and biological surveys, there has been no review of the contextual, programmatic, and epidemiological changes over time. The authors conducted a historical review of HIV prevention programs in Ghana. We reviewed the use of different interventions for HIV prevention among FSWs and data from program monitoring and Integrated Biological and Behavioral Surveillance Surveys. In particular, we looked at changes in service access and coverage, the use of HIV testing and counseling services, and the changing prevalence of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. HIV prevention interventions among FSWs increased greatly between 1987 and 2013. Only 72 FSWs were reached in a pilot program in 1987, whereas 40,508 FSWs were reached during a national program in 2013. Annual condom sales and the proportion of FSWs who used HIV testing and counseling services increased significantly, whereas the prevalence of gonorrhea and chlamydia decreased. The representation of FSWs in national HIV strategic plans and guidelines also improved. Ghana offers an important historical example of an evolving HIV prevention program that-despite periods of inactivity-grew in breadth and coverage over time. The prevention of HIV infections among sex workers has gained momentum in recent years through the efforts of the national government and its partners-a trend that is critically important to Ghana's future.

  11. Schools, Families, and the Prevention of Child Maltreatment: Lessons That Can Be Learned From a Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Admon Livny, Karen; Katz, Carmit

    2018-04-01

    Child maltreatment is a worldwide social problem that receives considerable attention. However, prevention efforts remain rare, allowing the phenomenon to continue and spread. The aim of the current article is to systematically review evidence-based prevention efforts that address schools and families as key stakeholders for preventing child maltreatment. Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, a thorough literature review revealed that only five programs matched the inclusion criteria for the current article. These programs were analyzed for several domains, including level of prevention, target population, participants, and the programs' outcomes. The current review highlights the urgent needs to develop, modify, and further evaluate prevention programs for child maltreatment in the context of the ecological model. More specifically, it illuminates the need to create and champion programs that enhance the collaboration between families and schools, both of which are key stakeholders within the phenomenon of child maltreatment. Collaboration between policymakers, researchers, and practitioners should guide future efforts by promoting cultural adaptation to such programs and by integrating children's perceptions to improve these efforts and to benefit everyone involved.

  12. Obesity and eating disorders in integrative prevention programmes for adolescents: protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leme, Ana Carolina Barco; Thompson, Debbe; Lenz Dunker, Karin Louise; Nicklas, Theresa; Tucunduva Philippi, Sonia; Lopez, Tabbetha; Vézina-Im, Lydi-Anne; Baranowski, Tom

    2018-04-19

    Obesity and eating disorders are public health problems that have lifelong financial and personal costs and common risk factors, for example, body dissatisfaction, weight teasing and disordered eating. Obesity prevention interventions might lead to the development of an eating disorder since focusing on weight may contribute to excessive concern with diet and weight. Therefore, the proposed research will assess whether integrating obesity and eating disorder prevention procedures ('integrated approach') do better than single approach interventions in preventing obesity among adolescents, and if integrated approaches influence weight-related outcomes. Integrated obesity and eating disorder prevention interventions will be identified. Randomised controlled trials and quasi-experimental trials reporting data on adolescents ranging from 10 to 19 years of age from both sexes will be included. Outcomes of interest include body composition, unhealthy weight control behaviours and body satisfaction measurements. MEDLINE/PubMed, PsycINFO, Web of Science and SciELO will be searched. Data will be extracted independently by two reviewers using a standardised data extraction form. Trial quality will be assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration criteria. The effects of integrated versus single approach intervention studies will be compared using systematic review procedures. If an adequate number of studies report data on integrated interventions among similar populations (k>5), a meta-analysis with random effects will be conducted. Sensitivity analyses and meta-regression will be performed only if between-study heterogeneity is high (I 2 ≥75%). Ethics approval will not be required as this is a systematic review of published studies. The findings will be disseminated through conference presentations and peer-reviewed journals. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted

  13. Using Intervention Mapping to develop a programme to prevent sexually transmittable infections, including HIV, among heterosexual migrant men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfers, Mireille EG; van den Hoek, Caty; Brug, Johannes; de Zwart, Onno

    2007-01-01

    Background There is little experience with carefully developed interventions in the HIV/STI prevention field aimed at adult heterosexual target groups in the Netherlands. The ability to apply intervention development protocols, like Intervention Mapping, in daily practice outside of academia, is a matter of concern. An urgent need also exists for interventions aimed at the prevention of STI in migrant populations in the Netherlands. This article describes the theory and evidence based development of HIV/STI prevention interventions by the Municipal Public Health Service Rotterdam Area (MPHS), the Netherlands, for heterosexual migrant men with Surinamese, Dutch-Caribbean, Cape Verdean, Turkish and Moroccan backgrounds. Methods First a needs assessment was carried out. Then, a literature review was done, key figures were interviewed and seven group discussions were held. Subsequently, the results were translated into specific objectives ("change objectives") and used in intervention development for two subgroups: men with an Afro-Caribbean background and unmarried men with a Turkish and Moroccan background. A matrix of change objectives was made for each subgroup and suitable theoretical methods and practical strategies were selected. Culturally-tailored interventions were designed and were pre-tested among the target groups. Results This development process resulted in two interventions for specific subgroups that were appreciated by both the target groups and the migrant prevention workers. The project took place in collaboration with a university center, which provided an opportunity to get expert advice at every step of the Intervention Mapping process. At relevant points of the development process, migrant health educators and target group members provided advice and feedback on the draft intervention materials. Conclusion This intervention development project indicates that careful well-informed intervention development using Intervention Mapping is feasible in

  14. Effective heart disease prevention: lessons from a qualitative study of user perspectives in Bangladeshi, Indian and Pakistani communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netto, G; McCloughan, L; Bhatnagar, A

    2007-03-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) has a high mortality, incidence and prevalence among Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi communities in the UK, indicating the need for effective heart disease prevention initiatives for these communities. This paper considers how service user perspectives can be used to develop effective, culturally focused CHD prevention interventions for these target groups by addressing identified barriers, including deeply held cultural beliefs. A qualitative research study, using a longitudinal action research approach. This was a community-based study in Edinburgh. Six focus group discussions--two for each community--were organized with participants from these communities at the beginning of the project. A further six focus group discussions for the same communities were organized six months later. Over the period examined, participants reported varying changes in levels of knowledge relating to the nature, causes and symptoms of CHD. Some participants reported taking slight to significant steps to reduce or prevent heart disease, while others did not. The project was viewed as helpful in increasing knowledge about CHD and preventive measures and encouraging healthier lifestyles. However, persistent barriers to change were also identified, requiring changes to the project that involved not only matching intervention materials and messages to observable, superficial characteristics of the target population, but more fundamental changes that address the cultural, social, historical, environmental and psychological forces that influence health behaviour. CHD prevention initiatives need to identify and respond to deep-rooted influences on health-behaviour in 'at-risk' groups, in addition to superficial characteristics of the target populations. It is important for specific prevention initiatives to be linked into wider CHD frameworks to ensure transferability of learning and integration within wider service provision.

  15. Process assessment of a peer education programme for HIV prevention among sex workers in Dhaka, Bangladesh : a social support framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarafian, Isabelle

    2012-08-01

    This study evaluated the process of a peer education program for hotel-based sex workers in Dhaka, Bangladesh, with social support proposed as an organizing framework. Programme outcomes were examined through baseline and follow-up assessments. Sex workers naïve to peer education were assessed on socio-cognitive and behavioural variables; a subsample was reassessed at follow-up 23 weeks later on average. Process was assessed in terms of the content of peer education sessions. These sessions were recorded and coded into percentages of social support types provided by the peer educator to her audience: informational, instrumental, appraisal, emotional, companionship, non-support. Peer educators were classified into three "social support profiles" based on average proportions of emotional and informational support they provided. Seeing more peer educators with a high informational support profile was related to higher sex worker self-efficacy, self-reported STI symptoms, and self-reported condom use at follow-up; the same was true for the high emotional support profile and treatment seeking. Social support constituted a useful framework, but needs further exploration. This study provided a direct, in-depth examination of the process of peer education based on a comprehensive theoretical framework. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Education Against Tobacco (EAT): a quasi-experimental prospective evaluation of a programme for preventing smoking in secondary schools delivered by medical students: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinker, Titus J; Stamm-Balderjahn, Sabine; Seeger, Werner; Groneberg, David A

    2014-07-24

    A survey conducted by the German Federal Centre for Health Education in 2012 showed that 35.2% of all young adults (18-25 years) and 12.0% of all adolescents (12-17 years) in Germany are regular cigarette smokers. Most smoked their first cigarette in early adolescence. We recently reported a significantly positive short-term effect of a physician-delivered school-based smoking prevention programme on the smoking behaviour of schoolchildren in Germany. However, physician-based programmes are usually very expensive. Therefore, we will evaluate and optimise Education against Tobacco (EAT), a widespread, low-cost programme delivered by about 400 medical students from 16 universities in Germany. A prospective quasi-experimental study design with two measurements at baseline (t1) and 6 months post-intervention (t2) to investigate an intervention in 10-15-year-olds in grades 6-8 at German secondary schools. The intervention programme consists of two 60-min school-based medical-student-delivered modules with (module 1) and without the involvement of patients with tobacco-related diseases and control groups (no intervention). The study questionnaire measuring smoking status (water pipe and cigarette smoking), smoking-related cognitions, and gender, social and cultural aspects was designed and pre-tested in advance. The primary end point is the prevalence of smokers and non-smokers in the two study arms at 6 months after the intervention. The percentage of former smokers and new smokers in the two groups and the measures of smoking behaviour will be studied as secondary outcome measures. In accordance with Good Epidemiologic Practice (GEP) guidelines, the study protocol was submitted for approval by the responsible ethics committee, which decided that the study does not need ethical approval (Goethe University, Frankfurt-Main, Germany). Findings will be disseminated in peer-reviewed journals, at conferences, within our scientific advisory board and through medical

  17. Prevention of vitamin K deficiency bleeding in breastfed infants : Lessons from the Dutch and Danish biliary atresia registries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hasselt, Peter M.; de Koning, Tom J.; Kvist, Nina; de Vries, Elsemieke; Lundin, Christina Rydahl; Berger, Ruud; Kimpen, Jan L. L.; Houwen, Roderick H. J.; Jorgensen, Marianne Horby; Verkade, Henkjan J.

    OBJECTIVE. Newborns routinely receive vitamin K to prevent vitamin K deficiency bleeding. The efficacy of oral vitamin K administration may be compromised in infants with unrecognized cholestasis. We aimed to compare the risk of vitamin K deficiency bleeding under different propylactic regimens in

  18. Whole School Improvement and Restructuring as Prevention and Promotion: Lessons from STEP and the Project on High Performance Learning Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felner, Robert D.; Favazza, Antoinette; Shim, Minsuk; Brand, Stephen; Gu, Kenneth; Noonan, Nancy

    2001-01-01

    Describes the School Transitional Environment Project and its successor, the Project on High Performance Learning Communities, that have contributed to building a model for school improvement called the High Performance Learning Communities. The model seeks to build the principles of prevention into whole school change. Presents findings from…

  19. Lessons from france: the cardiovascular prevention clinic in the la pitié-salpêtrière hospital in paris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, M. K.; Rensing, K. L.; Giral, P.; Cramer, M. J. M.; Bruckert, E.; Twickler, Th B.

    2007-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the principal cause of morbidity and mortality in the Netherlands. In this background, various initiatives have been launched to reduce the frequency of cardiovascular disease. One of those is the creation of clinical units with a special focus on prevention of

  20. To Prevent Misbehavior

    OpenAIRE

    Telep, Valya Goodwin, 1955-

    2009-01-01

    This series of lessons was prepared for parents like you - parents who want to do a better job of disciplining their children. The lessons were especially written for parents of preschool children, ages two to six, but some of the discipline methods are appropriate for older children, too. This lesson focuses on preventing misbehavior.

  1. The WHO AFRO external quality assessment programme (EQAP): Linking laboratory networks through EQA programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeras, Debrah I; Peeling, Rosanna W; Onyebujoh, Philip; Yahaya, Ali A; Gumede-Moeletsi, Hieronyma N; Ndihokubwayo, Jean B

    2016-01-01

    External Quality Assessment (EQA) surveys performed by the World Health Organization Regional Office for Africa (WHO AFRO) revealed the need for the strengthening of public health microbiology laboratories, particularly for testing of epidemic-prone diseases in the African Region. These surveys revealed common issues such as supply chain management, skilled personnel, logistical support and overall lack of quality standards. For sustainable improvements to health systems as well as global health security, deficiencies identified need to be actively corrected through robust quality assurance programmes and implementation of laboratory quality management systems. Given all the pathogens of public health importance, an external quality assessment programme with a focus on vaccine-preventable diseases and emerging and re-emerging dangerous pathogens is important, and should not be stand-alone, but integrated within laboratory networks as seen in polio, measles, yellow fever and rubella. In 2015, WHO AFRO collaborated with the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine and partners in a series of consultations with countries and national and regional EQA providers for the development of quality assurance models to support HIV point-of-care testing and monitoring. These consultations revealed similar challenges as seen in the WHO AFRO surveys. WHO AFRO brought forth its experience in implementing quality standards for health programmes, and also opened discussions on how lessons learned through such established programmes can be utilised to supporting and strengthening the introduction of early infant diagnosis of HIV and viral load point-of-care testing. An optimised external quality assessment programme will impact the ability of countries to meet core capacities, providing improved quality management systems, improving the confidence of diagnostic network services in Africa, and including capacities to detect events

  2. [Second wave of the French drug harmonisation programme to prevent medication errors: overall appreciation of healthcare professionals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhamou, D; Nacry, R; Journois, D; Auroy, Y; Durand, D; Arnoux, A; Olier, L; Castot, A

    2012-01-01

    Medication errors are a significant cause of severe healthcare-associated complications. In December 2006, the French Health Products Agency (Afssaps) has issued a protocol to harmonise labeling of injectable drugs vials. In 2007, a first change was launched for four drugs and was followed in 2008-2009 by a second wave concerning 42 active drugs. The present study describes how healthcare professionals have perceived this change and their overall appreciation of the drug harmonisation programme. A survey using an electronic questionnaire was distributed to medical and non-medical professionals in anaesthesia and intensive care and pharmacists in a representative sample of 200 French hospitals. The harmonisation procedure was felt as being overall satisfactory by 53% of professionals who had responded but it was recognised that the new procedure is associated with improved readability and understanding of drug dosage. The use of colour coding was also well accepted by the personnel of clinical units. Respondents expressed significant criticisms regarding both the communication plan and the way the plan was implemented locally in hospitals. Old and new labeling coexisted in 66% of responding hospitals and many respondents described being aware of errors or near-misses that were considered related to the transition. For many important topics, pharmacists had views that were significantly different from clinicians. This national survey describing the perception of healthcare professionals regarding the new harmonisation procedure for injectable drugs highlighted some progress but also a number of deficiencies, notably regarding communication and implementation of the change in clinical units. This survey will be used by the French Health Products Agency to improve future steps of the long-lasting campaign against medication errors. Copyright © 2011 Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Feasibility, Acceptability, and Programme Effectiveness of Misoprostol for Prevention of Postpartum Haemorrhage in Rural Bangladesh: A Quasiexperimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Quaiyum

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We explored the feasibility of distributing misoprostol tablets using two strategies in prevention of postpartum haemorrhage (PPH among women residing in the Abhoynagar subdistrict of Bangladesh. We conducted a quasiexperimental study with a posttest design and nonequivalent comparison and intervention groups. Paramedics distributed three misoprostol tablets, one delivery mat (Quaiyum’s delivery mat, a packet of five standardized sanitary pads, and one lidded plastic container with detailed counseling on their use. All materials except misoprostol were also provided with counseling sessions to the control group participants. Postpartum blood loss was measured by paramedics using standardized method. This study has demonstrated community acceptability to misoprostol tablets for the prevention of PPH that reduced overall volume of blood loss after childbirth. Likewise, the delivery mat and pad were found to be useful to mothers as tools for assessing the amount of blood loss after delivery and informing care-seeking decisions. Further studies should be undertaken to explore whether government outreach health workers can be trained to effectively distribute misoprostol tablets among rural women of Bangladesh. Such a study should explore and identify the programmatic requirements to integrate this within the existing reproductive health program of the Government of Bangladesh.

  4. Outcome results for the Ma'alahi Youth Project, a Tongan community-based obesity prevention programme for adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotu, K F; Millar, L; Mavoa, H; Kremer, P; Moodie, M; Snowdon, W; Utter, J; Vivili, P; Schultz, J T; Malakellis, M; McCabe, M P; Roberts, G; Swinburn, B A

    2011-11-01

    Tonga has a very high prevalence of obesity with steep increases during youth, making adolescence a critical time for obesity prevention. The Ma'alahi Youth Project, the Tongan arm of the Pacific Obesity Prevention in Communities project, was a 3-year, quasi-experimental study of community-based interventions among adolescents in three districts on Tonga's main island (Tongatapu) compared to the island of Vava'u. Interventions focused mainly on capacity building, social marketing, education and activities promoting physical activity and local fruit and vegetables. The evaluation used a longitudinal design (mean follow-up duration 2.4 years). Both intervention and comparison groups showed similar large increases in overweight and obesity prevalence (10.1% points, n = 815; 12.6% points, n = 897 respectively). Apart from a small relative decrease in percentage body fat in the intervention group (-1.5%, P Youth Project had no impact on the large increase in prevalence of overweight and obesity among Tongan adolescents. Community-based interventions in such populations with high obesity prevalence may require more intensive or longer interventions, as well as specific strategies targeting the substantial socio-cultural barriers to achieving a healthy weight. © 2011 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2011 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  5. Lessons drawn from serious accidents in nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosciusko-Morizet, F.; Tanguy, P.

    1981-01-01

    Taking a number of serious accidents considered to be particularly representative (Windscale, Enrico Fermi, Lucens, Browns Ferry, Three Mile Island and Saint-Laurent-des-Eaux), the paper analyses the conclusions reached in subsequent enquiries and the lessons drawn from them by the responsible authorities. While design problems sometimes come to light, it is much more generally operational safety - problems related to instructions, the training of operators, the man/machine relationship - which appears to be inadequate. The organization of relations between the different partners - builders, operators and safety bodies - likewise gives rise to some observations. Certain measures should be pursued on a broader scale in order to improve our ability to prevent serious accidents: (i) incidents important from the standpoint of safety must be identified; (ii) these incidents must be brought to the knowledge of all partners concerned, in all interested countries; (iii) the lessons drawn from them must be exchanged and compared; and (iv) the lessons must be made generally available in a directly usable form (i.e. as design modifications, changes in instructions and so on). Particular attention must be given to the problems of countries which are embarking on nuclear programmes and which, with a small number of installations, need direct and permanent access to all the lessons drawn from the operation of a large power station park, and must be able to call upon the assistance of teams from outside in the event of an accident. (author)

  6. Development, Implementation and Evaluation of an Educational Intervention to Prevent Low Speed Vehicle Run-Over Events: Lessons Learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Bronwyn; Watt, Kerrianne; Kimble, Roy; Shields, Linda

    2018-04-05

    There is a growing body of literature regarding low speed vehicle runover (LSVRO) events among children. To date, no literature exists on evaluation of interventions to address this serious childhood injury. Knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour regarding LSVROs were assessed via survey at a shopping centre (pre-intervention), then five months later (post-intervention), to investigate the effect of a population level educational intervention in Queensland, Australia. Participants' knowledge regarding frequency of LSVRO events was poor. No participant demonstrated 'adequate behaviour' in relation to four safe driveway behaviours pre-intervention; this increased at post-intervention ( p experience reflects the 'real-world' challenges associated with implementing prevention strategies. We suggest a multi-faceted approach involving media (including social media), legislative changes, subsidies (for reversing cameras), and education to prevent LSVROs.

  7. Mental health promotion and socio-economic disadvantage: lessons from substance abuse, violence and crime prevention and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toumbourou, J W; Hemphill, S A; Tresidder, J; Humphreys, C; Edwards, J; Murray, D

    2007-12-01

    Mental health promotion aimed at populations with low socio-economic status (SES) may benefit by investigating prevention strategies that effectively address related child and adolescent problems. Evidence from a number of literature reviews and program evaluations was synthesised. First, the impact of SES on development from childhood to adulthood is considered in light of research on substance abuse, violence, crime, and child development problems. Second, evaluations of interventions are reviewed to identify those that have shown outcomes in research studies (efficacy) or in real-world settings (effectiveness) in reducing developmental problems associated with low SES. Low SES is measured in different ways including low levels of education and/or income or definitions that combine several variables into a new indicator of low SES. Factors associated with low SES are also associated to varying extent with the development of violence and crime, substance abuse and child health problems. Interventions that address underlying determinants of low SES show strong efficacy in decreasing adolescent crime and violence and effectiveness in improving child health outcomes. Although there is limited efficacy evidence that substance abuse prevention can be effectively addressed by targeting low SES, programs designed to improve educational pathways show some efficacy in reducing aspects of adolescent substance use. Mental health promotion strategies can draw on the approaches outlined here that are associated with the prevention of child and adolescent problems within low SES communities. Alternatively, such interventions could be supported in mental health promotion policy as they may assist in preventing related problems that undermine mental health.

  8. How to offer culturally relevant type 2 diabetes screening: lessons learned from the South asian diabetes prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Draanen, Jenna; Shafique, Ammara; Farissi, Aziz; Wickramanayake, Dilani; Kuttaiya, Sheela; Oza, Shobha; Stephens, Neil

    2014-10-01

    The literature on diabetes mellitus in the South Asian population clearly states the high-risk status of this group, yet there is a lack of effective models of culturally relevant, community-based screening and education programs for such a group. The South Asian Diabetes Prevention Program (SADPP) was developed to enhance equitable access to diabetes prevention resources for the South Asian communities in Toronto by offering language-specific and culturally relevant services. The SADPP model works through 3 participant education sessions plus an additional attachment and enrolment component. The screening tool that SADPP uses to provide participants with their individual risk score at the first education session is derived from the multiculturally validated Canadian Diabetes Risk Assessment Questionnaire (CANRISK), which has been modified to reflect the distinctive characteristics of the South Asian population. After analyzing the risk scores, 32% of participants were at increased risk, 40% were at high risk, 21% were at very high risk and only 7% were found to be at low risk of diabetes development. Evaluations of the program conducted in 2010 and 2013 revealed that the program is achieving its objectives and that participants increase their knowledge and self-efficacy related to diabetes prevention after program participation. Participants reported that the presentation from the nurse and dietitian, the question-and-answer time, the healthy eating demonstration, the multiple languages of delivery and the convenient location were especially beneficial. Those working in the field are encouraged to adapt this model and to contribute to the development of culturally relevant, community-driven diabetes prevention programs. Copyright © 2014 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Technological innovation, human capital and social change for sustainability. Lessons learnt from the industrial technologies theme of the EU's Research Framework Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabadie, Jesús Alquézar

    2014-05-15

    Europe is facing a twofold challenge. It must maintain or even increase its competitiveness, a basic requirement in a globalised economy and under the current demographic threat. It needs also to tackle the so-called "grand challenges", especially environmental issues, through a sustainable model of production and consumption. Such challenges should lead to new business and industrial models, based on more sustainable production and consumption chains, from design to end of life. This implies a need for new industrial materials and processes, new skills and, indeed, new values and life-styles. Sustainability and innovation are key elements of EU's Research and Innovation Framework Programmes, particularly in the field of industrial technologies (nanotechnologies, materials and industrial technologies), which objective is to "improve the competitiveness of the European industry and generate knowledge to ensure its transformation from a resource intensive to a knowledge intensive industry". Sustainability and innovation are interrelated challenges for R&D. Research can develop technical solutions to tackle environmental or societal challenges, but such technologies need to be successfully commercialised to have a real environmental impact. Several socio-economic studies carried-out by the European Commission show not only the emerging technological and industrial trends, but they also emphasise the need for linking sustainable technologies with social change. Human capital and new social behaviours are critical factors to combine economic competitiveness and sustainability: technology alone is no longer able to solve global challenges. But what kind of human capital (skills, behaviours, and values) are we referring to? How to encourage the shift towards a greener society through human capital? Which reforms are needed in education systems to move towards a sustainable economy? Are there examples of social innovation to be extrapolated and/or generalised? © 2013

  10. Using workshops to develop theories of change in five low and middle income countries: lessons from the programme for improving mental health care (PRIME)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The Theory of Change (ToC) approach has been used to develop and evaluate complex health initiatives in a participatory way in high income countries. Little is known about its use to develop mental health care plans in low and middle income countries where mental health services remain inadequate. Aims ToC workshops were held as part of formative phase of the Programme for Improving Mental Health Care (PRIME) in order 1) to develop a structured logical and evidence-based ToC map as a basis for a mental health care plan in each district; (2) to contextualise the plans; and (3) to obtain stakeholder buy-in in Ethiopia, India, Nepal, South Africa and Uganda. This study describes the structure and facilitator’s experiences of ToC workshops. Methods The facilitators of the ToC workshops were interviewed and the interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed together with process documentation from the workshops using a framework analysis approach. Results Thirteen workshops were held in the five PRIME countries at different levels of the health system. The ToC workshops achieved their stated goals with the contributions of different stakeholders. District health planners, mental health specialists, and researchers contributed the most to the development of the ToC while service providers provided detailed contextual information. Buy-in was achieved from all stakeholders but valued more from those in control of resources. Conclusions ToC workshops are a useful approach for developing ToCs as a basis for mental health care plans because they facilitate logical, evidence based and contextualised plans, while promoting stakeholder buy in. Because of the existing hierarchies within some health systems, strategies such as limiting the types of participants and stratifying the workshops can be used to ensure productive workshops. PMID:24808923

  11. Successful private-public funding of paediatric medicines research: lessons from the EU programme to fund research into off-patent medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggieri, L; Giannuzzi, V; Baiardi, P; Bonifazi, F; Davies, E H; Giaquinto, C; Bonifazi, D; Felisi, M; Chiron, C; Pressler, R; Rabe, H; Whitaker, M J; Neubert, A; Jacqz-Aigrain, E; Eichler, I; Turner, M A; Ceci, A

    2015-04-01

    The European Paediatric Regulation mandated the European Commission to fund research on off-patent medicines with demonstrated therapeutic interest for children. Responding to this mandate, five FP7 project calls were launched and 20 projects were granted. This paper aims to detail the funded projects and their preliminary results. Publicly available sources have been consulted and a descriptive analysis has been performed. Twenty Research Consortia including 246 partners in 29 European and non-European countries were created (involving 129 universities or public-funded research organisations, 51 private companies with 40 SMEs, 7 patient associations). The funded projects investigate 24 medicines, covering 10 therapeutic areas in all paediatric age groups. In response to the Paediatric Regulation and to apply for a Paediatric Use Marketing Authorisation, 15 Paediatric Investigation Plans have been granted by the EMA-Paediatric Committee, including 71 studies of whom 29 paediatric clinical trials, leading to a total of 7,300 children to be recruited in more than 380 investigational centres. Notwithstanding the EU contribution for each study is lower than similar publicly funded projects, and also considering the complexity of paediatric research, these projects are performing high-quality research and are progressing towards the increase of new paediatric medicines on the market. Private-public partnerships have been effectively implemented, providing a good example for future collaborative actions. Since these projects cover a limited number of off-patent drugs and many unmet therapeutic needs in paediatrics remain, it is crucial foreseeing new similar initiatives in forthcoming European funding programmes.

  12. What California sea lions exposed to domoic acid might teach us about autism: lessons for predictive and preventive medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahvis, Garet Paul

    2017-09-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) shares many biological and behavioral similarities with the deleterious effects of domoic acid (DA) exposure. DA is produced by marine algae and most commonly by species of Pseudo-nitzschia . Humans and marine mammals can be exposed to DA when they consume whole fish or shellfish. The mammalian fetus is highly sensitive to the deleterious effects of DA exposure. Both ASD and exposures to toxic levels of DA feature repetitive behaviors, challenges with social interaction, and seizures. They can also share a commonality in brain anatomy and function, particularly the balance between excitatory and inhibitory mechanisms. The current article is relevant to predictive, preventive, and personalized medicine for three reasons. First, shellfish consumption may be a risk factor for ASD and the regulatory limit for DA should be adjusted to prevent this possibility. Human contributions to increased algal production of DA in coastal waters should be identified and reduced. Second, evaluations of sentinel species wild and free-roaming in the environment, though typically outside the purview of biomedical research, should be much more fully employed to gain insights to risk factors for human disease. To better identify and prevent disease, biomedical researchers should study wild populations. Third, studies of DA exposure highlight the possibility that glutamate additives to processed foods may also have deleterious impacts on human brain development and behavior.

  13. Early cystic fibrosis lung disease: Role of airway surface dehydration and lessons from preventive rehydration therapies in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mall, Marcus A; Graeber, Simon Y; Stahl, Mirjam; Zhou-Suckow, Zhe

    2014-07-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease starts in the first months of life and remains one of the most common fatal hereditary diseases. Early therapeutic interventions may provide an opportunity to prevent irreversible lung damage and improve outcome. Airway surface dehydration is a key disease mechanism in CF, however, its role in the in vivo pathogenesis and as therapeutic target in early lung disease remains poorly understood. Mice with airway-specific overexpression of the epithelial Na(+) channel (βENaC-Tg) recapitulate airway surface dehydration and phenocopy CF lung disease. Recent studies in neonatal βENaC-Tg mice demonstrated that airway surface dehydration produces early mucus plugging in the absence of mucus hypersecretion, which triggers airway inflammation, promotes bacterial infection and causes early mortality. Preventive rehydration therapy with hypertonic saline or amiloride effectively reduced mucus plugging and mortality in neonatal βENaC-Tg mice. These results support clinical testing of preventive/early rehydration strategies in infants and young children with CF. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A cross-sectional study of risk factors for HIV among pregnant women in Guatemala City, Guatemala: lessons for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johri, M; Morales, R E; Hoch, J S; Samayoa, B E; Sommen, C; Grazioso, C F; Boivin, J-F; Barrios Matta, I J; Baide Diaz, E L; Arathoon, E G

    2010-12-01

    Although the Central American HIV epidemic is concentrated in high-risk groups, HIV incidence is increasing in young women. From 2005 to 2007, we conducted a cross-sectional study of pregnant women in a large public hospital and an HIV clinic in Guatemala City to describe risk factors for HIV infection and inform prevention strategies. For 4629 consenting patients, HIV status was laboratory-confirmed and participant characteristics were assessed by interviewer-administered questionnaires. Lifetime number of sexual partners ranged from 1 to 99, with a median (interquartile range) of 1 (1, 2). 2.6% (120) reported exchanging sex for benefits; 0.1% (3) were sex workers, 2.3% (106) had used illegal drugs, 31.1% (1421) planned their pregnancy and 31.8% (1455) experienced abuse. In logistic regression analyses, HIV status was predicted by one variable describing women's behaviour (lifetime sexual partners) and three variables describing partner risks (partner HIV+, migrant worker or suspected unfaithful). Women in our sample exhibited few behavioural risks for HIV but significant vulnerability via partner behaviours. To stem feminization of the epidemic, health authorities should complement existing prevention interventions in high-risk populations with directed efforts towards bridging populations such as migrant workers. We identify four locally adapted HIV prevention strategies.

  15. Development, Implementation and Evaluation of an Educational Intervention to Prevent Low Speed Vehicle Run-Over Events: Lessons Learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronwyn Griffin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing body of literature regarding low speed vehicle runover (LSVRO events among children. To date, no literature exists on evaluation of interventions to address this serious childhood injury. Knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour regarding LSVROs were assessed via survey at a shopping centre (pre-intervention, then five months later (post-intervention, to investigate the effect of a population level educational intervention in Queensland, Australia. Participants’ knowledge regarding frequency of LSVRO events was poor. No participant demonstrated ‘adequate behaviour’ in relation to four safe driveway behaviours pre-intervention; this increased at post-intervention (p < 0.05. Most of the sample perceived other’s driveway behaviour as inadequate, and this reduced significantly (<0.05. Perceived effectiveness of LSVRO prevention strategies increased from pre- to post-intervention, but not significantly. TV was the greatest source of knowledge regarding LSVROs pre- and post-intervention. This study provides some evidence that the educational campaign and opportunistic media engagement were successful in increasing awareness and improving behaviour regarding LSVROs. While there are several limitations to this study, our experience reflects the ‘real-world’ challenges associated with implementing prevention strategies. We suggest a multi-faceted approach involving media (including social media, legislative changes, subsidies (for reversing cameras, and education to prevent LSVROs.

  16. Effects of a community-oriented obesity prevention programme on indicators of body fatness in preschool and primary school children. Main results from the IDEFICS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Henauw, S; Huybrechts, I; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Bammann, K; Barba, G; Lissner, L; Mårild, S; Molnár, D; Moreno, L A; Pigeot, I; Tornaritis, M; Veidebaum, T; Verbestel, V; Ahrens, W

    2015-12-01

    Childhood obesity is a major public health concern but evidence-based approaches to tackle this epidemic sustainably are still lacking. The Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health EFfects In Children and infantS (IDEFICS) study investigated the aetiology of childhood obesity and developed a primary prevention programme. Here, we report on the effects of the IDEFICS intervention on indicators of body fatness. The intervention modules addressed the community, school and parental level, focusing on diet, physical activity and stress-related lifestyle factors. A cohort of 16,228 children aged 2-9.9 years - about 2000 per country - was equally divided over intervention and control regions. (Participating countries were Sweden, Germany, Estonia, Hungary, Cyprus, Italy, Spain and Belgium.) We compared the prevalence of overweight/obesity and mean values of body mass index z-score, per cent body fat and waist-to-height ratio over 2 years of follow-up. Mixed models adjusting for age and socioeconomic status of the parents and with an additional random effect for country accounted for the clustered study design. The prevalence of overweight and obesity increased in both the intervention and control group from 18.0% at baseline to 22.9% at follow-up in the control group and from 19.0% to 23.6% in the intervention group. The difference in changes between control and intervention was not statistically significant. For the cohort as a whole, the changes in indicators of body fatness did not show any clinically relevant differences between the intervention and control groups. Changes in favour of intervention treatment in some indicators were counterbalanced by changes in favour of the control group in some other indicators. Over the 2-year-observation period, the IDEFICS primary prevention programme for childhood obesity has not been successful in reducing the prevalence of overweight and obesity nor in improving indicators of body fatness in

  17. State-of-the-science on prevention of elder abuse and lessons learned from child abuse and domestic violence prevention: Toward a conceptual framework for research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teresi, Jeanne A.; Burnes, David; Skowron, Elizabeth A.; Dutton, Mary Ann; Mosqueda, Laura; Lachs, Mark S.; Pillemer, Karl

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this review is to discuss the state-of-the-science in elder abuse prevention. Findings from evidence-based programs to reduce elder abuse are discussed, drawing from findings and insights from evidence-based programs for child maltreatment and domestic/ intimate partner violence. A conceptual measurement model for the study of elder abuse is presented, and linked to possible measures of risk factors and outcomes. Advances in neuroscience in child maltreatment and novel measurement strategies for outcome assessment are presented. PMID:27676289

  18. State of the science on prevention of elder abuse and lessons learned from child abuse and domestic violence prevention: Toward a conceptual framework for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teresi, Jeanne A; Burnes, David; Skowron, Elizabeth A; Dutton, Mary Ann; Mosqueda, Laura; Lachs, Mark S; Pillemer, Karl

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this review is to discuss the state of the science in elder abuse prevention. Findings from evidence-based programs to reduce elder abuse are discussed, drawing from findings and insights from evidence-based programs for child maltreatment and domestic/intimate partner violence. A conceptual measurement model for the study of elder abuse is presented and linked to possible measures of risk factors and outcomes. Advances in neuroscience in child maltreatment and novel measurement strategies for outcome assessment are presented.

  19. The Single-Visit Approach as a Cervical Cancer Prevention Strategy Among Women With HIV in Ethiopia: Successes and Lessons Learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiferaw, Netsanet; Salvador-Davila, Graciela; Kassahun, Konjit; Brooks, Mohamad I; Weldegebreal, Teklu; Tilahun, Yewondwossen; Zerihun, Habtamu; Nigatu, Tariku; Lulu, Kidest; Ahmed, Ismael; Blumenthal, Paul D; Asnake, Mengistu

    2016-03-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common form of cancer for women in Ethiopia. Using a single-visit approach to prevent cervical cancer, the Addis Tesfa (New Hope) project in Ethiopia tested women with HIV through visual inspection of the cervix with acetic acid wash (VIA) and, if tests results were positive, offered immediate cryotherapy of the precancerous lesion or referral for loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP). The objective of this article is to review screening and treatment outcomes over nearly 4 years of project implementation and to identify lessons learned to improve cervical cancer prevention programs in Ethiopia and other resource-constrained settings. We analyzed aggregate client data from August 2010 to March 2014 to obtain the number of women with HIV who were counseled, screened, and treated, as well as the number of annual follow-up visits made, from the 14 tertiary- and secondary-level health facilities implementing the single-visit approach. A health facility assessment (HFA) was also implemented from August to December 2013 to examine the effects of the single-visit approach on client flow, staff workload, and facility infrastructure 3 years after initiating the approach. Almost all (99%) of the 16,632 women with HIV counseled about the single-visit approach were screened with VIA during the study period; 1,656 (10%) of them tested VIA positive (VIA+) for precancerous lesions. Among those who tested VIA+ and were thus eligible for cryotherapy, 1,481 (97%) received cryotherapy treatment, but only 80 (63%) women eligible for LEEP actually received the treatment. The HFA results showed frequent staff turnover, some shortage of essential supplies, and rooms that were judged by providers to be too small for delivery of cervical cancer prevention services. The high proportions of VIA screening and cryotherapy treatment in the Addis Tesfa project suggest high acceptance of such services by women with HIV and feasibility of implementation

  20. Managing workplace stress in community pharmacy organisations: lessons from a review of the wider stress management and prevention literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Sally; Johnson, Sheena; Hassell, Karen

    2018-02-01

    Workplace stress in community pharmacy is increasing internationally due, in part, to pharmacists' expanding roles and escalating workloads. Whilst the business case for preventing and managing workplace stress by employers is strong, there is little evidence for the effectiveness of organisational stress management interventions in community pharmacy settings. To identify and synthesise existing evidence for the effectiveness of organisational solutions to workplace stress from the wider organisational literature which may be adaptable to community pharmacies. A secondary synthesis of existing reviews. Publications were identified through keyword searches of electronic databases and the internet; inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied; data about setting, intervention, method of evaluation, effectiveness and conclusions (including factors for success) were extracted and synthesised. Eighteen reviews of the stress management and prevention literature were identified. A comprehensive list of organisational interventions to prevent or manage workplace stress, ordered by prevalence of evidence of effectiveness, was produced, together with an ordered list of the benefits both to the individual and employing organisation. An evidence-based model of best practice was derived specifying eight factors for success: top management support, context-specific interventions, combined organisational and individual interventions, a participative approach, clearly delineated tasks and responsibilities, buy-in from middle management, change agents as facilitators and change in organisational culture. This literature review provides community pharmacy organisations with evidence from which to develop effective and successful stress management strategies to support pharmacists and pharmacy staff. Well-designed trials of stress management interventions in community pharmacy organisations are still required. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  1. A Multinational Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial to Assess the Efficacy of '11+ Kids': A Warm-Up Programme to Prevent Injuries in Children's Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rössler, Roland; Junge, Astrid; Bizzini, Mario; Verhagen, Evert; Chomiak, Jiri; Aus der Fünten, Karen; Meyer, Tim; Dvorak, Jiri; Lichtenstein, Eric; Beaudouin, Florian; Faude, Oliver

    2018-06-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of a newly developed warm-up programme ('11+ Kids') regarding its potential to reduce injuries in children's football. Children's football teams (under 9 years, under 11 years, and under 13 years age groups) from Switzerland, Germany, the Czech Republic and the Netherlands were invited. Clubs were randomised to an intervention group and a control group, and followed for one season. The intervention group replaced their usual warm-up by '11+ Kids', while the control group warmed up as usual. The primary outcome was the overall risk of football-related injuries. Secondary outcomes were the risks of severe and lower extremity injuries. We calculated hazard ratios using extended Cox models, and performed a compliance analysis. In total, 292,749 h of football exposure of 3895 players were recorded. The mean age of players was 10.8 (standard deviation 1.4) years. During the study period, 374 (intervention group = 139; control group = 235) injuries occurred. The overall injury rate in the intervention group was reduced by 48% compared with the control group (hazard ratio 0.52; 95% confidence interval 0.32-0.86). Severe (74% reduction, hazard ratio 0.26; 95% confidence interval 0.10-0.64) and lower extremity injuries (55% reduction, hazard ratio 0.45; 95% confidence interval 0.24-0.84) were also reduced. Injury incidence decreased with increasing compliance. '11+ Kids' is efficacious in reducing injuries in children's football. We observed considerable effects for overall, severe and lower extremity injuries. The programme should be performed at least once per week to profit from an injury preventive effect. However, two sessions per week can be recommended to further increase the protective benefit. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02222025.

  2. Promoting Policy, Systems, and Environment Change to Prevent Chronic Disease: Lessons Learned From the King County Communities Putting Prevention to Work Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheadle, Allen; Cromp, DeAnn; Krieger, James W; Chan, Nadine; McNees, Molly; Ross-Viles, Sarah; Kellogg, Ryan; Rahimian, Afsaneh; MacDougall, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Initiatives that convene community stakeholders to implement policy, systems, environment, and infrastructure (PSEI) change have become a standard approach for promoting community health. To assess the PSEI changes brought about by the King County, Washington, Communities Putting Prevention to Work initiative and describe how initiative structures and processes contributed to making changes. The impact evaluation used a logic model design, linking PSEI changes to longer-term behavioral impacts in healthy eating active living and tobacco use and exposure. Qualitative methods, including stakeholder interviews and surveys, were used to identify initiative success factors. Communities Putting Prevention to Work activities occurred throughout King County, with a focus on 7 low-income communities in South Seattle/King County. The focus communities had a combined population of 652 000, or 35% of the county total, with lower incomes and higher rates of physical inactivity, tobacco use, poor diet, and chronic disease. Twenty-four PSEI strategies were pursued by organizations in sectors including schools, local governments, and community organizations, supported by the public health department. There were 17 healthy eating active living strategies (eg, enhancements to school menus, city planning policies) and 7 tobacco strategies (eg, smoke-free policies in schools, housing, and hospitals). PSEI changes made and numbers of residents reached. Twenty-two of the 24 strategies achieved significant progress toward implementing PSEI changes. The most common success factor was a "dyad" consisting of a dedicated technical assistance provider-either an outside consultant or public health department staff-working closely with a champion from the participating organizations to bring about PSEI changes. An initiative structure that creates and supports external consultant/internal organizational champion dyads in key community sectors offers a promising approach that may be adopted by

  3. Prevention of sexual transmission of Ebola in Liberia through a national semen testing and counselling programme for survivors: an analysis of Ebola virus RNA results and behavioural data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soka, Moses J; Choi, Mary J; Baller, April; White, Stephen; Rogers, Emerson; Purpura, Lawrence J; Mahmoud, Nuha; Wasunna, Christine; Massaquoi, Moses; Abad, Neetu; Kollie, Jomah; Dweh, Straker; Bemah, Philip K; Christie, Athalia; Ladele, Victor; Subah, Oneykachi C; Pillai, Satish; Mugisha, Margaret; Kpaka, Jonathan; Kowalewski, Stephen; German, Emilio; Stenger, Mark; Nichol, Stuart; Ströher, Ute; Vanderende, Kristin E; Zarecki, Shauna Mettee; Green, Hugh Henry W; Bailey, Jeffrey A; Rollin, Pierre; Marston, Barbara; Nyenswah, Tolbert G; Gasasira, Alex; Knust, Barbara; Williams, Desmond

    2016-10-01

    Ebola virus has been detected in semen of Ebola virus disease survivors after recovery. Liberia's Men's Health Screening Program (MHSP) offers Ebola virus disease survivors semen testing for Ebola virus. We present preliminary results and behavioural outcomes from the first national semen testing programme for Ebola virus. The MHSP operates out of three locations in Liberia: Redemption Hospital in Montserrado County, Phebe Hospital in Bong County, and Tellewoyan Hospital in Lofa County. Men aged 15 years and older who had an Ebola treatment unit discharge certificate are eligible for inclusion. Participants' semen samples were tested for Ebola virus RNA by real-time RT-PCR and participants received counselling on safe sexual practices. Participants graduated after receiving two consecutive negative semen tests. Counsellors collected information on sociodemographics and sexual behaviours using questionnaires administered at enrolment, follow up, and graduation visits. Because the programme is ongoing, data analysis was restricted to data obtained from July 7, 2015, to May 6, 2016. As of May 6, 2016, 466 Ebola virus disease survivors had enrolled in the programme; real-time RT-PCR results were available from 429 participants. 38 participants (9%) produced at least one semen specimen that tested positive for Ebola virus RNA. Of these, 24 (63%) provided semen specimens that tested positive 12 months or longer after Ebola virus disease recovery. The longest interval between discharge from an Ebola treatment unit and collection of a positive semen sample was 565 days. Among participants who enrolled and provided specimens more than 90 days since their Ebola treatment unit discharge, men older than 40 years were more likely to have a semen sample test positive than were men aged 40 years or younger (p=0·0004). 84 (74%) of 113 participants who reported not using a condom at enrolment reported using condoms at their first follow-up visit (pEbola virus RNA by real-time RT

  4. Transitioning from antenatal surveillance surveys to routine HIV testing: a turning point in the mother-to-child transmission prevention programme for HIV surveillance in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Gerson Fernando Mendes; Sabidó, Meritxell; Caruso, Alessandro; Benzaken, Adele Schwartz

    2017-07-05

    In Brazil, due to the rapid increase in programmes for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT), routine programme data are widely available. The objective of this study was to assess the utility of programmatic data to replace HIV surveillance based on the antenatal care (ANC) surveillance survey (SS). We analysed ANC SS data from 219 maternity service clinics. PMTCT variables were extracted from the ANC SS data collection form, which allowed us to capture and compare the ANC SS data and PMTCT HIV test results for each pregnant woman who completed the ANC SS. Both the PMTCT programme and the ANC SS tested for HIV using sequential ELISA and western blot for confirmation. We assessed the completeness (% missing) of the PMTC data included in the ANC SS. Of the 36,713 pregnant women who had ANC SS HIV tests performed, 30,588 also underwent PMTCT HIV testing. The HIV prevalence rate from routine PMTCT testing was 0.36%, compared to 0.38% from the ANC SS testing (relative difference -0.05%; absolute difference -0.02%). The relative difference in prevalence rates between pregnant women in northern Brazil and pregnant women central-west Brazil was -0.98 and 0.66, respectively. Of the 29,856 women who had HIV test results from both the PMTCT and ANC SS, the positive percent agreement of the PMTCT versus the surveillance test was 84.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 74.8-91.0), and the negative percent agreement was 99.9% (95% CI: 99.9-100.0). The PMTCT HIV testing uptake was 86.4%. The ANC SS HIV prevalence was 0.33% among PMTCT non-refusers and 0.59% among refusers, with a percent bias of -10.80% and a differential prevalence ratio of 0.56. Syphilis and HIV testing results were complete in 98% and 97.6% of PMTCT reports, respectively. The reported HIV status for the women at clinic entry was missing. Although there were consistent HIV prevalence estimates from the PMTCT data and the ANC SS, the overall positive percent agreement of 84.1% falls below the

  5. Occupational contact urticaria: lessons from the French National Network for Occupational Disease Vigilance and Prevention (RNV3P).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensefa-Colas, L; Telle-Lamberton, M; Faye, S; Bourrain, J-L; Crépy, M-N; Lasfargues, G; Choudat, D; Momas, I

    2015-12-01

    Occupational contact urticaria (OCU) is an occupational contact dermatitis that can cause serious health consequences and disability at work. To describe OCU and its temporal trends by the main causal agents and activity sectors in a nationwide scheme in France. Using data from the French National Network for Occupational Disease Vigilance and Prevention (RNV3P), we described OCU reported during the period 2001-10 and analysed the temporal trends of OCU and OCU attributed to the most frequent agents over the study period. Trends analyses were supported by reporting odds ratios using a logistic regression model with reference to 2001, or with time as a continuous variable. During the study period, 251 cases of OCU were reported in RNV3P, half of which were due to natural rubber latex, in particular in the health and social work activity sector (HSW). The number of these cases declined significantly over the study period (19% per year), and particularly after 2006. Conversely, the other causes of OCU did not decrease. Using surveillance data from a French national network, this study has found that there was a significant decline in OCU due to natural rubber latex, particularly in the HSW, when powdered latex gloves were banned from French hospitals. Our results show the effectiveness of this preventive measure, and suggest that this practice should be extended to other sectors. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.

  6. Engaging partners to initiate evaluation efforts: tactics used and lessons learned from the prevention research centers program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Demia Sundra; Anderson, Lynda A; Brownson, Ross C; Gwaltney, Margaret K; Scherer, Jennifer; Cross, Alan W; Goodman, Robert M; Schwartz, Randy; Sims, Tom; White, Carol R

    2008-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) Prevention Research Centers (PRC) Program underwent a 2-year evaluation planning project using a participatory process that allowed perspectives from the national community of PRC partners to be expressed and reflected in a national logic model. The PRC Program recognized the challenge in developing a feasible, useable, and relevant evaluation process for a large, diverse program. To address the challenge, participatory and utilization-focused evaluation models were used. Four tactics guided the evaluation planning process: 1) assessing stakeholders' communication needs and existing communication mechanisms and infrastructure; 2) using existing mechanisms and establishing others as needed to inform, educate, and request feedback; 3) listening to and using feedback received; and 4) obtaining adequate resources and building flexibility into the project plan to support multifaceted mechanisms for data collection. Participatory methods resulted in buy-in from stakeholders and the development of a national logic model. Benefits included CDC's use of the logic model for program planning and development of a national evaluation protocol and increased expectations among PRC partners for involvement. Challenges included the time, effort, and investment of program resources required for the participatory approach and the identification of whom to engage and when to engage them for feedback on project decisions. By using a participatory and utilization-focused model, program partners positively influenced how CDC developed an evaluation plan. The tactics we used can guide the involvement of program stakeholders and help with decisions on appropriate methods and approaches for engaging partners.

  7. Improving ART programme retention and viral suppression are key to maximising impact of treatment as prevention - a modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreesh, Nicky; Andrianakis, Ioannis; Nsubuga, Rebecca N; Strong, Mark; Vernon, Ian; McKinley, Trevelyan J; Oakley, Jeremy E; Goldstein, Michael; Hayes, Richard; White, Richard G

    2017-08-09

    UNAIDS calls for fewer than 500,000 new HIV infections/year by 2020, with treatment-as-prevention being a key part of their strategy for achieving the target. A better understanding of the contribution to transmission of people at different stages of the care pathway can help focus intervention services at populations where they may have the greatest effect. We investigate this using Uganda as a case study. An individual-based HIV/ART model was fitted using history matching. 100 model fits were generated to account for uncertainties in sexual behaviour, HIV epidemiology, and ART coverage up to 2015 in Uganda. A number of different ART scale-up intervention scenarios were simulated between 2016 and 2030. The incidence and proportion of transmission over time from people with primary infection, post-primary ART-naïve infection, and people currently or previously on ART was calculated. In all scenarios, the proportion of transmission by ART-naïve people decreases, from 70% (61%-79%) in 2015 to between 23% (15%-40%) and 47% (35%-61%) in 2030. The proportion of transmission by people on ART increases from 7.8% (3.5%-13%) to between 14% (7.0%-24%) and 38% (21%-55%). The proportion of transmission by ART dropouts increases from 22% (15%-33%) to between 31% (23%-43%) and 56% (43%-70%). People who are currently or previously on ART are likely to play an increasingly large role in transmission as ART coverage increases in Uganda. Improving retention on ART, and ensuring that people on ART remain virally suppressed, will be key in reducing HIV incidence in Uganda.

  8. CaPSCA: Evaluation of a Brief Cancer Prevention Education Programme to Promote Balanced Diet in French School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennie, Laura J; Bazillier-Bruneau, Cécile; Rouëssé, Jacques

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of two cancer prevention interventions in improving balanced diet among French children aged 12-14 years. The educational techniques used were taken from the taxonomy of behaviour change techniques (BCTs; Abraham & Michie, 2008). Allocation to intervention group (intervention versus control) was randomised at the school-level, the intervention group received two interventions, each of 1-h duration, containing BCTs including advocated attitude, anticipated success/regret, behaviour modelling and barrier identification. Self-reported diet was assessed pre- and post-interventions. The resulting data were coded by a nutritionist and transformed into a novel measure representing the extent to which the participant achieved a balanced diet. Multilevel modelling indicated that, having taken into account the clustered nature of the data, gender and the differing socio-economic status of the participants, balanced diet decreased over time, b=-1.23, t(1830)=-2.79, p=0.005, but this was qualified by a significant interaction effect with intervention, b=1.42, t(1830)=1.98, p=0.047. Separate models for each intervention group revealed that balanced diet decreased over time in the control group, b=-1.25, t(1195)=-2.47, p=0.014, but did not in the intervention group, b=0.19, t(635)=0.44, p=0.66, suggesting a buffering effect of the interventions on balanced diet over time. These findings demonstrate the effectiveness of educational interventions using established behaviour change techniques, to change behaviour.

  9. Development of macaronic Hindi-English ‘Hinglish’ text message content for a coronary heart disease secondary prevention programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakkar, Jay; Karthikeyan, Ganesan; Purohit, Gaurav; Thakkar, Swetha; Sharma, Jitender; Verma, Sunilkumar; Parakh, Neeraj; Seth, Sandeep; Mishra, Sundeep; Yadav, Rakesh; Singh, Sandeep; Joshi, Rohina; Thiagalingam, Aravinda; Chow, Clara K; Redfern, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Background Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in India. Text message based prevention programs have demonstrated reduction in cardiovascular risk factors among patients with CHD in selected populations. Customisation is important as behaviour change is influenced by culture and linguistic context. Objectives To customise a mobile phone text message program supporting behaviour and treatment adherence in CHD for delivery in North India. Methods We used an iterative process with mixed methods involving three phases: (1) Initial translation, (2) Review and incorporation of feedback including review by cardiologists in India to assess alignment with local guidelines and by consumers on perceived utility and clarity and (3) Pilot testing of message management software. Results Messages were translated in three ways: symmetrical translation, asymmetrical translation and substitution. Feedback from cardiologists and 25 patients was incorporated to develop the final bank. Patients reported Hinglish messages were easy to understand (93%) and useful (78%). The software located in Australia successfully delivered messages to participants based in Delhi-surrounds (India). Conclusions Our process for customisation of a text message program considered cultural, linguistic and the medical context of potential participants. This is important in optimising intervention fidelity across populations enabling examination of the generalisability of text message programs across populations. We also demonstrated the customised program was acceptable to patients in India and that a centralised cross-country delivery model was feasible. This process could be used as a guide for other groups seeking to customise their programs. Trial registration number TEXTMEDS Australia (Parent study)—ACTRN 12613000793718. PMID:27752288

  10. [Initial evaluation of a programme to prevent mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus infection in Equatorial Guinea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badillo-Navarro, Katie; Prieto-Tato, Luis; Obiang-Esomoyo, Jacinta; Avedillo-Jiménez, Pedro; Vargas-Brizuela, Antonio; Rojo-Conejo, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected pregnant women in Equatorial Guinea (EG) has been reported as 7.3%. In 2008 an updated version of the PMTCT protocol was accepted according to the current WHO guidelines. The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics and outcome of children exposed to HIV after the introduction of the protocol. A retrospective review was conducted on the clinical characteristics of the infants born to HIV-infected mothers in the Hospital Regional de Bata and Primary Health Care Centre Maria Rafols in Bata (EG) between June 2008 and November 2011. The diagnosis of HIV infection in children was based on rapid serology tests. A total of 103 children were included, of which 47 were males. Fifty three patients (51%) completed the follow-up (51%). Fourteen children (26%) were diagnosed with HIV infection (11 presumptive diagnosis, 3 due to persistence of antibodies at 18 months). Six children (12%) died before a definitive diagnosis. Just over than half (52%) of mothers received antiretroviral therapy (ART) during pregnancy. The transmission rate in children whose mothers received ART was 16% (3/19), compared with 43% (10/23) in children whose mothers did not receive it. Only one child was infected (8%) when the mother received ART, and child received postnatal prophylaxis. The PMTCT protocol compliance was still very low. Antiretroviral therapy in pregnant women decreased the rate of vertical transmission, but the rate still remains very high. Many children were lost to follow-up. Strategies to prevent loss to follow-up and methods for earlier virological diagnostic are needed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  11. Summary of lessons learned in Japan from severe accidents: R&D programme for SA-Keisou in Japan. Annex I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Instrumentation systems in a nuclear power plant are very important for monitoring plant conditions for safe operation and shutdown. The severe accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in March 2011 caused several severe situations such as failure of the plant power supply for many monitoring instruments, core damage and hydrogen explosion, among other things. Many of the functions of the instrumentation systems were lost. Monitoring the plant’s conditions then became harder to perform. In the event that an accident similar to the one at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant were to occur in the future, measurements of the important variables, such as reactor water level or reactor pressure, are to be ensured. The development of SA-Keisou1 is needed to monitor these important variables, which contribute to preventing the escalation of an event into a severe accident, mitigating the consequences of a severe accident, achieving a safe state for the plant and confirming that the plant continues to be in a safe state over the long term

  12. Confronting structural violence in sex work: lessons from a community-led HIV prevention project in Mysore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argento, Elena; Reza-Paul, Sushena; Lorway, Robert; Jain, Jinendra; Bhagya, M; Fathima, Mary; Sreeram, S V; Hafeezur, Rahman Syed; O'Neil, John

    2011-01-01

    Evidence from community-led HIV prevention projects suggests that structural interventions may result in reduced rates of HIV and STIs. The complex relationship between empowerment and confronting stigma, discrimination and physical abuse necessitates further investigation into the impact that such interventions have on the personal risks for sex workers. This article aims to describe lived experiences of members from a sex worker's collective in Mysore, India and how they have confronted structural violence. The narratives highlight experiences of violence and the development and implementation of strategies that have altered the social, physical, and emotional environment for sex workers. Building an enabling environment was key to reducing personal risks inherent to sex work, emphasizing the importance of community-led structural interventions for sex workers in India.

  13. Prevention of vitamin K deficiency bleeding in breastfed infants: lessons from the Dutch and Danish biliary atresia registries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselt, P.M. van; Koning, T.J. de; Vries, E. de

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Newborns routinely receive vitamin K to prevent vitamin K deficiency bleeding. The efficacy of oral vitamin K administration may be compromised in infants with unrecognized cholestasis. We aimed to compare the risk of vitamin K deficiency bleeding under different prophylactic regimens...... in infants with biliary atresia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From Dutch and Danish national biliary atresia registries, we retrieved infants who were either breastfed and received 1 mg of oral vitamin K at birth followed by 25 microg of daily oral vitamin K prophylaxis (Netherlands, 1991-2003), 2 mg of oral...... vitamin K at birth followed by 1 mg of weekly oral prophylaxis (Denmark, 1994 to May 2000), or 2 mg of intramuscular prophylaxis at birth (Denmark, June 2000-2005) or were fed by formula. We determined the absolute and relative risk of severe vitamin K deficiency and vitamin K deficiency bleeding...

  14. Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis and Schistosomiasis in Children of Poor Families in Leyte, Philippines: Lessons for Disease Prevention and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liwanag, Harvy Joy; Uy, Jhanna; Bataller, Ramil; Gatchalian, Janis Ruth; De La Calzada, Betty; Uy, Justine Alessandra; Dayrit, Manuel

    2017-10-01

    Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) continue to be a public health problem in the Philippines. We assessed the association of soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) and schistosomiasis with selected health-related and socioeconomic variables in four villages in Leyte, Philippines. Stool specimens from 418 adults and 533 of their children from 209 families were examined through the Kato-Katz technique. STH and schistosomiasis were present in 64.6% and 12.5%, respectively, of study participants. Analysis through the generalized linear mixed model revealed a number of associations between infection in parents and their children. Findings indicate that years of disease prevention and control efforts in these areas have been unable to bring down prevalence in children and their parents. Eliminating NTDs as public health problems will require a systems thinking approach beyond implementation of vertical control programs alone. © The Author [2017]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  15. Can sudden cardiac death in the young be predicted and prevented? Lessons from autopsy for the emergency physician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Jennifer L; Chang, Anna Marie; Cesar, Sergi; Sarquella-Brugada, Georgia

    2018-06-01

    Sudden unexpected death in the young, though rare, is devastating for both the family and the community. Although only 1.3 to 8.5 cases of sudden cardiac death (SCD) occur per 100 000 young people, autopsy is often inconclusive. Many causes of SCD are related to autosomal dominant inherited risk, however; therefore, answers are important for survivors. Causes of autopsy-positive SCD in young patients include hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia. Autopsy-negative SCD has been related to inherited arrhythmogenic causes such as long QT syndrome, Brugada syndrome, catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, Wolff- Parkinson-White syndrome, and idiopathic ventricular fibrillation. The important question for the emergency physician is how SCD can be predicted and prevented in the young so that there is no need for an autopsy.

  16. How do international trade obligations affect policy options for obesity prevention? Lessons from recent developments in trade and tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Tigerstrom, Barbara

    2013-06-01

    Regulatory measures, including taxes and subsidies on food and beverage products, food labelling requirements, regulation of food content and regulation of food marketing, have been proposed to encourage healthier eating and prevent obesity. The objective of this article is to explore the extent to which international trade agreements affect governments' choices to use such regulatory measures. It reviews key provisions of relevant World Trade Organization (WTO) agreements and their implications. Some insights can be gained by examining 2 recent developments in the WTO regarding tobacco control: a current dispute involving Australia's plain packaging law and its effect on trademarks, and a recent decision involving the United States law banning flavoured cigarettes. This decision said that the ban did not restrict trade more than necessary to fulfil its legitimate health objective, but it was discriminatory because it banned imported products (clove cigarettes) while exempting domestic products (menthol cigarettes) with similar characteristics. The conclusion we can draw from this decision is that WTO member states probably enjoy a significant degree of latitude in developing food regulations as part of an obesity prevention strategy, so long as those do not disproportionately affect imported products and therefore raise questions of discrimination. The approach taken in this case encourages the adoption of public health policies that are consistent with strong scientific evidence, but may restrict governments' ability to make political compromises, which could frustrate some proposals. The ongoing development of WTO law will continue to affect policy choices in public health. Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Strategies for reducing police arrest in the context of an HIV prevention programme for female sex workers: evidence from structural interventions in Karnataka, South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Isac, Shajy; McClarty, Leigh M; Mohan, Haranahalli L; Maddur, Srinath; Jagannath, Sunitha B; Venkataramaiah, Balasubramanya K; Moses, Stephen; Blanchard, James F; Gurnani, Vandana

    2016-01-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) frequently experience violence in their work environments, violating their basic rights and increasing their vulnerability to HIV infection. Structural interventions addressing such violence are critical components of comprehensive HIV prevention programmes. We describe structural interventions developed to address violence against FSWs in the form of police arrest, in the context of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation's India AIDS Initiative (Avahan) in Karnataka, South India. We examine changes in FSW arrest between two consecutive time points during the intervention and identify characteristics that may increase FSW vulnerability to arrest in Karnataka. Structural interventions with police involved advocacy work with senior police officials, sensitization workshops, and integration of HIV and human rights topics in pre-service curricula. Programmes for FSWs aimed to enhance collectivization, empowerment and awareness about human rights and to introduce crisis response mechanisms. Three rounds of integrated behavioural and biological assessment surveys were conducted among FSWs from 2004 to 2011. We conducted bivariate and multivariate analyses using data from the second (R2) and third (R3) survey rounds to examine changes in arrests among FSWs over time and to assess associations between police arrest, and the sociodemographic and sex work-related characteristics of FSWs. Among 4110 FSWs surveyed, rates of ever being arrested by the police significantly decreased over time, from 9.9% in R2 to 6.1% in R3 (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) [95% CI]=0.63 [0.48 to 0.83]). Arrests in the preceding year significantly decreased, from 5.5% in R2 to 2.8% in R3 (AOR [95% CI]=0.59 [0.41 to 0.86]). FSWs arrested as part of arbitrary police raids also decreased from 49.6 to 19.5% (AOR [95% CI]=0.21 [0.11 to 0.42]). Certain characteristics, including financial dependency on sex work, street- or brothel-based solicitation and high client volumes, were found

  18. [Screening for colorectal cancer: a cost benefit analysis on a health prevention programme at the Boehringer Ingelheim Company].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, M; Häck, H-J

    2011-05-01

    In Germany, approximately 70.000 people are diagnosed with colorectal cancer every year. With early diagnosis the recovery rates are over 90 % and early intervention can significantly reduce the costs of medical treatment as well as the economic losses from worker productivity. We here present the organisational procedure for bowel cancer screening and have weighed the costs against benefits to employees, the company and the healthcare system. The screening costs are compared with economic benefits. The target group for the study consisted of all 11.536 employees at the company's site in Germany. Volunteers were given a standardized questionnaire about the risk factors for colorectal cancers and an immunological fecal occult blood test (IFOBT). If risk factors for development of colorectal cancer were present or if the test result was positive, a colonoscopy was recommended in accordance with DGVS guidelines (German Society of Digestive and Metabolic diseases). A total of 4.287 employees (37.2 %) indicated an interest in undergoing screening; at the end of the period 3.958 complete datasets (2.296 men and 1.662 women, mean age 51.2 years) were available for evaluation. A colonoscopy was performed on 114 persons. Six cases of overt cancer were detected with three in the 36 - 50 age group and three in the 51 - 65 age group. Five of the six cases were stage T1 or T2. Adenomatous polyps were found and removed in 29 persons. The calculated cost benefit ratio was 1:2 for the company and 1:35 for the public health system. Using the example of colorectal screening, this study represents a cost benefit analysis of this preventative health measure in a company environment. The results show that even while taking into account the financial and personal commitment required, the cost benefit ratio is positive both for the company and for the healthcare system. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Effectiveness of an implementation optimisation intervention aimed at increasing parent engagement in HENRY, a childhood obesity prevention programme - the Optimising Family Engagement in HENRY (OFTEN) trial: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Maria; Burton, Wendy; Cundill, Bonnie; Farrin, Amanda J; Nixon, Jane; Stevens, June; Roberts, Kim; Foy, Robbie; Rutter, Harry; Hartley, Suzanne; Tubeuf, Sandy; Collinson, Michelle; Brown, Julia

    2017-01-24

    Family-based interventions to prevent childhood obesity depend upon parents' taking action to improve diet and other lifestyle behaviours in their families. Programmes that attract and retain high numbers of parents provide an enhanced opportunity to improve public health and are also likely to be more cost-effective than those that do not. We have developed a theory-informed optimisation intervention to promote parent engagement within an existing childhood obesity prevention group programme, HENRY (Health Exercise Nutrition for the Really Young). Here, we describe a proposal to evaluate the effectiveness of this optimisation intervention in regard to the engagement of parents and cost-effectiveness. The Optimising Family Engagement in HENRY (OFTEN) trial is a cluster randomised controlled trial being conducted across 24 local authorities (approximately 144 children's centres) which currently deliver HENRY programmes. The primary outcome will be parental enrolment and attendance at the HENRY programme, assessed using routinely collected process data. Cost-effectiveness will be presented in terms of primary outcomes using acceptability curves and through eliciting the willingness to pay for the optimisation from HENRY commissioners. Secondary outcomes include the longitudinal impact of the optimisation, parent-reported infant intake of fruits and vegetables (as a proxy to compliance) and other parent-reported family habits and lifestyle. This innovative trial will provide evidence on the implementation of a theory-informed optimisation intervention to promote parent engagement in HENRY, a community-based childhood obesity prevention programme. The findings will be generalisable to other interventions delivered to parents in other community-based environments. This research meets the expressed needs of commissioners, children's centres and parents to optimise the potential impact that HENRY has on obesity prevention. A subsequent cluster randomised controlled pilot

  20. Increasing community capacity to prevent childhood obesity: challenges, lessons learned and results from the Romp & Chomp intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Groot Florentine P

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is a major public health issue; however, only limited evidence is available about effective ways to prevent obesity, particularly in early childhood. Romp & Chomp was a community-wide obesity prevention intervention conducted in Geelong Australia with a target group of 12,000 children aged 0-5 years. The intervention had an environmental and capacity building focus and we have recently demonstrated that the prevalence of overweight/obesity was lower in intervention children, post-intervention. Capacity building is defined as the development of knowledge, skills, commitment, structures, systems and leadership to enable effective health promotion and the aim of this study was to determine if the capacity of the Geelong community, represented by key stakeholder organisations, to support healthy eating and physical activity for young children was increased after Romp & Chomp. Methods A mixed methods evaluation with three data sources was utilised. 1 Document analysis comprised assessment of the documented formative and intervention activities against a capacity building framework (five domains: Partnerships, Leadership, Resource Allocation, Workforce Development, and Organisational Development; 2 Thematic analysis of key informant interviews (n = 16; and 3 the quantitative Community Capacity Index Survey. Results Document analysis showed that the majority of the capacity building activities addressed the Partnerships, Resource Allocation and Organisational Development domains of capacity building, with a lack of activity in the Leadership and Workforce Development domains. The thematic analysis revealed the establishment of sustainable partnerships, use of specialist advice, and integration of activities into ongoing formal training for early childhood workers. Complex issues also emerged from the key informant interviews regarding the challenges of limited funding, high staff turnover, changing governance structures

  1. Increasing community capacity to prevent childhood obesity: challenges, lessons learned and results from the Romp & Chomp intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Florentine P; Robertson, Narelle M; Swinburn, Boyd A; de Silva-Sanigorski, Andrea M

    2010-08-31

    Obesity is a major public health issue; however, only limited evidence is available about effective ways to prevent obesity, particularly in early childhood. Romp & Chomp was a community-wide obesity prevention intervention conducted in Geelong Australia with a target group of 12,000 children aged 0-5 years. The intervention had an environmental and capacity building focus and we have recently demonstrated that the prevalence of overweight/obesity was lower in intervention children, post-intervention. Capacity building is defined as the development of knowledge, skills, commitment, structures, systems and leadership to enable effective health promotion and the aim of this study was to determine if the capacity of the Geelong community, represented by key stakeholder organisations, to support healthy eating and physical activity for young children was increased after Romp & Chomp. A mixed methods evaluation with three data sources was utilised. 1) Document analysis comprised assessment of the documented formative and intervention activities against a capacity building framework (five domains: Partnerships, Leadership, Resource Allocation, Workforce Development, and Organisational Development); 2) Thematic analysis of key informant interviews (n = 16); and 3) the quantitative Community Capacity Index Survey. Document analysis showed that the majority of the capacity building activities addressed the Partnerships, Resource Allocation and Organisational Development domains of capacity building, with a lack of activity in the Leadership and Workforce Development domains. The thematic analysis revealed the establishment of sustainable partnerships, use of specialist advice, and integration of activities into ongoing formal training for early childhood workers. Complex issues also emerged from the key informant interviews regarding the challenges of limited funding, high staff turnover, changing governance structures, lack of high level leadership and unclear

  2. National Programme for Radiological Protection in Medical Exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-07-01

    A national programme on radiation protection of patients can only be effective and sustainable if there is a joint effort between the regulatory body and the health authorities, and a cooperation with educational institutions, professional bodies and representatives of the industry. The regulatory body needs to promote a strategy of cooperation, and to identify obstacles that may prevent compliance with regulatory requirements and to address them. Not of least is the need for a continuous self-evaluation on the efficacy of the programme. Radiation safety of the patients is a responsibility of the users of the radiation sources involved in diagnostic and treatment. In particular, they are responsible for compliance with regulatory requirements. But safety depends also on aspects that are beyond the capabilities of those authorized to conduct practices. These aspects include educational programmes and institutions to implement them, calibration facilities, national protocols, professional bodies for the establishment of reference levels and contributions from the industry. Neither the users nor the regulatory body alone can achieve that these elements are in place. It needs a network of institutions and cooperation arrangements that involve educational and health authorities, laboratory facilities, professional bodies and the industry. A national programme has to include a strategy of cooperation, identification of obstacles that may prevent compliance with regulatory requirements and address them. Not of least is the need for a continuous self-evaluation on the efficacy of the programme. A group of regulatory agencies belonging to the Ibero American Forum of Nuclear and Radiation Regulatory Agency have exchanged experiences, lessons learned and good practices over three years. This exchange included extensive collaboration with the health authorities. The result of this work is this document containing a self-evaluation approach for the regulatory programme on

  3. Level of Awareness of Various Aspects of Lung Cancer Among College Teachers in India: Impact of Cancer Awareness Programmes in Prevention and Early Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Abhishek; Roy, Shubham; Malik, Abhidha; Rath, G K; Julka, P K; Kamal, Vineet Kumar; Barnwal, Keshav; Upadhyaya, Sneha; Singh, Rajan; Srivastava, Vivek

    2016-12-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most common causes of cancer mortality among men in India and incidence is increasing, but actually, they are largely preventable diseases. In India, advanced stage at the time of presentation is responsible for high mortality and morbidity and early detection is the only way to reduce it. The purpose of this study is to know the level of awareness of various aspects of lung cancer among college teachers and impact of awareness programmes in its prevention and early detection. This assessment was part of Pink Chain Campaign-a campaign on cancer awareness. During the cancer awareness events in 2011-2013 at various women colleges in different parts in India, pre-test related to lung cancer was followed by awareness programme. Post-test using the same questionnaire was conducted at the end of interactive session, at 6 months and 1 year. A total of 872 out of 985 teachers participated in the study (overall response rate was 88.5 %). Mean age of the study population was 41.6 years (range 26-59 years). There was a significant increase in the level of knowledge regarding lung cancer at 6 months, and this was sustained at 1 year. Among teachers who were just asked yes or no question, 117 teachers (13.4 %) were smokers and 241 teachers (27.6 %) were alcoholics. Magazines and newspapers were sources for knowledge in 50-60 % of teachers, whereas approximately 30 % of teachers were educated by TV and Internet regarding various aspects of lung cancer. Post awareness at 6 months and 1 year, Pink Chain Campaign was the major source of knowledge related to lung cancer in more than 90 % of teachers by continuous and timely update on subject. Post awareness at 6 months and 1 year, there was a significant change in alcohol and smoking habits. Major reasons for not going for check-up were ignorance (83.1 %), fear (30.1 %) and lethargic attitude (29.3 %) initially, but over time, lack of time, lethargic attitude and hesitation became

  4. 74. Cardiovascular risk assessment for Saudi university employees and their families: Developing a framework for provision of an evidence-based cardiovascular disease preventative programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Alzeidan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs are the primary cause of death among adults, representing 46% of total mortality in 2014. This study’s objectives were to assess the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs, and calculate the cardiovascular risk (CVR among King Saud University employees and their families. Moreover, it aimed at assessing the possible effects of living in KSA on the heart health of expatriate employees and their families. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 4500 university employees and their families aged ⩾18 years old, using the World Health Organization STEPwise approach to surveillance of CVRFs. CVR was then calculated for participants using the Framingham Coronary Heart Risk Score calculator. The mean age of participants was 39.3 ± 13.4 years. The prevalence of CVRFs was as follows: low fruit/vegetable consumption of 10% risk to develop CVD within the following 10-years. Furthermore, this study showed that expatriates had significant negative effects on behavioural risk factors after residing in KSA, namely: high rate of physical inactivity, high consumption of fast food, low consumption of fruit and vegetable. However, there was no effect on the pattern of tobacco use. The prevalence of CVRFs is substantially high among the study population. To combat the future expected burden of CVDs, a proposed prevention programme for employees’ cardiovascular wellness is designed and recommended to be implemented and institutionalized within the university.

  5. 26. Cardiovascular risk assessment for Saudi university employees and their families: developing a framework for provision of an evidence-based cardiovascular disease preventative programme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Alzeidan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs are the primary cause of death among adults, representing 46% of total mortality in 2014. This study’s objectives were to assess the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs, and calculate the cardiovascular risk (CVR among King Saud University employees and their families. Moreover, it aimed at assessing the possible effects of living in KSA on the heart health of expatriate employees and their families.A cross-sectional study was conducted on 4500 university employees and their families aged ⩾18 years old, using the World Health Organization STEPwise approach to surveillance of CVRFs. CVR was then calculated for participants using the Framingham Coronary Heart Risk Score calculator. The mean age of participants was 39.3±13.4 years. The prevalence of CVRFs was as follows: low fruit/vegetable consumption of 10% risk to develop CVD within the following 10-years. Furthermore, this study showed that expatriates had significant negative effects on behavioural risk factors after residing in KSA, namely: high rate of physical inactivity, high consumption of fast food, low consumption of fruit and vegetable. However, there was no effect on the pattern of tobacco use. The prevalence of CVRFs is substantially high among the study population. To combat the future expected burden of CVDs, a proposed prevention programme for employees’ cardiovascular wellness is designed and recommended to be implemented and institutionalized within the university.

  6. [Evaluation of the implementation of the FAPACAN programme to prevent cancer behavioral risk in primary care users in the North of Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López González, M Luisa; Fernández Carreira, Jose Manuel; López González, Santiago; del Olivo del Valle Gómez, M; García Casas, Juan Bautista; Cueto Espinar, Antonio

    2003-01-01

    The evaluation of the process is an essential condition to correctly measure the impact of educational interventions on behaviour, its psychosocial determinants and the state of change, in the context of health promotion. The aim was to evaluate the quality of the implementation of the FAPACAN Programme, designed to prevent behavioural risk of cancer in Primary Care, and to improve its psychosocial determinants in the A.S.E. Model and the state of change according to Prochaska and DiClemente Theory. The quality of implementation was measured by means of a visit to the health centre, by filling in a checklist 'in situ', and a phone survey with the patient. Centralisation and association measures were found (Pearson and Spearman's coefficient). A multiple regression model was obtained with the score made by the patient (range of 0 to 8) and the covariables: gender, age, level of education, locality and family history of cancer. The quality scores obtained oscillate between 72% and 81% of optimum quality. Significant differences were found owing to the administrator (better with fewer years of exercise) and the patient (better with higher level of study). In general, the quality of implementation was more than sufficient, in spite of the poor provision by the health system.

  7. Awareness of and compliance with healthy oral habits reported by children and their parents in Democratic People's Republic of Korea after a preventive programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarvonen, Pirkko-Liisa; Sipilä, Kirsi; Ri, Yon Sil; Jang, Jong Hyon; Kim, Jong Hyok; Suominen, Anna L

    2016-10-01

    The study aimed to examine awareness of and compliance with healthy oral habits reported by children and their parents in Pyongyang, Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), after a preventive programme. The data were collected in 2013 with self-completed, partly structured questionnaires from 1994 children aged 10 and 13 years and from 200 parents. Association between awareness of and compliance with healthy oral habits reported by the children and their parents was evaluated using Chi square tests and multivariate logistic regression analyses, children's oral health habits according to themselves and their parents were analysed using McNemar's test. Both children and their parents seemed to be familiar with healthy oral habits, although the awareness was not directly related to the reports of the children's oral practices. Most of the children reported brushing their teeth at least twice a day, using fluoride toothpaste and drinking water for thirst but frequent sweet snacking was common. Children's and their parents' reports were consistent with regard to sweet snacking frequency (p = 0.736) and the main thirst quencher (p = 0.349). Awareness of healthy oral habits appeared to be good among children and their parents. Unhealthy oral habits seemed to coincide with one another.

  8. Conducting rigorous research with subgroups of at-risk youth: lessons learned from a teen pregnancy prevention project in Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Hohman-Billmeier

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, Alaska Department of Health and Social Services (DHSS received federal funding to test an evidence-based teen pregnancy prevention program. The grant required a major modification to an existing program and a randomized control trial (RCT to test its effectiveness. As the major modifications, Alaska used peer educators instead of adults to deliver the program to youth aged 14–19 instead of the original curriculum intended age range of 12–14. Cultural and approach adaptations were included as well. After 4 years of implementation and data collection, the sample was too small to provide statistically significant results. The lack of findings gave no information about the modification, nor any explanation of how the curriculum was received, or reasons for the small sample. This paper reports on a case study follow-up to the RCT to better understand outcome and implementation results. For this study, researchers reviewed project documents and interviewed peer educators, state and local staff, and evaluators. Three themes emerged from the data: (a the professional growth of peer educators and development of peer education, (b difficulties resulting from curriculum content, especially for subpopulations of sexually active youth, youth identified as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, intersex and/or asexual, pregnant, and parenting youth and (c the appropriateness of an RCT with subpopulations of at-risk youth. Three recommendations emerged from the case study. First, including as many stakeholders as possible in the program and evaluation design phases is essential, and must be supported by appropriate funding streams and training. Second, there must be recognition of the multiple small subpopulations found in Alaska when adapting programs designed for a larger and more homogeneous population. Third, RCTs may not be appropriate for all population subgroups.

  9. Lessons from the feeding infants and toddlers study in North America: what children eat, and implications for obesity prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Jose M; Deming, Denise; Dattilo, Anne; Reidy, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    The latest exhaustive survey of dietary patterns in infants from the Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (FITS) in North America documents and quantifies current trends in infant feeding. These include higher than generally recommended energy, protein, and saturated fat intakes. The majority of infants are bottle fed at some point in their first year of life, and their weaning diet often includes low intakes of fruits and vegetables, with high starchy, rather than green or yellow, vegetables. Early introduction of solids, use of cow's milk prior to 1 year of age, and high juice intake in the first 2 years - all less desirable diet practices - are improving, but are still prevalent. More preschoolers are likely to get sweets or sweetened beverages than a serving of fruit or a vegetable on a given day. These food intake patterns mimic the adult American diet and are associated with an increased risk of obesity in childhood and later life. But more importantly, these patterns appear to be set as early as 18 months of age, and by 20 months of age, they mimic the adult diet. Despite increase in total energy intake, and greater variety of foods, the basic characteristics of macronutrient intake distribution and food group contribution of energy to the diet before 2 years of age remain remarkably stable and similar to the family table. Obesity prevention needs to include specific targets in terms of breastfeeding and adequate formula feeding, as well as appropriate introduction of weaning foods with goals of changing the inadequate patterns documented in the FITS. These interventions will also require addressing parent and caregiver behaviors, including attending to hunger satiety cues (responsive feeding), and shaping early food preferences. This needs to be done starting at birth, in the first months of life. Early intervention offers a unique and potentially efficacious opportunity to shape the future dietary patterns of the next generation. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger

  10. Conducting rigorous research with subgroups of at-risk youth: lessons learned from a teen pregnancy prevention project in Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohman-Billmeier, Kathryn; Nye, Margaret; Martin, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, Alaska Department of Health and Social Services (DHSS) received federal funding to test an evidence-based teen pregnancy prevention program. The grant required a major modification to an existing program and a randomized control trial (RCT) to test its effectiveness. As the major modifications, Alaska used peer educators instead of adults to deliver the program to youth aged 14-19 instead of the original curriculum intended age range of 12-14. Cultural and approach adaptations were included as well. After 4 years of implementation and data collection, the sample was too small to provide statistically significant results. The lack of findings gave no information about the modification, nor any explanation of how the curriculum was received, or reasons for the small sample. This paper reports on a case study follow-up to the RCT to better understand outcome and implementation results. For this study, researchers reviewed project documents and interviewed peer educators, state and local staff, and evaluators. Three themes emerged from the data: (a) the professional growth of peer educators and development of peer education, (b) difficulties resulting from curriculum content, especially for subpopulations of sexually active youth, youth identified as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, intersex and/or asexual, pregnant, and parenting youth and (c) the appropriateness of an RCT with subpopulations of at-risk youth. Three recommendations emerged from the case study. First, including as many stakeholders as possible in the program and evaluation design phases is essential, and must be supported by appropriate funding streams and training. Second, there must be recognition of the multiple small subpopulations found in Alaska when adapting programs designed for a larger and more homogeneous population. Third, RCTs may not be appropriate for all population subgroups.

  11. Results and lessons learned from a prevention of weight gain program for low-income overweight and obese young mothers: Mothers In Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Wei Chang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mothers In Motion (MIM, a community-based lifestyle behavioral intervention, was designed and conducted to help low-income overweight and obese young mothers prevent further weight gain via promotion of stress management, healthy eating, and physical activity. This paper presents intervention effect on body weight (primary outcome and summarizes lessons learned. Methods Participants (N = 612 were recruited from 7 Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC offices in Michigan and were individually randomized to an intervention n= 410 or a comparison (n =202 group (2: 1 ratio. During the 16-week intervention, intervention participants watched theory-based culturally sensitive videos (in DVD format featuring peers from the target audience to learn skills for managing stress, eating healthier, and being more physically active. They also dialed into peer support group teleconferences to enhance skills learned in the videos and increase motivation for lifestyle behavioral changes. Body weight, the primary outcome, was measured at baseline, immediately after the 16-week intervention, and 3 months after the 16-week intervention. Intervention effect was tested via general linear mixed model for repeated measures, using baseline measures as adjusting covariates. Results At baseline, the mean age of the participants was 28.5 ± 5.0 years (intervention: 28.4 ± 5.0, comparison: 28.9 ± 5.0; the mean body weight was 190.2 ± 1.4 lbs (intervention: 191.8 ± 30.0, comparison: 188.5 ± 29.1; and the mean body mass index (BMI was 32.2 ± 4.4 (intervention: 32.2 ± 4.4, comparison: 31.7 ± 4.2. Of sample, 64.7% were obese. At 3 months after the 16-week intervention, no significant weight differences were found between the intervention (188.3 ± 10.6 lbs, BMI: 31.6 ± 1.8 and comparison groups (187.7 ± 10.6 lbs, BMI: 31.53 ± 1.8 when controlling

  12. The effectiveness of behavioural interventions in the primary prevention of Hepatitis C amongst injecting drug users: a randomised controlled trial and lessons learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibbs Christopher

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim To develop and evaluate the comparative effectiveness of behavioural interventions of enhanced prevention counselling (EPC and simple educational counselling (SEC in reducing hepatitis C viral (HCV infection in sero-negative injecting drug users (IDU. Design Randomised controlled trial (RCT of EPC intervention in comparison with simple educational counselling (SEC. Setting Specialised Drug services in London and Surrey, United Kingdom. Participants and Measurements Ninety five IDUs were recruited and randomised to receive EPC (n = 43 or SEC (n = 52. Subjects were assessed at baseline using the Addiction Severity Index (ASI, the Injecting Risk Questionnaire (IRQ, and Drug Injecting Confidence Questionnaire (DICQ. The primary outcome was measured by the rate of sero-conversion at 6 months and 12 months from baseline and by the ASI, IRQ and DICQ at 6 months from baseline. Hepatitis C testing was undertaken by the innovative test of the dried blood spot (DBS test which increased the rate of testing by 4 fold compared to routine blood testing. Findings Seventy Eighty two subjects (82% out of the 95 recruited were followed up at 6 months and 62 (65% were followed up at 12 months. On the primary outcome measure of the rate of seroconversion, 8 out of 62 patients followed-up at twelve months seroconverted, three in the EPC group and five in the SEC group, indicating incidence rates of 9.1 per 100 person years for the EPC group, 17.2 per 100 person years f