WorldWideScience

Sample records for prevention program students

  1. High School Students' Perceptions of Alcohol Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogenchuk, Marcella

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore Grade 11 students' perceptions of programs related to the prevention of alcohol use in high school settings through an analysis of quantitative and qualitative data elicited from student questionnaires (n=452) and focus groups. It was found that students felt a need for increased information on alcohol…

  2. Predictors of Prevention Failure in College Students Participating in Two Indicated Depression Prevention Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco, Vanessa; Rohde, Paul; Vázquez, Fernando L.; Otero, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify subgroups of university students with the highest likelihood of remaining at elevated levels of depressive symptoms six months following the receipt of a depressive prevention intervention on the basis of known risk factors and participation in one of two depression prevention programs. Data from a randomized controlled trial evaluating depression prevention among 133 college students with elevated depressive symptoms were analyzed. Participants were ...

  3. Preventing Alcohol-Related Harm in College Students: Alcohol-Related Harm Prevention Program Effects on Hypothesized Mediating Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, J. W.; Tatterson, J. W.; Roberts, M. M.; Johnston, S. E.

    2004-01-01

    The Alcohol-related Harm Prevention (AHP) program is a normative education and skill-acquisition program designed to reduce serious, long-term alcohol-related harm in college students. Without admonishing students not to drink, which is likely to fail in many student populations, the AHP program attempts to give students the necessary perceptions,…

  4. Predictors of Prevention Failure in College Students Participating in Two Indicated Depression Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Vanessa; Rohde, Paul; Vázquez, Fernando L.; Otero, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify subgroups of university students with the highest likelihood of remaining at elevated levels of depressive symptoms six months following the receipt of a depressive prevention intervention on the basis of known risk factors and participation in one of two depression prevention programs. Data from a randomized controlled trial evaluating depression prevention among 133 college students with elevated depressive symptoms were analyzed. Participants were randomized to a cognitive-behavioral or relaxation training group preventive intervention. Classification tree analysis showed that older age was the strongest risk factor for persistently elevated depression. Additional risk factors were: (1) for younger students, fewer daily pleasant activities; (2) for those with higher level of pleasant activities, higher level of stressful events; and (3) for those with higher level of stressful events, lower assertiveness. Results offer directions for prevention foci, identify specific subgroups of college students to target for depression prevention efforts, and suggest that research aim to help older, non-traditional students or graduating students manage the transition from college to the work force. PMID:24714056

  5. Predictors of prevention failure in college students participating in two indicated depression prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Vanessa; Rohde, Paul; Vázquez, Fernando L; Otero, Patricia

    2014-04-04

    The purpose of this study was to identify subgroups of university students with the highest likelihood of remaining at elevated levels of depressive symptoms six months following the receipt of a depressive prevention intervention on the basis of known risk factors and participation in one of two depression prevention programs. Data from a randomized controlled trial evaluating depression prevention among 133 college students with elevated depressive symptoms were analyzed. Participants were randomized to a cognitive-behavioral or relaxation training group preventive intervention. Classification tree analysis showed that older age was the strongest risk factor for persistently elevated depression. Additional risk factors were: (1) for younger students, fewer daily pleasant activities; (2) for those with higher level of pleasant activities, higher level of stressful events; and (3) for those with higher level of stressful events, lower assertiveness. Results offer directions for prevention foci, identify specific subgroups of college students to target for depression prevention efforts, and suggest that research aim to help older, non-traditional students or graduating students manage the transition from college to the work force.

  6. Optimizing violence prevention programs: an examination of program effectiveness among urban high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompkins, Amanda C; Chauveron, Lisa M; Harel, Ofer; Perkins, Daniel F

    2014-07-01

    While demand for youth violence prevention programs increases, the ability of the school-day schedule to accommodate their time requirements has diminished. Viable school-based prevention programs must strike a balance between brevity and effectiveness. This article reports results from an effectiveness trial of a 12-session curriculum-based universal violence prevention program that promotes healthy conflict resolution skills among urban adolescents. Using a review of program record data and a multisite quasi-experimental study design, we examined the effectiveness of a New York City-based violence prevention program entitled the Violence Prevention project (VPP) optimized to meet school needs. We analyzed survey data from 1112 9th- and 10th-grade students in 13 New York City public high schools across 4 consecutive school years. Both participants and nonparticipants were surveyed. Review of program record data indicated that the program was implemented with acceptable fidelity to the core component structure, and that participant responsiveness to the model was high. Multilevel modeling indicated that VPP participation was protective for academic self-concept and promoted conflict resolution skills. Findings indicate that semester-long violence prevention programs optimized to meet the needs of a typical high school can be effective at promoting healthy conflict resolution skills in urban adolescents. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  7. My Student Body: Effects of an Internet-Based Prevention Program to Decrease Obesity among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaChausse, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the impact of My Student Body (MSB)-Nutrition, an Internet-based obesity prevention program for college students. Participants: Three hundred and twenty ethnically diverse undergraduate students were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 conditions: MSB-Nutrition program, an on-campus weight management course, and a comparison group.…

  8. Effectiveness of waste prevention program in primary students' schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorpas, Antonis A; Voukkali, Irene; Loizia, Pantelitsa

    2017-06-01

    Even though reducing waste is at the top of the waste hierarchy, no real decoupling between waste generation and consumption has been demonstrated. Several waste directives had been published from EU, but they have only brought minor changes within the key objective of reducing waste generation. Most efforts have been targeted towards greater amounts of recycling and better management of waste disposal. While these are necessary and socially beneficial goals, they are not adequate for the achievement of long-term sustainability goals. The purpose of this study is to understand students' knowledge, attitudes and behavioural changes in relation to the water plastic bottle of 500 ml. Understanding waste prevention behaviour (WPB) could enable schools' principals, local authorities and committees as well as decision makers to design and implement more effective policies for reducing the amount of specific waste streams that is generated. Students in a daily base bring their own water containers of 500 ml or buy water from the school as they do not feel safe to use other sources of water. Nine hundred ninety-eight refilling stainless steel water refilling bottles (SSWRB-of 600 ml) were shared to the students in four primary schools. The results indicated that the students are presented with different behaviours from class to class for many reasons; most of them are related with what their parents believe, and how themselves or the synergies between them reacts and affected.

  9. Effects of Comprehensive, Multiple High-Risk Behaviors Prevention Program on High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Crystal

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to examine the effect of a multiple high-risk behaviors prevention program applied comprehensively throughout an entire school-system involving universal, selective, and indicated levels of students at a local private high school during a 4-year period. The prevention program was created based upon the…

  10. Can First and Second Grade Students Benefit from an Alcohol Use Prevention Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Mary Lou; Padget, Alison; Kelley-Baker, Tara; Rider, Raamses

    2007-01-01

    Protecting You/Protecting Me (PY/PM) is a classroombased, alcohol use prevention and vehicle safety program for elementary students from first through fifth grades developed by Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD). PY/PM is one of the first alcohol prevention programs to target children as early as first grade. The focus of this study is on the…

  11. Assess the Impact of an Online Tobacco Prevention Training Program on Teachers and Their Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W. William; Sheu, Jiunn-Jye; Weng, Chung-Bang

    2013-01-01

    School-based tobacco prevention programs have been proven effective in reducing tobacco use. This evaluation aimed to assess the impact of an online tobacco prevention teacher training program on teachers and their students in Florida schools. A total of 344 teachers, including 72 K-3 grade teachers, 44 4th-5th grade teachers, and 228 6th-12th…

  12. Effects on High School Students of Teaching a Cross-Age Alcohol Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padget, Alison; Bell, Mary Lou; Shamblen, Stephen R.; Ringwalt, Chris

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the impact on high school students who taught elementary students MADD's Protecting You/Protecting Me (PY/PM), an alcohol use prevention and vehicle safety program. High school students (N = 188) enrolled in a peer helping course completed surveys before and after teaching PY/PM, and a comparison group of peer helper students…

  13. Assess the impact of an online tobacco prevention training program on teachers and their students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W William; Sheu, Jiunn-Jye; Weng, Chung-Bang

    2013-01-01

    School-based tobacco prevention programs have been proven effective in reducing tobacco use. This evaluation aimed to assess the impact of an online tobacco prevention teacher training program on teachers and their students in Florida schools. A total of 344 teachers, including 72 K-3 grade teachers, 44 4th-5th grade teachers, and 228 6th-12th grade teachers completed the online training program and 323 (93.9%) were followed up to assess impacts on their 6,490 students. Results suggested that the online tobacco prevention education program for teachers was effective with high satisfaction and the impact on students was significant in improving knowledge and attitude about tobacco use and in increasing the proportion of 6-12th grade students who decided not to use tobacco. The evaluation study recommended the online education program be continued and expanded in the future.

  14. Prevention of Targeted School Violence by Responding to Students' Psychosocial Crises: The NETWASS Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuschner, Vincenz; Fiedler, Nora; Schultze, Martin; Ahlig, Nadine; Göbel, Kristin; Sommer, Friederike; Scholl, Johanna; Cornell, Dewey; Scheithauer, Herbert

    2017-01-01

    The standardized, indicated school-based prevention program "Networks Against School Shootings" combines a threat assessment approach with a general model of prevention of emergency situations in schools through early intervention in student psychosocial crises and training teachers to recognize warning signs of targeted school violence.…

  15. My student body: effects of an internet-based prevention program to decrease obesity among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachausse, Robert G

    2012-01-01

    To determine the impact of My Student Body (MSB)-Nutrition, an Internet-based obesity prevention program for college students. Three hundred and twenty ethnically diverse undergraduate students were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 conditions: MSB-Nutrition program, an on-campus weight management course, and a comparison group. Students completed baseline and follow-up surveys regarding their nutrition and physical activity behaviors, self-efficacy, stress, attitudes, and body weight. Compared with the on-campus course and a comparison group, the MSB-Nutrition program increased fruit and vegetable consumption, reduced stress, and increased fruit and vegetable self-efficacy but had no significant effect on students' exercise self-efficacy, exercise behavior, or weight loss. The MSB-Nutrition program was effective in changing students' nutrition behaviors but had no effect on physical activity behaviors or weight loss. Suggestions for improving Internet-based interventions aimed at decreasing obesity rates among college students are offered.

  16. Feasibility of a home-delivered Internet obesity prevention program for fourth-grade students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Scott; Lambert, Laurel; McDonough, Suzanne; Green, Kenneth; Loftin, Mark

    2009-08-01

    This pilot study examined the feasibility of an interactive obesity prevention program delivered to a class of fourth-grade students utilizing daily e-mail messages sent to the students' home computers. The study involved a single intact class of 22 students, 17 (77%) of whom submitted parental permission documentation and received e-mail messages each school day over the course of one month. Concerns regarding Internet safety and children's use of e-mail were addressed fairly easily. Cost/benefit issues for the school did not seem prohibitive. Providing e-mail access to students without a home computer was accomplished by loaning them personal digital assistant (PDA) devices. In larger interventions, loaning PDAs is probably not feasible economically, although cell phones may be an acceptable alternative. It was concluded that this type of interactive obesity prevention program is feasible from most perspectives. Data from a larger scale effectiveness study is still needed.

  17. Counseling with Heart: A Relationship Violence Prevention Program for College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Danica G.; Michel, Rebecca E.; Bayne, Hannah B.; Neuer Colburn, Anita A.; Smith Myers, Jayne

    2015-01-01

    Relationship violence is a salient concern on college campuses today, and psychoeducational groups may be an appropriate prevention format. This article describes a study measuring the impact of college student participation in the HEART (Help End Abusive Relationships Today) program, a series of group sessions designed to increase knowledge and…

  18. School-Based Drug Abuse Prevention Programs in High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manoj; Branscum, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Drug abuse, or substance abuse, is a substantial public health problem in the United States, particularly among high school students. The purpose of this article was to review school-based programs implemented in high schools for substance abuse prevention and to suggest recommendations for future interventions. Included were English language…

  19. Integrating Life Skills Into a Theory-Based Drug-Use Prevention Program: Effectiveness among Junior High Students in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chiu-Mieh; Chien, Li-Yin; Cheng, Chin-Feng; Guo, Jong-Long

    2012-01-01

    Background: Drug use has been noted among students in Taiwan during the past decade and schools have a role in preventing or delaying students' drug use. We developed and evaluated a school-based, drug-use prevention program integrating the theory of planned behavior (TPB) and life skills for junior high school students. Methods: We recruited 441…

  20. Student Evaluation of the Yellow Ribbon Suicide Prevention Program in Midwest Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Alexandra; Zackula, Rosalee; Klaus, Nicole M; McGinness, Liz; Carr, Susan; Macaluso, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Yellow Ribbon is a gatekeeper-type suicide prevention program that is widely used in public schools. However, data on its effectiveness are limited. The purpose of our study was to evaluate self-reported changes in knowledge and comfort level communicating about suicide following Yellow Ribbon training for a large, representative sample of students from a public school system in the midwestern United States. The program was administered to students within the same school district during 2006 through 2009. A pre-post survey using a 4-point Likert scale was administered to rate students' knowledge of risk factors and available resources, comfort level communicating about suicide, estimate of friends at risk for suicide, and behavioral intent toward help-seeking. Aggregate responses from 3,257 students, aged 11 to 18 years, were collected by the schools; 51% were female, 33% were Hispanic, and 30% were white. Suicide-related knowledge of risk factors, where to go for help, and resources, along with comfort level in asking for help, all significantly improved following program participation (Cramer's V = 0.243 to 0.376, P suicide prevention program appears to be beneficial for students in the midwestern United States. We observed significant improvement in knowledge, comfort level, and behavioral intent for help-seeking if suicidal thoughts occur. Findings also suggested that Yellow Ribbon training administered during middle school may be especially helpful for males.

  1. Student Leadership. Prevention Updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, Linda; DeJong, William

    2010-01-01

    Campus-based efforts to reduce alcohol and other drug abuse and violence (AODV) will be more successful if they involve a wide range of stakeholders--including students--who can contribute to the program's design, implementation, and evaluation. Students provide a unique perspective on AODV prevention, and they can also bring a certain authority…

  2. Eating Disorder Prevention Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapia, Jennifer L.

    This paper provides information for school psychologists regarding the necessity and benefits of school-based prevention programming for students at risk for developing eating disorders (i.e., females). School-based programming is a cost-effective means of reaching the largest number of individuals at once and identifying those individuals…

  3. The "PALS" Prevention Program and Its Long-Term Impact on Student Intentions to Use Alcohol, Tobacco, and Marijuana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Judson W.; Moore, Dennis; Huber, Mary J.; Wilson, Josephine F.; Ford, Jo Ann; Kinzeler, Nicole; Mayer, Theresa

    2012-01-01

    A unique Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drug (ATOD) prevention program called "PALS" (Prevention through Alternative Learning Styles) was implemented with middle school students with the goal of enhancing student knowledge of the harmful effects of ATOD, promoting the use of refusal skills and reducing intentions to use ATOD in the future.…

  4. Efficacy of a Web-Based, Tailored, Alcohol Prevention/Intervention Program for College Students: 3-Month Follow-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, C. Raymond; Barretto, Andrea Ippel; Walton, Maureen A.; Bryant, Christopher M.; Shope, Jean T.; Raghunathan, Trivellore E.

    2011-01-01

    This study presents the results of an efficacy evaluation of a web-based brief motivational alcohol prevention/intervention program called "Michigan Prevention and Alcohol Safety for Students" (M-PASS). Four on-line sessions providing individually-tailored feedback were delivered to first-year college students over 9 weeks. Non- and…

  5. Reducing cyberbullying: A theory of reasoned action-based video prevention program for college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doane, Ashley N; Kelley, Michelle L; Pearson, Matthew R

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated the effectiveness of cyberbullying prevention/intervention programs. The goals of the present study were to develop a Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA)-based video program to increase cyberbullying knowledge (1) and empathy toward cyberbullying victims (2), reduce favorable attitudes toward cyberbullying (3), decrease positive injunctive (4) and descriptive norms about cyberbullying (5), and reduce cyberbullying intentions (6) and cyberbullying behavior (7). One hundred sixty-seven college students were randomly assigned to an online video cyberbullying prevention program or an assessment-only control group. Immediately following the program, attitudes and injunctive norms for all four types of cyberbullying behavior (i.e., unwanted contact, malice, deception, and public humiliation), descriptive norms for malice and public humiliation, empathy toward victims of malice and deception, and cyberbullying knowledge significantly improved in the experimental group. At one-month follow-up, malice and public humiliation behavior, favorable attitudes toward unwanted contact, deception, and public humiliation, and injunctive norms for public humiliation were significantly lower in the experimental than the control group. Cyberbullying knowledge was significantly higher in the experimental than the control group. These findings demonstrate a brief cyberbullying video is capable of improving, at one-month follow-up, cyberbullying knowledge, cyberbullying perpetration behavior, and TRA constructs known to predict cyberbullying perpetration. Considering the low cost and ease with which a video-based prevention/intervention program can be delivered, this type of approach should be considered to reduce cyberbullying. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. The Effectiveness of Psycho-Educational School-Based Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Training Program on Turkish Elementary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecen-Erogul, Ayse Rezan; Kaf Hasirci, Ozlem

    2013-01-01

    In Turkey, there is neither systematic nor structured child sexual abuse prevention programs for school-aged children in school settings. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a school-based child sexual abuse prevention program on elementary school (4th grade) students. Quasi-experimental design with pretest,…

  7. Efficacy Trial of a Selective Prevention Program Targeting Both Eating Disorder Symptoms and Unhealthy Weight Gain among Female College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Shaw, Heather; Marti, C. Nathan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate a selective prevention program targeting both eating disorder symptoms and unhealthy weight gain in young women. Method: Female college students at high-risk for these outcomes by virtue of body image concerns (N = 398; M age = 18.4 years, SD = 0.6) were randomized to the Healthy Weight group-based 4-hr prevention program,…

  8. An effectiveness trial of a new enhanced dissonance eating disorder prevention program among female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Butryn, Meghan L; Rohde, Paul; Shaw, Heather; Marti, C Nathan

    2013-12-01

    Efficacy trials indicate that a dissonance-based prevention program in which female high school and college students with body image concerns critique the thin-ideal reduced risk factors, eating disorder symptoms, and future eating disorder onset, but weaker effects emerged from an effectiveness trial wherein high school clinicians recruited students and delivered the program under real-world conditions. The present effectiveness trial tested whether a new enhanced dissonance version of this program produced larger effects when college clinicians recruited students and delivered the intervention using improved procedures to select, train, and supervise clinicians. Young women recruited from seven universities across the US (N = 408, M age = 21.6, SD = 5.64) were randomized to the dissonance intervention or an educational brochure control condition. Dissonance participants showed significantly greater decreases in risk factors (thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, dieting, negative affect) and eating disorder symptoms versus controls at posttest and 1-year follow-up, resulting in medium average effect size (d = .60). Dissonance participants also reported significant improvements in psychosocial functioning, but not reduced health care utilization or unhealthy weight gain. This novel multisite effectiveness trial with college clinicians found that the enhanced dissonance version of this program and the improved facilitator selection/training procedures produced average effects that were 83% larger than effects observed in the high school effectiveness trial. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recruiting Patients & Families Consortia, Networks & Centers Reports & Planning Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) The NIDDK-sponsored Diabetes Prevention ... Diabetes Prevention Program for those who are eligible. Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) DPP Goal The DPP looked ...

  10. Long-term analysis of health status and preventive behavior in music students across an entire university program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spahn, Claudia; Nusseck, Manfred; Zander, Mark

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this investigation was to analyze longitudinal data concerning physical and psychological health, playing-related problems, and preventive behavior among music students across their complete 4- to 5-year study period. In a longitudinal, observational study, we followed students during their university training and measured their psychological and physical health status and preventive behavior using standardized questionnaires at four different times. The data were in accordance with previous findings. They demonstrated three groups of health characteristics observed in beginners of music study: healthy students (cluster 1), students with preclinical symptoms (cluster 2), and students who are clinically symptomatic (cluster 3). In total, 64% of all students remained in the same cluster group during their whole university training. About 10% of the students showed considerable health problems and belonged to the third cluster group. The three clusters of health characteristics found in this longitudinal study with music students necessitate that prevention programs for musicians must be adapted to the target audience.

  11. A systematic review of combined student- and parent-based programs to prevent alcohol and other drug use among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Nicola C; Champion, Katrina E; Slade, Tim; Chapman, Cath; Stapinski, Lexine; Koning, Ina; Tonks, Zoe; Teesson, Maree

    2017-05-01

    Alcohol and other drug use among adolescents is a serious concern, and effective prevention is critical. Research indicates that expanding school-based prevention programs to include parenting components could increase prevention outcomes. This paper aims to identify and describe existing combined student- and parent-based programs for the prevention of alcohol and other drug use to evaluate the efficacy of existing programs. The PsycINFO, Medline, Central Register of Controlled trials and Cochrane databases were searched in April 2015 and additional articles were obtained from reference lists. Studies were included if they evaluated a combined universal intervention for students (aged 11-18 years old) and their parents designed to prevent alcohol and/or other drug use, and were delivered in a school-based setting. Risk of bias was assessed by two independent reviewers. Because of the heterogeneity of the included studies, it was not possible to conduct a meta-analysis and a qualitative description of the studies was provided. From a total of 1654 screened papers, 22 research papers met inclusion criteria, which included 13 trials of 10 programs. Of these, nine programs demonstrated significant intervention effects in terms of delaying or reducing adolescent alcohol and/or other drug use in at least one trial. This is the first review of combined student- and parent-based interventions to prevent and reduce alcohol and other drug use. Whilst existing combined student- and parent-based programs have shown promising results, key gaps in the literature have been identified and are discussed in the context of the development of future prevention programs. [Newton NC, Champion KE, Slade T, Chapman C, Stapinski L, Koning I, Tonks Z, Teesson M. A systematic review of combined student- and parent-based programs to prevent alcohol and other drug use among adolescents. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;36:337-351]. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  12. Development, implementation, and evaluation of a multi-addiction prevention program for primary school students in Hong Kong: the B.E.S.T. Teen Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T. L. Shek

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Based on the evaluation findings of the B.E.S.T. Teen Program which aimed at promoting behavioral, emotional, social, and thinking competencies in primary school students, it is argued in this paper that promotion of psychosocial competence to prevent addiction in primary school students is a promising strategy. A total of 382 Primary 5 (Grade 5 and 297 Primary 6 (Grade 6 students from five primary schools in Hong Kong participated in the program. Different evaluation strategies were adopted to evaluate the program. First, objective outcome evaluation adopting a non-equivalent group pretest–posttest experimental-control group design was conducted to examine change in the students. Second, to gauge students’ perceptions of the program, subjective outcome evaluation was conducted. The evaluation findings basically converged to tentatively suggest that young adolescents benefited from participating in the program. Implications on the development, implementation, and evaluation of addiction prevention programs for teenagers are discussed.

  13. The PALS prevention program and its long-term impact on student intentions to use alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Judson W; Huber, Mary J; Ford, Jo Ann; Mayer, Theresa; Moore, Dennis; Wilson, Josephine F; Kinzeler, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    A unique Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drug (ATOD) prevention program called PALS (Prevention through Alternative Learning Styles) was implemented with middle school students with the goal of enhancing student knowledge of the harmful effects of ATOD, promoting the use of refusal skills and reducing intentions to use ATOD in the future. Intentions to use were measured at four points: pre-PALS, post-PALS, and at 1-year and 2-year follow-ups. Student survey responses were then matched and compared across the four time periods. This article reports on the long-term effectiveness of PALS on student intentions to use ATOD in high school. When follow-up surveys of PALS students were compared to students not exposed to PALS (comparison group), the PALS students had significantly lower intentions to use alcohol and tobacco, providing evidence that the PALS intervention did have a long-term impact on intentions to use these substances.

  14. Predictors of middle school students' interest in participating in an incentive-based tobacco prevention and cessation program in connecticut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morean, Meghan E; Camenga, Deepa R; Kong, Grace; Cavallo, Dana A; Schepis, Ty S; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral incentives have been used to encourage smoking cessation in older adolescents, but the acceptability of incentives to promote a smoke-free lifestyle in younger adolescents is unknown. To inform the development of novel, effective, school-based interventions for youth, we assessed middle school students' interest in participating in an incentive-based tobacco abstinence program. We surveyed 988 students (grades 6-8) attending three Connecticut middle schools to determine whether interest in program participation varied as a function of (1) intrapersonal factors (i.e., demographic characteristics (sex, age, race), smoking history, and trait impulsivity) and/or (2) aspects of program design (i.e., prize type, value, and reward frequency). Primary analyses were conducted using multiple regression. A majority of students (61.8%) reported interest in program participation. Interest did not vary by gender, smoking risk status, or offering cash prizes. However, younger students, non-Caucasian students, behaviorally impulsive students, and students with higher levels of self-regulation were more likely to report interest. Inexpensive awards (e.g., video games) offered monthly motivated program interest. In sum, middle school students reported high levels of interest in an incentive-based program to encourage a tobacco-free lifestyle. These formative data can inform the design of effective, incentive-based smoking cessation and prevention programs in middle schools.

  15. Participant adherence to the Internet-based prevention program StudentBodies™ for eating disorders — A review

    OpenAIRE

    Beintner, Ina; Jacobi, Corinna; Taylor, C. Barr

    2014-01-01

    Study and treatment dropout and adherence represent particular challenges in studies on Internet-based interventions. However, systematic investigations of the relationship between study, intervention and patient characteristics, participation, and intervention outcomes in online-prevention are scarce. A review of participation in trials investigating a cognitive-behavioral, Internet-based, 8-week prevention program (StudentBodies™) for eating disorders, moderators of participation, and the i...

  16. Protecting You/Protecting Me: Effects of an Alcohol Prevention and Vehicle Safety Program on Elementary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Mary Lou; Kelley-Baker, Tara; Rider, Raamses; Ringwalt, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes an evaluation of Protecting You/Protecting Me (PY/PM), a classroom-based, alcohol-use prevention and vehicle safety program for elementary students in first through fifth grades developed by Mothers Against Drunk Driving. PY/PM lessons and activities focus on teaching children about (1) their brains (why their brain is…

  17. Results of a drug prevention program in the changing attitudes of students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristóbal VILLANUEVA ROA

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Drug abuse is a problem that the population is highly sensitive. On the other hand, is clear that in the field of education, together with the family, the ideal roomto articulate prevention programmes. One the aspects which many educational programmes have not had the expec ted results has been for not taking into account the family environment and not control his influence. with this research we have found that there are significant differences in the 2nd ESO students attitude, regarding the rejection of tobacco, alcohol and other drugs, depending on which the prevention programme is aplied or not to students. Research has been done with quasi experimental pretest postest to not equivalent control group. The analysis of results, shows that the implementation of the programme has been effective as far as the students attitude has highly improved with regard to the prevention of drugs, mainly tobacco which is the most widely abused drug at these ages. Regarding the expected differences in students attitude by the implementation of a prevention programme with parents, we have not seen significant differences in the results possibly because the initial attitudes are very positive and is very short period of time. As a result of the study we believe it is important to recover the educator family role since its influence is decisive in prevention.

  18. Secondary Effects of an Alcohol Prevention Program Targeting Students and/or Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koning, Ina M; Vollebergh, Wilma A M

    2016-08-01

    The secondary effects of an alcohol prevention program (PAS) on onset of weekly smoking and monthly cannabis use are examined among >3000 Dutch early adolescents (M age=12.64) randomized over four conditions: 1) parent intervention (PI), 2) student intervention (SI), 3) combined intervention (CI) and 4) control condition (CC). Rules about alcohol, alcohol use, and adolescents' self-control were investigated as possible mediators. PI had a marginal aversive effect, slightly increasing the risk of beginning to smoke at T1, and increased the likelihood of beginning to use cannabis use at T1 and T2. SI delayed the onset of monthly cannabis use at T3. CI increased the risk to use cannabis at T3. No mediational processes were found. In conclusion, though this study show mixed results, negative side effects of the PI were found, particularly at earlier ages. Moreover, these results indicate the need for multi-target interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of a preventive intervention program for improving self-complexityon depression among college students

    OpenAIRE

    Kawahito, Junko; Hori, Masashi; Otsuka, Yasumasa

    2010-01-01

    The present study developed an intervention program for self-complexity (SC; Linville, 1987), and examined the effects of this program on college students. Participants (N=40) were randomly assigned to an intervention group or a control group. The intervention group received one session of psycho-education about SC, and kept daily records of self-aspects (social roles, interpersonal relationships, specific events/behaviors, traits, abilities, etc.) for one week. All participants were asked to...

  20. College Student-Athletes as Peer Educators for Substance Abuse Prevention: An Interactive Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricker, Ray

    2009-01-01

    Athletes can be involved as role models and leaders--in collaboration with coaches and other staff--to enhance life skills and prevent substance use among their peers. "Drugs in Sport" is a peer education program involving collegiate athletes visiting middle schools to speak with school children. This article discusses the structure of the Drugs…

  1. [Effects of an Integrated Internet Addiction Prevention Program on Elementary Students' Self-regulation and Internet Addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, So Youn; Lee, Byoung Sook

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an integrated internet addiction prevention program and test its effects on the self-regulation and internet addiction of elementary students who are at risk for internet addiction. A quasi-experimental study with a nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest design was used. Participants were assigned to the experimental group (n=28) or control group (n=28). Contents of the program developed in this study included provision of information about internet addiction, interventions for empowerment and methods of behavioral modification. A pre-test and two post-tests were done to identify the effects of the program and their continuity. Effects were testified using Repeated measures ANOVA, simple effect analysis, and Time Contrast. The self-regulation of the experimental group after the program was significantly higher than the control group. The score for internet addiction self-diagnosis and the internet use time in the experimental group were significantly lower than the control group. The effects of the integrated internet addiction prevention program for preventing internet addiction in elementary students at risk for internet addiction were validated.

  2. Stepwise Development a Text Messaging-Based Bullying Prevention Program for Middle School Students (BullyDown).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ybarra, Michele L; Prescott, Tonya L; Espelage, Dorothy L

    2016-06-13

    Bullying is a significant public health issue among middle school-aged youth. Current prevention programs have only a moderate impact. Cell phone text messaging technology (mHealth) can potentially overcome existing challenges, particularly those that are structural (e.g., limited time that teachers can devote to non-educational topics). To date, the description of the development of empirically-based mHealth-delivered bullying prevention programs are lacking in the literature. To describe the development of BullyDown, a text messaging-based bullying prevention program for middle school students, guided by the Social-Emotional Learning model. We implemented five activities over a 12-month period: (1) national focus groups (n=37 youth) to gather acceptability of program components; (2) development of content; (3) a national Content Advisory Team (n=9 youth) to confirm content tone; and (4) an internal team test of software functionality followed by a beta test (n=22 youth) to confirm the enrollment protocol and the feasibility and acceptability of the program. Recruitment experiences suggested that Facebook advertising was less efficient than using a recruitment firm to recruit youth nationally, and recruiting within schools for the pilot test was feasible. Feedback from the Content Advisory Team suggests a preference for 2-4 brief text messages per day. Beta test findings suggest that BullyDown is both feasible and acceptable: 100% of youth completed the follow-up survey, 86% of whom liked the program. Text messaging appears to be a feasible and acceptable delivery method for bullying prevention programming delivered to middle school students.

  3. Evaluation of a gender-based violence prevention program for student athletes in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elizabeth; Das, Madhumita; Tancredi, Daniel J; McCauley, Heather L; Virata, Maria Catrina D; Nettiksimmons, Jasmine; O'Connor, Brian; Ghosh, Sancheeta; Verma, Ravi

    2014-03-01

    Gender-based violence, which includes sexual and intimate partner violence against women, is prevalent worldwide, prompting calls for primary prevention programs which engage men and boys in changing social norms that condone violence against women. Bystander intervention efforts which encourage males to say something to stop peers from enacting disrespectful and abusive behaviors toward females are a promising strategy for promoting non-violent, gender-equitable attitudes and behaviors. An evaluation of "Parivartan"--a U.S. program called "Coaching Boys Into Men" adapted for urban India cricket teams--was conducted in Mumbai, India. Baseline and 12 month follow-up surveys were administered to 309 male cricket athletes aged 10 to 16 years in 46 urban middle schools in Mumbai, India (27 intervention, 19 control). Athletes whose coaches were trained in the program demonstrated greater improvements in gender-equitable attitudes compared to athletes whose coaches provided standard coaching only. Marginally significant improvements were seen in reduction of negative bystander behavior. Violence prevention programs which utilize coaches as positive messengers for respect and non-violence may be a useful addition to global prevention efforts to reduce violence against women.

  4. Protecting You/Protecting Me: Evaluation of a Student-Led Alcohol Prevention and Traffic Safety Program for Elementary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Mary Lou; Baker, Tara Kelley; Falb, Timothy; Roberts-Gray, Cindy

    2005-01-01

    Pre- and post-surveys of self-protective knowledge and skills in third, fourth, and fifth grade classrooms (n = 24) randomly assigned to a model program for alcohol prevention and traffic safety or to comparison group (n = 24 classrooms) were analyzed to evaluate replicability of immediate positive effects of first-year exposure and to test…

  5. Efficacy Trial of a Selective Prevention Program Targeting Both Eating Disorders and Obesity among Female College Students: 1- and 2-Year Follow-Up Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Shaw, Heather; Marti, C. Nathan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate the effects of a prevention program targeting both eating disorders and obesity at 1- and 2-year follow-ups. Method: Female college students at risk for these outcomes because of body image concerns (N = 398) were randomized to the "Healthy Weight 2" group-based 4-hr prevention program, which promotes lasting healthy…

  6. Effectiveness of "shifting boundaries" teen dating violence prevention program for subgroups of middle school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Bruce G; Mumford, Elizabeth A; Stein, Nan D

    2015-02-01

    We examine whether the Shifting Boundaries (SB) intervention, a primary intervention to prevent youth dating violence and sexual harassment (DV/H), is differentially effective for girls compared with boys or for youth with a history of DV/H experiences. We randomly assigned SB to 30 public middle schools in New York City, enrolling 117 sixth and seventh grade classes to receive a classroom, building, combined, or neither intervention. The SB classroom intervention included six sessions emphasizing the laws/consequences of DV/H, establishing boundaries and safe relationships. The SB schoolwide/building intervention included the use of school-based restraining orders, greater faculty/security presence in unsafe "hot spots" mapped by students, and posters to increase DV/H awareness and reporting. Student surveys were implemented at baseline, immediately after intervention, and 6 months after intervention. At 6 months after intervention, the SB building-level intervention was associated with significant reductions in the frequency of sexual harassment (SH) perpetration and victimization; the prevalence and frequency of sexual dating violence victimization; and the frequency of total dating violence victimization and perpetration. We also had one anomalous finding that the interventions were associated with an increase in the prevalence of SH victimization. These results were consistent for girls and boys, and those with or without a history of DV/H, with the one exception for those exposed to the SB building condition who had earlier reported perpetrating SH had a significantly lower frequency of perpetrating SH at the follow-up than those without such a history. SB can provide effective universal prevention of middle school DV/H experiences, regardless of students' prior exposure histories, and for boys and girls. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of a combined parent-student alcohol prevention program on intermediate factors and adolescents’ drinking behavior: a sequential mediation model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, I.; Maric, M.; MacKinnon, D.; Vollebergh, W.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Previous work revealed that the combined parent-student alcohol prevention program (PAS) effectively postponed alcohol initiation through its hypothesized intermediate factors: increase in strict parental rule setting and adolescents' self-control (Koning, van den Eijnden, Verdurmen,

  8. Efficacy of a Web-Based, Tailored, Alcohol Prevention/Intervention Program for College Students: Initial Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, C. Raymond; Barretto, Andrea Ippel; Walton, Maureen A.; Bryant, Christopher M.; Shope, Jean T.; Raghunathan, Trivellore E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Reduce college student at-risk drinking (ARD) using a Web-based brief motivational alcohol prevention/intervention called "Michigan Prevention and Alcohol Safety for Students" (M-PASS). Participants: Participants included 1,137 randomly sampled first-year college students, including 59% female, 80% white, and averaged age 18.1…

  9. School program for screening students at risk for diabetes: the School Nurse Childhood Obesity Prevention Education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schantz, Shirley; Bobo, Nichole

    2009-07-01

    Accurate height and weight and BMI assessment by the school nurse is the first step in identifying students at risk for developing type 2 diabetes or other health consequences. Additional screening for children at or above the 95th percentile for BMI identifies those students most at risk. MAP affiliate sites indicate that when this assessment and communication is done in a private, sensitive, and caring manner--with emphasis on the health of the child-parents/ guardians are receptive to the information. School nurses, with the knowledge and skills provided by the S.C.O.P.E. program, alert parents/guardians to address their children's health risks and contact their health care providers. School nurses are also taught how they can provide guidance for school leadership and community coalitions to incorporate effective changes to food and physical activity offerings to students. The S.C.O.P.E. program can enhance the role of the school nurse in the global fight against childhood obesity so school-age children are healthy and ready to learn.

  10. [Effects of a preventive intervention program for improving self-complexity on depression among college students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahito, Junko; Hori, Masashi; Otsuka, Yasumasa

    2010-06-01

    The present study developed an intervention program for self-complexity (SC; Linville, 1987), and examined the effects of this program on college students. Participants (N = 40) were randomly assigned to an intervention group or a control group. The intervention group received one session of psycho-education about SC, and kept daily records of self-aspects (social roles, interpersonal relationships, specific events/behaviors, traits, abilities, etc.) for one week. All participants were asked to complete a self-report questionnaire three times (pre, post, and follow-up). The questionnaire was comprised of items evaluating depression (The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale), SC, positive self-complexity (P-SC), and negative self-complexity (N-SC). The results indicated that P-SC at the post-test was significantly increased and P-SC at the follow-up test was marginally increased in the intervention group, compared with the control group. Furthermore, structured equation modeling revealed that in the intervention group, high P-SC was related to low level of depressed mood after the program.

  11. Effect of Nutrition Changes on Foods Selected by Students in a Middle School-Based Diabetes Prevention Intervention Program: The HEALTHY Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, Connie C.; Stadler, Diane D.; Staten, Myrlene A.; El Ghormli, Laure; Gillis, Bonnie; Hartstein, Jill; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Virus, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Background: The HEALTHY primary prevention trial developed an integrated multicomponent intervention program to moderate risk factors for type 2 diabetes in middle schools. The nutrition component aimed to improve the quality of foods and beverages served to students. Changes in the School Breakfast Program (SBP), National School Lunch Program…

  12. EQUIPping High School Students. Effects of a universal prevention program on antisocial behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Velden, F.

    2010-01-01

    Aggression and delinquency among youth form a major social concern, since adolescent externalizing problem behavior is associated with immediate and lasting problems throughout life. In response, there has been a surge of research investigating preventive strategies aiming to reduce these problem

  13. An Ounce of Prevention Is Worth. . . The Life of a Student: Reducing Risk in International Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoye, William P.; Rhodes, Gary M.

    2000-01-01

    Highlights the issues of risk and legal liability in international study abroad programs for college and university administrators and their counsel. Seeks to encourage increased institutional commitment of resources to protect participants from reasonably foreseeable harm. (EV)

  14. Description of the Design and Implementation of a School-Based Obesity Prevention Program Addressing Needs of Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward-Begnoche, Wendy L.; Gance-Cleveland, Bonnie; Harris, Margaret M.; Dean, Janice

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the design and implementation of a school-based obesity prevention program, the successes associated with its implementation, and challenges with development and application of the program's curriculum base. The program is described, including purpose and goals, content and structure of the curriculum, type and training of…

  15. First-Year Male Students' Perceptions of a Rape Prevention Program 7 Months after Their Participation: Attitude and Behavior Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foubert, John D.; Tatum, Jerry L.; Godin, Eric E.

    2010-01-01

    Seven months after seeing The Men's Program, a commonly used rape prevention program, 248 first-year college men responded to four open-ended questions concerning whether or not the program impacted their attitudes or behavior, particularly regarding alcohol related sexual assault. Two thirds of participants reported either attitude or behavior…

  16. An Effectiveness Trial of a Selected Dissonance-Based Eating Disorder Prevention Program for Female High School Students: Long-Term Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Shaw, Heather; Gau, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Efficacy trials found that a dissonance-based eating disorder prevention program in which female high school and college students with body image concerns critique the thin ideal reduced eating disorder risk factors, eating disorder symptoms, and future eating disorder onset. The present effectiveness trial tested whether this program…

  17. School-Based Child Abuse Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassard, Marla R.; Fiorvanti, Christina M.

    2015-01-01

    Child abuse is a leading cause of emotional, behavioral, and health problems across the lifespan. It is also preventable. School-based abuse prevention programs for early childhood and elementary school children have been found to be effective in increasing student knowledge and protective behaviors. The purpose of this article is to help school…

  18. Preventing Online Victimization: College Students' Views on Intervention and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Wendi E; Carmody, Dianne

    2016-01-14

    Facebook, Twitter, and other social networking sites have changed the way we interact online. Technological advances have also facilitated the emergence of cyberstalking and online harassment, a growing issue on college campuses. This study utilizes focus group data to examine college students' experiences with online harassment and cyberstalking. Students voiced concerns with online tracking, falsifying identities, and harassment. They also noted that incoming first-year students and those negotiating some of their first romantic relationships are especially vulnerable. In addition, students were asked to propose appropriate prevention, education, and intervention strategies at the college level. Surprisingly, many students recommended offline programs to battle this online problem. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Outcome evaluation of a multi-component violence-prevention program for middle schools: the Students for Peace project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orpinas, P; Kelder, S; Frankowski, R; Murray, N; Zhang, Q; McAlister, A

    2000-02-01

    This study evaluated the effect of Students for Peace, a multi-component violence-prevention intervention, on reducing aggressive behaviors among students of eight middle schools randomly assigned into intervention or control conditions. The intervention, based on Social Cognitive Theory, included the formation of a School Health Promotion Council, training of peer mediators and peer helpers, training of teachers in conflict resolution, a violence-prevention curriculum, and newsletters for parents. All students were evaluated in the spring of 1994, 1995 and 1996 (approximately 9000 students per evaluation). Sixth graders in 1994 were followed through seventh grade in 1995 or eighth grade in 1996 or both (n = 2246). Cohort and cross-sectional evaluations indicated little to no intervention effect in reducing aggressive behaviors, fights at school, injuries due to fighting, missing classes because of feeling unsafe at school or being threatened to be hurt. For all variables, the strongest predictors of violence in eighth grade were violence in sixth grade and low academic performance. Although ideal and frequently recommended, the holistic approach to prevention in schools in which teachers, administrators and staff model peaceful conflict resolution is difficult to implement, and, in this case, proved ineffective. The Students for Peace experience suggests that interventions begin prior to middle school, explore social environmental intervention strategies, and involve parents and community members.

  20. Differential effects of baseline drinking status : Effects of an alcohol prevention program targeting students and/or parents (PAS) among weekly drinking students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, Ina M.; Lugtig, Peter; Vollebergh, Wilma A M

    2014-01-01

    The effects of an intervention designed to prevent onset of weekly drinking in non drinking students (PAS) were investigated in the group of students that was already drinking at baseline. A cluster randomized trial was used including 3,490 Dutch early adolescents (M age. =. 12.66, SD=. 0.49)

  1. Pollution prevention pledge program: Program overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The Pollution Prevention Pledge Program invites facilities to develop pollution reduction goals which exceed existing provincial, municipal or federal regulatory requirements and to share them with the ministry of Environment and Energy. This document presents a program overview and looks at the following points: benefits of participation; pollution prevention pledge program; levels of participation; determining what to reduce; the 50/90 challenge; estimating and tracking reductions; verifying reductions; program registry and annual report; and achievement awards.

  2. Randomized trial of two e-learning programs for oral health students on secondary prevention of eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBate, Rita D; Severson, Herbert H; Cragun, Deborah; Bleck, Jennifer; Gau, Jeff; Merrell, Laura; Cantwell, Carley; Christiansen, Steve; Koerber, Anne; Tomar, Scott L; Brown, Kelli McCormack; Tedesco, Lisa A; Hendricson, William; Taris, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test whether an interactive, web-based training program is more effective than an existing, flat-text, e-learning program at improving oral health students' knowledge, motivation, and self-efficacy to address signs of disordered eating behaviors with patients. Eighteen oral health classes of dental and dental hygiene students were randomized to either the Intervention (interactive program; n=259) or Alternative (existing program; n=58) conditions. Hierarchical linear modeling assessed for posttest differences between groups while controlling for baseline measures. Improvement among Intervention participants was superior to those who completed the Alternative program for three of the six outcomes: benefits/barriers, self-efficacy, and skills-based knowledge (effect sizes ranging from 0.43 to 0.87). This study thus suggests that interactive training programs may be better than flat-text e-learning programs for improving the skills-based knowledge and self-efficacy necessary for behavior change.

  3. The mediational role of neurocognition in the behavioral outcomes of a social-emotional prevention program in elementary school students: effects of the PATHS Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Nathaniel R; Greenberg, Mark T; Kusché, Carol A; Pentz, Mary Ann

    2006-03-01

    Neuropsychology is one field that holds promise in the construction of comprehensive, developmental models for the promotion of social competence and prevention of problem behavior. Neuropsychological models of behavior suggest that children's neurological functioning affects the regulation of strong emotions, as well as performance in social, cognitive, and behavioral spheres. The current study examines the underlying neurocognitive conceptual theory of action of one social-emotional development program. Hypothesized was that inhibitory control and verbal fluency would mediate the relationship between program condition and teacher-reported externalizing and internalizing behavior problems. Participants were 318 regular education students enrolled in the second or third grade. A series of regression analyses provided empirical support for (a) the effectiveness of the PATHS Curriculum in promoting inhibitory control and verbal fluency and (b) a partial mediating role for inhibitory control in the relation between prevention condition and behavioral outcomes. Implications are that programs designed to promote social and emotional development should consider comprehensive models that attend to neurocognitive functioning and development. Lack of consideration of neurocognitive pathways to the promotion of social competence may ignore important mechanisms through which prevention affects youth outcomes. Furthermore, the findings suggest that developers of social-emotional preventions should design curricula to explicitly promote the developmental integration of executive functioning, verbal processing, and emotional awareness. Doing so may enhance prevention outcomes particularly if those preventions are implemented during a time of peak neurocognitive development.

  4. The Athletic Prevention Programming and Leadership Education (APPLE) Model: Developing Substance Abuse Prevention Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Grossman, Susan J.; Gieck, Joe; Fang, Wei Li; Freedman, Alan

    1993-01-01

    Alcohol and other drug (AOD) abuse affects every sector of society, and student-athletes are no exception. Because many factors affecting athletes do not affect other students, athletic departments commonly approach prevention through AOD education. Different educational approaches are described in this article, particularly the Athletic Prevention Programming and Leadership Education (APPLE) model. Project APPLE is designed to enable an athletic department to systematically analyze its AOD p...

  5. Effectiveness trial of a selective dissonance-based eating disorder prevention program with female college students: Effects at 2- and 3-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Butryn, Meghan L; Shaw, Heather; Marti, C Nathan

    2015-08-01

    An efficacy trial found that a dissonance-based prevention program reduced risk factors, eating disorder symptoms, and future eating disorder onset, but smaller effects emerged when high school clinicians recruited students and delivered the program under real-world conditions in an effectiveness trial. The current report describes results at 2- and 3-year follow-up from an effectiveness trial that tested whether a new enhanced dissonance version of this program produced larger effects when college clinicians recruit students and deliver the intervention using improved train and supervision procedures. Young women from eight universities (N = 408, M age = 21.6, SD = 5.64) were randomized to the prevention program or an educational brochure control condition. Dissonance participants showed greater decreases in risk factors, eating disorder symptoms, and psychosocial impairment by 3-year follow-up than controls, but not healthcare utilization, BMI, or eating disorder onset. This novel multisite effectiveness trial found that the enhanced dissonance intervention and improved training and supervision procedures produced an average effect size at 3-year follow-up that was 290% and 160% larger than effects observed in the high school effectiveness trial and efficacy trial respectively. Yet, the lack of eating disorder onset effects may imply that factors beyond pursuit of the thin ideal now contribute to eating disorder onset. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluating a Health Belief Model-Based Educational Program for School Injury Prevention among Hard-of-Hearing/Deaf High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Vejdani-Aram

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: While all students are vulnerable to injuries, such vulnerability may even be higher in the deaf and hard-of-hearing students. Therefore, this study evaluated a health belief model-based educational program to prevent school injuries among deaf and hard-of-hearing high school students. Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted on all deaf and hard-of-hearing students who attended two special schools in Hamadan (Iran during 2014. They were randomly assigned to either the intervention group (n = 23 or the control group (n = 27. Data were collected using a self-report questionnaire containing items on demographic characteristics, constructs of the health belief model, and knowledge and preventive behaviors. In both groups, the questionnaires were filled out through interviews before and two months after the intervention. The intervention included distributing booklets and holding five educational sessions. Data were analyzed with paired t, independent t, chi square, and Fisher’s exact tests in SPSS16. Results: After the educational intervention, the mean scores of knowledge (P=0.002, preventive behaviors (P=0.001, and constructs of the health belief model, i.e. perceived severity (P=0.001, perceived benefits (P=0.001, self-efficacy (P=0.001, and cues to action (P=0.001, were significantly higher in the intervention group than in the control group. Conclusion: According to our findings, an educational intervention based on the health belief model can promote behaviors to prevent school injuries among deaf and hard-of-hearing students.

  7. Pollution prevention program implementation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engel, J.A.

    1996-09-01

    The Pollution Prevention Program Implementation Plan (the Plan) describes the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (PNNL) Pollution Prevention (P2) Program. The Plan also shows how the P2 Program at PNNL will be in support of and in compliance with the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention (WMin/P2) Awareness Program Plan and the Hanford Site Guide for Preparing and Maintaining Generator Group Pollution Prevention Program Documentation. In addition, this plan describes how PNNL will demonstrate compliance with various legal and policy requirements for P2. This plan documents the strategy for implementing the PNNL P2 Program. The scope of the P2 Program includes implementing and helping to implement P2 activities at PNNL. These activities will be implemented according to the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) hierarchy of source reduction, recycling, treatment, and disposal. The PNNL P2 Program covers all wastes generated at the Laboratory. These include hazardous waste, low-level radioactive waste, radioactive mixed waste, radioactive liquid waste system waste, polychlorinated biphenyl waste, transuranic waste, and sanitary waste generated by activities at PNNL. Materials, resource, and energy conservation are also within the scope of the PNNL P2 Program

  8. Effect of Nutrition Changes on Foods Selected by Students in a Middle School-based Diabetes Prevention Intervention Program; the HEALTHY Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, Connie C.; Stadler, Diane D.; Staten, Myrlene A; ghormli, Laure El; Gillis, Bonnie; Hartstein, Jill; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Virus, Amy

    2011-01-01

    BACKGOUND The HEALTHY primary prevention trial developed an integrated multi-component intervention program to moderate risk factors for type 2 diabetes in middle schools. The nutrition component aimed to improve the quality of foods and beverages served to students. Changes in the School Breakfast Program (SBP), National School Lunch Program (NSLP), and a la carte venues are compared to the experience of control schools. METHODS The intervention was implemented in 21 middle schools from winter 2007 through spring 2009 (following a cohort of students from sixth through eighth grades); 21 schools acted as observed controls. The nutrition component targeted school food service environmental change. Data identifying foods and nutrients served (selected by students for consumption) were collected over a 20-day period at baseline and end of study. Analysis compared end of study values for intervention versus control schools. RESULTS Intervention schools more successfully limited dessert and snack food portion size in NSLP and a la carte and lowered fat content of foods served. Servings of high fiber grain-based foods and/or legumes were improved in SBP but not NSLP. Intervention and control schools eliminated >1% fat milk and sugar added beverages in SBP, but intervention schools were more successful in NSLP and a la carte. CONCLUSION The HEALTHY program demonstrated significant changes in the nutritional quality of foods and beverages served in the SBP, NSLP, and a la carte venues, as part of an effort to decrease childhood obesity and support beneficial effects in some secondary HEALTHY study outcomes. PMID:22239133

  9. Connect: An Effective Community-Based Youth Suicide Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Gretchen; Baber, Kristine M.

    2011-01-01

    Youth suicide prevention is an important public health issue. However, few prevention programs are theory driven or systematically evaluated. This study evaluated Connect, a community-based youth suicide prevention program. Analysis of pre and posttraining questionnaires from 648 adults and 204 high school students revealed significant changes in…

  10. [Effects of an empowerment education program in the prevention of internet games addiction in middle school students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Aeran; Park, Inhyae

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine effects of an empowerment education program (EEP) on internet games addiction, empowerment, and stress in middle school students. The EEP used in this study was based on the Freire's Empowerment Education Model. The research design of this study was a non-equivalent control group pretest-posttest design for 48 middle school students, who were conveniently assigned to an experimental group or a control group. The data were collected from May 29 to June 19, 2005. Data were analyzed using SPSS/PC program with frequencies, X(2)-test, Fisher exact test, t-test, mean, standard deviation and ANCOVA. 1) The first hypothesis that, "the experimental group would have higher empowerment scores than the control group." was supported. 2) The second hypothesis that, "the experimental group would have lower internet games addiction scores than the control group." was supported. 3) The third hypothesis that, "the experimental group would have lower stress scores than the control group." was supported. We suggest, therefore, that the EEP should be used with adolescent to help them control their stress, internet games addiction and to increase their empowerment.

  11. Short-term impact of cognition-motivation-emotional intelligence-resistance skills program on drug use prevention for school students in Wuhan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rui; He, Qian; Shi, Junxin; Gong, Jie; Wang, Hongxing; Wang, Zengzhen

    2010-12-01

    Drug abuse continues to be a serious public health threat worldwide. Most drug abuse prevention research has been conducted with predominantly American or European adolescent populations. Little is known about approaches that work best to prevent the initiation of Chinese adolescent drug use. For targeting risk factors of drug initiation in Chinese adolescents, a school-based health intervention program named "Cognition-Motivation-Emotional Intelligence-Resistance Skills" (CMER) was developed to enhance cognition upon drug use, to decrease motivation of drug use and to improve emotional adjusting and drug resistance skills in this study. A total of 798 students from 3 senior high schools in Wuhan, a city in central China, were assigned randomly to intervention and control groups. The intervention group received the CMER program in which knowledge, development of positive attitude and motivation towards drugs and training of peer resistance skills were basic elements. The immediate impact was compared by measuring the above mentioned elements prior to and three-month after the training session. Students from both groups were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire included demographic items, self-reported drug use behavior, cognition, attitude, and motivation associated with the initiation of drug use and resistance skills. Three months after the intervention, significant effects were found on "illegal substance use at least once" (P0.05). It was concluded that the CMER program, which significantly increased the knowledge of drugs and peer resistance skills, was effective in the drug abuse prevention in a sample of school students in Wuhan, China.

  12. Municipal water pollution prevention program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-03-01

    EPA believes that the most effective and equitable means of assuring viability of this infrastructure is through environmentally preferred pollution prevention approaches especially through application of Municipal Water Pollution Prevention (MWPP). These approaches may enhance worker safety, improve the usability of sludge, increase the ability for local community expansion, and reduce operation and compliance costs. State-based municipal pollution prevention programs focus attention on a series of actions to prevent pollution in advance rather than taking more expensive corrective actions. MWPP encourages resource conservation to reduce water and energy use, appropriate pricing, toxicity reductions at the source, BOD reductions, recycling, proper treatment of wastes, and beneficial uses of sludge

  13. A Medical Student-Delivered Smoking Prevention Program, Education Against Tobacco, for Secondary Schools in Germany: Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinker, Titus Josef; Owczarek, Andreas Dawid; Seeger, Werner; Groneberg, David Alexander; Brieske, Christian Martin; Jansen, Philipp; Klode, Joachim; Stoffels, Ingo; Schadendorf, Dirk; Izar, Benjamin; Fries, Fabian Norbert; Hofmann, Felix Johannes

    2017-06-06

    More than 8.5 million Germans suffer from chronic diseases attributable to smoking. Education Against Tobacco (EAT) is a multinational network of medical students who volunteer for school-based prevention in the classroom setting, amongst other activities. EAT has been implemented in 28 medical schools in Germany and is present in 13 additional countries around the globe. A recent quasi-experimental study showed significant short-term smoking cessation effects on 11-to-15-year-old adolescents. The aim of this study was to provide the first randomized long-term evaluation of the optimized 2014 EAT curriculum involving a photoaging software for its effectiveness in reducing the smoking prevalence among 11-to-15-year-old pupils in German secondary schools. A randomized controlled trial was undertaken with 1504 adolescents from 9 German secondary schools, aged 11-15 years in grades 6-8, of which 718 (47.74%) were identifiable for the prospective sample at the 12-month follow-up. The experimental study design included measurements at baseline (t1), 6 months (t2), and 12 months postintervention (t3), via questionnaire. The study groups consisted of 40 randomized classes that received the standardized EAT intervention (two medical student-led interactive modules taking 120 minutes total) and 34 control classes within the same schools (no intervention). The primary endpoint was the difference in smoking prevalence from t1 to t3 in the control group versus the difference from t1 to t3 in the intervention group. The differences in smoking behavior (smoking onset, quitting) between the two groups, as well as gender-specific effects, were studied as secondary outcomes. None of the effects were significant due to a high loss-to-follow-up effect (52.26%, 786/1504). From baseline to the two follow-up time points, the prevalence of smoking increased from 3.1% to 5.2% to 7.2% in the control group and from 3.0% to 5.4% to 5.8% in the intervention group (number needed to treat [NNT

  14. Nursing students' attitude toward suicide prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebhinani, Naresh; Mamta; Gaikwad, Achla D; Tamphasana, L

    2013-07-01

    Preventing suicide depends upon different health professionals' knowledge regarding suicide, attitude toward suicide attempters, skills to assess and manage suicidal risk. This study was aimed to assess the attitude of nursing students toward suicide prevention. 308 nursing students were recruited from the two institutions through total enumeration method. Attitude toward suicide prevention scale was administered. Study design was cross-sectional. Majority were single females, from urban locality, who were pursuing BSc Nursing with the mean age of 20 years. Only minority had previous exposure to suicide prevention programs or workshops. Nearly half of the subjects had positive attitude toward working with suicidal patients. Again half of the subjects considered unemployment and poverty as main causes of suicide and were quite hopeless about it and they also perceived that most of the suicidal people would not reveal their suicidal plans to others. Merely half of the students had positive attitude toward working with suicidal patients. Hence, there is strong need to organize more educational and training programs on suicide prevention so that these budding health professionals could be more equipped and trained to manage these suicidal patients.

  15. Differential effects of baseline drinking status: effects of an alcohol prevention program targeting students and/or parents (PAS) among weekly drinking students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koning, Ina M; Lugtig, Peter; Vollebergh, Wilma A M

    2014-04-01

    The effects of an intervention designed to prevent onset of weekly drinking in non drinking students (PAS) were investigated in the group of students that was already drinking at baseline. A cluster randomized trial was used including 3,490 Dutch early adolescents (M age = 12.66, SD = 0.49) randomized over four conditions; 1) parent intervention, 2) student intervention, 3) combined intervention and 4) control group. Outcome measures were amount and growth of weekly alcohol drinking measured 10, 22 and 34 months after baseline. The combined intervention significantly curbed the growth of drinking among both non-drinkers (the target group of the intervention) and drinkers at baseline. Overall, less strong increases of drinking over time are found among non-drinkers compared to drinkers at baseline. Thus, the combined PAS intervention is also effective in curbing adolescents' drinking behaviour in those who already were drinking at baseline. Broad implementation of the combined parent-student intervention is recommended. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A Medical Student-Delivered Smoking Prevention Program, Education Against Tobacco, for Secondary Schools in Brazil: Study Protocol for a Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Luiz Eduardo De Freitas; Bernardes-Souza, Breno; Lisboa, Oscar Campos; Seeger, Werner; Groneberg, David Alexander; Tran, Thien-An; Fries, Fabian Norbert; Corrêa, Paulo César Rodrigues Pinto; Brinker, Titus Josef

    2017-01-30

    first evaluative study of a medical student-delivered tobacco prevention program in Brazil and the first randomized trial on the long-term effectiveness of a school-based medical student-delivered tobacco prevention program in general. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02725021; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02725021 (archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6njy3nNml). ©Luiz Eduardo De Freitas Xavier, Breno Bernardes-Souza, Oscar Campos Lisboa, Werner Seeger, David Alexander Groneberg, Thien-An Tran, Fabian Norbert Fries, Paulo César Rodrigues Pinto Corrêa, Titus Josef Brinker. Originally published in JMIR Research Protocols (http://www.researchprotocols.org), 30.01.2017.

  17. Effects of the Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Education (C-SAPE) Program on South Korean Fifth-Grade Students' Competence in Terms of Knowledge and Self-Protective Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Shin-Jeong; Kang, Kyung-Ah

    2017-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) threatens children's safety and even their lives. CSA is increasing steadily, despite the government's efforts to decrease and prevent its incidence. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of the Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Education (C-SAPE) program on fifth-grade elementary school students' competence in…

  18. Nursing students practice primary fire prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehna, Carlee; Todd, Julie A; Keller, Rachel; Presley, Lynn; Jackson, Jessica; Davis, Stephanie; Hockman, Kristi; Phillips-Payne, Charles; Sauer, Sarah; Wessemeier, Sarah

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this project was to evaluate a standardized, interactive, home fire safety program for elementary school students. Senior baccalaureate nursing students in their pediatric clinical rotation taught burn prevention techniques using Hazard House, a model house filled with common household fire hazards (Hazard House, 2006, Ref. 1). Elementary school students were encouraged to identify the hazards and discuss ways in which the house could be made safer. Local firemen then briefly presented what to do if a fire occurred, how firemen may look during a rescue, and the importance of working smoke alarms in the home. A pretest-posttest design was used to examine the effectiveness of an educational intervention. The three groups of participants included 128 kindergarten students, 311 students in grades 1-2, and 61 students in grades 3-4. The tests and interventions were tailored appropriately for each age group. There was no difference in pre- and post-test scores for the students in kindergarten and grades 3-4 (p>0.05). However, there was a significant difference for students in grades 1-2 (pimproving the understanding of fire safety for students in grades 1-2. Future studies may need to include a larger sample of students for the other grades. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of nutrition changes on foods selected by students in a middle school-based diabetes prevention intervention program: the HEALTHY experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, Connie C; Stadler, Diane D; Staten, Myrlene A; El Ghormli, Laure; Gillis, Bonnie; Hartstein, Jill; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Virus, Amy

    2012-02-01

    The HEALTHY primary prevention trial developed an integrated multicomponent intervention program to moderate risk factors for type 2 diabetes in middle schools. The nutrition component aimed to improve the quality of foods and beverages served to students. Changes in the School Breakfast Program (SBP), National School Lunch Program (NSLP), and à la carte venues are compared to the experience of control schools. The intervention was implemented in 21 middle schools from winter 2007 through spring 2009 (following a cohort of students from sixth through eighth grades); 21 schools acted as observed controls. The nutrition component targeted school food service environmental change. Data identifying foods and nutrients served (selected by students for consumption) were collected over a 20-day period at baseline and end of study. Analysis compared end of study values for intervention versus control schools. Intervention schools more successfully limited dessert and snack food portion size in NSLP and à la carte and lowered fat content of foods served. Servings of high-fiber grain-based foods and/or legumes were improved in SBP but not NSLP. Intervention and control schools eliminated >1% fat milk and added-sugar beverages in SBP, but intervention schools were more successful in NSLP and à la carte. The HEALTHY program demonstrated significant changes in the nutritional quality of foods and beverages served in the SBP, NSLP, and à la carte venues, as part of an effort to decrease childhood obesity and support beneficial effects in some secondary HEALTHY study outcomes. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  20. ISS Robotic Student Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, J.; Benavides, J.; Hanson, R.; Cortez, J.; Le Vasseur, D.; Soloway, D.; Oyadomari, K.

    2016-01-01

    The SPHERES facility is a set of three free-flying satellites launched in 2006. In addition to scientists and engineering, middle- and high-school students program the SPHERES during the annual Zero Robotics programming competition. Zero Robotics conducts virtual competitions via simulator and on SPHERES aboard the ISS, with students doing the programming. A web interface allows teams to submit code, receive results, collaborate, and compete in simulator-based initial rounds and semi-final rounds. The final round of each competition is conducted with SPHERES aboard the ISS. At the end of 2017 a new robotic platform called Astrobee will launch, providing new game elements and new ground support for even more student interaction.

  1. School Programming for the Prevention of Addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Marilyn A.

    1992-01-01

    Defines "addiction" and discusses models of addiction. Discusses implications for school prevention programs. Discusses role of school counselor in implementation of a comprehensive addiction prevention program, including assessment, curricular components, intervention programs, and staff development. Presents questions and criteria to…

  2. The Prevention Disaster Program of Flood in 2013 for the 4th Grade Students of Kawatanaka Primary School, Tokushima Prefecture, Japan and Underflow Channels Revealed in 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamata, Sanae; Murata, Mamoru

    2017-12-01

    The Typhoon No. 18 caused flood on September 15, 2013 in the Kawata River basin, Yoshinogawa City, Tokushima Prefecture. The Kawata River is a raised river bed of 36.7 m with banks to 40.5 m above sea level. The heavy rain did not destroy the banks but made the river level 39.4 m high and then pressed the underflow channel. As the Kawatanaka primary school is located at 36.2 m height, it was not submerged although the underflow channel overbanked the adjacent playground. An educational program on the prevention and reduction for natural disaster, which consists of science, social studies and presentation, was conducted to 18 students of the 4th grade in the period of integrated study in the Kawatanaka primary school from September 17, 2013. On the first day, flow current markings from 625 holes, 30 cm to 1 mm in diameter, on the playground were observed. The flow currents showed direction from SE to NW. On the basis of their observations on the flow currents that water runs from high to low, the students considered the phenomena as a result of tilting of the ground. They conducted activity as their homework to confirm their hypothesis to know if there is any tilt in the ground. They took plastic bottle filled with water and reviled that the ground had 1 to 2 degrees’ tilt to the NW during the experiment. On the bases of the difference between E to W flow of the Kawata River and their SE to NW estimated current flow on the playground and the fact that the bank of the river was not destroyed, the students suggested that the heavy rain had pressed the underflow channels. The suggested channels were found on the playground, where new school buildings were constructed in 2016, by one of the students who studied the program in 2013.

  3. Obesity Prevention in Early Adolescence: Student, Parent, and Teacher Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Thomas G.; Bindler, Ruth C.; Goetz, Summer; Daratha, Kenneth B.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a significant health problem among today's youth; however, most school-based prevention programs in this area have had limited success. Focus groups were conducted with seventh- to eighth-grade students, parents, and teachers to provide insight into the development of a comprehensive program for the prevention of adolescent…

  4. Pollution Prevention Program: Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has established a national Research, Development, Demonstration, Testing, and Evaluation (RDDT ampersand E) Program for pollution prevention and waste minimization at its production plants During FY89/90 the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM), through the Office of Technology Development (OTD), established comprehensive, pollution prevention technical support programs to demonstrate new, environmentally-conscious technology for production processes. The RDDT ampersand E program now entails collaborative efforts across DOE. The Pollution Prevention Program is currently supporting three major activities: The DOE/US Air Force Memorandum of Understanding Program is a collaborative effort to utilize the combined resources of DOE and the Department of Defense, eliminate duplication of effort in developing technologies, and to facilitate technology solutions aimed at reducing waste through process modification, material substitution or recycling. The Waste Component Recycle, Treatment and Disposal Integrated Demonstration (WeDID) will develop recycle, treatment, and disposal processes and associated technologies for use in the dismantlement of non-nuclear weapons components, to support US arms treaties and policies. This program will focus on meeting all security and regulatory requirements (with additional benefit to the commercial electronics industry). The Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing Integrated Demonstration (ECMID) will effectively implement ECM technologies that address both the needs of the DOE Complex and US electronics industry, and encourage strong interaction between DOE and US industry. The ECMID will also develop life cycle analysis tools that will aid decisionmakers in selecting the optimum process based on the tradeoffs between cost an environmental impact

  5. Effects of a combined parent-student alcohol prevention program on intermediate factors and adolescents' drinking behavior: A sequential mediation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koning, Ina M; Maric, Marija; MacKinnon, David; Vollebergh, Wilma A M

    2015-08-01

    Previous work revealed that the combined parent-student alcohol prevention program (PAS) effectively postponed alcohol initiation through its hypothesized intermediate factors: increase in strict parental rule setting and adolescents' self-control (Koning, van den Eijnden, Verdurmen, Engels, & Vollebergh, 2011). This study examines whether the parental strictness precedes an increase in adolescents' self-control by testing a sequential mediation model. A cluster randomized trial including 3,245 Dutch early adolescents (M age = 12.68, SD = 0.50) and their parents randomized over 4 conditions: (1) parent intervention, (2) student intervention, (3) combined intervention, and (4) control group. Outcome measure was amount of weekly drinking measured at age 12 to 15; baseline assessment (T0) and 3 follow-up assessments (T1-T3). Main effects of the combined and parent intervention on weekly drinking at T3 were found. The effect of the combined intervention on weekly drinking (T3) was mediated via an increase in strict rule setting (T1) and adolescents' subsequent self-control (T2). In addition, the indirect effect of the combined intervention via rule setting (T1) was significant. No reciprocal sequential mediation (self-control at T1 prior to rules at T2) was found. The current study is 1 of the few studies reporting sequential mediation effects of youth intervention outcomes. It underscores the need of involving parents in youth alcohol prevention programs, and the need to target both parents and adolescents, so that change in parents' behavior enables change in their offspring. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. 40 CFR 68.170 - Prevention program/Program 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prevention program/Program 2. 68.170 Section 68.170 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.170 Prevention program/Program...

  7. An Exploratory Investigation of the Promoting Responsibility through Education and Prevention (PREP) after School Program for African American At-Risk Elementary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sale, Elizabeth; Weil, Virginia; Kryah, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    The promoting responsibility through education and prevention (PREP) program is an after school substance abuse and violence prevention program for at-risk fourth and fifth grade youths in St. Louis, Missouri. Staffed by licensed clinical social workers and professional volunteers, PREP offers cultural cooking classes, yoga, and art as well as…

  8. Haemoglobinopathy prevention program in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Canatan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Thalassemia and abnormal haemoglobins are a serious health problem in Turkey. Very important steps for toward preventing thalassemia have been taken in Turkey by Ministry of Health (MOH, Turkish National Haemoglobinopathy Council (TNHC and Thalassemia Federation of Turkey (TFT since 2000. In 1993, a law was issued called Fight Against Hereditary Blood Disease especially for thalassemia and haemoglobinopathies. The law commends to prevent haemoglobinopathies and to treat all patients with haemoglobinopathy and thalassemia. A pilot project was started and centres were created in the MOH Hospitals in the southern provinces of Turkey. In 2000, TNHC was installed to combine all centres, foundations, and associations into one organization controlled by the MOH. In 2001, the MOH and the TNHC made an inventory of all recorded patients with thalassemia and abnormal hemoglobins in Turkey, registering at least 4513 patients. In 2002, written regulations for the Fight Against Hereditary Blood Disease were published. MOH and TNHC selected 33 provinces situated in the Thrace, Marmara, Aegean, Mediterranean and South Eastern regions with high birth prevalence of severe haemoglobinopathies. In 2003, the haemoglobinopathy scientific committee was set-up, a guidebook was published and a national Hemoglobinopaty Prevention Program (HPP was started in these high risk provinces . This program is running in these provinces successfully. In 2005, TFT was established as a secular society organization instead of TNHC. In 2007, National Thalassemia Prevention Campaign (NTPC was organized for public education by TFT. This campaign contributed very important supporting to HPP in Turkey, because totally 62.682 people such as health workers, students, teachers, demarches, religion officers and the other many people were educated for preventing thalassemia and haemoglobinopathies. In 2009, National Thalassemia Education Seminars (NTES for health personnel have been planned in

  9. A systematic review of multi-component student- and family-based programs to prevent alcohol and other drug use among adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newton, N.C.; Champion, K.; Slade, T.; Chapman, C.; Stapinski, L.; Koning, H.M.; Tonks, Z.; Teesson, M.

    Issues. Alcohol and other drug use among adolescents is a serious concern, and effective prevention is critical. Research indicates that expanding school-based prevention programs to include parenting components could increase prevention outcomes. This paper aims to identify and describe existing

  10. Pollution prevention program plan 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This plan serves as the principal crosscutting guidance to Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters, Operations Office, laboratory, and contractor management to fully implement pollution prevention programs within the DOE complex between now and 2000. To firmly demonstrate DOE's commitment to pollution prevention, the Secretary of Energy has established goals, to be achieved by December 31, 1999, that will aggressively reduce DOE's routine generation of radioactive, mixed, and hazardous wastes, and total releases and offsite transfers of toxic chemicals. The Secretary also has established sanitary waste reduction, recycling, and affirmative procurement goals. Site progress in meeting these goals will be reported annually to the Secretary in the Annual Report on Waste Generation and Waste Minimization Progress, using 1993 as the baseline year. Implementation of this plan will represent a major step toward reducing the environmental risks and costs associated with DOE operations

  11. Participant adherence to the Internet-based prevention program StudentBodies™ for eating disorders — A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Beintner

    2014-03-01

    Adherence to StudentBodies™ proved to be high across a number of trials, settings and countries. These findings are promising, but it is likely that adherence will be distinctly lower in the general public than in research settings, and intervention effects will turn out smaller. However, the intervention is readily available at minimal cost per participant, and the public health impact may still be notable.

  12. The Effect of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Plus Media on the Reduction of Bullying and Victimization and the Increase of Empathy and Bystander Response in a Bully Prevention Program for Urban Sixth-Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Laura Pierce

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of cognitive behavioral therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy plus media on the reduction of bullying and victimization and the increase in empathy and bystander response in a bully prevention program for urban sixth-graders. Sixty-eight students participated. Because one of the…

  13. Effects of an osteoporosis prevention training program on physical activity-related stages of change and self-efficacy among university students, Shiraz, Iran: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHAMMAD HOSSIEN KAVEH

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Osteoporosis is a major problem in today's world, being characterized by decreased bone mass and bone change. Due to deficiency of theory-based studies in young population, especially in students, there are significant knowledge gaps of effective planning. The present study was performed in response to this need. The present study investigated the effect of an empowerment program on physical activity related stages of change and self-efficacy in preventing osteoporosis among university students Methods: In this randomized controlled trial (IRCT: IRCT201212016261N2, 152 female students of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences were selected through multi-stages cluster sampling and were randomly assigned to an experimental (n=76 and a control (n=76 group. The pre-and post-intervention data were collected using the Stages of Exercise Change Questionnaire (SECQ of Marcos with Cronbach's alpha reliability of 0.89 and also the self-efficacy scale with a Cronbach's alpha reliability of 0.88 and Test-Retest Correlation Coefficient of 0.80. The educational intervention for the experimental group took place through problem-based learning method, small group discussion, and training manuals. In addition, training CDs and brochures were given to the subjects and short SMSs were sent to them. The data were analyzed through SPSS, version 14, using Mann-Whitney test, Chi-square test, Wilcoxon and regression tests. Results: Pre-intervention findings showed that participants had behavioral constructs below the expected levels. The results showed that the experimental group received significant statistical increase after the intervention in stage of change. Before the intervention, the mean scores of stages of changes in the experimental groups was 2.28±0.86 but this rose to 3±0.84 in the first post-test and 3.22±0.84 in the second post-test. The control group showed a significant increase in stage of change without intervention (pre-test 2.04±0

  14. A Text Message Program as a Booster to In-Person Brief Interventions for Mandated College Students to Prevent Weekend Binge Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suffoletto, Brian; Merrill, Jennifer E.; Chung, Tammy; Kristan, Jeffrey; Vanek, Marian; Clark, Duncan B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate a text message (SMS) program as a booster to an in-person alcohol intervention with mandated college students. Participants: Undergraduates (N = 224; 46% female) who violated an on-campus alcohol policy over a 2-semester period in 2014. Methods: The SMS program sent drinking-related queries each Thursday and Sunday and…

  15. THE PREVENTION, ERADICATION, MISUSE, AND ILLICIT NAR-COTICS CIRCULATION SOCIALIZATION PROGRAM FOR STU-DENTS IN BANDUNG CITY (SOSIALISASI PROGRAM PENCEGAHAN, PEMBERANTAS, PENYALAHGUNAAN, DAN PEREDARAN GELAP NARKOTIKA BAGI PELAJAR DI KOTA BANDUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    arkita Vierza Bella

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The Prevention, Eradication, Misuse, and Illicit Narcotics Circulation Socializa-tion Program was a program held by the Indonesia’s National Narcotics Agency (BNN of West Java Province to grow a sense against narcotics and to create a narcotics-free environment. Alt-hough this program has been implemented, the use of narcotics continues to increase every year, especially among students. This research aimed to discover the correlations between the Preven-tion, Eradication, Misuse, and Illicit Narcotics Circulation socialization program from Indone-sia’s National Narcotics Agency (BNN of West Java Province in terms of the socialization mes-sage, the credibility of the instructor, and the socialization method with the students’ attitude in Bandung against the danger of narcotics. This research used the correlational method through Rank Spearman (rs hypothesis test with the descriptive and inferential analysis technique. The result of this research showed that there is a strong relation between the Prevention, Eradication, Misuse, and Illicit Narcotics Circulation (P4GN socialization program from Indonesia’s National Narcotics Agency (BNN of West Java Province and the students’ attitude in Bandung against the danger of narcotics. Abstrak. Sosialisasi Program Pencegahan, Pemberantasan, Penyalahgunaan, dan Peredaran Gelap Narkotika (P4GN merupakan sosialisasi yang dilakukan oleh Badan Nasional Narkotika Provinsi Jawa Barat guna menumbuhkan sikap menolak narkoba dan menciptakan ling-kungan bebas narkoba, walaupun sosialisasi ini telah dilakukan tetapi penggunaan narkotika terus saja meningkat setiap tahunnya khususnya di kalangan pelajar. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan antara sosialisasi program Pencegahan, Pemberantasan, Penyalahgunaan, dan Peredaran Gelap Narkotika (P4GN Badan Nasional Narkotika Provinsi Jawa Barat dilihat dari segi pesan penyuluhan, kredibilitas penyuluh, dan metode penyuluhan dengan sikap

  16. Towards programs for alcohol consumption prevention in college students in Bogota, Colombia [Elementos para programas de prevención en consumo de alcohol en universitarios en Bogotá, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Liliana Muñoz Ortega

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This non–experimental study, aimed to propose from university students items for prevention programs of alcohol consumption obtain by examining levels, situations and characteristics of alcohol consumption of 2910 students in ten universities of Bogotá – Colombia who answered the features tab in consumption, the Ceal and the Isca, participating in 15 focus groups, 80 students. Consumption is high, begins at early ages, approved by parents, associated by academic pressures loneliness and culture. There are indexes of abuse and dependence. The situations associated with consumption are emotions and good times, the urge to consume and social pressure. Preventive programs should be implemented by youth-oriented, responsible consumption using a variety of activities with responsibility from the actors.

  17. Changes in Body Mass Index During a 3-Year Elementary School-Based Obesity Prevention Program for American Indian and White Rural Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogeltanz-Holm, Nancy; Holm, Jeffrey

    2018-04-01

    Childhood obesity is a significant but largely modifiable health risk, disproportionately affecting socioeconomically disadvantaged, racial/ethnic minority, and rural children. Elementary school-aged children typically experience the greatest increases in excess weight gain and therefore are important targets for reducing adolescent and adult obesity while improving children's health. Our study evaluated outcomes of a 3-year elementary school-based program for reducing obesity in American Indian and White students attending eight rural schools in the U.S. upper Midwest. Researchers measured body mass indexes (BMI) and other health indicators and behaviors of 308 beginning third-grade students and then again at the end of students' third, fourth, and fifth grades. The primary focus of this study is a mixed multilevel longitudinal model testing changes in age- and gender-adjusted BMI z scores ( zBMI). There was a significant decrease in zBMI across the 3-year study period. Ethnicity analyses showed that White students had overall decreases in zBMI whereas American Indian students' zBMIs remained stable across the program. Comparisons with children from an age- and cohort-matched national sample provided support for the effectiveness of the school program in reducing BMI and obesity during the study period. An elementary school-based health program that addresses a range of students' obesity-related health behaviors, the school health environment, and that involves educators and parents is an effective intervention for reducing or stabilizing BMI in rural White and American Indian students. School health programs for students living in rural communities may be especially effective due to greater school and community cohesiveness, and valuing of the school's primary role in improving community health.

  18. An internet obesity prevention program for adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittemore, Robin; Jeon, Sangchoon; Grey, Margaret

    2013-04-01

    To compare the effectiveness of two school-based internet obesity prevention programs for diverse adolescents on body mass index (BMI), health behaviors, and self-efficacy, and to explore moderators of program efficacy. It was hypothesized that the addition of coping skills training to a health education and behavioral support program would further enhance health outcomes. A randomized clinical trial with cluster randomization by class and repeated measures with follow-up at 3 and 6 months was conducted (n = 384). BMI was assessed by use of standard procedures. Sedentary behavior, physical activity, nutrition behavior, self-efficacy, and satisfaction were assessed with self-report measures. Data analysis consisted of mixed model analyses with autoregressive covariance structure for repeated data by use of intent-to-treat procedures. The mean age of students was 15.31 years (±0.69), with a mean BMI of 24.69 (±5.58). The majority were girls (62%) and of diverse race/ethnicity (65% non-white). There were no significant differences between groups on any outcomes and no change in BMI over time. There were significant improvements in health behaviors (sedentary behavior, moderate and vigorous physical activity, healthy eating, fruit and vegetable intake, sugar beverages, and junk food intake) and self-efficacy. Gender and lesson completion moderated select health outcomes. There was excellent participation and high satisfaction with the programs. School-based internet obesity prevention programs are appealing to adolescents and improve health behaviors. The differential effect of coping skills training may require longer follow-up. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the present article is to provide a detailed description of the highly successful lifestyle intervention administered to 1,079 participants, which included 45% racial and ethnic minorities and resulted in a 58% reduction in the incidence rate of diabetes (2). The two major goals of the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) lifestyle intervention were a minimum of 7% weight loss/weight maintenance and a minimum of 150 min of physical activity similar in intensity to brisk walking. Both goals were hypothesized to be feasible, safe, and effective based on previous clinical trials in other countries (3–7). The methods used to achieve these lifestyle goals include the following key features: 1) individual case managers or “lifestyle coaches;” 2) frequent contact with participants; 3) a structured, state-of-the-art, 16-session core-curriculum that taught behavioral self-management strategies for weight loss and physical activity; 4) supervised physical activity sessions; 5) a more flexible maintenance intervention, combining group and individual approaches, motivational campaigns, and “restarts;” 6) individualization through a “toolbox” of adherence strategies; 7) tailoring of materials and strategies to address ethnic diversity; and finally 8) an extensive network of training, feedback, and clinical support. PMID:12453955

  20. Beyond primary prevention of alcohol use: a culturally specific secondary prevention program for Mexican heritage adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsiglia, Flavio F; Ayers, Stephanie; Gance-Cleveland, Bonnie; Mettler, Kathleen; Booth, Jaime

    2012-06-01

    Classroom-based primary prevention programs with adolescents are effective in inhibiting the onset of drug use, but these programs are not designed to directly address the unique needs of adolescents at higher risk of use or already using alcohol and other drugs. This article describes the initial efficacy evaluation of a companion psychosocial small group program which aims at addressing the needs of Mexican heritage students identified by their teachers as being at higher risk for substance use or already experimenting with alcohol and other drugs. The adolescent (7th grade) small group curricula, REAL Groups, is a secondary prevention program which supplements the primary classroom-based substance use prevention program, keepin' it REAL. Following a mutual aid approach, a total of 109 7th grade students were referred by their teachers and participated in the REAL Groups. The remaining 252 7th grade students who did not participate served as the control group. To account for biased selection into REAL Groups, propensity score matching (PSM) was employed. The estimated average treatment effect for participants' use of alcohol was calculated at the end of the 8th grade. Results indicate that alcohol use decreased among students who participated in the REAL Groups relative to matched students who did not participate. These findings suggest that REAL Groups may be an effective secondary prevention program for higher-risk Mexican heritage adolescents.

  1. Suicide Prevention with Diverse College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadick, Richard; Akhter, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Because of a dearth of experience in preventing suicide in diverse student populations, Pace University developed a multicultural suicide prevention kit. This article details the process used to develop the kit. The rationale for approaching suicide prevention in a culturally competent manner is presented, and methods used to gain culture-specific…

  2. Wanted: A Developmentally Oriented Alcohol Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoth, Richard; Rosenthal, David

    1980-01-01

    Describes an alcohol prevention program with a comprehensive developmental skills orientation. The program includes values clarification, decision making, career planning and communication skills, assertiveness and relaxation training, and relationship with parents and peers. (Author/JAC)

  3. Evaluating the SOS suicide prevention program: a replication and extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glanovsky Jaime

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suicide is a leading cause of death for children and youth in the United States. Although school based programs have been the principal vehicle for youth suicide prevention efforts for over two decades, few have been systematically evaluated. This study examined the effectiveness of the Signs of Suicide (SOS prevention program in reducing suicidal behavior. Methods 4133 students in 9 high schools in Columbus, Georgia, western Massachusetts, and Hartford, Connecticut were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups during the 2001–02 and 2002–03 school years. Self-administered questionnaires were completed by students in both groups approximately 3 months after program implementation. Results Significantly lower rates of suicide attempts and greater knowledge and more adaptive attitudes about depression and suicide were observed among students in the intervention group. Students' race/ethnicity, grade, and gender did not alter the impact of the intervention on any of the outcomes assessed in this analysis. Conclusion This study has confirmed preliminary analysis of Year 1 data with a larger and more racially and socio-economically diverse sample. SOS continues to be the only universal school-based suicide prevention program to demonstrate significant effects of self-reported suicide attempts in a study utilizing a randomized experimental design. Moreover, the beneficial effects of SOS were observed among high school-aged youth from diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds, highlighting the program's utility as a universal prevention program. Trial registration clinicaltrials.gov NCT000387855.

  4. Pacific Craniofacial Team and Cleft Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolarová, Marie M; Poulton, Donald; Aubert, Maryse M; Oh, HeeSoo; Ellerhorst, Thomas; Mosby, Terezie; Tolar, Miroslav; Boyd, Robert L

    2006-10-01

    There is no doubt modern genetics have greatly influenced our professional and personal lives during the last decade. Uncovering genetic causes of many medical and dental pathologies is helping to narrow the diagnosis and select a treatment plan that would provide the best outcome. Importantly, having an understanding of multifactorial etiology helps direct our attention toward prevention. We now understand much better our own health problems. In some cases, we can modify our lifestyle and diet in order to prevent "environmental factors" from triggering the mutated genes inherited from our parents. Good examples are diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. If we realize we might have inherited genes for cardiovascular problems from several ancestors who had heart attacks, we already know that these genes will make us only "susceptible" for disease. Those who exercise, watch one's weight, diet, and carefully monitor one's lifestyle will very likely--though possessing "susceptibility genes"--stay healthier and, maybe, will never experience any cardiovascular problems. In principle, the same applies for craniofacial anomalies, especially for nonsyndromic cleft lip and palate. One needs to understand genetic and environmental causes of nonsyndromic orofacial clefts in order to prevent them. With all this in mind, the Pacific Craniofacial Team and Cleft Prevention Program have been established at the Department of Orthodontics, University of the Pacific Arthur A. Dugoni School of Dentistry in San Francisco. A partnership with Rotaplast International, Inc., has made it possible for the faculty, orthodontic residents, and students to participate in 27 multidisciplinary cleft medical missions in underdeveloped and developing countries by donating professional and educational services, and, last but not least, by collecting valuable data and specimens to further research. A significant number of research studies, including 15 master of science theses, have been accomplished in

  5. Federal Student Loan Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Student Aid, US Department of Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    For those needing a loan to attend college, think federal aid first. Federal student loans usually offer borrowers lower interest rates and have more flexible repayment terms and options than private student loans. This brief report answers the following questions about federal aid: (1) What is a federal student loan?; (2) What is a private…

  6. Preventative maintenance program for bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The Kentucky Transportation Cabinets (KYTC) bridge inventory is rapidly aging. As such, the Cabinet : needs to identify and implement relevant preventative maintenance (PM) actions to extend the useful : service lives of those structures. Maintena...

  7. A systematic review of school-based suicide prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Cara; Bolton, Shay-Lee; Katz, Laurence Y; Isaak, Corinne; Tilston-Jones, Toni; Sareen, Jitender

    2013-10-01

    Suicide is one of the leading causes of death among youth today. Schools are a cost-effective way to reach youth, yet there is no conclusive evidence regarding the most effective prevention strategy. We conducted a systematic review of the empirical literature on school-based suicide prevention programs. Studies were identified through MEDLINE and Scopus searches, using keywords such as "suicide, education, prevention and program evaluation." Additional studies were identified with a manual search of relevant reference lists. Individual studies were rated for level of evidence, and the programs were given a grade of recommendation. Five reviewers rated all studies independently and disagreements were resolved through discussion. Sixteen programs were identified. Few programs have been evaluated for their effectiveness in reducing suicide attempts. Most studies evaluated the programs' abilities to improve students' and school staffs' knowledge and attitudes toward suicide. Signs of Suicide and the Good Behavior Game were the only programs found to reduce suicide attempts. Several other programs were found to reduce suicidal ideation, improve general life skills, and change gatekeeper behaviors. There are few evidence-based, school-based suicide prevention programs, a combination of which may be effective. It would be useful to evaluate the effectiveness of general mental health promotion programs on the outcome of suicide. The grades assigned in this review are reflective of the available literature, demonstrating a lack of randomized controlled trials. Further evaluation of programs examining suicidal behavior outcomes in randomized controlled trials is warranted. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. 40 CFR 68.175 - Prevention program/Program 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.175 Prevention program/Program...) The name(s) of the substance(s) covered. (d) The date on which the safety information was last...) The expected date of completion of any changes resulting from the PHA; (2) Major hazards identified...

  9. Measures and programs for preventing violence in school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gašić-Pavišić Slobodanka Ž.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In many countries across the world schools are no longer a safe place for both students and school staff. Violence in school is an issue scarcely studied in Serbia and there are few articles in domestic professional literature. At national and local level there are not developed strategies nor programs for preventing violence among students in our schools. There are no data about planned, systematic and organized prevention of violence in the practice of our schools. The data obtained by investigations indicate that it is necessary to apply adequate programs for preventing violence among students in our schools, despite the finding that violence in school is not that much conspicuous and serious problem like in other countries (USA Israel, Japan, Austria, Germany. On the basis of relevant literature review the present paper high­lights some very popular and less notorious measures and prevention programs applied in various countries. The aim of the paper is to transmit basic and essential pieces of information so as to gain insight into diverse existing approaches to prevention of violent behavior in school hopefully to encourage our schools to pay more attention to preventing violence in school as soon as possible before it is too late.

  10. Students at risk of educational exclusion in secondary education. Perceptions of teachers involved in special programs about prevention of school failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier AMORES FERNÁNDEZ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available School failure in Secondary Education is one of the most serious problems that carries the Spanish educational system today. Initial vocational qualification programs (pcpi were designed to offer a second chance to failed students (or at risk of educational exclusion in this educational stage. This study, for which has been used a mixed or hybrid method research, has provided a number of results that offer a more complete vision on the usefulness of these «Educational reclosing» programs (now Vocational Basic Training, in the centers of the province of Granada, showing viewpoints as interesting as the teachers and students involved in the study. Here the perception of teachers is summarized on these students at risk who, due to several reasons, have been excluded from the mainstream educational system, and doomed to failure. Students that fail not only for learning difficulties or personal problems related to their family, also crash into an educational system that has not been able to provide adequate answers to their needs. 

  11. Predictors of successful cancer prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porzsolt, Franz; Kirner, Anita; Kaplan, Robert M

    2009-01-01

    Finding the optimal use of health-care resources requires the reliable estimation of costs and consequences. Acquiring these estimates may not be difficult for some common treatments. More difficult is the optimization of resources in the area of diagnostics. Only a few attempts have been made to optimize the use of resources in the area of prevention. Several aspects have to be considered when optimizing the resources for prevention: (1) participation rates in structured prevention programs are low, (2), acquiring data on follow-up and outcomes is difficult, (3) there are concerns about the quality of information available to public, and (4), the public is often unaware of scientific assessments of prevention programs. As prevention programs are costly long-term projects, a strategy to select these programs according to possible predictors of success might be useful. The few analyses of cancer prevention in the literature have been directed towards the most common malignant diseases (as assessed by incidence) such as cancer of the breast, colon, lung and prostate. We argue that incidence is a poor marker for selecting secondary prevention programs. Incidence may be a misleading indicator for two reasons: incidence of disease does not predict efficiency of management or good health outcomes, and incidence does not separate clinically significant from non-significant disease. The traditional strategy is based on the assumption that more screening increases the chance of cure. We propose an alternative outcomes model that suggests better disease management justifies new prevention programs. Indicators for better disease management are effective and efficient treatments as well as high-quality screening (sensitivity and specificity) techniques and possibly "side-effects of prevention programs," which provide early signs of success to motivate the patient's participation, to keep up with the program and finally to succeed.

  12. Individualized Degree Program Student Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, Jan

    This student handbook describes the process and components of Whatcom Community College's Individualized Degree Program (IDP), which offers students the opportunity to design an associate degree or certificate plan to meet their educational goals. After introductory material presents a history of the IDP's development and the purpose of the…

  13. Efficacy of the Aussie Optimism Program: Promoting Pro-social Behavior and Preventing Suicidality in Primary School Students. A Randomised-Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare M. Roberts

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of an enhanced version of the Aussie Optimism Program (AOP was investigated in a cluster randomized controlled trial. Grade 6 students aged 10–11 years of age (N = 2288 from 63 government primary schools in Perth, Western Australia, participated in the pre, post, and follow-up study. Schools were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: Aussie Optimism with teacher training, Aussie Optimism with teacher training plus coaching, or a usual care condition that received the regular Western Australian Health Education Curriculum. Students in the Aussie Optimism conditions received 20, 1-h lessons relating to social and interpersonal skills and optimistic thinking skills over the last 2 years of primary school. Parents in the active conditions received a parent information booklet each year, plus a self-directed program in Grade 7. Students and parents completed the Extended Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Students who scored in the clinical range on the Emotional Symptoms Scale were given The Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents IV, to assess suicidal ideation and behavior, and depressive and anxiety disorders. Results indicated that Aussie Optimism with teacher training plus coaching was associated with the best outcomes: a significant increase in student-reported pro-social behavior from pre-test to post-test 1 (maintained at post-test 2 and significantly lower incidence rates from suicidal ideation at post-test 2 and follow-up. No significant intervention effects on anxiety and depressive disorders, and total difficulties were reported. These findings suggest that the AOP with teacher training along with coaching may have the potential to positively impact on suicidality and pro-social behavior in the pre-adolescent years.

  14. Program Administration | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Governance Structure Recognizing the importance of an integrated approach to preventative drug development, there is a unified Governance Structure for the PREVENT Program responsible for coordinating and integrating available resources. With the goal of reaching go/no-go decisions as efficiently as possible, the purpose is to ensure a pragmatic approach to drug development and a clear path to market. |

  15. Establishing the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and student experience of a Simulation-based education Training program On the Prevention of Falls (STOP-Falls) among hospitalised inpatients: a protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Cylie; Bowles, Kelly-Ann; Kiegaldie, Debra; Maloney, Stephen; Nestel, Debra; Kaplonyi, Jessica; Haines, Terry

    2016-06-02

    Simulation-based education (SBE) is now commonly used across health professional disciplines to teach a range of skills. The evidence base supporting the effectiveness of this approach for improving patient health outcomes is relatively narrow, focused mainly on the development of procedural skills. However, there are other simulation approaches used to support non-procedure specific skills that are in need of further investigation. This cluster, cross-over randomised controlled trial with a concurrent economic evaluation (cost per fall prevented) trial will evaluate the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and student experience of health professional students undertaking simulation training for the prevention of falls among hospitalised inpatients. This research will target the students within the established undergraduate student placements of Monash University medicine, nursing and allied health across Peninsula Health acute and subacute inpatient wards. The intervention will train the students in how to provide the Safe Recovery program, the only single intervention approach demonstrated to reduce falls in hospitals. This will involve redevelopment of the Safe Recovery program into a one-to-many participant SBE program, so that groups of students learn the communication skills and falls prevention knowledge necessary for delivery of the program. The primary outcome of this research will be patient falls across participating inpatient wards, with secondary outcomes including student satisfaction with the SBE and knowledge gain, ward-level practice change and cost of acute/rehabilitation care for each patient measured using clinical costing data. The Human Research Ethics Committees of Peninsula Health (LRR/15/PH/11) and Monash University (CF15/3523-2015001384) have approved this research. The participant information and consent forms provide information on privacy, storage of results and dissemination. Registration of this trial has been completed with the

  16. Effective prevention programs for tobacco use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentz, M A

    1999-01-01

    Several types of prevention programs have shown effects on delaying or reducing youth tobacco use for periods of 1-5 years or more. These are referred to as evidence-based programs. However, they are not widely used. At the same time, with few exceptions, adolescent tobacco use rates have been stable or have increased in the 1990s. The challenge for prevention is to identify critical components shared by effective prevention programs--that is, components most associated with effect, and then to evaluate factors that are most likely to promote adoption, implementation, and diffusion of effective programs across schools and communities in the United States. Effective tobacco prevention programs focus on counteracting social influences on tobacco use, include either direct training of youth in resistance and assertiveness skills or, for policy and community organization interventions, direct or indirect (through adults) training in community activism, and are mainly theory-based, with an emphasis on three levels of theory: (a) personal (attitudes, normative expectations, and beliefs); (b) social (social or group behavior); and/or (c) environmental (communications and diffusion). Program effects increase with the use of booster sessions, standardized implementor training and support, multiple program components, and multiple levels of theory. Overall, multi-component community programs that have a school program as a basis, with supportive parent, media, and community organization components, have shown the most sustained effects on tobacco use. Positive program adoption by the school or community, extent and quality of program implementation, and existence of credible networks of leaders to promote the program are critical for any effect. Research on predictors of adoption, implementation, and diffusion of evidence-based programs is scanty relative to outcome research. In addition, more research is needed on why multi-component programs appear to be most effective

  17. Comparisons of Prevention Programs for Homeless Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane

    2014-01-01

    There are six HIV prevention programs for homeless youth whose efficacy has been or is currently being evaluated: STRIVE, the Community Reinforcement Approach, Strengths-Based Case Management, Ecologically-Based Family Therapy, Street Smart, and AESOP (street outreach access to resources). Programs vary in their underlying framework and theoretical models for understanding homelessness. All programs presume that the youths’ families lack the ability to support their adolescent child. Some programs deemphasize family involvement while others focus on rebuilding connections among family members. The programs either normalize current family conflicts or, alternatively, provide education about the importance of parental monitoring. All programs aim to reduce HIV-related sexual and drug use acts. A coping skills approach is common across programs: Problem-solving skills are specifically addressed in four of the six programs; alternatively, parents in other programs are encouraged to contingently reward their children. Each program also engineers ongoing social support for the families and the youth, either by providing access to needed resources or by substituting a new, supportive relationship for the existing family caretaker. All of the interventions provide access to health and mental health services as basic program resources. A comparison of HIV prevention programs for homeless youth identifies the robust components of each and suggests which programs providers may choose to replicate. PMID:19067164

  18. Dumping Ground or Effective Alternative: Dropout Prevention Programs in Urban Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth, Cori

    1998-01-01

    An alternative dropout-prevention program is examined from the students' perspectives. Findings from interviews and observations suggest that the program is effective in keeping the students in school but does little to help the students develop daily living and social skills. Policy implications are discussed and suggestions for future research…

  19. Teen Drinking Prevention Program. Event Action Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Substance Abuse Prevention.

    Underage drinking presents a serious health risk not only to young people themselves but to entire communities. This program guide is designed to help communities establish their own underage drinking prevention programs. Community norms, actions, and attitudes toward alcohol affect young people, as do the ways in which alcohol is promoted.…

  20. Validation of a Poison Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Noel C.; Braden, Barbara T.

    Two way analyses of variance and cross-group descriptive comparisons assessed the effectiveness of the Siop Poison Prevention Program, which included an educational program and the use of warning labels, on improving verbal and visual discrimination of poisonous and nonpoisonous products for preschool children. The study sample consisted of 156…

  1. Staff Directory | Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program values the contributions of its fellows and works to provide relevant and useful experiences in research and education in return. Our staff is here to provide unwavering support and guidance to each fellow as they progress through the program.

  2. Comparisons of Prevention Programs for Homeless Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Arnold, Elizabeth Mayfield; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane

    2009-01-01

    There are six HIV prevention programs for homeless youth whose efficacy has been or is currently being evaluated: STRIVE, the Community Reinforcement Approach, Strengths-Based Case Management, Ecologically-Based Family Therapy, Street Smart, and AESOP (street outreach access to resources). Programs vary in their underlying framework and theoretical models for understanding homelessness. All programs presume that the youths’ families lack the ability to support their adolescent child. Some pro...

  3. Student Technology Assistant Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eck, Rick; Marvin, Eric; Burr-McNeal, Blake; Jones, Marshall; Lowther, Deborah

    Schools face significant challenges in implementing computing technology within their curriculum. When technology support falters, the integrity of a school district's entire technology program is at risk. Teachers who have invested time to develop lesson plans using technology, especially those who are still newcomers, are less likely to continue…

  4. [Effectiveness of alcohol prevention program for pre-adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobrowski, Krzysztof Jan; Pisarska, Agnieszka; Staszewski, Krzysztof O; Borucka, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to assess the delayed effects of a two-year alcohol prevention program implemented in Polish primary schools. The program comprised two curricula implemented the school and in family houses: Program Domowych Detektywów and Fantastyczne Mozliwości. Both curricula were the Polish versions of two American school-based prevention programs which belonged to Project Northland. The initial study sample (N = 802) comprised 10 to 11 years old pupils (fourth and fifth-grade) from eight primary schools in Warsaw. Schools were randomly assigned to the intervention (n = 421) and the reference group (n = 381). A self-completion questionnaire was administered to students four times: at the baseline, seven, fifteen and twenty seven months after. The program had an expected influence on the students' attitudes, knowledge and resistance skills towards alcohol. The effects on the participants' initiation of drunkenness and their first experience in alcohol use with their peers have also been reported. Most of the positive effects remained significant over time. The effectiveness of the program, as shown by the outcome evaluation, supports an argument for its wide implementation in Polish schools. Further progress in the field of alcohol and drug prevention in Poland depends on overcoming the existing barriers in this area of public health.

  5. Construction principles of prevention programs for adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    A.A. Bochaver; T.V. Tretyakova

    2014-01-01

    We present the basic principles for the development of effective programs for prevention of substance abuse among young people employed in the United States. They are based on the model of “risk factors and protective factors” and suggest a consistent, systematic, coordinated deployment of preventive interventions for children of different ages and in different social contexts (individually, in family, at school, in community). These principles can be useful for transfer of foreign experience...

  6. An Evaluation of a Unique Gatekeeper Training for Suicide Prevention of College Students: Demonstrating Effective Partnering within Student Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Lisa A.; Lynch, Joseph F.; Bane, Mary

    2013-01-01

    For college students, suicide is the second leading cause of death. In this study, we evaluated a gatekeeper training suicide prevention program that emphasizes emotional connectivity with students in crisis and incorporates the collaborative efforts between Housing/Residential Programs and the Counseling Center. Participants consisted of graduate…

  7. Student science enrichment training program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandhu, S.S.

    1994-08-01

    This is a report on the Student Science Enrichment Training Program, with special emphasis on chemical and computer science fields. The residential summer session was held at the campus of Claflin College, Orangeburg, SC, for six weeks during 1993 summer, to run concomitantly with the college`s summer school. Fifty participants selected for this program, included high school sophomores, juniors and seniors. The students came from rural South Carolina and adjoining states which, presently, have limited science and computer science facilities. The program focused on high ability minority students, with high potential for science engineering and mathematical careers. The major objective was to increase the pool of well qualified college entering minority students who would elect to go into science, engineering and mathematical careers. The Division of Natural Sciences and Mathematics and engineering at Claflin College received major benefits from this program as it helped them to expand the Departments of Chemistry, Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Science as a result of additional enrollment. It also established an expanded pool of well qualified minority science and mathematics graduates, which were recruited by the federal agencies and private corporations, visiting Claflin College Campus. Department of Energy`s relationship with Claflin College increased the public awareness of energy related job opportunities in the public and private sectors.

  8. Program Costs and Student Completion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Terri M.; Crosta, Peter M.

    2014-01-01

    Community colleges are under pressure to increase completion rates, prepare students for the workplace, and contain costs. Colleges need to know the financial implications of what are often perceived as routine decisions: course scheduling, program offerings, and the provision of support services. This chapter presents a methodology for estimating…

  9. Development of tailored nutrition information messages based on the transtheoretical model for smartphone application of an obesity prevention and management program for elementary-school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Eun; Lee, Da Eun; Kim, Kirang; Shim, Jae Eun; Sung, Eunju; Kang, Jae-Heon; Hwang, Ji-Yun

    2017-06-01

    Easy access to intervention and support for certain behaviors is important for obesity prevention and management. The available technology such as smartphone applications can be used for intervention regarding healthy food choices for obesity prevention and management in elementary-school students. The transtheoretical model (TTM) is comprised of stages and processes of change and can be adopted to tailored education for behavioral change. This study aims to develop TTM-based nutrition contents for mobile applications intended to change eating behaviors related to weight gain in young children. A synthesized algorithm for tailored nutrition messages was developed according to the intake status of six food groups (vegetables, fruits, sugar-sweetened beverages, fast food and instant food, snacks, and late-night snacks), decision to make dietary behavioral changes, and self-confidence in dietary behavioral changes. The messages in this study were developed from December 2014 to April 2015. After the validity evaluation of the contents through expert consultation, tailored nutrition information messages and educational contents were developed based on the TTM. Based on the TTM, stages of subjects are determined by their current intake status, decision to make dietary behavioral changes, and self-confidence in dietary behavioral changes. Three versions of tailored nutrition messages at each TTM stage were developed so as to not send the same messages for three weeks at most, and visual materials such as figures and tables were developed to provide additional nutritional information. Finally, 3,276 tailored nutrition messages and 60 nutrition contents for applications were developed. Smartphone applications may be an innovative medium to deliver interventions for eating behavior changes directly to individuals with favorable cost-effectiveness. In addition, using the TTM for tailored nutrition education for healthy eating is an effective approach.

  10. Development of tailored nutrition information messages based on the transtheoretical model for smartphone application of an obesity prevention and management program for elementary-school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Eun; Lee, Da Eun; Kim, Kirang; Shim, Jae Eun; Sung, Eunju; Kang, Jae-Heon

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Easy access to intervention and support for certain behaviors is important for obesity prevention and management. The available technology such as smartphone applications can be used for intervention regarding healthy food choices for obesity prevention and management in elementary-school students. The transtheoretical model (TTM) is comprised of stages and processes of change and can be adopted to tailored education for behavioral change. This study aims to develop TTM-based nutrition contents for mobile applications intended to change eating behaviors related to weight gain in young children. SUBJECTS/METHODS A synthesized algorithm for tailored nutrition messages was developed according to the intake status of six food groups (vegetables, fruits, sugar-sweetened beverages, fast food and instant food, snacks, and late-night snacks), decision to make dietary behavioral changes, and self-confidence in dietary behavioral changes. The messages in this study were developed from December 2014 to April 2015. After the validity evaluation of the contents through expert consultation, tailored nutrition information messages and educational contents were developed based on the TTM. RESULTS Based on the TTM, stages of subjects are determined by their current intake status, decision to make dietary behavioral changes, and self-confidence in dietary behavioral changes. Three versions of tailored nutrition messages at each TTM stage were developed so as to not send the same messages for three weeks at most, and visual materials such as figures and tables were developed to provide additional nutritional information. Finally, 3,276 tailored nutrition messages and 60 nutrition contents for applications were developed. CONCLUSIONS Smartphone applications may be an innovative medium to deliver interventions for eating behavior changes directly to individuals with favorable cost-effectiveness. In addition, using the TTM for tailored nutrition education for

  11. Effectiveness of programs to prevent school bullying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baldry, A.C.; Farrington, D.P.

    2007-01-01

    Sixteen major evaluations of programs to prevent school bullying, conducted in 11 different countries, are reviewed in detail. Of these 16 evaluations, 8 produced desirable results, 2 produced mixed results, 4 produced small or negligible effects, and 2 produced undesirable results. These varying

  12. An integral part of an integrated preventive maintenance program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, B.J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper outlines the evolution of the Integrated Preventive Maintenance Program from the Reliability Centered Maintenance pilot program at Bruce Nuclear Generating Station (NGS) 'A.' The Integrated Preventive Maintenance Program provides the means for taking control of the Bruce NGS 'A' Preventive Maintenance Program. In addition, the development of the Bruce NGS 'A' Air-Operated Valve Preventive Maintenance is reviewed

  13. The classwide peer tutoring program: implementation factors moderating students' achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, C R; Terry, B; Arreaga-Mayer, C; Finney, R

    1992-01-01

    We conducted a study designed to assess implementation of the classwide peer tutoring program and the relationship between implementation variation and student outcome. A clinical replication design was used. Five volunteer elementary teachers were trained to implement the program; their implementation was monitored for 19 consecutive weeks during 1 school year. Overall, the results indicated that specific variations in program implementation were associated with students' responses to treatment. It was also demonstrated that different teachers' applications of the program produced differential levels of student outcome. Implementation factors related to lower spelling achievement were (a) reduced opportunities to receive program sessions, (b) reduced probabilities of students' participation in program opportunities, (c) too many students assigned unchallenging spelling words, and (d) reduced rates of daily point earning reflecting lower levels of spelling practice during tutoring sessions. The implications of these findings and methods of preventing these implementation problems are discussed in the context of quality assurance and social validity.

  14. AIDS prevention program for Puerto Rican women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro de Alvarez, V

    1990-04-01

    Historically women are considered the family's primary care provider and biologically, they are the link in the transmission of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Because of this dual role, they need programs that are culturally sensitive and effective. Many Latinas do not perceive themselves to be at risk despite the educational resources available to them. This article examines cultural factors that influence risk perception and behavioral changes in response to educational intervention. Interviews and literature review were used in assessing availability, applicability and cultural sensitivity of AIDS prevention programs. Effective programs need to be culturally sensitive to gender role expectation and the role of motherhood for Latinas. Educators expressed the belief that women benefit most from programs that help them implement the behaviors that will help protect them. Programs must be cognizant of the cultures' demand for respect and modesty while providing factual information/instruction.

  15. Impact of School Flu Vaccine Program on Student Absences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaspohl, Sara S.; Dixon, Betty T.; Streater, James A.; Hausauer, Elizabeth T.; Newman, Christopher P.; Vogel, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    Literature provides evidence that school attendance correlates with academic performance and student success. Influenza is a contributing factor to school absences. Primary prevention for influenza includes immunization. School-located influenza vaccine (SLIV) programs provide greater access for students to be immunized. A retrospective review of…

  16. Pilot Test of Standup, an Online School-Based Bullying Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmons-Mitchell, Jane; Levesque, Deborah A.; Harris, Leon A., III.; Flannery, Daniel J.; Falcone, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    Bullying is a significant public health problem for students in schools. Prevention programs have addressed targets with some success; however, meta-analyses find small effects among older youths. A pilot study was conducted with high school students to evaluate the potential efficacy of StandUp, a three-session online program that delivers…

  17. Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S

    2012-03-29

    This document describes how Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) meets the requirements and management practices of federal regulation 10 CFR 850, 'Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program (CBDPP).' This revision of the LLNL CBDPP incorporates clarification and editorial changes based on lessons learned from employee discussions, observations and reviews of Department of Energy (DOE) Complex and commercial industry beryllium (Be) safety programs. The information is used to strengthen beryllium safety practices at LLNL, particularly in the areas of: (1) Management of small parts and components; and (2) Communication of program status to employees. Future changes to LLNL beryllium activities and on-going operating experience will be incorporated into the program as described in Section S, 'Performance Feedback.'

  18. Doorways I: Student Training Manual on School-Related Gender-Based Violence Prevention and Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Doorways training program was designed by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)-funded Safe Schools Program (Safe Schools) to enable teachers, community members and students to prevent and respond to school-related gender-based violence (SRGBV). "Doorways I: Student Training Manual on School-Related Gender-Based Violence…

  19. Workplace Wellness Programs to Promote Cancer Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldano, Sharon K

    2016-08-01

    To define the diversity of and business case for workplace wellness programs, highlight best practices for a comprehensive health promotion program, and describe the opportunities for employees to become wellness advocates. Current literature and articles published between 2010 and 2016, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Health Enhancement Research Organization, National Business Group on Health, Wellness Councils of America, best practice program guidelines and internet resources. Employers are increasingly affected by rising health care costs and epidemic rates of obesity and associated chronic diseases within the workforce. Employers who offer workplace wellness programs can contribute to the overall health and well-being of their employees, improve employee productivity and retention, and reduce absenteeism and health care costs. Employees participating in workplace wellness programs can reduce their health risks and serve as health promotion advocates. Nurses can lead by example by participating in their workplace wellness programs, serving as an advocate to influence their employers and colleagues, and educating their patients regarding the benefits of workplace wellness programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Medical students, clinical preventive services, and shared decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Carole W; Thompson, Margaret E; Noel, Mary Margaret

    2002-11-01

    Improving access to preventive care requires addressing patient, provider, and systems barriers. Patients often lack knowledge or are skeptical about the importance of prevention. Physicians feel that they have too little time, are not trained to deliver preventive services, and are concerned about the effectiveness of prevention. We have implemented an educational module in the required family practice clerkship (1) to enhance medical student learning about common clinical preventive services and (2) to teach students how to inform and involve patients in shared decision making about those services. Students are asked to examine available evidence-based information for preventive screening services. They are encouraged to look at the recommendations of various organizations and use such resources as reports from the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force to determine recommendations they want to be knowledgeable about in talking with their patients. For learning shared decision making, students are trained to use a model adapted from Braddock and colleagues(1) to discuss specific screening services and to engage patients in the process of making informed decisions about what is best for their own health. The shared decision making is presented and modeled by faculty, discussed in small groups, and students practice using Web-based cases and simulations. The students are evaluated using formative and summative performance-based assessments as they interact with simulated patients about (1) screening for high blood cholesterol and other lipid abnormalities, (2) screening for colorectal cancer, (3) screening for prostate cancer, and (4) screening for breast cancer. The final student evaluation is a ten-minute, videotaped discussion with a simulated patient about screening for colorectal cancer that is graded against a checklist that focuses primarily on the elements of shared decision making. Our medical students appear quite willing to accept shared decision making as

  1. Suicide Prevention in College Students: A Collaborative Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Rodríguez, María Del C; Huertas, Ivonne Bayron

    2013-01-01

    Described by Durkheim (1966) as the crudest expression of the social phenomena, suicide is of interest to clinicians, academics and researchers. Within the academic context, this issue has to be addressed and prevented. We are interested in sharing the process of participative action that led to the creation of a Suicide Prevention Program (SPP) for college students. Based on knowledge that was generated through a collaborative effort among all sectors of the academic community, we developed a prevention campaign that is culturally sensitive to our university's environment. This campaign is directed towards overcoming the stigma of seeking help and is characterized by promoting a sense of wellbeing in a holistic manner, paying attention not only to the individual, but also to elements of their sociocultural environment.

  2. A Meta-Analysis of School-Based Bullying Prevention Programs' Effects on Bystander Intervention Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanin, Joshua R.; Espelage, Dorothy L.; Pigott, Therese D.

    2012-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized bullying prevention programs' effectiveness at increasing bystander intervention in bullying situations. Evidence from 12 school-based programs, involving 12,874 students, indicated that overall the programs were successful (Hedges's g = 0.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.11 to 0.29, p = 0.001), with larger…

  3. Process Evaluation of a Bullying Prevention Program: A Public School-County Health Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, Lynne; Hoover, John

    2008-01-01

    In this article, a process evaluation of a school-based, violence intervention program is presented. The program was modeled after bullying prevention programs described by Daniel Olweus (1993) whose components were implemented to achieve student safety goals. The process evaluation instrument used in this study was developed by a rural Midwestern…

  4. Combining Primary Prevention and Risk Reduction Approaches in Sexual Assault Protection Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menning, Chadwick; Holtzman, Mellisa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The object of this study is to extend prior evaluations of Elemental, a sexual assault protection program that combines primary prevention and risk reduction strategies within a single program. Participants and Methods: During 2012 and 2013, program group and control group students completed pretest, posttest, and 6-week and 6-month…

  5. A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial of a School-Based Depression Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merry, Sally; McDowell, Heather; Wild, Chris J.; Bir, Julliet; Cunliffe, Rachel

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To conduct a placebo-controlled study of the effectiveness of a universal school-based depression prevention program. Method: Three hundred ninety-two students age 13 to 15 from two schools were randomized to intervention (RAP-Kiwi) and placebo programs run by teachers. RAP-Kiwi was an 11-session manual-based program derived from…

  6. Program characteristics and organizational factors affecting the implementation of a school-based indicated prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaker, Samruddhi; Steckler, Allan; Sánchez, Victoria; Khatapoush, Shereen; Rose, John; Hallfors, Denise Dion

    2008-04-01

    Reconnecting Youth (RY) is a school-based drug prevention program designed to address academic, substance use and mood management goals among youth at risk of dropping out of high school. This paper presents the organizational factors and RY program characteristics that either promoted or hindered the implementation of the program during a randomized controlled effectiveness trial in 10 schools in two school districts in the United States. Data were collected using surveys and interviews from teachers and school and district staff who participated in the implementation of the RY program in these schools. Results suggest that certain RY program characteristics made it difficult to implement. Small class size, resource-intensive procedures for student selection and recruitment and special training, qualities and skills needed to be an effective RY teacher meant that schools had to significantly change their usual practices to implement the program. Organizational barriers included a lack of financial resources and leadership support for program implementation, and low priority for non-academic courses for high-risk students. Transient student populations, staff turnover and district-wide scheduling and curriculum changes all resulted in high levels of organizational turbulence at most schools, further hindering program implementation.

  7. Burnout prevention: a review of intervention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awa, Wendy L; Plaumann, Martina; Walter, Ulla

    2010-02-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of intervention programs at the workplace or elsewhere aimed at preventing burnout, a leading cause of work related mental health impairment. A systematic search of burnout intervention studies was conducted in the databases Medline, PsycINFO and PSYNDEX from 1995 to 2007. Data was also extracted from papers found through a hand search. A total of 25 primary intervention studies were reviewed. Seventeen (68%) were person-directed interventions, 2 (8%) were organization-directed and 6 (24%) were a combination of both interventions types. Eighty percent of all programs led to a reduction in burnout. Person-directed interventions reduced burnout in the short term (6 months or less), while a combination of both person- and organization-directed interventions had longer lasting positive effects (12 months and over). In all cases, positive intervention effects diminished in the course of time. Intervention programs against burnout are beneficial and can be enhanced with refresher courses. Better implemented programs including both person- and organization-directed measures should be offered and evaluated. A combination of both intervention types should be further investigated, optimized and practiced. Institutions should recognize the need for and make burnout intervention programs available to employees. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Importance of multidisciplinary trauma prevention program for youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcir Escocia Dorigatti

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: present the experience of the P.A.R.T.Y. program in Campinas, thereby changing the habits of young people.METHODS: The organizers visited the participating schools talking to the students, who are aged between 14-18 years. These students spent an afternoon at the Clinics Hospital of Unicamp, where, for four hours, they attended lectures of the organizers, partners and municipal sectors, and also visited the hospital, talking with trauma victims. Questionnaires were evaluated between2010-2012, being applied before and after the project.RESULTS:2,450 high school students attended the program. The mean age is 16 ± 0,99 years and 37.6% were male. 3.6% of males already drive while drunk versus 0.8% of women. Before the project 116 (11.3% thought that drunk driving wasn't a risk, and only 37 (3.6% knew the alcohol effects. After the project, 441 (43% began to consider drunk driving a risk and 193 (18.8% know the alcohol effects when driving. 956 (93.3% considered that prevention projects have a huge impact on their formation.CONCLUSION: It's expected that the attendees will act as multipliers of information, conveying the message of prevention to their entire social circles resulting in reduction in the number of trauma events involving the young, in the long term.

  9. Development of an internet-based obesity prevention program for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriele, Jeanne M; Stewart, Tiffany M; Sample, Alicia; Davis, Allison B; Allen, Ray; Martin, Corby K; Newton, Robert L; Williamson, Donald A

    2010-05-01

    Childhood obesity is a growing problem, particularly in rural, Louisiana school children. Traditionally, school-based obesity prevention programs have used a primary prevention approach. Finding methods to deliver secondary prevention programs to large numbers of students without singling out overweight students has been a challenge. An innovative approach to achieving this goal is through use of an Internet intervention targeted toward a student's weight status. This article describes the Louisiana (LA) Health Internet intervention, including the student Web site, the Internet counselor Web site, and the Internet counseling process. The LA Health Internet intervention had separate interfaces for students and Internet counselors. The main features of the student site were behavioral weight loss lessons, lesson activities, chat with an Internet counselor, and email. The Internet counselor site contained these same features, plus a student directory and various means of obtaining student information to guide counseling. Based on their baseline weight status, students received lessons and counseling that promoted either weight loss or weight maintenance. Intervention was delivered during class time, and teachers scheduled Internet counseling sessions with intervention personnel. The LA Health Internet intervention was initially implemented within 14 schools; 773 students were granted access to the site. From Fall 2007 to Spring 2009, 1174 hours of Internet counselor coverage was needed to implement the Internet counseling component of this intervention The LA Health Internet intervention is an innovative and feasible method of delivering a secondary prevention program within a school setting to large numbers of students. (c) 2010 Diabetes Technology Society.

  10. Intimate Partner Violence Prevention Programs in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangum, Dana W

    One in 4 women will experience intimate partner violence in her lifetime. The goal of primary intimate partner violence prevention programs is to stop the violence before it begins. Secondary prevention programs identify violence that is occurring and intervene as soon as possible to prevent the problem from progressing. This commentary discusses intimate partner violence, primary and secondary prevention, and current prevention programs in North Carolina. ©2016 by the North Carolina Institute of Medicine and The Duke Endowment. All rights reserved.

  11. [Psychological effects of preventive voice care training in student teachers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusseck, M; Richter, B; Echternach, M; Spahn, C

    2017-07-01

    Studies on the effectiveness of preventive voice care programs have focused mainly on voice parameters. Psychological parameters, however, have not been investigated in detail so far. The effect of a voice training program for German student teachers on psychological health parameters was investigated in a longitudinal study. The sample of 204 student teachers was divided into the intervention group (n = 123), who participated in the voice training program, and the control group (n = 81), who received no voice training. Voice training contained ten 90-min group courses and an individual visit by the voice trainer in a teaching situation with feedback afterwards. Participants were asked to fill out questionnaires (self-efficacy, Short-Form Health Survey, self-consciousness, voice self-concept, work-related behaviour and experience patterns) at the beginning and the end of their student teacher training period. The training program showed significant positive influences on psychological health, voice self-concept (i.e. more positive perception and increased awareness of one's own voice) and work-related coping behaviour in the intervention group. On average, the mental health status of all participants reduced over time, whereas the status in the trained group diminished significantly less than in the control group. Furthermore, the trained student teachers gained abilities to cope with work-related stress better than those without training. The training program clearly showed a positive impact on mental health. The results maintain the importance of such a training program not only for voice health, but also for wide-ranging aspects of constitutional health.

  12. Effects of In-School and Tailored Out-of-School Smoking Prevention among Dutch Vocational School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausems, Marlein; Mesters, Ilse; van Breukelen, Gerard; De Vries, Hein

    2004-01-01

    This paper evaluates a smoking prevention intervention aimed at vocational school students, consisting of an existing Dutch in-school program (three lessons each lasting 50 min) and a computer-based tailored out-of-school program (three tailored letters with smoking prevention messages mailed to students' homes). Nineteen schools that already…

  13. Academic stress in Chinese schools and a proposed preventive intervention program

    OpenAIRE

    Xu Zhao; Robert L. Selman; Helen Haste

    2015-01-01

    While American educators fret about the mediocre educational performance of American students in international contests (e.g. the Program for International Student Assessment) and wonder why the Chinese education system produces such high-achieving students, educators, journalists, and public officials in China want to know what causes and how to prevent the high levels of academic stress that Chinese students, their families, and their school systems experience. So far, much of the blame for...

  14. Adolescent Substance Use Following Participation in a Universal Drug Prevention Program: Examining Relationships With Program Recall and Baseline Use Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavarian, Niloofar; Duncan, Robert; Lewis, Kendra M; Miao, Alicia; Washburn, Isaac J

    2015-01-01

    The study examined whether adolescents receiving a universal, school based, drug prevention program in Grade 7 varied, by student profile, in substance use behaviors post program implementation. Profiles were a function of recall of program receipt and substance use at baseline. A secondary analysis was conducted on data from the Adolescent Substance Abuse Prevention Study, a large, geographically diverse, longitudinal school-based cluster-randomized controlled trial of the Take Charge of Your Life drug prevention program. Profiles were created using self-reported substance use (preintervention) and program recall (postintervention) at Grade 7. First, characteristics of each of the 4 profiles of treatment students who varied by program recall and baseline substance use were explored. Then, multilevel logistic regression analyses were used to examine differences in the odds of substance use (alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana) among student profiles at the 6 additional study waves (Time 2 [Grade 7] through Time 7 [Grade 11]). Pearson's chi-square tests showed sample characteristics varied by student profile. Multilevel logistic regression results were consistent across all examined substance use behaviors at all time points. Namely, as compared with students who had no baseline substance use and had program recall (No Use, Recall), each of the remaining 3 profiles (No Use, No Recall; Use, Recall; Use, No Recall) were more likely to engage in substance use. Post hoc analyses showed that for the 2 subprofiles of baseline substance users, there were only 2 observed, and inconsistent, differences in the odds of subsequent substance use by recall status. Findings suggest that for students who were not baseline substance users, program recall significantly decreased the likelihood of subsequent substance use. For students who were baseline substance users, program recall did not generally influence subsequent substance use. Implications for school-based drug prevention

  15. Hanford Site waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Place, B.G.

    1998-01-01

    This plan, which is required by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400. 1, provides waste minimization and pollution prevention guidance for all Hanford Site contractors. The plan is primary in a hierarchical series that includes the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan, Prime contractor implementation plans, and the Hanford Site Guide for Preparing and Maintaining Generator Group Pollution Prevention Program Documentation (DOE-RL, 1997a) describing programs required by Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) 3002(b) and 3005(h) (RCRA and EPA, 1994). Items discussed include the pollution prevention policy and regulatory background, organizational structure, the major objectives and goals of Hanford Site's pollution prevention program, and an itemized description of the Hanford Site pollution prevention program. The document also includes US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office's (RL's) statement of policy on pollution prevention as well as a listing of regulatory drivers that require a pollution prevention program

  16. College Teaching and Community Outreaching: Service Learning in an Obesity Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himelein, Melissa; Passman, Liz; Phillips, Jessica M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Service learning can enrich students' knowledge, skills and commitment to occupational goals while positively affecting communities. Undergraduate students in a course on obesity engaged in service learning by assisting with a family-based obesity prevention program, Getting Into Fitness Together (GIFT). Purpose: The impact of GIFT on…

  17. Sandia National Laboratories, California Pollution Prevention Program annual report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Janet S.; Farren, Laurie J.

    2010-03-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the SNL/CA Pollution Prevention Program for a given calendar year. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. The program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Pollution Prevention Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

  18. Sandia National Laboratories California Pollution Prevention Program Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Janet S.; Farren, Laurie J.

    2007-04-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the SNL/CA Pollution Prevention Program for a given calendar year. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. The program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Pollution Prevention Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

  19. CHAMPS: Peer Leadership Program for Middle School Students. Training Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epps, Patricia; Vallenari, Alison

    CHAMPS Peer Leadership is a program designed to prepare school and community teams to empower youth to take responsibility for themselves and to prevent abusive behaviors. Students who master process skills such as goal setting, team building, communication, self-responsibility, self-esteem, and empowerment, also have the capability to respond…

  20. Event-Specific Prevention: Addressing College Student Drinking During Known Windows of Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Neighbors, Clayton; Walters, Scott T.; Lee, Christine M.; Vader, Amanda M.; Vehige, Tamara; Szigethy, Thomas; DeJong, William

    2007-01-01

    The unique drinking patterns of college students call for Event-Specific Prevention (ESP) strategies that address college student drinking associated with peak times and events. Despite limited research evaluating ESP, many college campuses are currently implementing programming for specific events. The present paper provides a review of existing literature related to ESP and offers practical guidance for research and practice. The prevention typology proposed by DeJong and Langford (2002) pr...

  1. Literature Review of Military Related Suicide Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    school-based suicide prevention programs. Five other reviews were found again of youth , adolescent and school-based programs, while 45 clinical...Health Organizations Health Evidence Network identified only one report of strategies for suicide prevention, again for youth and adolescents . The...Coping and Support Training) Columbia University TeenScreen Emergency Room Intervention for Adolescent Females PROSPECT (Prevention of Suicide

  2. Secondary Prevention Efforts at the Middle School Level: An Application of the Behavior Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Capizzi, Andrea M.; Fisher, Marisa H.; Ennis, Robin Parks

    2012-01-01

    In this study we examine the impact of the Behavior Education Program (BEP; Hawken, MacLeod, & Rawlings, 2007) with four middle school students who were not responsive to a comprehensive primary prevention program including academic, behavioral and social components. To extend this line of inquiry we (a) conducted a functional behavioral…

  3. Dropout Prevention: Diversified Satellite Occupations Program and Career Development. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Hilda B.

    The Diversified Satellite Occupations Program Career Development sought to prevent dropout through these strategies: registration at a school situation away from the normal school setting, creation of a close teacher-student relationship, and raise achievement levels and lower anxiety levels. Program emphases at elementary, junior and senior high…

  4. Substance Use Prevention among At-Risk Rural Youth: Piloting the Social Ecological "One Life" Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ronald D., Jr.; Barnes, Jeremy T.; Holman, Thomas; Hunt, Barry P.

    2014-01-01

    Substance use among youth is a significant health concern in the rural United States, particularly among at-risk students. While evidence-based programs are available, literature suggests that an underdeveloped rural health prevention workforce often limits the adoption of such programs. Additionally, population-size restrictions of national…

  5. Preventing Adolescents' Externalizing and Internalizing Symptoms: Effects of the Penn Resiliency Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutuli, J. J.; Gillham, Jane E.; Chaplin, Tara M.; Reivich, Karen J.; Seligman, Martin E. P.; Gallop, Robert J.; Abenavoli, Rachel M.; Freres, Derek R.

    2013-01-01

    This study reports secondary outcome analyses from a past study of the Penn Resiliency Program (PRP), a cognitive-behavioral depression prevention program for middle-school aged children. Middle school students (N = 697) were randomly assigned to PRP, PEP (an alternate intervention), or control conditions. Gillham et al., (2007) reported analyses…

  6. Teaching Programming to Liberal Arts Students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bøgh; Bennedsen, Jens; Brandorff, Steffen

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we present a new learning environment to be used in an introductory programming course for studentsthat are non-majors in computer science, more precisely formultimedia students with a liberal arts background. Media-oriented programming adds new requirements to thecraft of programming...... (e.g. aesthetic and communicative).We argue that multimedia students with a liberal arts background need programming competences because programmability is the defining characteristic of the computer medium.We compare programming with the creation of traditionalmedia products and identify two...... environment for an introductory programmingcourse for multimedia students.We have designed a learning environment called Lingoland with the new skills of media programming in mind thathopefully can help alleviate the problems we have experiencedin teaching programming to liberal arts students....

  7. Dengue hemorrhagic fever knowledge, perception, and preventive behavior among secondary school students in Bangkok.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanyasanha, Charnchudhi; Han, Mie Mie; Teetipsatit, Somchai

    2013-12-01

    To explore dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) knowledge, perception, and preventive behavior among secondary school students in Nong-Kheam, Bangkok, Thailand. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted with 300 students between 12 and 16 years old currently attending secondary schools in the Bangkok metropolitan areas using self-administered questionnaires. Data were subsequently summarized using descriptive statistics. Only 18.0% of students had a good level of overall knowledge of DHF but more than half had a good level of perception of DHF The results also revealed that only 4.7% of students had a good level of preventive behavior and 75.6% required improvement. The levels of knowledge, perception, and preventive behavior were low. Health education programs should be continued and intensified with emphasis on improving the knowledge of students on prevention and control practices.

  8. Code quality issues in student programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keuning, H.W.; Heeren, B.J.; Jeuring, J.T.

    2017-01-01

    Because low quality code can cause serious problems in software systems, students learning to program should pay attention to code quality early. Although many studies have investigated mistakes that students make during programming, we do not know much about the quality of their code. This study

  9. A National Survey of Alcohol Prevention Programs on College Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odom, Kate L.

    2010-01-01

    As alcohol-related incidents and tragedies continue to be a major concern on college campuses, researchers and college counseling center directors struggle to find the most effective alcohol prevention programs Several theories have been adapted to form the foundation of prevention programs. These programs have then been evaluated to discover…

  10. Bienestar: A Diabetes Risk-Factor Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Robert P.; Pugh, Jacqueline A.; Hernandez, Arthur E.; Menchaca, Velma D.; Ramirez, Robert R.; Mendoza, Monica

    1998-01-01

    The Bienestar Health Program is a diabetes risk-factor prevention program targeting Mexican American fourth graders. Program goals are to decrease overweight and dietary fats. The program is based on social cognitive theory and uses culturally relevant material. Preliminary evaluation indicates the program significantly decreases dietary fat,…

  11. Minority students benefit from mentoring programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, D L; Rodak, B; Fitzgerald, N; Baker, S

    1993-01-01

    Mentoring has been proposed as one strategy to attract minority students to the radiologic sciences profession. This case study describes a minority mentoring program conducted for pre-radiologic science students at a Midwestern university during the 1991-92 academic year. Ten minority radiologic science students enrolled in the mentoring program. The study showed that mentoring may be a viable option to serve the special needs of minorities for recruitment and retention.

  12. An Evaluation of Two Dating Violence Prevention Programs on a College Campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Kerry; Sharps, Phyllis; Banyard, Victoria; Powers, Ráchael A; Kaukinen, Catherine; Gross, Deborah; Decker, Michele R; Baatz, Carrie; Campbell, Jacquelyn

    2016-03-13

    Dating violence is a serious and prevalent public health problem that is associated with numerous negative physical and psychological health outcomes, and yet there has been limited evaluation of prevention programs on college campuses. A recent innovation in campus prevention focuses on mobilizing bystanders to take action. To date, bystander programs have mainly been compared with no treatment control groups raising questions about what value is added to dating violence prevention by focusing on bystanders. This study compared a single 90-min bystander education program for dating violence prevention with a traditional awareness education program, as well as with a no education control group. Using a quasi-experimental pre-test/post-test design with follow-up at 2 months, a sample of predominately freshmen college students was randomized to either the bystander (n = 369) or traditional awareness (n = 376) dating violence education program. A non-randomized control group of freshmen students who did not receive any education were also surveyed (n = 224). Students completed measures of attitudes, including rape myth acceptance, bystander efficacy, and intent to help as well as behavioral measures related to bystander action and victimization. Results showed that the bystander education program was more effective at changing attitudes, beliefs, efficacy, intentions, and self-reported behaviors compared with the traditional awareness education program. Both programs were significantly more effective than no education. The findings of this study have important implications for future dating violence prevention educational programming, emphasizing the value of bystander education programs for primary dating violence prevention among college students. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Use of quality management methods in the transition from efficacious prevention programs to effective prevention services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Vicki-Smith; Sandler, Irwin; Wolchik, Sharlene

    2008-06-01

    This paper applies concepts and methods developed in management to translate efficacious prevention programs into effective prevention services. The paper describes Quality Function Deployment (QFD) as a method for structured planning and development that connects the needs and wants of the consumer with the design of the product or service. The paper describes basic tools used in quality management, and discusses how they might be applied to prepare a prevention program for implementation by community agencies. Prevention programs are conceptualized as having multiple consumers (i.e., stakeholders), including the participants who receive the service, the service providers, the organizations that deliver the program, and the researchers who evaluate the programs. As an illustration of one step in the application of QFD to translate efficacious prevention programs into effective prevention services, analysis of the needs and preferences of Family Courts for the implementation of an the New Beginnings Program is presented.

  14. [Suicide Prevention and Mental Health Measures for Japanese University Students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Masaru; Koyama, Shihomi; Senoo, Akiko; Kawahara, Hiroko; Shimizu, Yukito

    2016-01-01

    According to the nationwide survey of the National University students in Japan, the annual suicide rate in 2012 was 15.7 per 100,000 undergraduate students. In many universities, suicide prevention is an important issue regarding mental health measures, and each university is actively examining this. The current situation concerning measures for suicide prevention in the Japanese National Universities was investigated in 2009. In 2010, the "college student's suicide prevention measures guideline, 2010" was established based on the results of this investigation. This guideline refers to the basic philosophy of suicide prevention in Chapter 1, risk factors for suicide in Chapter 2, and systems and activities for suicide prevention in Chapter 3. The Health Service Center, Okayama University plays central roles in mental health and suicide prevention measures on the Medical Campus. The primary prevention includes a mini-lecture on mental health, classes on mental health, and periodic workshops and lectures for freshmen. The secondary prevention includes interviews with students with mental health disorders by a psychiatrist during periodic health check-ups and introducing them to a hospital outside the university. The tertiary prevention includes support for students taking a leave of absence to return to school, periodic consultation with such students with mental disorders, and postvention following a suicide. We believe that for mental health measures on the university campus, it is important to efficiently make use of limited resources, and that these efforts will eventually lead to suicide prevention.

  15. Hanford site waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkendall, J.R.

    1996-09-23

    This plan documents the requirements of the Hanford Site Waste Minimization/Pollution Prevention (WMin/P2) Program. The plan specifies requirements for Hanford contractors to prevent pollution from entering the environment, to conserve resources and energy, and to reduce the quantity and toxicity of hazardous, radioactive, mixed, and sanitary waste generated at Hanford. The Pollution Prevention Awareness Program required by DOE 5400.1 (DOE 1988A) is included in the Hanford WMin/P2 Program.

  16. Strength at Home Couples Program to Prevent Military Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    families , but also to advance the clinical science in this field of study and better understand how we might prevent violence among our service members...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0374 TITLE: Strength at Home Couples Program to Prevent Military Partner Violence PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Casey T...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Strength at Home Couples Program to Prevent Military Partner Violence 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0374 5c. PROGRAM

  17. Postural hygiene program to prevent low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, F J; Gómez-Conesa, A

    2001-06-01

    A quasi-experimental study with 3 x 4 design was performed. To improve the level of knowledge and motor skills and thereby avert the development of painful symptoms. Despite the fact that low back pain affects a high percentage of the population, little research has been carried out to prevent low back pain through health education. The participants in this study were 106 third-grade (9-year-old) students. The program included 11 sessions. The teacher attended the placebo group sessions. No intervention was used with the control group. The level of knowledge and motor skills in the experimental group showed a significant increase immediately after the intervention finished, and at 6- and 12-month intervals after completion of the postural hygiene program (P = 0.00). Some positive changes were generalized to natural situations (P = 0.00). In an independent health check carried out by the local school health services 4 years after application of the postural hygiene program, the results tended slightly to favor the experimental condition over the control conditions (placebo + no intervention). A greater number of the control subjects required medical treatment for low back pain, although this difference was only marginally significant (P = 0.07). The findings from this study support the hypothesis that programs involving practice and motivating strategies impart health knowledge and habits more efficiently than those restricted to the mere transmission of information.

  18. Effects of Preventative Tutoring on the Mathematical Problem Solving of Third-Grade Students with Math and Reading Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Lynn S.; Seethaler, Pamela M.; Powell, Sarah R.; Hamlett, Carol L.; Fletcher, Jack M.

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of preventative tutoring on the math problem solving of third-grade students with math and reading difficulties. Students (n = 35) were assigned randomly to continue in their general education math program or to receive secondary preventative tutoring 3 times per week, 30 min per session, for 12 weeks.…

  19. Clinical Oncology Assistantship Program for Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilan, Barbara A.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    The Clinical Oncology Assistantship Program at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences is described, along with student reactions to the program. The summer elective program involves cancer lectures (one week) and clinical exposure (nine weeks) in medical, surgical, and pediatric oncology services, as well as self-directed learning…

  20. THE PREVENTION PROGRAMS OF PHYSICAL REHABILITATION FOR CHERNOBYL DISASTER SURVIVORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.V. Korobeynikov

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study: approbation of the prevention program of physical rehabilitation for Chernobyl disaster survivors in lifestyle aspects. Sixty persons who were disaster survivors and workers of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant aged 32-60 have rehabilitation during 21 days. The complex of training prevention programs of physical and psycho-emotional rehabilitation methods was elaborated. The study of efficacy of training prevention programs among Chernobyl disaster survivors. The results showed the improvement of psycho-emotional status and normalization of cardiovascular vegetative regulation after training prevention programs in Chernobyl disasters survivors. The studies show that the preventive programs for Chernobyl disaster survivors in lifestyle aspects had the high effect. This displays the decrease of tempo of aging and the improving of physical and psychological health status of Chernobyl disaster survivors during preventive course.

  1. Developing the strategic plan for pollution prevention in defense programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchetti, John A.; Betschart, James F.; Suffern, J. Samuel

    1992-01-01

    In order to provide effective leadership and to ensure a consistent pollution prevention effort in all of its production facilities and laboratories, Defense Programs (DP) Headquarters, in close cooperation with the Field, has developed a strategic plan for its Pollution Prevention Program. The strategic plan is built upon the history of waste minimization, waste reduction, and pollution prevention activity to date, and articulates both long- and short-term strategies to ensure program initiation, growth, and stability. The organization of the program, including Headquarters staffing and linkages to the Geld, is described. Life-cycle analysis of program barriers and bottlenecks, along with associated initiatives and action plans are discussed. (author)

  2. Opportunities for Pharmacists and Student Pharmacists to Provide Clinical Preventive Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie A. DiPietro Mager

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacists and student pharmacists can play an important role in providing clinical preventive services as specified by the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF. The USPSTF guidelines provide evidence-based recommendations about clinical preventive services for the general population. The purpose of this paper is to provide information to pharmacists and student pharmacists developing and implementing preventive health care services. Examples of successful pharmacy-based programs are also provided. Pharmacists and student pharmacists can provide preventive health care interventions by conducting screenings, providing education, and making referrals. Conflict of Interest We declare no conflicts of interest or financial interests that the authors or members of their immediate families have in any product or service discussed in the manuscript, including grants (pending or received, employment, gifts, stock holdings or options, honoraria, consultancies, expert testimony, patents and royalties   Type: Idea Paper

  3. Lack of implementation of eating disorder education and prevention programs in high schools: Data from incoming college freshmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Emalee T; Venta, Amanda

    2018-03-22

    The purpose of this study was to examine the implementation of eating disorder education and prevention programs in high schools retrospectively, as reported by incoming college freshmen, exploring whether characteristics of the school influenced implementation. The sample, 169 first-year students from a public university, participated in an online survey inquiring about exposure to programs and high school characteristics. Results demonstrated few students exposed to any eating disorder programming (29.0%), with no students reporting exposure to prevention programming. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in the implementation based on school characteristics, suggesting that this is a universal issue across high schools.

  4. Obesity Prevention Interventions in US Public Schools: Are Schools Using Programs That Promote Weight Stigma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Erica L; Wintner, Suzanne; Lee, Rebekka M; Austin, S Bryn

    2017-12-28

    Despite substantial research on school-based obesity prevention programs, it is unclear how widely they are disseminated. It is also unknown whether schools use obesity programs that inadvertently promote weight stigma or disordered weight-control behaviors. In spring 2016, we distributed an online survey about school wellness programming to a simple random sample of US public school administrators (N = 247 respondents; 10.3% response rate). We analyzed survey responses and conducted immersion/crystallization analysis of written open-ended responses. Slightly less than half (n = 117, 47.4%) of schools offered any obesity prevention program. Only 17 (6.9%) reported using a predeveloped program, and 7 (2.8%) reported using a program with evidence for effectiveness. Thirty-seven schools (15.0%) reported developing intervention programs that focused primarily on individual students' or staff members' weight rather than nutrition or physical activity; 28 schools (11.3% of overall) used staff weight-loss competitions. School administrators who reported implementing a program were more likely to describe having a program champion and adequate buy-in from staff, families, and students. Lack of funding, training, and time were widely reported as barriers to implementation. Few administrators used educational (n = 12, 10.3%) or scientific (n = 6, 5.1%) literature for wellness program decision making. Evidence-based obesity prevention programs appear to be rarely implemented in US schools. Schools may be implementing programs lacking evidence and programs that may unintentionally exacerbate student weight stigma by focusing on student weight rather than healthy habits. Public health practitioners and researchers should focus on improving support for schools to implement evidence-based programs.

  5. Sandia National Laboratories, California Pollution Prevention Program annual report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Janet S.

    2011-04-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the SNL/CA Pollution Prevention Program for a given calendar year. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. The program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Pollution Prevention Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA. Pollution Prevention supports the goals and objectives to increase the procurement and use of environmentally friendly products and materials and minimize the generation of waste (nonhazardous, hazardous, radiological, wastewater). Through participation on the Interdisciplinary Team P2 provides guidance for integration of environmentally friendly purchasing and waste minimization requirements into projects during the planning phase. Table 7 presents SNL's corporate objectives and targets that support the elements of the Pollution Prevention program.

  6. Efficacy evaluation of the school program Unplugged for drug use prevention among Brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Zila M; Sanudo, Adriana; Andreoni, Solange; Schneider, Daniela; Pereira, Ana Paula D; Faggiano, Fabrizio

    2016-11-29

    Most Brazilian schools do not have a continuous program for drug use prevention and do not conduct culturally adapted activities for that purpose. This study evaluated the impact of the Unplugged program on drug use prevention among children and adolescents in public middle schools of Brazil. A non-randomized controlled trial was conducted in 2013 with 2185 students in 16 public schools from 3 Brazilian cities. The intervention group attended 12 weekly classes of the Unplugged program for drug use prevention, and the control group did not attend to any school prevention programs in the same year. Multilevel analyses were used to evaluate temporal and between group changes in the consumption of each drug. The study suggested that there was no evidence that Unplugged effected 11- to 12-year-old students. However, the program seemed to stimulate a decrease in recent marijuana use (transition from use to non-use in 85.7% of intervention cases and 28.6% of control cases, OR = 17.5, p = 0.039) among 13- to 15-year-old students. In addition, students in this age range who received the Unplugged program had similar drug consumption levels to those observed before the program began. However, students in the control group presented a significant tendency to increase marijuana use and binge drinking. This study adds to the evidence of program efficacy among Brazilian middle school students by presenting marginal effects on binge drinking and marijuana use. An 18-month randomized controlled trial is recommended for a future study.

  7. Efficacy evaluation of the school program Unplugged for drug use prevention among Brazilian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zila M. Sanchez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most Brazilian schools do not have a continuous program for drug use prevention and do not conduct culturally adapted activities for that purpose. This study evaluated the impact of the Unplugged program on drug use prevention among children and adolescents in public middle schools of Brazil. Methods A non-randomized controlled trial was conducted in 2013 with 2185 students in 16 public schools from 3 Brazilian cities. The intervention group attended 12 weekly classes of the Unplugged program for drug use prevention, and the control group did not attend to any school prevention programs in the same year. Multilevel analyses were used to evaluate temporal and between group changes in the consumption of each drug. Results The study suggested that there was no evidence that Unplugged effected 11- to 12-year-old students. However, the program seemed to stimulate a decrease in recent marijuana use (transition from use to non-use in 85.7% of intervention cases and 28.6% of control cases, OR = 17.5, p = 0.039 among 13- to 15-year-old students. In addition, students in this age range who received the Unplugged program had similar drug consumption levels to those observed before the program began. However, students in the control group presented a significant tendency to increase marijuana use and binge drinking. Conclusions This study adds to the evidence of program efficacy among Brazilian middle school students by presenting marginal effects on binge drinking and marijuana use. An 18-month randomized controlled trial is recommended for a future study.

  8. A Program on Preventing Sexual Assault Directed toward Greek Leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Tamara; Boyd, Cynthia

    This paper discusses a program that uses the leadership and status of Greek system officers to prevent sexual assault at a large university. This program aims to prevent future assaults by altering the conditions of a rape-prone culture. The presentation comprises a definition and two examples of acquaintance rape situations, a discussion of…

  9. Evaluation of School-Based Smoking Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabors, Laura; Iobst, Emily A.; McGrady, Meghan E.

    2007-01-01

    The majority of individuals who will become "smokers" begin smoking during their teenage years. Schools are optimal settings for relaying messages about health risks associated with smoking and for implementing smoking prevention programs. This article presents successful components of smoking prevention programs, describes the evaluation process,…

  10. Cyberbullying Prevention and Intervention Programs in Schools: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanrikulu, Ibrahim

    2018-01-01

    This article presents a systematic review of school-based cyberbullying prevention and intervention programs. Research presenting empirical evidence about the effectiveness of a school-based cyberbullying prevention or intervention program published before August 2016 was searched. Seventeen studies were obtained and reviewed. The findings showed…

  11. The Role of Teacher Communicator Style in the Delivery of a Middle School Substance Use Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Steven M.; Pankratz, Melinda M.; Ringwalt, Chris; Jackson-Newsom, Julia; Hansen, William B.; Bishop, Dana; Dusenbury, Linda; Gottfredson, Nisha

    2012-01-01

    We examine whether teachers' communicator style relates to student engagement, teacher-student relationships, student perceptions of teacher immediacy, as well as observer ratings of delivery skills during the implementation of All Stars, a middle school-based substance use prevention program. Data from 48 teachers who taught All Stars up to 3…

  12. Teen Dating Violence Prevention Program Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Quincy Arrianna Rose

    2013-01-01

    The American Psychological Association (APA) has identified the prevention of and intervention in relationship violence as a top priority (APA, n.d.). According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention's 2012 Teen Dating Violence Fact Sheet, dating violence is a serious problem in the United States. In accordance with Foshee et al. (1998):…

  13. "Artbreak": Innovation in Student Life Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Sondra K.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    "Artbreak" is an innovative program in outreach and residence life for college students. Based on art therapy concepts, Artbreak promotes relaxation and increased self-awareness through the creative process. (Author/BL)

  14. Implementing a Pediatric Fall Prevention Policy and Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Elizabeth; Vess, Joy; Edlund, Barbara J

    2016-01-01

    Preventing patient falls begins with an accurate assessment of a patient's risk of falling followed by the initiation and continued evaluation of a fall prevention program based on patient-specific identified risks. Children have a normal tendency to fall based on developmental growth, and each child is different in physical and cognitive abilities. Falls may occur both in and out of the hospital setting. Prevention programs that have revealed the most favorable restuls include the use of a validated fall risk assessment tool. The Humpty Dumpty fall Scale is a screening tool specifically developed for pediatric patients to assess risk for fall. This project developed a pediatric fall prevention policy and implemented an inpatient pediatric fall prevention program. Pediatric staff contributed to the development of this policy and program by providing feedback, support, and cooperation, which was instrumental in the success of this program resulting in no falls after implementation.

  15. Impact of a student leadership development program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesnut, Renae; Tran-Johnson, Jennifer

    2013-12-16

    To assess the effectiveness of the Student Leadership Development Series (SLDS), an academic-year--long, co-curricular approach to developing leadership skills in pharmacy students. Participants met once per month for activities and a college-wide guest speaker session. Students also completed monthly forms regarding what they had learned, participated in poster presentations, and created a personal leadership platform. One hundred twenty-three students participated in the program between 2008 and 2013. On monthly evaluation forms and a summative evaluation, students indicated that the program helped them feel prepared for leadership opportunities and increased their desire to pursue leadership. They valued interacting with pharmacy leaders from the community and learning how they could distinguish themselves as leaders. The SLDS provided pharmacy students with an opportunity to explore personal leadership styles and develop broader understanding of leadership, and increased their desire to pursue leadership positions in the future.

  16. Impact of a Student Leadership Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran-Johnson, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To assess the effectiveness of the Student Leadership Development Series (SLDS), an academic-year--long, co-curricular approach to developing leadership skills in pharmacy students. Design. Participants met once per month for activities and a college-wide guest speaker session. Students also completed monthly forms regarding what they had learned, participated in poster presentations, and created a personal leadership platform. Assessment. One hundred twenty-three students participated in the program between 2008 and 2013. On monthly evaluation forms and a summative evaluation, students indicated that the program helped them feel prepared for leadership opportunities and increased their desire to pursue leadership. They valued interacting with pharmacy leaders from the community and learning how they could distinguish themselves as leaders. Conclusions. The SLDS provided pharmacy students with an opportunity to explore personal leadership styles and develop broader understanding of leadership, and increased their desire to pursue leadership positions in the future. PMID:24371349

  17. College Students' Perceptions of the Importance of Sexual Assault Prevention Education: Suggestions for Targeting Recruitment for Peer-Based Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozkowski, Kristen N.; Henry, Dayna S.; Sturm, Ashley A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Sexual assault continues to be a pervasive health issue among college students in the USA. Prevention education initiatives have been implemented to address this concern. However, little is known about college students' perceptions of such programming. The purpose of this study was to assess predictors of college students'…

  18. Level of response to alcohol as a factor for targeted prevention in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Jeanne E; Neale, Zoe; Cho, Seung Bin; Hancock, Linda; Kalmijn, Jelger A; Smith, Tom L; Schuckit, Marc A; Donovan, Kristen Kidd; Dick, Danielle M

    2015-11-01

    Heavy alcohol consumption and alcohol problems among college students are widespread and associated with negative outcomes for individuals and communities. Although current methods for prevention and intervention programming have some demonstrated efficacy, heavy drinking remains a problem. A previous pilot study and a recent large-scale evaluation (Schuckit et al., , ) found that a tailored prevention program based on a risk factor for heavy drinking, low level of response (low LR) to alcohol, was more effective at reducing heavy drinking than a state-of-the-art (SOTA) standard prevention program for individuals with the low LR risk factor. This study enrolled 231 first-semester college freshmen with either high or low LR into the same level of response-based (LRB) or SOTA online prevention programs as in the previous reports (consisting of 4 weeks of video modules), as well as a group of matched controls not receiving alcohol prevention, and compared changes in alcohol use between these groups across a 6-month period. Individuals in alcohol prevention programs had a greater reduction in maximum drinks per occasion and alcohol use disorder symptoms than controls. There was limited evidence for interactions between LR and prevention group in predicting change in alcohol use behaviors; only among participants with strict adherence to the program was there an interaction between LR and program in predicting maximum drinks per occasion. However, overall, low LR individuals showed greater decreases in drinking behaviors, especially risky behaviors (e.g., maximum drinks, frequency of heavy drinking) than high LR individuals. These results indicate that prevention programs, including brief and relatively inexpensive web-based programs, may be effective for persons at highest risk for heavier drinking, such as those with a low LR. Tailored programs may provide incremental benefits under some conditions. Long-term follow-ups and further investigations of tailored

  19. A Comprehensive Wellness Program for International Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Millard J.; Ozaki, Roger H.

    This document presents a model wellness program for international college students in the United States and strategies to aid them in staying healthy during their stay. It notes that, without parents or other support groups, international students run the risk of developing serious health problems because of inadequate diet and sleep, substandard…

  20. Tips for Implementing a Student Assistance Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Van E.

    1993-01-01

    SAFARI (Student Assistance for At-Risk Individuals) is a nationally recognized, comprehensive K-12 program that addresses drug and alcohol use, sociological concerns, conflicts experienced by students, and at-risk behaviors interfering with academic success. Two neighboring Indiana school districts have combined resources to develop a program…

  1. Disabled Student Programs and Services Report, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    California Community Colleges, Chancellor's Office, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The California Community Colleges (CCC) serve more than 2.4 million students and comprises the largest system of higher education in the nation. Each of the 112 colleges in all 72 districts use state funding allocated for Disabled Student Programs and Services (DSPS) to assist it in providing support services and educational accommodations to…

  2. Students' Perspectives of an EAP Pathway Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooey, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Increasing numbers of overseas students are applying to study at universities in Australia. Many students who meet all of the university's academic entry requirements except English language proficiency are offered pathway programs which prepare them for their tertiary studies. To date, much of the research relating to international students…

  3. Supporting universal prevention programs: a two-phased coaching model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Kimberly D; Darney, Dana; Domitrovich, Celene; Keperling, Jennifer Pitchford; Ialongo, Nicholas S

    2013-06-01

    Schools are adopting evidence-based programs designed to enhance students' emotional and behavioral competencies at increasing rates (Hemmeter et al. in Early Child Res Q 26:96-109, 2011). At the same time, teachers express the need for increased support surrounding implementation of these evidence-based programs (Carter and Van Norman in Early Child Educ 38:279-288, 2010). Ongoing professional development in the form of coaching may enhance teacher skills and implementation (Noell et al. in School Psychol Rev 34:87-106, 2005; Stormont et al. 2012). There exists a need for a coaching model that can be applied to a variety of teacher skill levels and one that guides coach decision-making about how best to support teachers. This article provides a detailed account of a two-phased coaching model with empirical support developed and tested with coaches and teachers in urban schools (Becker et al. 2013). In the initial universal coaching phase, all teachers receive the same coaching elements regardless of their skill level. Then, in the tailored coaching phase, coaching varies according to the strengths and needs of each teacher. Specifically, more intensive coaching strategies are used only with teachers who need additional coaching supports, whereas other teachers receive just enough support to consolidate and maintain their strong implementation. Examples of how coaches used the two-phased coaching model when working with teachers who were implementing two universal prevention programs (i.e., the PATHS curriculum and PAX Good Behavior Game [PAX GBG]) provide illustrations of the application of this model. The potential reach of this coaching model extends to other school-based programs as well as other settings in which coaches partner with interventionists to implement evidence-based programs.

  4. Examining the Effectiveness of the Smoking Prevention Program "I Do Not Smoke, I Exercise" in Elementary and Secondary School Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolovelonis, Athanasios; Goudas, Marios; Theodorakis, Yannis

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the effectiveness of the smoking prevention program "I do not smoke, I exercise" implemented with elementary and secondary school students. "I do not smoke, I exercise" is a theory-based smoking prevention program that promotes exercise as an alternative of smoking. The program consists of eight sessions implemented weekly. Participants were 338 Greek students (135 elementary and 203 secondary students) who were pre- and posttested in smoking, program, and exercise-related measures. The results showed that the program had significant effects on elementary students' attitudes toward smoking, intention to smoke, subjective norms, attitudes toward the application of the program, and knowledge about the health consequences of smoking. For secondary students, significant effects were found on students' perceived behavioral control and knowledge about the health consequences of smoking, while very few students reported a smoking experience before and after the intervention. Therefore the program "I do not smoke, I exercise" may have positive effects on variables related with smoking behavior. Differences in the program's impact on elementary and secondary students were identified. All these are discussed with reference to the need of implementing smoking prevention programs in schools contexts. © 2016 Society for Public Health Education.

  5. Nigerian University Students' Practices for Preventing Sexually ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) remain an important public health challenge among Nigerian students. Abuja University is located in a region of high STDs prevalence. However, it is not clear what students do to minimize their risk of contracting STDs. The purpose of the study was to explore sexual practices that ...

  6. Research Review: Laboratory Student Magazine Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Tom

    1994-01-01

    Explores research on student-produced magazines at journalism schools, including the nature of various programs and curricular structures, ethical considerations, and the role of faculty advisors. Addresses collateral sources that provide practical and philosophical foundations for the establishment and conduct of magazine production programs.…

  7. Metformin for diabetes prevention: insights gained from the Diabetes Prevention Program/Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroda, Vanita R; Knowler, William C; Crandall, Jill P; Perreault, Leigh; Edelstein, Sharon L; Jeffries, Susan L; Molitch, Mark E; Pi-Sunyer, Xavier; Darwin, Christine; Heckman-Stoddard, Brandy M; Temprosa, Marinella; Kahn, Steven E; Nathan, David M

    2017-09-01

    The largest and longest clinical trial of metformin for the prevention of diabetes is the Diabetes Prevention Program/Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study (DPP/DPPOS). In this review, we summarise data from the DPP/DPPOS, focusing on metformin for diabetes prevention, as well as its long-term glycaemic and cardiometabolic effects and safety in people at high-risk of developing diabetes. The DPP (1996-2001) was a RCT of 3234 adults who, at baseline, were at high-risk of developing diabetes. Participants were assigned to masked placebo (n = 1082) or metformin (n = 1073) 850 mg twice daily, or intensive lifestyle intervention (n = 1079). The masked metformin/placebo intervention phase ended approximately 1 year ahead of schedule because of demonstrated efficacy. Primary outcome was reported at 2.8 years. At the end of the DPP, all participants were offered lifestyle education and 88% (n = 2776) of the surviving DPP cohort continued follow-up in the DPPOS. Participants originally assigned to metformin continued to receive metformin, unmasked. The DPP/DPPOS cohort has now been followed for over 15 years with prospective assessment of glycaemic, cardiometabolic, health economic and safety outcomes. After an average follow-up of 2.8 years, metformin reduced the incidence of diabetes by 31% compared with placebo, with a greater effect in those who were more obese, had a higher fasting glucose or a history of gestational diabetes. The DPPOS addressed the longer-term effects of metformin, showing a risk reduction of 18% over 10 and 15 years post-randomisation. Metformin treatment for diabetes prevention was estimated to be cost-saving. At 15 years, lack of progression to diabetes was associated with a 28% lower risk of microvascular complications across treatment arms, a reduction that was no different among treatment groups. Recent findings suggest metformin may reduce atherosclerosis development in men. Originally used for the treatment of type 2

  8. A Cognitive Behavioral Depression Prevention Program for Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miloseva, Lence

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present results of our one year experience with Cognitive Behavioral Psychology Program, in order to contribute to the building of whole school approach and positive psychology preventive mental health problems model. Based on Penn Resilience program (PRP), we modify and create program for early adolescents: how to…

  9. Team teaching fire prevention program: evaluation of an education technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank L. Ryan; Frank H. Gladen; William S. Folkman

    1978-01-01

    The California Department of Forestry's Team Teaching Fire Prevention Program consists of small-group discussions, slides or films, and a visit by Smokey Bear to school classrooms. In a survey, teachers and principals who had experienced the program responded favorably to it. The conduct by team members also received approval. The limited criticisms of the Program...

  10. Adolescents' Attitudes about Obesity and What They Want in Obesity Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Louise F.

    2007-01-01

    Obesity is a major pediatric public health problem. Adolescents are a priority population for intervention strategies. School nurses are in key positions to design intervention strategies to promote healthy lifestyles and prevent adolescent obesity in the students they serve. To design effective programs, school nurses need to know what components…

  11. A Primary Prevention Drug Education Program for School Children: An Attempt at Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Thomas S.; Starkey, Kathryn T.

    Recently programs for primary prevention of drug and alcohol abuse have centered in the affective domain. Value Sharing training for teachers is intended to change classrooms and students. Fifth and sixth graders were given pre/post measures of self-esteem and risk taking attitudes. Value clarification behaviors of teachers were analyzed. Children…

  12. Weeding and Seeding: Programming for Alcohol Abuse Prevention and Wellness Enhancement in an Undergraduate Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halligan, Fredrica R.; Pohl, Jonathan A.; Smith, M. Katrina

    2006-01-01

    College students who are no longer fully adolescent and not yet fully adult are frequently at risk for developing habits of excessive alcohol use, with consequent poor study habits and aberrant socialization patterns. "Weeding out" such trends is the work of prevention programs on campus. "Seeding" with other pro-social norms becomes the second…

  13. Student retention in athletic training education programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Thomas M; Mitchell, Murray F; Mensch, James M

    2009-01-01

    The success of any academic program, including athletic training, depends upon attracting and keeping quality students. The nature of persistent students versus students who prematurely leave the athletic training major is not known. Understanding the profiles of athletic training students who persist or leave is important. To (1) explore the relationships among the following variables: anticipatory factors, academic integration, clinical integration, social integration, and motivation; (2) determine which of the aforementioned variables discriminate between senior athletic training students and major changers; and (3) identify which variable is the strongest predictor of persistence in athletic training education programs. Descriptive study using a qualitative and quantitative mixed-methods approach. Thirteen athletic training education programs located in District 3 of the National Athletic Trainers' Association. Ninety-four senior-level athletic training students and 31 college students who changed majors from athletic training to another degree option. Data were collected with the Athletic Training Education Program Student Retention Questionnaire (ATEPSRQ). Data from the ATEPSRQ were analyzed via Pearson correlations, multivariate analysis of variance, univariate analysis of variance, and a stepwise discriminant analysis. Open-ended questions were transcribed and analyzed using open, axial, and selective coding procedures. Member checks and peer debriefing techniques ensured trustworthiness of the study. Pearson correlations identified moderate relationships among motivation and clinical integration (r = 0.515, P motivation and academic integration (r = 0.509, P motivation (F(1,121) = 68.887, P motivation was the strongest predictor of persistence in athletic training education, accounting for 37.2% of the variance between groups. The theoretic model accurately classified 95.7% of the seniors and 53.8% of the major changers. A common theme emerging from the

  14. [German Prevention Programs for Eating Disorders - A Systematic Review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickhardt, Mara; Adametz, Luise; Richter, Felicitas; Strauß, Bernhard; Berger, Uwe

    2018-02-13

    In the past years a considerable amount of primary and secondary prevention programs for eating disorders was developed in German speaking countries. However, up to now there has been no systematic review of contents and evaluation studies. The main objective of the present systematic review is to identify and outline German prevention programs for eating disorders. This should facilitate the selection of appropriate and effective interventions for medical experts, other professionals and teachers. A systematic literature research was conducted and 22 German-language primary and secondary prevention programs were identified. Half of them were evaluated. The programs were conducted either in school, on the internet or in a group setting. The findings show that throughout almost all programs a reduction in weight and shape concerns and drive for thinness as well as an increase of (body) self-esteem could be observed in either the total sample or the high-risk sample. However, programs were inconsistently effective in reducing disordered eating behavior in the target population. All studies were effective in reducing at least one risk factor. Overall, higher effect sizes were found for secondary prevention programs than for primary prevention programs. Lastly, limitations of the studies and suggestions for future prevention efforts are discussed. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Medical and dental students' attitude and practice of prevention ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Medical and dental students are a high-risk group for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection which is an occupational hazard for them and a leading cause of death globally. Prevention strategies include vaccination and observance of standard precaution. However, available reports claim utilization of the prevention ...

  16. [Effect of school-based peer leader centered smoking prevention program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sung Rae; Oh, Pok Ja; Youn, Hye Kyung; Shin, Sun Hwa

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a school-based peer leader centered smoking prevention program. Non-equivalent control group with a pre/post-test design was used. Students (n=174) in two boys' junior high schools located in D city, Korea participated with 85 being selected for the experimental group and 89 for the control group. Five sessions were given to the experimental group and a 50 minute lecture to the control group. Knowledge, attitude, non-smoking intention, and non-smoking efficacy were measured for the both experimental and control group at two weeks before the program and one month after the program was completed. Data were analyzed using χ²-test, Fisher's exact test, independent t-test and paired t-test with the SPSS 21.0 program. The experimental group showed higher overall knowledge, negative attitude toward smoking, and higher non-smoking intention and efficacy. After receiving the school based peer leader centered smoking prevention program scores for attitude toward smoking and non-smoking efficacy increased in the experimental group were higher than in the control group. The school-based peer leader centered smoking prevention program needs longitudinal evaluation, but from this study, there is an indication that this program can be used with junior high school students and effectively change students' attitude toward smoking and promote non-smoking efficacy.

  17. AOD Screening Tools for College Students. Prevention Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    According to the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), the goal of screening in student health or other college settings is to reduce alcohol-related harm. NIAAA points out that identifying those students at greatest risk for alcohol problems is the first step in prevention. Colleges and universities have used a number of…

  18. Violence Prevention Strategies of Inner-City Student Experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovholt, Thomas; Cognetta, Phillip; Ye, Gretchen; King, Lolita

    1997-01-01

    Reports on violence prevention in an inner-city middle school. Interviews of students, deemed by peers and teachers as good at managing conflict, revealed eight themes. For example, student experts inoculated themselves in attitude to avoid violence; de-escalated situations when provoked; and believed the cost of fighting exceeds the reward. (RJM)

  19. The NRAO NINE Program: Faculty & Student Partnerships Across Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Kartik

    2015-01-01

    We present an update on NRAO's International National Exchange (NINE) program, a growing partnership between universities and institutions across Africa and the United States. The NINE program seeks to foster mutually beneficial scientific and technical collaborations with an overall goal of co-mentoring and training the next generation of scientists and engineers. African students visit NRAO or partner US institutions as a cohort during their MSc or PhD studies as part of the NINE program. This model allows students to familiarize themselves with the US research community and culture while preventing a brain drain from Africa. Similarly visits by US-based faculty and students to Africa have been beneficial in understanding the changing landscape of African astronomy and improving our ties to each other. I will describe the progress of the program, lessons learned from student and faculty exchanges, and the challenges that remain. Tme permitting, I will also describe on-going scientific research and results from the NINE students.

  20. Measuring Student Transformation in Entrepreneurship Education Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven A. Gedeon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes how to measure student transformation primarily within a university entrepreneurship degree program. Student transformation is defined as changes in knowledge (“Head”, skills (“Hand”, and attitudinal (“Heart” learning outcomes. Following the institutional impact model, student transformation is the primary goal of education and all other program goals and aspects of quality desired by stakeholders are either input factors (professors, courses, facilities, support, etc. or output performance (number of startups, average starting salary, % employment, etc.. This goal-setting framework allows competing stakeholder quality expectations to be incorporated into a continuous process improvement (CPI model when establishing program goals. How to measure these goals to implement TQM methods is shown. Measuring student transformation as the central focus of a program promotes harmony among competing stakeholders and also provides a metric on which other program decisions (e.g., class size, assignments, and pedagogical technique may be based. Different stakeholders hold surprisingly different views on defining program quality. The proposed framework provides a useful way to bring these competing views into a CPI cycle to implement TQM requirements of accreditation. The specific entrepreneurial learning outcome goals described in the tables in this article may also be used directly by educators in nonaccredited programs and single courses/workshops or for other audiences.

  1. Examining the Feasibility and Acceptability of a Motivational Interviewing Early Intervention Program to Prevent High School Dropout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iachini, Aidyn L.; Rogelberg, Sandra; Terry, John David; Lutz, Amy

    2016-01-01

    This article describes Aspire, a new motivational interviewing (MI) early intervention program designed to prevent dropout among students repeating the ninth grade, and then examines the feasibility and acceptability of this program through a mixed-methods approach. The Aspire program is a nine-lesson curriculum grounded in MI with an emphasis on…

  2. Feasibility of the Positive Thoughts and Actions Prevention Program for Middle Schoolers at Risk for Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn A. McCarty

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of adolescent depression, few school-based prevention programs have been developed and tested in the United States with middle school populations. This study examined the acceptability and changes in targeted outcomes for a new preventative program, Positive Thoughts and Actions (PTA. Sixty-seven 7th grade students with elevated depressive symptoms were recruited from public schools and randomized to the 12-week PTA program with a parent-component or to a school-as-usual control group. The PTA prevention program was well received by students and parents, yielding high rates of participation and satisfaction among those randomized to receive the intervention. However, analyses of the efficacy of the program in changing depressive symptoms were not significant. In terms of our proximal program targets, most differences were not statistically significant, though effect sizes suggested advantage of PTA over control group in coping, cognitive style, and parent-child communication. This preliminary research highlights a need for further testing of programs for school-based prevention of depression and promotion of positive emotional health.

  3. Universal Adolescent Depression Prevention Programs: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, Teresa D.

    2013-01-01

    Although the subject of adolescent depression has gained significant attention, little is being done in the way of primary prevention. The purpose of this article is to conduct a review of the literature through the lens of the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance framework. This review was conducted utilizing several…

  4. College Freshmen Students' Perspectives on Weight Gain Prevention in the Digital Age: Web-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Courtney M; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Larsen, Chelsea A; Magradey, Karen; Brandt, Heather M; Wilcox, Sara; Sundstrom, Beth; West, Delia Smith

    2017-10-12

    College freshmen are highly vulnerable to experiencing weight gain, and this phenomenon is associated with an increased risk of chronic diseases and mortality in older adulthood. Technology offers an attractive and scalable way to deliver behavioral weight gain prevention interventions for this population. Weight gain prevention programs that harness the appeal and widespread reach of Web-based technologies (electronic health or eHealth) are increasingly being evaluated in college students. Yet, few of these interventions are informed by college students' perspectives on weight gain prevention and related lifestyle behaviors. The objective of this study was to assess college freshmen students' concern about weight gain and associated topics, as well as their interest in and delivery medium preferences for eHealth programs focused on these topics. Web-based surveys that addressed college freshmen students' (convenience sample of N=50) perspectives on weight gain prevention were administered at the beginning and end of the fall 2015 semester as part of a longitudinal investigation of health-related issues and experiences in first semester college freshmen. Data on weight gain prevention-related concerns and corresponding interest in eHealth programs targeting topics of potential concern, as well as preferred program delivery medium and current technology use were gathered and analyzed using descriptive statistics. A considerable proportion of the freshmen sample expressed concern about weight gain (74%, 37/50) and both traditional (healthy diet: 86%, 43/50; physical activity: 64%, 32/50) and less frequently addressed (stress: 82%, 41/50; sleep: 74%, 37/50; anxiety and depression: 60%, 30/50) associated topics within the context of behavioral weight gain prevention. The proportion of students who reported interest in eHealth promotion programs targeting these topics was also generally high (ranging from 52% [26/50] for stress management to 70% [35/50] for eating a

  5. Sparsity Prevention Pivoting Method for Linear Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peiqiang; Li, Qiyuan; Li, Canbing

    2018-01-01

    . The principle of this method is avoided choosing the row which the value of the element in the b vector is zero as the row of the pivot element to make the matrix in linear programming density and ensure that most subsequent steps will improve the value of the objective function. One step following......When the simplex algorithm is used to calculate a linear programming problem, if the matrix is a sparse matrix, it will be possible to lead to many zero-length calculation steps, and even iterative cycle will appear. To deal with the problem, a new pivoting method is proposed in this paper...... this principle is inserted to reselect the pivot element in the existing linear programming algorithm. Both the conditions for inserting this step and the maximum number of allowed insertion steps are determined. In the case study, taking several numbers of linear programming problems as examples, the results...

  6. Preventing Occupational Skin Disease: A Review of Training Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zack, Bethany; Arrandale, Victoria H; Holness, D Linn

    Occupational contact dermatitis (OCD) is a common occupational disease that impacts a variety of worker groups. Skin protection and disease prevention training programs have shown promise for improving prevention practices and reducing the incidence of OCD. This review details the features of training programs for primary prevention of OCD and identifies gaps in the literature. Twelve studies were identified for in-depth review: many studies included wet workers employed in health care, hairdressing, cleaning, and food preparation; 1 program featured manufacturing workers. Few programs provided content on allergic contact dermatitis, and only 1 was evaluated for long-term effectiveness. Effective programs were similar in content, delivery method, and timing and were characterized by industry specificity, multimodal learning, participatory elements, skin care resource provision, repeated sessions, and management engagement. Long-term effectiveness, generalizability beyond OCD, workplace health and safety culture impact, and translation of programs in the North American context represent areas for future research.

  7. Stacked Deck: an effective, school-based program for the prevention of problem gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert J; Wood, Robert T; Currie, Shawn R

    2010-06-01

    School-based prevention programs are an important component of problem gambling prevention, but empirically effective programs are lacking. Stacked Deck is a set of 5-6 interactive lessons that teach about the history of gambling; the true odds and "house edge"; gambling fallacies; signs, risk factors, and causes of problem gambling; and skills for good decision making and problem solving. An overriding theme of the program is to approach life as a "smart gambler" by determining the odds and weighing the pros versus cons of your actions. A total of 949 grade 9-12 students in 10 schools throughout southern Alberta received the program and completed baseline and follow-up measures. These students were compared to 291 students in 4 control schools. Four months after receiving the program, students in the intervention group had significantly more negative attitudes toward gambling, improved knowledge about gambling and problem gambling, improved resistance to gambling fallacies, improved decision making and problem solving, decreased gambling frequency, and decreased rates of problem gambling. There was no change in involvement in high risk activities or money lost gambling. These results indicate that Stacked Deck is a promising curriculum for the prevention of problem gambling.

  8. Accessing Substance Abuse Prevention Programs for Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Jennifer L.; Johnson, Gail E.

    2009-01-01

    Current estimates indicate that over 6 million children live with at least one parent who is a substance abuser or is substance dependent. Children who are exposed to drug and alcohol abuse are at a greater risk of experiencing academic and behavior difficulties. Additionally, several studies have shown that students with emotional and behavioral…

  9. Indicated prevention of problem gambling among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takushi, Ruby Y; Neighbors, Clayton; Larimer, Mary E; Lostutter, Ty W; Cronce, Jessica M; Marlatt, G Alan

    2004-01-01

    This research provides a brief qualitative description of the development of an indicated prevention intervention for college student gamblers. The proposed intervention integrates alcohol prevention strategies with elements of gambling treatment. The intervention combines cognitive-behavioral skills-training and motivational interviewing and includes personalized normative feedback, cognitive correction, discussion of gambling consequences, and relapse prevention techniques. Examples detailing all phases of the intervention are provided from interviews conducted in a pilot of the intervention. Preliminary pilot data suggests the intervention shows promise in reducing high risk gambling among college students.

  10. A national survey of school-based, adolescent suicide prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, A; Shaffer, D; Whittle, B

    1989-11-01

    A national survey of suicide prevention programs was conducted to determine the number, distribution and content of school-based, curriculum programs for adolescents. One hundred fifteen programs were identified. The total number of students and schools targeted for prevention efforts more than doubled during the academic years 1984/1985 to 1986/1987. Content of the programs was similar, with nearly all including information on suicide warning signs and other facts, as well as on accessing community mental health resources. Most included a separate component for school staff and parents. Ninety-five percent subscribed to the view that suicide is most commonly a response to extreme stress or pressure and could happen to anyone. Possible negative implications of this "stress model" of suicide were discussed. While this survey plays an important first step in providing a description of these programs, more evaluative research is needed to determine what effect, if any, these programs have on suicidal behavior.

  11. Healthy Schools-Healthy Kids: a controlled evaluation of a comprehensive universal eating disorder prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVey, Gail; Tweed, Stacey; Blackmore, Elizabeth

    2007-06-01

    This study was a controlled evaluation of a comprehensive school-based universal prevention program involving male and female students, parents, teachers, school administrators and local public health professionals. A total of 982 male and female Grades 6 and 7 middle school students (and 91 teachers/school administrators) completed self-report surveys at baseline on measures of body satisfaction, internalization of media ideals, size acceptance, disordered eating, weight-based teasing, weight loss and muscle-gaining behaviours, and perceptions of school climate (teachers only). Eighty-four percent of the students repeated the surveys immediately following the 8-month school-wide intervention and 71% again 6 months later. Repeated measures ANCOVAs revealed that participation in the Healthy Schools-Healthy Kids (HS-HK) program had a positive influence by reducing the internalization of media ideals among male and female students and by reducing disordered eating among female students. The program was also associated with reductions in weight-loss behaviours among the students, although this effect was lost by the 6-month follow-up. When the intervention students were sub-divided into low versus high-risk groups, the high-risk group appeared to benefit most from the intervention with significant reductions in internalization of media ideals, greater body satisfaction, and reduced disordered eating over time. There were no intervention effects for teachers. Challenges of engaging teachers in prevention are discussed.

  12. University/NETL Student Partnership Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald Holder; Jonathan Mathews; Thomas Wilson; Steven Chuang; Cristina Amon; Turgay Ertekin; Karl Johnson; Goodarz Ahmadi; David Sholl

    2006-10-31

    The University/National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Student Partnership Program stimulated basic and applied research in Energy and Environmental Science areas through NETL's Office of Science and Technology (OST). This Partnership Program supported the education of graduate students in Energy and Environmental Sciences, while fostering increased scientific interaction between NETL and the participating universities, by providing graduate student support for research at a NETL facility under the joint supervision of NETL and university faculty. Projects were intended to enhance a previously established scientific or engineering relationship or to create a new relationship. Major areas of research under the Partnership Program included CO{sub 2} sequestration, granular solids flow, multi-phase flow in porous solids, gas hydrates, nanotubes, acid-mine flow identification and remediation, water-gas shift reaction, circulating fluidized beds, slurry bubble column, fuel desulphurization, carbon fibers, and fuel cells.

  13. Research Program of Adolescent HIV Prevention Strategies | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In Africa, HIV is having a devastating impact on young people. Globally, youth aged 15 to 24 account for almost one third of all new infections. There are unique challenges to implementing adolescent-friendly policies and HIV prevention programs. More research is needed to inform HIV prevention strategies focusing on ...

  14. Research Program of Adolescent HIV Prevention Strategies | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In Africa, HIV is having a devastating impact on young people. Globally, youth aged 15 to 24 account for almost one third of all new infections. There are unique challenges to implementing adolescent-friendly policies and HIV prevention programs. More research is needed to inform HIV prevention strategies focusing on ...

  15. Factors Related to Teenage Dating Violence Prevention Programming in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Beverly M.; Hawley, Alicia; Hoefer, Richard; Barnett, Tracey M.

    2017-01-01

    The Children's Safety Network has identified teenage dating violence (TDV) as a public health problem and called for effective prevention programs to address the issue. This study used resource dependence theory to examine factors that relate to domestic violence shelters' in-school efforts to prevent TDV. A national survey was sent to domestic…

  16. A Multilevel Evaluation of a Comprehensive Child Abuse Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Michael A.; Alameda-Lawson, Tania; Byrnes, Edward C.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study is to examine the extent to which participation in a county-wide prevention program leads to improvements in protective factors associated with child abuse prevention (CAP) and whether improvements in measured protective factors relate to decreased odds of child abuse. Method: Using multilevel growth modeling,…

  17. Preventing eating disorder pathology: common and unique features of successful eating disorders prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciao, Anna C; Loth, Katie; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-07-01

    Over the past two decades, the field of eating disorders has made remarkable strides in identifying, evaluating, and disseminating successful prevention programs. The current review identifies and discusses nine distinct eating disorders prevention programs that reduce existing eating disorder pathology or prevent the onset of future pathology. Each program was evaluated in one or more controlled trial with a follow-up period of at least six months. We review the evidence base for these nine successful programs and discuss their common and unique features. Based on authors' descriptions of their programs in published trials, we found that all programs were theory-driven, targeted one or more eating disorder risk factor (e.g., body dissatisfaction), were delivered across multiple group sessions, and included at least some interactive content. Most programs included content related to healthy eating/nutrition, media literacy/sociocultural pressures, and body acceptance/body satisfaction. Notably, there was wide variation in some participant features (e.g., participant age, sex, risk status) and intervention features (e.g., setting and format, length and dose, providers), suggesting that a variety of programs are beneficial in impacting eating disorder pathology. Implications and directions for future research are discussed, including an increased focus on universal and indicated prevention programs, expanding programs to a wider age range and a broader spectrum of weight-related problems, and rigorous evaluation of programs through efficacy, effectiveness, and implementation research.

  18. Preventing Eating Disorder Pathology: Common and Unique Features of Successful Eating Disorders Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciao, Anna C.; Loth, Katie; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    Over the past two decades, the field of eating disorders has made remarkable strides in identifying, evaluating, and disseminating successful prevention programs. The current review identifies and discusses nine distinct eating disorders prevention programs that reduce existing eating disorder pathology or prevent the onset of future pathology. Each program was evaluated in one or more controlled trial with a follow-up period of at least six months. We review the evidence base for these nine successful programs and discuss their common and unique features. Based on authors’ descriptions of their programs in published trials, we found that all programs were theory-driven, targeted one or more eating disorder risk factor (e.g., body dissatisfaction), were delivered across multiple group sessions, and included at least some interactive content. Most programs included content related to healthy eating/nutrition, media literacy/sociocultural pressures, and body acceptance/body satisfaction. Notably, there was wide variation in some participant features (e.g., participant age, sex, risk status) and intervention features (e.g., setting and format, length and dose, providers), suggesting that a variety of programs are beneficial in impacting eating disorder pathology. Implications and directions for future research are discussed, including an increased focus on universal and indicated prevention programs, expanding programs to a wider age range and a broader spectrum of weight-related problems, and rigorous evaluation of programs through efficacy, effectiveness, and implementation research. PMID:24821099

  19. A Dispute Mediation Program: Report on the Cobble Middle School Student-Conducted Program in Tallahassee, Florida, 1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Rodney F.

    This conflict mediation program resolves disputes non-violently using teams of two student mediators and a set of formal procedures. These methods improve communication, define issues, and develop alternative paths to resolution. The goals of the program are the prevention of violence, the improvement of human relations, and the building of more…

  20. Meteorological Development Laboratory Student Career Experience Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCalla, C., Sr.

    2007-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Weather Service (NWS) provides weather, hydrologic, and climate forecasts and warnings for the protection of life and property and the enhancement of the national economy. The NWS's Meteorological Development Laboratory (MDL) supports this mission by developing meteorological prediction methods. Given this mission, NOAA, NWS, and MDL all have a need to continually recruit talented scientists. One avenue for recruiting such talented scientist is the Student Career Experience Program (SCEP). Through SCEP, MDL offers undergraduate and graduate students majoring in meteorology, computer science, mathematics, oceanography, physics, and statistics the opportunity to alternate full-time paid employment with periods of full-time study. Using SCEP as a recruiting vehicle, MDL has employed students who possess some of the very latest technical skills and knowledge needed to make meaningful contributions to projects within the lab. MDL has recently expanded its use of SCEP and has increased the number of students (sometimes called co- ops) in its program. As a co-op, a student can expect to develop and implement computer based scientific techniques, participate in the development of statistical algorithms, assist in the analysis of meteorological data, and verify forecasts. This presentation will focus on describing recruitment, projects, and the application process related to MDL's SCEP. In addition, this presentation will also briefly explore the career paths of students who successfully completed the program.

  1. A culturally adapted drug and alcohol abuse prevention program for aboriginal children and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baydala, Lola T; Sewlal, Betty; Rasmussen, Carmen; Alexis, Kathleen; Fletcher, Fay; Letendre, Liz; Odishaw, Janine; Kennedy, Merle; Kootenay, Brenda

    2009-01-01

    In response to substance abuse within their community, the Alexis Nakota Sioux Nation invited the University of Alberta (UofA) to partner in a collaborative effort to establish a school-based substance abuse prevention program. An evidence-based substance abuse prevention program was reviewed and adapted by the community to ensure that it incorporated their cultural beliefs, values, language, and visual images. The adapted program was delivered to students at Alexis Nakota Sioux Nation School and changes in student participants' knowledge, attitudes, refusal skills, and self-beliefs were measured. Benefits and challenges of adapting the program were documented. The principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR) and the Canadian Institute for Health Research, Guidelines for Research Involving Aboriginal People, provided a frame of reference for the work throughout the research process. A pre-/posttest questionnaire was used to measure changes in student participants' drug and alcohol refusal skills, self-beliefs, and knowledge of the negative effects of drug and alcohol use. Focus groups (FGs) documented community members' experiences of and responses to the program adaptations and delivery. Results included (1) positive changes in students' drug and alcohol refusal skills, self-beliefs, and knowledge of the negative effects of drug and alcohol use, (2) ownership of and investment in the program by the community, (3) teaching approaches that correspond with the learning contexts, worldview, and relationships of the community, and (4) participation of community Elders. Quantitative and qualitative measures provide evidence for the importance, benefits, and challenges of employing a culturally adapted evidence-based substance abuse prevention program with Aboriginal students attending a First Nations school.

  2. A descriptive study of baccalaureate nursing students' responses to suicide prevention education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullen, Julie M; Gilje, Fredricka; Tesar, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Internationally, little is known regarding the amount of educational content on suicide in undergraduate nursing curriculum. The literature conducted found few published research studies on implementation of suicide prevention instruction in baccalaureate nursing curriculum, even though various international healthcare and nursing initiatives address suicide prevention. The aim was to describe senior baccalaureate students' responses to an evidence-based suicide prevention gatekeeper training program entitled Question-Persuade-Refer implemented in a required course. This is a multi-method descriptive study. Data were collected utilizing a pre-post-survey questionnaire administered to 150 students in four classes of a psychiatric nursing course over a two-year period. The quantitative data were statistically significant (p suicide'. Students responded very positively to the evidence based suicide prevention gatekeeper training program. The instruction addresses various national initiatives and strategies filling a void in nursing curriculum, as well as empowering students to engage in suicide prevention interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 75 FR 35360 - Injury and Illness Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-22

    ... implementation of a safety and health program as a way of demonstrating good faith. Similarly, in its first... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Occupational Safety and Health Administration 29 CFR Part 1910 Injury and Illness Prevention Program AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION...

  4. 75 FR 23637 - Injury and Illness Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... safety and health program as a way of demonstrating good faith. Similarly, in its first decision, the... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Occupational Safety and Health Administration 29 CFR Part 1910 Injury and Illness Prevention Program AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION...

  5. A Primary Prevention Program to Reduce Bulimia and Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullari, Salvatore; Redmon, William K.

    This paper presents a theoretical model for a primary prevention program for bulimia and anorexia nervosa to be used with adolescents and young women considered most at risk of developing these eating disorders. Characteristics of potential anorexics and bulimics are identified to aid in the selection of target groups for the program. It is…

  6. Project EX-India: A classroom-based tobacco use prevention and cessation intervention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, Anupreet Kaur; Sussman, Steve; Tewari, Abha; Bassi, Shalini; Arora, Monika

    2016-02-01

    Tobacco use experimentation is most frequent between the ages of 15–24 in India. Therefore, programming to counteract tobacco use among adolescents is needed. There is a lack of evidence-based teen tobacco use prevention and cessation programs. The current study provides an outcome evaluation of the Project EX tobacco use prevention and cessation program among Indian adolescents (16–18 years). An eight-session classroom-based curriculum was adapted to the Indian context and translated from English to Hindi (local language). Next, it was tested using a quasi-experimental design with 624 Indian students at baseline, involving two program and two control schools, with a three-month post-program follow-up. Project EX involves motivation enhancement (e.g., talk shows and games) and coping skills (e.g., complementary and alternative medicine) components. Program participants rated complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) activities like meditation, yoga and healthy breathing higher than talk shows and games. Compared to the standard care control condition, the program condition revealed a prevention effect, but not a cessation effect. Implications for prevention/cessation programming among Indian teens are discussed. This study was approved by the Independent Ethics Committee, Mumbai.

  7. Hanford Site waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    The Hanford Site WMin/P2 program is an organized, comprehensive, and continual effort to systematically reduce the quantity and toxicity of hazardous, radioactive, mixed, and sanitary wastes; conserve resources; and prevent or minimize pollutant releases to all environmental media from all Site activities. The Hanford Site WMin/P2 program plan reflects national and DOE waste minimization and pollution prevention goals and policies, and represents an ongoing effort to make WMin/P2 part of the Site operating philosophy. In accordance with these policies, a hierarchical approach to environmental management has been adopted and is applied to all types of polluting and waste generating activities. Pollution prevention and waste minimization through source reduction are first priority in the Hanford WMin/P2 program, followed by environmentally safe recycling. Treatment to reduce the quantity, toxicity, and/or mobility will be considered only when prevention or recycling are not possible or practical. Environmentally safe disposal is the last option

  8. Prevention of emotional states among students from collegiate basketball and soccer teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malinauskas R.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the questions of the prevention of emotional states among students from collegiate basketball and football teams. The experiment involved 42 athletes aged 19-25. Two methods were used in the inquiry: Antonovsky's Sense of Coherence Scale and Stress-coping Scale (Kiseliov's Thermometer. Results have shown that higher levels of sense of coherence and stress-coping were found in student-athletes after psycho-prophylactic program against these indicators before the psycho-prophylactic program.

  9. Partner Services in STD Prevention Programs: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogben, Matthew; Collins, Dayne; Hoots, Brooke; O’Connor, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Background Partner services have been a mainstay of public health sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention programs for decades. The principal goals are to interrupt transmission and reduce STD morbidity and sequelae. In this paper, we review current literature with the goal of informing STD prevention programs. Methods We searched the literature for systematic reviews. We found nine reviews published between 2005 and 2014 (covering 108 studies). The reviews varied by study inclusion criteria (e.g., study methods, geographic location, infections). We abstracted major conclusions and recommendations from the reviews. Results Conclusions and recommendations were divided into patient referral interventions and provider referral interventions. For patient referral, there was evidence supporting the use of expedited partner therapy and interactive counseling, but not purely didactic instruction. Provider referral through Disease Intervention Specialists was efficacious and particularly well-supported for HIV. For other studies, modeling data and testing outcomes showed that partner notification in general reached high-prevalence populations. Reviews also suggested more focus on using technology and population-level implementation strategies. However, partner services may not be the most efficient means to reach infected persons. Conclusions Partner services programs constitute a large proportion of program STD prevention activities. Value is maximized by balancing a portfolio of patient and provider referral interventions and by blending partner notification interventions with other STD prevention interventions in overall partner services program structure. STD prevention needs program-level research and development to generate this portfolio. PMID:26779688

  10. Preventing the Onset of Child Sexual Abuse by Targeting Young Adolescents With Universal Prevention Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letourneau, Elizabeth J.; Schaeffer, Cindy M.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Feder, Kenneth A.

    2017-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a serious public health problem that increases risk for physical and mental health problems across the life course. Young adolescents are responsible for a substantial portion of CSA offending, yet to our knowledge, no validated prevention programs that target CSA perpetration by youth exist. Most existing efforts to address CSA rely on reactive criminal justice policies or programs that teach children to protect themselves; neither approach is well validated. Given the high rates of desistance from sexual offending following a youth’s first CSA-related adjudication, it seems plausible that many youth could be prevented from engaging in their first offense. The goal of this article is to examine how school-based universal prevention programs might be used to prevent CSA perpetrated by adolescents. We review the literature on risk and protective factors for CSA perpetration and identify several promising factors to target in an intervention. We also summarize the literature on programs that have been effective at preventing adolescent dating violence and other serious problem behaviors. Finally, we describe a new CSA prevention program under development and early evaluation and make recommendations for program design characteristics, including unambiguous messaging, parental involvement, multisession dosage, skills practice, and bystander considerations. PMID:28413921

  11. Prevention of prejudice in elementary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney-Rebeck, P; Jason, L

    1986-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of cooperative group peer tutoring on the inter-ethnic relations of elementary school age children. Direct observations of social interactions on the playground and sociometric indices were used to measure inter-ethnic associations before and after the eight-week program. For first graders, inter-ethnic interactions and sociometric choices increased and improvements were found in arithmetic and reading grades. However, no significant changes were found among the third grade program children in either inter-ethnic associations or academic performance. These findings suggest that a cooperative peer tutoring classroom structure may improve the inter-ethnic relationships of first grade children who have experienced only a short history of competitive academic exercises and whose overt ethnic prejudice may be less ingrained.

  12. The Short-Term Effectiveness of a Suicide Prevention Gatekeeper Training Program in a College Setting with Residence Life Advisers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Tanya L.; Witt, Jody

    2009-01-01

    Although the college years prove to be a vulnerable time for students and a critical period for suicide prevention, few school-based prevention strategies have been empirically evaluated. The current study examined the short-term effects of Question, Persuade, and Refer (QPR), a gatekeeper training program that teaches how to recognize warning…

  13. 20 CFR 638.520 - Student government and leadership programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Student government and leadership programs... Student government and leadership programs. The center operator shall establish an elected student government and student leadership program in accordance with procedures established by the Job Corps Director. ...

  14. Student Development in an Experiential Learning Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Brandi L.; Banks, Julianna; Houser, John H. W.; Rhodes, Simon J.; Lees, N. Douglas

    2014-01-01

    This study is an outcomes assessment of an experiential learning program for undergraduate students interested in life and health sciences careers enrolled at a public urban research institution. The year-long research and professional experience internships were projected to improve learning outcomes in undergraduates. The study included an…

  15. Short-Term Impact of Safer Choices: A Multicomponent, School-Based HIV, Other STD, and Pregnancy Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Karin; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Kirby, Douglas; Parcel, Guy; Banspach, Stephen; Harrist, Ronald; Baumler, Elizabeth; Weil, Marsha

    1999-01-01

    Evaluated the effectiveness of the first year of "Safer Choices," a two-year, multicomponent HIV, STD, and pregnancy-prevention program for high school students based on social theory. Student self-report surveys indicated that "Safer Choices" succeeded in reducing selected risk behaviors and in enhancing selected protective…

  16. Substance use prevention program for adolescents with intellectual disabilities on special education schools: A cluster randomised control trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiewik, M.; Nagel, J.E.L. van der; Kemna, L.E.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Jong, C.A.J. de

    2016-01-01

    Background: Students without intellectual disability (ID) start experimenting with tobacco and alcohol between 12 and 15 years of age. However, data for 12- to 15-year old students with ID are unavailable. Prevention programs, like 'prepared on time' (based on the attitude–social influence–efficacy

  17. [Introduction to the Preventive Medicine Program "Prevention 2006-2009" in the Institute of Cosmetology and Health Care in Bialystok].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleszczewska, Ewa

    2007-01-01

    Smoking is still a common habit in Poland. Nowadays, it is the way of coping with stress, it is used to become calm. It is also widely accepted by people from various backgrounds included medicine environment. Unfortunately, the number of young people--tobacco addicts is increasing. Survey proceeding in University implementing of the health promotion's program was to estimate the phenomenon of spreading smoking cigarettes among the students and accomplishing their knowledge and awareness about threats resulting from tobacco smoking. The study was performed among 501 students. They answered questions concerning smoking and knowledge about nicotine dependence. The research touched such questions as conviction about damage caused by smoking, the source of information, causes and effects of smoking, about environment whether they are, the interviewee's smoking preventive activities. Implanting health promotion's program is an interdisciplinary subject which glue together such sciences as medicine, psychology, sociology, social politics and many others.

  18. The Identity of Students Choosing Marketing Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barreto, Idaly

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to look deeply into the identity of young students interested in training professional in marketing programs in Bogotá, Colombia. This descriptive study was conducted with the application of multidimensional surveys to 262 young people from five universities that offer training in marketing. The results show that there are differences and similarities in the lifestyles of young people who choose to study Marketing. The first, relating mainly to the identities assumed by students of daytime and nighttime that differ in their activities and more income. The second, by the increasing use and development of academic and social activities through the Internet of interest to young people today. It is hoped that these results provide the administrative and academic management of marketing programs that result in better communication and care of students as consumers.

  19. Beyond the dyad: an assessment of sexual assault prevention education focused on social determinants of sexual assault among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozkowski, Kristen N

    2015-07-01

    Sexual assault is prevalent in the United States, particularly among college women. Prevention programs are implemented to combat assault, yet rates have not changed for five decades. A course designed to deconstruct contextualized factors contributing to assault was developed as an alternative prevention initiative. The current study assessed the effectiveness of the course compared with a traditional program via in-depth interviews with students. Findings indicated that students in the course were more likely to acknowledge underlying determinants of sexual assault and articulate how such behaviors could lead to assault. The course could be an effective approach to sexual assault prevention education. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Do students' programming skills depend on programming language?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savić, Miloš; Ivanović, Mirjana; Budimac, Zoran; Radovanović, Miloš

    2016-06-01

    Bachelor studies in Computer Science at our department in the last decades cover several successive core courses in programming: Introduction to Programming, Data Structures and Algorithms 1 and 2, Operating Systems and Compiler Construction. For a long time our intention was not to insist on the realization of subjects in a specific programming language, but to put emphasis on abstract reasoning and appropriate data structures and algorithms. Also, to avoid teaching different languages and programming environments, we decided to use one good educational language - Modula-2. In the last several years we were under different kinds of pressure to change the language. Starting from the last school-year we decided to adopt Java within the introductory programming course, using the imperative approach first. Some comparisons of students' advancements and success between Modula-2 and Java generations are presented in the paper. The results of the analytical evaluation indicate that the choice of the first programming language does not have a deep influence to students' success at the course.

  1. Optimal investment in a portfolio of HIV prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaric, G S; Brandeau, M L

    2001-01-01

    In this article, the authors determine the optimal allocation of HIV prevention funds and investigate the impact of different allocation methods on health outcomes. The authors present a resource allocation model that can be used to determine the allocation of HIV prevention funds that maximizes quality-adjusted life years (or life years) gained or HIV infections averted in a population over a specified time horizon. They apply the model to determine the allocation of a limited budget among 3 types of HIV prevention programs in a population of injection drug users and nonusers: needle exchange programs, methadone maintenance treatment, and condom availability programs. For each prevention program, the authors estimate a production function that relates the amount invested to the associated change in risky behavior. The authors determine the optimal allocation of funds for both objective functions for a high-prevalence population and a low-prevalence population. They also consider the allocation of funds under several common rules of thumb that are used to allocate HIV prevention resources. It is shown that simpler allocation methods (e.g., allocation based on HIV incidence or notions of equity among population groups) may lead to alloctions that do not yield the maximum health benefit. The optimal allocation of HIV prevention funds in a population depends on HIV prevalence and incidence, the objective function, the production functions for the prevention programs, and other factors. Consideration of cost, equity, and social and political norms may be important when allocating HIV prevention funds. The model presented in this article can help decision makers determine the health consequences of different allocations of funds.

  2. Suicide Prevention in the Dot Com Era: Technological Aspects of a University Suicide Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Jessica; VanDeusen, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Western Michigan University's Suicide Prevention Program utilizes multiple technological components, including an online training course, a Web site, and 2 social networking Web site profiles, as integral aspects of a comprehensive program. This article discusses the development, maintenance, use, and impact of the technological aspects of this…

  3. Westinghouse Hanford Company Pollution Prevention Program Implementation Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floyd, B.C.

    1994-10-01

    This plan documents Westinghouse Hanford Company's (WHC) Pollution Prevention (P2) (formerly Waste Minimization) program. The program includes WHC; BCS Richland, Inc. (BCSR); and ICF Kaiser Hanford Company (ICF KH). The plan specifies P2 program activities and schedules for implementing the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness (WMin/P2) Program Plan requirements (DOE 1994a). It is intended to satisfy the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and other legal requirements that are discussed in both the Hanford Site WMin/P2 plan and paragraph C of this plan. As such, the Pollution Prevention Awareness Program required by DOE Order 5400.1 (DOE 1988) is included in the WHC P2 program. WHC, BCSR, and ICF KH are committed to implementing an effective P2 program as identified in the Hanford Site WMin/P2 Plan. This plan provides specific information on how the WHC P2 program will develop and implement the goals, activities, and budget needed to accomplish this. The emphasis has been to provide detailed planning of the WHC P2 program activities over the next 3 years. The plan will guide the development and implementation of the program. The plan also provides background information on past program activities. Because the plan contains greater detail than in the past, activity scope and implementation schedules may change as new priorities are identified and new approaches are developed and realized. Some activities will be accelerated, others may be delayed; however, all of the general program elements identified in this plan and contractor requirements identified in the Site WMin/P2 plan will be developed and implemented during the next 3 years. This plan applies to all WHC, BCSR, and ICF KH organizations and subcontractors. It will be distributed to those with defined responsibilities in this plan; and the policy, goals, objectives, and strategy of the program will be communicated to all WHC, BCSR, and ICF KH employees

  4. Eating disorder prevention programs: a meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Shaw, Heather

    2004-03-01

    This meta-analysis of eating disorder prevention programs found that intervention effects ranged from an absence of any effects to reductions in current and future eating pathology. Certain effects persisted as long as 2 years and were superior to minimal-intervention control conditions. Larger effects occurred for selected (vs. universal), interactive (vs. didactic), and multisession (vs. single session) programs; for programs offered solely to females and to participants over age 15; for programs without psychoeducational content; and for trials that used validated measures. The results identify promising prevention programs and delineate sample, format, and design features that are associated with larger effects, but they suggest the need for improved methodological rigor and statistical modeling of trials and enhanced theoretical rationale for interventions.

  5. Low back pain prevention for nursing students: a kettlebell intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Peltoniemi, Gabriella

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to educate and provide information to promote nursing students to take action in Low Back Pain (LBP) prevention. LBP is a high risk in nursing and prevention measures are recommended prior to starting the work. LBP is a debilitating musculoskeletal condition which affects all parts of the world. Prevention measures are many and this thesis aims to promote the Kettlebell training as one of them. The Kettlebell is a cast-iron ball with a handle. It has become incre...

  6. TEACHING CAD PROGRAMMING TO ARCHITECTURE STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gabriela Caffarena CELANI

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to discuss the relevance of including the discipline of computer programming in the architectural curriculum. To do so I start by explaining how computer programming has been applied in other educational contexts with pedagogical success, describing Seymour Papert's principles. After that, I summarize the historical development of CAD and provide three historical examples of educational applications of computer programming in architecture, followed by a contemporary case that I find of particular relevance. Next, I propose a methodology for teaching programming for architects that aims at improving the quality of designs by making their concepts more explicit. This methodology is based on my own experience teaching computer programming for architecture students at undergraduate and graduate levels at the State University of Campinas, Brazil. The paper ends with a discussion about the role of programming nowadays, when most CAD software are user-friendly and do not require any knowledge of programming for improving performance. I conclude that the introduction of programming in the CAD curriculum within a proper conceptual framework may transform the concept of architectural education. Key-words: Computer programming; computer-aided design; architectural education.

  7. Understanding small business engagement in workplace violence prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruening, Rebecca A; Strazza, Karen; Nocera, Maryalice; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Casteel, Carri

    2015-01-01

    Worksite wellness, safety, and violence prevention programs have low penetration among small, independent businesses. This study examined barriers and strategies influencing small business participation in workplace violence prevention programs (WVPPs). A semistructured interview guide was used in 32 telephone interviews. The study took place at the University of North Carolina Injury Prevention Research Center. Participating were a purposive sample of 32 representatives of small business-serving organizations (e.g., business membership organizations, regulatory agencies, and economic development organizations) selected for their experience with small businesses. This study was designed to inform improved dissemination of Crime Free Business (CFB), a WVPP for small, independent retail businesses. Thematic qualitative data analysis was used to identify key barriers and strategies for promoting programs and services to small businesses. Three key factors that influence small business engagement emerged from the analysis: (1) small businesses' limited time and resources, (2) low salience of workplace violence, (3) influence of informal networks and source credibility. Identified strategies include designing low-cost and convenient programs, crafting effective messages, partnering with influential organizations and individuals, and conducting outreach through informal networks. Workplace violence prevention and public health practitioners may increase small business participation in programs by reducing time and resource demands, addressing small business concerns, enlisting support from influential individuals and groups, and emphasizing business benefits of participating in the program.

  8. Effects of the cyberbullying prevention program media heroes (Medienhelden) on traditional bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaux, Enrique; Velásquez, Ana María; Schultze-Krumbholz, Anja; Scheithauer, Herbert

    2016-01-01

    There is considerable debate over whether cyberbullying is just another form of bullying, or whether it is a problem distinct enough to require specific intervention. One way to explore this issue is to analyze whether programs designed to prevent traditional bullying help prevent cyberbullying, and whether programs designed to prevent cyberbullying prevent traditional bullying. The main goal of the current study was to analyze the spillover effects of the cyberbullying prevention program Media Heroes (Medienhelden) on traditional bullying. Media Heroes promotes empathy, knowledge of risks and consequences, and strategies that allow bystanders to defend victims from cyberbullying. Mixed ANOVAs were conducted comparing pretest and post-test (6 months after intervention) measures of 722 students (ages 11-17) assigned to a long (15 sessions) intervention, a short (1 day) intervention, and a control group. In addition to confirming the previously reported effects on cyberbullying, Media Heroes was found to reduce traditional bullying. Effects were larger for the long-version of the program than for the short 1-day version. No effects were found on victimization by either cyberbullying or traditional bullying. Strategies to complement traditional and cyberbullying prevention efforts are discussed. Aggr. Behav. 42:157-165, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Purpose and methods of a Pollution Prevention Awareness Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flowers, P.A.; Irwin, E.F.; Poligone, S.E.

    1994-08-15

    The purpose of the Pollution Prevention Awareness Program (PPAP), which is required by DOE Order 5400.1, is to foster the philosophy that prevention is superior to remediation. The goal of the program is to incorporate pollution prevention into the decision-making process at every level throughout the organization. The objectives are to instill awareness, disseminate information, provide training and rewards for identifying the true source or cause of wastes, and encourage employee participation in solving environmental issues and preventing pollution. PPAP at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was created several years ago and continues to grow. We believe that we have implemented several unique methods of communicating environmental awareness to promote a more active work force in identifying ways of reducing pollution.

  10. Family Violence Prevention and Services Programs. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-02

    This rule will better prevent and protect survivors of family violence, domestic violence, and dating violence, by clarifying that all survivors must have access to services and programs funded under the Family Violence Prevention and Services Act. More specifically, the rule enhances accessibility and non-discrimination provisions, clarifies confidentiality rules, promotes coordination among community-based organizations, State Domestic Violence Coalitions, States, and Tribes, as well as incorporates new discretionary grant programs. Furthermore, the rule updates existing regulations to reflect statutory changes made to the Family Violence Prevention and Services Act, and updates procedures for soliciting and awarding grants. The rule also increases clarity and reduces potential confusion over statutory and regulatory standards. The rule codifies standards already used by the program in the Funding Opportunity Announcements and awards, in technical assistance, in reporting requirements, and in sub-regulatory guidance.

  11. How can we prevent and reduce bullying amongst university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie Anne Myers

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available While it has long been recognized that bullying occurs at school and in the workplace, recent research confirms that bullying also takes place among university students, including undergraduates, post-graduates and doctoral research students. In the UK, the National Union of Students (NUS alerted staff and students to the issue in a series of reports but it is not confined to the UK. Authors in the book edited by Cowie and Myers (2016a, 2016b present cross-national findings on the theme of bullying among university students (Pörhöla et al., 2016. In this article we discuss the urgent need for interventions to prevent and reduce bullying in this context. We also indicate the areas where little or no intervention is taking place, notably in the field of university policy.

  12. Effects of a school-based prevention program on European adolescents' patterns of alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caria, Maria Paola; Faggiano, Fabrizio; Bellocco, Rino; Galanti, Maria Rosaria

    2011-02-01

    School-based substance abuse prevention programs are widespread but are rarely evaluated in Europe. We aimed to evaluate the effect of a new school-based prevention program against substance use on the frequency of alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problem behaviors among European students. During the school year 2004-2005, a total of 7,079 students aged 12-14 years from 143 schools in seven European countries participated in this cluster randomized controlled trial. Schools were randomly assigned to either control (65 schools, 3,532 students) or to a 12-session standardized program based on the comprehensive social influence model (78 schools, 3,547 students). Alcohol use and frequency of alcohol-related problem behaviors were investigated through a self-completed anonymous questionnaire at baseline and 18 months thereafter. The association between intervention and changes in alcohol-related outcomes was expressed as odds ratio (OR), estimated by multilevel regression model. The preventive program was associated with a decreased risk of reporting alcohol-related problems (OR = .78, 95% confidence intervals [CI] = .63-.98), although this reduction was not statistically significant in the subgroup of 743 current drinkers at baseline. The risk for alcohol consumption was not modified by exposure to the program (OR = .93, 95% CI = .79-1.09). In the intervention group, nondrinkers and occasional drinkers at baseline progressed toward frequent drinking less often than in the control group. School curricula based on the comprehensive social-influence model can delay progression to frequent drinking and reduce occurrence of alcohol-related behavioral problems in European students. These results, albeit moderate, have potentially useful implications at the population level. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Development of a regional program for prevention of children's disability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupeeva, I A

    2001-01-01

    Pressing problems (social, socio-hygienic, medical, legal, etc.) of childhood disability are discussed for a typical Russian territory. Causes of disability from the viewpoint of its prevention are analyzed. Experience gained in organization of complex measures, inter-department approach to formation and realization of relevant programs with emphasis on prevention is presented on the model of the Republic of North Ossetia--Alania.

  14. Academic stress in Chinese schools and a proposed preventive intervention program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Zhao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available While American educators fret about the mediocre educational performance of American students in international contests (e.g. the Program for International Student Assessment and wonder why the Chinese education system produces such high-achieving students, educators, journalists, and public officials in China want to know what causes and how to prevent the high levels of academic stress that Chinese students, their families, and their school systems experience. So far, much of the blame for these toxic levels of stress has been directed to the Gaokao, the Chinese national college entrance exam that takes place in June each year. But to date, top-down Chinese educational reforms have been ineffective in reducing the problem. In this article, we build a case for strengthening bottom-up efforts at the school level in China and propose an evidence-based approach for addressing the challenge of academic stress experienced by Chinese students.

  15. Applying an Employee-Motivation Model to Prevent Student Plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malouff, John M.; Sims, Randi L.

    1996-01-01

    A model based on Vroom's expectancy theory of employee motivation posits that instructors can prevent plagiarism by ensuring that students understand the rules of ethical writing, expect assignments to be manageable and have personal benefits, and expect plagiarism to be difficult and have important personal costs. (SK)

  16. The Role of Prevention in Deterring Teachers Bullied by Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Linda Hunt

    2016-01-01

    Few past studies discuss the subject of bullying by students with their teachers as targets. Examining preventative measures to gain a more thorough understanding of the complex, behavioral issue needs to be addressed. As a starting point the purpose of this study is to examine the scope of the problem as well as the various preventative…

  17. Attitudes and Practices on HIV Prevention among students of Higher ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As to the multivariate analysis result; sex, previous residence, religious participation, pornographic viewing, currently alcohol intake, chewing khat and cigarette smoking were found to be determinant of AAU students' attitude on HIV prevention. Similarly, age, having pocket money, pornographic film show and currently khat ...

  18. PRACTICES FOR PREVENTION NEEDLESTICK AND SHARPS INJURIES AMONG NURSING STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anh Tran Thi Quynh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Needlestick and sharp injuries are a serious hazard in any health care setting for health care workers and students during clinical practice. Thus, the efforts to prevent the needlestick and sharps injuries are needed and considered a part of the routine practice. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the frequency of nursing students in doing the correct practice in prevention needlestick and sharps injuries. Methods: This cross- sectional study was conducted between 2013 and 2014 in nursing students of Tien Giang Medical College who participated in clinical practice. There were 360 students participated in the study using simple random sampling. Data were collected using the practical assessment checklist and demographic characteristics questionnaire. Data were processed using STATA 12.0, and analyzed using Chi-square and Fisher test. Results: The students who did general practice correctly accounted for 52.50%, and those who did practice incorrectly was 47.5%. The students who used gauze or wool wrap in inhaler were 59.7%, wearing gloves in practice (39.2%, do not disassemble needles from syringes after injection 50%, and removing needles into barrel after injection (65.6%. There was statistically significant relationship between time of participation in clinical practice and correct practice with p-value 0.04 (<0.05 Conclusion: The correct practice of nursing students related to the prevention of needlestick and sharps injuries remains low. There was a significant relationship between time of participation in clinical practice and correct nursing practice. It is suggested that students must be taught about the risk of infection at the beginning of clinical practice, and constantly reminded throughout the learning process, especially for injection safety awareness, knowledge and techniques about the risk of transmission of HBV, HCV and HIV by sharp objects in the healthcare facility.

  19. Preventing halo bias in grading the work of university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Malouff

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Experts have advocated anonymous marking as a means of minimizing bias in subjective student assessment. In the present study, 159 faculty members or teaching assistants across disciplines were randomly assigned (1 to grade a poor oral presentation of a university student, (2 to grade a good oral presentation of the same student, or (3 not to grade any oral presentation of the student. All graders then assessed the same written work by the student. A linear-contrasts analysis showed that, as hypothesized, the graders assigned significantly higher scores to written work following the better oral presentation than following the poor oral presentation, with intermediate scores for the written work of the student whose oral presentation was not seen by the graders. The results provide evidence of a halo effect in that prior experience with a student biased the grading of written work completed by the student. The findings suggest that keeping students anonymous, as in the condition with no knowledge of the student’s performance in the oral presentation, helps prevent bias in grading.

  20. Effectiveness and Evaluation of Crime Prevention Programs in Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Beato

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay analyzes previous studies evaluating the effectiveness of the crime prevention policies adopted by the Government of Minas Gerais (Brazil. In this work, greater emphasis is placed on studies evaluating outcomes than on studies dealing with the process of setting up and implementing programs and projects. In order to allow a more systematic discussion, the Maryland Scale, which categorizes research and evaluations according to the methodological strengths and weaknesses in five levels, is employed. Subsequently, the authors draw a parallel between Brazil and other settings. Finally, this essay lays out the implications of this discussion regarding the prevention programs

  1. Encouraging responses in sexual and relationship violence prevention: what program effects remain 1 year later?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, Mary M; Banyard, Victoria L; Cares, Alison C; Potter, Sharyn J; Williams, Linda M; Stapleton, Jane G

    2015-01-01

    Colleges and universities are high-risk settings for sexual and relationship violence. To address these problems, institutions of higher education have implemented prevention programs, many of which train students as potential bystanders who can step in to help diffuse risky situations, identify and challenge perpetrators, and assist victims. The impact of bystander sexual and relationship violence prevention programs on long-term behavior of bystanders has remained a key unanswered question for those who seek to offer the most effective programs as well as for policy makers. In this study, the researchers experimentally evaluated the effectiveness of the Bringing in the Bystander® in-person program. Participants were 948 1st-year college students of whom 47.8% were women and 85.2% identified as White (15% also identified as Hispanic in a separate question) between the ages of 18 and 24 at two universities (one a rural, primarily residential campus and the other an urban, highly commuter campus) in the northeastern United States. To date, this is the first study to have found positive behavior changes as long-lasting as 1 year following an educational workshop focusing on engaging bystanders in preventing sexual and relationship violence. Even so, many questions remain to be answered about prevention and intervention of this type. More prospective research is needed on bystander-focused prevention of these forms of violence to help understand and better predict the complicated relationships both between and among the attitudes and behaviors related to preventing sexual and relationship violence. In this regard, we make specific recommendations for designing and evaluating programs based on our findings relating to the importance of moderators, especially two key understudied ones, readiness to help and opportunity to intervene. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Compendium of student papers : 2010 undergraduate transportation scholars program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    This report is a compilation of research papers written by students participating in the 2010 Undergraduate : Transportation Scholars Program. The 10-week summer program, now in its 20th year, provides : undergraduate students in Civil Engineering th...

  3. Compendium of student papers : 2011 undergraduate transportation scholars program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    This report is a compilation of research papers written by students participating in the 2011 Undergraduate : Transportation Scholars Program. The 10-week summer program, now in its 21st year, provides : undergraduate students in Civil Engineering th...

  4. Compendium of student papers : 2009 undergraduate transportation engineering fellows program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    This report is a compilation of research papers written by students participating in the 2009 Undergraduate : Transportation Scholars Program. The ten-week summer program, now in its nineteenth year, provides : undergraduate students in Civil Enginee...

  5. Compendium of student papers : 2013 undergraduate transportation scholars program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    This report is a compilation of research papers written by students participating in the 2013 Undergraduate Transportation Scholars Program. The 10-week summer program, now in its 23nd year, provides undergraduate students in Civil Engineering the op...

  6. Effectiveness of two prevention programs on alcohol use as a function of provider type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Gázquez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Currently, it is still unclear how to translate effectively programs validated in research for use in real-world contexts. Among the efforts being made to identify strategies which optimize the application of these programs in everyday practice are tests of the differential effectiveness of the programs depending on the application agent. Method: this study analyses the effects of two programs on alcohol use and its variables as a function of provider type. Two hundred students from the first year of secondary education were distributed among five experimental conditions: four treatment conditions, in which the two programs were applied by teachers at the school or external psychologists, and a control condition. Results: the results suggest that, for both programs, teachers obtain better outcomes in alcohol use and concern about addiction. Conclusions: it is concluded that teachers are the ideal application agents in terms of efficiency, and we discuss the implications for research and preventive practice.

  7. The Work Disability Prevention CIHR Strategic Training Program: Program Performance After 5 Years of Implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loisel, P.; Hong, Q.N.; Imbeau, D.; Lippel, K.; Guzman, J.; MacEachen, E.; Corbiere, M.; Santos, B.R.; Anema, J.R.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The Work Disability Prevention (WDP) Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) Strategic Training Program was developed in 2001 and is a unique program in the world. The main objective of this program is to help future researchers develop transdisciplinary knowledge, skills and

  8. The PASHA Program Sourcebook: Promising Teen Pregnancy and STD/HIV/AIDS Prevention Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, Josefina J., Ed.; Becker, Stephani R., Ed.; Hill, Denise M. K., Ed.

    By providing in-depth descriptions of the 23 promising programs available from the Program Archive on Sexuality, Health and Adolescence (PASHA), the "PASHA Program Sourcebook" offers practitioners a detailed look at "what works" to prevent pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases/human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immune deficiency…

  9. Student Attitudes toward Information Systems Graduate Program Design and Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thouin, Mark F.; Hefley, William E.; Raghunathan, Srinivasan

    2018-01-01

    This study examines student preferences regarding graduate management information systems (MIS) education. One hundred and eighty four graduate students responded to a survey exploring student attitudes towards degree program content, delivery format, and peer group interaction. Study results indicate that students prefer a program with an even…

  10. Connecting students to institutions: the relationship between program resources and student retention in respiratory care education programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ari, Arzu

    2009-09-01

    Respiratory care education programs are being held accountable for student retention. Increasing student retention is necessary for the respiratory therapy profession, which suffers from a shortage of qualified therapists needed to meet the increased demand. The present study investigated the relationship between student retention rate and program resources, in order to understand which and to what extent the different components of program resources predict student retention rate. The target population of this study was baccalaureate of science degree respiratory care education programs. After utilizing a survey research method, Pearson correlations and multiple regression analysis were used for data analysis. With a 63% response rate (n = 36), this study found a statistically significant relationship between program resources and student retention rate. Financial and personnel resources had a statistically significant positive relationship with student retention. The mean financial resources per student was responsible for 33% of the variance in student retention, while the mean personnel resources per student accounted for 12% of the variance in student retention. Program financial resources available to students was the single best predictor of program performance on student retention. Respiratory care education programs spending more money per student and utilizing more personnel in the program have higher mean performance in student retention. Therefore, respiratory care education programs must devote sufficient resources to retaining students so that they can produce more respiratory therapists and thereby make the respiratory therapy profession stronger.

  11. Random student drug testing as a school-based drug prevention strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuPont, Robert L; Merlo, Lisa J; Arria, Amelia M; Shea, Corinne L

    2013-05-01

    This paper describes the goals and current practice of school-based random student drug testing (RSDT) as part of an overall drug prevention strategy, briefly explores the available literature evaluating its effectiveness and discusses the controversies related to RSDT. The authors describe the rationale for RSDT programs and the prevalence of RSDT and other drug testing programs in schools. Eight major criticisms and controversies in RSDT are discussed, including those related to acceptance of RSDT, program effectiveness, costs, legality and effects of drug testing on students. The limitations of the current literature are explored. Although there is limited empirical evidence to support or refute the efficacy of RSDT in schools, there remains substantial opposition to such programs, which may contribute to the paucity of empirical studies of RSDT. Rigorous long-term evaluations are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of various versions of RSDT programs to prevent drug use and identify students in need of assistance to become and stay drug-free. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  12. The US Department of Energy`s Student Video Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beeson, K.M. [Stoller (S.M.) Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pepper, C.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-06-01

    The Student Video Program was an educational outreach program intended to educate and involve high school students in environmental restoration and waste management issues. Through participation in this program the students were shown how science and math are related to these subjects. In addition, they were exposed to many different and interesting career opportunities.

  13. Investigating Students' Beliefs about Arabic Language Programs at Kuwait University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shaye, Shaye S.

    2009-01-01

    The current study attempted to identify students' of Arabic programs beliefs about their chosen programs. To achieve this purpose, a survey was developed to collect the data from randomly selected students in liberal-arts and education-based programs at Kuwait University. The results showed that students were statistically differentiated as a…

  14. Postoperative pneumonia-prevention program for the inpatient surgical ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wren, Sherry M; Martin, Molinda; Yoon, Jung K; Bech, Fritz

    2010-04-01

    Postoperative pneumonia can lead to increased morbidity, length of hospital stay, and costs. Pneumonia-prevention programs have been successfully implemented in ICU settings, but no program exists for surgical ward patients. A pilot prevention program was designed and implemented based on literature review. The program consisted of education of physicians and ward staff and a standardized postoperative electronic order set consisting of incentive spirometer, chlorhexidine oral hygiene, ambulation, and head-of-bed elevation. Quarterly staff meetings discussed the results of and compliance with the program. The intervention commenced in April 2007. Baseline incidence of inpatient ward pneumonia was calculated from the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database for fiscal year (FY) 2006 and FY 2007. Postintervention incidence was calculated in the same manner from FY 2007 through FY 2008. Any patient who contracted pneumonia in the ICU was excluded from analysis. There was a significant decrease in ward pneumonia incidence from 0.78% in the preintervention group compared with 0.18% in the postintervention group (p = 0.006), representing an 81% decrease in incidence from 2006 to 2008. The pneumonia-prevention program was very successful in diminishing postoperative pneumonia on the surgical ward. There was a highly statistically significant 4-fold decrease in pneumonia incidence after program implementation. The interventions were not costly but did require ongoing communication and cooperation between physician and nursing leadership to achieve compliance with the measures. This program has great potential for dissemination to hospital surgical wards and could decrease inpatient postoperative pneumonias. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) | Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Am I eligible? To be considered for the Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program (CPFP), you must meet eligibility criteria related to educational attainment, US citizenship/permanent residency status, and the duration of prior postdoctoral research experience. Refer to the Eligibility Requirements for details. How do I apply? You must apply through our online application process.

  16. U.S. Teachers' Perceptions of School Violence Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chestnut, Natakie

    2016-01-01

    In response to high profile violent incidents and crimes, many schools have developed plans that address school discipline to create a school climate and culture wherein everyone is valued and treated with respect. The problem that prompted this study is teachers are struggling with effectively implementation prevention program. The purpose of…

  17. Does the national program of prevention of mother to child ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In the context of universal access to prevention, treatment, care and support, each country has to ensure that 80% of women and children in need have access to PMTCT interventions. Objective: To assess the PMTCT program achievement in Ouagadougou, the capital city of Burkina Faso. Methods: Between ...

  18. Eating Disorder Prevention Programs: A Meta-Analytic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Shaw, Heather

    2004-01-01

    This meta-analysis of eating disorder prevention programs found that intervention effects ranged from an absence of any effects to reductions in current and future eating pathology. Certain effects persisted as long as 2 years and were superior to minimal-intervention control conditions. Larger effects occurred for selected (vs. universal),…

  19. Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention on College Campuses: Model Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In response to recent alcohol-related tragedies and to ongoing concern about unacceptable levels of alcohol and other drug use on college campuses, Congress authorized the U.S. Department of Education to identify and promote effective campus-based prevention programs. Since 1999, the U.S. Department of Education has awarded approximately $3.5…

  20. 2010-2014 Pollution Prevention Program Strategic Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Strategic Plan identifies a number of opportunities for EPA's Pollution Prevention (P2) Program to help reduce: the emission of greenhouse gasses; the use of hazardous materials; and the use of natural resources, while contributing to a greener and more sustainable economy.

  1. 77 FR 19799 - Pipeline Safety: Pipeline Damage Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... rates translate to increased public and worker safety and decreased repair and outage costs for pipeline... April 2, 2012 Part III Department of Transportation Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Parts 196 and 198 Pipeline Safety: Pipeline Damage Prevention Programs; Proposed Rule #0;#0...

  2. Using Youth Participatory Evaluation to Improve a Bullying Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Adrienne M.; Sollie, Donna L.; Silva, Kelcie

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a youth participatory evaluation of a bullying prevention curriculum before the curriculum was implemented in communities. We partnered with youths from a young women leaders' program to reduce the number of lessons in an existing curriculum and determine which activities were likely to have the greatest impact. To evaluate the…

  3. A computerized harm minimization prevention program for alcohol misuse and related harms: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogl, Laura; Teesson, Maree; Andrews, Gavin; Bird, Kevin; Steadman, Bronwyn; Dillon, Paul

    2009-04-01

    Hazardous alcohol use is a leading cause of death among adolescents and young adults world-wide, yet few effective prevention interventions exist. This study was the first to examine a computerized harm minimization intervention to reduce alcohol misuse and related harms in adolescents. Cluster randomized controlled trial of a six-session curriculum-integrated harm minimization prevention program. The intervention was delivered by computer in the form of a teenage drama, which provided education through alcohol-related scenarios to which young people could relate. Schools in Australia. A total of 1466 year 8 students (13 years) from 16 high schools in Australia were allocated randomly to a computerized prevention program (n = 611, eight schools) or usual classes (n = 855, eight schools). Change in knowledge, alcohol use, alcohol-related harms and alcohol expectancies. A computerized prevention program was more effective than usual classes in increasing alcohol-related knowledge of facts that would inform safer drinking choices and decreasing the positive social expectations which students believed alcohol may afford. For females it was effective in decreasing average alcohol consumption, alcohol-related harms and the frequency of drinking to excess (more than four standard drinks; 10 g ethanol). For males the behavioural effects were not significant. A harm minimization approach is effective in educating young people about alcohol-related risks and is effective in reducing risky drinking and harms among girls. Reduction of problems among boys remains a challenge.

  4. Evaluating depressive symptom interactions on adolescent smoking prevention program mediators: a mediated moderation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuma, Kari-Lyn Kobayakawa; Sun, Ping; Unger, Jennifer B; Johnson, C Anderson

    2010-11-01

    Smoking prevention interventions have been shown to be effective in reducing smoking prevalence in the United States. Further work is needed to address smoking in China, where over one third of the world's current smokers reside. China, with more than 60% of the male population being smokers, also presents a unique opportunity to test cognitive processes involved in depression, social influences, and smoking. Adolescents at-risk for developing depression may process social information differently from low-risk counterparts. The Wuhan Smoking Prevention Trial was a school-based longitudinal randomized controlled trial aimed at preventing initiation and escalation of adolescent smoking behaviors. Thousand three hundred and ninety-one male seventh-grade students were assessed with a 200-item paper-and-pencil baseline survey, and it was readministered 1 year later following program implementation. Friend prevalence estimates were significantly higher among 30-day smokers and among those at highest risk for depression symptoms. The program appeared to be successful in changing the perception of friend smoking prevalence only among adolescents with a comorbidity of high scores of depression symptoms and who have experimented previously with smoking. This Program x Comorbidity interaction on perceived friend smoking prevalence was significant in predicting 30-day smoking 1 year after program implementation. This study provides evidence that those adolescents with high levels of depressive symptoms may be more sensitive to social influences associated with smoking prevalence. Individual Disposition x Social Environmental Influences may be important when developing future effective prevention programming.

  5. [Prevention of cardiovascular diseases - Prophylactic program in a selected enterprise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedlecka, Jadwiga; Gadzicka, Elżbieta; Szyjkowska, Agata; Siedlecki, Patryk; Szymczak, Wiesław; Makowiec-Dąbrowska, Teresa; Bortkiewicz, Alicja

    2017-10-17

    In Poland cardiovascular diseases (CVD), classified as work-related diseases, are responsible for 25% of disability and cause 50% of all deaths, including 26.9% of deaths in people aged under 65 years. The aim of the study was to analyze employee expectations regarding CVD- oriented prophylactic activities in the selected enterprise. A questionnaire, developed for this study, consists of: socio-demographic data, job characteristics, occupational factors, and questions about the respondents' expectations concerning the prevention program. The study group comprised 407 multi-profile company employees aged (mean) 46.7 years (standard deviation (SD) = 9.1), including 330 men (81.1%), mean age = 46.9 (SD = 9.2) and 77 women (18.9%), mean age = 45.9 (SD = 8.2) The study was performed using the method of auditorium survey. Employees declared the need for actions related to physical activity: use of gym, swimming pool, tennis (56.5%), smoking habits - education sessions on quitting smoking (24.6%). A few people were interested in activities related to healthy diet. According to the majority of the study group, the scope of preventive examinations should be expanded. Based on our own findings and literature data CVD- -oriented preventive program, addressed to the analyzed enterprise was prepared. The program will be presented in another paper. The results showed significant quantitative and qualitative differences in the classic and occupational CVD risk factors between men and women, as well as in preferences for participation in prevention programs. Therefore, gender differences should be taken into account when planning prevention programs. Med Pr 2017;68(6):757-769. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  6. Factors associated with the completion of falls prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, Anamica; Page, Timothy; Melchior, Michael; Seff, Laura; Vieira, Edgar Ramos; Palmer, Richard C

    2013-12-01

    Falls and fear of falling can affect independence and quality of life of older adults. Falls prevention programs may help avoiding these issues if completed. Understanding factors that are associated with completion of falls prevention programs is important. To reduce fear of falling and increase activity levels, a Matter of Balance (MOB) and un Asunto de Equilibrio (ADE) workshops were offered to 3420 older adults in South Florida between 1 October 2008 and 31 December 2011. Workshops were conducted in English or Spanish over eight, 2-hour sessions. Participants completed a demographic and a pre-post questionnaire. Factors associated with program completion were identified using logistic regression. For MOB, females were more likely to complete the program (OR = 2.076, P = 0.02). For ADE, females, moderate and extreme interference by falls in social activities were found to affect completion (OR = 2.116, P = 0.001; OR = 2.269, P = 0.003 and OR = 4.133, P = 0.008, respectively). Different factors predicted completion of both programs. Awareness of these factors can help lower the attrition rates, increase benefits and cost effectiveness of program. Future research needs to explore why certain groups had a higher likelihood of completing either program.

  7. School-Based Dental Sealant Programs Prevent Cavities And Are Cost-Effective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Susan; Naavaal, Shillpa; Scherrer, Christina; Griffin, Paul M; Harris, Kate; Chattopadhyay, Sajal

    2016-12-01

    Untreated cavities can have far-reaching negative consequences for people's ability to eat, speak, and learn. By adolescence, 27 percent of low-income children in the United States will have untreated cavities. School-based sealant programs typically provide dental sealants (a protective coating that adheres to the surface of molars) at little or no cost to students attending schools in areas with low socioeconomic status. These programs have been shown to increase the number of students receiving sealants and to prevent cavities. We analyzed the cost-effectiveness of school sealant programs using data (from school programs in fourteen states between 2013 and 2014) on children's cavity risk, including the effects of untreated cavities on a child's quality of life. We found that providing sealants in school programs to 1,000 children would prevent 485 fillings and 1.59 disability-adjusted life-years. School-based sealant programs saved society money and remained cost-effective across a wide range of reasonable values. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  8. Knowledge and Attitude of University Students Towards Premarital Screening Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahma Al Kindi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore the knowledge and attitude of Sultan Qaboos University students towards premarital screening program.Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted at the students’ clinic from January to April 2011. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 590 unmarried Omani students of both genders. The questionnaire consisted of 3 main parts; the first part was based on socio-demographic data, the second part dealt with the students’ knowledge about the premarital screening program while the third part explored their attitudes towards the screening program.Results: Most of the participants (n=469; 79% were aware about the availability of premarital screening program in Oman. The main sources of information were: school/college (n=212; 36%, media (n=209; 35%, family and friends (n=197; 33%, and/or health services (n=181, 31%. The vast majority of the participants (n=540; 92% thought it is important to carry out premarital screening and agreed to do it. Around half of the participants (n=313; 53% favored having premarital screening as an obligatory procedure before marriage and about one third (n=212; 36% favored making laws and regulation to prevent marriage in case of positive results.Conclusion: Even though the majority of the participants thought it is important to carry out premarital screening; only half favored making it obligatory before marriage and one third favored making laws and regulations to prevent marriage in case of positive results. This reflects the importance of health education as a keystone in improving knowledge and attitude towards premarital screening program.

  9. Knowledge and Attitude of University Students Towards Premarital Screening Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Kindi, Rahma; Al Rujaibi, Salha; Al Kendi, Maya

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to explore the knowledge and attitude of Sultan Qaboos University students towards premarital screening program. Methods A cross-sectional study conducted at the students’ clinic from January to April 2011. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 590 unmarried Omani students of both genders. The questionnaire consisted of 3 main parts; the first part was based on socio-demographic data, the second part dealt with the students’ knowledge about the premarital screening program while the third part explored their attitudes towards the screening program. Results Most of the participants (n=469; 79%) were aware about the availability of premarital screening program in Oman. The main sources of information were: school/college (n=212; 36%), media (n=209; 35%), family and friends (n=197; 33%), and/or health services (n=181, 31%). The vast majority of the participants (n=540; 92%) thought it is important to carry out premarital screening and agreed to do it. Around half of the participants (n=313; 53%) favored having premarital screening as an obligatory procedure before marriage and about one third (n=212; 36%) favored making laws and regulation to prevent marriage in case of positive results. Conclusion Even though the majority of the participants thought it is important to carry out premarital screening; only half favored making it obligatory before marriage and one third favored making laws and regulations to prevent marriage in case of positive results. This reflects the importance of health education as a keystone in improving knowledge and attitude towards premarital screening program. PMID:23071880

  10. [THE EFFECTIVENESS OF EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF POPULATION DIETARY PATTERNS AND PREVENTION OF ANEMIAS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glagoleva, O N; Turchaninov, D V; Vilms, E A

    2015-01-01

    There was performed an experimental study of the use of educational programs as tools of the improvement of the structure of nutrition and primary prevention of anemias associated with nutrition. Educational programs were differentiated for each of the target audience (pupils of 5-7 classes, 1-4 year students of the medical school, the adult unorganized population; n = 645). Their efficacy was evaluated with the use of issues included in the educational program and analysis of the actual nutrition (only in groups of students and adults). Performance assessment were: testing on the issues included in the educational program and analysis of actual of dietary intake (only in groups of students and adults). Testing was performed at the points: before the intervention, immediately after 6 and 12 months after intervention. An analysis of the frequency of food consumption with an estimation of the actual consumption of nutrients was carried out at the initial and final points. There was noted the low level of public knowledge about the principles ofrational nutrition: the proportion ofcorrect answers, reflecting the level of awareness ofconstructing an optimal diet in the starting point of the study was 25%for schoolchildren, 45%--in adults, 35%--the students, after the intervention--75%, 90% and 85% respectively. One year after the implementation of the educational program the level ofresidual knowledge of study participants remained at a level above the original (the proportion of correct answers during testing of schoolchildren--50% (p anemia.

  11. Implementation of a Cardiovascular Disease Prevention Program among School-Aged Children: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavon Young

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to test students’ knowledge of cardiovascular disease information and to determine if a carefully structured training program administered to high school students would increase their knowledge about cardiovascular disease and risk factors that are preventable. A pilot study was conducted during which fifty high school students from nine counties in the State of Mississippi were measured for their knowledge of hypertension both at baseline and after the completion of an intervention training activity. There were significant gains in knowledge between the pre-test and the post-test that the students completed. The gains in knowledge indicate that elimination of risk factors is possible if all health care and school-based prevention programs are implemented to positively impact changes in eating and physical activity behaviors. Students’ involvement in such activities could translate into significant changes in risk factors at these ages and throughout their lifetime. It is widely accepted that these behavioral changes, if sustained into adulthood, could have the potential to influence cardiovascular risk reduction.

  12. Students in Fully Online Programs Report More Positive Attitudes toward Science than Students in Traditional, In-Person Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Viranga; Mead, Chris; Buxner, Sanlyn; Lopatto, David; Horodyskyj, Lev; Semken, Steven; Anbar, Ariel D.

    2017-01-01

    Following the growth of online, higher-education courses, academic institutions are now offering fully online degree programs. Yet it is not clear how students who enroll in fully online degree programs are similar to those students who enroll in in-person ("traditional") degree programs. Because previous work has shown students'…

  13. USAID program for the prevention and treatment of vaginal fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, P; Stanton, M E

    2007-11-01

    The cornerstone of the US Agency for International Development (USAID) fistula program is to support and strengthen local capacity for fistula repair. The USAID program includes support to upgrade facilities, enhance local surgical repair capability, allocate equipment and supplies to operating rooms, implement quality improvement systems, and cover the women's transportation costs to and from the treatment facilities. The program also offers training in clinical and counseling skills; transferring skills South-to-South; and monitoring and evaluating the program's effectiveness. As new fistula cases continually increase the backlog of untreated cases, its efforts are also directed toward the prevention of fistula and the reintegration of treated women into their communities. Furthermore, the program challenges the culture of sexual violence against women that leads to traumatic gynecologic fistulas.

  14. Effects of a teenage pregnancy prevention program in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Myra; Jinabhai, Champak; Dlamini, Siyabonga; Sathiparsad, Reshma; Eggers, Matthijs S; De Vries, Hein

    2014-01-01

    Researchers aimed to determine the effects of a teenage pregnancy (TP) prevention program for 816 high school students attending 16 KwaZulu-Natal, South African schools through a randomized control trial. Data were collected at baseline and at the 8-month follow-up in 2009. Results were calculated using multivariate analyses of program effects employing Mplus 6, and indicated significantly healthier attitudes, including intentions to abstain from sex whilst at school, plans to communicate with partners about teenage pregnancy, and increased reports of condom use. Researchers thus provide some support for the effectiveness of a TP prevention program that should be further strengthened in a comprehensive approach that includes schools and families.

  15. Toxoplasmosis-Related Knowledge and Preventive Practices among Undergraduate Female Students in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sheyab, Nihaya A; Obaidat, Mohammad M; Bani Salman, Alaa E; Lafi, Shawkat Q

    2015-06-01

    Foodborne toxoplasmosis is a leading cause of foodborne deaths and hospitalization worldwide. The level of exposure to Toxoplasma gondii is influenced by culture and eating habits. There is a scarcity of data about women's knowledge and perception of this disease. The aim of this study was to determine toxoplasmosis knowledge and preventive practices of young childbearing age women in Jordan. A descriptive cross-sectional study recruited a random sample of 1,390 undergraduate university female students and was stratified based on place of residency. About half of students (51.1%) reported having "ever" heard or read about toxoplasmosis, and almost all students (98.6%) had never been tested for toxoplasmosis. Overall, there was a lack of awareness about toxoplasmosis, its risk factors, symptoms, and timing of infection, and preventive practices. High percentages of females reported a high level of hygienic practices related to hand washing after gardening, changing cat litter, and handling raw meat. However, 16.7% of students reported eating raw meat, 26.5% usually eat traditional herbs, and 17.2% drink untreated spring water. This study establishes a baseline for the awareness levels about toxoplasmosis among young women in Jordan. These findings highlight the urgent need for toxoplasmosis awareness and preventive education for childbearing females. An effective education and outreach program should cover important topics concerning risk factors, high-risk foods, and preventive measures against toxoplasmosis.

  16. Student Peer Mentoring in a Hospitality Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Mentoring programs are a well recognized means to quicken students' assimilation and increase retention, but not all mentoring programs are successful. It seems that for a peer student mentoring program to be effective, the program would need mandatory participation on both ends. Perhaps both mentors and mentees could voluntarily enroll in…

  17. Teaching Introductory Programming to IS Students: Java Problems and Pitfalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendergast, Mark O.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the impact the use of the Java programming language has had on the way our students learn to program and the success they achieve. The importance of a properly constructed first course in programming cannot be overstated. A course well experienced will leave students with good programming habits, the ability to learn on their…

  18. Successful Bullying Prevention Programs: Influence of Research Design, Implementation Features, and Program Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryanna Hahn Fox

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Bullying prevention programs have been shown to be generally effective in reducing bullying and victimization. However, the effects are relatively small in randomized experiments and greater in quasi-experimental and age-cohort designs. Programs that are more intensive and of longer duration (for both children and teachers are more effective, as are programs containing more components. Several program components are associated with large effect sizes, including parent training or meetings and teacher training. These results should inform the design and evaluation of anti-bullying programs in the future, and a system ofaccreditation of effective programs.

  19. Multistation proprioceptive exercise program prevents ankle injuries in basketball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eils, Eric; Schröter, Ralph; Schröder, Marc; Gerss, Joachim; Rosenbaum, Dieter

    2010-11-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of a multistation proprioceptive exercise program for the prevention of ankle injuries in basketball players using a prospective randomized controlled trial in combination with biomechanical tests of neuromuscular performance. A total of 232 players participated in the study and were randomly assigned to a training or control group following the CONSORT statement. The training group performed a multistation proprioceptive exercise program, and the control group continued with their normal workout routines. During one competitive basketball season, the number of ankle injuries was counted and related to the number of sports participation sessions using logistic regression. Additional biomechanical pre–post tests (angle reproduction and postural sway) were performed in both groups to investigate the effects on neuromuscular performance. In the control group, 21 injuries occurred, whereas in the training group, 7 injuries occurred. The risk for sustaining an ankle injury was significantly reduced in the training group by approximately 65%. [corrected] The corresponding number needed to treat was 7. Additional biomechanical tests revealed significant improvements in joint position sense and single-limb stance in the training group. The multistation proprioceptive exercise program effectively prevented ankle injuries in basketball players. Analysis of number needed to treat clearly showed the relatively low prevention effort that is necessary to avoid an ankle injury. Additional biomechanical tests confirmed the neuromuscular effect and confirmed a relationship between injury prevention and altered neuromuscular performance. With this knowledge, proprioceptive training may be optimized to specifically address the demands in various athletic activities.

  20. Prevention That Works! A Guide for Developing School-Based Drug and Violence Prevention Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Cynthia R.

    This book helps educators produce assessments of their schools' drug and violence prevention programs. It contains over 30 separate resources that can be adapted to specific evaluations (e.g., sample youth and adult participant feedback sheets, sample classroom observation sheets and teacher implementation logs, sample en-route participant…

  1. A comparison of private and public dental students' perceptions of extramural programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, Curt S; Abrams, Richard A; McCunniff, Michael D; Goldstein, Benjamin R

    2003-04-01

    This project was undertaken to compare the opinions of private and public dental school students' perceptions concerning extramural programming, which is defined as any aspect of the curriculum in which undergraduate dental students provide dental care outside the main dental facility. A survey instrument was used to collect data from undergraduate students at a private (N = 267; 88.4 percent response rate) and at a public (N = 213; 67.2 percent response rate) dental school. When asked to rate the value of various extramural sites in making them a better dentist, both groups rated private dental offices the most valuable and prisons the least valuable. When questioned about the amount of time students should spend each year in extramural programming, private students, overall, desired 34 percent more time than did public students. When asked what percentage of the total time spent in extramural programming students should spend providing various categories of dental care, public school students thought 26 percent more time should be spent rendering preventive services/health education than did the private students. The private students indicated a stronger desire (13 percent more) for rendering clinical services than did public students. Both private and public students were most likely to enter group private practice after graduation. The increasing interest in community-based programs makes the information gained from this study useful for future curriculum planning.

  2. Program content of teaching physical education in order to prevent violence in educational institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sretenović Zoran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary goal of this paper is to show the capacity of the program content of physical education in the implementation of the third specific objective of the Framework Action Plan for the Prevention of Violence in Educational Institutions. Ministry of Education brought this plan in January 2009. The third specific objective of the Framework Action Plan: Provide preventive and protective role of school sport and sporting activities of students. This paper examines the extent to which this goal is achieved, trough regular classes, after-school and extracurricular activities of physical education; indicates the capacity of the teaching field in the creation and development of a safe and supportive environment in the institution; sees level of participation by experts, council and teams in the design and implementation of sports activities in school and the extent to which these activities are implemented in the institution documents, plans and programs of experts, and larger teams; it is the sustainability of these activities achieved in school practices and also to strengthen the competence of teachers in supporting the development of students personality, communication and collaboration. In order to complete document association of council, experts and teams in the institution, there has been an insight into the school curriculum, the development plan, annual plan of the institution, protection program community of students, the curriculum of a school parliament, council of parents, higher vocational and physical education teachers and report on the implementation of the protection program. In order to document by empirical data the capacity of the teaching areas in the function of preventing violence, a sample of 46 primary schools in Sumadija area, evaluation of the implementation of sports and sports activities students in programming classes of physical education, was executed. By these results, it can be concluded that in teaching methods

  3. Using Elite Athletes to Promote Drug Abstinence: Evaluation of a Single-Session School-Based Drug Use Prevention Program Delivered by Junior Hockey Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    School-based substance use prevention programs are a common method to approaching drug use in youths. Project SOS is a single-session drug prevention program developed by police officers and delivered by elite junior hockey players to students in grades 6 and 7. The current study evaluates the effects of Project SOS at achieving its objectives of…

  4. Efficacy of a prevention program for eating disorders in schools: a cluster-randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumz, Antje; Weigel, Angelika; Daubmann, Anne; Wegscheider, Karl; Romer, Georg; Löwe, Bernd

    2017-08-11

    Previous prevention programs in the school context have not addressed both genders, have been time-consuming, or have had deficits in the evaluation method. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of a universal prevention program for female and male adolescents on eating disorder pathology and related risk factors. Between February 2012 and July 2014, 2515 students in 23 schools from 8th or 11th grade were assessed for eligibility in this longitudinal cluster-randomized controlled trial with a six months follow-up. Of those students, 2342 were cluster-randomized to the intervention condition which received a six school hours universal prevention program or to the no treatment control condition. The complete case population comprised 724 students in the intervention (54.3% female, M = 14.3 years, SD = 1.61) and 728 in the control condition (57.0% female, M = 14.7 years, SD = 1.63). Random-effects analysis of covariance on the primary outcome showed no significant differences between the intervention and control groups in their eating disorder pathology change scores six months after the intervention. Regarding secondary outcomes, participants in the intervention group showed a greater increase in knowledge about eating disorders both after the intervention (p < .001, ES = 1.06) and six months later (p = .01, ES = 0.40). Greater reductions in anxiety severity were observed in the intervention group post-intervention (p = .02, ES = 0.22) which was not maintained at the six months follow-up. Results differed between participants from grade 8 and 11. The present universal prevention program can be particularly recommended for adolescents from grade 11. ISRCTN 97989348.

  5. Needs Analysis of Blind Students in Teaching Practice Program

    OpenAIRE

    *, Iswahyuni; Junining, Esti; Dewi, Dian Novita; Linta, Alies Poetri; Suwarso, Pratnyawati Nuridi

    2015-01-01

    As an inclusive university, Brawijaya University has accepted students with special needs in some differentstudy programs. Two of those are blind / visually impaired students who enrol English Language EducationStudy Program in which the program prepares the students to be English teachers. As a consequence, thestudents must be ready to do teaching practice in a public school when they are in the seventh semester. Thisstudy is going to find out the problems of the visually impaired students i...

  6. THE EARLY VIOLENCE PREVENTION: REVISION OF PROGRAMS AND INTERVENTION MODALITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUANITA HENAO ESCOBAR

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a review of different kinds of international early violence prevention-intervention programs,which have shown effectiveness in the reduction of preschooler’s aggression, and in some cases, in the prevention ofviolent behavior during adolescence and youth. The central matter of this article is what we can learn from theexperiences on this field of knowledge around the world. First, the target intervention problem is presented andframed in the colombian context. After presenting the main research findings about aggressive behavior in childrenand the risk factors associated with it, the related intervention modalities will be analyzed and described. Finally, thearticle derives some pragmatic conclusions and recommendations.

  7. Social-Emotional Learning Program to Promote Prosocial and Academic Skills among Middle School Students with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espelage, Dorothy L.; Rose, Chad A.; Polanin, Joshua R.

    2016-01-01

    This 3-year study evaluated the effectiveness of the Second Step-Student Success Through Prevention (SS-SSTP) social-emotional learning program on increasing prosocial behaviors that could serve as protective factors against peer conflict and bullying among students with disabilities. Participants included 123 students with disabilities across 12…

  8. Universal school-based prevention programs for alcohol misuse in young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxcroft, David R; Tsertsvadze, Alexander

    2011-05-11

    Alcohol misuse in young people is cause of concern for health services, policy makers, prevention workers, criminal justice system, youth workers, teachers, parents. This is one of three reviews examining the effectiveness of (1) school-based, (2) family-based, and (3) multi-component prevention programs. To review evidence on the effectiveness of universal school-based prevention programs in preventing alcohol misuse in school-aged children up to 18 years of age. Relevant evidence (up to 2002) was selected from the previous Cochrane review. Later studies, to July 2010, were identified from MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, Project CORK, and PsycINFO. Randomized trials evaluating universal school-based prevention programs and reporting outcomes for alcohol use in students 18 years of age or younger were included. Two reviewers screened titles/abstracts and full text of identified records. Two reviewers extracted relevant data independently using an a priori defined extraction form. Risk of bias was assessed. 53 trials were included, most of which were cluster-randomised. The reporting quality of trials was poor, only 3.8% of them reporting adequate method of randomisation and program allocation concealment. Incomplete data was adequately addressed in 23% of the trials. Due to extensive heterogeneity across interventions, populations, and outcomes, the results were summarized only qualitatively.Six of the 11 trials evaluating alcohol-specific interventions showed some evidence of effectiveness compared to a standard curriculum. In 14 of the 39 trials evaluating generic interventions, the program interventions demonstrated significantly greater reductions in alcohol use either through a main or subgroup effect. Gender, baseline alcohol use, and ethnicity modified the effects of interventions. Results from the remaining 3 trials with interventions targeting cannabis, alcohol, and/or tobacco were inconsistent. This review identified

  9. HIV prevention through extended education encompassing students, parents, and teachers in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamatsu, Miyuki; Sato, Takeshi; Nakagawa, Aki; Saito, Hisako

    2011-11-01

    We developed an extended HIV prevention program for students, parents, and school teachers, and then evaluated its effectiveness. The participants were 490 students, aged 13-14 years, attending four public junior high schools in Saga Prefecture, Japan. They were divided into two groups: control and intervention. All the students received group education by health professionals. In the control group, students received only two group education sessions given by health professionals. In the intervention group, there were three intervention components: parent education, teacher education, and student individual counseling by health professionals. Before and 3 months after the intervention, participants underwent evaluation of their frequency of communication about AIDS with parents or teachers, their knowledge of HIV/AIDS, and attitudes to sexual intercourse, self-esteem, and high-risk behavior. A total of 135 students (80 boys and 55 girls) from the intervention group and 236 students (115 boys and 121 girls) from the control group participated in the evaluation 3 months after intervention. Adolescents in the intervention group showed more positive changes than those in the control group from baseline to follow-up. Intervention had a significant impact on the frequency of communication about AIDS with teachers (p = 0.027) and HIV/AIDS knowledge among females (p = 0.023), and intervention also had a significant impact on refusal of sexual activity by males (p = 0.045). These findings suggest that effective prevention of HIV might be achieved by an expanded education program for students and teachers such as that described, and individual counseling that takes into consideration the sexual differences of Japanese adolescents.

  10. The television, school, and family smoking prevention and cessation project. VIII. Student outcomes and mediating variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flay, B R; Miller, T Q; Hedeker, D; Siddiqui, O; Britton, C F; Brannon, B R; Johnson, C A; Hansen, W B; Sussman, S; Dent, C

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the student outcomes of a large-scale, social-influences-based, school and media-based tobacco use prevention and cessation project in Southern California. The study provided an experimental comparison of classroom delivery with television delivery and the combination of the two in a 2 x 2 plus 1 design. Schools were randomly assigned to conditions. Control groups included "treatment as usual" and an "attention control" with the same outcome expectancies as the treatment conditions. Students were surveyed twice in grade 7 and once in each of grades 8 and 9. The interventions occurred during grade 7. We observed significant effects on mediating variables such as knowledge and prevalence estimates, and coping effort. The knowledge and prevalence estimates effects decayed partially but remained significant up to a 2-year follow-up. The coping effort effect did not persist at follow-ups. There were significant main effects of both classroom training and TV programming on knowledge and prevalence estimates and significant interactions of classroom and TV programming on knowledge (negative), disapproval of parental smoking, and coping effort. There were no consistent program effects on refusal/self-efficacy, smoking intentions, or behavior. Previous reports demonstrated successful development and pilot testing of program components and measures and high acceptance of the program by students and parents. The lack of behavioral effects may have been the result of imperfect program implementation or low base rates of intentions and behavior.

  11. Teachers' Perceptions of a Multiple High-Risk Behavior Prevention Program and Delivery of Universal Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Crystal; Henriksen, Richard C., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Much of the success of high-risk behavior prevention programs rests with teachers who deliver the curriculum however; few studies have investigated teachers' perceptions of program implementation. The objective of this phenomenological study was to answer the question, "What are the experiences of teachers who are asked to be involved in the…

  12. Preventive maintenance program for a research and production reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rico, N.A.

    1990-01-01

    This program proposes a simple, rapid and efficient methodology for the task of developing a really preventive maintenance discipline. Moreover, the lower cost of its application -since it must satisfy the plant's budget-. To this purpose, an extremely economical and easily obtainable infrastructure is proposed. The following stage is referred to the commissioning system, subsequent supervision and follow-up. The experience gained from the two reactors as RA-6 (Bariloche Atomic Center) and NUR (RAE) of Argelia. Finally, the interacting characteristic of this program, since it may be rapidly adapted to different dimensions of plants, laboratories, etc., must be pointed out. (Author) [es

  13. First adaptation of coping power program as a classroom-based prevention intervention on aggressive behaviors among elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratori, Pietro; Bertacchi, Iacopo; Giuli, Consuelo; Lombardi, Lavinia; Bonetti, Silvia; Nocentini, Annalaura; Manfredi, Azzurra; Polidori, Lisa; Ruglioni, Laura; Milone, Annarita; Lochman, John E

    2015-04-01

    Children with high levels of aggressive behavior create a major management problem in school settings and interfere with the learning environment of their classmates. We report results from a group-randomized trial of a program aimed at preventing aggressive behaviors. The purpose of the current study, therefore, was to determine the extent to which an indicated prevention program, Coping Power Program, is capable of reducing behavioral problems and improving pro-social behavior when delivered as a universal classroom-based prevention intervention. Nine classes (five first grade and four second grade) were randomly assigned to intervention or control conditions. Findings showed a significant reduction in overall problematic behaviors and in inattention-hyperactivity problems for the intervention classes compared to the control classes. Students who received Coping Power Program intervention also showed more pro-social behaviors at postintervention. The implications of these findings for the implementation of strategies aimed at preventing aggressive behavior in school settings are discussed.

  14. The role of teacher communicator style in the delivery of a middle school substance use prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Steven M; Pankratz, Melinda M; Ringwalt, Chris; Jackson-Newsom, Julia; Hansen, William B; Bishop, Dana; Dusenbury, Linda; Gottfredson, Nisha

    2012-01-01

    We examine whether teachers' communicator style relates to student engagement, teacher-student relationships, student perceptions of teacher immediacy, as well as observer ratings of delivery skills during the implementation of All Stars, a middle school-based substance use prevention program. Data from 48 teachers who taught All Stars up to 3 consecutive years and their respective seventh-grade students (n = 2,240) indicate that having an authoritative communication style is negatively related to student engagement with the curriculum and the quality of the student-teacher relationship, while having an expressive communicator style improves teachers' immediacy to student needs. Adaptations made by a subsample of teachers (n = 27) reveal that those who were more expressive asked students more questions, used more motivational techniques, and introduced more new concepts than authoritarian teachers.

  15. 34 CFR 86.100 - What must the IHE's drug prevention program include?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must the IHE's drug prevention program include? 86.100 Section 86.100 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DRUG AND ALCOHOL ABUSE PREVENTION Institutions of Higher Education § 86.100 What must the IHE's drug prevention program include? The IHE's drug prevention program must, a...

  16. Boosting a Teen Substance Use Prevention Program with Motivational Interviewing

    OpenAIRE

    Barnett, Elizabeth; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Unger, Jennifer B.; Sun, Ping; Rohrbach, Louise Ann; Sussman, Steve

    2012-01-01

    A brief motivational interviewing (MI) intervention may be a viable adjunct to school-based substance abuse prevention programs. This article describes the development and implementation of a brief MI intervention with 573 adolescents (mean age 16.8; 40.3% female, 68% Latino) enrolled in eight continuation high schools in Southern California. Study participants were assigned to the MI condition in a randomized controlled trial of Project Toward No Drug Abuse. Data are provided on dosage, topi...

  17. The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP): Description of lifestyle intervention

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the present article is to provide a detailed description of the highly successful lifestyle intervention administered to 1,079 participants, which included 45% racial and ethnic minorities and resulted in a 58% reduction in the incidence rate of diabetes (2). The two major goals of the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) lifestyle intervention were a minimum of 7% weight loss/weight maintenance and a minimum of 150 min of physical activity similar in intensity to brisk walking. B...

  18. "An ounce of prevention": a primary care based prevention program for pre-diabetic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddy, Clare E; Cullen-Arseneau, Pamela; Merizzi, Shannon; Blazhko, Valeriya

    2013-02-01

    Given the existing and projected number of individuals with diabetes mellitus, there is an urgent need to implement effective prevention programs. Research trials have demonstrated reductions in risk through programs targeted at adopting a healthier lifestyle however translating this research evidence into primary care can be challenging. We examined the feasibility of implementing a pre-diabetes program into a primary care clinic in Ottawa, Canada. "An Ounce of Prevention" Healthy Lifestyle and Diabetes Program was adapted from best evidence clinical trials and uses educational tools developed by the Diabetes Prevention Program for long-term behavior change, relies on principles of self-management, is group based and includes an integrated exercise component. We used a multimethod evaluation approach and examined feasibility and practical implementation aspects such as space, staffing, recruitment and retention issues. We have implemented the program and have offered 10 courses from June 2010 through to August 2012 with 74 participants in total. Results of the evaluation surveys show that participants are highly satisfied with the content as well as the format of the program and think that the content is relevant to them. Recruitment of patients is time- intensive and requires dedicated resources. Evaluation of effectiveness with follow-up surveys and clinical measures has been challenging due to limited resources and is ongoing. The translation and implementation of research evidence into clinical practice is complex and requires consideration of real-life practicalities such as time demands on participants, staffing costs, effective recruiting and ongoing evaluation. Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. "Helping Communities To Help Themselves." Twenty 1989 Exemplary Prevention Programs for Preventing Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse. Project Summaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of State Alcohol and Drug Abuse Directors, Inc.

    Twenty exemplary substance abuse prevention programs are presented in this document. These programs are included: (1) Tuba City, Arizona, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) Prevention Program; (2) Chemical Addiction Course, University of Arkansas; (3) "Teens Are Concerned" of Arkansas; (4) "Dare to be You of Colorado"; (5) Winyan…

  20. [Female juvenile prostitution and AIDS prevention programs in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Cristiane Paulin; Silva, Rosalina Carvalho da; Paiva, Vera

    2002-08-01

    To investigate perception of AIDS and to obtain information for developing AIDS prevention programs targeting female juvenile prostitution. Thirteen young women aged 18 to 21 years working as prostitutes in the city of Ribeirão Preto, Brazil, were interviewed using semi-structured interviews. The questionnaire focused on sociodemographic aspects, HIV-related knowledge, sexual behavior, relations with clients and other sexual partners, and suggestions for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and AIDS prevention programs. Though all subjects demonstrated knowledge of safe sex and HIV transmission, this contrasted with their belief that destiny determines who gets infected and their search for affection in their relationships with partners and clients. These contradictions act as possible factors preventing safe sex behavior. The strategies of HIV/AIDS prevention should incorporate the need of allowing room for discussion in order to clarify this group's social imaginary beliefs and concepts about AIDS. In addition, discussions about the belief in the safety of affective relationships should take place since this encourages unsafe sexual practices. Another key issue is how to approach this group and strategies sensitive to their individualities should be applied.

  1. Two-Year Effects of a Classroom-Based Smoking Prevention and Cessation Intervention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzálvez, María Teresa; Espada, José Pedro; Orgilés, Mireia; Sussman, Steve

    2017-01-01

    Project EX is a classroom-based smoking prevention and cessation intervention program that has been well evaluated and designed for assessing the prevention and cessation effects among adolescents in Spain. However, its long-term efficacy is still unknown. This study deals with the outcomes of a 2-year follow-up evaluation of Project EX. The intervention was tested using a clustered randomized controlled trial involving 1,546 Spanish students from 3 program schools and 3 control schools. At the end of the 2-year follow-up period, 722 subjects had completed the questionnaires (266 in the control condition and 456 in the program condition) administered to them. Compared to the control condition, the program condition revealed a greater reduction in nicotine dependence (p = 0.04), smoking intention (p = 0.02), and in the number of cigarettes smoked during the previous month (p = 0.03). The CO monitor repeated assessments revealed a significant decrease of ppm levels in the program group (p smoking prevention and cessation among adolescents in Spain. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Predictors of Middle School Students’ Interest in Participating in an Incentive-Based Tobacco Prevention and Cessation Program in Connecticut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan E. Morean

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral incentives have been used to encourage smoking cessation in older adolescents, but the acceptability of incentives to promote a smoke-free lifestyle in younger adolescents is unknown. To inform the development of novel, effective, school-based interventions for youth, we assessed middle school students’ interest in participating in an incentive-based tobacco abstinence program. We surveyed 988 students (grades 6–8 attending three Connecticut middle schools to determine whether interest in program participation varied as a function of (1 intrapersonal factors (i.e., demographic characteristics (sex, age, race, smoking history, and trait impulsivity and/or (2 aspects of program design (i.e., prize type, value, and reward frequency. Primary analyses were conducted using multiple regression. A majority of students (61.8% reported interest in program participation. Interest did not vary by gender, smoking risk status, or offering cash prizes. However, younger students, non-Caucasian students, behaviorally impulsive students, and students with higher levels of self-regulation were more likely to report interest. Inexpensive awards (e.g., video games offered monthly motivated program interest. In sum, middle school students reported high levels of interest in an incentive-based program to encourage a tobacco-free lifestyle. These formative data can inform the design of effective, incentive-based smoking cessation and prevention programs in middle schools.

  3. Recent developments in the DOE Waste Minimization Pollution Prevention Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancock, J.K.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is involved in a wide variety of research and development, remediation, and production activities at more than 100 sites throughout the United States. The wastes generated cover a diverse spectrum of sanitary, hazardous, and radioactive waste streams, including typical office environments, power generation facilities, laboratories, remediation sites, production facilities, and defense facilities. The DOE's initial waste minimization activities pre-date the Pollution Prevention Act of 1990 and focused on the defense program. Little emphasis was placed on nonproduction activities. In 1991 the Office of Waste Management Operations developed the Waste Minimization Division with the intention of coordinating and expanding the waste minimization pollution prevention approach to the entire complex. The diverse nature of DOE activities has led to several unique problems in addressing the needs of waste minimization and pollution prevention. The first problem is developing a program that addresses the geographical and institutional hurdles that exist; the second is developing a monitoring and reporting mechanism that one can use to assess the overall performance of the program

  4. Impact of implementation and conduct of the HEALTHY primary prevention trial on student performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Arthur E; Marcus, Marsha D; Hirst, Kathryn; Faith, Myles S; Goldberg, Linn; Treviño, Roberto P

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether a school-wide intervention program to reduce risk factors for type 2 diabetes (T2D) affected student achievement, rates of disciplinary actions, and attendance rates. The HEALTHY primary prevention trial was designed to evaluate a comprehensive school-based intervention to reduce factors for T2D, especially overweight and obesity. Students were followed up from beginning of sixth grade (Fall 2006) through end of eighth grade (Spring 2009). Forty-two middle schools at seven U.S. sites. Schools were randomized in equal numbers at each site to intervention (21 schools, 2307 students) or control (21 schools, 2296 students). Intervention . An integrated school-wide program that focused on (1) foods and beverages, (2) physical education, (3) classroom-based behavior change and education, and (4) social marketing communication and promotional campaigns. Aggregate (grade- and school-wide) test performance (passing rate), attendance, and referrals for disciplinary actions. Descriptive statistics and tests of intervention versus control using mixed linear models methods to adjust for the clustering of students within schools. There were no differences between intervention and control schools in test performance for mathematics (p = .7835) or reading (p = .6387), attendance (p = .5819), or referrals for disciplinary action (p = .8671). The comprehensive HEALTHY intervention and associated research procedures did not negatively impact student achievement test scores, attendance, or referrals for disciplinary action.

  5. Application of the Theory of Reason Action for Preventing of Ecstasy Abuse among College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Barati

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of the present study was assessed the effect of educational program for preventing of ecstasy abuse among college students in Hamadan based on Theory of Reason Action (TRA. Method: A quasi-experimental study carried out in college students. A total number of 140 students were selected through randomized cluster sampling and randomly assigned to the intervention (n=70 and the control (n=70 groups. Data-gathering tools consisted of a two-part questionnaire: Knowledge of ecstasy abuse consequences and one scale for measuring TRA variables. Respondents in the control and experimental groups completed questionnaires at before and two months after intervention. Results: The results showed that among constructs of the theory of reason action, subjective norms were better predictor of ecstasy abuse. There were significant differences between the scores of reason action constructs namely: attitude against drug abuse, subjective norms and intention of ecstasy abuse with consideration of group (witness and experimental. Conclusion: With regard to the results of the current study, special education based on Theory of Reasoned Action is effective in improving of attitude, subjective norm and behavioral intention of students. Therefore it is highly recommended that TRA education can be use for preventing of drug abuse education programs.

  6. Psychosocial Predictors of Physical Activity Change Among College Students in an Obesity Prevention Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arigo, Danielle; Rohde, Paul; Shaw, Heather; Stice, Eric

    2017-07-01

    Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is critical for maintaining a healthy weight, although little is known about psychological barriers to maintaining MVPA in at-risk groups. Identifying characteristics associated with poor MVPA maintenance in obesity prevention programs could improve participant outcomes. Toward this end, we examined predictors of MVPA in an obesity prevention trial for college students at risk for weight gain (n = 333; 72% female, mean BMI = 23.4 kg/m 2 ). Participants engaged in 1 of 3 weight control interventions and in 4 assessments over 12-month follow-up (ie, measured height/weight, self-reports of psychosocial characteristics, 4 days of accelerometer wear). Multilevel modeling analyses showed that across conditions, participants decreased total MVPA minutes per week over 12 months (B = -5.48, P students who show elevated impulsiveness and cognitive dissonance may improve both MVPA and weight control outcomes for these individuals.

  7. Event-Specific Prevention: addressing college student drinking during known windows of risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neighbors, Clayton; Walters, Scott T; Lee, Christine M; Vader, Amanda M; Vehige, Tamara; Szigethy, Thomas; DeJong, William

    2007-11-01

    The unique drinking patterns of college students call for Event-Specific Prevention (ESP) strategies that address college student drinking associated with peak times and events. Despite limited research evaluating ESP, many college campuses are currently implementing programming for specific events. The present paper provides a review of existing literature related to ESP and offers practical guidance for research and practice. The prevention typology proposed by DeJong and Langford [DeJong, W. & Langford, L. M. (2002). A typology for campus-based alcohol prevention: Moving toward environmental management strategies. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 140-147.] provides a framework for strategic planning, suggesting that programs and policies should address problems at the individual, group, institution, community, state, and society level, and that these interventions should focus on knowledge change, environmental change, health protection, and intervention and treatment services. From this typology, specific examples are provided for comprehensive program planning related to orientation/beginning of school year, homecoming, 21st birthday celebrations, spring break, and graduation. In addition, the University of Connecticut's efforts to address problems resulting from its annual Spring Weekend are described as an illustration of how advance planning by campus and community partners can produce a successful ESP effort.

  8. Student pharmacists provide tobacco use prevention education to elementary school children: A pilot experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostroff, Jared L; Wolff, Marissa L; Andros, Christina; Nemec, Eric C

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a service learning experience involving tobacco prevention education and to measure the education's effect on the learners' knowledge of tobacco products. Student pharmacists planned and presented a 40-min tobacco prevention education program using the Tar Wars curriculum to fourth and fifth grade students at three suburban elementary schools in Western Massachusetts. Mean scores on a five-question assessment given to school age children before and after the presentation were compared. A total of 206 elementary school students in ten classrooms participated. The average survey score increased from 1.87 on the pre-survey to 3.72 out of a maximum of five on the post-survey (Peducation to three suburban elementary schools. The children demonstrated an increase in short-term knowledge regarding tobacco use. Tobacco prevention is a unique co-curricular opportunity for student pharmacists to get involved in their community. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Connecting Scientists, College Students, Middle School Students & Elementary Students through Intergenerational Afterschool STEM Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, N. A.; Paglierani, R.; Raftery, C. L.; Romero, V.; Harper, M. R.; Chilcott, C.; Peticolas, L. M.; Hauck, K.; Yan, D.; Ruderman, I.; Frappier, R.

    2015-12-01

    The Multiverse education group at UC Berkeley's Space Sciences Lab created the NASA-funded "Five Stars Pathway" model in which five "generations" of girls and women engage in science together in an afterschool setting, with each generation representing one stage in the pathway of pursuing a career in science, technology, engineering, or math (STEM). The five stages are: elementary-age students, middle-school-age students, undergraduate-level college students, graduate-level college students and professional scientists. This model was field-tested at two Girls Inc. afterschool locations in the San Francisco Bay Area and distributed to Girls Inc. affiliates and other afterschool program coordinators nationwide. This presentation will explore some of the challenges and success of implementing a multigenerational STEM model as well as distributing the free curriculum for interested scientists and college students to use with afterschool programs.

  10. The #Tamojunto Drug Prevention Program in Brazilian Schools: a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Zila M; Valente, Juliana Y; Sanudo, Adriana; Pereira, Ana Paula D; Cruz, Joselaine I; Schneider, Daniela; Andreoni, Solange

    2017-10-01

    A randomized controlled trial was conducted in 2014 with 7th and 8th grade students from 72 public schools in 6 Brazilian cities. This trial aimed to evaluate the effects of an adapted European school-based drug prevention program Unplugged, called #Tamojunto in Brazil, which was implemented by the Ministry of Health as part of public policy. The experimental group (n = 3340) attended 12 classes in the #Tamojunto program, and the control group (n = 3318) did not receive a school prevention program. Baseline data were collected prior to program implementation, and follow-up data were collected 9 months later, allowing a matching of 4213 adolescents in both waves. The substances examined were alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, inhalants, cocaine, and crack. Multilevel analyses were used to evaluate the changes in consumption of each drug between time points and between groups. The intervention and control groups had similar baseline characteristics. The mean age of the adolescents was 12.5 ± 0.7 years, and 51.3% were female. The program seemed to increase alcohol use initiation (first alcohol use); students in the experimental group had a 30% increased risk of initiating alcohol use during the 9-month follow-up (aRR = 1.30, 95% confidence interval (95%CI) 1.13-1.49, p program suggest that the content and lessons regarding alcohol may enhance curiosity about its use among adolescents. We suggest a re-evaluation of the expansion of the #Tamojunto program in schools while analyzing why the program's effects were inconsistent with those of previous European studies.

  11. The effects of an HPV education program by gender among Korean university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hae Won; Park, Seungmi; Ahn, Hye Young; Park, Eun-Jun

    2015-04-01

    This study compared the effects of an HPV education program by gender among Korean university students in terms of their knowledge of HPV, intention to prevent HPV, awareness of sexual rights, and perception of gender equality. A quasi-experimental pre-post design was employed. 31 male and 28 female university students participated in eight sessions of an HPV prevention program for four weeks and in a self-administrative survey. At pre-test, the perception of gender equality and some of the intentions to prevent HPV, including the intention to make regular use of condoms, reduce the number of sexual partners, abstain from sex until marriage, and stop smoking or stay non-smoker, were lower among men than women. When these differences by gender at pre-test were taken into account using ANCOVA, education outcome measures at post-test did not differ by gender. After completing the HPV prevention program, both male and female students presented a significant increase in terms of HPV knowledge, awareness of sexual rights, and perception of gender equality. Among the intentions to prevent HPV, only male intention to recommend the Pap test to their partner and female intention to regularly seek the Pap test and pelvic examinations were significantly increased after the program. The HPV program was effective for both genders eliminating gender differences in attitudes and prevention intentions of HPV. However, the intentions to prevent HPV did not increase significantly, and future research is warranted to better understand students' perceived obstacles for practicing HPV prevention methods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Social Network Analysis of the Farabi Exchange Program: Student Mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugurlu, Zeynep

    2016-01-01

    Problem Statement: Exchange programs offer communication channels created through student and instructor exchanges; a flow of information takes place through these channels. The Farabi Exchange Program (FEP) is a student and instructor exchange program between institutions of higher education. Through the use of social network analysis and…

  13. Student Assistance Program Sandia High School 1985-86 Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce-Prather, Margaret; Shainline, Michael

    This document presents data from the second year of the Student Assistance Program, a counseling program to help students who may be abusing drugs or alcohol, implemented at Sandia High School in the Albuquerque (New Mexico) Public School system. Data are included from the program's monthly records sheets, from parent involvement questionnaires,…

  14. Orientation Programming for Graduate Students: An Institutional Imperative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickio, Craig J.; Tack, Martha W.

    1989-01-01

    Orientation at the graduate level can serve many functions such as reducing anxiety, familiarizing students with new academic challenges, and orienting students' spouses. It can also improve student retention, satisfaction, and success. Guidelines for developing programs responsive to graduate students' diverse needs are offered. (Author/MSE)

  15. (Almost) a slam dunk: Assessing the experiences and opinions of participants in a National Basketball Association (NBA)-funded dropout prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Tray J; Amrein-Beardsley, Audrey

    2017-10-01

    Researchers conducted an evaluation of participants' perceptions of a dropout prevention program - the NBA High School program - involving a National Basketball Association (NBA) team, a high school located in downtown [City], and the College of Education (COE) at the local State University (SU). The program targeted "at-risk" high school students while utilizing student-teachers as tutors and mentors. Researchers utilized mixed methods to assess student, student-teacher, and high school teacher participants' experiences with and opinions of the program. Researchers found (1) students enjoyed the program, especially given the involvement of the student-teachers; (2) students believed the program helped improve their grades; (3) student-teachers enjoyed working with their students, although student-teachers found some of the expectations surrounding their positions and roles as tutors/mentors within the high school to be unclear and frustrating; (4) high school teachers felt significantly better about the program than the student-teachers; and (5) overall, all sets of respondents categorically supported the program and its benefits. Findings indicated that the involvement of mentors or role models matters to students, and clear and organized logistics, planning, and communication are integral for program success. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Peer tutoring program for academic success of returning nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryer, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    High attrition rates among students in associate degree nursing programs are a concern for faculty, administrators, and students. Programs offering academic and emotional support for students at risk for failing a clinical course may decrease attrition rates and improve academic performance. A peer tutoring program was developed for returning nursing students who were unsuccessful in a previous clinical course. Peer tutors met with returning students weekly to review course work, complete case studies and practice NCLEX questions. Trusting, supportive relationships developed among students and a significant increase in grades was noted at the end of the course for 79% of students. Implementation of peer tutoring was beneficial for returning students, tutors, and the nursing program and may be valuable in other courses where academic achievement is a concern.

  17. Communication Technology Used among Parents and Their College Teens: Implications for College Health Promotion and Risk Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abar, Caitlin C.; Abar, Beau; Turrisi, Robert; Belden, Calum

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the nature of parent-teen communication in college to re-evaluate the potential for parent inclusion in college success and risk prevention programs. During September 2006, 290 first-year college students were assessed for the frequency and form (e.g., cell phone, e-mail, text) of communication with their parents. Latent…

  18. An Acquaintance Rape Prevention Program: Effects on Attitudes Toward Women, Rape-Related Attitudes, and Perceptions of Rape Scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzone-Glover, Holly A.; Gidycz, Christine A.; Jacobs, Cecilia Dine

    1998-01-01

    Studied the effects of an acquaintance-rape prevention program on college students' attitudes (n=152) toward rape and attitudes toward women, perceptions of acquaintance rape scenarios, and rape empathy. Positive attitude change was stronger among men, who became more certain of rape definitions. Contains 53 references. (SLD)

  19. Which Introductory Programming Approach Is Most Suitable for Students: Procedural or Visual Programming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Chaker; Millham, Richard

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the visual programming approach to teaching introductory programming courses and then compare this approach with that of procedural programming. The involved cognitive levels of students, as beginning students are introduced to different types of programming concepts, are correlated to the learning processes of…

  20. Measuring Fidelity and Adaptation: Reliability of a Instrument for School-Based Prevention Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Dana C; Pankratz, Melinda M; Hansen, William B; Albritton, Jordan; Albritton, Lauren; Strack, Joann

    2014-06-01

    There is a need to standardize methods for assessing fidelity and adaptation. Such standardization would allow program implementation to be examined in a manner that will be useful for understanding the moderating role of fidelity in dissemination research. This article describes a method for collecting data about fidelity of implementation for school-based prevention programs, including measures of adherence, quality of delivery, dosage, participant engagement, and adaptation. We report about the reliability of these methods when applied by four observers who coded video recordings of teachers delivering All Stars, a middle school drug prevention program. Interrater agreement for scaled items was assessed for an instrument designed to evaluate program fidelity. Results indicated sound interrater reliability for items assessing adherence, dosage, quality of teaching, teacher understanding of concepts, and program adaptations. The interrater reliability for items assessing potential program effectiveness, classroom management, achievement of activity objectives, and adaptation valences was improved by dichotomizing the response options for these items. The item that assessed student engagement demonstrated only modest interrater reliability and was not improved through dichotomization. Several coder pairs were discordant on items that overall demonstrated good interrater reliability. Proposed modifications to the coding manual and protocol are discussed. © The Author(s) 2013.

  1. Effectiveness of a Randomized Controlled Lifestyle Intervention to Prevent Obesity among Chinese Primary School Students: CLICK-Obesity Study

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Fei; Ware, Robert S.; Leslie, Eva; Tse, Lap Ah; Wang, Zhiyong; Li, Jiequan; Wang, Youfa

    2015-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity has been increasing rapidly worldwide. There is limited evidence for effective lifestyle interventions to prevent childhood obesity worldwide, especially in developing countries like China. The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a school-based multi-component lifestyle childhood obesity prevention program (the CLICK-Obesity study) in Mainland China. Methods A cluster randomized controlled trial was developed among grade 4 students from 8 ur...

  2. Quasi-Experimental Evaluation of a Student Mentoring Program

    OpenAIRE

    Sandner, Malte

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents evidence from a natural-experiment which evaluates the effectiveness of a student mentoring program. The mentoring includes several compulsory, scheduled, faceto- face appointments between a mentor and a student in the first study year. All mentors are graduated and employed by the institution. For the evaluation, I use the fact that the mentoring is only offered to students in an economics and management program, whereas it is not offered to students in an industrial engi...

  3. The Life Skills Training and Preventive behaviors of Substances Abuse among University Students: a Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Moshki

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Nowaday, substance abuse is one of the bitterest social damages. In the recent years, substance abuse has increased among students of schools and universities, therefore special attention it requires. This study aimed to study the effect of life skills training on the promotion of the preventive behaviors of Gonabad University medical school students’ abuse of substances. Materials & Methods: During the experimental research and field trail, 60 students were Selected through a quota random sampling method and were randomly assigned to the two case and control groups. A Questionnaire that involved demographic factors and Preventive behaviors, whichwere caused as the result of drug abuse, was used for data collection. The questionnaire’s reliability and validity was assessed before and after educational intervention, and as a follow-up, 4 years after educational intervention. The Data was analyzed using T-Test and Chi-square. Results: Comparison of the mean of the scores in scale Preventive behaviors caused by drug abuse in post-test of two case and control groups had a significant difference (p<0/01 that remained stable 4 years after the end of the intervention. There was a significant difference between some of the demographic factors and Preventive behaviors that had been caused by drug abuse (p<0/01. Conclusion: Life skills training are effective in strengthening Preventive behaviors of substance abuse in university students. Therefore, life skills training programs should be integrated into university courses in order to comprehensively and consistently the effect of drug abuse on the educational level of students

  4. Effectiveness of prevention-oriented school oral health program in a private school in Pimpri, Pune

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Programs oriented toward prevention have proven to be highly rewarding in reducing the dental disease burden in western populations. Some developing countries have also reported studies of school health programs with varying effectiveness. However, reports regarding improved effectiveness due to mobile dental unit are scarce. Thus, the present study aims at assessment of effectiveness of prevention-oriented school health program in a private school in Pimpri, Pune. Materials and Methods: A longitudinal study was conducted from May 2015 to June 2016 in Dr. D.Y. Patil school among 449 students aged 5 and 10 years using census sampling. Ethical clearance was obtained from Institutional Ethics Committee of Dr. D. Y. Patil Dental College and Hospital and permission was obtained from the school principal. The study was conducted in 3 phases. SPSS version 18 was used for analyzing the data. Results: There was significant reduction in decayed component and a significant increase in filled component in primary and permanent dentition. There was a significant reduction in treatment needs, i.e., one surface, two surface fillings, and pulp care and restoration. Conclusion: It can be concluded that this prevention-oriented 1-year program was helpful in improving the oral health of the children.

  5. School-based adolescent obesity prevention programming: perceptions of school personnel in Southern Appalachia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southerland, Jodi L; Williams, Christian L; Dula, Taylor McKeehan; Slawson, Deborah Leachman

    2015-02-01

    Coordinated School Health (CSH) is a systematic approach to improving the health and well-being of school-age children. It is recommended for its potential to promote healthy weight in adolescents through strategic programming. Resources and programming for adolescent obesity prevention varies among schools, thereby limiting the intended benefits of CSH. The purpose of this study was to understand gaps in schools' approaches to healthy weight promotion and support for overweight/obese students. We evaluated perceptions of adolescent obesity and environmental factors and programs facilitating healthy weight in high schools in Appalachian Tennessee. In 2012, 17 key school personnel from 5 randomly selected high schools were interviewed. Questions addressed their perceptions of adolescent obesity, school-based physical activity and nutrition programming, and support available to overweight/obese students. Thematic analysis was conducted to identify emerging themes. Participants consistently identified adolescent obesity and/or associated risk factors as major health problems within their schools. Barriers to physical activity and healthful eating were identified at multiple levels. Because of the sensitivity surrounding overweight/obesity, no particular programs or curricula targeted overweight/obese adolescents specifically, but they were available to all students. Support is not explicitly available; therefore, overweight/obese students must seek out these resources. Findings suggest that although school personnel are concerned about the impact of adolescent obesity on health outcomes, there is wide variation across schools on the types and quality of programming available to address the issue. Results can be used to encourage school-based strengths and identify gaps in the CSH infrastructure in school systems.

  6. Student perceptions of an online medical dosimetry program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenards, Nishele

    2011-01-01

    The University of Wisconsin-La Crosse offers the first online medical dosimetry program in the nation. There is no data to research a program of this type. This research consisted of the evaluation of other distance education programs including health profession programs in addition to face-to-face medical dosimetry programs. There was a need to collect and analyze student perceptions of online learning in medical dosimetry. This research provided a guide for future implementation by other programs as well as validated the University of Wisconsin-La Crosse program. Methodology used consisted of an electronic survey sent to all previous and currently enrolled students in the University of Wisconsin-La Crosse medical dosimetry program. The survey was both quantitative and qualitative in demonstrating attitudinal perceptions of students in the program. Quantitative data was collected and analyzed using a 5-point Likert scale. Qualitative data was gathered based on the open-ended responses and the identifying themes from the responses. The results demonstrated an overall satisfaction with this program, the instructor, and the online courses. Students felt a sense of belonging to the courses and the program. Considering that a majority of the students had never taken an online course previously, the students felt there were no technology issues. Future research should include an evaluation of board exam statistics for students enrolled in the online and face-to-face medical dosimetry programs. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Student Perceptions of an Online Medical Dosimetry Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenards, Nishele

    2011-01-01

    The University of Wisconsin-La Crosse offers the first online medical dosimetry program in the nation. There is no data to research a program of this type. This research consisted of the evaluation of other distance education programs including health profession programs in addition to face-to-face medical dosimetry programs. There was a need to collect and analyze student perceptions of online learning in medical dosimetry. This research provided a guide for future implementation by other programs as well as validated the University of Wisconsin-La Crosse program. Methodology used consisted of an electronic survey sent to all previous and currently enrolled students in the University of Wisconsin-La Crosse medical dosimetry program. The survey was both quantitative and qualitative in demonstrating attitudinal perceptions of students in the program. Quantitative data was collected and analyzed using a 5-point Likert scale. Qualitative data was gathered based on the open-ended responses and the identifying themes from the responses. The results demonstrated an overall satisfaction with this program, the instructor, and the online courses. Students felt a sense of belonging to the courses and the program. Considering that a majority of the students had never taken an online course previously, the students felt there were no technology issues. Future research should include an evaluation of board exam statistics for students enrolled in the online and face-to-face medical dosimetry programs.

  8. Students perceived stress in academic programs: consequences for its management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neveu, D; Doron, J; Visier, L; Boiché, J; Trouillet, R; Dujols, P; Ninot, G

    2012-08-01

    Academic stress contributes to the deterioration of the students' quality of life. Psychological determinants involved in the stress process, trait anxiety and coping, have been neglected when assessing the role of academic programs in stress. This study aimed at determining whether academic programs are associated with a high level of perceived stress above and beyond potential personal and environmental risk factors, as well as coping strategies. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2009 among third-year medical (total n=170, participants 88%), dental (n=63, 94%), psychology (n=331, 61%) and sports sciences (n=312, 55%) students in Montpellier (France). The stress level experienced during the last 2months, trait anxiety and coping strategies were appraised. Substance use, psychological care, and stress triggers were also collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Compared with medicine and after adjusting for gender and age, only the sports program was associated with a lower perceived stress risk: adjusted odds ratio: 0.54 [95% Confidence interval: 0.30; 0.99]. Substantial reductions in perceived stress risks were observed in science students after additional adjustments for non-academic stress triggers, substance use, psychological care (adjusted odds ratio: 0.20 [95% Confidence interval: 0.09; 0.41]), and also for trait anxiety and coping strategies (adjusted odds ratio: 0.23 [95% Confidence interval: 0.10; 0.54]). Compared with medicine and after these additional adjustments, psychology had a significantly lower perceived stress risk (0.34 [0.18; 0.64]; 0.40 [0.19; 0.86], respectively), dentistry had a similar risk (0.82 [0.35; 1.91]; 0.53 [0.20; 1.43], respectively). Sports and psychology programs had a lower perceived stress risk compared with medicine. Personal and environmental risk factors and coping strategies modified the association between academic program and perceived stress. Developing efficient coping strategies in students and

  9. Program and Policy Options for Preventing Obesity in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijun, Wang; Fengying, Zhai

    2014-01-01

    By 2002, China’s prevalence of overweight and obesity among adults was 18.9 percent and 2.9 percent, respectively. The Chinese traditional diet has been replaced by the “Western diet” and major declines in all phases of activity and increased sedentary activity as the main reasons explaining the rapid increase in overweight and obesity, bring major economic and health costs. The Nutrition Improvement Work Management Approach was released in 2010. Overweight and obesity prevention-related policies were added to national planning for disease prevention and control. The Guidelines for Prevention and Control of Overweight and Obesity of Chinese Adults and the School-age Children and Teenagers Overweight and Obesity Prevention and Control Guidelines in China were promulgated in 2003 and 2007, respectively. Few education programs have been implemented. Selected academic intervention research projects dominate with a focus on reducing child obesity and promoting healthier diets; increasing physical activity and reducing sedentary time; and facilitating changes in family, school, social, and cultural environments. Intervention samples are small and have not addressed the increasing rates of obesity throughout the entire population. Government provision of effective policy measures, multisectoral cooperation and increasing corporate social responsibility are keys to curb the trend toward overweight and obesity in China. PMID:24102781

  10. Educational program for the prevention and management of school violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viriam Leiva Díaz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the main results of the implementation of an educational program for the preventionand management of violence in public schools by teachers of first and second cycle, the program was taught bythe School of Nursing at the University of Costa Rica, with a total of 40 hours from January to February 2011. Weused various teaching strategies based on the educational needs of this group of teachers, which were shown in aprevious study and application of a needs assessment. Attended by 33 teachers, 32 women and one man. Of theparticipants, 30 completed the program. The main results are as follows: participants were able to acquire, buildor improve their knowledge about the prevention and treatment of school violence, and also learned varioustechniques and strategies for prevention and control of violence in schools. It is concluded that success inachieving the goals set for each of the sessions is directly related to the fact that the entire educational programstuck to the educational needs expressed by the participating population and its characteristics as teachers, usingprinciples of andragogy, which allowed understanding learning as a knowledge sharing among stakeholders

  11. A Systematic Review of Elderly Suicide Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapierre, Sylvie; Erlangsen, Annette; Waern, Margda; De Leo, Diego; Oyama, Hirofumi; Scocco, Paolo; Gallo, Joseph; Szanto, Katalin; Conwell, Yeates; Draper, Brian; Quinnett, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background Suicide rates are highest among the elderly, yet research on suicide prevention in old age remains a much-neglected area. Aims We carried out a systematic review to examine the results of interventions aimed at suicidal elderly persons and to identify successful strategies and areas needing further exploration. Methods Searches through various electronic databases yielded 19 studies with an empirical evaluation of a suicide prevention or intervention program designed especially for adults aged 60 years and older. Results Most studies were centered on the reduction of risk factors (depression screening and treatment, and decreasing isolation), but when gender was considered, programs were mostly efficient for women. The empirical evaluations of programs attending to the needs of high-risk older adults seemed positive; most studies showed a reduction in the level of suicidal ideation of patients or in the suicide rate of the participating communities. However, not all studies used measures of suicidality to evaluate the outcome of the intervention, and rarely did they aim at improving protective factors. Conclusions Innovative strategies should improve resilience and positive aging, engage family and community gatekeepers, use telecommunications to reach vulnerable older adult, and evaluate the effects of means restriction and physicians education on elderly suicide. PMID:21602163

  12. Evaluation of a Shoulder Injury Prevention Program in Wheelchair Basketball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilroy, Jereme; Hibberd, Elizabeth

    2017-11-15

    Previous literature has theorized that alterations in shoulder physical characteristics are present in wheelchair athletes and contribute to shoulder pain and injury. Limited empirical evidence is present that evaluates the effectiveness of a shoulder injury prevention program focusing on improving these altered characteristics. To evaluate the effectiveness of a 6-week intervention program at improving characteristics that increases the risk of developing pain or shoulder injury. Pre and post-test. Home-based and controlled laboratory. Seven collegiate wheelchair athletes. Shoulder range of motion (ROM) and scapular muscle strength were assessed, and a 5-minute injury prevention program was taught to participants. Participants completed the intervention 3 times per week for 6 weeks. Following completion of the program, a post-intervention screening was performed. Internal/external rotation ROM, retraction strength, and internal/external rotation strength. Participants experienced a significant improvement in dominant limb shoulder internal rotation ROM (t6=3.56,p=0.012) with an average increase of 11.4° of IR ROM, and a significant improvement in dominant limb shoulder external rotation (ER) ROM (t6=2.79,p=0.032) with an average increase of 8.0° of ER ROM. There were no significant increases in shoulder IR or ER strength and scapular retraction strength (p>0.05). Improvements in ROM have previously been linked to decreases in shoulder pain and injury in other upper-extremity dominant sports by improving scapular kinematics. These results provide evidence that a 6-week strengthening and stretching intervention program may decrease risk factors for shoulder injury in wheelchair athletics.

  13. Analysis of industrial pollution prevention programs in selected Asian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, S.Y. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.]|[East-West Center, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Industrialization in developing countries is causing increasing environmental damage. Pollution prevention (P2) is an emerging environmental concept that could help developing countries achieve leapfrog goals, bypassing old and pollutive technologies and minimizing traditional control practices. The current P2 promotion activities in Hong Kong, the Republic of Korea, the Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, and Thailand are discussed. These programs, generally initiated in the last 5 years, are classified into five categories: awareness promotion, education and training, information transfer, technical assistance, and financial incentives. All important at the early stages of P2 promotion, these programs should inform industries of the benefits of P2 and help them identify applicable P2 measures. Participation in these programs is voluntary. The limited data indicate that adoption of P2 measures in these countries is not yet widespread. Recommendations for expanding P2 promotion activities include (1) strengthening the design and enforcement of environmental regulations; (2) providing P2 training and education to government workers, nongovernmental organizations and labor unions officials, university faculties, and news media; (3) tracking the progress of P2 programs; (4) implementing selected P2 mandatory measures; (5) identifying cleaner production technologies for use in new facilities; (6) implementing special programs for small and medium enterprises; and (7) expanding P2 promotion to other sectors, such as agriculture and transportation, and encouraging green design and green consumerism.

  14. Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Nutrition Education and Obesity Prevention Grant Program. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-31

    This rule adopts the interim rule implementing the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) nutrition education and obesity prevention grant program with changes as provided in this rule. This rule also amends SNAP regulations to implement section 28 of the Food and Nutrition Act (FNA) of 2008, as added by section 241 of the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act (HHFKA) of 2010, to award grants to States for provision of nutrition education and obesity prevention programs. These programs provide services for eligible individuals that promote healthy food choices consistent with the current Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGAs). The rule provides State agencies with requirements for implementing section 28, including the grant award process and describes the process for allocating the Federal grant funding for each State's approved SNAP-Ed plan authorized under the FNA to carry out nutrition education and obesity prevention services each fiscal year. This final rule also implements section 4028 of the Agricultural Act of 2014 (Farm Bill of 2014), which authorizes physical activity promotion in addition to promotion of healthy food choices as part of this nutrition education and obesity prevention program.

  15. Student Planetary Investigators: A Program to Engage Students in Authentic Research Using NASA Mission Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallau, K.; Turney, D.; Beisser, K.; Edmonds, J.; Grigsby, B.

    2015-12-01

    The Student Planetary Investigator (PI) Program engages students in authentic scientific research using NASA mission data. This student-focused STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Math) program combines problem-based learning modules, Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) aligned curriculum, and live interactive webinars with mission scientists to create authentic research opportunities and career-ready experiences that prepare and inspire students to pursue STEM occupations. Primarily for high school students, the program employs distance-learning technologies to stream live presentations from mission scientists, archive those presentations to accommodate varied schedules, and collaborate with other student teams and scientists. Like its predecessor, the Mars Exploration Student Data Team (MESDT) program, the Student PI is free and open to teams across the country. To date, students have drafted research-based reports using data from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mini-RF instrument and the MESSENGER Mercury orbiter, with plans to offer similar programs aligned with additional NASA missions in the future pending available funding. Overall, the program has reached about 600 students and their educators. Assessments based on qualitative and quantitative data gathered for each Student PI program have shown that students gain new understanding about the scientific process used by real-world scientists as well as gaining enthusiasm for STEM. Additionally, it is highly adaptable to other disciplines and fields. The Student PI program was created by the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) Space Department Education and Public Outreach office with support from NASA mission and instrument science and engineering teams.

  16. CHAMPS II: A Peer Leadership Program for High School Students & Staff. Training Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epps, Patricia; Vallenari, Alison

    CHAMPS Peer Leadership is a program designed to prepare school and community teams that can empower youth to take responsibility for themselves and to prevent abusive behaviors. Students who can set goals, build teams, communicate, take self-responsibility, possess self-esteem, and feel empowered, also have the capability to respond positively to…

  17. Boosting a teen substance use prevention program with motivational interviewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Elizabeth; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Unger, Jennifer B; Sun, Ping; Rohrbach, Louise Ann; Sussman, Steve

    2012-03-01

    A brief motivational interviewing (MI) intervention may be a viable adjunct to school-based substance abuse prevention programs. This article describes the development and implementation of a brief MI intervention with 573 adolescents (mean age 16.8; 40.3% female, 68% Latino) enrolled in eight continuation high schools in Southern California. Study participants were assigned to the MI condition in a randomized controlled trial of Project Toward No Drug Abuse. Data are provided on dosage, topics discussed, and quality of MI determined with the Motivational Interviewing Skill Code (MISC). Results suggest that the protocol was feasible and implemented with adequate fidelity. The study's limitations are noted.

  18. Industrial pollution prevention programs in selected developing Asian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, Shen-yann [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[East-West Center, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents the information on current activities to promote industrial pollution prevention (P2) in five selected Asian economies including Hong Kong, Republic of Korea, the Philippines, ROC in Taiwan, and Thailand. These activities, generally initiated in the last 5 years, are classified into 6 categories: awareness promotion, education and training, information transfer, technology development an demonstration, technical assistance, and financial incentives. Although participation is voluntary, these programs are all important at the early stages of P2 promotion and should be useful in informing industries of the benefit of P2 and helping them identify specific P2 measures as viable environmental management alternatives.

  19. Boosting a Teen Substance Use Prevention Program with Motivational Interviewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Elizabeth; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Unger, Jennifer B.; Sun, Ping; Rohrbach, Louise Ann; Sussman, Steve

    2012-01-01

    A brief motivational interviewing (MI) intervention may be a viable adjunct to school-based substance abuse prevention programs. This article describes the development and implementation of a brief MI intervention with 573 adolescents (mean age 16.8; 40.3% female, 68% Latino) enrolled in eight continuation high schools in Southern California. Study participants were assigned to the MI condition in a randomized controlled trial of Project Toward No Drug Abuse. Data are provided on dosage, topics discussed, and quality of MI determined with the Motivational Interviewing Skill Code (MISC). Results suggest that the protocol was feasible and implemented with adequate fidelity. The study’s limitations are noted. PMID:22216936

  20. An educational strategy for improving knowledge about breast and cervical cancer prevention among Mexican middle school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Ana Laura; Flores-Peña, Yolanda; De León-Leal, Silvia; Vázquez-Martínez, Carlos Alberto; Farías-Calderón, Ana Gabriela; Melo-Santiesteban, Guadalupe; Elizondo-Zapién, Rosa María; Hernandez-Hernandez, Dulce María; Garza-Moya, Rubén; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo Martín

    2015-01-01

    Prevention programs have not achieved the expected results in preventing mortality from breast and cervical cancer in Mexico. Therefore, we propose a complementary strategy. An educational strategy for high school students in Mexico (2011-2013) was designed (longitudinal design, two measurements and a single intervention). The postintervention assessment included: 1) knowledge acquired by students about cancer prevention and 2) The performance of the student as a health promoter in their household. The strategy was based on analysis of cases and developed in three sessions. An assessment tool was designed and validated (Test-Retest). The levels of knowledge according to the qualifications expected by chance were determined. Wilcoxon test compared results before and after intervention. An assessment instrument with 0.80 reliability was obtained. 831 high school students were analyzed. Wilcoxon rank-sum test showed a significant learning after the intervention (Z = - 2.64, p = 0.008) with improvement of levels of knowledge in a 154.5%. 49% of students had a good performance as health promoters. The learning in preventive measures is important to sensitize individuals to prevention campaigns against cancer. This strategy proved to improve the level of knowledge of students in an easy and affordable way.

  1. Pilot trial of a dissonance-based cognitive-behavioral group depression prevention with college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Paul; Stice, Eric; Shaw, Heather; Gau, Jeff M

    2016-07-01

    Conduct a pilot trial testing whether a new cognitive-behavioral (CB) group prevention program that incorporated cognitive-dissonance change principles was feasible and appeared effective in reducing depressive symptoms and major depressive disorder onset relative to a brochure control condition in college students with elevated depressive symptoms. 59 college students (M age = 21.8, SD = 2.3; 68% female, 70% White) were randomized to the 6-session Change Ahead group or educational brochure control condition, completing assessments at pretest, posttest, and 3-month follow-up. Recruitment and screening methods were effective and intervention attendance was high (86% attended all 6 sessions). Change Ahead participants showed medium-large reductions in depressive symptoms at posttest (M d = 0.64), though the effect attenuated by 3-month follow-up. Incidence of major depression onset at 3-month follow-up was 4% for Change Ahead participants versus 13% (difference ns). Change Ahead appears highly feasible and showed positive indications of reduced acute phase depressive symptoms and MDD onset relative to a minimal intervention control in this initial pilot. Given the brevity of the intervention, its apparent feasibility, and the lack of evidence-based depression prevention programs for college students, continued evaluation of Change Ahead appears warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Program Sustainability: Hearing Loss and Tinnitus Prevention in American Indian Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, William Hal; Sobel, Judith L; Griest, Susan E; Howarth, Linda C; Becker, Thomas M

    2017-03-01

    An important goal of any health promotion effort is to have it maintained in delivery and effectiveness over time. The purpose of this study was to establish a community-based noise-induced hearing loss and tinnitus prevention program in three different types of American Indian communities and evaluate them for evidence of long-term sustainability. The target population was fourth- and fifth-grade students from three different models of American Indian communities. The evidenced-based Dangerous Decibels ® program was adapted to include local media, classroom education, family and community outreach, and web-based activities. Sustainability was attempted by promoting funding stability, political support, partnerships, organizational capacity, program adaptation, program evaluation, communications, public health impacts, and strategic planning. Currently, there is evidence suggesting that the hearing health promotion program is self-sustaining in all three American Indian communities. The intervention was effective at changing knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors in the target population, but program adoption and self-sustenance faced challenges that required patience, persistence, and creativity by the program team. Components of the intervention continue to be delivered by local members of each community. Critical factors that led to self-sustaining programs included approval of community leaders and engagement of community members in the design, administration, and evaluation of the effort; use of a well-developed, evidence-based intervention; and high-level training of local participants who could confidently and effectively continue delivering the program following a gradual transition to independence. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Everybody Brush! Consumer Satisfaction with a Tooth Decay Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha-Cruz, Joana; Huebner, Colleen E; Ludwig, Sharity; Dysert, Jeanne; Mitchell, Melissa; Allen, Gary; Shirtcliff, R Mike; Scott, JoAnna M; Milgrom, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Twice-daily caregiver-supervised toothbrushing with fluoridated toothpaste is an effective and widely recommended strategy to prevent tooth decay in children. Qualitative research suggests that low-income caregivers know the recommendation but would benefit from toothbrushing supplies and advice about how to introduce this health behavior especially as the child becomes older and asserts autonomy to do it "myself." Our objective is to assess consumer satisfaction with the evidence-based theory-informed campaign and usefulness of materials that were home delivered. The focus of the evaluation was families with children tooth decay among low-income children. Caregivers were highly satisfied with the Everybody Brush! program and toothbrushing supplies were considered the most useful, followed by printed messages. Voice telephone messages were rated least useful. Further evaluation of the impact of the program on toothbrushing behavior and dental-care utilization is underway.

  4. Sustainability of an interdisciplinary secondary prevention program for hairdressers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulfhorst, B; Bock, M; Gediga, G; Skudlik, C; Allmers, H; John, S M

    2010-02-01

    Two hundred and fifteen hairdressers suffering from occupational skin diseases (OSD) have attended a 6-month combined dermatological and educational prevention program with an education and counseling scheme as well as an intervention in the respective hairdressers' shops. The aim of this program, conducted from 1994 to 1997, was to enable the affected hairdressers to remain at work without suffering from major OSD. To assess the sustainability of this interdisciplinary medical and educational training program, the intervention group (IG, N = 215) and a control group (CG, hairdressers with OSD who solely received dermatological treatment, N = 85) were followed up 9 month and 5 years after their individual project participation by a standardized questionnaire. A subcohort of the intervention group (IG(1994), participants in 1994, N = 62) was followed up again 10 years after their participation. The follow-up survey 9 months after the beginning of the program (response rate: IG: N = 163, 75.8%; CG: N = 80, 94.1%) showed that 71.8% (N = 117) of the intervention group could remain in work as opposed to 60.0% (N = 48) in the control group. In the intervention group 14.7% gave up work due to OSD versus 22.5% in the control group (no statistically significant effect). In the 5-year follow-up (response rate: IG: N = 172, 80%; CG: N = 55, 64.7%) 58.7% (N = 101) of the IG remained at work versus 29.1% (N = 16) of the CG. In the IG 12.8% had stopped work because of OSD versus 27.3% in the CG (p sustained knowledge on OSD and more adequate prevention at the work place in the IG. The results confirm that interdisciplinary training can be successful in effecting self-protection against workplace hazards by using positive approaches that include the learning of "safe" behavior and insuring transferability to real workplace settings ("empowerment"). Combined preventive measures as studied in this program have recently become the standard offered by different statutory accident

  5. Using a Domestic and Sexual Violence Prevention Advocate to Implement a Dating Violence Prevention Program with Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaime, M. C. D.; Stocking, M.; Freire, K.; Perkinson, L.; Ciaravino, S.; Miller, E.

    2016-01-01

    "Coaching Boys into Men" is an evidence-based dating violence prevention program for coaches to implement with male athletes. A common adaptation of this program is delivery by domestic violence and sexual violence prevention advocates instead of coaches. We explored how this implementer adaptation may influence athlete uptake of program…

  6. An Ounce of Prevention, a Pound of Uncertainty: The Cost-Effectiveness of School-Based Drug Prevention Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulkins, Jonathan P.; Rydell, C. Peter; Everingham, Susan S.; Chiesa, James; Bushway, Shawn

    This book describes an analysis of the cost-effectiveness of model school-based drug prevention programs at reducing cocaine consumption. It compares prevention's cost-effectiveness with that of several enforcement programs and with that of treating heavy cocaine users. It also assesses the cost of nationwide implementation of model prevention…

  7. Translating Evidence Based Violence and Drug Use Prevention to Obesity Prevention: Development and Construction of the Pathways Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuma, Kari-Lyn K.; Riggs, Nathaniel R.; Pentz, Mary Ann

    2012-01-01

    Effective school-based obesity prevention programs are needed to prevent and reduce the growing obesity risk among youth. Utilizing the evidence-rich areas of violence and substance use prevention, translation science may provide an efficient means for developing curricula across multiple health behaviors. This paper introduces Pathways to Health,…

  8. Sustaining Teen Pregnancy Prevention Programs in Schools: Needs and Barriers Identified by School Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, Lesley R.; Brandt, Heather M.; Prince, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Background: To reduce teen pregnancy rates, prevention programs must be consistently available to large numbers of youth. However, prevention efforts have been historically conducted with little emphasis on ensuring program sustainability. This study examined the needs and barriers to sustaining teen pregnancy prevention (TPP) programming in…

  9. Developing and Negotiating Effective School-Based Drug Abuse Prevention Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavela, Kathleen J.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated effective drug prevention strategies for school-aged populations from drug prevention programs funded by the Department of Health and Human Services Center for Substance Abuse Prevention. Interviews with model programs' directors and staff highlighted 15 strategies essential for developing effective programs. Strategies focused on…

  10. Office-based preventive dental program and statewide trends in dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achembong, Leo N; Kranz, Ashley M; Rozier, R Gary

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate the impact of a North Carolina Medicaid preventive dentistry program in primary care medical offices (Into the Mouths of Babes Program [IMBP]) on decayed, missing, and filled teeth (dmft) of kindergarten students statewide and in schools with a large proportion of students from low-income families. An ecologic study using panel data of 920,505 kindergarten students with 11,694 school-year observations examined the effect of the IMBP on dmft scores from 1998 to 2009. Ordinary least squares regression with fixed effects determined the association between IMBP visits per child 0 to 4 years of age per county and mean dmft scores per kindergarten student per school, controlling for school-level poverty and ethnicity, county-level Medicaid enrollment, and supply of dentists and physicians. Mean dmft per kindergarten student per school increased from 1.53 in 1998 to 1.84 in 2004, then decreased to 1.59 in 2009. The mean number of IMBP visits per child 0 to 4 years of age per county increased from 0.01 in 2000 to 0.22 in 2009. A 1-unit increase in IMBP visits per county was associated with a 0.248 (95% confidence interval, -0.40 to -0.10) decrease in dmft per kindergarten student per school. For schools with more students at high risk for dental disease, a 1-unit increase in IMBP visits was associated with a 0.320 (95% confidence interval, -0.55 to -0.09) decrease in dmft. IMBP reduced dental caries among targeted vulnerable children, which helped reduce oral health disparities among preschool-aged children in North Carolina.

  11. Eating Disorders Prevention Programming May Be Failing: Evaluation of 2 One-Shot Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martz, Denise M.; Bazzini, Doris G.

    1999-01-01

    Two studies (N=114; n=77) were conducted to evaluate the impact of one-shot interventions to prevent eating disorders. Results of the first study were positive but small. The second study showed minimal effects on dieting and body esteem at one-month follow-up. The overall utility of such programming is discussed. (Author/EMK)

  12. School-Based Drug Prevention Program: Quantitative Assessment of Life Skills Training Elementary School Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindle, Silverlene J.

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1960s long-term studies have documented nation-wide patterns of adolescent smoking, drinking and illicit drug use. The federal government responded by passing the Safe and Drug Free Schools and Communities Act, which funded school-based prevention programs. The problem for school counselors in a Georgia Public School District was…

  13. Recruitment of Underrepresented Minority Researchers into HIV Prevention Research: The HIV Prevention Trials Network Scholars Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Erica L.; Griffith, Sam B.; Jennings, Larissa; Dyer, Typhanye V.; Mayer, Kenneth; Wheeler, Darrell

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Most U.S. investigators in the HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) have been of majority race/ethnicity and sexual orientation. Research participants, in contrast, have been disproportionately from racial/ethnic minorities and men who have sex with men (MSM), reflecting the U.S. epidemic. We initiated and subsequently evaluated the HPTN Scholars Program that mentors early career investigators from underrepresented minority groups. Scholars were affiliated with the HPTN for 12–18 months, mentored by a senior researcher to analyze HPTN study data. Participation in scientific committees, trainings, protocol teams, and advisory groups was facilitated, followed by evaluative exit surveys. Twenty-six trainees have produced 17 peer-reviewed articles to date. Research topics typically explored health disparities and HIV prevention among black and Hispanic MSM and at-risk black women. Most scholars (81% in the first five cohorts) continued HIV research after program completion. Alumni reported program-related career benefits and subsequent funding successes. Their feedback also suggested that we must improve the scholars' abilities to engage new research protocols that are developed within the network. Mentored engagement can nurture the professional development of young researchers from racial/ethnic and sexual minority communities. Minority scientists can benefit from training and mentoring within research consortia, whereas the network research benefits from perspectives of underrepresented minority scientists. PMID:29145745

  14. Teen Suicide in Nevada: The Problem, Effective Intervention & Prevention Programs, Status of Programs in Nevada Schools, Exemplary Programs, [and] Guidelines for Nevada School Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaby, Marlow H.; Downing, Jerry

    The purpose of this paper is twofold: it reviews current national research on adolescent suicide and successful intervention/prevention programs and it surveys the 17 Nevada school districts to determine the presence of successful suicide intervention/prevention programs in the state. Findings include the following: (1) the popular…

  15. Alcohol Prevention Strategies on College Campuses and Student Alcohol Abuse and Related Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringwalt, Christopher L.; Paschall, Mallie J.; Gitelman, Amy M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between colleges' alcohol abuse prevention strategies and students' alcohol abuse and related problems. Alcohol prevention coordinators and first year students in 22 colleges reported whether their schools were implementing 48 strategies in six domains, and students (N = 2041) completed another survey…

  16. [The influence of preventive programs on laboral injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Rojas, Pablo; Salinas-Tovar, Santiago; Marín-Cotoñieto, Irma Araceli; Méndez-Vargas, María Martha; Quezada-Ortega, Rafael Martin; Martínez-Ramírez, Eva

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of preventive programs at enterprises affiliated to the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS) during 2004. Transversal study in 987 enterprises. labor injuries (LI) of temporal disability, permanent disability and death. simple and relative frequencies, rates and Anova application to differences. 64.4% of the enterprises decrease LI (p < 0.04), with a decrement of 2602 LI (16%); the rate of LI per 100 workers declined from 4.19 to 3.60 (p < 0.08), with a decrease of 43,369 disability days (10.93%), which represents $8,456,955 MXP. States with larger decreases were: Queretaro (80%) p < 0.05; Sinaloa (63%) p < 0.05, and Morelos (61%) p < 0.05. Permanent incapacities diminished at 12.1%, p < 0.09; the rate of permanent disability per 1000 workers diminished from 1.37 to 1.32 and death cases increased from 42 to 49. the expenses on consultancy by IMSS was estimated as $9,341,955 MXP. The savings on temporal and permanent incapacities was $33,691,255 MXP with a cost containment of $19,701,310 MXP. Preventive programs are profitable, because they generate benefits to the workers, the IMSS and the enterprises.

  17. Female adolescent athletes' attitudes and perspectives on injury prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Jessica C; Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Denegar, Craig R; Joseph, Michael F; Pagnotta, Kelly D; Trojian, Thomas H; DiStefano, Lindsay J

    2017-02-01

    To examine what factors influence a high school female athlete's stated willingness to perform a lower extremity injury prevention program (IPP). A secondary aim was to examine if a participant's stated willingness affected her compliance with an IPP. Repeated measures. We surveyed high school female field hockey, soccer and volleyball athletes before and after a season-long IPP warm-up intervention. Participants completed the Injury Prevention Program Attitude Survey (IPPAS), a paper and pencil survey utilizing Likert-style and open-ended questions. It was used to assess the athletes' willingness to perform an IPP if the data proved the player would experience improved performance, fewer injuries and risk factors, what outside factors influence their willingness to perform an IPP, who they would feel comfortable leading their team in an IPP, and what they believe an IPP can improve. Participants responded that they were willing to perform an IPP if data proved that they would have fewer injury risk factors (p≤0.001) and be less likely to suffer an ACL injury (pinjuries. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Participants' Perceptions of a Violence Prevention Curriculum for Middle School Students: Was It Relevant and Useful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Albert D; Mehari, Krista; Mays, Sally; Sullivan, Terri N; Le, Anh-Thuy

    2015-08-01

    School-based youth violence prevention programs, particularly those focused on middle school students, have generally had limited effects that are often not sustained over time. Although many interventions focus on teaching social-cognitive skills, few studies have explored the extent to which students master these skills, actually use them, and find them effective in dealing with problem situations. This study examined these issues based on interviews with 141 students attending one county and two urban middle schools in classrooms where the Second Step violence prevention program had been implemented. We coded interviews to assess participants' general reactions to the interventions, use of skills, and effectiveness of skills. We also asked participants to describe outcomes they experienced when they used specific skills taught in the intervention in response to problem situations. Participants had generally positive reactions to the intervention. Their suggestions for improving the intervention primarily concerned improving its relevance. Participants described changes they had made based on the intervention, particularly controlling anger and improving relations with others. Their responses indicated that they sometimes misunderstood or misused specific intervention skills, especially problem solving and empathy. Students' descriptions of the outcomes they experienced when using intervention skills were not uniformly positive. This was especially true for situations involving peers such as peer pressure and bullying. These results underscore the need for more intensive efforts to ensure that students master intervention skills and are able to use them correctly. In addition, interventions should address the broader social context (e.g., peers, school) to maximize the effectiveness of skills.

  19. An ecological and theoretical deconstruction of a school-based obesity prevention program in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safdie, Margarita; Cargo, Margaret; Richard, Lucie; Lévesque, Lucie

    2014-08-10

    Ecological intervention programs are recommended to prevent overweight and obesity in children. The National Institute of Public Health (INSP) in Mexico implemented a successful ecological intervention program to promote healthy lifestyle behaviors in school age children. This study assessed the integration of ecological principles and Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) constructs in this effective school-based obesity prevention program implemented in 15 elementary schools in Mexico City. Two coders applied the Intervention Analysis Procedure (IAP) to "map" the program's integration of ecological principles. A checklist gauged the use of SCT theory in program activities. Thirty-two distinct intervention strategies were implemented in one setting (i.e., school) to engage four different target-groups (students, parents, school representatives, government) across two domains (Nutrition and Physical Activity). Overall, 47.5% of the strategies targeted the school infrastructure and/or personnel; 37.5% of strategies targeted a key political actor, the Public Education Secretariat while fewer strategies targeted parents (12.5%) and children (3%). More strategies were implemented in the Nutrition domain (69%) than Physical Activity (31%). The most frequently used SCT construct within both intervention domains was Reciprocal Determinism (e.g., where changes to the environment influence changes in behavior and these behavioral changes influence further changes to the environment); no significant differences were observed in the use of SCT constructs across domains. Findings provide insight into a promising combination of strategies and theoretical constructs that can be used to implement a school-based obesity prevention program. Strategies emphasized school-level infrastructure/personnel change and strong political engagement and were most commonly underpinned by Reciprocal Determinism for both Nutrition and Physical Activity.

  20. Using Alumni and Student Databases for Program Evaluation and Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson-Shivers, Gayle V.; Inpornjivit, Kit; Sellers, Kim

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the process used to identify students in and alumni of an instructional design master's and doctoral program in order to evaluate the effectiveness of this program. Two databases were created on these two groups and then later used to develop to datasheet surveys, which were the Survey of Students and the Survey of Alumni.…

  1. Campus Support Services, Programs, and Policies for International Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bista, Krishna, Ed.; Foster, Charlotte, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    Study abroad programs have proven beneficial for both the international student as well as the domestic community and school population interacting with the student. In an effort to promote cultural awareness, intercultural communications as well as opportunities for future study abroad program success, universities must take care to provide…

  2. Needs and Acculturative Stress of International Students in CACREP Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behl, Malvika; Laux, John M.; Roseman, Christopher P.; Tiamiyu, Mojisola; Spann, Sammy

    2017-01-01

    International students enrolled in programs accredited by the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs provided acculturative stress and needs data. Acculturative stress was correlated with academic, social, language, and cultural needs. Furthermore, relationships were found between students' types of needs.…

  3. Using POGIL to Help Students Learn to Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Helen H.; Shepherd, Tricia D.

    2013-01-01

    POGIL has been successfully implemented in a scientific computing course to teach science students how to program in Python. Following POGIL guidelines, the authors have developed guided inquiry activities that lead student teams to discover and understand programming concepts. With each iteration of the scientific computing course, the authors…

  4. A Program to Establish Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors with Freshmen Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Fred B.; Kim, Eunhee; Newton, Douglas W.

    2006-01-01

    The freshmen transition is a crucial time when students make health choices in their physical activities, eating behaviors, and stress management skills. A consortium of student affairs staff created and implemented an introduction to the wellness program through freshmen orientation classes. The program included a health behaviors assessment,…

  5. Including Exceptional Students in Your Instrumental Music Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mixon, Kevin

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the method and adaptations used by the author in including students with special needs in an instrumental music program. To ensure success in the program, the author shares the method he uses to include exceptional students and enumerates some possible adaptations. There are certainly other methods and modifications that…

  6. "Hour of Code": Can It Change Students' Attitudes toward Programming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jie; Wimmer, Hayden; Rada, Roy

    2016-01-01

    The Hour of Code is a one-hour introduction to computer science organized by Code.org, a non-profit dedicated to expanding participation in computer science. This study investigated the impact of the Hour of Code on students' attitudes towards computer programming and their knowledge of programming. A sample of undergraduate students from two…

  7. Factors Influencing Student Participation in College Study Abroad Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Soumava; Bandyopadhyay, Kakoli

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a theoretical framework to investigate the factors that influence student participation in college study abroad programs. The authors posit that students' general perceptions regarding the study abroad experience and their expectations of intercultural awareness from study abroad programs will impact their perceptions of…

  8. Advisors' Perceptions of a Rural High School Student Advisory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Jody Lynn

    2012-01-01

    The problem addressed in this study was the transition from middle school to high school, a source of difficulty for many students. Student advisory programs have been implemented in many secondary schools as one solution to this problem. While research supports the use of advisory programs, little research exists regarding the effectiveness of…

  9. Vocal problems among teachers: evaluation of a preventive voice program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovo, Roberto; Galceran, Marta; Petruccelli, Joseph; Hatzopoulos, Stavros

    2007-11-01

    Vocal education programs for teachers may prevent the emergence of vocal disorders; however, only a few studies have tried to evaluate the effectiveness of these preventive programs, particularly in the long term. Two hundred and sixty-four subjects, mostly kindergarten and primary school female teachers, participated in a course on voice care, including a theoretical seminar (120 minutes) and a short voice group therapy (180 minutes, small groups of 20 subjects). For 3 months, they had to either attend the vocal ergonomics norms and, as psychological reinforcement, they had to make out a daily report of vocal abuse, or to follow the given exercises for a more efficient vocal technique, reporting on whether the time scheduled was respected or not. The effectiveness of the course was assessed in a group of 21 female teachers through a randomized controlled study. Evaluation comprehended stroboscopy, perceptual and electro-acoustical voice analysis, Voice Handicap Index, and a course benefit questionnaire. A group of 20 teachers matched for age, working years, hoarseness grade, and vocal demand served as a control group. At 3 months evaluation, participants demonstrated amelioration in the global dysphonia rates (P=0.0003), jitter (P=0.0001), shimmer (P=0.0001), MPT (P=0.0001), and VHI (P=0.0001). Twelve months after the course, the positive effects remained, although they were slightly reduced. In conclusion, a course inclusive of two lectures, a short group voice therapy, home-controlled voice exercises, and hygiene, represents a feasible and cost-effective primary prevention of voice disorders in a homogeneous and well-motivated population of teachers.

  10. Conceptualizing community mobilization for HIV prevention: implications for HIV prevention programming in the African context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheri A Lippman

    Full Text Available Community mobilizing strategies are essential to health promotion and uptake of HIV prevention. However, there has been little conceptual work conducted to establish the core components of community mobilization, which are needed to guide HIV prevention programming and evaluation.We aimed to identify the key domains of community mobilization (CM essential to change health outcomes or behaviors, and to determine whether these hypothesized CM domains were relevant to a rural South African setting.We studied social movements and community capacity, empowerment and development literatures, assessing common elements needed to operationalize HIV programs at a community level. After synthesizing these elements into six essential CM domains, we explored the salience of these CM domains qualitatively, through analysis of 10 key informant in-depth-interviews and seven focus groups in three villages in Bushbuckridge.CM DOMAINS INCLUDE: 1 shared concerns, 2 critical consciousness, 3 organizational structures/networks, 4 leadership (individual and/or institutional, 5 collective activities/actions, and 6 social cohesion. Qualitative data indicated that the proposed domains tapped into theoretically consistent constructs comprising aspects of CM processes. Some domains, extracted from largely Western theory, required little adaptation for the South African context; others translated less effortlessly. For example, critical consciousness to collectively question and resolve community challenges functioned as expected. However, organizations/networks, while essential, operated differently than originally hypothesized - not through formal organizations, but through diffuse family networks.To date, few community mobilizing efforts in HIV prevention have clearly defined the meaning and domains of CM prior to intervention design. We distilled six CM domains from the literature; all were pertinent to mobilization in rural South Africa. While some adaptation of

  11. General and program-specific moderators of two eating disorder prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Marti, Nathan; Shaw, Heather; O'Neil, Kelly

    2008-11-01

    To investigate general and program-specific factors hypothesized to moderate the effects of two eating disorder prevention programs. High-risk adolescent girls (N = 481; M age = 17) were randomized to a dissonance-based thin-ideal internalization reduction program, a healthy weight management program, an expressive-writing control condition, or an assessment-only control condition. Participants completed diagnostic interviews and surveys at pretest, post-test, 6-month follow-up, and 12-month follow-up. Dissonance program effects on bulimic symptoms were stronger for participants with initial elevations in body image distress, bulimic symptoms, and thin-ideal internalization. Healthy weight program effects on bulimic symptoms were stronger for adolescents with initial elevations in body image distress, bulimic symptoms, readiness to change, body mass, and emotional eating. Overall, intervention effects tended to be amplified for high-risk versus low-risk adolescents. However, certain moderator effects appeared to be specific to the two different prevention programs.

  12. 75 FR 32235 - Exchange Visitor Program-Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-07

    ... regarding the screening, selection, school enrollment, orientation, and monitoring of student participants... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice: 7036] Exchange Visitor Program--Secondary School Students... amendments to the secondary school student regulatory provisions published in the Federal Register on May 3...

  13. Student Deep Learning in Bachelor English Programs within Pakistani Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Khazima

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to contrast undergraduate students' descriptions about transformational teaching practices, and student deep learning in bachelor English programs in selected universities within Pakistan. This study utilized a survey to gather responses from five hundred and twenty three students. A paired sample t test was utilized…

  14. Overcoming Student Retention Issues in Higher Education Online Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, Errin

    2010-01-01

    Pressure exists to attract and retain students in higher education. Online educational programs have the potential to increase the number of students who can enroll in degree-bearing institutions. Explored in the qualitative study using a modified three-round Delphi technique was the phenomenon of consistently lower student retention rates in…

  15. Economic evaluation of a comprehensive teenage pregnancy prevention program: pilot program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Marjorie S; Ross, Joseph S; Bilodeau, Roseanne; Richter, Rosemary S; Palley, Jane E; Bradley, Elizabeth H

    2009-12-01

    Previous research has suggested that comprehensive teenage pregnancy prevention programs that address sexual education and life skills development and provide academic support are effective in reducing births among enrolled teenagers. However, there have been limited data on the costs and cost effectiveness of such programs. The study used a community-based participatory research approach to develop estimates of the cost-benefit of the Pathways/Senderos Center, a comprehensive neighborhood-based program to prevent unintended pregnancies and promote positive development for adolescents. Using data from 1997-2003, an in-time intervention analysis was conducted to determine program cost-benefit while teenagers were enrolled; an extrapolation analysis was then used to estimate accrued economic benefits and cost-benefit up to age 30 years. The program operating costs totaled $3,228,152.59 and reduced the teenage childbearing rate from 94.10 to 40.00 per 1000 teenage girls, averting $52,297.84 in total societal costs, with an economic benefit to society from program participation of $2,673,153.11. Therefore, total costs to society exceeded economic benefits by $559,677.05, or $1599.08 per adolescent per year. In an extrapolation analysis, benefits to society exceed costs by $10,474.77 per adolescent per year by age 30 years on average, with social benefits outweighing total social costs by age 20.1 years. This comprehensive teenage pregnancy prevention program is estimated to provide societal economic benefits once participants are young adults, suggesting the need to expand beyond pilot demonstrations and evaluate the long-range cost effectiveness of similarly comprehensive programs when they are implemented more widely in high-risk neighborhoods.

  16. Economic Evaluation of a Comprehensive Teenage Pregnancy Prevention Program: Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Marjorie S.; Ross, Joseph S.; Bilodeau, RoseAnne; Richter, Rosemary S.; Palley, Jane E.; Bradley, Elizabeth H.

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous research has suggested that comprehensive teenage pregnancy prevention programs that address sexual education and life skills development and provide academic are effective in reducing births among enrolled teenagers. However, there have been limited data on costs and cost-effectiveness of such programs. Objectives To use a community-based participatory research approach, to develop estimates of the cost-benefit of the Pathways/Senderos Center, a comprehensive neighborhood-based program to prevent unintended pregnancies and promote positive development for adolescents. Methods Using data from 1997-2003, we conducted an in-time intervention analysis to determine program cost-benefit while teenagers were enrolled and then used an extrapolation analysis to estimate accyrred economibc benefits and cost-benefit up to age 30. Results The program operating costs totaled $3,228,152.59 and reduced the teenage childbearing rate from 94.10 to 40.00 per 1000 teenage females, averting $52,297.84 in total societal costs, with an economic benefit to society from program participation of $2,673,153.11. Therefore, total costs to society exceeded economic benefits by $559,677.05, or $1,599.08 per adolescent per year. In an extrapolation analysis, benefits to society exceed costs by $10,474.77 per adolescent per year by age 30 on average, with social benefits outweighing total social costs by age 20.1. Conclusions We estimate that this comprehensive teenage pregnancy prevention program would provide societal economic benefits once participants are young adults, suggesting the need to expand beyond pilot demonstrations and evaluate the long-range cost-effectiveness of similarly comprehensive programs when implemented more widely in high-risk neighborhoods. PMID:19896030

  17. The American Nuclear Society's international student exchange program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bornstein, I.

    1988-01-01

    The American Nuclear Society's (ANS's) International Student Exchange Program sponsors bilateral exchanges of students form graduate schools in American universities with students from graduate schools in France, the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG), and Japan. The program, now in its 12th year, was initiated in response to an inquiry to Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) from the director of the Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay proposing to send French nuclear engineering students to the United States for summer jobs. The laboratory was asked to accept two students to work on some nuclear technology activity and ANS was invited to send American students to France on an exchange basis. To date, 200 students have taken part in the program. It has been a maturing and enriching experience for them, and many strong and enduring friendships have been fostered among the participants, many of whom will become future leaders in their countries

  18. Exxon and Higher Education: Reflections on One Student-to-Student Advising Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petschauer, Peter

    1983-01-01

    Describes the implementation of Exxon's Student-to-Student advising program at Wautauga College. Advanced students are hired to teach beginning students basic college survival skills including time management, taking lecture notes, reading textbooks, taking exams, writing reports, making oral presentation, and improving interpersonal relations.…

  19. SKILL PREP Program for American Indian Students. Final report, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCulloh, S.; Huebner, P.

    1995-10-01

    The Scientific Knowledge for Indian Learning and Leadership (SKILL) precollege college program of the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology concluded the 1994 PREP program on July 22, 1994. The program graduated 22 students from the 4-week residential math/science program for American Indian students. Primary academic focus was physics (30 hours); each student was given a bicycle to solve problems on angular momentum and mechanical advantage. Mathematical calculations and problem solving exercises were done in mathematics class (20 hours). Preliminary results in math, physics, and geology show dramatic increases in student achievement over the 4- week period. The program paired every two students with a faculty member or research scientist, and each team completed a research project.

  20. Helping Students Test Programs That Have Graphical User Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Thornton

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Within computer science education, many educators are incorporating software testing activities into regular programming assignments. Tools like JUnit and its relatives make software testing tasks much easier, bringing them into the realm of even introductory students. At the same time, many introductory programming courses are now including graphical interfaces as part of student assignments to improve student interest and engagement. Unfortunately, writing software tests for programs that have significant graphical user interfaces is beyond the skills of typical students (and many educators. This paper presents initial work at combining educationally oriented and open-source tools to create an infrastructure for writing tests for Java programs that have graphical user interfaces. Critically, these tools are intended to be appropriate for introductory (CS1/CS2 student use, and to dovetail with current teaching approaches that incorporate software testing in programming assignments. We also include in our findings our proposed approach to evaluating our techniques.

  1. Programs and Place: Risk and Asset Mapping for Fall Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew Lee; Towne, Samuel D; Motlagh, Audry S; Smith, Donald R; Boolani, Ali; Horel, Scott A; Ory, Marcia G

    2017-01-01

    Identifying ways to measure access, availability, and utilization of health-care services, relative to at-risk areas or populations, is critical in providing practical and actionable information to key stakeholders. This study identified the prevalence and geospatial distribution of fall-related emergency medical services (EMS) calls in relation to the delivery of an evidence-based fall prevention program in Tarrant County, Texas over a 3-year time period. It aims to educate public health professionals and EMS first respondents about the application of geographic information system programs to identify risk-related "hot spots," service gaps, and community assets to reduce falls among older adults. On average, 96.09 (±108.65) calls were received per ZIP Code (ranging from 0 calls to 386 calls). On average, EMS calls per ZIP Code increased from 30.80 (±34.70) calls in 2009 to 33.75 (±39.58) calls in 2011, which indicate a modest annual call increase over the 3-year study period. The percent of ZIP Codes offering A Matter of Balance/Volunteer Lay Leader Model (AMOB/VLL) workshops increased from 27.3% in 2009 to 34.5% in 2011. On average, AMOB/VLL workshops were offered in ZIP Codes with more fall-related EMS calls over the 3-year study period. Findings suggest that the study community was providing evidence-based fall prevention programming (AMOB/VLL workshops) in higher-risk areas. Opportunities for strategic service expansion were revealed through the identification of fall-related hot spots and asset mapping.

  2. Adolescents' Responses to a School-Based Prevention Program Promoting Healthy Eating at School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Roel C J; de Bruin, Hanneke; Larsen, Junilla K; Mensink, Fréderike; Hoek, Annet C

    2017-01-01

    To improve the effectiveness of school-based programs that aim to promote adolescents' healthy food choices, it is essential to understand the views and behaviors of the target group. This study aimed to get a better understanding of adolescents' food and health perceptions and their willingness to be involved in a specific school-based prevention program, i.e., the Dutch " Healthy School Canteen Program ." This study used a mixed-methods research design. First, seven semi-structured focus groups were conducted using a selective sample of 42 Dutch adolescents (25 girls, 17 boys, aged 13-16 years). Second, an online survey among 133 adolescent respondents (72 girls, 61 boys, aged 12-19 years) using snowball sampling was conducted. Content analysis was performed to make inferences about the focus group discussions, whereas statistical analyses were conducted to analyze the survey data. Findings from the group discussions indicated that healthy eating was only an issue of importance when adolescents perceived negative physical changes (e.g., with regard to looks or physical performance). Adolescents also indicated that they clearly wanted to make their own food and beverage choices at school. The quantitative data indicated that taste, price, and variety were seen as the most important aspects of a healthy food assortment (mean scores 8.1, 7.8, and 7.7 on a 10-point scale, respectively). In general, a majority of the adolescents (64%) expressed that students should be involved in the organization of a healthy food environment in schools. At the same time, however, adolescents were not willing to participate themselves. This was mostly because they were skeptical about their ideas being heard and put into action by their schools. School-based prevention programs, such as the Healthy School Program , should take into account that adolescents have a low risk perception of unhealthy eating and are seeking food choice autonomy. In addition, schools should not lose

  3. Adolescents’ Responses to a School-Based Prevention Program Promoting Healthy Eating at School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roel C. J. Hermans

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundTo improve the effectiveness of school-based programs that aim to promote adolescents’ healthy food choices, it is essential to understand the views and behaviors of the target group. This study aimed to get a better understanding of adolescents’ food and health perceptions and their willingness to be involved in a specific school-based prevention program, i.e., the Dutch “Healthy School Canteen Program.”MethodsThis study used a mixed-methods research design. First, seven semi-structured focus groups were conducted using a selective sample of 42 Dutch adolescents (25 girls, 17 boys, aged 13–16 years. Second, an online survey among 133 adolescent respondents (72 girls, 61 boys, aged 12–19 years using snowball sampling was conducted. Content analysis was performed to make inferences about the focus group discussions, whereas statistical analyses were conducted to analyze the survey data.ResultsFindings from the group discussions indicated that healthy eating was only an issue of importance when adolescents perceived negative physical changes (e.g., with regard to looks or physical performance. Adolescents also indicated that they clearly wanted to make their own food and beverage choices at school. The quantitative data indicated that taste, price, and variety were seen as the most important aspects of a healthy food assortment (mean scores 8.1, 7.8, and 7.7 on a 10-point scale, respectively. In general, a majority of the adolescents (64% expressed that students should be involved in the organization of a healthy food environment in schools. At the same time, however, adolescents were not willing to participate themselves. This was mostly because they were skeptical about their ideas being heard and put into action by their schools.ConclusionSchool-based prevention programs, such as the Healthy School Program, should take into account that adolescents have a low risk perception of unhealthy eating and are seeking food

  4. The NARCONON drug education curriculum for high school students: a non-randomized, controlled prevention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennox, Richard D; Cecchini, Marie A

    2008-03-19

    An estimated 13 million youths aged 12 to 17 become involved with alcohol, tobacco and other drugs annually. The number of 12- to 17-year olds abusing controlled prescription drugs increased an alarming 212 percent between 1992 and 2003. For many youths, substance abuse precedes academic and health problems including lower grades, higher truancy, drop out decisions, delayed or damaged physical, cognitive, and emotional development, or a variety of other costly consequences. For thirty years the Narconon program has worked with schools and community groups providing single educational modules aimed at supplementing existing classroom-based prevention activities. In 2004, Narconon International developed a multi-module, universal prevention curriculum for high school ages based on drug abuse etiology, program quality management data, prevention theory and best practices. We review the curriculum and its rationale and test its ability to change drug use behavior, perceptions of risk/benefits, and general knowledge. After informed parental consent, approximately 1000 Oklahoma and Hawai'i high school students completed a modified Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP) Participant Outcome Measures for Discretionary Programs survey at three testing points: baseline, one month later, and six month follow-up. Schools assigned to experimental conditions scheduled the Narconon curriculum between the baseline and one-month follow-up test; schools in control conditions received drug education after the six-month follow-up. Student responses were analyzed controlling for baseline differences using analysis of covariance. At six month follow-up, youths who received the Narconon drug education curriculum showed reduced drug use compared with controls across all drug categories tested. The strongest effects were seen in all tobacco products and cigarette frequency followed by marijuana. There were also significant reductions measured for alcohol and amphetamines. The program

  5. The NARCONON™ drug education curriculum for high school students: A non-randomized, controlled prevention trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecchini Marie A

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An estimated 13 million youths aged 12 to 17 become involved with alcohol, tobacco and other drugs annually. The number of 12- to 17-year olds abusing controlled prescription drugs increased an alarming 212 percent between 1992 and 2003. For many youths, substance abuse precedes academic and health problems including lower grades, higher truancy, drop out decisions, delayed or damaged physical, cognitive, and emotional development, or a variety of other costly consequences. For thirty years the Narconon program has worked with schools and community groups providing single educational modules aimed at supplementing existing classroom-based prevention activities. In 2004, Narconon International developed a multi-module, universal prevention curriculum for high school ages based on drug abuse etiology, program quality management data, prevention theory and best practices. We review the curriculum and its rationale and test its ability to change drug use behavior, perceptions of risk/benefits, and general knowledge. Methods After informed parental consent, approximately 1000 Oklahoma and Hawai'i high school students completed a modified Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP Participant Outcome Measures for Discretionary Programs survey at three testing points: baseline, one month later, and six month follow-up. Schools assigned to experimental conditions scheduled the Narconon curriculum between the baseline and one-month follow-up test; schools in control conditions received drug education after the six-month follow-up. Student responses were analyzed controlling for baseline differences using analysis of covariance. Results At six month follow-up, youths who received the Narconon drug education curriculum showed reduced drug use compared with controls across all drug categories tested. The strongest effects were seen in all tobacco products and cigarette frequency followed by marijuana. There were also significant

  6. A Review of School-based Drug-Prevention Program Evaluation in the 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyucksun S.

    2001-01-01

    Reviewed evaluation studies of school-based drug prevention programs published from 1993-99 to identify significant program features that could influence the success of drug prevention education. Results found that programs components varied significantly. Programs employing a social-influence model varied in their effectiveness depending on the…

  7. 76 FR 40798 - Antidrug and Alcohol Misuse Prevention Programs for Personnel Engaged in Specified Aviation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-12

    ...-11301; Amendment No. 121-315] RIN 2120-AH14 Antidrug and Alcohol Misuse Prevention Programs for... maintain a training program. For both the antidrug and alcohol misuse prevention programs, the employer... the contracting company to obtain and implement its own FAA drug and alcohol (D&A) testing programs...

  8. Developing the climate schools: Alcohol and Cannabis Module: a harm-minimization, universal drug prevention program facilitated by the internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Nicola Clare; Vogl, Laura; Teesson, Maree; Andrews, Gavin

    2011-01-01

    The Climate Schools: Alcohol and Cannabis Module is a universal harm-minimization school-based prevention program for adolescents aged 13-15 years. The core content of the program is delivered over the Internet using cartoon storylines to engage students, and teacher-driven activities reinforce the core information. The program is embedded within the school health curriculum and is easy to implement with minimal teacher training required. The program was developed in 2007 through extensive collaboration with teachers, students, and health professionals (N = 24) in Sydney, Australia and has since been evaluated (N = 764). This article describes the formative research and process of planning that formed the development of the program and the evidence base underpinning the approach. The study's limitations are noted.

  9. The implementation of a statewide bullying prevention program: preliminary findings from the field and the importance of coalitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Betsy A; Messina, Allison; Schroeder, Diana; Good, Karla; Barto, Shiryl; Saylor, Jennifer; Masiello, Matthew

    2012-07-01

    Bullying in schools has become recognized as a significant public health problem. The Olweus Bullying Prevention Program (OBPP) has been identified as an effective means to reduce bullying behavior in schools. The goal of this large population-based initiative was to reduce bullying by producing a quantifiable change in school climate using an established program and standardized measurement tool. Program participants over a 2-year period included 56,137 students and more than 2,400 teachers from 107 schools in 49 counties across Pennsylvania. An age cohorts design was used, and data from two equivalent age cohorts of students were compared at two or more points in time. After 1 to 2 years of program implementation, across cohorts, there were reductions in student self-reports of bullying others, and improvements in student perceptions of adults' responsiveness, and students' attitudes about bullying. This study is the largest bullying prevention initiative to date in the United States. This initiative reaffirms the efficacy of the OBPP, emphasizes the importance of an identified coalition, and highlights several positive outcomes. It is recommended that the OBPP be implemented through the establishment of community partnerships and coalitions as consistent with the public health model.

  10. Parent Engagement in Youth Drug Prevention in Chinese Families: Advancement in Program Development and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra K. M. Tsang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The escalating youth drug abuse problem in Hong Kong has attracted intense attention from the government, schools, and youth service professionals. Most preventive efforts have focused directly on positive youth development, very often through school programs delivered to secondary school students. There have been limited efforts to engage parents even though it is obvious that the family is actually the primary context of children and youth development. This paper will assert the importance of parental engagement in youth drug-prevention work, discuss some barriers in such parental involvement, present some promising local attempts and their strengths and limitations, and propose that sustained efforts are needed to build up theory-driven and evidence-based resources for Chinese communities on the subject.

  11. Associations between Gun Violence Exposure, Gang Associations, and Youth Aggression: Implications for Prevention and Intervention Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Forster

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using cross-sectional data collected from three middle schools in Southeast Los Angeles, we assessed the association of neighborhood violence exposure, gang associations, and social self-control with past week aggression in a sample of minority youth (n=164. Results from Poisson and logistic regression models showed that direct exposure to gun violence, having friends in gangs, and low social self control were all positively associated with past week aggression. Among girls, having gang affiliated family members was positively associated with aggression, whereas among boys having friends in gangs was associated with past week aggression. Subjective expectations of engagement in future interpersonal violence were associated with being male, having friends in gangs, and fear of neighborhood gun violence. We recommend that youth violence prevention and intervention programs address the impact of family, peers, and gun violence on student coping and identify students with low social self-control who could benefit from social and emotional skills training.

  12. An Analysis on Distance Education Computer Programming Students' Attitudes Regarding Programming and Their Self-Efficacy for Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozyurt, Ozcan

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to analyze the attitudes of students studying computer programming through the distance education regarding programming, and their self-efficacy for programming and the relation between these two factors. The study is conducted with 104 students being thought with distance education in a university in the north region of Turkey in…

  13. Impact of a visual programming experience on the attitude toward programming of introductory undergraduate students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbole, Saurabh

    Traditionally, textual tools have been utilized to teach basic programming languages and paradigms. Research has shown that students tend to be visual learners. Using flowcharts, students can quickly understand the logic of their programs and visualize the flow of commands in the algorithm. Moreover, applying programming to physical systems through the use of a microcontroller to facilitate this type of learning can spark an interest in students to advance their programming knowledge to create novel applications. This study examined if freshmen college students' attitudes towards programming changed after completing a graphical programming lesson. Various attributes about students' attitudes were examined including confidence, interest, stereotypes, and their belief in the usefulness of acquiring programming skills. The study found that there were no statistically significant differences in attitudes either immediately following the session or after a period of four weeks.

  14. Ashinaga Group Asia: International Student Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Teresa Eed

    2017-01-01

    Giving orphaned students abroad the chance to study in Japan While Ashinaga originally only supported Japanese students who had lost parents, as time passed it became increasingly clear that we had the experience and means to assist orphaned students outside Japan as well. This first took the shape of fundraising for international humanitarian crises, but eventually grew into various financial aid and scholarship opportunities to benefit orphaned students from around the world. Wh...

  15. Advancing cervical cancer prevention initiatives in resource-constrained settings: insights from the Cervical Cancer Prevention Program in Zambia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulindi H Mwanahamuntu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Groesbeck Parham and colleagues describe their Cervical Cancer Prevention Program in Zambia, which has provided services to over 58,000 women over the past five years, and share lessons learned from the program's implementation and integration with existing HIV/AIDS programs.

  16. Multisite cost analysis of a school-based voluntary alcohol and drug prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilmer, Beau; Burgdorf, James R; D'Amico, Elizabeth J; Miles, Jeremy; Tucker, Joan

    2011-09-01

    This article estimates the societal costs of Project CHOICE, a voluntary after-school alcohol and other drug prevention program for adolescents. To our knowledge, this is the first cost analysis of an after-school program specifically focused on reducing alcohol and other drug use. The article uses microcosting methods based on the societal perspective and includes a number of sensitivity analyses to assess how the results change with alternative assumptions. Cost data were obtained from surveys of participants, facilitators, and school administrators; insights from program staff members; program expenditures; school budgets; the Bureau of Labor Statistics; and the National Center for Education Statistics. From the societal perspective, the cost of implementing Project CHOICE in eight California schools ranged from $121 to $305 per participant (Mdn = $238). The major cost drivers included labor costs associated with facilitating Project CHOICE, opportunity costs of displaced class time (because of in-class promotions for Project CHOICE and consent obtainment), and other efforts to increase participation. Substituting nationally representative cost information for wages and space reduced the range to $100-$206 (Mdn = $182), which is lower than the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's estimate of $262 per pupil for the "average effective school-based program in 2002." Denominating national Project CHOICE costs by enrolled students instead of participants generates a median per-pupil cost of $21 (range: $14-$28). Estimating the societal costs of school-based prevention programs is crucial for efficiently allocating resources to reduce alcohol and other drug use. The large variation in Project CHOICE costs across schools highlights the importance of collecting program cost information from multiple sites.

  17. Cancer prevention and early detection: nursing students' knowledge, attitudes, personal practices, and teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post-White, J; Carter, M; Anglim, M A

    1993-06-01

    This study evaluated the impact of an educational workshop on nursing students' knowledge, attitudes, and personal practices regarding cancer prevention and early detection (CP&ED), as well as the effect that it had on their teaching of CP&ED recommendations. Four one-day workshops--which included lectures, small group discussions, and practice of early detection skills--were held in three cities in Minnesota. Students from baccalaureate, associate-degree, and practical nursing programs participated (N = 220). Preworkshop, postworkshop, and six-month follow-up surveys were used to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes, and self-practice of the participants, as well as their teaching of clients, family, friends, and peers. Data were analyzed with matched paired t-tests, chi-square, correlation, and analysis of variance. The postworkshop and six-month follow-up surveys showed improvement in the students' knowledge and attitudes; however, the only self-practice behaviors that changed within six months of the workshop were breast/testicular self-examinations. The results also showed that the students felt more confident and subsequently taught more clients, family, friends, and peers about the CP&ED recommendations. These findings indicate that educating students early in their careers may increase the number of people practicing CP&ED recommendations.

  18. Caries risk and prevention: Evaluation of a preventive program in a clinic for children

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    Fábio Correia Sampaio

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to verify the use of the Nexø caries risk assessment system together with the Cariogram® (School of Dentistry, Malmö, Sweden, in a preventive program for children at the cariology clinic at Federal University of Paraíba. Methods: A sample of 107 children (2- to 14-year-old was attended on two occasions. The patients’ clinical data (DMF-T, dmf-t, Bleeding index, OHI-S and those from the preventive procedures performed (professional cleaning, fluoride application, Cariogram® (School of Dentistry, Malmö, Sweden, Nexø caries risk were collected twice: first from the clinical record cards and on the second occasion by exams. Parents and guardians evaluated the clinical attendance in an interview and the children, by means of a VAS scale. According to the Nexø caries risk assessment system, 53 children (49.5% were classified at low risk (6. Data analysis was carried out using SPSS (11.0. Results: A positive correlation was observed between the two risk systems: Nexø and Cariogram® (School of Dentistry, Malmö, Sweden of chances of avoiding new caries lesions. The possibility of avoiding new caries lesions increased 5% in both groups and a discrete increase was observed in the other parameters. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the Nexø system associated with the Cariogram® (School of Dentistry, Malmö, Sweden, contributed to the assessment of the patients’ caries risk profile and to the success of the preventive program for children at the cariology clinic at Universidade Federal da Paraíba.

  19. Sandia National Laboratories California Pollution Prevention Program Annual Report February 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Janet S.; Farren, Laurie J.

    2008-03-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the SNL/CA Pollution Prevention Program for a given calendar year. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. The program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Pollution Prevention Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

  20. The SOS Suicide Prevention Program: Further Evidence of Efficacy and Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Elizabeth A; Aseltine, Robert H; James, Amy

    2016-02-01

    This study replicated and extended previous evaluations of the Signs of Suicide (SOS) prevention program in a high school population using a more rigorous pre-test post-test randomized control design than used in previous SOS evaluations in high schools (Aseltine and DeMartino 2004; Aseltine et al. 2007). SOS was presented to an ethnically diverse group of ninth grade students in technical high schools in Connecticut. After controlling for the pre-test reports of suicide behaviors, exposure to the SOS program was associated with significantly fewer self-reported suicide attempts in the 3 months following the program. Ninth grade students in the intervention group were approximately 64% less likely to report a suicide attempt in the past 3 months compared with students in the control group. Similarly, exposure to the SOS program resulted in greater knowledge of depression and suicide and more favorable attitudes toward (1) intervening with friends who may be exhibiting signs of suicidal intent and (2) getting help for themselves if they were depressed or suicidal. In addition, high-risk SOS participants, defined as those with a lifetime history of suicide attempt, were significantly less likely to report planning a suicide in the 3 months following the program compared to lower-risk participants. Differential attrition is the most serious limitation of the study; participants in the intervention group who reported a suicide attempt in the previous 3 months at baseline were more likely to be missing at post-test than their counterparts in the control group.

  1. Social influence and bullying behavior: intervention-based network dynamics of the fairplayer.manual bullying prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wölfer, Ralf; Scheithauer, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    Bullying is a social phenomenon and although preventive interventions consequently address social mechanisms, evaluations hardly consider the complexity of peer processes. Therefore, the present study analyzes the efficacy of the fairplayer.manual bullying prevention program from a social network perspective. Within a pretest-posttest control group design, longitudinal data were available from 328 middle-school students (MAge  = 13.7 years; 51% girls), who provided information on bullying behavior and interaction patterns. The revealed network parameters were utilized to examine the network change (MANCOVA) and the network dynamics (SIENA). Across both forms of analyses, findings revealed the hypothesized intervention-based decrease of bullies' social influence. Hence the present bullying prevention program, as one example of programs that successfully addresses both individual skills and social mechanisms, demonstrates the desired effect of reducing contextual opportunities for the exhibition of bullying behavior. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Determinants of preventive oral health behaviour among senior dental students in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Folayan, Morenike O; Khami, Mohammad R; Folaranmi, Nkiru; Popoola, Bamidele O; Sofola, Oyinkan O; Ligali, Taofeek O; Esan, Ayodeji O; Orenuga, Omolola O

    2013-01-01

    Background To study the association between oral health behaviour of senior dental students in Nigeria and their gender, age, knowledge of preventive care, and attitudes towards preventive dentistry. Methods Questionnaires were administered to 179 senior dental students in the six dental schools in Nigeria. The questionnaire obtained information on age, gender, oral self-care, knowledge of preventive dental care and attitudes towards preventive dentistry. Attending a dental clinic for check-u...

  3. Engaging undergraduate nursing students in research: the students' experience of a summer internship program pilot project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepanec, Diane; Clarke, Diana; Plohman, James; Gerard, Judy

    2013-08-01

    Educators continue to struggle with ways to foster an interest in and a passion for nursing research among undergraduate students. The purpose of this article is to describe the introduction of undergraduate student internships at the Manitoba Centre for Nursing and Health Research, Faculty of Nursing, University of Manitoba, as an innovation in education that allowed students to be employed while engaging them in student learning, scientific inquiry, and scholarship through one-to-one faculty-student research mentorships. In this article, the key components of the summer internship program are described, along with five nursing students' experiences of their participation in the program. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. Menopause and risk of diabetes in the Diabetes Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Catherine; Edelstein, Sharon L; Crandall, Jill P; Dabelea, Dana; Kitabchi, Abbas E; Hamman, Richard F; Montez, Maria G; Perreault, Leigh; Foulkes, Mary A; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth

    2011-08-01

    The study objectives were to examine the association between menopause status and diabetes risk among women with glucose intolerance and to determine if menopause status modifies response to diabetes prevention interventions. The study population included women in premenopause (n = 708), women in natural postmenopause (n = 328), and women with bilateral oophorectomy (n = 201) in the Diabetes Prevention Program, a randomized placebo-controlled trial of lifestyle intervention and metformin among glucose-intolerant adults. Associations between menopause and diabetes risk were evaluated using Cox proportional hazard models that adjusted for demographic variables (age, race/ethnicity, family history of diabetes, history of gestational diabetes mellitus), waist circumference, insulin resistance, and corrected insulin response. Similar models were constructed after stratification by menopause type and hormone therapy use. After adjustment for age, there was no association between natural menopause or bilateral oophorectomy and diabetes risk. Differences by study arm were observed in women who reported bilateral oophorectomy. In the lifestyle arm, women with bilateral oophorectomy had a lower adjusted hazard for diabetes (hazard ratio [HR], 0.19; 95% CI, 0.04-0.94), although observations were too few to determine if this was independent of hormone therapy use. No significant differences were seen in the metformin (HR, 1.29; 95% CI, 0.63-2.64) or placebo arms (HR, 1.37; 95% CI, 0.74-2.55). Among women at high risk for diabetes, natural menopause was not associated with diabetes risk and did not affect response to diabetes prevention interventions. In the lifestyle intervention, bilateral oophorectomy was associated with a decreased diabetes risk.

  5. Menopause and risk of diabetes in the Diabetes Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Catherine; Edelstein, Sharon L.; Crandall, Jill P.; Dabelea, Dana; Kitabchi, Abbas E.; Hamman, Richard F.; Montez, Maria G.; Perreault, Leigh; Foulkes, Mary A.; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Objective The study objective was to examine the association between menopause status and diabetes risk among women with glucose intolerance and to determine if menopausal status modifies response to diabetes prevention interventions. Methods The study population included women in premenopause (n=708), natural postmenopause (n=328), and bilateral oophorectomy (n=201) in the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP), a randomized placebo-controlled trial of lifestyle intervention and metformin among glucose intolerant adults. Associations between menopause and diabetes risk were evaluated using Cox proportional hazard models that adjusted for demographic variables (age, race/ethnicity, family history of diabetes, history of gestational diabetes mellitus), waist circumference, insulin resistance and corrected insulin response. Similar models were constructed after stratification by menopause type and hormone therapy (HT) use. Results After adjustment for age, there was no association between natural menopause or bilateral oophorectomy and diabetes risk. Differences by study arm were observed in women who reported bilateral oophorectomy. In the lifestyle arm, women with bilateral oophorectomy had a lower adjusted hazard for diabetes (HR 0.19, 95% CI 0.04, 0.94), although observations were too few to determine if this was independent of HT use. No significant differences were seen in the metformin (HR 1.29, 95% CI 0.63, 2.64) or placebo arms (HR 1.37, 95% CI 0.74, 2.55). Conclusions Among women at high-risk for diabetes, natural menopause was not associated with diabetes risk and did not affect response to diabetes prevention interventions. In the lifestyle intervention, bilateral oophorectomy was associated with decreased diabetes risk. PMID:21709591

  6. Everybody Brush! Consumer Satisfaction with a Tooth Decay Prevention Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Cunha-Cruz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionTwice-daily caregiver-supervised toothbrushing with fluoridated toothpaste is an effective and widely recommended strategy to prevent tooth decay in children. Qualitative research suggests that low-income caregivers know the recommendation but would benefit from toothbrushing supplies and advice about how to introduce this health behavior especially as the child becomes older and asserts autonomy to do it “myself.” Our objective is to assess consumer satisfaction with the evidence-based theory-informed campaign and usefulness of materials that were home delivered. The focus of the evaluation was families with children <36 months of age because of the high incidence of disease in this population.MethodsA dental care organization designed and implemented Everybody Brush! in three counties of Central Oregon. Participants were families of Medicaid-insured children <21 years of age. Participants were randomly assigned to one of the three study groups: test (supplies, voice/printed messages, telephone support, active (supplies, and a waitlist control. Program materials were in English and Spanish. Caregivers of children <36 months were interviewed at the beginning and end of the program.ResultsA total of 83,148 toothbrushing kits were mailed to 21,743 families. In addition, 93,766 printed messages and 110,367 recorded messages were sent to half of the families. Caregivers were highly satisfied. On a global rating scale from 0 to 10 (worst to best program possible, they rated the program 9.5 on average (median: 10, SD 0.9. On a scale from 0 to 10 (not at all to very useful, mean ratings for usefulness of the toothbrushing supplies was 9.5 (SD = 1.5, for the printed postcard messages was 7.2 (SD 3.6, and for the voice telephone messages was 6.5 (SD 3.9.DiscussionA dental care organization carried out a complex community intervention designed to address excess tooth decay among low-income children. Caregivers were highly

  7. Effective Compiler Error Message Enhancement for Novice Programming Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Brett A.; Glanville, Graham; Iwashima, Ricardo; McDonnell, Claire; Goslin, Kyle; Mooney, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Programming is an essential skill that many computing students are expected to master. However, programming can be difficult to learn. Successfully interpreting compiler error messages (CEMs) is crucial for correcting errors and progressing toward success in programming. Yet these messages are often difficult to understand and pose a barrier to…

  8. Student Outcomes in a Blended Preschool Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keesbury, Sybil A.

    2015-01-01

    This case study examined the effect of quality preschool programming on child outcomes in a blended inclusive preschool program implemented in an urban school system in the piedmont of North Carolina. The blended inclusive preschool program was a newly initiated program in this district and had been in place for only 1 school year. The purpose of…

  9. Program Development and Effectiveness of Workplace Health Promotion Program for Preventing Metabolic Syndrome among Office Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Hosihn; Jung, Jiyeon; Cho, Jeonghyun; Chin, Dal Lae

    2017-08-04

    This paper aims to develop and analyze the effects of a socio-ecological model-based intervention program for preventing metabolic syndrome (MetS) among office workers. The intervention program was developed using regular health examinations, a "health behavior and need" assessment survey among workers, and a focus group study. According to the type of intervention, subjects took part in three groups: health education via an intranet-based web magazine (Group 1), self-monitoring with the U-health system (Group 2), and the target population who received intensive intervention (Group 3). The intervention programs of Group 1 and Group 2, which relied on voluntary participation, did not show significant effects. In Group 3, which relied on targeted and proactive programs, showed a decrease in waist circumference and in fasting glucose ( p light of the effectiveness of the intensive intervention strategy for metabolic syndrome prevention among workers used in this study, companies should establish targeted and proactive health care programs rather than providing a healthcare system that is dependent on an individual's voluntary participation.

  10. Assessment of a sexual coercion prevention program for adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuertes Martín, Antonio; Orgaz Baz, M Begoña; Vicario-Molina, Isabel; Martínez Alvarez, José Luis; Fernández Fuertes, Andrés; Carcedo González, Rodrigo J

    2012-07-01

    This study's focus is to evaluate a sexual coercion prevention program in adolescents. Using a before-and-after design with both a treatment group (n = 93) and a control group (n = 76), an intervention of seven sessions was completed. Said sessions included such content as conceptualizing sexual freedom, sexual coercion and voluntary consent, analyzing different sexual coercion tactics and the contexts in which they occur, empathy toward the victim, and developing abilities to avoid risky situations. Other risk factors for coercive behavior and sexual victimization are explored as well, such as alcohol use, sexist attitudes and inadequate communication, among others. The intervention's results include a decrease in stereotypical beliefs about the opposite sex and increased empathy toward victims of sexual coercion. These changes were maintained with the passage of time. Also, in the treatment group, a more acute decline was observed in the proportion of young people engaging in sexually coercive behaviors, This article emphasizes the importance, necessity and efficacy of such interventions, and discusses and analyzes possible improvements to the program for its future implementation.

  11. Motivational Interviewing in an Obesity Prevention Program for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ige, Teminijesu John; DeLeon, Patrice; Nabors, Laura

    2017-03-01

    After-school programs are an ideal setting for childhood obesity prevention interventions. This qualitative study examined the implementation of a training technique in the Children's Healthy Eating and Exercise Program: motivational interviewing. Participants included 19 children in Grades 3 through 5, nine coaches enrolled in university health education classes, and four parents. Nine lessons were presented during the fall session (N = 5) and eight during the spring (N = 14), with five individual coaching sessions per child. From September, 2014 through April 2015, child and coach perceptions were assessed using goal sheets, surveys, a focus group, and the analysis of the video recording of a health habit commercial created by teams of children grouped by gender. Children developed weekly eating and exercise goals with coaches and reported on their progress the following week. Following the intervention, children reported improved eating and exercise habits and coaches reported they learned more about healthy food options for themselves. Overall, children responded positively to the motivational interviewing. Involving teachers may allow for dissemination of lessons and reinforcement for healthy choices during the school day. Involving parents in training may remove roadblocks to healthy lifestyle changes for children for nonschool hours and when packing lunches.

  12. How States are Implementing Evidence-Based Teen Pregnancy Prevention Programs Through the Personal Responsibility Education Program.

    OpenAIRE

    Susan Zief; Rachel Shapiro; Debra Strong

    2014-01-01

    Congress created the Personal Responsibility Education Program (PREP), an initiative to fund evidence-based teen pregnancy prevention programs, in 2010 to help reduce teen pregnancies and their negative consequences. The evaluation will expand the knowledge base on teen pregnancy prevention programs and help to identify decisions, successes, and challenges involved in replicating, adapting, and scaling up evidence-based programs. This issue brief documents key decisions state grantees made ab...

  13. 34 CFR 86.4 - What are the procedures for submitting a drug prevention program certification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the procedures for submitting a drug prevention program certification? 86.4 Section 86.4 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DRUG AND ALCOHOL ABUSE PREVENTION General § 86.4 What are the procedures for submitting a drug prevention program certification? An IHE shall submi...

  14. Motivating programming students by Problem Based Learning and LEGO robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Marianne; Coto Chotto, Mayela; Mora, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Retention of first year students in Computer Science is a concern for universities internationally. Especially programming courses are regarded as difficult, and often have the highest failure and dropout rates. The Informatics School at Universidad Nacional in Costa Rica is not an exception...... students programming skills and motivation for learning in an introductory programming course. The paper reports the results related with one of the components of the study - the experiential qualities of the three learning designs. The data were collected through a questionnaire survey with 229 students...

  15. High Rates of Tuberculosis and Opportunities for Prevention among International Students in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jeffrey M; Reves, Randall R; Belknap, Robert W

    2016-04-01

    Foreign-born persons traveling on a student visa are not currently screened for tuberculosis on entry into the United States, despite residing in the United States for up to several years. To characterize the risk of tuberculosis in international students entering the United States and to identify strategies for early diagnosis and prevention in this population. Data were collected in 18 tuberculosis control jurisdictions in the United States. A cohort of 1,268 foreign-born patients of known visa status, diagnosed with active tuberculosis between 2004 and 2007, was used for analysis. Incidence rates were estimated on the basis of immigration data from study jurisdictions. Tuberculosis was diagnosed in 46 student residents, providing an annual estimate of 308 cases nationally. The estimated tuberculosis case rate in student residents was 48.1 cases per 100,000 person-years (95% confidence interval, 35.6-64.8), more than twice that of the general foreign-born population. Students identified by tuberculosis screening programs were more likely to be diagnosed within 6 months of U.S. arrival (75 vs. 6%; P < 0.001), and those with pulmonary disease were less likely to have a positive sputum smear for acid-fast bacilli compared with those not screened (18 vs. 63%; P = 0.05). In unscreened students, 71% were diagnosed more than 1 year after U.S. arrival and only 6% were previously treated for latent tuberculosis infection. The tuberculosis case rate in foreign-born students is significantly higher than in other foreign-born individuals. Screening this group after arrival to the United States is an effective strategy for earlier diagnosis of active tuberculosis.

  16. 78 FR 22530 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Program for International Student...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ... Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Program for International Student Assessment... of Collection: Program for International Student Assessment (PISA 2015) Recruitment and Field Test.... Total Estimated Number of Annual Burden Hours: 6,313. Abstract: The Program for International Student...

  17. Do adherence variables predict outcome in an online program for the prevention of eating disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manwaring, Jamie L; Bryson, Susan W; Goldschmidt, Andrea B; Winzelberg, Andrew J; Luce, Kristine H; Cunning, Darby; Wilfley, Denise E; Taylor, C Barr

    2008-04-01

    Unlike traditional interventions, Internet interventions allow for objective tracking and examination of the usage of program components. Student Bodies (SB), an online eating disorder (ED) prevention program, significantly reduced ED attitudes/behaviors in college-aged women with high body image concerns, and reduced the development of EDs in some higher risk subgroups. The authors investigated how adherence measures were associated with ED attitudes and behaviors after treatment. Female SB participants (n = 209) completed the Eating Disorders Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q; C. G. Fairburn & S. J. Beglin, 1994) at baseline, posttreatment, and 1-year follow-up. Total weeks participation and frequency of utilizing the online Web pages/journals predicted pre- to posttreatment changes in EDE-Q Restraint but not in other ED symptoms. In participants with some compensatory behaviors, discussion board and booster session use were associated with increased weight/shape concerns during follow-up. In overweight participants, higher online Web page/journal use was related to decreased EDE-Q Eating Concern scores during follow-up. This is the first study to investigate the relationship between adherence to specific program components and outcome in a successful Internet-based intervention. Results can be used to inform future development and tailoring of prevention interventions to maximize effectiveness and facilitate dissemination. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Teacher training program for medical students: improvements needed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Diggele C

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Christie van Diggele,1 Annette Burgess,2 Craig Mellis21The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2Sydney Medical School – Central, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, AustraliaIntroduction: Skills in peer teaching, assessment, and feedback are increasingly documented internationally as required graduate attributes in medicine. Yet these skills are rarely taught in medical schools. We sought to design and deliver a short but effective teacher training (TT program for medical students that could be easily integrated into the professional development curriculum. This study sought to evaluate such a pilot program, based on student perception.Methods: The study took place at a major metropolitan teaching hospital, where 38 medical students were invited to attend a voluntary, newly designed four-module TT program. In total, 23/38 (61% of invited students attended. Mixed methods were used for evaluation. Questionnaires were completed by 21/23 (91% of students, and 6/23 (26% of students participated in a focus group.Results: Students reported that as a result of the program they felt more confident to facilitate small group teaching activities and to provide feedback to peers using the suggested frameworks. Students would like the program to contain more in-depth educational theory and to allow a more time for small group learning activities. They would also like to see opportunities for participation across all clinical schools.Conclusion: The TT program was successful in increasing student awareness of educational theory and practice, thereby improving their confidence in teaching and assessing their peers and making them feel better prepared for their careers as medical practitioners. Key improvements to the program are needed in terms of more in-depth theory and more time spent on small group learning. This might be achieved by complementing the course with e-learning.Keywords: teacher training, medical students, peer teaching, peer

  19. Suicide Prevention Exposure, Awareness, and Knowledge Survey (SPEAKS) - Student

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The SPEAKS- student dataset contains individual level information from a sample of college students on GLS funded campuses. These data include student demographics,...

  20. A Risk and Prevention Counselor Training Program Model: Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Michael J.; Nakkula, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    The need for training mental health counselors in risk and prevention is presented, and justification of the development of an innovative and integrative prevention training program is offered. Theoretical underpinnings that connect the counseling discipline to the field of prevention are described. A risk and prevention training model from…

  1. Evaluation of a ski and snowboard injury prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusimano, Michael; Luong, Wilson P; Faress, Ahmed; Leroux, Timothy; Russell, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    The objective was to study the effectiveness of a brochure and video at improving skiing and snowboarding knowledge. Sixty-nine Grade 7 students were randomised to an educational intervention (n = 35) or control (n = 34) group. The intervention group viewed an injury prevention video aimed at improving skiers and snowboarder's knowledge, attitudes and behaviours about ski and snowboard safety and received a brochure. The control group participated in a teaching session and had a simple question and answer session about snow sports. Pre- and post-tests were administered and injuries during four trips were documented. Pre-test scores were similar between the two groups. Compared with the control group, there was a significantly greater improvement in post-test scores among the intervention group (WMD: 2.1; 95% CI: 0.19-4.01). There was no significant difference in injury rates (RR: 0.49; 95% CI: 0.04, 3.39). All injuries were minor and did not require medical attention. The intervention aimed at youth skiers and snowboarders appears to be effective at improving knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of skiing and snowboarding safety.

  2. Homogeneity in Community-Based Rape Prevention Programs: Empirical Evidence of Institutional Isomorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Stephanie M.; Campbell, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the practices of 24 community-based rape prevention programs. Although these programs were geographically dispersed throughout one state, they were remarkably similar in their approach to rape prevention programming. DiMaggio and Powell's (1991) theory of institutional isomorphism was used to explain the underlying causes of…

  3. Reinforcing Alcohol Prevention (RAP) Program: A Secondary School Curriculum to Combat Underage Drinking and Impaired Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Kelli England; Sabo, Cynthia Shier

    2010-01-01

    The Reinforcing Alcohol Prevention (RAP) Program is an alcohol prevention curriculum developed in partnership with secondary schools to serve their need for a brief, evidence-based, and straightforward program that aligned with state learning objectives. Program components included an educational lesson, video, and interactive activities delivered…

  4. Adapting a Multifaceted U.S. HIV Prevention Education Program for Girls in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiscian, Vivian Sarpomaa; Obeng, E. Kwame; Goldstein, Karen; Shea, Judy A.; Turner, Barbara J.

    2009-01-01

    We adapted a U.S. HIV prevention program to address knowledge gaps and cultural pressures that increase the risk of infection in adolescent Ghanaian girls. The theory-based nine-module HIV prevention program combines didactics and games, an interactive computer program about sugar daddies, and tie-and-dye training to demonstrate an economic…

  5. Applying Fear Appeals Theory for Preventing Drug Abuse among Male High School Students in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Witte

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Drug abuse is one of the complicated phenomenons in the human communities that it produces health problems. The effect of applying fear appeal message on attitudes and intention against drug abuse, drug resistance skills, knowledge about side effect of drugs and drug abuse related behaviors among male high school students was studied based on applying extended parallel process model as a theoretical framework. Materials & Methods: Two high schools were chosen from six state high schools as an intervention (n=86 and control (n=97 groups. Educational curriculum, that was designed, based on students’ educational needs, appealed students’ fear and recommended messages developed students' ability for resisting against drugs. Before intervention 5-6 students who were known as a favourite and leader of students, were selected by student’s opinion in each class as students' leaders. The each leader of the group had a coordinator and mediate role between his group and health educators. Henceforth a favourite teacher was chosen by students’ vote for helping health educators and participated in the educational intervention program.Results: The result showed that educational manipulation had significant effect on intervention group’s average response for intention (t= -4.03, p<0.000 and attitude against drug abuse (t= -6.19, p<0.000, peer resistance skills (t=-0.82, p<0.000, and knowledge (t= -10.88, p<0.000. In addition, it was not found positive urinary rapid immune-chromatography test for opium and marijuana in the intervention group whereas 6.3% in the control groups.Conclusion: This findings suggest that applying fear appeals theories and effective health risk message would be an efficient tool for preventing drug abuse education programs but further studies are needed to define function of EPPM as a effective model for creating social inoculation against drug abuse among non- drug expose adolescents.

  6. Predictors of Depression Stigma in Medical Students: Potential Targets for Prevention and Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimsatt, Leslie A; Schwenk, Thomas L; Sen, Ananda

    2015-11-01

    Suicide rates are higher among U.S. physicians than the general population. Untreated depression is a major risk factor, yet depression stigma presents a barrier to treatment. This study aims to identify early career indications of stigma among physicians-in-training and to inform the design of stigma-reduction programs. A cross-sectional student survey administered at a large, Midwestern medical school in fall 2009 included measures of depression symptoms, attitudes toward mental health, and potential sources of depression stigma. Principal components factor analysis and linear regression were used to examine stigma factors associated with depression in medical students. The response rate was 65.7%, with 14.7% students reporting a previous depression diagnosis. Most students indicated that, if depressed, they would feel embarrassed if classmates knew. Many believed that revealing depression could negatively affect professional advancement. Factor analyses revealed three underlying stigma constructs: personal weakness, public devaluation, and social/professional discrimination. Students associating personal weakness with depression perceived medication as less efficacious and the academic environment as more competitive. Those endorsing public stigma viewed medication and counseling as less efficacious and associated depression with an inability to cope. Race, gender, and diagnosis of past/current depression also related to beliefs about stigma. Depression measures most strongly predicted stigma associated with personal weakness and social/professional discrimination. Recommendations for decreasing stigma among physicians-in-training include consideration of workplace perceptions, depression etiology, treatment efficacy, and personal attributes in the design of stigma reduction programs that could facilitate help-seeking behavior among physicians throughout their career. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  7. The interaction of curriculum type and implementation method on 1-year smoking outcomes in a school-based prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Thomas W; Unger, Jennifer B; Ritt-Olson, Anamara; Cen, Steven Y; Anderson Johnson, C

    2006-06-01

    Studies have shown that the effectiveness of programs or curricula may depend in part on who delivers the material. In adolescent health education programs, peer leaders are often recruited to implement programs because they are more persuasive to other adolescents than adults. Teachers also systematically vary how groups are constructed in school-based health education programs. This study compared the effects of three leader and group selection methods within the context of two tobacco prevention programs. Eight schools received a social influences program (Chips) and eight received a program with a multicultural emphasis (Flavor). Within these 16 schools 84 classrooms consisting of 1486 students were randomly assigned to one of three leader and group creation conditions: (i) leaders defined as those who received the most nominations by students and groups created randomly (random group), (ii) same as (i) but groups created by assigning students to the leaders they nominated (network), and (iii) leaders and groups created by teachers (teacher). One year follow-up data showed that main effects of the curriculum and network assignments were non-significant on smoking initiation when entered alone. Interaction terms of curriculum and assignment methods, however, were significant such that the network and teacher conditions were less effective than the random group condition with Chips, and more effective than random group condition with Flavor. These data show that school-based prevention programs should be evaluated in light of who implements the program. Even a peer-led program will be differentially effective based on how leaders are selected and how groups are formed, and this effect may be curriculum dependent.

  8. Implementation and process effects on prevention outcomes for middle school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Multisite Violence Prevention Project

    2014-01-01

    This study addressed 5 research questions about the role of implementation (dosage and fidelity) and process (alliance with the provider, and satisfaction/engagement with the intervention) characteristics in explaining effects on parenting characteristics targeted by a selective family-focused violence prevention program for high-risk, socially influential, middle school youth. The intervention was part of a multisite trial involving random assignment of 37 schools to 4 conditions: (a) a universal intervention composed of a student social-cognitive curriculum and teacher training, (b) this selective intervention, (c) a condition combining these two interventions, and (d) a no-intervention control condition. The present study uses data from 334 participating families who attended at least 1 intervention session at which process measures of alliance with the provider and satisfaction with the intervention were administered. Although parent and child alliance with the provider and satisfaction with the program increased over the course of the intervention, these process characteristics were not associated with higher levels of intervention attendance. Higher intervention dosage was associated with more positive change in the parenting characteristics targeted by the intervention. Process characteristics had mixed positive and negative effects that were limited to a single outcome. Within structured, manualized, family-focused preventive efforts, as contrasted with less structured therapeutic interventions, these findings suggest that monitoring and improving program dosage may have stronger effects on parenting practices than improving therapeutic alliance or engagement in the intervention.

  9. UC Berkeley's Undocumented Student Program: Holistic Strategies for Undocumented Student Equitable Success across Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Ruben Elias Canedo; So, Meng L.

    2015-01-01

    In this essay, Ruben Elias Canedo Sanchez and Meng L. So share the history and development of the Undocumented Student Program at the University of California, Berkeley. In describing the creation of the program, the authors offer reflections on the strategies employed to holistically support undocumented students' success on campus. By drawing on…

  10. Applying Sleep Research to University Students: Recommendations for Developing a Student Sleep Education Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Franklin C.; Buboltz, Walter C., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Many students are unaware that academic difficulties may be related to their sleep habits. This article introduces key elements of a student sleep education program that can be easily incorporated into many universities first-year orientation classes or as part of residential housing programs. (Author)

  11. A Novel Education and Training Program to Enhance Student Advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Alex J; Matzke, Gary R; McCall, Kenneth L

    2015-09-25

    Objective. To develop and implement a unique student advocacy program to train student pharmacists to be effective advocates for the profession of pharmacy and the patients it serves. Design. The Academy is a 2-day program hosted annually in Washington, DC, that combines didactic presentations on the legislative process, communication with policymakers, current legislation, and active-learning exercises such as mock congressional visits. The Academy culminates with visits to Capitol Hill where students meet with legislators and their staff to discuss pending legislation. Assessment. Nearly 350 students from 43 schools and colleges of pharmacy completed the program in its 4 years. Students are assessed following the active-learning exercises and meetings with legislators. Conclusion. Advocacy has been listed as a competency that requires more attention in pharmacy education. The Academy provides a model that schools may replicate to enhance their advocacy offerings.

  12. Integrating Professional Development into STEM Graduate Programs: Student-Centered Programs for Career Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautz, L.; McCay, D.; Driscoll, C. T.; Glas, R. L.; Gutchess, K. M.; Johnson, A.; Millard, G.

    2017-12-01

    Recognizing that over half of STEM Ph.D. graduates are finding work outside of academia, a new, NSF-funded program at Syracuse University, EMPOWER (or Education Model Program on Water-Energy Research) is encouraging its graduate students to take ownership of their graduate program and design it to meet their anticipated needs. Launched in 2016, EMPOWER's goal is to prepare graduate students for careers in the water-energy field by offering targeted workshops, professional training coursework, a career capstone experience, a professional development mini-grant program, and an interdisciplinary "foundations" seminar. Through regular student feedback and program evaluation, EMPOWER has learned some important lessons this first year: career options and graduate students' interests are diverse, requiring individualized programs designed to meet the needs of prospective employers and employees; students need exposure to the range of careers in their field to provide a roadmap for designing their own graduate school experience; effective programs nurture a culture that values professional development thereby giving students permission to pursue career paths and professional development opportunities that meet their own needs and interests; and existing university resources support the effective and efficient integration of professional development activities into graduate programs. Many of the positive outcomes experienced by EMPOWER students may be achieved in departmental graduate programs with small changes to their graduate curricula.

  13. Prevention programs for body image and eating disorders on University campuses: a review of large, controlled interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Zali; O'Dea, Jennifer A

    2008-06-01

    Body dissatisfaction, dieting, eating disorders and exercise disorders are prevalent among male and female university students worldwide. Male students are also increasingly adopting health-damaging, body-image-related behaviors such as excessive weight lifting, body building and steroid abuse. Given the severity and difficulty of treating eating disorders, prevention of these problems is a recognized public health goal. Health promotion and health education programs have been conducted in the university setting since the mid 1980s, but few have achieved significant improvements in target health attitudes and behaviors. In this paper, 27 large, randomized and controlled health promotion and health education programs to improve body dissatisfaction, dieting and disordered eating and exercise behaviors of male and female college students are reviewed. In general, health education programs to improve body image and prevent eating disorders in the university setting have been limited by small sample sizes and the exclusion of male students. The majority of studies were conducted among either female undergraduate psychology students or women that were recruited using on-campus advertising. The latter reduces the ability to generalize results to the whole university population, or the general community. In addition, there has been a paucity of longitudinal studies that are methodologically sound, as only 82% (22/27) of interventions included in the review used random assignment of groups, and only 52% (n = 14) included follow-up testing. Information-based, cognitive behavioral and psycho-educational approaches have been the least effective at improving body image and eating problems among university students. Successful elements for future initiatives are identified as taking a media literacy- and dissonance-based educational approach, incorporating health education activities that build self-esteem, and using computers and the internet as a delivery medium. A newly

  14. Neighborhood Perceptions and Parent Outcomes in Family Based Prevention Programs for Thai Adolescents: The Role of Program Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Hilary F.; Miller, Brenda A.; Chamratrithirong, Aphichat; Rhucharoenpornpanich, Orratai; Cupp, Pamela K.; Atwood, Katharine A.; Fongkaew, Warunee; Rosati, Michael J.; Chookhare, Warunee

    2011-01-01

    Due to concerns over Thai adolescent risky behaviors, effective prevention strategies are needed. Determining the role neighborhood context plays in program engagement and outcomes may inform these strategies. This study includes 170 mother-adolescent pairs (M = 13.44, SD = 0.52) in Bangkok, Thailand in a prevention program for adolescent…

  15. Junior High Students Produce Daily TV Today Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worzala, Louise Hicks

    1976-01-01

    Describes the seven-minute, closed-circuit television program for 500 students and teachers which is entirely planned and produced by an eighth grade broadcast journalism class at a McHenry (Illinois) junior high school. (JM)

  16. Using Career Pathways to Guide Students through Programs of Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Debra D.; Krismer, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes career pathways that evolved through a Trade Adjustment Assistance Community College and Career Training consortium grant designed to help students complete programs of study and enter health care careers.

  17. Graduate Student Fellowship Program Effects on Attitude and Interest toward Science of Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, James R.; Rayfield, John; Briers, Gary; Johnson, Larry

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the effects of a graduate student fellowship program on middle school students' attitude toward science and their interest in science. Using a descriptive and correlational research design, data were collected from 588 middle school students (grades 6, 7, and 8). Participants completed a pretest and a…

  18. College Student for a Day: A Transition Program for High School Students with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakovic, Alexandra; Ross, Denise E.

    2015-01-01

    High school students with disabilities can benefit from early exposure to campus-based accommodations and supports as they transition to college. College Student for a Day (CSFAD) is an on-campus activity-based program that introduces high school students with disabilities to supports and accommodations on a college campus. This Practice Brief…

  19. Opinions of Students Enrolled in an Andalusian Bilingual Program on Bilingualism and the Program Itself

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Ramos Calvo

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The Regional Ministry of Education of the Autonomous Government of Andalusia, an autonomous community in the South of Spain, has established several bilingual programs to improve language proficiency of its student population. The programs, which undertake second languages as vehicular languages at the classroom, encourage student’s bilingualism, academic development and positive attitudes toward other groups. The following paper examines opinions given by a group of students enrolled in an Andalusian bilingual program about those matters. Students had different positive opinions on bilingualism as well as the program in general; however, they had some doubts over the intellectual and cognitive benefits of learning languages.

  20. Encouraging engagement in enabling programs: The students’ perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzi Hellmundt

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Student retention is a key concern in tertiary education enabling programs with research showing that early engagement leads to higher completion rates (Hodges et al., 2013. But how do students new to university education learn how to engage effectively? This article outlines an engagement framework that foregrounds Guidance, Encouragement, Modelling and Structure (GEMS as a holistic approach to facilitating effective student engagement. This framework was developed from qualitative data gleaned from students enrolled in the Preparing for Success Program at Southern Cross University, New South Wales, Australia. The findings from the students indicate that the GEMS framework activates student potential and enables them to use existing knowledge and experience to not only deepen and broaden their learning but also successfully prepare for further study.

  1. Cross-cultural adaptation and evaluation of a home-based program for alcohol use prevention among urban youth: the "Slick Tracy Home Team Program".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komro, Kelli A; Perry, Cheryl L; Veblen-Mortenson, Sara; Farbakhsh, Kian; Kugler, Kari C; Alfano, Karen A; Dudovitz, Bonnie S; Williams, Carolyn L; Jones-Webb, Rhonda

    2006-03-01

    The current study describes the extensive cross-cultural adaptation of a brief home-based alcohol prevention program for racially and ethnically diverse sixth grade students and their families, using a randomized controlled trial design involving 60 public schools in the city of Chicago (N = 3,623 students). The adapted program achieved high participation levels (73%) overall, as well as in single parent families, non-English homes, and low-income students, among other at risk groups. Lower levels of factors associated with the onset of alcohol use (i.e., normative expectations and outcome expectations) were achieved in the intervention group compared to the control group. However, no differences were observed for several other protective factors or alcohol use.

  2. Student Support Networks in Online Doctoral Programs: Exploring Nested Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Sharla Berry

    2017-01-01

    Aim/Purpose: Enrollment in online doctoral programs has grown over the past decade. A sense of community, defined as feelings of closeness within a social group, is vital to retention, but few studies have explored how online doctoral students create community. Background: In this qualitative case study, I explore how students in one online doctoral program created a learning community. Methodology: Data for the study was drawn from 60 hours of video footage from six online courses,...

  3. Prevention of depression in the college student population: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Jenna L

    2012-02-01

    The National Institute of Mental Health recommends that interventions be designed to prevent the onset of clinical depression in at-risk groups. College students are included in those groups identified as at risk. This article reports on 16 U.S. clinical trials, conducted with samples of college-aged students between 1987 and 2011, to identify effective depression-prevention strategies. Recommendations from the review of these studies include additional research to determine prevention strategies for the college student population and the use of evidence-based prevention strategies in nursing practice to improve the quality of life for this at-risk population. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Protecting Colleges and Students: Community College Strategies to Prevent Default

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKibben, Bryce; La Rocque, Matthew; Cochrane, Debbie

    2014-01-01

    Student loan default, defined as federal loan borrowers' failure to make any payments for at least 270 days, is an issue of increasing importance to community colleges and their students. This report takes a unique look at student loan default at nine community colleges across the nation, and how those colleges are working to help students avoid…

  5. How Can We Prevent and Reduce Bullying amongst University Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Carrie Anne; Cowie, Helen

    2016-01-01

    While it has long been recognized that bullying occurs at school and in the workplace, recent research confirms that bullying also takes place among university students, including undergraduates, post-graduates and doctoral research students. In the UK, the National Union of Students (NUS) alerted staff and students to the issue in a series of…

  6. Encouraging engagement in enabling programs: The students perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Suzi Hellmundt; Dallas Baker

    2017-01-01

    Student retention is a key concern in tertiary education enabling programs with research showing that early engagement leads to higher completion rates (Hodges et al., 2013). But how do students new to university education learn how to engage effectively? This article outlines an engagement framework that foregrounds Guidance, Encouragement, Modelling and Structure (GEMS) as a holistic approach to facilitating effective student engagement. This framework was developed from qualitative data gl...

  7. Enhancing Student Engagement through Simulation in Programming Sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isiaq, Sakirulai Olufemi; Jamil, Md Golam

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the use of a simulator for teaching programming to foster student engagement and meaningful learning. Design/methodology/approach: An exploratory mixed-method research approach was adopted in a classroom-based environment at a UK university. A rich account of student engagement dimensions…

  8. A Business-Oriented Student Program: Residence Hall Stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio, Vance R.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a residence hall store program which provides prepackaged food and snacks to students at Marquette University. Results of a survey of 21 colleges which have residence hall stores revealed primarily informal organizations. Stores can be a successful student development technique which teaches principles of small-business management. (JAC)

  9. Identifying Novice Student Programming Misconceptions and Errors from Summative Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerasamy, Ashok Kumar; D'Souza, Daryl; Laakso, Mikko-Jussi

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a study aimed at examining the novice student answers in an introductory programming final e-exam to identify misconceptions and types of errors. Our study used the Delphi concept inventory to identify student misconceptions and skill, rule, and knowledge-based errors approach to identify the types of errors made by novices…

  10. College Student Utilization of a Comprehensive Psychiatric Emergency Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Sharon L.; Kader, Mahrin; Haggerty, Melinda Z.; Bakhai, Yogesh D.; Warren, Calvert G.

    2013-01-01

    The authors sought to identify college students at risk for experiencing a mental health crisis that warranted a psychiatric evaluation at a hospital and/or a psychiatric hospitalization. A retrospective chart review of college students evaluated at a comprehensive psychiatric emergency program during a 1-year period was conducted. Demographic…

  11. Focus on Student Success: Components for Effective Summer Bridge Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Quiroz, Alicia; Garza, Nora R.

    2018-01-01

    Using research focused on best practices, focus group information, and data analytics, the Title V: Focus on Student Success (FOSS) Grant created a model for the development, implementation, and evaluation of a summer bridge program. Results included increased academic performance indicators in first-year Hispanic college students. Validation for…

  12. Improvements Needed in Administration of the Guaranteed Student Loan Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    This report identifies improvements needed in administration of the guaranteed student loan program. Improvements needed are based on the fact that that lenders are not informed when student borrowers drop out of school. Alternatives for providing lenders with timely information on enrollment terminations are indicated. Additional administrative…

  13. Barriers to International Student Mobility: Evidence from the Erasmus Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto-Otero, Manuel; Huisman, Jeroen; Beerkens, Maarja; de Wit, Hans; Vujic, Suncica

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we look at the barriers to international student mobility, with particular reference to the European Erasmus program. Much is known about factors that support or limit student mobility, but very few studies have made comparisons between participants and nonparticipants. Making use of a large data set on Erasmus and non-Erasmus…

  14. African American Students' Experiences in Special Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, Eleanor; Howley, Aimee

    2018-01-01

    Background/Context: Disproportionate placement of African American students into special education programs is likely to be a form of institutional racism, especially when such placement stigmatizes students. If placement also fails to lead to educational benefits, the practice becomes even more suspect. Some studies have explored disproportionate…

  15. A Fully Automated Diabetes Prevention Program, Alive-PD: Program Design and Randomized Controlled Trial Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Gladys; Azar, Kristen Mj; Block, Torin J; Romanelli, Robert J; Carpenter, Heather; Hopkins, Donald; Palaniappan, Latha; Block, Clifford H

    2015-01-21

    In the United States, 86 million adults have pre-diabetes. Evidence-based interventions that are both cost effective and widely scalable are needed to prevent diabetes. Our goal was to develop a fully automated diabetes prevention program and determine its effectiveness in a randomized controlled trial. Subjects with verified pre-diabetes were recruited to participate in a trial of the effectiveness of Alive-PD, a newly developed, 1-year, fully automated behavior change program delivered by email and Web. The program involves weekly tailored goal-setting, team-based and individual challenges, gamification, and other opportunities for interaction. An accompanying mobile phone app supports goal-setting and activity planning. For the trial, participants were randomized by computer algorithm to start the program immediately or after a 6-month delay. The primary outcome measures are change in HbA1c and fasting glucose from baseline to 6 months. The secondary outcome measures are change in HbA1c, glucose, lipids, body mass index (BMI), weight, waist circumference, and blood pressure at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Randomization and delivery of the intervention are independent of clinic staff, who are blinded to treatment assignment. Outcomes will be evaluated for the intention-to-treat and per-protocol populations. A total of 340 subjects with pre-diabetes were randomized to the intervention (n=164) or delayed-entry control group (n=176). Baseline characteristics were as follows: mean age 55 (SD 8.9); mean BMI 31.1 (SD 4.3); male 68.5%; mean fasting glucose 109.9 (SD 8.4) mg/dL; and mean HbA1c 5.6 (SD 0.3)%. Data collection and analysis are in progress. We hypothesize that participants in the intervention group will achieve statistically significant reductions in fasting glucose and HbA1c as compared to the control group at 6 months post baseline. The randomized trial will provide rigorous evidence regarding the efficacy of this Web- and Internet-based program in reducing or

  16. Preventing halo bias in grading the work of university students

    OpenAIRE

    John M. Malouff; Sarah J. Stein; Lodewicka N. Bothma; Kimberley Coulter; Ashley J. Emmerton

    2014-01-01

    Experts have advocated anonymous marking as a means of minimizing bias in subjective student assessment. In the present study, 159 faculty members or teaching assistants across disciplines were randomly assigned (1) to grade a poor oral presentation of a university student, (2) to grade a good oral presentation of the same student, or (3) not to grade any oral presentation of the student. All graders then assessed the same written work by the student. A linear-contrasts analysis showed that, ...

  17. Evaluating in political turmoil: nursing challenges in prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laperrière, Hélène

    2007-03-01

    The concrete insertion of nurses into the context of an inquiry contributes to empirical evaluation research of health promotion programs. As interveners and concrete actors in social movements, nurses are in a privileged position to give realism to a local understanding of the political and cultural context of evaluative research. Drawing on the practice of empirical evaluation research, this paper seeks to generate new methodological approaches in a way that broadens nursing inquiries in community health nursing. It explores new ways of thinking about epistemology and knowledge production in nursing practice. For 5 months an evaluative research project adopting a participatory-action research approach was conducted with local community actors in an AIDS prevention project in Amazonas (Brazil) in a prostitution setting. An auto-ethnographic journal was used as a reflective approach for the critical analysis of nursing research activities. This paper calls for a closer relationship between scientific research settings and the sociopolitical and the sociocultural aspects of nursing practice. It increases an incorporation of popular, social and professional experiential learning and skill acquisition in embedded knowledge production.

  18. Contacts in the Office of Pesticide Programs, Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contact the Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division (BPPD) about regulatory activities associated with biologically-based pesticides, implementation of integrated pest management and the Pesticide Environmental Stewardship Program.

  19. OSTA program: A French follow up intervention program for suicide prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouaffak, Fayçal; Marchand, Arnaud; Castaigne, Emmanuelle; Arnoux, Armelle; Hardy, Patrick

    2015-12-30

    Attempted suicide is a strong risk factor for subsequent suicidal behavior. In recent years, a particular interest has been given to follow-up interventions as a potential effective strategy in preventing recurrent suicidal behavior. We developed a follow-up intervention program called OSTA (organization of a suitable monitoring for suicide attempters) aimed at addressing this issue and tested its effectiveness in a 1-year randomized controlled trial. Individuals who attempted suicide and were admitted to the emergency department (ED) of Bicêtre Hospital (n=320) were randomly allocated to receive either the OSTA program or a control treatment. On an intention to treat basis, the proportion of patients who reattempted suicide did not differ significantly between the interventional group (IG) 14.5% (22/152) and the control group (CG) 14% (21/150). There were also no significant differences, between the two arms, in the number of suicide attempts. Although no significant difference has been found between the OSTA program and the control treatment concerning the rate of suicide reattempts, we believe that further studies should be conducted to test the effectiveness of more standardized follow-up studies in suicide prevention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Hispanic Youth--Dropout Prevention. Report of the Task Force on the Participation of Hispanic Students in Vocational Education Programs = La Joventud Hispana. Reporte del Grupo Especial. La Investigacion de la Participacion de los Estudiantes Hispanos en la Educacion Relativa a la Vocacion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise. Div. of Vocational Education.

    An Idaho task force of Hispanic Americans, industry representatives, and education leaders studied the reasons Hispanic students were not enrolling in and completing vocational education programs. The task force sponsored a series of community meetings to identify reasons and solutions. Approximately 40-60 parents, students, and other interested…