WorldWideScience

Sample records for prevention plan water

  1. Design an effective storm water pollution prevention plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vivona, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    A case history shows ''how'' to plan and organize a storm water pollution prevention program (SWPPP). Using easy-to-use worksheets and guidelines, hydrocarbon processing industry (HPI) operators can build upon existing best management practices (i.e., housekeeping procedures, visual inspections, spill prevention programs, etc.) to meet tighter restrictions set by National Pollutant Discharge Elimination system (NPDES) permits. Especially in high rainfall areas, storm water poses an intermittent, but large volume problem. The facility's site size is another factor that impacts the scope and cost for SWPPP. The five steps to implementing a SWPPP are: Planning and organization; Assessment; Best management practice (BMP) identification; Implementation; Evaluation and monitoring. Initially, HPI operators must identify all potential contamination sources and past spills and leak areas. Following the SWPP guidelines, operators can map out a cost-effective storm water program that meets all NPDES requirements

  2. Storm water pollution prevention plan for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published the final storm water regulation on November 16, 1990. The storm water regulation is included in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) regulations. An NPDES permit was issued for the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995, and was effective on July 1, 1995. The permit requires that a Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWP3) be developed by December 28, 1995, and be fully implemented by July 1, 1996; this plan has been developed to fulfill that requirement. The outfalls and monitoring points described in this plan contain storm water discharges associated with industrial activities as defined in the NPDES regulations. For storm water discharges associated with industrial activity, including storm water discharges associated with construction activity, that are not specifically monitored or limited in this permit, Y-12 Plant personnel will meet conditions of the General Storm Water Rule 1200-4-10. This document presents the programs and physical controls that are in place to achieve the following objectives: ensure compliance with Section 1200-4-10-.04(5) of the TDEC Water Quality Control Regulations and Part 4 of the Y-12 Plant NPDES Permit (TN0002968); provide operating personnel with guidance relevant to storm water pollution prevention and control requirements for their facility and/or project; and prevent or reduce pollutant discharge to the environment, in accordance with the Clean Water Act (CWA) and the Tennessee Water Quality Control Act

  3. Storm water pollution prevention plan for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published the final storm water regulation on November 16, 1990. The storm water regulation is included in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) regulations. An NPDES permit was issued for the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995, and was effective on July 1, 1995. The permit requires that a Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWP3) be developed by December 28, 1995, and be fully implemented by July 1, 1996; this plan has been developed to fulfill that requirement. The outfalls and monitoring points described in this plan contain storm water discharges associated with industrial activities as defined in the NPDES regulations. For storm water discharges associated with industrial activity, including storm water discharges associated with construction activity, that are not specifically monitored or limited in this permit, Y-12 Plant personnel will meet conditions of the General Storm Water Rule 1200-4-10. This document presents the programs and physical controls that are in place to achieve the following objectives: ensure compliance with Section 1200-4-10-.04(5) of the TDEC Water Quality Control Regulations and Part 4 of the Y-12 Plant NPDES Permit (TN0002968); provide operating personnel with guidance relevant to storm water pollution prevention and control requirements for their facility and/or project; and prevent or reduce pollutant discharge to the environment, in accordance with the Clean Water Act (CWA) and the Tennessee Water Quality Control Act.

  4. Implementation and planning of preventive and multi-layered contaminated water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Takeshi; Arai, Tomoyuki

    2014-01-01

    In Fukushima Daiichi D and D activities, one of the most challenging issues is contaminated water management. In order to control ground water inflow into the buildings so that amount of contaminated water does not increase and prevent contaminated water spread out to the environment including into the ocean, TEPCO are taking various measures: In order to remove contamination sources, the removal of the highly contaminated water in the seaside trenches are being implemented. And also, the acceleration of water purification is planned by contaminated water clean-up facility. For the purpose of Isolating water from contaminated sources, construction of the frozen-soil land-side wall started in order to prevent the groundwater from flowing in the area and contaminated water from flowing out from the area. In order to prevent leakage of contaminated water into the ocean, soil improvement with sodium silicate (liquid glass) and Installation of the sea-side impermeable walls are implemented. Furthermore, replacement of the flange-type tanks with welded-joint tanks to mitigate leakage risks is underway. (author)

  5. Achieving multiple compliance objectives through a storm water pollution prevention plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, K.J.; Cataldo, R. [ENSR, Acton, MA (United States)

    1997-09-01

    All across the US, facility managers and environmental staff are trying to keep up with proliferating regulations and associated filing and reporting requirements. Added to the already full plate of regulations is the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) program for storm water management. The NPDES program requires a permit for the discharge of runoff from facilities based on Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) code. Some businesses do not yet need to comply with NPDES, as not all types of facilities were included in the Phase 1 list of regulated activities (September 1992). However, most businesses will be included as part of Phase 2 by 2002. Furthermore, states adopting administration of the NPDES program have the option of accelerating the process. In addition to filing for a permit, the NPDES storm water program requires the preparation and implementation of a Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP). A properly prepared SWPPP can help facilities more easily comply with regulatory requirements and serve as an overall facility management tool.

  6. Work hazard prevention plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albertos Campos, F.

    2009-01-01

    The prevention of industrial risks is a constantly evolving discipline that has changed considerable in the last 25 years. The Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plants has always been operated with a clear policy favoring prevention by supporting the principle of its integration, i. e., that the hierarchical functional organization of the company make sure that industrial risk prevention is effective and that health and safety standards are met. The historical evolution of occupational safety in the Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plant shows a a clear trend towards improvement and is the results of many years of hard work and effort by the plants own and contractor personnel in the field of industrial risk prevention. (Author)

  7. Drinking Water Action Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Drinking Water Action Plan serves as a national call to action, urging all levels of government, utilities, community organizations, and other stakeholders to work together to increase the safety and reliability of drinking water.

  8. Water in environmental planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunne, T.; Leopold, L.B.

    1978-01-01

    The book demonstrates how a knowledge of hydrology, geomorphology, and river quality is useful in planning. A planner is defined as any specialist whose knowledge is applied to the avoidance or solution of environmental problems. Subjects covered include precipitation, ground water, surface water runoff, flooding, erosion, sediment transport, water quality, biological aspects, and esthetics. (ACR)

  9. Pollution prevention program implementation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engel, J.A.

    1996-09-01

    The Pollution Prevention Program Implementation Plan (the Plan) describes the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (PNNL) Pollution Prevention (P2) Program. The Plan also shows how the P2 Program at PNNL will be in support of and in compliance with the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention (WMin/P2) Awareness Program Plan and the Hanford Site Guide for Preparing and Maintaining Generator Group Pollution Prevention Program Documentation. In addition, this plan describes how PNNL will demonstrate compliance with various legal and policy requirements for P2. This plan documents the strategy for implementing the PNNL P2 Program. The scope of the P2 Program includes implementing and helping to implement P2 activities at PNNL. These activities will be implemented according to the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) hierarchy of source reduction, recycling, treatment, and disposal. The PNNL P2 Program covers all wastes generated at the Laboratory. These include hazardous waste, low-level radioactive waste, radioactive mixed waste, radioactive liquid waste system waste, polychlorinated biphenyl waste, transuranic waste, and sanitary waste generated by activities at PNNL. Materials, resource, and energy conservation are also within the scope of the PNNL P2 Program

  10. Indiana's Water Shortage Plan

    OpenAIRE

    Unterreiner, Jerry

    2011-01-01

    Indiana’s Water Shortage Plan was recently updated (2009) and established criteria to identify drought conditions and associated “Water Shortage Stages” designated as Normal, Watch, Warning, and Emergency. The three drought triggers are the 1-month Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), U.S. Drought Monitor (USDM), and Percentage of Average Streamflow (28 streamflow gaging sites). The Water Shortage Stage is defined as Normal if no more than one indicator is outside of the normal ra...

  11. Pollution prevention program plan 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This plan serves as the principal crosscutting guidance to Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters, Operations Office, laboratory, and contractor management to fully implement pollution prevention programs within the DOE complex between now and 2000. To firmly demonstrate DOE's commitment to pollution prevention, the Secretary of Energy has established goals, to be achieved by December 31, 1999, that will aggressively reduce DOE's routine generation of radioactive, mixed, and hazardous wastes, and total releases and offsite transfers of toxic chemicals. The Secretary also has established sanitary waste reduction, recycling, and affirmative procurement goals. Site progress in meeting these goals will be reported annually to the Secretary in the Annual Report on Waste Generation and Waste Minimization Progress, using 1993 as the baseline year. Implementation of this plan will represent a major step toward reducing the environmental risks and costs associated with DOE operations

  12. Water resources management plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauco Maia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Water resources manageWith the mission of providing reliable data for water supply activities in medium and large firefighting operations, the Firefighting Water Supply Tactical Group (GTSAI represents an important sector of the Rio de Janeiro State Fire Departmentment plan strategic support. Acting proactively, the Tactical Group prepared a Water Resources Management Plan, aiming to set up water resources for each jurisdiction of firefighters in the City of Rio de Janeiro, in order to assist the Fire Department in its missions. This goal was reached, and in association with LAGEOP (Geoprocessing Laboratory, UFRJ, the Tactical Group started using GIS techniques. The plan provides for the register of existing operational structures within each group (troops, vehicles and special equipment, along with knowledge about the nature and operating conditions of fire hydrants, as well as a detailed survey of areas considered to be "critical". The survey helps to support actions related to environmental disasters involved in the aforementioned critical areas (hospital, churches, schools, and chemical industries, among others. The Caju neighborhood, in Rio de Janeiro, was defined as initial application area, and was the first jurisdiction to have the system implemented, followed by Copacabana, Leblon, Lagoa, and Catete districts.

  13. City planning as preventive medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corburn, Jason

    2015-08-01

    The health and well-being of rapidly growing urban populations is a global health issue. Cities in the global north and south are faced with rising health inequities - or avoidable differences in health determinants and outcomes based on place, social status and ethnicity. This commentary suggests that focusing only on treatment interventions in cities is likely to fail because populations will be forced to go back into the urban living and working conditions that likely made them sick in the first place. City planning as preventive medicine includes taking a relational and systems approach to urban health, requiring health assessments for all urban policy making, promoting neighborhood health centers as engines of community economic development and gathering place-based health indicator data to track progress and adapt interventions over time as conditions change. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Water in environmental planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunne, T.; Leopold, L.B.

    1978-01-01

    This book reviews many of the problems which currently confront the environmental planner - problems which promise to become even more signifcant in the near future. Water resources are examined essentially from a physical standpoint, although throughout the text the emphasis is on the application of basic hydrologic principles in problem solving. The stated aim of the authors is to make all those concerned with planning more aware of the opportunities and constraints of natural processes in maintaining or reclaiming environmental quality. They are successful in outlining the significant role of water in many environmental issues. The book provides a comprehensive review of the current literature associated with water resources, but perhaps more importantly can also be used as an introductory working document in dealing with particular environmental problems. Several chapters for instance include working examples to illustrate specific problem-solving techniques. The book is divided into four sections, the first of which describes six case studies and exemplifies many of the problems facing the environmental planner today. The remaining three sections discuss basic hydrologic principles, fluvial geomorphology and water quality, stressing the value of such studies for improved environmental management. The text is supplemented by bibliographies, photographs, tables, and diagrams.

  15. Municipal water pollution prevention program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-03-01

    EPA believes that the most effective and equitable means of assuring viability of this infrastructure is through environmentally preferred pollution prevention approaches especially through application of Municipal Water Pollution Prevention (MWPP). These approaches may enhance worker safety, improve the usability of sludge, increase the ability for local community expansion, and reduce operation and compliance costs. State-based municipal pollution prevention programs focus attention on a series of actions to prevent pollution in advance rather than taking more expensive corrective actions. MWPP encourages resource conservation to reduce water and energy use, appropriate pricing, toxicity reductions at the source, BOD reductions, recycling, proper treatment of wastes, and beneficial uses of sludge

  16. Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of this plan is to document Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) projections for present and future waste minimization and pollution prevention. The plan specifies those activities and methods that are or will be used to reduce the quantity and toxicity of wastes generated at the site. It is intended to satisfy Department of Energy (DOE) requirements. This Plan provides an overview of projected activities from FY 1994 through FY 1999. The plans are broken into site-wide and problem-specific activities. All directorates at LLNL have had an opportunity to contribute input, to estimate budget, and to review the plan. In addition to the above, this plan records LLNL`s goals for pollution prevention, regulatory drivers for those activities, assumptions on which the cost estimates are based, analyses of the strengths of the projects, and the barriers to increasing pollution prevention activities.

  17. Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of this plan is to document Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) projections for present and future waste minimization and pollution prevention. The plan specifies those activities and methods that are or will be used to reduce the quantity and toxicity of wastes generated at the site. It is intended to satisfy Department of Energy (DOE) requirements. This Plan provides an overview of projected activities from FY 1994 through FY 1999. The plans are broken into site-wide and problem-specific activities. All directorates at LLNL have had an opportunity to contribute input, to estimate budget, and to review the plan. In addition to the above, this plan records LLNL's goals for pollution prevention, regulatory drivers for those activities, assumptions on which the cost estimates are based, analyses of the strengths of the projects, and the barriers to increasing pollution prevention activities

  18. Waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this plan is to document the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program. The plan specifies those activities and methods that are or will be employed to reduce the quantity and toxicity of wastes generated at the site. The intent of this plan is to respond to and comply with (DOE's) policy and guidelines concerning the need for pollution prevention. The Plan is composed of a LLNL Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan and, as attachments, Program- and Department-specific waste minimization plans. This format reflects the fact that waste minimization is considered a line management responsibility and is to be addressed by each of the Programs and Departments. 14 refs

  19. Waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-05-31

    The purpose of this plan is to document the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program. The plan specifies those activities and methods that are or will be employed to reduce the quantity and toxicity of wastes generated at the site. The intent of this plan is to respond to and comply with (DOE's) policy and guidelines concerning the need for pollution prevention. The Plan is composed of a LLNL Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan and, as attachments, Program- and Department-specific waste minimization plans. This format reflects the fact that waste minimization is considered a line management responsibility and is to be addressed by each of the Programs and Departments. 14 refs.

  20. Icelandic experience with water safety plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsdóttir, M J; Gardarsson, S M; Bartram, J

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate accumulated experience with water safety plans in one of the first countries to adopt systematic preventive management for drinking-water safety. Water utilities in Iceland have had a legal obligation since 1995 to implement a systematic preventive approach to secure safety of drinking water and protect public health. The water utilities responded by implementing either an adapted HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points) model for larger water utilities or a simpler five step model for smaller water utilities. The research was carried out at 16 water utilities that serve about two-thirds of the population of Iceland. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used with the aim of analysing if and what benefits water safety plans bring for water utilities and what is needed for successful implementation and operation of such systems. The results of the study show that numerous benefits and even the process of going through the implementing process were considered to be of advantage and change the attitude of the staff and the utility culture. Some obstacles and shortcomings came to light, such as lack of documentation and lack of regular internal and external audit. There was little communication with the public, although some mentioned that good public relations are important to succeed with water safety plans. Many important elements of success were revealed of which intensive training of staff and participation of staff in the whole process are deemed the most important. It is also important to have simple and well-structured guidelines, and good cooperation with the health authorities.

  1. Site 300 Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasures (SPCC) Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mertesdorf, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Plan describes the measures that are taken at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory’s (LLNL) Experimental Test Site (Site 300) near Tracy, California, to prevent, control, and handle potential spills from aboveground containers that can contain 55 gallons or more of oil. This SPCC Plan complies with the Oil Pollution Prevention regulation in Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 112 (40 CFR 112) and with 40 CFR 761.65(b) and (c), which regulates the temporary storage of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This Plan has also been prepared in accordance with Division 20, Chapter 6.67 of the California Health and Safety Code (HSC 6.67) requirements for oil pollution prevention (referred to as the Aboveground Petroleum Storage Act [APSA]), and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Order No. 436.1. This SPCC Plan establishes procedures, methods, equipment, and other requirements to prevent the discharge of oil into or upon the navigable waters of the United States or adjoining shorelines for aboveground oil storage and use at Site 300. This SPCC Plan has been prepared for the entire Site 300 facility and replaces the three previous plans prepared for Site 300: LLNL SPCC for Electrical Substations Near Buildings 846 and 865 (LLNL 2015), LLNL SPCC for Building 883 (LLNL 2015), and LLNL SPCC for Building 801 (LLNL 2014).

  2. Hanford site ground water protection management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    Ground water protection at the Hanford Site consists of preventative and remedial measures that are implemented in compliance with a variety of environmental regulations at local, state, and federal levels. These measures seek to ensure that the resource can sustain a broad range of beneficial uses. To effectively coordinate and ensure compliance with applicable regulations, the U.S. Department of Energy has issued DOE Order 5400.1 (DOE 1988a). This order requires all U.S. Department of Energy facilities to prepare separate ground water protection program descriptions and plans. This document describes the Ground Water Protection Management Plan (GPMP) for the Hanford Site located in the state of Washington. DOE Order 5400.1 specifies that the GPMP covers the following general topical areas: (1) documentation of the ground water regime; (2) design and implementation of a ground water monitoring program to support resource management and comply with applicable laws and regulations; (3) a management program for ground water protection and remediation; (4) a summary and identification of areas that may be contaminated with hazardous waste; (5) strategies for controlling hazardous waste sources; (6) a remedial action program; and (7) decontamination, decommissioning, and related remedial action requirements. Many of the above elements are currently covered by existing programs at the Hanford Site; thus, one of the primary purposes of this document is to provide a framework for coordination of existing ground water protection activities. The GPMP provides the ground water protection policy and strategies for ground water protection/management at the Hanford Site, as well as an implementation plan to improve coordination of site ground water activities

  3. Livermore Site Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasures (SPCC) Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellah, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Griffin, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mertesdorf, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-09-21

    This Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Plan describes the measures that are taken at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory’s (LLNL) Livermore Site in Livermore, California, to prevent, control, and handle potential spills from aboveground containers that can contain 55 gallons or more of oil. This SPCC Plan complies with the Oil Pollution Prevention regulation in Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR), Part 112 (40 CFR 112) and with 40 CFR 761.65(b) and (c), which regulates the temporary storage of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This Plan has also been prepared in accordance with Division 20, Chapter 6.67 of the California Health and Safety Code (HSC 6.67) requirements for oil pollution prevention (referred to as the Aboveground Petroleum Storage Act [APSA]), and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Order No. 436.1. This SPCC Plan establishes procedures, methods, equipment, and other requirements to prevent the discharge of oil into or upon the navigable waters of the United States or adjoining shorelines for aboveground oil storage and use at the Livermore Site.

  4. Idaho National Laboratory Site Pollution Prevention Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. D. Sellers

    2007-03-01

    It is the policy of the Department of Energy (DOE) that pollution prevention and sustainable environmental stewardship will be integrated into DOE operations as a good business practice to reduce environmental hazards, protect environmental resources, avoid pollution control costs, and improve operational efficiency and mission sustainability. In furtherance of this policy, DOE established five strategic, performance-based Pollution Prevention (P2) and Sustainable Environmental Stewardship goals and included them as an attachment to DOE O 450.1, Environmental Protection Program. These goals and accompanying strategies are to be implemented by DOE sites through the integration of Pollution Prevention into each site's Environmental Management System (EMS). This document presents a P2 and Sustainability Program and corresponding plan pursuant to DOE Order 450.1 and DOE O 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. This plan is also required by the state of Idaho, pursuant to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) partial permit. The objective of this document is to describe the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site P2 and Sustainability Program. The purpose of the program is to decrease the environmental footprint of the INL Site while providing enhanced support of its mission. The success of the program is dependent on financial and management support. The signatures on the previous page indicate INL, ICP, and AMWTP Contractor management support and dedication to the program. P2 requirements have been integrated into working procedures to ensure an effective EMS as part of an Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS). This plan focuses on programmatic functions which include environmentally preferable procurement, sustainable design, P2 and Sustainability awareness, waste generation and reduction, source reduction and recycling, energy management, and pollution prevention opportunity assessments. The INL Site P2 and Sustainability Program is administratively

  5. Idaho National Laboratory Site Pollution Prevention Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    E. D. Sellers

    2007-01-01

    It is the policy of the Department of Energy (DOE) that pollution prevention and sustainable environmental stewardship will be integrated into DOE operations as a good business practice to reduce environmental hazards, protect environmental resources, avoid pollution control costs, and improve operational efficiency and mission sustainability. In furtherance of this policy, DOE established five strategic, performance-based Pollution Prevention (P2) and Sustainable Environmental Stewardship goals and included them as an attachment to DOE O 450.1, Environmental Protection Program. These goals and accompanying strategies are to be implemented by DOE sites through the integration of Pollution Prevention into each site's Environmental Management System (EMS). This document presents a P2 and Sustainability Program and corresponding plan pursuant to DOE Order 450.1 and DOE O 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. This plan is also required by the state of Idaho, pursuant to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) partial permit. The objective of this document is to describe the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site P2 and Sustainability Program. The purpose of the program is to decrease the environmental footprint of the INL Site while providing enhanced support of its mission. The success of the program is dependent on financial and management support. The signatures on the previous page indicate INL, ICP, and AMWTP Contractor management support and dedication to the program. P2 requirements have been integrated into working procedures to ensure an effective EMS as part of an Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS). This plan focuses on programmatic functions which include environmentally preferable procurement, sustainable design, P2 and Sustainability awareness, waste generation and reduction, source reduction and recycling, energy management, and pollution prevention opportunity assessments. The INL Site P2 and Sustainability Program is administratively

  6. Preventing readmissions through comprehensive discharge planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Tabitha; Nelson, James Rex; Birmingham, Jackie

    2013-01-01

    Case managers, including nurses and social workers, provide essential services to hospitalized patients, including mandated discharge planning that has been shown to impact patient safety and patient outcomes. The heightened attention to readmission is evident in both reimbursement and accreditation initiatives. The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, Office of Clinical Standards & Quality/Survey & Certification Group, is revising worksheets to be used by surveyors to review how hospitals are complying with the Medicare Conditions of Participation with a focus on discharge planning as it relates to patient safety. This is an opportunity for case managers to apply the principles of case management to the targeted problem of readmissions. Now case managers must identify the reasons for readmission on a patient-by-patient basis, collect data, analyze processes, and then change practice in the hospital and work more closely with community-based providers. The purpose of this article is to recommend improvement in a consistent case management practice that will positively influence patient readmissions. Hospital-based case managers who are responsible for discharge planning functions. Hospital administrators will also find this information valuable as a tool to assess strategies to control preventable readmissions and to comply with the Medicare Conditions of Participation for discharge planning. Hospital-based case managers, responsible for discharge planning, have a unique opportunity to interact face-to-face with patients who are readmitted to determine factors that lead to the readmission. Case managers need to change their practice to include assessing patients on the basis of their prior level of care. Pharmacists need to play a bigger role in discharge planning, especially for patients who have experienced a potentially avoidable readmission. Working closely with community-based providers is essential to target reasons for readmission. The Medicare

  7. Water Utility Planning for an Emergency Drinking Water Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reviews roles and responsibilities among various levels of government regarding emergency water supplies and seeks to encourage collaboration and partnership regarding emergency water supply planning.

  8. Hanford Site waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Place, B.G.

    1998-01-01

    This plan, which is required by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400. 1, provides waste minimization and pollution prevention guidance for all Hanford Site contractors. The plan is primary in a hierarchical series that includes the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan, Prime contractor implementation plans, and the Hanford Site Guide for Preparing and Maintaining Generator Group Pollution Prevention Program Documentation (DOE-RL, 1997a) describing programs required by Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) 3002(b) and 3005(h) (RCRA and EPA, 1994). Items discussed include the pollution prevention policy and regulatory background, organizational structure, the major objectives and goals of Hanford Site's pollution prevention program, and an itemized description of the Hanford Site pollution prevention program. The document also includes US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office's (RL's) statement of policy on pollution prevention as well as a listing of regulatory drivers that require a pollution prevention program

  9. Impact of the Prevention Plan on Employee Health Risk Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Loeppke, Ronald; Edington, Dee W.; Bég, Sami

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of The Prevention Plan™ on employee health risks after 1 year of integrated primary prevention (wellness and health promotion) and secondary prevention (biometric and lab screening as well as early detection) interventions. The Prevention Plan is an innovative prevention benefit that provides members with the high-tech/high-touch support and encouragement they need to adopt healthy behaviors. Support services include 24/7 nurse hotlines, one-on-one health coach...

  10. Drinking water protection plan; a discussion document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This draft document outlines the plan of action devised by the Government of British Columbia in an effort to safeguard the purity of the drinking water supply in the province, and invites British Columbians to participate in the elaboration of such a plan. This document concentrates on the assessment of the sources of the water supply (watersheds and aquifers) and on measures to ensure the integrity of the system of water treatment and distribution as the principal components of a comprehensive plan to protect drinking water. The proposed plan involves a multi-barrier approach that will use a combination of measures to ensure that water sources are properly managed and waterworks systems provide safe drinking water. New drinking water planning procedures, more effective local influence and authority, enforceable standards, better access to information and public education programs form the essence of the plan. A series of public meetings are scheduled to provide the public at large with opportunities to comment on the government's plan of action and to offer suggestions for additional measures

  11. Waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness plan. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The purpose of this plan is to document Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) projections for present and future waste minimization and pollution prevention. The plan specifies those activities and methods that are or will be used to reduce the quantity and toxicity of wastes generated at the site. It is intended to satisfy Department of Energy (DOE) requirements. This Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Plan provides an overview of projected activities from FY 1994 through FY 1999. The plans are broken into site-wide and problem-specific activities. All directorates at LLNL have had an opportunity to contribute input, estimate budgets, and review the plan. In addition to the above, this plan records LLNL`s goals for pollution prevention, regulatory drivers for those activities, assumptions on which the cost estimates are based, analyses of the strengths of the projects, and the barriers to increasing pollution prevention activities.

  12. Waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    The purpose of this plan is to document Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) projections for present and future waste minimization and pollution prevention. The plan specifies those activities and methods that are or will be used to reduce the quantity and toxicity of wastes generated at the site. It is intended to satisfy Department of Energy (DOE) requirements. This Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Plan provides an overview of projected activities from FY 1994 through FY 1999. The plans are broken into site-wide and problem-specific activities. All directorates at LLNL have had an opportunity to contribute input, estimate budgets, and review the plan. In addition to the above, this plan records LLNL's goals for pollution prevention, regulatory drivers for those activities, assumptions on which the cost estimates are based, analyses of the strengths of the projects, and the barriers to increasing pollution prevention activities

  13. Adverse Drug Event Prevention: 2014 Action Plan Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducoffe, Aaron R; Baehr, Avi; Peña, Juliet C; Rider, Briana B; Yang, Sandra; Hu, Dale J

    2016-09-01

    Adverse drug events (ADEs) have been highlighted as a national patient safety and public health challenge by the National Action Plan for Adverse Drug Event Prevention (ADE Action Plan), which was released by the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion in August 2014. The following October, the ADE Prevention: 2014 Action Plan Conference provided an opportunity for federal agencies, national experts, and stakeholders to coordinate and collaborate in the initiative to reduce preventable ADEs. The single-day conference included morning plenary sessions focused on the surveillance, evidence-based prevention, incentives and oversights, and additional research needs of the drug classes highlighted in the ADE Action Plan: anticoagulants, diabetes agents, and opioids. Afternoon breakout sessions allowed for facilitated discussions on measures for tracking national progress in ADE prevention and the identification of opportunities to ensure safe and high-quality health care and medication use. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Work hazard prevention plans; Plan de prevencion de riesgos laborales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albertos Campos, F.

    2009-07-01

    The prevention of industrial risks is a constantly evolving discipline that has changed considerable in the last 25 years. The Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plants has always been operated with a clear policy favoring prevention by supporting the principle of its integration, i. e., that the hierarchical functional organization of the company make sure that industrial risk prevention is effective and that health and safety standards are met. The historical evolution of occupational safety in the Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plant shows a a clear trend towards improvement and is the results of many years of hard work and effort by the plants own and contractor personnel in the field of industrial risk prevention. (Author)

  15. Developing the strategic plan for pollution prevention in defense programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchetti, John A.; Betschart, James F.; Suffern, J. Samuel

    1992-01-01

    In order to provide effective leadership and to ensure a consistent pollution prevention effort in all of its production facilities and laboratories, Defense Programs (DP) Headquarters, in close cooperation with the Field, has developed a strategic plan for its Pollution Prevention Program. The strategic plan is built upon the history of waste minimization, waste reduction, and pollution prevention activity to date, and articulates both long- and short-term strategies to ensure program initiation, growth, and stability. The organization of the program, including Headquarters staffing and linkages to the Geld, is described. Life-cycle analysis of program barriers and bottlenecks, along with associated initiatives and action plans are discussed. (author)

  16. 40 CFR 130.6 - Water quality management plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality management plans. 130.6... QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.6 Water quality management plans. (a) Water quality management (WQM... and certified and approved updates to those plans. Continuing water quality planning shall be based...

  17. Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan - TA-60 Asphalt Batch Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval, Leonard Frank [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-01-31

    This Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) was developed in accordance with the provisions of the Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. §§1251 et seq., as amended), and the Multi-Sector General Permit for Storm Water Discharges Associated with Industrial Activity (U.S. EPA, June 2015) issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and using the industry specific permit requirements for Sector P-Land Transportation and Warehousing as a guide. This SWPPP applies to discharges of stormwater from the operational areas of the TA-60-01 Asphalt Batch Plant at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Los Alamos National Laboratory (also referred to as LANL or the “Laboratory”) is owned by the Department of Energy (DOE), and is operated by Los Alamos National Security, LLC (LANS). Throughout this document, the term “facility” refers to the TA-60 Asphalt Batch Plant and associated areas. The current permit expires at midnight on June 4, 2020.

  18. Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan - TA-60 Material Recycling Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval, Leonard Frank [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-01-31

    This Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) was developed in accordance with the provisions of the Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. §§1251 et seq., as amended), and the Multi-Sector General Permit for Storm Water Discharges Associated with Industrial Activity (U.S. EPA, June 2015) issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and using the industry specific permit requirements for Sector P-Land Transportation and Warehousing as a guide. This SWPPP applies to discharges of stormwater from the operational areas of the TA- 60 Material Recycling Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Los Alamos National Laboratory (also referred to as LANL or the “Laboratory”) is owned by the Department of Energy (DOE), and is operated by Los Alamos National Security, LLC (LANS). Throughout this document, the term “facility” refers to the TA-60 Material Recycling Facility. The current permit expires at midnight on June 4, 2020.

  19. Lake Superior Aquatic Invasive Species Complete Prevention Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Lake Superior Aquatic Invasive Species Complete Prevention Plan is an expression of the best professional judgment of the members of the Lake Superior Task Force as to what is necessary to protect Lake Superior from new aquatic invasive species.

  20. B Plant Complex pollution prevention plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beam, T.G.

    1994-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has directed Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to develop an effective strategy to minimize the generation of hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes at Hanford in compliance with state and federal regulations. WHC has formalized a pollution prevention program composed of management policies, management requirements and procedures. This plan addresses pollution prevention for B Plant Complex. A pollution prevention team is in place and has been assigned responsibility for implementing the plan. This plan includes actions and goals for reducing volume and toxicity of waste generated, as well as a basis for evaluation of progress. Descriptions of waste streams, current specific goals, general pollution prevention methods, and specific accomplishments are in the appendices of this plan

  1. Westinghouse Hanford Company Pollution Prevention Program Implementation Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floyd, B.C.

    1994-10-01

    This plan documents Westinghouse Hanford Company's (WHC) Pollution Prevention (P2) (formerly Waste Minimization) program. The program includes WHC; BCS Richland, Inc. (BCSR); and ICF Kaiser Hanford Company (ICF KH). The plan specifies P2 program activities and schedules for implementing the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness (WMin/P2) Program Plan requirements (DOE 1994a). It is intended to satisfy the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and other legal requirements that are discussed in both the Hanford Site WMin/P2 plan and paragraph C of this plan. As such, the Pollution Prevention Awareness Program required by DOE Order 5400.1 (DOE 1988) is included in the WHC P2 program. WHC, BCSR, and ICF KH are committed to implementing an effective P2 program as identified in the Hanford Site WMin/P2 Plan. This plan provides specific information on how the WHC P2 program will develop and implement the goals, activities, and budget needed to accomplish this. The emphasis has been to provide detailed planning of the WHC P2 program activities over the next 3 years. The plan will guide the development and implementation of the program. The plan also provides background information on past program activities. Because the plan contains greater detail than in the past, activity scope and implementation schedules may change as new priorities are identified and new approaches are developed and realized. Some activities will be accelerated, others may be delayed; however, all of the general program elements identified in this plan and contractor requirements identified in the Site WMin/P2 plan will be developed and implemented during the next 3 years. This plan applies to all WHC, BCSR, and ICF KH organizations and subcontractors. It will be distributed to those with defined responsibilities in this plan; and the policy, goals, objectives, and strategy of the program will be communicated to all WHC, BCSR, and ICF KH employees

  2. Livermore Site Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasures Plan, May 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mertesdorf, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-05-01

    This Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Plan describes the measures that are taken at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory’s (LLNL) Livermore Site in Livermore, California, to prevent, control, and handle potential spills from aboveground containers that can contain 55 gallons or more of oil.

  3. Waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    The primary mission of DOE/NV is to manage and operate the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and other designated test locations, within and outside the United States; provide facilities and services to DOE and non-DOE NTS users; and plan. coordinate, and execute nuclear weapons tests and related test activities. DOE/NV also: (a) Supports operations under interagency agreements pertaining to tests, emergencies, and related functions/activities, (b) Plans, coordinates, and executes environmental restoration, (c) Provides support to the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Office in conjunction with DOE/HQ oversight, (d) Manages the Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMS) for disposal of low-level and mixed wastes received from the NTS and off-site generators, and (e) Implements waste minimization programs to reduce the amount of hazardous, mixed, radioactive, and nonhazardous solid waste that is generated and disposed The NTS, which is the primary facility controlled by DOE/NV, occupies 1,350 square miles of restricted-access, federally-owned land located in Nye County in Southern Nevada. The NTS is located in a sparsely populated area, approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada

  4. New plan to prevent female infanticide mooted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-06-05

    The Campaign Against Female Infanticide in Tamil Nadu (CAFIT), sponsored by the Union Ministry of Human Resource Development, has brought to light a quadrangular model for the prevention of the social evil of female infanticide. The existence of female infanticide, according to the CAFIT, exposed the deplorable condition of women in society and reflected the perpetuation of customary and traditional practices in the sociocultural life of the people. The practice was associated with militant communities and other weaker segments living in less developed regions and with backward pockets marked by illiteracy, superstition, poverty, indebtedness, fear of liability, and emotional attachments to the soil and to cults. This paper also indicates the following preventive measures against female infanticide that are aimed at empowering women: establishing self-help groups and the sanction of micro credit for women in order to facilitate economic development, establishing rural and agriculture-based small-scale industries in order to generate local self-employment, and synchronization of crop insurance and marketing facilities in order to facilitate the provision of appropriate compensation in the event of crop failure caused by natural disasters.

  5. Environmental Release Prevention and Control Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamatey, A.; Arnett, M.

    1997-01-01

    During the history of SRS, continual improvements in facilities, process, and operations, and changes in the site''s mission have reduced the amount of radioactive liquid releases. In the early years of SRS (1958 to 1965), the amount of tritium discharged to the Savannah River averaged approximately 61,000 curies a year. During the mid-1980''s (1983 to 1988), liquid releases of tritium averaged 27,000 curies a year. By 1996, liquid releases of tritium are projected to be just 3000 curies for the year. This large projected decrease is the result of the planned shut-down of all reactors and the anticipated significant decline in the amount of tritium migrating from the site seepage basins and the Solid Waste Disposal Facility

  6. Hanford site pollution prevention plan progress report, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkendall, J.R.

    1996-08-26

    This report tracks progress made during 1995 against the goals stated in DOE/RL-92-62, Executive Summary, Hanford Site Pollution Prevention Plan. The Executive Summary of the plan was submitted to the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) in September 1992. The plan, Executive Summary, and the progress reports are elements of a pollution prevention planning program that is required by WAC 173-307,`Plans,` for all hazardous substance users and/or all hazardous waste generators regulated by Ecology. These regulations implement RCW 70.95C, `Waste Reduction,` an act relating to hazardous waste reduction. The act encourages voluntary efforts to redesign industrial processes to help reduce or eliminate hazardous substances and hazardous waste byproducts, and to maximize the in- process reuse or reclamation of valuable spent material.

  7. Environmental Restoration Contractor Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, R.A.

    1994-11-01

    The purpose of this plan is to establish the Environmental Restoration Contractor (ERC) Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention (WMin/P2) Program and outline the activities and schedules that will be employed to reduce the quantity and toxicity of wastes generated as a result of restoration and remediation activities. It is intended to satisfy the US Department of Energy (DOE) and other legal requirements. As such, the Pollution Prevention Awareness program required by DOE Order 5400.1 is included with the Pollution Prevention Program. This plan is also intended to aid projects in meeting and documenting compliance with the various requirements for WMin/P2, and contains the policy, objectives, strategy, and support activities of the WMin/P2 program. The basic elements of the plan are pollution prevention goals, waste assessments of major waste streams, implementation of feasible waste minimization opportunities, and a process for reporting achievements. Various pollution prevention techniques will be implemented with the support of employee training and awareness programs to reduce waste and still meet applicable requirements. Information about the Hanford Site is in the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan

  8. Water management planning guideline for waterpower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-05-01

    Hydroelectric power has been used in Ontario for over 150 years, providing the impetus to economic development in the province. Currently, 83 hydroelectric utilities own the more than 200 hydro power facilities in Ontario, accounting for approximately 26 per cent of the total electrical generating capacity in the province. Flood control and the creation of recreational opportunities were added benefits derived from the construction of hydroelectric dams. The three ways of operating hydroelectric facilities are: run-of-the-river which involves minimal forebay storage, peaking which involves the operation of the dam for specific periods of high energy demand, and intermediate. The Ontario government plans to open the electricity market to competition, guided by four principles: (1) protecting consumers and offering more choice, (2) ensuring a strong business climate with a reliable supply of electricity, (3) protecting the environment, and (4) encouraging new ways of doing business and new sources of power. To address issues that arise from the operation of hydroelectric facilities, dam owners and hydroelectric facilities operators are required to develop Water Management Plans, outlining how the facility will be operated to balance environmental, social and economic objectives. The present document was developed to define goals and principles concerning planning, the scope of Water Management Plans, the criteria and the general planning process to be adopted for the preparation of the Plans. 1 tab., 4 figs

  9. Fresno/Clovis water management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burmeister, W.E.; Peterson, D.

    1993-01-01

    The Fresno/Clovis Metropolitan Area (FCMA) has historically relied solely on untreated undisinfected groundwater as a source of potable water to serve its 500,000 people. Contamination was discovered in some wells in the late 1970s, and cones of depression in areas of heavy pumping have caused contaminants to spread within the basin. Recent data indicate that at least 44 of the 352 public water agency wells in the FCMA have already been deactivated because of groundwater quality degradation. Major plumes of groundwater contamination occur throughout the study area. Most of the agricultural contaminants in the FCMA groundwater are the consequence of routine pesticide application over thousands of acres of surrounding farmland. Commercial and industrial contaminants are primarily due to poor storage and handling practices, careless or improper disposal, and leaking underground tanks. Recent and anticipated water quality regulations will probably require some form of wellhead treatment at every public water agency well in the FCMA. Such treatment may consist of disinfection, corrosion control, and the removal of radionuclides and organic chemicals. Many of the well sites are not sized, located, or configured to accommodate wellhead treatment. Potable water distribution systems in the FCMA were constructed based on dispersed wells and a local distribution network of relatively small water mains. A technical advisory committee (TAC) was formed in 1984 to promote a cooperative water planning effort. The TAC is composed of the five major water agencies in the metropolitan area: the Cities of Fresno and Clovis, Fresno County, the Fresno Metropolitan Flood Control District (FMFCD), and the Fresno Irrigation District (FID). The TAC prepared the work plan and, in August of 1991, selected CH2M HILL to develop the Fresno/Clovis Water Resources Management Plan

  10. Implementing post-trial access plans for HIV prevention research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Amy; Merritt, Maria W; Sugarman, Jeremy

    2018-02-27

    Ethics guidance increasingly recognises that researchers and sponsors have obligations to consider provisions for post-trial access (PTA) to interventions that are found to be beneficial in research. Yet, there is little information regarding whether and how such plans can actually be implemented. Understanding practical experiences of developing and implementing these plans is critical to both optimising their implementation and informing conceptual work related to PTA. This viewpoint is informed by experiences with developing and implementing PTA plans for six large-scale multicentre HIV prevention trials supported by the HIV Prevention Trials Network. These experiences suggest that planning and implementing PTA often involve challenges of planning under uncertainty and confronting practical barriers to accessing healthcare systems. Even in relatively favourable circumstances where a tested intervention medication is approved and available in the local healthcare system, system-level barriers can threaten the viability of PTA plans. The aggregate experience across these HIV prevention trials suggests that simply referring participants to local healthcare systems for PTA will not necessarily result in continued access to beneficial interventions for trial participants. Serious commitments to PTA will require additional efforts to learn from future approaches, measuring the success of PTA plans with dedicated follow-up and further developing normative guidance to help research stakeholders navigate the complex practical challenges of realising PTA. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Preventive distribution and plans of iodine tablets stocks management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This official note includes two parts: one concerns the new preventive distribution of iodine tablets on the areas defined by the Particular Intervention Plans (P.P.I.) around nuclear facilities and the other one the setting up of iodine tablets stocks beyond the P.P.I. areas. In annexe is a guide for the elaboration of stocks management plans for steady iodine tablets. (N.C.)

  12. 7 CFR 634.23 - Water quality plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water quality plan. 634.23 Section 634.23 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING RURAL CLEAN WATER PROGRAM Participant RCWP Contracts § 634.23 Water quality plan. (a) The participant's water quality plan, developed with technical assistance by the NRCS or its...

  13. 2010-2014 Pollution Prevention Program Strategic Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Strategic Plan identifies a number of opportunities for EPA's Pollution Prevention (P2) Program to help reduce: the emission of greenhouse gasses; the use of hazardous materials; and the use of natural resources, while contributing to a greener and more sustainable economy.

  14. Waste Minimization/Pollution Prevention Crosscut Plan, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This plan establishes a Department-wide goal to reduce total releases of toxic chemicals to the environment and off-site transfers of such toxic chemicals by 50 percent by December 31, 1999, in compliance with Executive Order 12856. Each site that meets the threshold quantities of toxic chemicals established in the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) will participate in this goal. In addition, each DOE site will establish site-specific goals to reduce generation of hazardous, radioactive, radioactive mixed, and sanitary wastes and pollutants, as applicable. Implementation of this plan will represent a major step toward the environmental risks and costs associated with DOE operations and increasing the Department's use of preventive environmental management practices. Investing in Waste Minimization Pollution Prevention (WMin/PP) steadily reduce hazardous and radioactive waste generation and will reduce the need for waste management and unnecessary expenditures for waste treatment, storage, and disposal. A preventive approach to waste management will help solve current environmental and regulatory issues and reduce the need for costly future corrective actions. The purpose of this plan is to establish the strategic framework for integrating WMin/PP into all DOE internal activities. This program includes setting DOE policy and goals for reducing the generation of wastes and pollutants, increasing recycling activities, and establishing an infrastructure to achieve and measure the goals throughout the DOE complex. Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Plans, submitted to Headquarters by DOE field sites, will incorporate the WMin/PP activities and goals outlined in this plan. Success of the DOE WMin/PP program is dependent upon each field operation becoming accountable for resources used, wastes and pollutants generated, and wastes recycled

  15. Hanford Site Pollution Prevention Plan Progress report, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This report tracks progress against the goals stated in the Hanford Site 5-year Pollution Prevention Plan. The executive summary of the plan was submitted to the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) in September 1992. The plan, executive summary, and the progress reports are elements of a pollution prevention planning program that is required by Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-307 for all hazardous substance users and/or all hazardous waste generators regulated by Ecology. These regulations implement Chapter 70.95C, Revised Code of Washington, an act relating to hazardous waste reduction. The act encourages voluntary efforts to redesign industrial processes to help reduce or eliminate hazardous substances and hazardous waste byproducts, and to maximize the inprocess reuse or reclamation of valuable spent material. Although the Hanford Site is exempt, it is voluntarily complying with this state regulatory-mandated program. This is the first year the Hanford Site is submitting a progress report. It covers calendar year 1993 plus the last quarter of 1992. What is reported, in accordance with WAC 173-307, are reductions in hazardous substance use and hazardous waste generated. A system of Process Waste Assessments (PWA) was chosen to meet the requirements of the program. The PWAs were organized by a physical facility or company organization. Each waste-generating facility/organization performed PWAs to identify, screen, and analyze their own reduction options. Each completed PWA identified any number of reduction opportunities, that are listed individually in the plan and summarized by category in the executive summary. These opportunities were to be implemented or evaluated further over the duration of the 5-year plan. The basis of this progress report is to track action taken on these PWA reduction opportunities in relationship to achieving the goals stated in the Pollution Prevention Plan

  16. Hanford Site Pollution Prevention Plan Progress report, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This report tracks progress against the goals stated in the Hanford Site 5-year Pollution Prevention Plan. The executive summary of the plan was submitted to the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) in September 1992. The plan, executive summary, and the progress reports are elements of a pollution prevention planning program that is required by Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-307 for all hazardous substance users and/or all hazardous waste generators regulated by Ecology. These regulations implement Chapter 70.95C, Revised Code of Washington, an act relating to hazardous waste reduction. The act encourages voluntary efforts to redesign industrial processes to help reduce or eliminate hazardous substances and hazardous waste byproducts, and to maximize the inprocess reuse or reclamation of valuable spent material. Although the Hanford Site is exempt, it is voluntarily complying with this state regulatory-mandated program. This is the first year the Hanford Site is submitting a progress report. It covers calendar year 1993 plus the last quarter of 1992. What is reported, in accordance with WAC 173-307, are reductions in hazardous substance use and hazardous waste generated. A system of Process Waste Assessments (PWA) was chosen to meet the requirements of the program. The PWAs were organized by a physical facility or company organization. Each waste-generating facility/organization performed PWAs to identify, screen, and analyze their own reduction options. Each completed PWA identified any number of reduction opportunities, that are listed individually in the plan and summarized by category in the executive summary. These opportunities were to be implemented or evaluated further over the duration of the 5-year plan. The basis of this progress report is to track action taken on these PWA reduction opportunities in relationship to achieving the goals stated in the Pollution Prevention Plan.

  17. Water side corrosion prevention in boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeid, A.

    1993-01-01

    Corrosion may be defined as a naturally occurring physical and chemical deterioration of a material due to reaction with the environment or surrounding atmosphere. In boilers the material is subjected on both sides to two different media which may cause severe corrosion. At the water side the content of O 2 considered one of the principal factors which determine the extent of corrosion in the boiler tubes. This paper deals with certain conditions that result in the increase of O 2 in the boiler water and hence increase the corrosion rate, to minimize the effect of these conditions a chemical treatment was carried out the results obtained indicated the success of the treatment procedure in corrosion prevention and boiler material protection. The treatment is traditional. But the study indicates how a simple mean could be applied to solve a serious problem. 4 tab

  18. 18 CFR 740.4 - State water management planning program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false State water management... STATE WATER MANAGEMENT PLANNING PROGRAM § 740.4 State water management planning program. (a) A State... major elements of the State water management program, which should address but not be limited to: (i...

  19. Hanford Site waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    The Hanford Site WMin/P2 program is an organized, comprehensive, and continual effort to systematically reduce the quantity and toxicity of hazardous, radioactive, mixed, and sanitary wastes; conserve resources; and prevent or minimize pollutant releases to all environmental media from all Site activities. The Hanford Site WMin/P2 program plan reflects national and DOE waste minimization and pollution prevention goals and policies, and represents an ongoing effort to make WMin/P2 part of the Site operating philosophy. In accordance with these policies, a hierarchical approach to environmental management has been adopted and is applied to all types of polluting and waste generating activities. Pollution prevention and waste minimization through source reduction are first priority in the Hanford WMin/P2 program, followed by environmentally safe recycling. Treatment to reduce the quantity, toxicity, and/or mobility will be considered only when prevention or recycling are not possible or practical. Environmentally safe disposal is the last option

  20. A resource-efficient planning for pressure ulcer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostadabbas, Sarah; Yousefi, Rasoul; Nourani, Mehrdad; Faezipour, Miad; Tamil, Lakshman; Pompeo, Matthew Q

    2012-11-01

    Pressure ulcer is a critical problem for bed-ridden and wheelchair-bound patients, diabetics, and the elderly. Patients need to be regularly repositioned to prevent excessive pressure on a single area of body, which can lead to ulcers. Pressure ulcers are extremely costly to treat and may lead to several other health problems, including death. The current standard for prevention is to reposition at-risk patients every two hours. Even if it is done properly, a fixed schedule is not sufficient to prevent all ulcers. Moreover, it may result in nurses being overworked by turning some patients too frequently. In this paper, we present an algorithm for finding a nurse-effort optimal repositioning schedule that prevents pressure ulcer formation for a finite planning horizon. Our proposed algorithm uses data from a commercial pressure mat assembled on the beds surface and provides a sequence of next positions and the time of repositioning for each patient.

  1. Hanford Site Pollution Prevention Plan progress report, 1994. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This report tracks progress made during 1994 against the goals stated in DOE/RL-92-62, Executive Summary, Hanford Site Pollution Prevention Plan. The Executive Summary of the plan was submitted to the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) in September 1992. The plan, Executive Summary, and the progress reports are elements of a pollution prevention planning program that is required by WAC 173-307, ``Plans,`` for all hazardous substance users and/or all hazardous waste generators regulated by Ecology. These regulations implement RCW 70.95C, ``Waste Reduction,`` an act relating to hazardous waste reduction. The act encourages voluntary efforts to redesign industrial processes to help reduce or eliminate hazardous substances and hazardous waste byproducts, and to maximize the in-process reuse or reclamation of valuable spent material. The Hanford Site is voluntarily complying with this state regulatory-mandated program. All treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) facilities are exempt from participating; the Hanford Site is classified as a TSD.

  2. Hanford Site Pollution Prevention Plan progress report, 1994. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This report tracks progress made during 1994 against the goals stated in DOE/RL-92-62, Executive Summary, Hanford Site Pollution Prevention Plan. The Executive Summary of the plan was submitted to the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) in September 1992. The plan, Executive Summary, and the progress reports are elements of a pollution prevention planning program that is required by WAC 173-307, ''Plans,'' for all hazardous substance users and/or all hazardous waste generators regulated by Ecology. These regulations implement RCW 70.95C, ''Waste Reduction,'' an act relating to hazardous waste reduction. The act encourages voluntary efforts to redesign industrial processes to help reduce or eliminate hazardous substances and hazardous waste byproducts, and to maximize the in-process reuse or reclamation of valuable spent material. The Hanford Site is voluntarily complying with this state regulatory-mandated program. All treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) facilities are exempt from participating; the Hanford Site is classified as a TSD

  3. 40 CFR 35.2102 - Water quality management planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35... Administrator shall first determine that the project is: (a) Included in any water quality management plan being implemented for the area under section 208 of the Act or will be included in any water quality management plan...

  4. Chemical Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasures Plan: 100 Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chien, Y.M.

    1989-06-01

    The purpose of this Chemical Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasures (SPCC) Plan is to identify the chemical spill control practices, procedures, and containment devices Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) employs to prevent a reportable quantity (RQ) of a hazardous substance (as defined in 40 CFR Part 302) from being released to the environment. The chemical systems and chemical storage facilities in the 100 Areas are described. This document traces the ultimate fate of accidental chemical spills at the 100 Areas. Also included in the document destinations, spill containment devices, and systems surveillance frequencies. 2 tabs

  5. Gender issues in planning with water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostenaru-Dan, Maria; Olga Gociman, Cristina

    2016-04-01

    Numerous cities have (re)discovered their waterside landscapes as urban space and use their landscapal, urban, and architectural potentials to make a riverine city attractive. The fact that some cities only turn today to their rivers lays in the fact that in the past centuries it seemed wiser to build far from the river - it is the case of for example Karlsruhe and the Rhine - as from the river not only blessing, but also danger came. The proposed presentation aims in a first stage to investigate this ambivalence: in the meaning of the water itself. For this purpose views from science and the arts will be embedded. For the science stay insights from engineering hydrology. For the arts stay (urban) landscape planning up to museum planning, ex. a museum of water (incl. aquaria), debating both the content and the container. In a second step the discussion will focus even more on dealing with disasters. Building along the river is not only hazardous in what concerns flooding risk, but also for earthquake impact. Long distance earthquakes can have disastrous effects on high-density urban settlements, if alluvial soil deposits amplify the ground motion, in the case of cities built on river banks. Regarding natural hazards protection a different ambivalence can be identified. Providing safe housing leads to partly antagonic construction requirements in case of envisaging reducing flood and earthquake impact (for example presence or absence of basement spaces). For the purpose of opening discussion along these lines each an introduction on physical flood vulnerability and physical earthquake vulnerability will be made. In this paper a particular focus will be given to architecture at and with water by women. Women are a vulnerable social group when it comes to hazards, and have to be considered accordingly. Their perception of risk and their vulnerability are different. Also, the perception of women architecture varied particularly at pioneering times, and some of their

  6. HACCP and water safety plans in Icelandic water supply: preliminary evaluation of experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsdóttir, María J; Gissurarson, Loftur R

    2008-09-01

    Icelandic waterworks first began implementing hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) as a preventive approach for water safety management in 1997. Since then implementation has been ongoing and currently about 68% of the Icelandic population enjoy drinking water from waterworks with a water safety plan based on HACCP. Preliminary evaluation of the success of HACCP implementation was undertaken in association with some of the waterworks that had implemented HACCP. The evaluation revealed that compliance with drinking water quality standards improved considerably following the implementation of HACCP. In response to their findings, waterworks implemented a large number of corrective actions to improve water safety. The study revealed some limitations for some, but not all, waterworks in relation to inadequate external and internal auditing and a lack of oversight by health authorities. Future studies should entail a more comprehensive study of the experience with the use of HACCP with the purpose of developing tools to promote continuing success.

  7. Water issues in comprehensive municipal planning: a review of the Motala River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullstrand, Magnus; Löwgren, Marianne; Castensson, Reinhold

    2003-11-01

    The performance level for water management is rising in Sweden after the passing of a number of Governmental Bills (1997-2000) that establish national environmental quality objectives, and furthermore after the adoption of the Water Framework Directive of the European Union (2000). The presentation of water issues in municipal physical planning is important because the municipalities have a local planning monopoly. We investigate to what extent water resources are considered in one of the most important tools for the regulation of physical infrastructure, namely the Comprehensive Municipal Plans. Thirteen plans from municipalities within the Motala River Basin in southern Sweden were studied. To characterise the comprehensiveness of the plans we used twelve criteria, divided into five groups: description, preventive measures, goal-setting, implementation strategy and future-oriented considerations. Descriptions of water quality, water use, wastewater plants, and urban water and wastewater systems were the most frequent items. These topics could be found in all plans in the study, along with more or less elaborated river basin perspectives. Issues related to national environmental quality objectives were mentioned in only five of the plans, and considerations about water flows were even more rare. We found, that the emphasis on water issues is not correlated with the size of the municipal population but rather with the age of the plans. In the old plans from the early 1990s water management is less recognised than in the newly revised ones. After their adoption the national water quality objectives, and suggested measures to fulfil them, are being translated into regional and local levels, and this has happened in the new plans. However, it seems that water has not yet gained the same importance as land in municipal physical planning, and strategies for public participation in the planning process are lacking.

  8. Water NSTF Design, Instrumentation, and Test Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisowski, Darius D.; Gerardi, Craig D.; Hu, Rui; Kilsdonk, Dennis J.; Bremer, Nathan C.; Lomperski, Stephen W.; Kraus, Adam R.; Bucknor, Matthew D.; Lv, Qiuping; Farmer, Mitchell T.

    2017-08-01

    The following report serves as a formal introduction to the water-based Natural convection Shutdown heat removal Test Facility (NSTF) program at Argonne. Since 2005, this US Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored program has conducted large scale experimental testing to generate high-quality and traceable validation data for guiding design decisions of the Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) concept for advanced reactor designs. The most recent facility iteration, and focus of this report, is the operation of a 1/2 scale model of a water-RCCS concept. Several features of the NSTF prototype align with the conceptual design that has been publicly released for the AREVA 625 MWt SC-HTGR. The design of the NSTF also retains all aspects common to a fundamental boiling water thermosiphon, and thus is well poised to provide necessary experimental data to advance basic understanding of natural circulation phenomena and contribute to computer code validation. Overall, the NSTF program operates to support the DOE vision of aiding US vendors in design choices of future reactor concepts, advancing the maturity of codes for licensing, and ultimately developing safe and reliable reactor technologies. In this report, the top-level program objectives, testing requirements, and unique considerations for the water cooled test assembly are discussed, and presented in sufficient depth to support defining the program’s overall scope and purpose. A discussion of the proposed 6-year testing program is then introduced, which outlines the specific strategy and testing plan for facility operations. The proposed testing plan has been developed to meet the toplevel objective of conducting high-quality test operations that span across a broad range of single- and two-phase operating conditions. Details of characterization, baseline test cases, accident scenario, and parametric variations are provided, including discussions of later-stage test cases that examine the influence of geometric

  9. 76 FR 18780 - Integrated Water Resource Management Plan, Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project, Benton...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Integrated Water Resource Management Plan, Yakima... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on the Integrated Water Resource Management Plan, Yakima River Basin Water... Integrated Water Resource Management Plan that will be analyzed in the Programmatic EIS include, but are not...

  10. 78 FR 21414 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The following Water Management Plans are available for review... Management Plans (Criteria). For the purpose of this announcement, Water Management Plans (Plans) are...

  11. Planning against crime: preventing crime with people not barriers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Landman, K

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available committees to work closely with the police, and in some instances involving local employees (such as domestic workers) to act as the ‘eyes on the street’ and report suspicious behaviour.7 The question that arises is, therefore, how to plan against crime... AND LIEBERMANN six policing areas in the Northern Cape and is also being used in KwaZulu-Natal as part of a broader local crime prevention strategy. So far, the evidence suggests that the model has significant potential to enhance local safety. The model...

  12. 40 CFR 35.2023 - Water quality management planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35... to the States to carry out water quality management planning including but not limited to: (1... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2023 Water quality...

  13. How water flows in strategic spatial planning : The strategic role of water in Dutch regional planning projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woltjer, J.; Feyen, J; Shannon, K; Neville, M

    2009-01-01

    To what extent can current attempts to link Dutch water management and spatial planning be regarded as a reflection of a more strategic planning style? How do prevailing institutional conditions offer constraints or opportunities for further strategic action in water planning? The paper employs the

  14. (GIS) Application for Planning and Improvement of Public Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Water supply system in Ota has become ineffective due to the rapid increase in population without corresponding provision of water supply structure which meets the daily water demand of the population thus indicating the need for a proper planning of water supply system in the area. Water is the most abundant element ...

  15. Water stress, water salience, and the implications for water supply planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, M. E.; Islam, S.

    2017-12-01

    Effectively addressing the water supply challenges posed by urbanization and climate change requires a holistic understanding of the water supply system, including the impact of human behavior on system dynamics. Decision makers have limits to available information and information processing capacity, and their attention is not equally distributed among risks. The salience of a given risk is higher when increased attention is directed to it and though perceived risk may increase, real risk does not change. Relevant to water supply planning is how and when water stress results in an increased salience of water risks. This work takes a socio-hydrological approach to develop a water supply planning model that includes water consumption as an endogenous variable, in the context of Las Vegas, NV. To understand the benefits and limitations of this approach, this model is compared to a traditional planning model that uses water consumption scenarios. Both models are applied to project system reliability and water stress under four streamflow and demographic scenarios, and to assess supply side responses to changing conditions. The endogenous demand model enables the identification of feedback between both supply and demand management decisions on future water consumption and system performance. This model, while specific to the Las Vegas case, demonstrates a prototypical modeling framework capable of examining water-supply demand interactions by incorporating water stress driven conservation.

  16. Risk-based water resources planning: Coupling water allocation and water quality management under extreme droughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi-Naeini, M.; Bussi, G.; Hall, J. W.; Whitehead, P. G.

    2016-12-01

    The main aim of water companies is to have a reliable and safe water supply system. To fulfil their duty the water companies have to consider both water quality and quantity issues and challenges. Climate change and population growth will have an impact on water resources both in terms of available water and river water quality. Traditionally, a distinct separation between water quality and abstraction has existed. However, water quality can be a bottleneck in a system since water treatment works can only treat water if it meets certain standards. For instance, high turbidity and large phytoplankton content can increase sharply the cost of treatment or even make river water unfit for human consumption purposes. It is vital for water companies to be able to characterise the quantity and quality of water under extreme weather events and to consider the occurrence of eventual periods when water abstraction has to cease due to water quality constraints. This will give them opportunity to decide on water resource planning and potential changes to reduce the system failure risk. We present a risk-based approach for incorporating extreme events, based on future climate change scenarios from a large ensemble of climate model realisations, into integrated water resources model through combined use of water allocation (WATHNET) and water quality (INCA) models. The annual frequency of imposed restrictions on demand is considered as measure of reliability. We tested our approach on Thames region, in the UK, with 100 extreme events. The results show increase in frequency of imposed restrictions when water quality constraints were considered. This indicates importance of considering water quality issues in drought management plans.

  17. An examination of the potential added value of water safety plans to the United States national drinking water legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Rachel; Amjad, Urooj; Luh, Jeanne; Bartram, Jamie

    2015-11-01

    National and sub-national governments develop and enforce regulations to ensure the delivery of safe drinking water in the United States (US) and countries worldwide. However, periodic contamination events, waterborne endemic illness and outbreaks of waterborne disease still occur, illustrating that delivery of safe drinking water is not guaranteed. In this study, we examined the potential added value of a preventive risk management approach, specifically, water safety plans (WSPs), in the US in order to improve drinking water quality. We undertook a comparative analysis between US drinking water regulations and WSP steps to analyze the similarities and differences between them, and identify how WSPs might complement drinking water regulations in the US. Findings show that US drinking water regulations and WSP steps were aligned in the areas of describing the water supply system and defining monitoring and controls. However, gaps exist between US drinking water regulations and WSPs in the areas of team procedures and training, internal risk assessment and prioritization, and management procedures and plans. The study contributes to understanding both required and voluntary drinking water management practices in the US and how implementing water safety plans could benefit water systems to improve drinking water quality and human health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. The relationship between the Municipal Master Plan and local Watershed Plans in water management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Gallo Pizella

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The National Water Resources Policy has as one of its tools the drafting of local Water Resource Plans. In view of water resources planning and its relationship to land use planning, the aim of this work is to analyze the institutional and legal difficulties and the potential for an integrated system of water resources management. For this, we used the method of documentary and bibliographic research, beginning with the “Estatuto da Cidade”, a law for urban policy in Brazil, and literature on water management at the municipal and watershed levels. At the municipal level, the “Master Plan” (municipal plan of land use planning became the main instrument of territorial and municipal management, defining the parameters for the compliance of social, environmental and economic functions of real property. In this sense, the municipalities have a responsibility to protect water resources and, without local support, territorial and water management cannot be integrated in the context of the river basin. Despite the difficulties of including environmental variable in urban planning, the Master Plan has the potential to shape local water management systems that are environmentally sustainable and that progressively improve water quality and quantity within the watershed. Similarly, with more significant participation of the municipality in the Basin Committee, it is possible that the forms of municipal land use and occupation can be considered during the development and implementation of the Basin Plan. Thus, the management of water resources can occur integrally.

  19. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Gunnison, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    This water sampling and analysis plan summarizes the results of previous water sampling activities and the plan for water sampling activities for calendar year 1994. A buffer zone monitoring plan is included as an appendix. The buffer zone monitoring plan is designed to protect the public from residual contamination that entered the ground water as a result of former milling operations. Surface remedial action at the Gunnison Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site began in 1992; completion is expected in 1995. Ground water and surface water will be sampled semiannually in 1994 at the Gunnison processing site (GUN-01) and disposal site (GUN-08). Results of previous water sampling at the Gunnison processing site indicate that ground water in the alluvium is contaminated by the former uranium processing activities. Background ground water conditions have been established in the uppermost aquifer (Tertiary gravels) at the Gunnison disposal site. The monitor well locations provide a representative distribution of sampling points to characterize ground water quality and ground water flow conditions in the vicinity of the sites. The list of analytes has been modified with time to reflect constituents that are related to uranium processing activities and the parameters needed for geochemical evaluation. Water sampling will be conducted at least semiannually during and one year following the period of construction activities, to comply with the ground water protection strategy discussed in the remedial action plan (DOE, 1992a)

  20. The flood risk management plan: towards spatial water governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann, T.; Driessen, P.

    2017-01-01

    The flood risk management plan challenges both water engineers and spatial planners. It calls for a new mode of governance for flood risk management. This contribution analyses how this mode of governance distinguishes from prevalent approaches. Spatial planning and water management in Europe are

  1. Water quality, compliance, and health outcomes among utilities implementing Water Safety Plans in France and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setty, Karen E; Kayser, Georgia L; Bowling, Michael; Enault, Jerome; Loret, Jean-Francois; Serra, Claudia Puigdomenech; Alonso, Jordi Martin; Mateu, Arnau Pla; Bartram, Jamie

    2017-05-01

    Water Safety Plans (WSPs), recommended by the World Health Organization since 2004, seek to proactively identify potential risks to drinking water supplies and implement preventive barriers that improve safety. To evaluate the outcomes of WSP application in large drinking water systems in France and Spain, we undertook analysis of water quality and compliance indicators between 2003 and 2015, in conjunction with an observational retrospective cohort study of acute gastroenteritis incidence, before and after WSPs were implemented at five locations. Measured water quality indicators included bacteria (E. coli, fecal streptococci, total coliform, heterotrophic plate count), disinfectants (residual free and total chlorine), disinfection by-products (trihalomethanes, bromate), aluminum, pH, turbidity, and total organic carbon, comprising about 240K manual samples and 1.2M automated sensor readings. We used multiple, Poisson, or Tobit regression models to evaluate water quality before and after the WSP intervention. The compliance assessment analyzed exceedances of regulated, recommended, or operational water quality thresholds using chi-squared or Fisher's exact tests. Poisson regression was used to examine acute gastroenteritis incidence rates in WSP-affected drinking water service areas relative to a comparison area. Implementation of a WSP generally resulted in unchanged or improved water quality, while compliance improved at most locations. Evidence for reduced acute gastroenteritis incidence following WSP implementation was found at only one of the three locations examined. Outcomes of WSPs should be expected to vary across large water utilities in developed nations, as the intervention itself is adapted to the needs of each location. The approach may translate to diverse water quality, compliance, and health outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Towards an integrated water management - Comparing German and Dutch water law from a spatial planning perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, Hartmann; Spit, Tejo

    2015-01-01

    Water management increasingly deals with spatial aspects; spatial planning interferes and depends in various ways on water management. Particularly in urban areas, this interference calls for an integrated water management. As a result, water management and spatial planning meet. Laws frame the

  3. The novel use of climate information in water utility planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, D. N.

    2016-12-01

    Municipal water utilities have a long history of planning and yet their traditional use of climate information has been rather static in nature, using approaches such as 'safe-yield' to design their water infrastructure. New planning paradigms, such as triple-bottom-line approaches that integerate environemntal, social, and financial aspects of the water enterprise have led water utilies to use climate information in a much more rich and informative way. This presentation will describe examples of how climate climate information, hydrologic modeling, and water systems decision support tools are uniquely bleneded to help water utilties make informed decisions.

  4. 76 FR 58840 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act; Refuge Water Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-22

    ... Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY... the Criteria for Developing Refuge Water Management Plans (Refuge Criteria). Several entities have each developed a Refuge Water Management Plan (Refuge Plan), which Reclamation has evaluated and...

  5. A stochastic optimization approach for integrated urban water resource planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y; Chen, J; Zeng, S; Sun, F; Dong, X

    2013-01-01

    Urban water is facing the challenges of both scarcity and water quality deterioration. Consideration of nonconventional water resources has increasingly become essential over the last decade in urban water resource planning. In addition, rapid urbanization and economic development has led to an increasing uncertain water demand and fragile water infrastructures. Planning of urban water resources is thus in need of not only an integrated consideration of both conventional and nonconventional urban water resources including reclaimed wastewater and harvested rainwater, but also the ability to design under gross future uncertainties for better reliability. This paper developed an integrated nonlinear stochastic optimization model for urban water resource evaluation and planning in order to optimize urban water flows. It accounted for not only water quantity but also water quality from different sources and for different uses with different costs. The model successfully applied to a case study in Beijing, which is facing a significant water shortage. The results reveal how various urban water resources could be cost-effectively allocated by different planning alternatives and how their reliabilities would change.

  6. Development of emergency response plans for community water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All water services systems, irrespective of size, location etc., should have emergency response plans (ERPs) to guide officials, stakeholders and consumers through emergencies, as part of managing risks in the water supply system. Emergencies in the water supply system may result from, among other causes, natural ...

  7. 77 FR 60907 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Vermont: Prevention of Significant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Vermont: Prevention of Significant Deterioration; Greenhouse Gas... February 14, 2011. The SIP revision modifies Vermont's Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD... at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, EPA New England Regional Office, Office of Ecosystem...

  8. 77 FR 5700 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; New Hampshire: Prevention of Significant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... Promulgation of Implementation Plans; New Hampshire: Prevention of Significant Deterioration; Greenhouse Gas... revision modifies New Hampshire's Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) program to establish... of Ecosystem Protection, Air Permits, Toxics, and Indoor Programs Unit, 5 Post Office Square--Suite...

  9. Site 300 City Water Master Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, Jeff [Stantec Consulting Services Inc., Irvine, CA (United States)

    2017-03-13

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), a scientific research facility, operates an experimental test site known as Site 300. The site is located in a remote area of southeastern Alameda County, California, and consists of about 100 facilities spread across 7,000-acres. The Site 300 water system includes groundwater wells and a system of storage tanks, booster pumps, and underground piping to distribute water to buildings and significant areas throughout the site. Site 300, which is classified as a non-transient non-community (NTNC) water system, serves approximately 110 employees through 109 service connections. The distribution system includes approximately 76,500-feet of water mains varying from 4- to 10-inches in diameter, mostly asbestos cement (AC) pipe, and eleven water storage tanks. The water system is divided into four pressure zones fed by three booster pump stations to tanks in each zone.

  10. 75 FR 70020 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior ACTION: Notice of Availability. SUMMARY: The following Water Management Plans are available for review: Orland-Artois Water District Kern Tulare Water... Water Management Plans (Criteria). For the purpose of this announcement, Water Management Plans (Plans...

  11. Residuals Management and Water Pollution Control Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Public Affairs.

    This pamphlet addresses the problems associated with residuals and water quality especially as it relates to the National Water Pollution Control Program. The types of residuals and appropriate management systems are discussed. Additionally, one section is devoted to the role of citizen participation in developing management programs. (CS)

  12. Assessment of water supply system and water quality of Lighvan village using water safety plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Pourakbar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Continuous expansion of potable water pollution sources is one of the main concerns of water suppliers, therefore measures such as water safety plan (WSP, have been taken into account to control these sources of pollution. The aim of this study was to identify probable risks and threatening hazards to drinking water quality in Lighvan village along with assessment of bank filtration of the village. Methods: In the present study all risks and probable hazards were identified and ranked. For each of these cases, practical suggestions for removing or controlling them were given. To assess potable water quality in Lighvan village, sampling was done from different parts of the village and physicochemical parameters were measured. To assess the efficiency of bank filtration system of the village, independent t test was used to compare average values of parameters in river and treated water. Results: One of the probable sources of pollution in this study was domestic wastewater which threatens water quality. The results of this study show that bank filtration efficiency in water supply of the village is acceptable. Conclusion: Although Bank filtration imposes fewer expenses on governments, it provides suitable water for drinking and other uses. However, it should be noted that application of these systems should be done after a thorough study of water pollution level, types of water pollutants, soil properties of the area, soil percolation and system distance from pollutant sources.

  13. Climate changes and water resource planning: WIZ, an operational tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Mazzanti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The institutional activity of the Arno River Basin Authority is focused on two strategical planning processes: the River Basin Management Plan, according to 2000/60/CE European Direcitve, and the Flood Management Plan, according to 2007/60/CE European Directive. Both plans contain most of the contents of Arno River Basin Plan, developed after the italian law L. 183/89, and are tackling with a global approach the management of extreme flood events and water budget problems. In this context, the evaluation of climate change impact on the water cycle is extremely relevant. Therefore the Arno River Basin Authority is engaged to analyze the impact of climate changes on water status, regarding as main reference the IPCC AR4 report e their connected forecasting scenarios. The involvement in a LIFE+ project (WIZ – WaterIZe Spatial Planning is the framework for a sample of preliminary evaluations, with the aim to include in the next updated edition of River Basin Management Plan new adapting measures (more than mitigation actions, in order to fight the negative impact of climate change on the possibility to achieve the Water Framework Directive’s quality objectives. Focusing the attention on the Lower Arno valley (Valdarno Inferiore and taking into account as simplifying hypothesis a linear correlation between groundwater recharge and total rainfall fluctuations, the effects of actual and projected climate changes are evaluated. For each water abstraction area, the potential variation of available groundwater for antropic use (in cubic meter per year is estimated, showing a decreasing trend ranging, with a high spatial variability, in a 5-10% interval. Due the increase of water demand and the distribution network losses, even such a percentage of decreasing potential recharge should be carefully evaluated; without water savings measures and investments on the renovation of distribution networks, an increase of the typical summer water scarcity crisis

  14. Handbook on Planning for Sustainability for Water and Wastewater Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    The handbook details steps utilities can undertake to enhance their existing planning processes to ensure that water infrastructure investments are cost-effective over their life-cycle, resource efficient and support other relevant community goals.

  15. Environmental Restoration Contractor Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, R.A.

    1996-03-01

    This plan contains the Environmental Restoration Contractor (ERC) Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention (WMin/P2) Program. The plan outlines the activities and schedules developed by the ERC to reduce the quantity and toxicity of waste dispositioned as a result of restoration and remediation activities. This plan satisfies US Department of Energy (DOE) requirements including the Pollution Prevention Awareness program required by DOE Order 5400.1 (DOE 1988). This plan is consistent with Executive Order 12856 and Secretary O'Leary's pollution prevention Policy Statement of December 27, 1994, which set US and DOE pollution prevention policies, respectively. It is also consistent with the DOE Pollution Prevention Crosscut Plan, 1994, which provides guidance in meeting the DOE goals in pollution prevention. The purpose of this plan is to aid ERC projects in meeting and documenting compliance with requirements for WMin/P2. This plan contains the objectives, strategy, and support activities of the ERC Team WMin/P2 program. The basic elements of the plan are pollution prevention goals, waste assessments of major waste streams, implementation of feasible waste minimization opportunities, and a process for reporting achievements. Wherever appropriate, the ERC will integrate the pollution prevention activities in this plan into regular program activities rather than establishing separate WMin/P2 activities. Moreover, wherever possible, existing documents, procedures, and activities will be used to meet WMin/P2 requirements

  16. Mississippi National River and Recreation Area Water Trail Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-05

    The Water Trail Plan describes the current conditions of and future plans for the Mississippi National River and Recreation Area (NRRA), a 72-mile stretch of the Mississippi River running through the Twin Cities region of Minnesota. In 2012, the NRRA...

  17. Enhanced Severe Transient Analysis for Prevention Technical Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gougar, Hans [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This document outlines the development of a high fidelity, best estimate nuclear power plant severe transient simulation capability that will complement or enhance the integral system codes historically used for licensing and analysis of severe accidents. As with other tools in the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Toolkit, the ultimate user of Enhanced Severe Transient Analysis and Prevention (ESTAP) capability is the plant decision-maker; the deliverable to that customer is a modern, simulation-based safety analysis capability, applicable to a much broader class of safety issues than is traditional Light Water Reactor (LWR) licensing analysis. Currently, the RISMC pathway’s major emphasis is placed on developing RELAP-7, a next-generation safety analysis code, and on showing how to use RELAP-7 to analyze margin from a modern point of view: that is, by characterizing margin in terms of the probabilistic spectra of the “loads” applied to systems, structures, and components (SSCs), and the “capacity” of those SSCs to resist those loads without failing. The first objective of the ESTAP task, and the focus of one task of this effort, is to augment RELAP-7 analyses with user-selected multi-dimensional, multi-phase models of specific plant components to simulate complex phenomena that may lead to, or exacerbate, severe transients and core damage. Such phenomena include: coolant crossflow between PWR assemblies during a severe reactivity transient, stratified single or two-phase coolant flow in primary coolant piping, inhomogeneous mixing of emergency coolant water or boric acid with hot primary coolant, and water hammer. These are well-documented phenomena associated with plant transients but that are generally not captured in system codes. They are, however, generally limited to specific components, structures, and operating conditions. The second ESTAP task is to similarly augment a severe (post-core damage) accident integral analyses code

  18. Potable Water Emergency/Contingency Plan. Water Supply Information Paper; No. IP-31-020

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grover, Gregory

    1998-01-01

    This paper provides guidance to installations for preparing an emergency/contingency plan to effectively address potential contamination of drinking water supplies, and for providing potable water during emergencies...

  19. 77 FR 74662 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Accident Prevention Plans and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    ... contractors to keep records of accidents incident to work performed under the contract that result in death... Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Accident Prevention Plans and Recordkeeping AGENCIES: Department of... extension of a previously approved ] information collection requirement concerning Accident Prevention Plans...

  20. Caohai Dianchi Lake Water Pollution Control Plan

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zhe

    2010-01-01

    Caohai is located in the lowest of Lake Dian area, and is in this region the only wastewater containing water body. Lake Dian is in the natural succession process and has entered a period of aging and eutrofication. The lake is shallow lake, and therefore the lake water self-purification ability is weaker and weaker. The major rivers into Lake DIan run through some urban areas, villages, farms, industrial areas; therefore a large number of hazardous substances and nutrients are carried from t...

  1. Planning for water supply projects in Kolkata, India | Guha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Planning for water supply projects in Kolkata, India. ... International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology ... methods namely multiple regressions and mathematical programming that are generally used for these studies seem to be relatively inefficient for cost benefit analysis of water supply projects. On the other ...

  2. UMTRA water sampling and analysis plan, Green River, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papusch, R.

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of this water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) is to provide a basis for groundwater and surface water sampling at the Green River Uranium Mill Tailing Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site. This WSAP identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequency for the monitoring locations

  3. Quality assurance plan, Westinghouse Water Reactor Divisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-03-01

    The Quality Assurance Program used by Westinghouse Nuclear Energy Systems Water Reactor Divisions is described. The purpose of the program is to assure that the design, materials, and workmanship on Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) equipment meet applicable safety requirements, fulfill the requirements of the contracts with the applicants, and satisfy the applicable codes, standards, and regulatory requirements.

  4. 77 FR 33240 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-05

    ... Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The following Water Management Plans are available for review: Contra Costa Water District. City of Santa... Water Management Plans (Criteria). For the purpose of this announcement, Water Management Plans (Plans...

  5. 76 FR 16285 - Amendments to the Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive Plan To Update Water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION 18 CFR Part 410 Amendments to the Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive Plan To Update Water Quality Criteria for Toxic Pollutants in the Delaware... or ``Commission'') approved amendments to its Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive...

  6. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Tuba City, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    Planned, routine ground water sampling activities at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site in Tuba City, Arizona, are described in the following sections of this water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP). This plan identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequency for the stations routinely monitored at the site. The ground water data are used for site characterization and risk assessment. The regulatory basis for routine ground water monitoring at UMTRA Project sites is derived from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations in 40 CFR Part 192 (1994) and the final EPA standards of 1995 (60 FR 2854). Sampling procedures are guided by the UMTRA Project standard operating procedures (SOP) (JEG, n.d.), and the most effective technical approach for the site

  7. Sampling and Analysis Plan for the 105-N Basin Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.O. Mahood

    1997-01-01

    This sampling and analysis plan defines the strategy, and field and laboratory methods that will be used to characterize 105-N Basin water. The water will be shipped to the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility for treatment and disposal as part of N Reactor deactivation. These analyses are necessary to ensure that the water will meet the acceptance criteria of the ETF, as established in the Memorandum of Understanding for storage and treatment of water from N-Basin (Appendix A), and the characterization requirements for 100-N Area water provided in a letter from ETF personnel (Appendix B)

  8. Uses of data to plan cancer prevention and control programs.

    OpenAIRE

    Boss, L P; Suarez, L

    1990-01-01

    Seven State health departments, those in Illinois, Nebraska, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Texas, and Wisconsin, have participated in an effort to utilize a variety of State-specific cancer-related data to describe the cancer burden in their State's population. The data were then used to develop a statewide cancer plan or supplement an existing plan to address the defined problems. Cancer data have not been well utilized in the planning of intervention programs in the past, and the ef...

  9. CONSTRUCTED WETLAND TECHNOLOGY TO PREVENT WATER RESOURCES POLLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeki Gökalp

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Discharge of untreated waste waters into surface waters creates significant pollution in these resources. Wastewaters are most of the time discharged into seas, rivers and other water bodies without any treatments due to high treatment costs both in Turkey and throughout the world. Constructed wetlands, also called as natural treatment systems, are used as an alternative treatment system to conventional high-cost treatment systems because of their low construction, operation and maintenance costs, energy demands, easy operation and low sludge generation. Today, constructed wetland systems are largely used to treat domestic wastewaters, agricultural wastewaters, industrial wastewater and runoff waters and ultimately to prevent water pollution and to improve water quality of receiving water bodies. In present study, currently implemented practices in design, construction, operation and maintenance of constructed wetlands were assessed and potential mistakes made in different phases these systems were pointed out and possible solutions were proposed to overcome these problems.

  10. Innovation results of IAM planning in urban water services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, M A; Poças, A; Silva, M S; Ribeiro, R; Almeida, M C; Brito, R S; Coelho, S T; Alegre, H

    2016-10-01

    The requirement to provide urban water services continuously while infrastructures are ageing, imposes the need for increasingly sustainable infrastructure asset management (IAM). To achieve and maintain adequate levels of service, the AWARE-P IAM methodology has been applied in collaborative projects launched by the National Civil Engineering Laboratory, in partnership with IST (Technical University of Lisbon), Addition (software company) and several water utilities. The objective of these projects is to support urban water utilities in the development, implementation and maintenance of IAM plans. To guarantee the success of IAM planning, following the AWARE-P IAM methodology, utilities are required to: consider that the infrastructure has system behaviour and lifespan is indefinite and guarantee the full-alignment of IAM planning with organisation objectives. By analysing the strategic and tactical plans of participating utilities, the proposed methodology principles are discussed and supported. The main innovation results from the implementation of IAM planning are also presented and discussed, including the challenges of setting up an IAM process, together with the major benefits and drawbacks that come up when developing IAM plans. The results were demonstrated by the effective implementation of 16 strategic and 14 tactical IAM plans by the participating utilities.

  11. Westinghouse Water Reactor Divisions quality assurance plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-09-01

    The Quality Assurance Program used by Westinghouse Water Reactor Divisions is described. The purpose of the program is to assure that the design, materials, and workmanship on Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) equipment meet applicable safety requirements, fulfill the requirements of the contracts with the applicants, and satisfy the applicable codes, standards, and regulatory requirements. This program satisfies the NRC Quality Assurance Criteria, 10CFR50 Appendix B, to the extent that these criteria apply to safety related NSSS equipment. Also, it follows the regulatory position provided in NRC regulatory guides and the requirements of ANSI Standard N45.2.12 as identified in this Topical Report

  12. Water investment in Mexico City: contradictory elements preventing investment efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    M. J. Marquez-Dorantes

    2012-01-01

    The complex connections between environmental and socio-economic variables in the water sector system involve not only ecological changes such as climate change but also a need for changes in socio-economic arenas to reduce the impacts of climate change. It is necessary not only to acknowledge the elements of change but also to understand the constraints preventing change in specific cases. The challenges faced by the water sector in Mexico City, as the world's second largest urban agglomerat...

  13. Vodno načrtovanje in načrti upravljanja voda = Water planning and river basin management plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Bizjak

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Directive 2000/60/EC – Water framework directive – is a milestone in history of waterpolicies in Europe. The Directive establishes a common framework for sustainable andintegrated management of all European surface and groundwaters, taking into accountall anthropogenic impact factors as well as economic implications of the preventive andsanitation measures. The ultimate objective of the Directive is to achieve good status of allwaters in the EU member states by the year 2015, with exemptions by 2021 or latest by 2027.The cornerstone of the Directive is the demand for integration and application of integratedwater management approach through the river basin management plans as well as publicparticipation and involvement.

  14. Women in water management: the need for local planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, M R

    1995-08-01

    This article on women's role in water resource management is based on a paper delivered at a seminar organized at the Water and Land Management Institute in Anand, India, in 1994. The article reflects Family Planning International's (FPI) experience in community-based water resource development. Most analyses of village and household water management data exclude women's role. The reasons are identified as the lack of inclusion of women's thinking in land-development research and planning, the dominance of males in planning and consequent male assumptions made about women's work and use of water, the lack of valuation of the nonmonetary nature of women's relationship to water, and the ease of ignoring women. Women's roles that are obstacles to inclusion in research and planning are identified as the lack of effective women's lobbies, the undervaluation by women of their work, and the lack of professional recognition of women as potential users of water or spokespersons for more than their own self-interests as women. National water policies are shifting to community-based management because local authorities are in daily contact with users, of whom about 50% are women. Historically national policy shifted from attention to distribution of investments in the water sector to reorganization of water agencies and to building up the capacity of private or voluntary agencies. The local context allows for more efficient and effective responses to local conditions. Local institutions and groups are better equipped to solicit local participation. One primary lesson learned by FPI is that local water resource planning is very important in strengthening the economic and individual capacity of poor people in underdeveloped areas. FPI's experience in Mahesana, Banaskantha, and Sabarkantha in Gujarat state supports this lesson learned. Water resource development policies resulted in mixed outcomes, and national control has been inefficient and disrespectful to local authorities

  15. Your Game Plan to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... plans this week, I’ll watch a movie. Pick one step to try this week. Add one ... FAQs About NIDDK Meet the Director Offices & Divisions Staff Directory Budget & Legislative Information Advisory & Coordinating Committees Strategic ...

  16. Water Safety Plan for drinking water risk management: the case study of Mortara (Pavia, Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Sabrina Sorlini; Michela Biasibetti; Alessandro Abbà; Maria Cristina Collivignarelli; Silvestro Damiani

    2017-01-01

    The Water Safety Plan (WSP) approach is an iterative method focused on analyzing the risks of water contamination in a drinking water supply system, from catchment to consumer, in order to protect human health. This approach is aimed at identifying and drastically reducing water contamination in the entire drinking water system, through the identification and mitigation or, if possible, elimination of all factors that may cause a chemical, physical, microbiological and radiological risk for w...

  17. Water Safety Plan for drinking water risk management: the case study of Mortara (Pavia, Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Sorlini, Sabrina; Biasibetti, Michela; Abbà, Alessandro; Collivignarelli, Maria Cristina; Damiani, Silvestro

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The Water Safety Plan (WSP) approach is an iterative method focused on analyzing the risks of water contamination in a drinking water supply system, from catchment to consumer, in order to protect human health. This approach is aimed at identifying and drastically reducing water contamination in the entire drinking water system, through the identification and mitigation or, if possible, elimination of all factors that may cause a chemical, physical, microbiological and radiological r...

  18. Preventive distribution and plans of iodine tablets stocks management; Distribution preventive et plans de gestion des stocks de comprimes d'iode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This official note includes two parts: one concerns the new preventive distribution of iodine tablets on the areas defined by the Particular Intervention Plans (P.P.I.) around nuclear facilities and the other one the setting up of iodine tablets stocks beyond the P.P.I. areas. In annexe is a guide for the elaboration of stocks management plans for steady iodine tablets. (N.C.)

  19. 75 FR 41106 - Amendments to the Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive Plan to Update Water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-15

    ... DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION 18 CFR Part 410 Amendments to the Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive Plan to Update Water Quality Criteria for Toxic Pollutants in the Delaware... hold a public hearing to receive comments on proposed amendments to the Commission's Water Quality...

  20. UMTRA water sampling and analysis plan, Lakeview, Oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide background, guidance, and justification for water sampling activities for the Lakeview, Oregon, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) processing and disposal sites. This water sampling and analysis plan will form the basis for groundwater sampling and analysis work orders (WSAWO) to be implemented during 1993. Monitoring at the former Lakeview processing site is for characterization purposes and in preparation for the risk assessment, scheduled for the fall of 1993. Compliance monitoring was conducted at the disposal site. Details of the sampling plan are discussed in Section 5.0

  1. Value of Landsat in urban water resources planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, T. J.; Ragan, R. M.

    1977-01-01

    The reported investigation had the objective to evaluate the utility of satellite multispectral remote sensing in urban water resources planning. The results are presented of a study which was conducted to determine the economic impact of Landsat data. The use of Landsat data to estimate hydrologic model parameters employed in urban water resources planning is discussed. A decision regarding an employment of the Landsat data has to consider the tradeoff between data accuracy and cost. Bayesian decision theory is used in this connection. It is concluded that computer-aided interpretation of Landsat data is a highly cost-effective method of estimating the percentage of impervious area.

  2. Indices of quality surface water bodies in the planning of water resources

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Miranda, Juan Pablo; Serna Mosquera, Jorge Antonio; Sánchez Céspedes, Juan Manuel

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers a review of the literature major and significant methods of quality indices of water applied in surface water bodies, used and proposed for assessing the significance of parameters of water quality in the assessment of surface water currents and they are usually used in making decisions for intervention and strategic prevention measures for those responsible for the conservation and preservation of watersheds where these water bodies belong. An exploratory methodology was...

  3. 77 FR 64544 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ... Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The following Water Management Plans are available for review: Orange Vale Water District City of Folsom Santa... Plans (Criteria). For the purpose of this announcement, Water Management Plans (Plans) are considered...

  4. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Grand Junction, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    Surface remedial action will be completed at the Grand Junction processing site during the summer of 1994. Results of 1993 water sampling indicate that ground water flow conditions and ground water quality at the processing site have remained relatively constant with time. Uranium concentrations in ground water continue to exceed the maximum concentration limits, providing the best indication of the extent of contaminated ground water. Evaluation of surface water quality of the Colorado River indicate no impact from uranium processing activities. No compliance monitoring at the Cheney disposal site has been proposed because ground water in the Dakota Sandstone (uppermost aquifer) is classified as limited-use (Class 111) and because the disposal cell is hydrogeologically isolated from the uppermost aquifer. The following water sampling and water level monitoring activities are planned for calendar year 1994: (i) Semiannual (early summer and late fall) sampling of six existing monitor wells at the former Grand Junction processing site. Analytical results from this sampling will be used to continue characterizing hydrogeochemical trends in background ground water quality and in the contaminated ground water area resulting from source term (tailings) removal. (ii) Water level monitoring of approximately three proposed monitor wells projected to be installed in the alluvium at the processing site in September 1994. Data loggers will be installed in these wells, and water levels will be electronically monitored six times a day. These long-term, continuous ground water level data will be collected to better understand the relationship between surface and ground water at the site. Water level and water quality data eventually will be used in future ground water modeling to establish boundary conditions in the vicinity of the Grand Junction processing site. Modeling results will be used to help demonstrate and document the potential remedial alternative of natural flushing

  5. Scenario workshops: A useful method for participatory water resources planning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzilacou, Dionyssia; Kallis, Giorgos; Mexa, Alexandra; Coccosis, Harris; Svoronou, Eleni

    2007-06-01

    This article reports on a scenario workshop (SW) for water resources management at the island of Naxos, Greece. The workshop was part of a European research project studying the advantages and limitations of different participatory methods in the context of the Water Framework Directive. It involved policy makers, scientists, business representatives, and citizens from different parts of the island. On the first day, participants worked to envision a sustainable development future for the island and its water resources. Discussion was inspired by four alternative water development scenarios prepared by the organizers. Participants' vision statements emphasized a diversified development path and balanced water solutions. On the second day, participants worked to plan the actions needed to realize their common vision. The SW turned out to be a good method to initiate a multipartner dialogue, to include new stakeholders in the water policy debate, and to a certain extent, to promote learning between participants. On the other hand, it did not appear well suited to resolve conflicts and aid decisions in the face of scientific complexity and uncertainty. SW seems to be a good method for the "upstream," preparatory, capacity-building tasks of a planning process but not for the production of substantive decision outputs such as consensual agreements or action plans. The Naxos experiment also raised the centrality of framing, participant selection, and facilitation in participatory processes.

  6. Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan - TA-60 Roads and Grounds Facility and Associated Sigma Mesa Staging Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval, Leonard Frank [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-01-31

    This Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) was developed in accordance with the provisions of the Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. §§1251 et seq., as amended), and the Multi-Sector General Permit for Storm Water Discharges Associated with Industrial Activity (U.S. EPA, June 2015) issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and using the industry specific permit requirements for Sector P-Land Transportation and Warehousing as a guide. This SWPPP applies to discharges of stormwater from the operational areas of the TA-60 Roads and Grounds and Associated Sigma Mesa Staging Area at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Los Alamos National Laboratory (also referred to as LANL or the “Laboratory”) is owned by the Department of Energy (DOE), and is operated by Los Alamos National Security, LLC (LANS). Throughout this document, the term “facility” refers to the TA-60 Roads and Grounds and Associated Sigma Mesa Staging Area. The current permit expires at midnight on June 4, 2020.

  7. Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan TA-60 Roads and Grounds Facility and Associated Sigma Mesa Staging Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval, Leonard Frank [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) is applicable to operations at the Technical Area -60 (TA-60) Roads and Grounds Facility and Associated Sigma Mesa Staging Area off Eniwetok Drive, in Los Alamos County, New Mexico.

  8. 76 FR 34630 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; New Hampshire: Prevention of Significant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    ... Promulgation of Implementation Plans; New Hampshire: Prevention of Significant Deterioration; Greenhouse Gas... Deterioration (PSD) program to establish appropriate emission thresholds for determining which new stationary... Protection Agency, EPA New England Regional Office, Office of Ecosystem Protection, 5 Post Office Square...

  9. Tackling non-point source water pollution in British Columbia: An action plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1998-01-01

    Efforts to protect British Columbia water quality by regulating point discharges from municipal and industrial sources have generally been successful, and it is recognized that the major remaining cause of water pollution in the province is from non-point sources. These sources are largely unregulated and associated with urbanization, agriculture, and other forms of land development. The first part of this report reviews the provincial commitment to clean water, the effects of non-point-source (NPS) pollution, and the management of NPS in the province. Part 2 describes the main causes of NPS in British Columbia: Land development, agriculture, stormwater runoff, on-site sewage systems, forestry and range activities, atmospheric deposition, and boating/marine activities. Finally, it presents key components of the province's NPS action plan: Education and training, prevention at site, land use planning and co-ordination, assessment and reporting, economic incentives, legislation and regulation, and implementation.

  10. Application of preventive maintenance planning in a parquet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-04-20

    Apr 20, 2009 ... extend the equipment life are lubrication, cleaning, ad- justing, and minor component replacement (Tomlingson,. 1993). This is realized based on a plan drawn up so as to decrease breakdown frequency (Karaoglan et al., 2007). In which maintenance times the machines will be maintained by pausing them ...

  11. Application of preventive maintenance planning in a parquet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the process of a parquet enterprise's transition to preventive maintenance which has been implementing maintenance technique in case of breakdown was investigated. During that transition process, follow up forms for maintenance–repair, breakdown and spare parts were prepared and the implementation ...

  12. Modality planning for preventing tunnel vision in crisis management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cao, Y.; Nijholt, Antinus; Theune, Mariët; van der Sluis, Ielka; Bachvarova, Yulia; Andre, Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    Crisis management is a time-critical task with high uncertainty and high risk. Stress and cognitive overload often result in a set of bias in crisis manager’s situation understanding and information confirming processes, known as 'tunnel vision'. Aiming at preventing tunnel vision, we propose an

  13. Knowledge management: an application to wildfire prevention planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel L Schmoldt

    1989-01-01

    Residential encroachment into wildland areas places an additional burden on fire management activities. Prevention programs, fuel management efforts, and suppression strategies, previously employed in wildland areas, require modification for protection of increased values at risk in this interface area. Knowledge-based computer systems are being investigated as...

  14. Stakeholder engagement and knowledge co-creation in water planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graversgaard, Morten; Jacobsen, Brian H.; Kjeldsen, Chris

    2017-01-01

    with stakeholder involvement proposed a much longer network of streams (3800 km), yielding a better ecological outcome than the shorter stream network (1615 km) proposed by the Nature Agency for the same budget. Having a structured and fixed institutional frame around public participation (top-down meeting bottom...... of water councils in water planning has significant advantages, including the fact that the knowledge of local conditions helps to identify efficient solutions at lower costs, which can be useful for administrators, policy-makers, and other stakeholders implementing theWater Framework Directive in years...

  15. Empowering stakeholders through simulation in water resources planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, R.N.; Keyes, A.M.; Fisher, S.

    1993-01-01

    During the past two years, researchers at the University of Washington (UW) have had the unique opportunity to facilitate and observe the development of drought planning activities associated with the National Drought Study (NDS) and its Drought Preparedness Studies (DPS) sites as sponsored by the Institute of Water Resources of the US Army Corps of Engineers. Each of the DPS sites is unique, with different study objectives and institutional constraints. However, one uniform requirement of the study is to develop tactical and strategic drought plans that can be successfully implemented within the study region. At the onset of the study, it was recognized that successful implementation is directly related to the active involvement of affected parties and agencies (denoted as stakeholders) and the degree to which they support the plan's conclusions. Their involvement is also necessary because the problems addressed by the DPS's require the experience and knowledge of a variety of water resource interests in order to arrive at effective alternatives. Their support of the plan conclusions enables regional implementation. Several techniques were used to encourage stakeholder participation in the planning process. Individuals representing the stakeholders had a wide range of professional backgrounds. This paper concentrates on one specific approach found useful in encouraging comprehensive and meaningful participation by a wide range of stakeholders; the development of object-oriented simulation models for the water resource systems under study. Simulation models were to develop tactical and strategic drought plans and to ensure the acceptance of the plans by building consensus among the stakeholders. The remainder of this paper describes: how simulation models became a part of the National Drought Study, procedures used to develop the DPS models, and how the model empowered stakeholders

  16. Water-related planning and design at energy firms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbey, D.; Lucero, F.

    1980-11-01

    Water related planning and design at energy firms are examined. By identifying production alternatives and specifying the cost of these alternatives under a variety of conditions, one gains insight into the future pattern of water use in the energy industry and the response of industry to water-related regulation. In Part II, the three principal decisions of industry that affect water allocation are reviewed: where to build plants, where to get water, and how much water to use. The cost of water use alternatives is reviewed. Part III presents empirical data to substantiate the inferences derived from engineering/economic analysis. The source of water, type of cooling system, and pattern of discharge for electric plants constructed during the 1970s or projected to come on line in this decade are reported. In the 1970s in the US, there was a trend away from once-through cooling toward use of evaporative cooling. Freshwater, as a source of supply, and discharge of effluent were standard practice. In the 1980s, almost all new capacity in the states and basins surveyed will use evaporative cooling. It is pointed out that a thorough understanding of industrial water use economics and water markets is a precursor to successful regulation

  17. 76 FR 752 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Connecticut: Prevention of Significant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-06

    ... Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Connecticut: Prevention of Significant Deterioration; Greenhouse Gas... changes impacting Connecticut's New Source Review (NSR) Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD... Regional Office, Office of Ecosystem Protection, 5 Post Office Square-- Suite 100 (Mail code OEP05-2...

  18. Uranium Mill Tailings remedial action project waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    The purpose of this plan is to establish a waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness (WM/PPA) program for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The program satisfies DOE requirements mandated by DOE Order 5400.1. This plan establishes planning objectives and strategies for conserving resources and reducing the quantity and toxicity of wastes and other environmental releases

  19. Clean Water Action Plan: Restoring and protecting America`s waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    On October 18, 1997, the 25th anniversary of the enactment of the Clean Water Act, the Vice President called for a renewed effort to restore and protect water quality. The Vice President asked that the Secretary of Agriculture and the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), working with other affected agencies, develop a Clean Water Action Plan that builds on clean water successes and addresses three major goals: (1) enhanced protection from public health threats posed by water pollution; (2) more effective control of polluted runoff; and (3) promotion of water quality protection on a watershed basis.

  20. The Water Resources Board: England and Wales’ Venture into National Water Resources Planning, 1964-1973

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine S. McCulloch

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available An era of technocratic national planning of water resources is examined against the views of a leading liberal economist and critics, both contemporary and retrospective. Post Second World War Labour Governments in Britain failed to nationalise either land or water. As late as 1965, the idea of public ownership of all water supplies appeared in the Labour Party manifesto and a short-lived Ministry of Land and Natural Resources, 1964-1966, had amongst its duties the development of plans for reorganising the water supply industry under full public ownership. However, instead of pursuing such a politically dangerous takeover of the industry, in July 1964, a Water Resources Board (WRB, a special interest group dominated by engineers, was set up to advise on the development of water resources. In its first Annual Report (1965 WRB claimed its role as "the master planner of the water resources of England and Wales". The WRB had a great deal of influence and justified its national planning role by promoting large-scale supply schemes such as interbasin transfers of water, large reservoirs and regulated rivers. Feasibility studies were even carried out for building innovative, large storage reservoirs in tidal estuaries. Less progress was made on demand reduction. Yet the seeds of WRB’s demise were contained in its restricted terms of reference. The lack of any remit over water quality was a fatal handicap. Quantity and quality needed to be considered together. Privatisation of the water industry in 1989 led to a shift from national strategic planning by engineers to attempts to strengthen economic instruments to fit supply more closely to demand. Engineers have now been usurped as leaders in water resources management by economists and accountants. Yet climate change may demand a return to national strategic planning of engineered water supply, with greater democratic input.

  1. Strategic Planning for Chronic Disease Prevention in Rural America: Looking Through a PRISM Lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeycutt, Amanda A; Wile, Kristina; Dove, Cassandra; Hawkins, Jackie; Orenstein, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Community-level strategic planning for chronic disease prevention. To share the outcomes of the strategic planning process used by Mississippi Delta stakeholders to prevent and reduce the negative impacts of chronic disease in their communities. A key component of strategic planning was participants' use of the Prevention Impacts Simulation Model (PRISM) to project the reduction, compared with the status quo, in deaths and costs from implementing interventions in Mississippi Delta communities. Participants in Mississippi Delta strategic planning meetings used PRISM, a user-friendly, evidence-based simulation tool that includes 22 categories of policy, systems, and environmental change interventions, to pose what-if questions that explore the likely short- and long-term effects of an intervention or any desired combination of the 22 categories of chronic disease intervention programs and policies captured in PRISM. These categories address smoking, air pollution, poor nutrition, and lack of physical activity. Strategic planning participants used PRISM outputs to inform their decisions and actions to implement interventions. Rural communities in the Mississippi Delta. A diverse group of 29 to 34 local chronic disease prevention stakeholders, known as the Mississippi Delta Strategic Alliance. Community plans and actions that were developed and implemented as a result of local strategic planning. Existing strategic planning efforts were complemented by the use of PRISM. The Mississippi Delta Strategic Alliance decided to implement new interventions to improve air quality and transportation and to expand existing interventions to reduce tobacco use and increase access to healthy foods. They also collaborated with the Department of Transportation to raise awareness and use of the current transportation network. The Mississippi Delta Strategic Alliance strategic planning process was complemented by the use of PRISM as a tool for strategic planning, which led to the

  2. Drinking Water Management and Governance in Canada: An Innovative Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) Framework for a Safe Drinking Water Supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereskie, Ty; Rodriguez, Manuel J; Sadiq, Rehan

    2017-08-01

    Drinking water management in Canada is complex, with a decentralized, three-tiered governance structure responsible for safe drinking water throughout the country. The current approach has been described as fragmented, leading to governance gaps, duplication of efforts, and an absence of accountability and enforcement. Although there have been no major waterborne disease outbreaks in Canada since 2001, a lack of performance improvement, especially in small drinking water systems, is evident. The World Health Organization water safety plan approach for drinking water management represents an alternative preventative management framework to the current conventional, reactive drinking water management strategies. This approach has seen successful implementation throughout the world and has the potential to address many of the issues with drinking water management in Canada. This paper presents a review and strengths-weaknesses-opportunities-threats analysis of drinking water management and governance in Canada at the federal, provincial/territorial, and municipal levels. Based on this analysis, a modified water safety plan (defined as the plan-do-check-act (PDCA)-WSP framework) is proposed, established from water safety plan recommendations and the principles of PDCA for continuous performance improvement. This proposed framework is designed to strengthen current drinking water management in Canada and is designed to fit within and incorporate the existing governance structure.

  3. Drinking Water Management and Governance in Canada: An Innovative Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) Framework for a Safe Drinking Water Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereskie, Ty; Rodriguez, Manuel J.; Sadiq, Rehan

    2017-08-01

    Drinking water management in Canada is complex, with a decentralized, three-tiered governance structure responsible for safe drinking water throughout the country. The current approach has been described as fragmented, leading to governance gaps, duplication of efforts, and an absence of accountability and enforcement. Although there have been no major waterborne disease outbreaks in Canada since 2001, a lack of performance improvement, especially in small drinking water systems, is evident. The World Health Organization water safety plan approach for drinking water management represents an alternative preventative management framework to the current conventional, reactive drinking water management strategies. This approach has seen successful implementation throughout the world and has the potential to address many of the issues with drinking water management in Canada. This paper presents a review and strengths-weaknesses-opportunities-threats analysis of drinking water management and governance in Canada at the federal, provincial/territorial, and municipal levels. Based on this analysis, a modified water safety plan (defined as the plan-do-check-act (PDCA)-WSP framework) is proposed, established from water safety plan recommendations and the principles of PDCA for continuous performance improvement. This proposed framework is designed to strengthen current drinking water management in Canada and is designed to fit within and incorporate the existing governance structure.

  4. Process Control for Precipitation Prevention in Space Water Recovery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargusingh, Miriam; Callahan, Michael R.; Muirhead, Dean

    2015-01-01

    The ability to recover and purify water through physiochemical processes is crucial for realizing long-term human space missions, including both planetary habitation and space travel. Because of their robust nature, rotary distillation systems have been actively pursued by NASA as one of the technologies for water recovery from wastewater primarily comprised of human urine. A specific area of interest is the prevention of the formation of solids that could clog fluid lines and damage rotating equipment. To mitigate the formation of solids, operational constraints are in place that limits such that the concentration of key precipitating ions in the wastewater brine are below the theoretical threshold. This control in effected by limiting the amount of water recovered such that the risk of reaching the precipitation threshold is within acceptable limits. The water recovery limit is based on an empirically derived worst case wastewater composition. During the batch process, water recovery is estimated by monitoring the throughput of the system. NASA Johnson Space Center is working on means of enhancing the process controls to increase water recovery. Options include more precise prediction of the precipitation threshold. To this end, JSC is developing a means of more accurately measuring the constituent of the brine and/or wastewater. Another means would be to more accurately monitor the throughput of the system. In spring of 2015, testing will be performed to test strategies for optimizing water recovery without increasing the risk of solids formation in the brine.

  5. 75 FR 69698 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Criteria for Developing Refuge Water Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ... for Developing Refuge Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The ``Criteria for Developing Refuge Water Management Plans'' (Refuge... Improvement Act (CVPIA). They document the process and format by which Refuge Water Management Plans (Plans...

  6. The negative effect of financial constraints on planning prevention activities: some evidence from the Italian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, Annalisa; De Vito, Corrado; Marzuillo, Carolina; Massimi, Azzurra; D'Andrea, Elvira; Villari, Paolo

    2015-12-01

    This study was aimed to assess the association between regional financial deficits and Recovery Plans and the quality of the 702 projects developed by the Italian Regions within the National Prevention Plan 2010-13. Multivariate analyses showed significant associations between Recovery Plans and low quality of projects, possibly due to weak regional public health capacities. Regions with Recovery Plans are likely to focus mainly on short-term issues with a high impact on health care costs, leaving few resources available for prevention. A different approach to financial deficit focused on long-term strategies, including those for health promotion and disease prevention, is needed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  7. Preventing Restricted Space Inference in Online Route Planning Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Dorfmeister

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Online route planning services compute routes from any given location to a desired destination address. Unlike offline implementations, they do so in a traffic-aware fashion by taking into consideration up-to-date map data and real-time traffic information. In return, users have to provide precise location information about a route’s endpoints to a not necessarily trusted service provider. As suchlike leakage of personal information threatens a user’s privacy and anonymity, this paper presents PrOSPR, a comprehensive approach for using current online route planning services in a privacy-preserving way, and introduces the concept of k-immune route requests to avert inference attacks based on restricted space information. Using a map-based approach for creating cloaked regions for the start and destination addresses, our solution queries the online service for routes between subsets of points from these regions. This, however, might result in the returned path deviating from the optimal route. By means of empirical evaluation on a real road network, we demonstrate the feasibility of our approach regarding quality of service and communication overhead.

  8. A framework for planning sustainable seawater desalination water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabi, Maedeh P; McHugh, Adam; Anda, Martin; Ho, Goen

    2017-01-01

    A quantitative framework for sustainable desalination planning in metropolitan areas, which integrates the tools of mixed integer linear programming and life cycle assessment, is presented. The life cycle optimisation framework allows for optimal desalination planning by considering choices over intake type, staging and location of the infrastructure under different land-use, environmental and economic policies. Optimality is defined by the decision maker's selected objective function, being either an environmental impact or a levelised cost indicator. The framework was tested for future desalination planning scenarios in the northern metropolitan area of Perth, Western Australia. Results indicate that multi-staged construction and decentralised planning solutions may produce lower life cycle environmental impacts (58%) and at a lower levelised cost (24%) than a centralised desalination solution currently being considered by Western Australian water planners. Sensitivity analysis results suggest that the better environmental and economic performance of decentralised planning over centralised planning is highly sensitive to the proportion of land that can be made available for the siting of decentralised plants near the demand zone. Insight into land use policies is a critical factor to the initiation and success of decentralised solution in developed metropolitan areas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Proposing water balance method for water availability estimation in Indonesian regional spatial planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juniati, A. T.; Sutjiningsih, D.; Soeryantono, H.; Kusratmoko, E.

    2018-01-01

    The water availability (WA) of a region is one of important consideration in both the formulation of spatial plans and the evaluation of the effectiveness of actual land use in providing sustainable water resources. Information on land-water needs vis-a-vis their availability in a region determines the state of the surplus or deficit to inform effective land use utilization. How to calculate water availability have been described in the Guideline in Determining the Carrying Capacity of the Environment in Regional Spatial Planning. However, the method of determining the supply and demand of water on these guidelines is debatable since the determination of WA in this guideline used a rational method. The rational method is developed the basis for storm drain design practice and it is essentially a peak discharge method peak discharge calculation method. This paper review the literature in methods of water availability estimation which is described descriptively, and present arguments to claim that water balance method is a more fundamental and appropriate tool in water availability estimation. A better water availability estimation method would serve to improve the practice in preparing formulations of Regional Spatial Plan (RSP) as well as evaluating land use capacity in providing sustainable water resources.

  10. Water fluoridation for the prevention of dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iheozor-Ejiofor, Zipporah; Worthington, Helen V; Walsh, Tanya; O'Malley, Lucy; Clarkson, Jan E; Macey, Richard; Alam, Rahul; Tugwell, Peter; Welch, Vivian; Glenny, Anne-Marie

    2015-06-18

    Dental caries is a major public health problem in most industrialised countries, affecting 60% to 90% of school children. Community water fluoridation was initiated in the USA in 1945 and is currently practised in about 25 countries around the world; health authorities consider it to be a key strategy for preventing dental caries. Given the continued interest in this topic from health professionals, policy makers and the public, it is important to update and maintain a systematic review that reflects contemporary evidence. To evaluate the effects of water fluoridation (artificial or natural) on the prevention of dental caries.To evaluate the effects of water fluoridation (artificial or natural) on dental fluorosis. We searched the following electronic databases: The Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register (to 19 February 2015); The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; Issue 1, 2015); MEDLINE via OVID (1946 to 19 February 2015); EMBASE via OVID (1980 to 19 February 2015); Proquest (to 19 February 2015); Web of Science Conference Proceedings (1990 to 19 February 2015); ZETOC Conference Proceedings (1993 to 19 February 2015). We searched the US National Institutes of Health Trials Registry (ClinicalTrials.gov) and the World Health Organization's WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for ongoing trials. There were no restrictions on language of publication or publication status in the searches of the electronic databases. For caries data, we included only prospective studies with a concurrent control that compared at least two populations - one receiving fluoridated water and the other non-fluoridated water - with outcome(s) evaluated at at least two points in time. For the assessment of fluorosis, we included any type of study design, with concurrent control, that compared populations exposed to different water fluoride concentrations. We included populations of all ages that received fluoridated water (naturally or artificially

  11. Coping planning: a patient-centred and strengths-focused approach to suicide prevention training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallman, Helen M

    2018-04-01

    Suicide is a leading cause of premature death and, despite significant investment, the prevalence rate has remained relatively stable for more than a decade. Theoretically, the use of 'safety planning' as a response to suicidality likely maintains suicide as a potential solution for vulnerable people. This paper describes a theoretically-supported paradigm shift from safety planning to 'coping planning' to improve patient outcomes and improve the confidence and competence of clinicians working with people with suicidality. Coping planning is a strategy used to support people with acute distress. Its components of 'caring', 'collaborating' and 'connecting' reinforce existing strengths, promote self-efficacy and link people with more intensive supports, as needed. Coping planning overcomes the limitations of existing approaches. It reframes suicide prevention from managing patients disclosing suicidality to ensuring patients have minimally sufficient temporary support to help them cope. This approach has the potential to promote coping self-efficacy and prevent deterioration that leads to suicide.

  12. Decision support for integrated water-energy planning.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Kobos, Peter Holmes; Castillo, Cesar; Hart, William Eugene; Klise, Geoffrey T.

    2009-10-01

    Currently, electrical power generation uses about 140 billion gallons of water per day accounting for over 39% of all freshwater withdrawals thus competing with irrigated agriculture as the leading user of water. Coupled to this water use is the required pumping, conveyance, treatment, storage and distribution of the water which requires on average 3% of all electric power generated. While water and energy use are tightly coupled, planning and management of these fundamental resources are rarely treated in an integrated fashion. Toward this need, a decision support framework has been developed that targets the shared needs of energy and water producers, resource managers, regulators, and decision makers at the federal, state and local levels. The framework integrates analysis and optimization capabilities to identify trade-offs, and 'best' alternatives among a broad list of energy/water options and objectives. The decision support framework is formulated in a modular architecture, facilitating tailored analyses over different geographical regions and scales (e.g., national, state, county, watershed, NERC region). An interactive interface allows direct control of the model and access to real-time results displayed as charts, graphs and maps. Ultimately, this open and interactive modeling framework provides a tool for evaluating competing policy and technical options relevant to the energy-water nexus.

  13. A Water Resources Planning Tool for the Jordan River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Bonzi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Jordan River basin is subject to extreme and increasing water scarcity. Management of transboundary water resources in the basin is closely intertwined with political conflicts in the region. We have jointly developed with stakeholders and experts from the riparian countries, a new dynamic consensus database and—supported by hydro-climatological model simulations and participatory scenario exercises in the GLOWA (Global Change and the Hydrological Cycle Jordan River project—a basin-wide Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP tool, which will allow testing of various unilateral and multilateral adaptation options under climate and socio-economic change. We present its validation and initial (climate and socio-economic scenario analyses with this budget and allocation tool, and invite further adaptation and application of the tool for specific Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM problems.

  14. Ground-water sample collection and analysis plan for the ground-water surveillance project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryce, R.W.; Evans, J.C.; Olsen, K.B.

    1991-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory performs ground-water sampling activities at the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site in support of DOE's environmental surveillance responsibilities. The purpose of this document is to translate DOE's General Environmental Protection Program (DOE Order 5400.1) into a comprehensive ground-water sample collection and analysis plan for the Hanford Site. This sample collection and analysis plan sets forth the environmental surveillance objectives applicable to ground water, identifies the strategy for selecting sample collection locations, and lists the analyses to be performed to meet those objectives

  15. Integrated system dynamics toolbox for water resources planning.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reno, Marissa Devan; Passell, Howard David; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Peplinski, William J.; Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Coursey, Don (University of Chicago, Chicago, IL); Hanson, Jason (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Grimsrud, Kristine (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Thacher, Jennifer (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Broadbent, Craig (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Brookshire, David (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Chemak, Janie (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Cockerill, Kristan (Cockeril Consulting, Boone, NC); Aragon, Carlos (New Mexico Univeristy of Technology and Mining (NM-TECH), Socorro, NM); Hallett, Heather (New Mexico Univeristy of Technology and Mining (NM-TECH), Socorro, NM); Vivoni, Enrique (New Mexico Univeristy of Technology and Mining (NM-TECH), Socorro, NM); Roach, Jesse

    2006-12-01

    Public mediated resource planning is quickly becoming the norm rather than the exception. Unfortunately, supporting tools are lacking that interactively engage the public in the decision-making process and integrate over the myriad values that influence water policy. In the pages of this report we document the first steps toward developing a specialized decision framework to meet this need; specifically, a modular and generic resource-planning ''toolbox''. The technical challenge lies in the integration of the disparate systems of hydrology, ecology, climate, demographics, economics, policy and law, each of which influence the supply and demand for water. Specifically, these systems, their associated processes, and most importantly the constitutive relations that link them must be identified, abstracted, and quantified. For this reason, the toolbox forms a collection of process modules and constitutive relations that the analyst can ''swap'' in and out to model the physical and social systems unique to their problem. This toolbox with all of its modules is developed within the common computational platform of system dynamics linked to a Geographical Information System (GIS). Development of this resource-planning toolbox represents an important foundational element of the proposed interagency center for Computer Aided Dispute Resolution (CADRe). The Center's mission is to manage water conflict through the application of computer-aided collaborative decision-making methods. The Center will promote the use of decision-support technologies within collaborative stakeholder processes to help stakeholders find common ground and create mutually beneficial water management solutions. The Center will also serve to develop new methods and technologies to help federal, state and local water managers find innovative and balanced solutions to the nation's most vexing water problems. The toolbox is an important step toward

  16. 40 CFR 35.925-2 - Water quality management plans and agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality management plans and... Water Act § 35.925-2 Water quality management plans and agencies. That the project is consistent with any applicable water quality management (WQM) plan approved under section 208 or section 303(e) of the...

  17. UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Salt Lake City, Utah. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    This water sampling and analysis plan describes planned, routine ground water sampling activities at the US Department of Energy Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site in Salt Lake City, Utah. This plan identifies and justifies sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequencies for routine monitoring of ground water, sediments, and surface waters at monitoring stations on the site

  18. 78 FR 63491 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The following Water Management Plans are available for review: Westside... Criteria for Evaluating Water Management Plans (Criteria). For the purpose of this announcement, Water...

  19. 76 FR 54251 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The following Water Management Plans are available for review: Del Puerto Water District. Chowchilla Water... and published the Criteria for Evaluating Water Management Plans (Criteria). For the purpose of this...

  20. Topological clustering as a tool for planning water quality monitoring in water distribution networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirstein, Jonas Kjeld; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Rygaard, Martin

    2015-01-01

    identification of potential contamination and affected consumers in contamination cases. Although still in development, the method shows potential for assisting utilities during planning of monitoring programs and as decision support tool during emergency contingency situations.......Topological clustering was explored as a tool for water supply utilities in preparation of monitoring and contamination contingency plans. A complex water distribution network model of Copenhagen, Denmark, was simplified by topological clustering into recognizable water movement patterns to: (1......) identify steady clusters for a part of the network where an actual contamination has occurred; (2) analyze this event by the use of mesh diagrams; and (3) analyze the use of mesh diagrams as a decision support tool for planning water quality monitoring. Initially, the network model was divided...

  1. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Mexican Hat, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    The Mexican Hat, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site is a former uranium mill that is undergoing surface remediation in the form of on-site tailings stabilization. Contaminated surface materials from the Monument Valley, Arizona, UMTRA Project site have been transported to the Mexican Hat site and are being consolidated with the Mexican Hat tailings. The scheduled completion of the tailings disposal cell is August 1995. Water is found in two geologic units at the site: the Halgaito Shale Formation and the Honaker Trail Formation. The tailings rest on the Halgaito Shale, and water contained in that unit is a result of milling activities and, to a lesser extent, water released from the tailings from compaction during remedial action construction of the disposal cell. Water in the Halgaito Shale flows through fractures and discharges at seeps along nearby arroyos. Flow from the seeps will diminish as water drains from the unit. Ground water in the lower unit, the Honaker Trail Formation, is protected from contamination by an upward hydraulic gradient. There are no nearby water supply wells because of widespread poor background ground water quality and quantity, and the San Juan River shows no impacts from the site. This water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) recommends sampling six seeps and one upgradient monitor well compared in the Honaker Trail Formation. Samples will be taken in April 1994 (representative of high group water levels) and September 1994 (representative of low ground water levels). Analyses will be performed on filtered samples for plume indicator parameters

  2. Quality-assurance plan for water-quality activities in the U.S. Geological Survey Washington Water Science Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Kathleen E.; Huffman, Raegan L.; Barton, Cynthia

    2017-05-08

    In accordance with guidelines set forth by the Office of Water Quality in the Water Mission Area of the U.S. Geological Survey, a quality-assurance plan has been created for use by the Washington Water Science Center (WAWSC) in conducting water-quality activities. This qualityassurance plan documents the standards, policies, and procedures used by the WAWSC for activities related to the collection, processing, storage, analysis, and publication of water-quality data. The policies and procedures documented in this quality-assurance plan for water-quality activities complement the quality-assurance plans for surface-water and groundwater activities at the WAWSC.

  3. Mine water pollution in Scotland. Nature, extent and preventative strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younger, P.L. [Water Resource Systems Research Laboratory, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Newcastle, NE1 7RU Newcastle Upon Tyne (United Kingdom)

    2001-01-29

    Scotland was one of the world's first industrialised countries, and has therefore also been one of the first countries to experience wholesale post-industrial dereliction. Water pollution arising from abandoned mines, particularly abandoned coal mines, is second only to sewage as a source of freshwater pollution nation-wide, and in many coalfield catchments it is the pre-eminent source. Most of the pollution is due to net-alkaline ferruginous waters emerging from deep mines. Scrutiny of records from 80 deep mine discharges reveals that iron concentrations in these waters are only likely to exceed 20 mg/l, and the pH to be below 6.5, where the discharge emerges within 0.5 km of the outcrop of the shallowest mined seam. The bulk of mature near-outcrop mine water discharges in Scotland have<50 mg/l total Fe, and concentrations>100 mg/l are only likely where a marine bed lies within 25 m of the worked seam. Where the nearest marine bed is more than 80 m above or below the seam, then the total iron will be less than 4 mg/l, and in most cases less than 1 mg/l. Net-acidic mine waters are far more rare than net-alkaline waters in Scotland, and are most commonly associated with unreclaimed spoil heaps (bings). Both net-alkaline and net-acidic discharges have detrimental effects on the hydrochemistry and biological integrity of receiving waters. Scotland has recently pioneered the use of pre-emptive pump-and-treat solutions to prevent mine water pollution, and has also experienced the successful introduction of passive treatment technology for both abandoned and active workings.

  4. National Action Plan for Adverse Drug Event Prevention: Recommendations for Safer Outpatient Opioid Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducoffe, Aaron R; York, Andrew; Hu, Dale J; Perfetto, Deborah; Kerns, Robert D

    2016-12-01

    Adverse drug events (ADEs) have been highlighted as a major patient safety and public health challenge by the National Action Plan for Adverse Drug Event Prevention (ADE Action Plan), which was released by the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (ODPHP) in August 2014. The ADE Action Plan focuses on surveillance, evidence-based prevention, incentives, and oversights, additional research needs as well as possible measures and metrics to track progress of ADE prevention within three drug classes: anticoagulants, diabetes agents, and opioids.Objectives and Recommendations. With outpatient opioid prescriptions being a great concern among many healthcare providers, this article focuses on recommendations from the ADE Action Plan to help guide safer opioid use in healthcare delivery settings. Its aim is to discuss current federal methods in place to prevent opioid ADEs while also providing evidence to encourage providers and hospitals to innovate new systems and practices to increase prevention. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Academy of Pain Medicine. 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  5. PSINET: Assisting HIV Prevention Amongst Homeless Youth by Planning Ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, A; Marcolino, L S; Rice, E; Petering, R; Winetrobe, H; Rhoades, H; Tambe, M; Carmichael, H

    2016-01-01

    Homeless youth are prone to Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) due to their engagement in high risk behavior such as unprotected sex, sex under influence of drugs, etc. Many non-profit agencies conduct interventions to educate and train a select group of homeless youth about HIV prevention and treatment practices and rely on word-of-mouth spread of information through their social network. Previous work in strategic selection of intervention participants does not handle uncertainties in the social network's structure and evolving network state, potentially causing significant shortcomings in spread of information. Thus, we developed PSINET, a decision support system to aid the agencies in this task. PSINET includes the following key novelties: (i) it handles uncertainties in network structure and evolving network state; (ii) it addresses these uncertainties by using POMDPs in influence maximization; and (iii) it provides algorithmic advances to allow high quality approximate solutions for such POMDPs. Simulations show that PSINET achieves ~ 60% more information spread over the current state-of-the-art. PSINET was developed in collaboration with My Friend's Place (a drop-in agency serving homeless youth in Los Angeles) and is currently being reviewed by their officials.

  6. Risk, Robustness and Water Resources Planning Under Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgomeo, Edoardo; Mortazavi-Naeini, Mohammad; Hall, Jim W.; Guillod, Benoit P.

    2018-03-01

    Risk-based water resources planning is based on the premise that water managers should invest up to the point where the marginal benefit of risk reduction equals the marginal cost of achieving that benefit. However, this cost-benefit approach may not guarantee robustness under uncertain future conditions, for instance under climatic changes. In this paper, we expand risk-based decision analysis to explore possible ways of enhancing robustness in engineered water resources systems under different risk attitudes. Risk is measured as the expected annual cost of water use restrictions, while robustness is interpreted in the decision-theoretic sense as the ability of a water resource system to maintain performance—expressed as a tolerable risk of water use restrictions—under a wide range of possible future conditions. Linking risk attitudes with robustness allows stakeholders to explicitly trade-off incremental increases in robustness with investment costs for a given level of risk. We illustrate the framework through a case study of London's water supply system using state-of-the -art regional climate simulations to inform the estimation of risk and robustness.

  7. Serious Gaming for Water Systems Planning and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan A. Savic

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Water systems planning and management share the same roots with gaming, as they rely on concepts in systems analysis, operations research and decision sciences. This paper focuses on Serious Games (those used for purposes other than mere entertainment, with applications in the area of water systems planning and management. A survey of published work on gaming is carried out with particular attention given to applications of Serious Gaming to water systems planning and management. The survey is also used to identify the principal criteria for the classification of Serious Gaming for water related applications, including application areas, goals, number and type of players, user interface, type of simulation model used, realism of the game, performance feedback, progress monitoring and game portability. The review shows that game applications in the water sector can be a valuable tool for making various stakeholders aware of the socio-techno-economic issues related to managing complex water systems. However, the critical review also indicates a gap that exists in the Serious Game application area with the lack of water distribution system games. A conceptually simple, but computationally elaborate new game for water distribution system analysis, design and evaluation (SeGWADE is presented in this paper. It has a main goal of finding a least-cost design for a well-known benchmark problem, for which the game environment takes the computational and visualisation burden away from the simulation tool and the player. The game has been evaluated in a classroom environment in which a high degree of player engagement with the game was observed, due to its basic game ingredients and activities, i.e., challenge, play and fun. In addition, a clear improvement in learning has been observed in how players attempted to identify solutions that satisfy the pressure criterion with players readily identifying the proximity of the better solutions to the starting

  8. Water Safety Plan for drinking water risk management: the case study of Mortara (Pavia, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Sorlini

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Water Safety Plan (WSP approach is an iterative method focused on analyzing the risks of water contamination in a drinking water supply system, from catchment to consumer, in order to protect human health. This approach is aimed at identifying and drastically reducing water contamination in the entire drinking water system, through the identification and mitigation or, if possible, elimination of all factors that may cause a chemical, physical, microbiological and radiological risk for water. This study developed a proposal of WSP for the drinking water supply system (DWSS of Mortara, Italy, in order to understand which are the preliminary evaluation aspects to be considered in the elaboration of a WSP. The DWSS of Mortara (a town of 15,500 inhabitants, located in northern Italy consists of three drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs, considering the following main contaminants: arsenic, iron, manganese and ammonia. Potential hazardous events and associated hazards were identified in each part of the water supply system. The risk assessment was carried out following the semi quantitative approach. The WSP proposal for Mortara was very useful not only as a risk mitigation approach, but also as a cost-effective tool for water suppliers. Furthermore, this approach will reduce public health risk, ensure a better compliance of water quality parameters with regulatory requirements, increase confidence of consumers and municipal authorities, and improve resource management due to intervention planning. Further, some new control measures are proposed by the WSP team within this work.

  9. 40 CFR 112.7 - General requirements for Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION Applicability, Definitions, and General... described in § 112.1(b) that are the result of natural disasters, acts of war or terrorism); and (2...

  10. Deposit and scale prevention methods in thermal sea water desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froehner, K.R.

    1977-01-01

    Introductory remarks deal with the 'fouling factor' and its influence on the overall heat transfer coefficient of msf evaporators. The composition of the matter dissolved in sea water and the thermal and chemical properties lead to formation of alkaline scale or even hard, sulphate scale on the heat exchanger tube walls and can hamper plant operation and economics seriously. Among the scale prevention methods are 1) pH control by acid dosing (decarbonation), 2) 'threshold treatment' by dosing of inhibitors of different kind, 3) mechanical cleaning by sponge rubber balls guided through the heat exchanger tubes, in general combined with methods no. 1 or 2, and 4) application of a scale crystals germ slurry (seeding). Mention is made of several other scale prevention proposals. The problems encountered with marine life (suspension, deposit, growth) in desalination plants are touched. (orig.) [de

  11. Union for the Mediterranean: projects to prevent the water crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thivet, G.; Guettier, P.

    2009-01-01

    In the Mediterranean water remains a rare, fragile and unevenly distributed resource. Global warming has implications for theses resources with an increase in extreme hydrological phenomena (drought and flooding). In this framework, at the Cairo conference in November 2006, the Euro-Mediterranean Environment Ministers broadly agreed on the need for improved coordination of the existing initiatives in order to promote real effectiveness, in particular the Mediterranean Action Plan and the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership. These actions are presented and discussed. The schedule is detailed. (A.L.B.)

  12. Plan of disaster prevention in district of Shizuoka Prefecture countermeasures to nuclear power. 1984 ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Based on the basic act for disaster countermeasures, this plan aimes at establishing the necessary system concerning the countermeasures for preventing the disaster due to the release of a large quantity of radioactive substances from the Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station, Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., determining the measures to be taken for disaster prevention, and striving for the safety of inhabitants by executing the deskworks and services of the disaster prevention related to nuclear power synthetically and purposefully. The general matters concerning the disaster prevention in the district of Shizuoka Prefecture are determined in the ''Plan of disaster prevention in the district of Shizuoka Prefecture (General countermeasures)'', but in view of the peculiarity of nuclear power disaster, the peculiar matters are to be determined in this plan. The general rules on the works of respective disaster prevention organizations, the countermeasures for preventing nuclear power disaster, the emergency countermeasures to nuclear power disaster, the countermeasures to Tokai earthquakes and the countermeasures for restoration after nuclear power disaster are stipulated. (Kako, I.)

  13. Integrating operation design into infrastructure planning to foster robustness of planned water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoni, Federica; Giuliani, Matteo; Castelletti, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    Over the past years, many studies have looked at the planning and management of water infrastructure systems as two separate problems, where the dynamic component (i.e., operations) is considered only after the static problem (i.e., planning) has been resolved. Most recent works have started to investigate planning and management as two strictly interconnected faces of the same problem, where the former is solved jointly with the latter in an integrated framework. This brings advantages to multi-purpose water reservoir systems, where several optimal operating strategies exist and similar system designs might perform differently on the long term depending on the considered short-term operating tradeoff. An operationally robust design will be therefore one performing well across multiple feasible tradeoff operating policies. This work aims at studying the interaction between short-term operating strategies and their impacts on long-term structural decisions, when long-lived infrastructures with complex ecological impacts and multi-sectoral demands to satisfy (i.e., reservoirs) are considered. A parametric reinforcement learning approach is adopted for nesting optimization and control yielding to both optimal reservoir design and optimal operational policies for water reservoir systems. The method is demonstrated on a synthetic reservoir that must be designed and operated for ensuring reliable water supply to downstream users. At first, the optimal design capacity derived is compared with the 'no-fail storage' computed through Rippl, a capacity design function that returns the minimum storage needed to satisfy specified water demands without allowing supply shortfall. Then, the optimal reservoir volume is used to simulate the simplified case study under other operating objectives than water supply, in order to assess whether and how the system performance changes. The more robust the infrastructural design, the smaller the difference between the performances of

  14. Incorporating water resources in integrated urban and regional planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Claudia; Jeffrey, Paul

    2014-11-01

    Understanding the relationships between water and the landscapes, communities, and jurisdictions through which it flows has become an increasingly urgent task for science over recent years. The vital role played by water in both urban and rural economies, its function in supporting ecosystem services, the consequences of excess or deficit, and our increasing awareness of the aquatic environment's influence on quality of life all evidence the importance of refining our knowledge of the inter-dependencies between hydrological processes and social systems. At this resolution (catchments, regions, etc.), the importance of integrating land and water planning and the need for collaboration of multiple stakeholders are a genuinely holistic and interdisciplinary undertaking; providing opportunities for researchers from the natural and social sciences to generate insights which utilise understandings of fundamental processes and phenomena to inform and shape policy, planning, design and interventions. This is a relatively young but fast-growing area of science with theory and normative prescription in areas such as catchment management and water sensitive urban design driving a burgeoning science agenda. This Special Issue of the Journal of Hydrology showcases a suite of contributions from primarily developed countries around the globe which revel in this agenda. Our authors report work which tackles head-on the complexity and multi-dimensional nature of the problems and witnesses a growing confidence amongst the research community in crossing disciplinary and professional boundaries.

  15. Emergency Response Planning to Reduce the Impact of Contaminated Drinking Water during Natural Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural disasters can be devastating to local water supplies affecting millions of people. Disaster recovery plans and water industry collaboration during emergencies protect consumers from contaminated drinking water supplies and help facilitate the repair of public water system...

  16. Interventions to improve water quality for preventing diarrhoea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clasen, Thomas F; Alexander, Kelly T; Sinclair, David; Boisson, Sophie; Peletz, Rachel; Chang, Howard H; Majorin, Fiona; Cairncross, Sandy

    2015-01-01

    Background Diarrhoea is a major cause of death and disease, especially among young children in low-income countries. In these settings, many infectious agents associated with diarrhoea are spread through water contaminated with faeces. In remote and low-income settings, source-based water quality improvement includes providing protected groundwater (springs, wells, and bore holes), or harvested rainwater as an alternative to surface sources (rivers and lakes). Point-of-use water quality improvement interventions include boiling, chlorination, flocculation, filtration, or solar disinfection, mainly conducted at home. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of interventions to improve water quality for preventing diarrhoea. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register (11 November 2014), CENTRAL (the Cochrane Library, 7 November 2014), MEDLINE (1966 to 10 November 2014), EMBASE (1974 to 10 November 2014), and LILACS (1982 to 7 November 2014). We also handsearched relevant conference proceedings, contacted researchers and organizations working in the field, and checked references from identified studies through 11 November 2014. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-RCTs, and controlled before-and-after studies (CBA) comparing interventions aimed at improving the microbiological quality of drinking water with no intervention in children and adults. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We used meta-analyses to estimate pooled measures of effect, where appropriate, and investigated potential sources of heterogeneity using subgroup analyses. We assessed the quality of evidence using the GRADE approach. Main results Forty-five cluster-RCTs, two quasi-RCTs, and eight CBA studies, including over 84,000 participants, met the inclusion criteria. Most included studies were conducted in low- or middle-income countries (LMICs) (50 studies) with

  17. Quality-assurance and data-management plan for water-quality activities in the Kansas Water Science Center, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Teresa J.; Bennett, Trudy J.; Foster, Guy M.; Graham, Jennifer L.; Putnam, James E.

    2014-01-01

    As the Nation’s largest water, earth, and biological science and civilian mapping information agency, the U.S. Geological Survey is relied on to collect high-quality data, and produce factual and impartial interpretive reports. This quality-assurance and data-management plan provides guidance for water-quality activities conducted by the Kansas Water Science Center. Policies and procedures are documented for activities related to planning, collecting, storing, documenting, tracking, verifying, approving, archiving, and disseminating water-quality data. The policies and procedures described in this plan complement quality-assurance plans for continuous water-quality monitoring, surface-water, and groundwater activities in Kansas.

  18. North Slope Decision Support for Water Resource Planning and Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnabel, William; Brumbelow, Kelly

    2013-03-31

    The objective of this project was to enhance the water resource decision-making process with respect to oil and gas exploration/production activities on Alaska’s North Slope. To this end, a web-based software tool was developed to allow stakeholders to assemble, evaluate, and communicate relevant information between and amongst themselves. The software, termed North Slope Decision Support System (NSDSS), is a visually-referenced database that provides a platform for running complex natural system, planning, and optimization models. The NSDSS design was based upon community input garnered during a series of stakeholder workshops, and the end product software is freely available to all stakeholders via the project website. The tool now resides on servers hosted by the UAF Water and Environmental Research Center, and will remain accessible and free-of-charge for all interested stakeholders. The development of the tool fostered new advances in the area of data evaluation and decision support technologies, and the finished product is envisioned to enhance water resource planning activities on Alaska’s North Slope.

  19. Nipigon River: Development of a water management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolberg, M.; Chow, A.

    1995-01-01

    Development of a plan by Ontario Hydro to reduce the impact of the operation of the Nipigon River hydroelectric dams on the Lake Nipigon/Nipigon River watershed, particularly on the Nipigon River fishery, was described. The plan was developed by a consulting firm over a two year period, and involved significant input from all stakeholders, including public groups. The first year was devoted to discussion with stakeholders and documentation of the issues and conflicts regarding the effects of water level fluctuations. The preferred option for managing the water quantities was developed during the second year with the active involvement of a community-based Working Group. A multi-objective optimization model, using stochastic dynamic programming was used to quantify the competing interests, and to identify the optimal option. The resulting option placed high priority on the water levels of fish in Lake Nipigon, as well as at the same time improving flow conditions for fish in the river. 16 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

  20. 75 FR 8106 - Change in Discount Rate for Water Resources Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Change in Discount Rate for Water Resources Planning AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation... Resources Development Act of 1974 require an annual determination of a discount rate for Federal water resources planning. The discount rate for Federal water resources planning for fiscal year 2010 is 4.375...

  1. 76 FR 73674 - Change in Discount Rate for Water Resources Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Change in Discount Rate for Water Resources Planning AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation... Resources Development Act of 1974 require an annual determination of a discount rate for Federal water resources planning. The discount rate for Federal water resources planning for fiscal year 2012 is 4 percent...

  2. 78 FR 16706 - Change in Discount Rate for Water Resources Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Change in Discount Rate for Water Resources Planning AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation... Resources Development Act of 1974 require an annual determination of a discount rate for Federal water resources planning. The discount rate for Federal water resources planning for fiscal year 2013 is 3.75...

  3. 78 FR 67393 - Change in Discount Rate for Water Resources Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Change in Discount Rate for Water Resources Planning AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation... Resources Development Act of 1974 require an annual determination of a discount rate for Federal water resources planning. The discount rate for Federal water resources planning for fiscal year 2014 is 3.50...

  4. 76 FR 12756 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ... Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The following Water Management Plans are available for review: Truckee-Carson Irrigation District. Goleta Water... Bureau of Reclamation developed and published the Criteria for Evaluating Water Management Plans...

  5. 75 FR 38538 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The following Water Management Plans are available for review: The Westside Irrigation District Maine Prairie... Criteria for Evaluating Water Management Plans (Criteria). For the purpose of this announcement, Water...

  6. Oral diagnosis and treatment planning: part 6. Preventive and treatment planning for periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbet, E; Smales, R

    2012-09-01

    A high level of sustained personal plaque control is fundamental for successful treatment outcomes in patients with active periodontal disease and, hence, oral hygiene instructions are the cornerstone of periodontal treatment planning. Other risk factors for periodontal disease also should be identified and modified where possible. Many restorative dental treatments in particular require the establishment of healthy periodontal tissues for their clinical success. Failure by patients to control dental plaque because of inappropriate designs and materials for restorations and prostheses will result in the long-term failure of the restorations and the loss of supporting tissues. Periodontal treatment planning considerations are also very relevant to endodontic, orthodontic and osseointegrated dental implant conditions and proposed therapies.

  7. A strategic approach for Water Safety Plans implementation in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Jose M P

    2011-03-01

    Effective risk assessment and risk management approaches in public drinking water systems can benefit from a systematic process for hazards identification and effective management control based on the Water Safety Plan (WSP) concept. Good results from WSP development and implementation in a small number of Portuguese water utilities have shown that a more ambitious nationwide strategic approach to disseminate this methodology is needed. However, the establishment of strategic frameworks for systematic and organic scaling-up of WSP implementation at a national level requires major constraints to be overcome: lack of legislation and policies and the need for appropriate monitoring tools. This study presents a framework to inform future policy making by understanding the key constraints and needs related to institutional, organizational and research issues for WSP development and implementation in Portugal. This methodological contribution for WSP implementation can be replicated at a global scale. National health authorities and the Regulator may promote changes in legislation and policies. Independent global monitoring and benchmarking are adequate tools for measuring the progress over time and for comparing the performance of water utilities. Water utilities self-assessment must include performance improvement, operational monitoring and verification. Research and education and resources dissemination ensure knowledge acquisition and transfer.

  8. A 3-Component Approach Incorporating Focus Groups in Strategic Planning for Sexual Violence Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Theresa H; Hess, Julia Meredith; Woelk, Leona; Bear, Samantha

    2016-01-01

    Sexual violence is of special concern in New Mexico because of the presence of large priority populations in which its prevalence is high. This article describes a 3-component approach to developing a strategic plan to prevent sexual violence in the state that consisted of an advisory group, subject matter experts, and focus groups from geographically and demographically diverse communities. Both common and community-specific themes emerged from the focus groups and were included in the strategic plan. By incorporating community needs and experiences, this approach fosters increased investment in plan implementation.

  9. Water resource planning and water quality in the Riu Cixerri Basin (Southern Sardinia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coni, M.; Ferralis, M; Madonia, P.; Sechi, C.; Verde, C.

    2000-01-01

    Present paper deals with a hydrogeological and biological study of the Riu Cixerri watershed (Southern Sardinia), carried out in order to evaluate volumes and quality of surface waters. Variables of hydrogeological balance have been derived by the use of a G.I.S. based method. The obtained results underline the low reliability of data used for past water resource planning and the good self purification capability of the Cixerri river [it

  10. RESPONSE PROTOCOL TOOLBOX: PLANNING FOR AND RESPONDING TO DRINKING WATER CONTAMINATION THREATS AND INCIDENTS. MODULE 1: WATER UTILITIES PLANNING GUIDE - INTERIM FINAL - DECEMBER 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    The interim final Response Protocol Toolbox: Planning for and Responding to Contamination Threats to Drinking Water Systems is designed to help the water sector effectively and appropriately respond to intentional contamination threats and incidents. It was produced by EPA, buil...

  11. 34 CFR Appendix A to Subpart N of... - Sample Default Prevention Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... implement when developing a default prevention plan. I. Core Default Reduction Strategies 1. Establish your.... Establish a process to ensure the accuracy of your rate. II. Additional Default Reduction Strategies 1... debt management activities. 2. Enhance the enrollment retention and academic persistence of borrowers...

  12. 77 FR 62452 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Arizona; Prevention of Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-15

    ... Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Arizona; Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes AGENCY... (SIP) revision submitted by the State of Arizona to address the requirements regarding air pollution... air pollution emergency episodes in CAA section 110(a)(2)(G). Section 110(a)(2)(G) requires that each...

  13. Re-Examining Participatory Research in Dropout Prevention Planning in Urban Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irby, Decoteau; Mawhinney, Lynnette; Thomas, Kristopher

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the concept of what a community-based participatory dropout prevention planning process might entail. Specifically, it looks at a year-long research project that brought together formerly incarcerated school non-completers, researchers, and local policy-makers (stakeholders) to address low high-school completion rates in the…

  14. 77 FR 22500 - Approval and Promulgation of State Implementation Plans; Missouri: Prevention of Significant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ... Significant Deterioration; Greenhouse Gas Tailoring Rule; New Source Review Reform AGENCY: Environmental... Implementation Plan (SIP) relating to regulation of Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) under Missouri's Prevention of... thresholds established in EPA's ``PSD and Title V Greenhouse Gas Tailoring Final Rule,'' which EPA issued by...

  15. Using Action Planning to Build Organizational Capacity for the Prevention of Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Daniel J.; Fawcett, Stephen B.

    2015-01-01

    The DELTA PREP Project aims to reduce risk for intimate partner violence (IPV). It engaged leadership and staff from 19 statewide domestic violence coalitions in building capacity to prevent IPV before it occurs (rather than solely responding to IPV). This article describes the process and outcomes associated with action planning to create…

  16. 76 FR 26933 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Connecticut: Prevention of Significant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ... Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Connecticut: Prevention of Significant Deterioration; Greenhouse Gas... Significant Deterioration (PSD) program. First, the revision provides Connecticut with authority to issue PSD... Regional Office, Office of Ecosystem Protection, Air Permits, Toxics, and Indoor Air Programs Unit, 5 Post...

  17. 77 FR 21911 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Arizona; Prevention of Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Arizona; Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes AGENCY... pollution emergency episodes in Clean Air Act (CAA or Act) section 110(a)(2)(G). Section 110(a)(2)(G) of the... applicable, including section 110(a)(2)(G) regarding authority to address air pollution emergency episodes...

  18. HIV prevention policy and programme planning: What can mathematical modelling contribute?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hankins, C.A.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis explores the potential contribution of mathematical modelling to informed decision-making on policy and programme planning for novel HIV prevention tools. Its hypothesis is that, under certain conditions, modelling results can be a useful addition to the evidence and other factors that

  19. Plan for Prevention of Natural Hazards in Urban Areas. Case of the City of Constantine (Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ykhlef Boubakeur

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Natural hazards are caused by different phenomena: landslides, earthquakes, floods etc. All the manifestations of forces of nature are called phenomena. We are speaking then of natural risks when these problems are threatening, with varying degrees, human activities, causing significant damage to human life, property and the environment. The need to consider natural hazards in land use planning tasks has become a major concern. During these past years, Algeria has been hit by frequent natural disasters, with the most recent ones endangering the lives of people and causing priceless damage, faced with such a situation the company of adequate measures, capable of exercising effective prevention, is essential. In addition to the seismic risk, for which prevention still needs to be improved, Algeria must also face gravity processes such as landslides. By their suddenness, they can put people in danger and destroy entire buildings involving the evacuation of entire neighbourhoods where the financial impact is significant on the state budget and local government. The main interest of this paper is the feasibility of a plan for prevention of natural disasters related to landslides based on geological maps, topography, hydrogeological and on existing buildings and vulnerability, and eventually lead to a Zoning risk that would be considered for inclusion in the Master Plan of Urban Planning and Land Use Plan and provide support for decisions taken by local authorities for the selection of sites.

  20. Planning for pre-exposure prophylaxis to prevent HIV transmission: challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    There are currently several ongoing or planned trials evaluating the efficacy of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) as a preventative approach to reducing the transmission of HIV. PrEP may prove ineffective, demonstrate partial efficacy, or show high efficacy and have the potential to reduce HIV infection in a significant way. However, in addition to the trial results, it is important that issues related to delivery, implementation and further research are also discussed. As a part of the ongoing discussion, in June 2009, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation sponsored a Planning for PrEP conference with stakeholders to review expected trial results, outline responsible educational approaches, and develop potential delivery and implementation strategies. The conference reinforced the need for continued and sustained dialogue to identify where PrEP implementation may fit best within an integrated HIV prevention package. This paper identifies the key action points that emerged from the Planning for PrEP meeting. PMID:20624303

  1. Environmental management plan (EMP) for Melamchi water supply project, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadka, Ram B; Khanal, Anil B

    2008-11-01

    More than 1.5 million people live in the Kathmandu valley. The valley is facing an extreme shortage of water supply. At the same time the demand is escalating rapidly. To address this issue of scarcity of water, the government of Nepal has proposed a project of inter-basin transfer of water from Melamchi River located 40 km north-east of the Kathmandu valley. The project will cover two districts and three municipalities and will potentially have significant impacts on the environment. In accordance with the Environmental Protection Regulation of Nepal (1997), the Melamchi Water Supply Project (MWSP) has undergone an EIA during the feasibility study stage of the proposed project. The recommendations contained in the EIA were integrated into the project design for implementation in 2006. This paper summarizes the background of MWSP, the environmental concerns described in the EIA and the status of Environmental Management Plan (EMP) developed to address environmental compliance and other issues involving participation and support of the local people. This paper also provides some lessons to learn on the modalities of addressing the demands and grievances of the local people concerning environmental management.

  2. How Peru introduced a plan for comprehensive HIV prevention and care for transwomen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Ximena; Núnez-Curto, Arón; Villayzán, Jana; Castillo, Regina; Benites, Carlos; Caballero, Patricia; Cáceres, Carlos F

    2016-01-01

    As a group, transwomen in Peru have the highest prevalence of HIV (>20%) in the country, but they have little access to HIV prevention, testing and care services. Until recently, Peru's national HIV programme did not recognize transwomen and had remained essentially static for decades. This changed in December 2014, when the Ministry of Health expressed its commitment to improve programming for transwomen and to involve transwomen organizations by prioritizing the development of a "Targeted Strategy Plan of STIs/HIV/AIDS Prevention and Comprehensive Care for Transwomen." A policy dialogue between key stakeholders - Peru's Ministry of Health, academic scientists, civil society, transgender leaders and international agencies - created the conditions for a change in Peru's national HIV policy for transwomen. Supported by the effective engagement of all sectors, the Ministry of Health launched a plan to provide comprehensive HIV prevention and care for transwomen. The five-year plan includes new national guidelines for HIV prevention, care and support, and country-level investments in infrastructure and equipment. In addition to new biomedical strategies, the plan also incorporates several strategies to address structural factors that contribute to the vulnerability of transwomen. We identified three key factors that created the right conditions for this change in Peru's HIV policy. These factors include (1) the availability of solid evidence, based on scientific research; (2) ongoing efforts within the transwomen community to become better advocates of their own rights; and (3) a dialogue involving honest discussions between stakeholders about possibilities of changing the nation's HIV policy. The creation of Peru's national plan for HIV prevention and care for transwomen shows that long-term processes, focused on human rights for transwomen in Peru, can lead to organizational and public-policy change.

  3. Psycho-oncology and primary prevention in cancer control plans: an absent voice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Jeff; Holland, Jimmie; Hyde, Melissa K; Watson, Maggie

    2015-07-27

    One third of cancer deaths are attributable to modifiable lifestyle, behaviour and psychosocial risk factors. Psycho-oncology can contribute significantly to prevention initiatives such as those described in national cancer control plans (NCCPs), to reduce or eliminate these risk factors. However, the extent to which psycho-oncology expertise has informed prevention objectives in plans is unclear. Accordingly, 35 English language NCCPs were located via existing databases and were searched using Adobe text searches ('psycho', 'social', 'behav' and 'intervention') to identify (a) representations of psycho-oncology, its dimensions (psychological, social and behavioural) and roles (e.g. psychologist); and (b) behaviour/lifestyle change interventions. A third of NCCPs included the term psycho- or psychosocial-oncology; approximately half referred to a psycho-oncology dimension regarding prevention and early detection and half included actions/objectives relating to health professionals and provision of psychosocial care. The majority of cancer plans included prevention outcomes and focussed primarily on smoking cessation and alcohol reduction. Interventions commonly proposed were education, regulation and service provision; however, many were aspirational statements of intent rather than specific interventions. Psycho-oncology was represented in NCCPs but was limited in reference to prevention with few behavioural interventions utilised. Psycho-oncology input is needed to prescribe evidence-based interventions in cancer plans that not only educate, regulate and provide resources but also motivate, empower and create a supportive normative environment for behaviour change. In this manuscript, and throughout this Special Issue on Cancer Prevention, important principles, ideas and evidence within psycho-oncology are outlined which, if properly implemented, can help reduce the global cancer burden. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley

  4. Alouette project water use plan (April 15, 2009)[Revised for acceptance for the comptroller of water rights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caryula, C.

    2009-04-15

    In September 1996, the original water use plan for BC Hydro's Alouette project was implemented including changes to the operation of the Alouette project to improve fish habitat in the Alouette River, and to reduce flood risk and provisions for a downstream fish monitoring program. The water use plan also included provisions to review and assess the efficacy of meeting the plan's original objectives after 10 years. This document presented a review of the water use plan. It provided a description of the works, including location and existing works; Alouette River hydrology; operating conditions for facilities; program for additional information; implementation of recommendations; expected water management implications; records and reports; plan review; and notification procedures. It was concluded that the proposed conditions in the 2009 water use plan are not expected to affect other current licensed users of water associated with Alouette Lake reservoir or Alouette River below Alouette Dam. 2 tabs., 2 figs., 1 appendix.

  5. Integrated planning for regional development planning and water resources management under uncertainty: A case study of Xining, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Z. H.; Zhao, H. J.; Wang, H.; Lu, W. T.; Wang, J.; Guo, H. C.

    2017-11-01

    Economic restructuring, water resources management, population planning and environmental protection are subjects to inner uncertainties of a compound system with objectives which are competitive alternatives. Optimization model and water quality model are usually used to solve problems in a certain aspect. To overcome the uncertainty and coupling in reginal planning management, an interval fuzzy program combined with water quality model for regional planning and management has been developed to obtain the absolutely ;optimal; solution in this study. The model is a hybrid methodology of interval parameter programming (IPP), fuzzy programing (FP), and a general one-dimensional water quality model. The method extends on the traditional interval parameter fuzzy programming method by integrating water quality model into the optimization framework. Meanwhile, as an abstract concept, water resources carrying capacity has been transformed into specific and calculable index. Besides, unlike many of the past studies about water resource management, population as a significant factor has been considered. The results suggested that the methodology was applicable for reflecting the complexities of the regional planning and management systems within the planning period. The government policy makers could establish effective industrial structure, water resources utilization patterns and population planning, and to better understand the tradeoffs among economic, water resources, population and environmental objectives.

  6. A Quantitative Index to Support Recurrence Prevention Plans of Human-Related Events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yochan; Park, Jinkyun; Jung, Wondea [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Do Sam; Lee, Durk Hun [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    In Korea, HuRAM+ (Human related event Root cause Analysis Method plus) was developed to scrutinize the causes of the human-related events. The information of the human-related events investigated by the HuRAM+ method has been also managed by a database management system, R-tracer. It is obvious that accumulating data of human error causes aims to support plans that reduce recurrences of similar events. However, in spite of the efforts for the development of the human error database, it was indicated that the database does not provide useful empirical basis for establishment of the recurrence prevention plans, because the framework to interpret the collected data and apply the insights from the data into the prevention plants has not been developed yet. In this paper, in order to support establishment of the recurrence prevention plans, a quantitative index, Human Error Repeat Interval (HERI), was proposed and its applications to human error prevention were introduced. In this paper, a quantitative index, the HERI was proposed and the statistics of HERIs were introduced. These estimations can be employed to evaluate effects of recurrence prevention plans to human errors. If a mean HERI score is low and the linear trend is not positive, it can be suspected that the recurrence prevention plans applied every human-related event has not been effectively propagated. For reducing repetitive error causes, the system design or operational culture can be reviewed. If there is a strong and negative trend, systematic investigation of the root causes behind these trends is required. Likewise, we expect that the HERI index will provide significant basis for establishing or adjusting prevention plans of human errors. The accurate estimation and application of HERI scores is expected to be done after accumulating more data. When a scatter plot of HERIs is fitted by two or more models, a statistical model selection method can be employed. Some criteria have been introduced by

  7. A Quantitative Index to Support Recurrence Prevention Plans of Human-Related Events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yochan; Park, Jinkyun; Jung, Wondea; Kim, Do Sam; Lee, Durk Hun

    2015-01-01

    In Korea, HuRAM+ (Human related event Root cause Analysis Method plus) was developed to scrutinize the causes of the human-related events. The information of the human-related events investigated by the HuRAM+ method has been also managed by a database management system, R-tracer. It is obvious that accumulating data of human error causes aims to support plans that reduce recurrences of similar events. However, in spite of the efforts for the development of the human error database, it was indicated that the database does not provide useful empirical basis for establishment of the recurrence prevention plans, because the framework to interpret the collected data and apply the insights from the data into the prevention plants has not been developed yet. In this paper, in order to support establishment of the recurrence prevention plans, a quantitative index, Human Error Repeat Interval (HERI), was proposed and its applications to human error prevention were introduced. In this paper, a quantitative index, the HERI was proposed and the statistics of HERIs were introduced. These estimations can be employed to evaluate effects of recurrence prevention plans to human errors. If a mean HERI score is low and the linear trend is not positive, it can be suspected that the recurrence prevention plans applied every human-related event has not been effectively propagated. For reducing repetitive error causes, the system design or operational culture can be reviewed. If there is a strong and negative trend, systematic investigation of the root causes behind these trends is required. Likewise, we expect that the HERI index will provide significant basis for establishing or adjusting prevention plans of human errors. The accurate estimation and application of HERI scores is expected to be done after accumulating more data. When a scatter plot of HERIs is fitted by two or more models, a statistical model selection method can be employed. Some criteria have been introduced by

  8. Braden Scale risk assessments and pressure ulcer prevention planning: what's the connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnan, Morris A; Maklebust, Joann

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between risk assessment scores on Braden subscales and nurses' selection of 10 commonly used best-practice pressure ulcer (PU) preventive interventions. Exploratory secondary data analysis, using a descriptive correlational design. A total of 377 Braden Scale PU risk assessments were made on 102 patients at different levels of risk. Assessments were made by RNs working at 3 different acute care hospitals. RNs making risk assessments also used an intervention checklist to select from 10 commonly used preventive interventions that should be implemented based on patient level of risk on each Braden subscale. The Braden Scale for Predicting Pressure Sore Risk was used to guide risk assessments. The Registered Nurses Intervention Checklist was used to identify PU preventive interventions that should be implemented. Braden subscale ratings influenced nurses' endorsement of preventive interventions in 2 distinct ways. First, endorsement of most (9 out of 10) preventive interventions was influenced by risk information embedded in unique combinations of Braden subscale assessments. Second, there appears to be a predictable pattern of increase in the likelihood of endorsing an intervention as Braden subscale scores decreased and the level of risk increased. Variability in Braden subscale ratings differentially predicts nurses' endorsements of selected PU-prevention interventions. Also, there is a predictable pattern of increase in the likelihood of endorsing a preventive intervention as PU risk levels increase, a pattern that may be related to the timing of risk assessment and PU-prevention planning activities.

  9. Water supply infrastructure planning under multiple uncertainties: A differentiated approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, S.; Strzepek, K.

    2017-12-01

    Many water planners face increased pressure on water supply systems from increasing demands from population and economic growth in combination with uncertain water supply. Supply uncertainty arises from short-term climate variability and long-term climate change as well as uncertainty in groundwater availability. Social and economic uncertainties - such as sectoral competition for water, food and energy security, urbanization, and environmental protection - compound physical uncertainty. Further, the varying risk aversion of stakeholders and water managers makes it difficult to assess the necessity of expensive infrastructure investments to reduce risk. We categorize these uncertainties on two dimensions: whether they can be updated over time by collecting additional information, and whether the uncertainties can be described probabilistically or are "deep" uncertainties whose likelihood is unknown. Based on this, we apply a decision framework that combines simulation for probabilistic uncertainty, scenario analysis for deep uncertainty, and multi-stage decision analysis for uncertainties that are reduced over time with additional information. In light of these uncertainties and the investment costs of large infrastructure, we propose the assessment of staged, modular infrastructure and information updating as a hedge against risk. We apply this framework to cases in Melbourne, Australia and Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Melbourne is a surface water system facing uncertain population growth and variable rainfall and runoff. A severe drought from 1997 to 2009 prompted investment in a 150 MCM/y reverse osmosis desalination plan with a capital cost of 3.5 billion. Our analysis shows that flexible design in which a smaller portion of capacity is developed initially with the option to add modular capacity in the future can mitigate uncertainty and reduce the expected lifetime costs by up to 1 billion. In Riyadh, urban water use relies on fossil groundwater aquifers and

  10. Observations and lessons learnt from more than a decade of water safety planning in South-East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, David

    2017-09-01

    In many countries of the World Health Organization (WHO) South-East Asia Region, drinking water is not used directly from the tap and faecal contamination of water sources is prevalent. As reflected in Sustainable Development Goal 6, access to safer drinking water is one of the most successful ways of preventing disease. The WHO Water Safety Framework promotes the use of water safety plans (WSPs), which are structured tools that help identify and mitigate potential risks throughout a water-supply system, from the water source to the point of use. WSPs not only help prevent outbreaks of acute and chronic waterborne diseases but also improve water-supply management and performance. During the past 12 years, through the direct and indirect work of a water quality partnership supported by the Australian Government, more than 5000 urban and rural WSPs have been implemented in the region. An impact assessment based on pre- and post-WSP surveys suggests that WSPs have improved system operations and management, infrastructure and performance; leveraged donor funds; increased stakeholder communication and collaboration; increased testing of water quality; and increased monitoring of consumer satisfaction. These achievements, and their sustainability, are being achieved through national legislation and regulatory frameworks for water supply, including quality standards for drinking water; national training tools and extensive training of sector professionals and creation of WSP experts; model WSPs; WSP auditing systems; and the institution of longterm training and support. More than a decade of water safety planning using the WSP approach has shown that supplying safe drinking water at the tap throughout the WHO South-East Asia Region is a realistic goal.

  11. Westinghouse Hanford Company waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, P.A.; Nichols, D.H.; Lindsey, D.W.

    1991-08-01

    The purpose of this plan is to establish the Westinghouse Hanford Company's Waste Minimization Program. The plan specifies activities and methods that will be employed to reduce the quantity and toxicity of waste generated at Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford). It is designed to satisfy the US Department of Energy (DOE) and other legal requirements that are discussed in Subsection C of the section. The Pollution Prevention Awareness Program is included with the Waste Minimization Program as permitted by DOE Order 5400.1 (DOE 1988a). This plan is based on the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan, which directs DOE Field Office, Richland contractors to develop and maintain a waste minimization program. This waste minimization program is an organized, comprehensive, and continual effort to systematically reduce waste generation. The Westinghouse Hanford Waste Minimization Program is designed to prevent or minimize pollutant releases to all environmental media from all aspects of Westinghouse Hanford operations and offers increased protection of public health and the environment. 14 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  12. Interventions to improve water quality for preventing diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clasen, Thomas F; Alexander, Kelly T; Sinclair, David; Boisson, Sophie; Peletz, Rachel; Chang, Howard H; Majorin, Fiona; Cairncross, Sandy

    2015-10-20

    Diarrhoea is a major cause of death and disease, especially among young children in low-income countries. In these settings, many infectious agents associated with diarrhoea are spread through water contaminated with faeces.In remote and low-income settings, source-based water quality improvement includes providing protected groundwater (springs, wells, and bore holes), or harvested rainwater as an alternative to surface sources (rivers and lakes). Point-of-use water quality improvement interventions include boiling, chlorination, flocculation, filtration, or solar disinfection, mainly conducted at home. To assess the effectiveness of interventions to improve water quality for preventing diarrhoea. We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register (11 November 2014), CENTRAL (the Cochrane Library, 7 November 2014), MEDLINE (1966 to 10 November 2014), EMBASE (1974 to 10 November 2014), and LILACS (1982 to 7 November 2014). We also handsearched relevant conference proceedings, contacted researchers and organizations working in the field, and checked references from identified studies through 11 November 2014. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-RCTs, and controlled before-and-after studies (CBA) comparing interventions aimed at improving the microbiological quality of drinking water with no intervention in children and adults. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We used meta-analyses to estimate pooled measures of effect, where appropriate, and investigated potential sources of heterogeneity using subgroup analyses. We assessed the quality of evidence using the GRADE approach. Forty-five cluster-RCTs, two quasi-RCTs, and eight CBA studies, including over 84,000 participants, met the inclusion criteria. Most included studies were conducted in low- or middle-income countries (LMICs) (50 studies) with unimproved water sources (30 studies) and unimproved or unclear sanitation (34 studies). The primary

  13. Anticipatory Water Management in Phoenix using Advanced Scenario Planning and Analyses: WaterSim 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, D. A.; Quay, R.; White, D. D.; Gober, P.; Kirkwood, C.

    2013-12-01

    Complexity, uncertainty, and variability are inherent properties of linked social and natural processes; sustainable resource management must somehow consider all three. Typically, a decision support tool (using scenario analyses) is used to examine management alternatives under suspected trajectories in driver variables (i.e., climate forcing's, growth or economic projections, etc.). This traditional planning focuses on a small set of envisioned scenarios whose outputs are compared against one-another in order to evaluate their differing impacts on desired metrics. Human cognition typically limits this to three to five scenarios. However, complex and highly uncertain issues may require more, often much more, than five scenarios. In this case advanced scenario analysis provides quantitative or qualitative methods that can reveal patterns and associations among scenario metrics for a large ensemble of scenarios. From this analysis, then, a smaller set of heuristics that describe the complexity and uncertainty revealed provides a basis to guide planning in an anticipatory fashion. Our water policy and management model, termed WaterSim, permits advanced scenario planning and analysis for the Phoenix Metropolitan Area. In this contribution we examine the concepts of advanced scenario analysis on a large scale ensemble of scenarios using our work with WaterSim as a case study. For this case study we created a range of possible water futures by creating scenarios that encompasses differences in water supplies (our surrogates for climate change, drought, and inherent variability in riverine flows), population growth, and per capital water consumption. We used IPCC estimates of plausible, future, alterations in riverine runoff, locally produced and vetted estimates of population growth projections, and empirical trends in per capita water consumption for metropolitan cities. This ensemble consisted of ~ 30, 700 scenarios (~575 k observations). We compared and contrasted

  14. Environmental implementation plan: Chapter 5, Chemical management, pollution prevention and other compliance programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, G.L.

    1993-01-01

    Compliance with environmental regulations and US Department of Energy Orders (DOE) relating to environmental protection is an important part of SRS's program. Over the past few years, the number of environmental regulations has increased. The strategy to comply with new and existing environmental regulations and DOE orders is described in chapter two. In this chapter, the following environmental programs are described: Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA); Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA); Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA); and SPCC/BMP/Pollution Prevention Plans;The implementation section identifies issues and those responsible to achieve defined objectives

  15. Prevent, Counter, and Respond - A Strategic Plan to Reduce Global Nuclear Threats (FY 2016-FY2020)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-03-01

    NNSA’s second core mission is reducing global nuclear dangers by preventing the acquisition of nuclear weapons or weapons-usable materials, countering efforts to acquire such weapons or materials, and responding to nuclear or radiological incidents. In 2015, NNSA reorganized its nonproliferation activities based on core competencies and realigned its counterterrorism and counterproliferation functions to more efficiently address both current and emerging threats and challenges. The reorganization accompanied the March 2015 release of the first ever Prevent, Counter, and Respond – A Strategic Plan to Reduce Global Nuclear Threats. This report, which NNSA will update annually, highlights key nuclear threat trends and describes NNSA’s integrated threat reduction strategy.

  16. 40 CFR 112.8 - Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan requirements for onshore facilities (excluding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION Requirements for Petroleum Oils and Non-Petroleum Oils, Except Animal Fats and Oils and Greases, and Fish and Marine Mammal Oils; and Vegetable Oils (Including Oils from Seeds, Nuts, Fruits, and Kernels) § 112.8...

  17. Tap water scalds among seniors and the elderly: socio-economics and implications for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alden, Nicole E; Bessey, Palmer Q; Rabbitts, Angela; Hyden, Philip J; Yurt, Roger W

    2007-08-01

    Tap water scalds among those >or=60 years old are often attributed to physical impairments with aging. This study assesses socio-economics associated with tap water scalds among seniors and the elderly. Charts of patients admitted to an urban Burn Center between 7/00 and 6/04 for treatment of tap water scalds were reviewed. Demographics, injury details, co-morbidities, surgical interventions/critical care requirements, length of stay (LOS), disposition and related economics were reviewed. During the study period, 68 patients >or=60 years were hospitalized for treatment of these scalds. Mean age and burn size were 78+/-1 years and 7+/-0.9% TBSA. Over 98% of patients were admitted with pre-existing co-morbidities; 60% required ICU care for 40+/-5 days; 22% required mechanical ventilation and 71% required surgery. LOS was 34+/-4 days. Most patients received government assistance income. Pre-injury, 32% resided alone. Post-injury, 10% of patients returned home alone; mortality was 22%. Per patient hospital costs approximated $113,000. These findings report that tap water scalds result in significant morbidity, mortality and health care costs for local seniors and the elderly. Socio-economic factors play a significant role in these injuries and must be assessed when planning prevention efforts.

  18. 78 FR 47241 - Amendments to the Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive Plan To Revise the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ... DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION 18 CFR Part 410 Amendments to the Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive Plan To Revise the Human Health Water Quality Criteria for PCBs in Zones 2... hold a public hearing to receive comments on proposed amendments to the Commission's Water Quality...

  19. We have the programme, what next? Planning the implementation of an injury prevention programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Alex; Lloyd, David G; Gabbe, Belinda J; Cook, Jill; Finch, Caroline F

    2017-08-01

    The impact of any injury prevention programme is a function of the programme and its implementation. However, real world implementation of injury prevention programmes is challenging. Lower limb injuries (LLIs) are common in community Australian football (community-AF) and it is likely that many could be prevented by implementing exercise-based warm-up programmes for players. This paper describes a systematic, evidence-informed approach used to develop the implementation plan for a LLI prevention programme in community-AF in Victoria, Australia. An ecological approach, using Step 5 of the Intervention Mapping health promotion programme planning protocol, was taken. An implementation advisory group was established to ensure the implementation plan and associated strategies were relevant to the local context. Coaches were identified as the primary programme adopters and implementers within an ecological system including players, other coaches, first-aid providers, and club and league administrators. Social Cognitive Theory was used to identify likely determinants of programme reach, adoption and implementation among coaches (eg, knowledge, beliefs, skills and environment). Diffusion of Innovations theory, the Implementation Drivers framework and available research evidence were used to identify potential implementation strategies including the use of multiple communication channels, programme resources, coach education and mentoring. A strategic evidence-informed approach to implementing interventions will help maximise their population impact. The approach to implementation planning described in this study relied on an effective researcher-practitioner partnership and active engagement of stakeholders. The identified implementation strategies were informed by theory, evidence and an in-depth understanding of the implementation context. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  20. Healthcare spending and preventive care in high-deductible and consumer-directed health plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeuwkes Buntin, Melinda; Haviland, Amelia M; McDevitt, Roland; Sood, Neeraj

    2011-03-01

    To investigate the effects of high-deductible health plans (HDHPs) and consumer-directed health plans (CDHPs) on healthcare spending and on the use of recommended preventive care. Retrospective study. We analyzed claims and enrollment data for 808,707 households from 53 large US employers, 28 of which offered HDHPs or CDHPs. We estimated the effects of HDHP or CDHP enrollment on healthcare cost growth between 2004 and 2005 using a difference-in-difference method that compared cost growth for families who were enrolled in HDHPs or CDHPs for the first time in 2005 with cost growth for families who were not offered HDHPs or CDHPs. Control families were weighted using propensity score weights to match the treatment families. Using similar methods, we examined the effects of HDHP or CDHP enrollment on the use of preventive care and the effects of HDHP or CDHP offering by employers on the mean cost growth. Families enrolling in HDHPs or CDHPs for the first time spent 14% less than similar families enrolled in conventional plans. Families in firms offering an HDHP or a CDHP spent less than those in other firms. Significant savings for enrollees were realized only for plans with deductibles of at least $1000, and savings decreased with generous employer contributions to healthcare accounts. Enrollment in HDHPs or CDHPs was also associated with moderate reductions in the use of preventive care. The HDHPs or CDHPs with at least a $1000 deductible significantly reduced healthcare spending, but they also reduced the use of preventive care in the first year. This merits additional study because of concerns about enrollee health.

  1. Effectiveness of Anabolic Steroid Preventative Intervention among Gym Users: Applying Theory of Planned Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Jalilian, Farzad; Allahverdipour, Hamid; Moeini, Babak; Moghimbeigi, Abbas

    2011-01-01

    Background: Use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has been associated with adversephysical and psychiatric effects and it is known as rising problem among youth people. Thisstudy was conducted to evaluate anabolic steroids preventative intervention efficiency amonggym users in Iran and theory of planned behaviour was applied as theoretical framework.Methods: Overall, 120 male gym users participated in this study as intervention and controlgroup. This was a longitudinal randomized pretest ...

  2. 75 FR 82066 - Change in Discount Rate for Water Resources Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... Doc No: 2010-32801] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Change in Discount Rate for Water... determination of a discount rate for Federal water resources planning. The discount rate for Federal water resources planning for fiscal year 2011 is 4.125 percent. Discounting is to be used to convert future...

  3. Opportunities for Water Conservation in Georgia: Alternative Energy Technologies in Planned Generation Facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Hatzenbuhler, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Water scarcity is a problem of increasing concern for the state of Georgia. For the last three decades the state has experienced droughts that have reached extreme conditions on many occasions. Georgia released a comprehensive water plan in 2008 that outlined historical and projected water use for various sectors of the economy. Water use for energy generation has the largest by volume consumptive use of water in the state. The report outlined plans for future energy generating facilities in ...

  4. [National plan for prevention in agriculture state of art and prosecution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariano, Eugenio

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural work submits to high risks for safety and health. In 2009, in execution of "workplace health protection pact" (DPCM 17.12.2007), has been defined the National Plan for prevention in agriculture and forestry, whose first three-year program ended in 2012. Goals were: to Systematize and to standardize direction and control activity, defining the number of factories to control, in most italian regions, for high and ubiquitous risks applying homogeneous standards, spending special attention to risks of fatal and serious injury; to develop agricultural machinery trade control, for new and second-hand machinery, for normalizing the whole fleet; to contribute to monitoring of risk factors and injury dynamics, for a better definition of prevention policies; to increase the knowledge of public health agency officers; to identify and to promote technical solutions, helping to define, in proper way, good practices for complex problems; to promote coordination between economic develop policies and prevention policies for agriculture, breeding and forestry, paying attention also to financial helps. The plan, divided in regional plans, obtained most of defined goals and allowed to build a permanent interregional net of referents and expert officers. Next years perspective is to enhance in developing the faced themes and objectives.

  5. The New England Drought Study: Water Resources Planning Metropolitan Boston, Massachusetts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Joyce, Charles

    1994-01-01

    The study has traced the water resources planning experience for the metropolitan Boston area from the 17th century to the present in order to investigate how current planning has evolved from seeking...

  6. Ground water investigations in connection with planned energy wells in the Lena area, Melhus centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storroe, Gaute

    2000-01-01

    In March 2000 the Norwegian Geologic Survey (NGU) was requested to carry out ground water investigations in the Lena area at Melhus centre by the firms E-Tek AS and Statoil. The background for the investigations was the plans of exploiting ground heat connected to a housing project lead by Selmer Bolig AS. The aim of the project was to document the possibilities for extracting ground heat from loose soil well(s) in the selected construction area. The needed amount of water is in the size of 50 m 3 /hour (14l/s). In addition the conditions of currents, ground water quality and possibilities for refiltering of the ground water was to be mapped. In conclusion it may be said that it most likely will be possible to meet the stipulated water requirements (50 m 3 /hour) by establishing a full scale production well within the construction area. The ground water currents in the Lena area run from north to south. The ground water surface is relatively flat with an incline of 0.1 - 0.2 % (1-2 mm/m). The possibilities for refiltering pumped water seem to be good. The conditions should be mapped more closely through refiltering tests. All of the collected ground water samples exceed the limiting values stipulated by the drinking water regulations as to alkalinity, sulphate, calcium, potassium and manganese. The tests from Obs2 and from the ''municipal well'' exceed the limits for chloride and sodium as well. This indicates that unwanted precipitations of both chalk and manganese may occur. Large quantities of sea salts (chloride and sodium) may also have a corrosive effect. Through calculations using the Ryznar's Stability Index (RSI) it is evident that the tests from Obs1 and Obs2 are in the limiting area between ''problem free water'' and ''corrosive water'', while the water from the municipal well must be characterised as very corrosive. According to information from the managing personnel there have not been registered problems with precipitations or corrosion in heat

  7. Theory of Planned Behavior in School-Based Adolescent Problem Gambling Prevention: A Conceptual Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Pierre, Renée A; Temcheff, Caroline E; Derevensky, Jeffrey L; Gupta, Rina

    2015-12-01

    Given its serious implications for psychological and socio-emotional health, the prevention of problem gambling among adolescents is increasingly acknowledged as an area requiring attention. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) is a well-established model of behavior change that has been studied in the development and evaluation of primary preventive interventions aimed at modifying cognitions and behavior. However, the utility of the TPB has yet to be explored as a framework for the development of adolescent problem gambling prevention initiatives. This paper first examines the existing empirical literature addressing the effectiveness of school-based primary prevention programs for adolescent gambling. Given the limitations of existing programs, we then present a conceptual framework for the integration of the TPB in the development of effective problem gambling preventive interventions. The paper describes the TPB, demonstrates how the framework has been applied to gambling behavior, and reviews the strengths and limitations of the model for the design of primary prevention initiatives targeting adolescent risk and addictive behaviors, including adolescent gambling.

  8. Household waste compositional analysis variation from insular communities in the framework of waste prevention strategy plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorpas, Antonis A; Lasaridi, Katia; Voukkali, Irene; Loizia, Pantelitsa; Chroni, Christina

    2015-04-01

    Waste management planning requires reliable data regarding waste generation, affecting factors on waste generation and forecasts of waste quantities based on facts. In order to decrease the environmental impacts of waste management the choice of prevention plan as well as the treatment method must be based on the features of the waste that are produced in a specific area. Factors such as culture, economic development, climate, and energy sources have an impact on waste composition; composition influences the need of collecting waste more or less frequently of waste collection and disposition. The research question was to discover the main barriers concerning the compositional analysis in Insular Communities under warm climate conditions and the findings from this study enabled the main contents of a waste management plan to be established. These included advice to residents on waste minimisation, liaison with stakeholders and the expansion of kerbside recycling schemes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Household waste compositional analysis variation from insular communities in the framework of waste prevention strategy plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zorpas, Antonis A., E-mail: antonis.zorpas@ouc.ac.cy [Cyprus Open University, Faculty of Pure and Applied Science, Environmental Conservation and Management, P.O. Box 12794, 2252 Latsia, Nicosia (Cyprus); Lasaridi, Katia, E-mail: klasaridi@hua.gr [Harokopio University, Department of Geography, 70 El. Venizelou, 176 71 Athens, Kallithea (Greece); Voukkali, Irene [Institute of Environmental Technology and Sustainable Development, ENVITECH LTD, Department of Research and Development, P.O. Box 34073, 5309 (Cyprus); Loizia, Pantelitsa, E-mail: irenevoukkali@envitech.org [Institute of Environmental Technology and Sustainable Development, ENVITECH LTD, Department of Research and Development, P.O. Box 34073, 5309 (Cyprus); Chroni, Christina [Harokopio University, Department of Geography, 70 El. Venizelou, 176 71 Athens, Kallithea (Greece)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Waste framework directive has set clear waste prevention procedures. • Household Compositional analysis. • Waste management plans. • Zero waste approach. • Waste generation. - Abstract: Waste management planning requires reliable data regarding waste generation, affecting factors on waste generation and forecasts of waste quantities based on facts. In order to decrease the environmental impacts of waste management the choice of prevention plan as well as the treatment method must be based on the features of the waste that are produced in a specific area. Factors such as culture, economic development, climate, and energy sources have an impact on waste composition; composition influences the need of collecting waste more or less frequently of waste collection and disposition. The research question was to discover the main barriers concerning the compositional analysis in Insular Communities under warm climate conditions and the findings from this study enabled the main contents of a waste management plan to be established. These included advice to residents on waste minimisation, liaison with stakeholders and the expansion of kerbside recycling schemes.

  10. Household waste compositional analysis variation from insular communities in the framework of waste prevention strategy plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorpas, Antonis A.; Lasaridi, Katia; Voukkali, Irene; Loizia, Pantelitsa; Chroni, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Waste framework directive has set clear waste prevention procedures. • Household Compositional analysis. • Waste management plans. • Zero waste approach. • Waste generation. - Abstract: Waste management planning requires reliable data regarding waste generation, affecting factors on waste generation and forecasts of waste quantities based on facts. In order to decrease the environmental impacts of waste management the choice of prevention plan as well as the treatment method must be based on the features of the waste that are produced in a specific area. Factors such as culture, economic development, climate, and energy sources have an impact on waste composition; composition influences the need of collecting waste more or less frequently of waste collection and disposition. The research question was to discover the main barriers concerning the compositional analysis in Insular Communities under warm climate conditions and the findings from this study enabled the main contents of a waste management plan to be established. These included advice to residents on waste minimisation, liaison with stakeholders and the expansion of kerbside recycling schemes

  11. Water environmental planning considering the influence of non-linear characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Guang-ming; Qin, Xiao-sheng; Wang, Wei; Huang, Guo-he; Jian-bing, Li; Statzner, B

    2003-11-01

    In practical water environmental planning, the influence of the non-linear characteristics on the benefit of environmental investment was seldom taken into consideration. This paper demonstrates that there exist a lot of non-linear behaviors in water environment by emphatically analyzing the influence of the non-linear characteristics of the economic scale, the meandering river and the model on water environmental planning, which will make a certain impact on the water environmental planning that sometimes cannot be neglected. This paper also preliminarily explores how to integrate the non-linear characteristics into water environmental planning. The results showed that compared with traditional methods, water environmental planning considering non-linear characteristics has its prevalence and it is necessary to develop the relevant planning theories and methods.

  12. Water supply studies. [management and planning of water supplies in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgy, R. H.; Algazi, V. R.; Draeger, W. C.; Churchman, C. W.; Thomas, R. W.; Lauer, D. T.; Hoos, I.; Krumpe, P. F.; Nichols, J. D.; Gialdini, M. J.

    1973-01-01

    The primary test site for water supply investigations continues to be the Feather River watershed in northeastern California. This test site includes all of the area draining into and including the Oroville Reservoir. The principal effort is to determine the extent to which remote sensing techniques, when properly employed, can provide information useful to those persons concerned with the management and planning of lands and facilities for the production of water, using the Oroville Reservoir and the California Water Project as the focus for the study. In particular, emphasis is being placed on determining the cost effectiveness of information derived through remote sensing as compared with that currently being derived through more conventional means.

  13. Embracing Uncertainty: A Case Study Examination of How Climate Change is Shifting Water Utility Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaatz, L.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change has emerged as one of the greatest challenges facing water utilities' planning for the future, adding a new source and level of complexity that is forcing many agencies to re-examine their decision-making processes. A significant barrier for many agencies is figuring out how to consider highly uncertain climate information and move away from deterministic thinking to make climate-informed decisions. To provide water professionals with practical and relevant information, the Water Utility Climate Alliance teamed up with the American Water Works Association, in coordination with the Water Research Foundation and Association of Metropolitan Water Agencies, to develop a white paper sharing insights into how and why water agencies are modifying planning and decision-making processes. The 13 case studies presented illustrate the variety of ways in which utilities are incorporating climate change into planning, from immediate operational decisions, to capital planning and asset management, to long-term supply planning.

  14. Irrelevant water-management scales for flood prevention, water harvesting and eutrophication control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Jafet; Arheimer, Berit

    2017-04-01

    This poster will give three examples of popular water-management methods, which we discovered had very little effect in practice because they were applied on irrelevant scales. They all use small scale solutions to large scale problems, and did not provide expected results due to neglecting the magnitude of components in the large-scale water budget. 1) Flood prevention: ponds are considered to be able to buffer water discharge in catchments and was suggested as a measure to reduce the 20-years return floods in an exposed areas in Sweden. However, when experimenting with several ponds allocation and size in a computational model, we found out that ponds had to cover 5-10% of the catchment to convert the 20-yr flood into an average flood. Most effective was to allocate one single water body at the catchment outlet, but this would correspond to 95 km2 which is by far too big to be called a pond. 2) Water Harvesting: At small-scale it is designed to increase water availability and agricultural productivity in smallholder agriculture. On field scale, we show that water harvesting decreases runoff by 55% on average in 62 investigated field-scale trials of drainage area ≤ 1ha in sub-Saharan Africa (Andersson et al., 2011). When upscaling, to river basin scale in South Africa (8-1.8×106 km2), using a scenario approach and the SWAT hydrological model we found that all smallholder fields would not significantly alter downstream river discharge (10.1021/es304585p Andersson JCM, Zehnder AJB, Rockström J, Yang H (2011). Potential impacts of water harvesting…. Agricultural Water Management, 98(7), pp. 1113-1124, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2011.02.004 Arheimer, B., Nilsson, J. and Lindström, G. 2015. Experimenting with Coupled Hydro-Ecological Models ….. Water 7(7):3906-3924. doi:10.3390/w7073906 Arheimer, B. and Pers B.C. 2016. Lessons learned? …. Ecological Engineering (in press). doi:10.1016/j.ecoleng.2016.01.088

  15. Contingency plan improvement for managing oil spills in the coastal waters of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singkran, Nuanchan

    2014-12-15

    The estimated risks of being impacted by oil spills in the coastal waters were used to improve the oil spill contingency plan of Thailand. Functional roles of local agencies are integrated into the plan. Intensive measures are suggested for the coastal provinces located in high-very high risk zones, whereas light and moderate measures are suggested for the coastal provinces located in low and moderate risk zones, respectively. The estimated percentage risks due to simulated oil slicks hitting the coast and/or important resources (PRoilspill) were used to guide the year-round water activities that should be carefully handled at a certain radius with a low-moderate PRoilspill, whereas they should be avoided at a certain radius with a high-very high PRoilspill. Important measures before, during, and post periods of an oil spill incident are suggested to prevent and monitor oil spill incidents and mitigate their impacts on the environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Sustainable Planning Approaches for Water Resources: Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel, Asumadu-Sarkodie

    2017-01-01

    Lake Okeechobee, Florida Louisiana's Comprehensive Master Plan for a Sustainable Coast Restoration Planning Process for the Gulf Coast. This record was migrated from the OpenDepot repository service in June, 2017 before shutting down.

  17. Principles and guidelines for good practice in Indigenous engagement in water planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Sue; Tan, Poh-Ling; Mooney, Carla; Hoverman, Suzanne; White, Ian

    2012-12-01

    SummaryIndigenous rights, values and interests relating to water have been identified by Australia's National Water Commission as a national priority area, requiring greater understanding, research attention and government action. Yet Indigenous water values are rarely addressed in water planning, despite objectives in national policy requiring Indigenous participation and the identification of Indigenous social, spiritual and customary values in water plans. Water planners are presently equipped with a very limited number of engagement tools tailored to the water resource management context to redress the historical neglect of Indigenous interests. In an Australian research project focused on water planning, seven participatory planning tools were employed in three Australian case studies with different social and hydrological characteristics to improve the way in which Indigenous values are elicited and incorporated and to enhance the status of Indigenous knowledge in water planning. The results from the two Murray Darling Basin (MDB) case studies reveal the many ways in which Indigenous values have been adversely affected by recent water resource developments and concomitant water scarcity. In the third case on the Tiwi Islands in the Northern Territory, where land title to the entire water planning area is vested in Indigenous traditional owners, methods were refined to ensure engagement and generate capacity to manage the development of a solely Indigenous-owned, first-generation Water Management Strategy, in collaboration with a range of stakeholders. This paper describes the needs and aspirations of Indigenous people, the engagement strategies employed to elicit Indigenous knowledge, assess Indigenous values, and incorporate the results into three developing water plans. In addition, it outlines a set of general principles to guide water planning in other regions and thereby to improve Indigenous access to water.

  18. The spill prevention, control, and countermeasures (SPCC) plan for the Y-12 Plant. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    This spill prevention, control and countermeasures (SPCC) Plan is divided into two volumes. Volume I addresses Y-12`s compliance with regulations pertinent to the content of SPCC Plans. Volume II is the SPCC Hazardous Material Storage Data Base, a detailed tabulation of facility-specific information and data on potential spill sources at the Y-12 Plant. Volume I follows the basic format and subject sequence specified in 40 CFR 112.7. This sequence is prefaced by three additional chapters, including this introduction and brief discussions of the Y-12 Plant`s background/environmental setting and potential spill source categories. Two additional chapters on containers and container storage areas and PCB and PCB storage for disposal facilities are inserted into the required sequence. The following required subjects are covered in this volume: Spill history, site drainage; secondary containment/diversion structures and equipment; contingency plans; notification and spill response procedures; facility drainage; bulk storage tanks; facility transfer operations, pumping, and in-plant processes; transfer stations (facility tank cars/tank tracks); inspections and records; security, and personnel, training, and spill prevention procedures.

  19. The spill prevention, control, and countermeasures (SPCC) plan for the Y-12 Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    This spill prevention, control and countermeasures (SPCC) Plan is divided into two volumes. Volume I addresses Y-12's compliance with regulations pertinent to the content of SPCC Plans. Volume II is the SPCC Hazardous Material Storage Data Base, a detailed tabulation of facility-specific information and data on potential spill sources at the Y-12 Plant. Volume I follows the basic format and subject sequence specified in 40 CFR 112.7. This sequence is prefaced by three additional chapters, including this introduction and brief discussions of the Y-12 Plant's background/environmental setting and potential spill source categories. Two additional chapters on containers and container storage areas and PCB and PCB storage for disposal facilities are inserted into the required sequence. The following required subjects are covered in this volume: Spill history, site drainage; secondary containment/diversion structures and equipment; contingency plans; notification and spill response procedures; facility drainage; bulk storage tanks; facility transfer operations, pumping, and in-plant processes; transfer stations (facility tank cars/tank tracks); inspections and records; security, and personnel, training, and spill prevention procedures

  20. The experience of a nationwide Community of Practice to set up Regional Prevention Plans in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusti, Angela; Perra, Alberto; Lombardo, Flavia

    2017-07-27

    In 2010, the Italian Ministry of Health decided to start the planning process to elaborate the National Plan of Prevention 2010-2012 jointly with the 21 Regions. The National Institute of Health was responsible for supporting regional planners (RPs) by an original participatory approach of a web-based Community of Practice (CoP) to set up their own Regional Plans of Prevention. In this paper, we summarise the theoretical framework adopted, the main phases characterising the lifecycle of the nationwide CoP, the evaluation approach adopted and its findings. Following the CoP theoretical framework from Wenger, an initial group of RPs were trained on Project Cycle Management as a planning method and thereafter they started interacting on a web-based Moodle platform for 8 months. The CoP evaluation mainly took into account aspects of 'immediate value', such as members interactions within the website, and several quantitative and qualitative tools were used to monitor changes over time. Data were retrieved from Moodle statistics or directly from the RPs by the means of a Knowledge, Attitude and Practice survey, a reaction survey, SWOT analysis and focus groups. The level of individual RPs knowledge increased after the initial course from 55.7% to 75%, attitudes and competence perception about the planning process method also showed an overall favourable change. During the CoP life span, the number of members increased from the original 98 RPs to include up to 600 new members on the basis of spontaneous demand. From April 2010 to January 2011, the 'vital signs' of the CoP were monitored, including RP logins (13,450 total logins and 3744 unique logins), views (27,522) and posts (1606) distributed in 326 forum discussion threads. Data and information retrieved from quantitative and qualitative evaluation approaches proved to be useful for the management and follow-up of the CoP. The CoP experience was successful as 19 out of 20 Regions submitted their Regional Preventive

  1. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program A Reference Plan for Control Room Modernization: Planning and Analysis Phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacques Hugo; Ronald Boring; Lew Hanes; Kenneth Thomas

    2013-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program is collaborating with a U.S. nuclear utility to bring about a systematic fleet-wide control room modernization. To facilitate this upgrade, a new distributed control system (DCS) is being introduced into the control rooms of these plants. The DCS will upgrade the legacy plant process computer and emergency response facility information system. In addition, the DCS will replace an existing analog turbine control system with a display-based system. With technology upgrades comes the opportunity to improve the overall human-system interaction between the operators and the control room. To optimize operator performance, the LWRS Control Room Modernization research team followed a human-centered approach published by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. NUREG-0711, Rev. 3, Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model (O’Hara et al., 2012), prescribes four phases for human factors engineering. This report provides examples of the first phase, Planning and Analysis. The three elements of Planning and Analysis in NUREG-0711 that are most crucial to initiating control room upgrades are: • Operating Experience Review: Identifies opportunities for improvement in the existing system and provides lessons learned from implemented systems. • Function Analysis and Allocation: Identifies which functions at the plant may be optimally handled by the DCS vs. the operators. • Task Analysis: Identifies how tasks might be optimized for the operators. Each of these elements is covered in a separate chapter. Examples are drawn from workshops with reactor operators that were conducted at the LWRS Human System Simulation Laboratory HSSL and at the respective plants. The findings in this report represent generalized accounts of more detailed proprietary reports produced for the utility for each plant. The goal of this LWRS report is to disseminate the technique and provide examples sufficient to

  2. Selected Works in Water Supply, Water Conservation and Water Quality Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    York, Geological Survey Water-S.jpply f’oper 12,𔄃-F. 19,. t-overpent Printing Office, 𔃾shinq~r. P. 6 U Kw C-32 Coleman , N.L., "Flume Studies of the...find whether universally acceptable curves can be constructed. 172 References 1. Aron, G., Rachford, T.M., Borrelli , J., and Stottmann, W., A Method

  3. Guidelines for inclusion: Ensuring Indigenous peoples' involvement in water planning processes across South Eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenz Quitian, Alejandra; Rodríguez, Gloria Amparo

    2016-11-01

    Indigenous peoples within the Murray-Darling Basin have traditionally struggled for the recognition of their cultural, social, environmental, spiritual, commercial and economic connection to the waters that they have traditionally used, as well as their right to engage in all stages of water planning processes. Despite Australian national and federal frameworks providing for the inclusion of Indigenous Australians' objectives in planning frameworks, water plans have rarely addressed these objectives in water, or the strategies to achieve them. Indeed, insufficient resources, a lack of institutional capacity in both Indigenous communities and agencies and an inadequate understanding of Indigenous people's objectives in water management have limited the extent to which Indigenous objectives are addressed in water plans within the Murray-Darling Basin. In this context, the adoption of specific guidelines to meet Indigenous requirements in relation to basin water resources is crucial to support Indigenous engagement in water planning processes. Using insights from participatory planning methods and human rights frameworks, this article outlines a set of alternative and collaborative guidelines to improve Indigenous involvement in water planning and to promote sustainable and just water allocations.

  4. Intentions to seek (preventive) psychological help among older adults: An application of the theory of planned behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, Gerben Johan; Maessen, Mia; de Bruijn, Renske; Smets, Bianca

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: This article examines the intentions to seek (preventive) psychological help among older persons. The study is carried out from the theory of planned behaviour and distinguishes attitudes (psychological openness), subjective norms (indifference to stigma), and perceived behavioural

  5. The Long Term Effects of “Consumer-Directed” Health Plans on Preventive Care Use1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Matthew D.; Haviland, Amelia M.; Mehrotra, Ateev; Huckfeldt, Peter J.; Sood, Neeraj

    2017-01-01

    “Consumer-Directed” Health Plans (CDHPs), those with high deductibles and personal medical accounts, have been shown to reduce health care spending. The impact of CDHPs on preventive care is unclear. On the one hand CDHPs might increase use of preventive care as such care is exempt from the deductible. However, CDHPs also decrease visits to physicians which might results in less screening. Prior research has found conflicting results. In this study, using data from 37 employers we examine the effects of CDHPs on the use of cancer screenings up to three years after the initial CDHP offering with ITT and LATE approaches. Being offered a CDHP or enrolling in a CDHP had little or no effect on cancer screening rates but individuals increase screenings prior to enrolling in a CDHP. Our findings suggest the importance of examining CDHP effects on periodic care over the longer-term and carefully controlling for anticipatory stockpiling. PMID:28712437

  6. Effectiveness of Anabolic Steroid Preventative Intervention among Gym Users: Applying Theory of Planned Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalilian, Farzad; Allahverdipour, Hamid; Moeini, Babak; Moghimbeigi, Abbas

    2011-01-01

    Use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has been associated with adverse physical and psychiatric effects and it is known as rising problem among youth people. This study was conducted to evaluate anabolic steroids preventative intervention efficiency among gym users in Iran and theory of planned behaviour was applied as theoretical framework. Overall, 120 male gym users participated in this study as intervention and control group. This was a longitudinal randomized pretest - posttest series control group design panel study to implement a behaviour modification based intervention to prevent AAS use. Cross -tabulation and t-test by using SPSS statistical package, version 13 was used for the statistical analysis. It was found significant improvements in average response for knowledge about side effects of AAS (Pgym users and ado-lescences would be effective to improve adolescents' healthy behaviors and intend them not to use AAS.

  7. 76 FR 16818 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Standard Criteria for Ag and Urban Water Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    ... Criteria for Ag and Urban Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The ``Standard Criteria for Agricultural and Urban Water Management Plans'' (Criteria... (Reclamation) developed and published the Criteria. The Criteria apply to any Water Management Plans (Plans...

  8. UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Grand Junction, Colorado. Revision 1, Version 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This water sampling and analysis plan describes the planned, routine ground water sampling activities at the Grand Junction US DOE Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site (GRJ-01) in Grand Junction, Colorado, and at the Cheney Disposal Site (GRJ-03) near Grand Junction. The plan identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequencies for the routine monitoring stations at the sites. Regulatory basis is in the US EPA regulations in 40 CFR Part 192 (1994) and EPA ground water quality standards of 1995 (60 FR 2854). This plan summarizes results of past water sampling activities, details water sampling activities planned for the next 2 years, and projects sampling activities for the next 5 years

  9. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Integrated Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, Kathryn A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Busby, Jeremy [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hallbert, Bruce [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bragg-Sitton, Shannon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smith, Curtis [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Barnard, Cathy [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Nuclear power has safely, reliably, and economically contributed almost 20% of electrical generation in the United States over the past two decades. It remains the single largest contributor (more than 70%) of non-greenhouse-gas-emitting electric power generation in the United States. Domestic demand for electrical energy is expected to experience a 31% growth from 2009 to 2035. At the same time, most of the currently operating nuclear power plants will begin reaching the end of their initial 20-year extension to their original 40-year operating license for a total of 60 years of operation. Figure E-1 shows projected nuclear energy contribution to the domestic generating capacity. If current operating nuclear power plants do not operate beyond 60 years, the total fraction of generated electrical energy from nuclear power will begin to decline—even with the expected addition of new nuclear generating capacity. The oldest commercial plants in the United States reached their 40th anniversary in 2009. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Research and Development Roadmap (Nuclear Energy Roadmap) organizes its activities around four objectives that ensure nuclear energy remains a compelling and viable energy option for the United States. The four objectives are as follows: (1) develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of the current reactors; (2) develop improvements in the affordability of new reactors to enable nuclear energy to help meet the Administration’s energy security and climate change goals; (3) develop sustainable nuclear fuel cycles; and (4) understand and minimize the risks of nuclear proliferation and terrorism. The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is the primary programmatic activity that addresses Objective 1. This document summarizes the LWRS Program’s plans.

  10. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Integrated Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kathryn McCarthy; Jeremy Busby; Bruce Hallbert; Shannon Bragg-Sitton; Curtis Smith; Cathy Barnard

    2013-04-01

    Nuclear power has safely, reliably, and economically contributed almost 20% of electrical generation in the United States over the past two decades. It remains the single largest contributor (more than 70%) of non-greenhouse-gas-emitting electric power generation in the United States. Domestic demand for electrical energy is expected to experience a 31% growth from 2009 to 2035. At the same time, most of the currently operating nuclear power plants will begin reaching the end of their initial 20-year extension to their original 40-year operating license for a total of 60 years of operation. Figure E-1 shows projected nuclear energy contribution to the domestic generating capacity. If current operating nuclear power plants do not operate beyond 60 years, the total fraction of generated electrical energy from nuclear power will begin to decline—even with the expected addition of new nuclear generating capacity. The oldest commercial plants in the United States reached their 40th anniversary in 2009. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Research and Development Roadmap (Nuclear Energy Roadmap) organizes its activities around four objectives that ensure nuclear energy remains a compelling and viable energy option for the United States. The four objectives are as follows: (1) develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of the current reactors; (2) develop improvements in the affordability of new reactors to enable nuclear energy to help meet the Administration’s energy security and climate change goals; (3) develop sustainable nuclear fuel cycles; and (4) understand and minimize the risks of nuclear proliferation and terrorism. The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is the primary programmatic activity that addresses Objective 1. This document summarizes the LWRS Program’s plans.

  11. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Integrated Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Griffith; Robert Youngblood; Jeremy Busby; Bruce Hallbert; Cathy Barnard; Kathryn McCarthy

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear power has safely, reliably, and economically contributed almost 20% of electrical generation in the United States over the past two decades. It remains the single largest contributor (more than 70%) of non-greenhouse-gas-emitting electric power generation in the United States. Domestic demand for electrical energy is expected to experience a 31% growth from 2009 to 2035. At the same time, most of the currently operating nuclear power plants will begin reaching the end of their initial 20-year extension to their original 40-year operating license for a total of 60 years of operation. Figure E-1 shows projected nuclear energy contribution to the domestic generating capacity. If current operating nuclear power plants do not operate beyond 60 years, the total fraction of generated electrical energy from nuclear power will begin to decline - even with the expected addition of new nuclear generating capacity. The oldest commercial plants in the United States reached their 40th anniversary in 2009. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy's Research and Development Roadmap (Nuclear Energy Roadmap) organizes its activities around four objectives that ensure nuclear energy remains a compelling and viable energy option for the United States. The four objectives are as follows: (1) develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of the current reactors; (2) develop improvements in the affordability of new reactors to enable nuclear energy to help meet the Administration's energy security and climate change goals; (3) develop sustainable nuclear fuel cycles; and (4) understand and minimize the risks of nuclear proliferation and terrorism. The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is the primary programmatic activity that addresses Objective 1. This document summarizes the LWRS Program's plans.

  12. WATER RESOURCES AND URBAN PLANNING: THE CASE OF A COASTAL AREA IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iana Alexandra Alves Rufino

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban planning requires the integration of several disciplines, among them ones related to water resources. The impacts of urban development on those resources, and viceversa, are well known, but some aspects have not been well characterized in literature. This research analyzes a case that shows interesting relationships between urban planning, its legislation, the evolution of urban occupation and several aspects of water resources: groundwater, surface water, drainage and saltwater intrusion. The research argues for integrated and dynamic planning, monitoring and directive enforcement of the urban processes, including environmental dimension and water resources. Advanced decision support techniques are suggested as tools for supporting this integrated approach.

  13. WATER RESOURCES AND URBAN PLANNING: THE CASE OF A COASTAL AREA IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iana A. A. Rufino

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban planning requires the integration of several disciplines, among them ones related to water resources. The impacts of urban development on those resources, and viceversa, are well known, but some aspects have not been well characterized in literature. This research analyzes a case that shows interesting relationships between urban planning, its legislation, the evolution of urban occupation and several aspects of water resources: groundwater, surface water, drainage and saltwater intrusion. The research argues for integrated and dynamic planning, monitoring and directive enforcement of the urban processes, including environmental dimension and water resources. Advanced decision support techniques are suggested as tools for supporting this integrated approach.

  14. Risk management for drinking water supplies in developing countries :the influence of culture on water safety plans

    OpenAIRE

    Omar, Yahya Yussuf

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of unsafe water in developing countries results in considerable number of illnesses and deaths annually. The World Health Organization and the International Water Association are promoting the use of water safety plans (WSPs), a risk management approach aimed at attaining water safety. This study investigated how culture impacts on the implementation of WSPs in these countries. Combining interpretive and critical paradigms resulted in the choice of qualitative metho...

  15. Interventions to improve water quality for preventing diarrhoea

    OpenAIRE

    Clasen, Thomas F; Alexander, Kelly T; Sinclair, David; Boisson, Sophie; Peletz, Rachel; Chang, Howard H; Majorin, Fiona; Cairncross, Sandy

    2015-01-01

    Background Diarrhoea is a major cause of death and disease, especially among young children in low-income countries. In these settings, many infectious agents associated with diarrhoea are spread through water contaminated with faeces. In remote and low-income settings, source-based water quality improvement includes providing protected groundwater (springs, wells, and bore holes), or harvested rainwater as an alternative to surface sources (rivers and lakes). Point-of-use water quality impro...

  16. Quality Assurance Project Plan - Modeling the Impact of Hydraulic Fracturing on Water Resources Based on Water Acquisition Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    This planning document describes the quality assurance/quality control activities and technical requirements that will be used during the research study. The goal of this project is to evaluate the potential impacts of large volume water withdrawals.

  17. Development process for integrated water resources management plan under a bottom-up participation perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittiwet Kuntiyawichai

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the development process for the integrated water resources management and development plan of Maha Sarakham Province by considering the priority and urgency of water problem issues. Gathering feedback from stakeholders and prioritizing water management and development projects are also taken into consideration. In view of integrated plans, the project is classified into short-, medium- and long-term plans with the project duration of 2 years, 3 years and 5 years, respectively. In this case, the plans can be categorized into proposed provincial and local plans. Firstly, the comprehensive provincial plans can be divided into 2 groups, i.e. district plans with the total number of 532 plans, which comprise of 505 projects for coping with drought and 27 projects for flood mitigation, and provincial plans from 13 agencies with the amount of 513 projects, which include 396 projects and 117 projects for dealing with drought and flood, respectively. Secondly, there are 4,099 of local plans to be put in place, in which 3,973 projects and 126 projects are proposed to handle drought and flood problems, respectively. From the analysis, it is found that if all planned drought relief projects are implemented, the water demand for domestic and agricultural needs could be covered by 96% and 51%, respectively. In case of the entire proposed flood alleviation projects are executed, 29% of the total flood prone areas can be effectively protected.

  18. Planning the diffusion of a neck-injury prevention programme among community rugby union coaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Alex; Poulos, Roslyn G

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a theory-informed and evidence-informed, context-specific diffusion plan for the Mayday Safety Procedure (MSP) among community rugby coaches in regional New South Wales, Australia. Step 5 of Intervention Mapping was used to plan strategies to enhance MSP adoption and implementation. Coaches were identified as the primary MSP adopters and implementers within a system including administrators, players and referees. A local advisory group was established to ensure context relevance. Performance objectives (eg, attend MSP training for coaches) and determinants of adoption and implementation behaviour (eg, knowledge, beliefs, skills and environment) were identified, informed by Social Cognitive Theory. Adoption and implementation matrices were developed and change-objectives for coaches were identified (eg, skills to deliver MSP training to players). Finally, intervention methods and specific strategies (eg, coach education, social marketing and policy and by-law development) were identified based on advisory group member experience, evidence of effective coach safety behaviour-change interventions and Diffusion of Innovations theory. This is the first published example of a systematic approach to plan injury prevention programme diffusion in community sports. The key strengths of this approach were an effective researcher-practitioner partnership; actively engaging local sports administrators; targeting specific behaviour determinants, informed by theory and evidence; and taking context-related practical strengths and constraints into consideration. The major challenges were the time involved in using a systematic diffusion planning approach for the first time; and finding a planning language that was acceptable and meaningful to researchers and practitioners.

  19. Social marketing to plan a fall prevention program for Latino construction workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Nancy N; Shrestha, Pramen P

    2012-08-01

    Latino construction workers experience disparities in occupational death and injury rates. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration funded a fall prevention training program at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas in response to sharp increases in fall-related accidents from 2005 to 2007. The grant's purpose was to improve fall protection for construction workers, with a focus on Latinos. This study assessed the effectiveness of social marketing for increasing fall prevention behaviors. A multi-disciplinary team used a social marketing approach to plan the program. We conducted same day class evaluations and follow-up interviews 8 weeks later. The classes met trainee needs as evidenced by class evaluations and increased safety behaviors. However, Spanish-speaking Latinos did not attend in the same proportion as their representation in the Las Vegas population. A social marketing approach to planning was helpful to customize the training to Latino worker needs. However, due to the limitations of behavior change strategies, future programs should target employers and their obligation to provide safer workplaces. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. 384 Power plant waste water sampling and analysis plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagerty, K.J.; Knotek, H.M.

    1995-01-01

    This document presents the 384 Power House Sampling and Analysis Plan. The Plan describes sampling methods, locations, frequency, analytes, and stream descriptions. The effluent streams from 384, were characterized in 1989, in support of the Stream Specific Report (WHC-EP-0342, Addendum 1)

  1. Resolving and Prevention of Shared Water Resources Conflicts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Learning from experiences from other parts of the world, it was recommended to incorporate game theory technique in water resources conflicts and cooperation in the African river basins for equitable and fair utilization and management of shared water. Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice Vol.1(1) 2004: 51- ...

  2. Economics of vector-borne diseases prevention: The case of the Tiger Mosquito control and Chikungunya and Dengue prevention plan in the Emilia-Romagna region (Northern Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Rivas Morales, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Aedes albopictus is considered one of the most invasive mosquito species in the world. It has proved capacity for local transmission of Chikungunya and Dengue within Europe. This research evaluated public costs related to the implementation of the plan for Ae. albopictus control and Chikungunya and Dengue prevention set up in Emilia-Romagna region (Northern Italy), where a Chikungunya epidemic outbreak occurred in 2007, with 217 confirmed cases. The management plan started in 2008 by involvin...

  3. UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Gunnison, Colorado: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    This water sampling and analysis plan summarizes the results of previous water sampling activities and the plan for future water sampling activities, in accordance with the Guidance Document for Preparing Sampling and Analysis Plans for UMTRA Sites. A buffer zone monitoring plan for the Dos Rios Subdivision is included as an appendix. The buffer zone monitoring plan was developed to ensure continued protection to the public from residual contamination. The buffer zone is beyond the area depicted as contaminated ground water due to former milling operations. Surface remedial action at the Gunnison Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site began in 1992; completion is expected in 1995. Ground water and surface water will be sampled semiannually at the Gunnison processing site and disposal site. Results of previous water sampling at the Gunnison processing site indicate that ground water in the alluvium is contaminated by the former uranium processing activities. Background ground water conditions have been established in the uppermost aquifer at the Gunnison disposal site. The monitor well locations provide a representative distribution of sampling points to characterize ground water quality and ground water flow conditions in the vicinity of the sites. The list of analytes has been modified with time to reflect constituents that are related to uranium processing activities and the parameters needed for geochemical evaluation

  4. Surface-water quality-assurance plan for the U.S. Geological Survey Washington Water Science Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastin, Mark C.

    2016-02-19

    This Surface-Water Quality-Assurance Plan documents the standards, policies, and procedures used by the U.S. Geological Survey Washington Water Science Center (WAWSC) for activities related to the collection, processing, storage, analysis, and publication of surface-water data. This plan serves as a guide to all WAWSC personnel involved in surface-water data activities, and changes as the needs and requirements of the WAWSC change. Regular updates to this plan represent an integral part of the quality-assurance process. In the WAWSC, direct oversight and responsibility by the hydrographer(s) assigned to a surface-water station, combined with team approaches in all work efforts, assure highquality data, analyses, reviews, and reports for cooperating agencies and the public.

  5. Climate Adaptive Water Management Plans for Cities in South Asia ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    They will also: -produce scientific, peer-reviewed publications on the governance of urban water systems -conduct an economic analysis of climate adaptive water management options -propose strategies for gender sensitive approaches to urban water management They will share the results with local communities, ...

  6. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program: Integrated Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-02-01

    proliferation and terrorism. The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is the primary programmatic activity that addresses Objective 1. This document summarizes the LWRS Program's plans. For the LWRS Program, sustainability is defined as the ability to maintain safe and economic operation of the existing fleet of nuclear power plants for a longer-than-initially-licensed lifetime. It has two facets with respect to long-term operations: (1) manage the aging of plant systems, structures, and components so that nuclear power plant lifetimes can be extended and the plants can continue to operate safely, efficiently, and economically; and (2) provide science-based solutions to the industry to implement technology to exceed the performance of the current labor-intensive business model.

  7. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program: Integrated Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-05-01

    proliferation and terrorism. The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is the primary programmatic activity that addresses Objective 1. This document summarizes the LWRS Program’s plans. For the LWRS Program, sustainability is defined as the ability to maintain safe and economic operation of the existing fleet of nuclear power plants for a longer-than-initially-licensed lifetime. It has two facets with respect to long-term operations: (1) manage the aging of plant systems, structures, and components so that nuclear power plant lifetimes can be extended and the plants can continue to operate safely, efficiently, and economically; and (2) provide science-based solutions to the industry to implement technology to exceed the performance of the current labor-intensive business model.

  8. Best management practices to reduce and prevent water pollution with herbicides from run-off and erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehring, Klaus

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The natural phenomenon of run-off and erosion lead to unpreventable pesticide water pollution in case of extreme weather conditions. In this relationship the use of herbicides involves a higher risk than other pesticides because of the specific terms of application. Directive 2009/128/EC for the sustainable use of pesticides aspires to enhanced water protection. German national action plan contains quantitative objectives which require strong reduction of water pollution by run-off and erosion of pesticides and accordingly herbicides. The European TOPPS prowadis project developed a consolidated and basic diagnosis concept for the first time to determine the field specific run-off risk. Compatible mitigation measures were linked to specific risk scenarios. Risk diagnosis and suitable mitigation measures determine best management practices for the prevention of run-off and erosion. Different new diagnosis methods and the implementation are presented. Further documents and information are available on the web [http://www.topps-life.org/].

  9. Methodical approaches in the Norwegian Master Plan for Water Resources; Metodiske problemstillinger ved Samlet plan for vassdrag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowitz, Einar

    1997-12-31

    The Norwegian Master Plan for Water Resources instructs the management not to consider applications for concession to develop hydroelectric projects in the so called category II of the plan. These are the environmentally most controversial projects or the most expensive projects. This report discusses the methods used in this Master Plan to classify the projects. The question whether the assessments of the environmental disadvantages of hydropower development are reasonable is approached in two ways: (1) Compare the environmental costs imbedded in the Plan with direct assessments, and (2) Discuss the appropriateness of the methodology used for environmental evaluations in the Plan. The report concludes that (1) the environmental costs that can be derived from the ranking in the Plan are significantly greater than those following from direct evaluations, (2) the differences are generally so great that one may ask whether the methods used in the Plan overestimate the real environmental costs, (3) it seems to have been difficult to make a unified assessment of the environmental disadvantages, (4) the Plan has considered the economic impact on agriculture and forestry very roughly and indirectly, which may have contributed to overestimated environmental costs of hydropower development. 20 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  10. Water: from the source to the treatment plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquet, V.; Baude, I.

    2012-04-01

    As a biology and geology teacher, I have worked on water, from the source to the treatment plant, with pupils between 14 and 15 years old. Lesson 1. Introduction, the water in Vienna Aim: The pupils have to consider why the water is so important in Vienna (history, economy etc.) Activities: Brainstorming about where and why we use water every day and why the water is different in Vienna. Lesson 2. Soil, rock and water Aim: Permeability/ impermeability of the different layers of earth Activities: The pupils have measure the permeability and porosity of different stones: granite, clay, sand, carbonate and basalt. Lesson 3. Relationship between water's ion composition and the stone's mineralogy Aim: Each water source has the same ion composition as the soil where the water comes from. Activities: Comparison between the stone's mineralogy and ions in water. They had a diagram with the ions of granite, clay, sand, carbonate and basalt and the label of different water. They had to make hypotheses about the type of soil where the water came from. They verified this with a geology map of France and Austria. They have to make a profile of the area where the water comes from. They had to confirm or reject their hypothesis. Lesson 4 .Water-catchment and reservoir rocks Aim: Construction of a confined aquifer and artesian well Activities: With sand, clay and a basin, they have to model a confined aquifer and make an artesian well, using what they have learned in lesson 2. Lesson 5. Organic material breakdown and it's affect on the oxygen levels in an aquatic ecosystem Aim: Evaluate the relationship between oxygen levels and the amount of organic matter in an aquatic ecosystem. Explain the relationship between oxygen levels, bacteria and the breakdown of organic matter using an indicator solution. Activities: Put 5 ml of a different water sample in each tube with 20 drops of methylene blue. Observe the tubes after 1 month. Lesson 6. Visit to the biggest water treatment plant in

  11. Drought and Water Supply. Implications of the Massachusetts Experience for Municipal Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Clifford S.; And Others

    This book uses the 1962-66 Massachusetts drought data as a base of information to build a planning model of water resources that is of interest to students and professionals involved with water management. Using a demand-supply ratio to measure the relative inadequacy of a given water system, the authors then project demand into the drought period…

  12. A Web-based Tool for Transparent, Collaborative Urban Water System Planning for Monterrey, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheinheimer, D. E.; Medellin-Azuara, J.; Garza Díaz, L. E.; Ramírez, A. I.

    2017-12-01

    Recent rapid advances in web technologies and cloud computing show great promise for facilitating collaboration and transparency in water planning efforts. Water resources planning is increasingly in the context of a rapidly urbanizing world, particularly in developing countries. In such countries with democratic traditions, the degree of transparency and collaboration in water planning can mean the difference between success and failure of water planning efforts. This is exemplified in the city of Monterrey, Mexico, where an effort to build a new long-distance aqueduct to increase water supply to the city dramatically failed due to lack of transparency and top-down planning. To help address, we used a new, web-based water system modeling platform, called OpenAgua, to develop a prototype decision support system for water planning in Monterrey. OpenAgua is designed to promote transparency and collaboration, as well as provide strong, cloud-based, water system modeling capabilities. We developed and assessed five water management options intended to increase water supply yield and/or reliability, a dominant water management concern in Latin America generally: 1) a new long-distance source (the previously-rejected project), 2) a new nearby reservoir, 3) expansion/re-operation of an existing major canal, 4) desalination, and 5) industrial water reuse. Using the integrated modeling and analytic capabilities of OpenAgua, and some customization, we assessed the performance of these options for water supply yield and reliability to help identify the most promising ones. In presenting this assessment, we demonstrate the viability of using online, cloud-based modeling systems for improving transparency and collaboration in decision making, reducing the gap between citizens, policy makers and water managers, and future directions.

  13. Prevention of biofilm formation in dialysis water treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeets, Ed; Kooman, Jeroen; van der Sande, Frank; Stobberingh, Ellen; Frederik, Peter; Claessens, Piet; Grave, Willem; Schot, Arend; Leunissen, Karel

    2003-04-01

    Biofilm formations in dialysis systems may be relevant because they continuously release bacterial compounds and are resistant against disinfection. The aim of the study was to compare the development of biofilm between a water treatment system based on a single reverse osmosis unit producing purified dialysate water [bacterial count, 350 colony-forming unit (CFU)/L] (center A) and a water treatment system based on double reverse osmosis and electric deionization, which is continuously disinfected with ultraviolet light and treated with ozone once a week (bacterial count, 1 CFU/L) (center B). During a period of 12 weeks, biofilm formation was studied in the tubing segment between the water piping and the dialysis module, using four dialysis monitors in each center. On a weekly basis, tubing samples of 5 cm length (N = 96) were taken under aseptic conditions and investigated for microbiologic contamination [cystine lactose electrolyte-deficient (CLED) Agar], endotoxin levels [limulus amoeben lysate (LAL) gel test, cutoff value, 0.0125 EU/mL], and biofilm formation [electron scanning microscopy (SEM)]. In center A, tube cultures were positive (>100 CFU/mL) in 16% of samples at 22 degrees C and 37 degrees C, compared to 3% of samples of center B (P tubing samples of center A and negative in all of the samples of center B (P < 0.05). Biofilm was present in 91.7% of the samples of center A (Fig. 1), and only present in one sample (taken after 9 weeks) of center B (P < 0.05) (Fig. 2). In center A, biofilm formation was already observed after 1 week. In contrast to a standard water treatment system producing purified water, the use of a system producing highly purified water, which is also treated with regular disinfection procedures, leads to a significant reduction in biofilm formation, bacterial growth, and endotoxin levels in a highly vulnerable part of a water treatment system.

  14. Incorporating Green Infrastructure into Water Resources Management Plans to Address Water Quality Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscopo, A. N.; Detenbeck, N. E.

    2017-12-01

    Managers of urban watersheds with excessive nutrient loads are more frequently turning to green infrastructure (GI) to manage their water quality impairments. The effectiveness of GI is dependent on a number of factors, including (1) the type and placement of GI within the watershed, (2) the specific nutrients to be treated, and (3) the uncertainty in future climates. Although many studies have investigated the effectiveness of individual GI units for different types of nutrients, relatively few have considered the effectiveness of GI on a watershed scale, the scale most relevant to management plans. At the watershed scale, endless combinations of GI type and location are possible, each with different effectiveness in reducing nutrient loads, minimizing costs, and maximizing co-benefits such as reducing runoff. To efficiently generate management plan options that balance the tradeoffs between these objectives, we simulate candidate options using EPA's Stormwater Management Model for multiple future climates and determine the Pareto optimal set of solution options using a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm. Our approach is demonstrated for an urban watershed in Rockville, Maryland.

  15. Strategic Plan for Light Water Reactor Research and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-02-01

    The purpose of this strategic plan is to establish a framework that will allow the Department of Energy (DOE) and the nuclear power industry to jointly plan the nuclear energy research and development (R&D) agenda important to achieving the Nation's energy goals. This strategic plan has been developed to focus on only those R&D areas that will benefit from a coordinated government/industry effort. Specifically, this plan focuses on safely sustaining and expanding the electricity output from currently operating nuclear power plants and expanding nuclear capacity through the deployment of new plants. By focusing on R&D that addresses the needs of both current and future nuclear plants, DOE and industry will be able to take advantage of the synergism between these two technology areas, thus improving coordination, enhancing efficiency, and further leveraging public and private sector resources. By working together under the framework of this strategic plan, DOE and the nuclear industry reinforce their joint commitment to the future use of nuclear power and the National Energy Policy's goal of expanding its use in the United States. The undersigned believe that a public-private partnership approach is the most efficient and effective way to develop and transfer new technologies to the marketplace to achieve this goal. This Strategic Plan is intended to be a living document that will be updated annually.

  16. Strategic Plan for Light Water Reactor Research and Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this strategic plan is to establish a framework that will allow the Department of Energy (DOE) and the nuclear power industry to jointly plan the nuclear energy research and development (R and D) agenda important to achieving the Nation's energy goals. This strategic plan has been developed to focus on only those R and D areas that will benefit from a coordinated government/industry effort. Specifically, this plan focuses on safely sustaining and expanding the electricity output from currently operating nuclear power plants and expanding nuclear capacity through the deployment of new plants. By focusing on R and D at addresses the needs of both current and future nuclear plants, DOE and industry will be able to take advantage of the synergism between these two technology areas, thus improving coordination, enhancing efficiency, and further leveraging public and private sector resources. By working together under the framework of this strategic plan, DOE and the nuclear industry reinforce their joint commitment to the future use of nuclear power and the National Energy Policy's goal of expanding its use in the United States. The undersigned believe that a public-private partnership approach is the most efficient and effective way to develop and transfer new technologies to the marketplace to achieve this goal. This Strategic Plan is intended to be a living document that will be updated annually

  17. The Effect of Training on Adopting Behaviors Preventing from Knee Osteoarthritis Based on Planned Behavior Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the arthritis is believed to be among common diseases which prevail in the developed and developing countries, including Iran. In demographic studies, the prevalence of knee arthritis which stands at %15/3 in the population above 15-years old was shown. Owing to the fact that societies are about to be aged than before, the issue has become a growing significance in the subject matter of public health. The present study is conducted with an aim to investigate into the effect of training based on the planned behavior model on preventing the teachers of preliminary schools from getting knee arthritis. Methods: the study as an intervention research is of quasi-experimental kind. The population in question included 114 individuals among female teachers of preliminary schools who were brought to the study randomly and divided into two groups intervention and non-intervention. Based on the primary results, the educational contents were designed and submitted in the intervention group. After two months of executing the training program, the post test was carried out. The data was analyzed by SPSS version 18. Due to the loss of normality in data distribution, non- parametric tests were used. Results: the study demonstrated that the components of the planned behavior theory (i.e. the attitudes, subjective norms and the control of perceived behavior could altogether estimate %37 of intention and %43 of behavior. Meanwhile, the role of subjective norms (β =56/0 in predicting intention was overriding, In this study,after the educational program, control of perceived behavior scores increased of 32/50 ± 4/05 to 34/82 ± 5/66. indicating that the major obstacles in adopting behaviors preventing from knee arthritis are the lack of regular physical activity (%72/4 and failure to use western-style toilet (%57. Conclusion: In this Study the effect theory of planned behavior support in predicting exercise intentions and behavior in the prevention of

  18. National Enforcement Initiative: Preventing Animal Waste from Contaminating Surface and Ground Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page describes EPA's goal in preventing animal waste from contaminating surface and ground Water. It is an EPA National Enforcement Initiative. Both enforcement cases, and a map of enforcement actions are provided.

  19. Energy-water analysis of the 10-year WECC transmission planning study cases.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Passell, Howard David; Castillo, Cesar; Moreland, Barbara

    2011-11-01

    In 2011 the Department of Energy's Office of Electricity embarked on a comprehensive program to assist our Nation's three primary electric interconnections with long term transmission planning. Given the growing concern over water resources in the western U.S. the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) requested assistance with integrating water resource considerations into their broader electric transmission planning. The result is a project with three overarching objectives: (1) Develop an integrated Energy-Water Decision Support System (DSS) that will enable planners in the Western Interconnection to analyze the potential implications of water stress for transmission and resource planning. (2) Pursue the formulation and development of the Energy-Water DSS through a strongly collaborative process between the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC), Western Governors Association (WGA), the Western States Water Council (WSWC) and their associated stakeholder teams. (3) Exercise the Energy-Water DSS to investigate water stress implications of the transmission planning scenarios put forward by WECC, WGA, and WSWC. The foundation for the Energy-Water DSS is Sandia National Laboratories Energy-Power-Water Simulation (EPWSim) model (Tidwell et al. 2009). The modeling framework targets the shared needs of energy and water producers, resource managers, regulators, and decision makers at the federal, state and local levels. This framework provides an interactive environment to explore trade-offs, and 'best' alternatives among a broad list of energy/water options and objectives. The decision support framework is formulated in a modular architecture, facilitating tailored analyses over different geographical regions and scales (e.g., state, county, watershed, interconnection). An interactive interface allows direct control of the model and access to real-time results displayed as charts, graphs and maps. The framework currently supports

  20. Water: from the source to the treatment plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baude, I.; Marquet, V.

    2012-04-01

    Isabelle BAUDE isa.baude@free.fr Lycee français de Vienne Liechtensteinstrasse 37AVienna As a physics and chemistry teacher, I have worked on water from the source to the treatment plant with 27 pupils between 14 and 15 years old enrolled in the option "Science and laboratory". The objectives of this option are to interest students in science, to introduce them to practical methods of laboratory analyses, and let them use computer technology. Teaching takes place every two weeks and lasts 1.5 hours. The theme of water is a common project with the biology and geology teacher, Mrs. Virginie Marquet. Lesson 1: Introduction: The water in Vienna The pupils have to consider why the water is so important in Vienna (history, economy etc.) and where tap water comes from. Activities: Brainstorming about where and why we use water every day and why the water is different in Vienna. Lesson 2: Objectives of the session: What are the differences between mineral waters? Activities: Compare water from different origins (France: Evian, Vittel, Contrex. Austria: Vöslauer, Juvina, Gasteiner and tap water from Vienna) by tasting and finding the main ions they contain. Testing ions: Calcium, magnesium, sulphate, chloride, sodium, and potassium Lesson 3: Objectives of the session: Build a hydrometer Activities: Producing a range of calibration solutions, build and calibrate the hydrometer with different salt-water solutions. Measure the density of the Dead Sea's water and other mineral waters. Lesson 4: Objectives of the session: How does a fountain work? Activities: Construction of a fountain as Heron of Alexandria with simple equipment and try to understand the hydrostatic principles. Lesson 5: Objectives of the session: Study of the physical processes of water treatment (decantation, filtration, screening) Activities: Build a natural filter with sand, stone, carbon, and cotton wool. Retrieve the filtered water to test it during lesson 7. Lesson 6: Visit of the biggest treatment

  1. Improving Urban Water Environment in Eastern China by Blending Traditional with Modern Landscape Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jiajie; Yu, Junjun; Tian, Yuan; Zhao, Cai; Wang, Hao

    2017-01-01

    As a fundamental part of greenspace, urban water landscape contributes greatly to the ecological system and at the same time supplies a leisure area for residents. The paper did an analysis on the number of aquatic plant communities, the form of water spaces, and water quality condition by investigating 135 quadrats (90 at amphibious boundary and the land, 45 in the water) in 45 transects of 15 urban and suburban parks. We found that water spaces had monotonous forms with low biodiversity and poor water quality. In addition, urban water landscapes hardly provided ecological functions given excessive construction. Accordingly, a proposition to connect tradition with modernism in the improvement and innovation of urban water landscape planning was put forward, and further, the way to achieve it was explored. By taking Qinhu Wetland Park as a case, the principles and specific planning methods on macro- and microperspectives were discussed to guide the development of urban landscape in eastern China.

  2. United States family planning providers' knowledge of and attitudes towards preexposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidman, Dominika; Carlson, Kimberly; Weber, Shannon; Witt, Jacki; Kelly, Patricia J

    2016-05-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention defines HIV prevention as a core family planning service. The HIV community identified family planning visits as key encounters for women to access preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention. No studies explore US family planning providers' knowledge of and attitudes towards PrEP. We conducted a national survey of clinicians to understand barriers and facilitators to PrEP implementation in family planning. Family planning providers recruited via website postings, national meetings, and email completed an anonymous survey in 2015. Descriptive statistics were performed. Among 604 respondents, 495 were eligible for analysis and 342 were potential PrEP prescribers (physicians, nurse practitioners, midwives or physicians assistants). Among potential prescribers, 38% correctly defined PrEP [95% confidence interval (CI): 32.5-42.8], 37% correctly stated the efficacy of PrEP (95% CI: 32.0-42.4), and 36% chose the correct HIV test after a recent exposure (95% CI: 30.6-40.8). Characteristics of those who answered knowledge questions correctly included age less than 35 years, practicing in the Northeast or West, routinely offering HIV testing, providing rectal sexually transmitted infection screening or having seen any PrEP guidelines. Even among providers in the Northeast and West, the proportion of respondents answering questions correctly was less than 50%. Thirty-six percent of respondents had seen any PrEP guidelines. Providers identified lack of training as the main barrier to PrEP implementation; 87% wanted PrEP education. To offer comprehensive HIV prevention services, family planning providers urgently need training on PrEP and HIV testing. US family planning providers have limited knowledge about HIV PrEP and HIV testing, and report lack of provider training as the main barrier to PrEP provision. Provider education is needed to ensure that family planning clients access comprehensive HIV prevention methods

  3. Development of emergency response plans for community water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cape), were visited to (i) identify the water service delivery status, methods and possible shared threats/vulnerabilities and risks (ii) identify water services ... Following site visits, an ERP guideline document with associated templates will be developed and workshopped with the selected communities, which will include:.

  4. 76 FR 31973 - Draft WaterSMART Strategic Implementation Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... environment, and will identify adaptive measures needed to address climate change and future demands. Within... best available science to understand the impacts of climate change on water supplies; and provide... and time. It is increasingly recognized that water is the primary means through which climate change...

  5. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Naturita, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    Surface remedial action is scheduled to begin at the Naturita UMTRA Project processing site in the spring of 1994. No water sampling was performed during 1993 at either the Naturita processing site (NAT-01) or the Dry Flats disposal site (NAT-12). Results of previous water sampling at the Naturita processing site indicate that ground water in the alluvium is contaminated as a result of uranium processing activities. Baseline ground water conditions have been established in the uppermost aquifer at the Dry Flats disposal site. Water sampling activities scheduled for April 1994 include preconstruction sampling of selected monitor wells at the processing site, surface water sampling of the San Miguel River, sampling of several springs/seeps in the vicinity of the disposal site, and sampling of two monitor wells in Coke Oven Valley. The monitor well locations provide sampling points to characterize ground water quality and flow conditions in the vicinity of the sites. The list of analytes has been updated to reflect constituents related to uranium processing activities and the parameters needed for geochemical evaluation. Water sampling will be conducted annually at minimum during the period of construction activities

  6. Integrated water resource planning in the city of Cape Town

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    driniev

    on a continuous basis. A similar project in Masimphumelele started in 2000 has resulted in a reduction in water demand in that area of. 58%. The Khayelitsha Water Leaks Project started in 2001/02 and is ongoing. A substantial amount has been spent on zone metering and telemetry which will assist city officials to identify ...

  7. Water resources planning in a typical state in Nigeria: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some twelve strategic water resources development projects were examined using the methodology and techniques of Dynamic Programming and Mixed Integer programming. Keywords: Water Resources, Adamawa State, Poverty Alleveiation, Job Creation, Dynamic Programming. [Global Jnl Mathematical Sci Vol.2(1) ...

  8. Shallow-water spinal injuries – devastating but preventable | Vlok ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To evaluate the demographics, clinical features and outcomes of shallow-water diving injuries in an acute spinal cord injury (ASCI) unit. Materials and methods. All patients admitted to the ASCI unit with diving-related injuries were entered into the study. Data regarding demographics, injury profile and subsequent ...

  9. 40 CFR 112.3 - Requirement to prepare and implement a Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION Applicability, Definitions... discharges as described in § 112.1(b) that are the result of natural disasters, acts of war, or terrorism...

  10. THE FIRST PLAN FOR WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT OF SOMEȘ-TISA CATCHMENT AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOFRONIE C.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available With time, after Romania’s accession to the E.U., the national legislation adhered to the Water Framework Directive. In the study we present the Someş and Tisa river catchments management and development plans, from the beginnings till today. We also conclude that the ecological and chemical state for the water bodies in agreement with the Water Framework Directive represents the main challenge for the future of these waters.

  11. Risk Prevention Strategies and the SWOT Analysis for the Implementation of the SMEs’ Business Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionica Oncioiu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This theme is targeting the importance of implementing the business plan of a small and medium company that has as aim the creation of the added value through research and innovation in the management of human resources performance based on information technology domain. The objective is to increase the economic competitiveness and development of knowledge-based economy whereas by the implementation of the project, it increases the company‟s profitability, creating a competitive advantage resulting in innovative products, as well as the effectiveness of companies that use human resources evaluation platform. The need identified on the market to which the SMEs wish to answer by implementing the plan is represented by the nationwide lack of a complex solution covering both the evaluation and the management of human resources performances. The used methodology can be found in the analysis, developing a strategy for preventing financial, human, market, marketing - image risks and also the physical ones. With the SWOT analysis it was observed one of the strengths i.e. the existence of a single management system of employee performance that includes assessment specific features. In conclusion, there are no software solutions at national level, which would assess the human resources of an organization, following specific indicators of that organization, which could combine the assessment methods in order to achieve more a more efficient and versatile assessment.

  12. The long term effects of "Consumer-Directed" health plans on preventive care use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Matthew D; Haviland, Amelia M; Mehrotra, Ateev; Huckfeldt, Peter J; Sood, Neeraj

    2017-09-01

    "Consumer-Directed" Health Plans (CDHPs), those with high deductibles and personal medical accounts, have been shown to reduce health care spending. The impact of CDHPs on preventive care is unclear. On the one hand CDHPs might increase use of preventive care as such care is exempt from the deductible. However, CDHPs also decrease visits to physicians which might results in less screening. Prior research has found conflicting results. In this study, using data from 37 employers we examine the effects of CDHPs on the use of cancer screenings up to three years after the initial CDHP offering with ITT and LATE approaches. Being offered a CDHP or enrolling in a CDHP had little or no effect on cancer screening rates but individuals increase screenings prior to enrolling in a CDHP. Our findings suggest the importance of examining CDHP effects on periodic care over the longer-term and carefully controlling for anticipatory stockpiling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Slovenian National Landslide DataBase – A promising approach to slope mass movement prevention plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihael Ribičič

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The Slovenian territory is, geologically speaking, very diverse and mainly composed of sediments or sedimentary rocks. Slope mass movements occur almost in all parts of the country. In the Alpine carbonate areas of the northern part of Slovenia rock falls, rock slides and even debris flows can be triggered.In the mountainous regions of central Slovenia composed from different clastic rocks, large soil landslides are quite usual, and in the young soil sediments of eastern part of Slovenia there is a large density of small soil landslides.The damage caused by slope mass movements is high, but still no common strategy and regulations to tackle this unwanted event, especially from the aspect of prevention, have been developed. One of the first steps towards an effective strategy of struggling against landslides and other slope mass movements is a central landslide database, where (ideally all known landslide occurrences would be reported, and described in as much detail as possible. At the end of the project of National Landslide Database construction which ended in May 2005 there were more than 6600 registered landslides, of which almost half occurred at a known location and were accompanied with the main characteristic descriptions.The erected database is a chance for Slovenia to once and for all start a solid slope mass movement prevention plan. The only part which is missing and which is the most important one is adopting a legal act that will legalise the obligation of reporting slope mass movement events to the database.

  14. Integrating cervical cancer screening and preventive treatment with family planning and HIV-related services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Heather L; Meglioli, Alejandra; Chowdhury, Raveena; Nuccio, Olivia

    2017-07-01

    Cervical cancer is a leading cause of mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa-in large part because of inadequate coverage of screening and preventive treatment services. A number of programs have begun integrating cervical cancer prevention services into existing family planning or HIV/AIDS service delivery platforms, to rapidly expand "screen and treat" programs and mitigate cervical cancer burden. Drawing upon a review of literature and our experiences, we consider benefits and challenges associated with such programs in Sub-Saharan Africa. We then outline steps that can optimize uptake and sustainability of integrated sexual and reproductive health services. These include increasing coordination among implementing organizations for efficient use of resources; task shifting for services that can be provided by nonphysicians; mobilizing communities via trusted frontline health workers; strengthening management information systems to allow for monitoring of multiple services; and prioritizing an operational research agenda to provide further evidence on the cost-effectiveness and benefits of integrated service delivery. © 2017 The Authors. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  15. Environmental Release Prevention and Control Plan (ERP and CP) annual review and update for 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jannik, G.T.; Mamatey, A.; Arnett, M.

    1993-01-01

    In the Environmental Release Prevention and Control Plan (ERP and CP), WSRC made a commitment to conduct the following follow-up activities and actions: (1) Complete the action items developed in response to the findings and recommendation of the Environmental Release Prevention Taskteam (WSRC-RP-92-356). (2) Complete all batch and continuous release procedure revisions to incorporate the attributes that WSRC senior management required of each procedure. (3) DOE-SR Assistance Managers and WSRC counterparts to reach consensus and closure on the identified engineered solutions documented in the ERP and CP, develop and drive implementation of facility changes per the agreements. (4) Continue to analyze releases and monitor performance in accordance with the ERP and CP, and utilize the ALARA Release Guides Committee to drive improvements. (5) Conduct annual re-evaluations of the cost benefit analyses of the identified engineered solutions, and identify new options and alternatives for each outfall in response to site mission and facility changes. This report documents the efforts that have been completed over the past year in response to these commitments

  16. Impact of regionalized care on concordance of plan and preventable adverse events on general medicine services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Stephanie K; Schnipper, Jeffrey L; Giannelli, Kyla; Roy, Christopher L; Boxer, Robert

    2016-09-01

    Dispersion of inpatient care teams across different medical units impedes effective team communication, potentially leading to adverse events (AEs). To regionalize 3 inpatient general medical teams to nursing units and examine the association with communication and preventable AEs. Pre-post cohort analysis. A 700-bed academic medical center. General medicine patients on any of the participating nursing units before and after implementation of regionalized care. Regionalizing 3 general medical physician teams to 3 corresponding nursing units. Concordance of patient care plan between nurse and intern, and adjusted odds of preventable AEs. Of the 414 included nurse and intern paired surveys, there were no significant differences pre- versus postregionalization in total mean concordance scores (0.65 vs 0.67, P = 0.26), but there was significant improvement in agreement on expected discharge date (0.56 vs 0.68, P = 0.003), knowledge of the other provider's name (0.56 vs 0.86,P communication and lead to patient safety improvements. Journal of Hospital Medicine 2016;11:620-627. © 2016 Society of Hospital Medicine. © 2016 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  17. Effectiveness of Anabolic Steroid Preventative Intervention among Gym Users: Applying Theory of Planned Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Moghimbeigi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS has been associated with adversephysical and psychiatric effects and it is known as rising problem among youth people. Thisstudy was conducted to evaluate anabolic steroids preventative intervention efficiency amonggym users in Iran and theory of planned behaviour was applied as theoretical framework.Methods: Overall, 120 male gym users participated in this study as intervention and controlgroup. This was a longitudinal randomized pretest - posttest series control group design panelstudy to implement a behaviour modification based intervention to prevent AAS use. Cross -tabulation and t-test by using SPSS statistical package, version 13 was used for the statisticalanalysis.Results: It was found significant improvements in average response for knowledge about sideeffects of AAS (P<0.001, attitude toward, and intention not to use AAS. Additionally afterintervention, the rate of AAS and supplements use was decreased among intervention group.Conclusion: Comprehensive implementation against AAS abuse among gym users and adolescenceswould be effective to improve adolescents’ healthy behaviors and intend them notto use AAS.

  18. Environmental Restoration Progam Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    In response to DOE Order 5400.1 this plan outlines the requirements for a Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program for the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program at Martin Marietta Energy System, Inc. Statements of the national, Department of Energy, Energy Systems, and Energy Systems ER Program policies on waste minimization are included and reflect the attitudes of these organizations and their commitment to the waste minimization effort. Organizational responsibilities for the waste minimization effort are clearly defined and discussed, and the program objectives and goals are set forth. Waste assessment is addressed as being a key element in developing the waste generation baseline. There are discussions on the scope of ER-specific waste minimization techniques and approaches to employee awareness and training. There is also a discussion on the process for continual evaluation of the Waste Minimization Program. Appendixes present an implementation schedule for the Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Program, the program budget, an organization chart, and the ER waste minimization policy

  19. Risk management frameworks: supporting the next generation of Murray-Darling Basin water sharing plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Podger

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Water jurisdictions in Australia are required to prepare and implement water resource plans. In developing these plans the common goal is realising the best possible use of the water resources – maximising outcomes while minimising negative impacts. This requires managing the risks associated with assessing and balancing cultural, industrial, agricultural, social and environmental demands for water within a competitive and resource-limited environment. Recognising this, conformance to international risk management principles (ISO 31000:2009 have been embedded within the Murray-Darling Basin Plan. Yet, to date, there has been little strategic investment by water jurisdictions in bridging the gap between principle and practice. The ISO 31000 principles and the risk management framework that embodies them align well with an adaptive management paradigm within which to conduct water resource planning. They also provide an integrative framework for the development of workflows that link risk analysis with risk evaluation and mitigation (adaptation scenarios, providing a transparent, repeatable and robust platform. This study, through a demonstration use case and a series of workflows, demonstrates to policy makers how these principles can be used to support the development of the next generation of water sharing plans in 2019. The workflows consider the uncertainty associated with climate and flow inputs, and model parameters on irrigation and hydropower production, meeting environmental flow objectives and recreational use of the water resource. The results provide insights to the risks associated with meeting a range of different objectives.

  20. TIME TO CHANGE : The foreseeable future for water planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segrave, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    The decisions people make, and the actions they take, depend on how they conceptualize and experience time. This fundamental and influential factor is seldom acknowledged, little understood, and rarely considered explicitly in planning; be that for the material systems or the knowledge systems in

  1. 400 area secondary cooling water sampling and analysis plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penn, L.L.

    1996-10-29

    This is a total rewrite of the Sampling and Analysis Plan in response to, and to ensure compliance with, the State Waste Discharge Permit ST 4501 issued on July 31, 1996. This revision describes changes in facility status and implements requirements of the permit.

  2. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Durango, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Surface remedial action has been completed at the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project in Durango, Colorado. Contaminated soil and debris have been removed from the former processing site and placed in the Bodo Canyon disposal cell. Ground water at the former uranium mill/tailings site and raffinate pond area has been contaminated by the former milling operations. The ground water at the disposal site was not impacted by the former milling operations at the time of the cell's construction. Activities for fiscal 1994 involve ground water sampling and site characterization of the disposal site

  3. Advantages of integrated and sustainability based assessment for metabolism based strategic planning of urban water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzadian, Kourosh; Kapelan, Zoran

    2015-09-15

    Despite providing water-related services as the primary purpose of urban water system (UWS), all relevant activities require capital investments and operational expenditures, consume resources (e.g. materials and chemicals), and may increase negative environmental impacts (e.g. contaminant discharge, emissions to water and air). Performance assessment of such a metabolic system may require developing a holistic approach which encompasses various system elements and criteria. This paper analyses the impact of integration of UWS components on the metabolism based performance assessment for future planning using a number of intervention strategies. It also explores the importance of sustainability based criteria in the assessment of long-term planning. Two assessment approaches analysed here are: (1) planning for only water supply system (WSS) as a part of the UWS and (2) planning for an integrated UWS including potable water, stormwater, wastewater and water recycling. WaterMet(2) model is used to simulate metabolic type processes in the UWS and calculate quantitative performance indicators. The analysis is demonstrated on the problem of strategic level planning of a real-world UWS to where optional intervention strategies are applied. The resulting performance is assessed using the multiple criteria of both conventional and sustainability type; and optional intervention strategies are then ranked using the Compromise Programming method. The results obtained show that the high ranked intervention strategies in the integrated UWS are those supporting both water supply and stormwater/wastewater subsystems (e.g. rainwater harvesting and greywater recycling schemes) whilst these strategies are ranked low in the WSS and those targeting improvement of water supply components only (e.g. rehabilitation of clean water pipes and addition of new water resources) are preferred instead. Results also demonstrate that both conventional and sustainability type performance indicators

  4. Constraints facing the implementation of the greater New Orleans urban water plan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visschedijk, A.; Van de Ven, F.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    On September 6th of last year the Greater New Orleans Urban Water Plan (UWP) was presented. A comprehensive plan which addresses flooding caused by heavy rainfall and soil subsidence caused by excessive drainage. Every year parts of the Greater New Orleans Area flood due to severe rainfall events in

  5. A Water Security Handbook: Planning for and Responding to Drinking Water Contamination Threats and Incidents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2006-01-01

    .... This Water Security Handbook was developed by the U.S. EPA to help you, the water utility official, protect your water system and respond effectively to threats and contamination incidents involving your water system...

  6. Water resources planning for a river basin with recurrent wildfires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, R M B; Sanches Fernandes, L F; Pereira, M G; Cortes, R M V; Pacheco, F A L

    2015-09-01

    Situated in the north of Portugal, the Beça River basin is subject to recurrent wildfires, which produce serious consequences on soil erosion and nutrient exports, namely by deteriorating the water quality in the basin. In the present study, the ECO Lab tool embedded in the Mike Hydro Basin software was used for the evaluation of river water quality, in particular the dissolved concentration of phosphorus in the period 1990-2013. The phosphorus concentrations are influenced by the burned area and the river flow discharge, but the hydrologic conditions prevail: in a wet year (2000, 16.3 km(2) of burned area) with an average flow of 16.4 m(3)·s(-1) the maximum phosphorus concentration was as low as 0.02 mg·L(-1), while in a dry year (2005, 24.4 km(2) of burned area) with an average flow of 2 m(3)·s(-1) the maximum concentration was as high as 0.57 mg·L(-1). Phosphorus concentrations in the water bodies exceeded the bounds of good ecological status in 2005 and between 2009 and 2012, water for human consumption in 2009 and water for multiple uses in 2010. The River Covas, a right margin tributary of Beça River, is the most appropriate stream as regards the use of water for human consumption, because it presents the biggest water potential with the best water quality. Since wildfires in the basin result essentially from natural causes and climate change forecasts indicate an increase in their frequency and intensity in the near future, forestry measures are proposed to include as a priority the conversion of stands of maritime pine in mixed stands of conifer and hardwood species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Collaborative Adaptation Planning for Water Security: Preliminary Lessons, Challenges, and the Way Forward for Maipo Basin Adaptation Plan, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicuna, S.; Scott, C. A.; Bonelli, S.; Bustos, E.; Meza, F. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Maipo basin holds 40% of Chile's total population and almost half of the country's Gross Domestic Product. The basin is located in the semiarid central region of the country and, aside from the typical pressures of growth in developing country basins, the Maipo river faces climate change impacts associated with a reduction in total runoff and changes in its seasonality. Surface water is the main water source for human settlements and economic activities including agriculture. In 2012 we started a research project to create a climate variability and climate change adaptation plan for the basin. The pillars of the plan are co-produced by researchers and a Scenario Building Team (SBT) with membership of relevant water and land use stakeholders (including from civil society, public and private sectors) in the basin. Following similar experiences in other regions in the world that have faced the challenges of dealing with long term planning under uncertainty, the project has divided the task of developing the plan into a series of interconnected elements. A critical first component is to work on the desired vision(s) of the basin for the future. In this regards, the "water security" concept has been chosen as a framework that accommodates all objectives of the SBT members. Understanding and quantifying the uncertainties that could affect the future water security of the basin is another critical aspect of the plan. Near and long term climate scenarios are one dimension of these uncertainties that are combined with base development uncertainties such as urban growth scenarios. A third component constructs the models/tools that allows the assessment of impacts on water security that could arise under these scenarios. The final critical component relates to the development of the adaptation measures that could avoid the negative impacts and/or capture the potential opportunities. After two years in the development of the adaptation plan a series of results has been

  8. Research on preventive technologies for bed-separation water hazard in China coal mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Herong; Tong, Shijie; Qiu, Weizhong; Lin, Manli

    2018-03-01

    Bed-separation water is one of the major water hazards in coal mines. Targeted researches on the preventive technologies are of paramount importance to safe mining. This article studied the restrictive effect of geological and mining factors, such as lithological properties of roof strata, coal seam inclination, water source to bed separations, roof management method, dimensions of mining working face, and mining progress, on the formation of bed-separation water hazard. The key techniques to prevent bed-separation water-related accidents include interception, diversion, destructing the buffer layer, grouting and backfilling, etc. The operation and efficiency of each technique are corroborated in field engineering cases. The results of this study will offer reference to countries with similar mining conditions in the researches on bed-separation water burst and hazard control in coal mines.

  9. Creating community action plans for obesity prevention using the ANGELO (Analysis Grid for Elements Linked to Obesity) Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, A; Mavoa, H M; Bell, A C; De Courten, M; Schaaf, D; Schultz, J; Swinburn, B A

    2009-12-01

    Community-based interventions are an important component of obesity prevention efforts. The literature provides little guidance on priority-setting for obesity prevention in communities, especially for socially and culturally diverse populations. This paper reports on the process of developing prioritized, community-participatory action plans for obesity prevention projects in children and adolescents using the ANGELO (Analysis Grid for Elements Linked to Obesity) Framework. We combined stakeholder engagement processes, the ANGELO Framework (scans for environmental barriers, targeted behaviours, gaps in skills and knowledge) and workshops with key stakeholders to create action plans for six diverse obesity prevention projects in Australia (n = 3), New Zealand, Fiji and Tonga from 2002 to 2005. Some sites included sociocultural contextual analyses in the environmental scans. Target groups were under-5-year-olds (Australia), 4-12-year-olds (Australia) and 13-18-year-olds (all four countries). Over 120 potential behavioural, knowledge, skill and environmental elements were identified for prioritization leading into each 2-day workshop. Many elements were common across the diverse cultural communities; however, several unique sociocultural elements emerged in some cultural groups which informed their action plans. Youth were actively engaged in adolescent projects, allowing their needs to be incorporated into the action plans initiating the process of ownership. A common structure for the action plan promoted efficiencies in the process while allowing for community creativity and innovation. The ANGELO is a flexible and efficient way of achieving an agreed plan for obesity prevention with diverse communities. It is responsive to community needs, combines local and international knowledge and creates stakeholder ownership of the action plan.

  10. UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Durango, Colorado. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    Planned, routine ground water sampling activities at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site in Durango, Colorado, are described in this water sampling and analysis plan. The plan identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequency for the routine monitoring stations at the site. The ground water data are used to characterize the site ground water compliance strategies and to monitor contaminants of potential concern identified in the baseline risk assessment (DOE, 1995a). Regulatory basis for routine ground water monitoring at UMTRA Project sites is derived from the US EPA regulations in 40 CFR Part 192 (1994) and EPA standards of 1995 (60 FR 2854). Sampling procedures are guided by the UMTRA Project standard operating procedures (SOP) (JEG, n.d.), the Technical Approach Document (TAD) (DOE, 1989), and the most effective technical approach for the site

  11. Process for the prevention of sulphur deposition in heavy water plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dombra, Allan H.

    1980-01-01

    The invention describes a process for the prevention of sulphur deposition in a heavy water production system of the type having hot and cold towers with liquid water and hydrogen sulphide gas passing through the towers in countercurrent isotope exchange relationship, the gas being recycled and the water entering the system from a feed and passing, after passage through the towers to waste, the improvement comprising injecting into the system, hydrogen gas sufficient to maintain a level of hydrogen concentration sufficient to prevent or reduce sulphur deposition. (auth)

  12. Salt repository project site study plan for water resources: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    The Site Study Plan for Water Resources describes a field program consisting of surface-water and ground-water characterization. The surface-water studies will determine the drainage basin characteristics (i.e., topography, soils, land use), hydrometeorology, runoff to streams and playas, and surface-water quality (i.e., offsite pollution sources in playa lakes and in streams). The environmental ground-water studies will focus on ground-water quality characterization. The site study plan describes for each study the need for the study, study design, data management and use, schedule of proposed activities, and quality assurance. These studies will provide data needed to satisfy requirements contained in, or derived from, the Salt Repository Projects Requirements Document. 78 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs

  13. Creating community action plans for obesity prevention using the ANGELO (Analysis Grid for Elements Linked to Obesity) Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simmons, A; Mavoa, H M; Bell, A C

    2009-01-01

    Community-based interventions are an important component of obesity prevention efforts. The literature provides little guidance on priority-setting for obesity prevention in communities, especially for socially and culturally diverse populations. This paper reports on the process of developing...... prioritized, community-participatory action plans for obesity prevention projects in children and adolescents using the ANGELO (Analysis Grid for Elements Linked to Obesity) Framework. We combined stakeholder engagement processes, the ANGELO Framework (scans for environmental barriers, targeted behaviours......, gaps in skills and knowledge) and workshops with key stakeholders to create action plans for six diverse obesity prevention projects in Australia (n = 3), New Zealand, Fiji and Tonga from 2002 to 2005. Some sites included sociocultural contextual analyses in the environmental scans. Target groups were...

  14. Integrated Energy-Water Planning in the Western and Texas Interconnections (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidwell, V. C.

    2013-12-01

    While thermoelectric power generation accounts for less than one percent of total water consumption in the western U.S, steady growth in demand is projected for this sector. Complexities and heterogeneity in water supply, water demand, and institutional controls make water development a challenging proposition throughout the West. A consortium of National Laboratories, the University of Texas and the Electric Power Research Institute are working with the Western Governors' Association and Western States Water Council to assist the Western Electricity Coordinating Council and the Electric Reliability Council of Texas to integrate water related issues into long-term transmission planning. Specifically, water withdrawal and consumption have been estimated for each western power plant and their susceptibility to climate impacts assessed. To assist with transmission planning, water availability and cost data have been mapped at the 8-digit Hydrologic Unit Code level for the conterminous western U.S. (1208 watersheds). Five water sources were individually considered, including unappropriated surface water, unappropriated groundwater, appropriated water, municipal wastewater and brackish groundwater. Also mapped is projected growth in consumptive water demand to 2030. The relative costs (capital and O&M) to secure, convey, and treat the water as necessary have also been estimated for each source of water. These data configured into watershed level supply curves were subsequently used to constrain West-wide transmission planning. Results across a range of alternative energy futures indicate the impact of water availability and cost on the makeup and siting of future power generation. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. Water budgets at a 8

  15. Authentic Water Science Education through WWW Video Lesson Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, J. M.; Mrazek, R.

    2007-12-01

    Teachers, media and the public find the science world is a confusing place and heavy work loads and lack of time contribute to their inability to search out authentic science and scientists to clarify key issues and problems. This program uses free web based video and lesson plans developed by an environmental scientist and science education specialist, both of whom are tenured faculty with a major public institution. The Webisode Video Pieces feature scientists with outstanding refereed publication records discussing their work in field and lab locales. Lessons plans build on video clips on specific topics covered by each Webisode. Thirty and sixty second Public Service Announcements (PSAs) are produced for distribution to all TV networks. These provide a problem statement, a brief discussion of the issue and encourage the viewers to visit the website for more information.

  16. Greening the Department of Energy through waste prevention, recycling, and Federal acquisition. Strategic plan to implement Executive Order 13101

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-11-01

    This Plan provides strategies and milestones to implement Executive Order 13101, Greening the Government Through Waste Prevention, Recycling, and Federal Acquisition, and to achieve the new Secretarial goals for 2005 and 2010. It serves as the principal Secretarial guidance to Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters, Field Offices, and laboratory and contractor staff to improve sanitary waste prevention, recycling, and the purchase and use of recycled content and environmentally preferable products and services in the DOE.

  17. Prevention for possible microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) in RHLWE flush water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, T.C.; Jenkins, C.F.

    1995-01-01

    This report is in response to the request to provide a recommendation for the prevention of possible microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) for the RHLWE (Replacement High-Level Waste Evaporator) flush water (FW) system. The recent occurrences of MIC at DWPF prompted HLWE to evaluate the possibility of MIC occurring in this 304L stainless steel RHLWE flush water system. Concern was heightened by the fact that the well water used and the other conditions at H-Tank Farm are similar to those at DWPF. However, only one known leak has occurred in the existing 304L evaporator flush water systems in either tank farm (in 1H system), and no MIC Corrosion has been confirmed in the tank farm area. The design of the RHLWE flush water system (completed long before the occurrence of MIC at DWPF) was modeled after the existing evaporator flush water systems and did not specifically include MIC prevention considerations. Therefore, MIC prevention was not specifically considered during the design phase of this flush water system. The system is presently being installed. After an extensive evaluation, a task team concluded that the best biocide to prevent the occurrence of MIC would be NaOH at fairly low concentration. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is optimal in this application, because of its effectiveness, low cost, and familiarity to the Operations personnel (see Appendix A). However, it is the opinion of the task group that application should be withheld until MIC corrosion is demonstrated in the system

  18. A decision support tool for sustainable planning of urban water systems: presenting the Dynamic Urban Water Simulation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willuweit, Lars; O'Sullivan, John J

    2013-12-15

    Population growth, urbanisation and climate change represent significant pressures on urban water resources, requiring water managers to consider a wider array of management options that account for economic, social and environmental factors. The Dynamic Urban Water Simulation Model (DUWSiM) developed in this study links urban water balance concepts with the land use dynamics model MOLAND and the climate model LARS-WG, providing a platform for long term planning of urban water supply and water demand by analysing the effects of urbanisation scenarios and climatic changes on the urban water cycle. Based on potential urbanisation scenarios and their effects on a city's water cycle, DUWSiM provides the functionality for assessing the feasibility of centralised and decentralised water supply and water demand management options based on forecasted water demand, stormwater and wastewater generation, whole life cost and energy and potential for water recycling. DUWSiM has been tested using data from Dublin, the capital of Ireland, and it has been shown that the model is able to satisfactorily predict water demand and stormwater runoff. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The experiences from implementing decision support technology to address water management plans in an operational environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McArdle, S. [4DM Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada); Tonkin, C. [Ontario Power Generation Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    This presentation described Ontario Power Generation's experience in implementing a decision support tool to enable water management plans for its operations through technology solutions. All hydroelectric producers in Ontario are required to make water management plans in order to maintain water levels and flows in their operating regions. This regulation was created in response to environmental concerns as well as to changes in the electricity market and growth of residential and cottage property near water bodies. In order to keep informed and to address compliance issues, operators and managers need situation awareness information to balance operational decisions. The online Adaptive Water Management System (AWMS) decision support tool was recently adopted by Ontario Power Generation to provide information needed to address the requirements of Water Management Plans. The AWMS provides users with information on water levels and flows; the ability to implement, modify, and manage daily instructions at the facilities; track conditions in the watershed; and, provide a status of compliance. The tool was developed by 4DM Inc. in collaboration with Ottawa St. Lawrence Plant Group for the Madawaska River Watershed Management, a model partnership between operator, regulator and Public Advisory Committee to develop a water management plan.

  20. Technology Implementation Plan. Fully Ceramic Microencapsulated Fuel for Commercial Light Water Reactor Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snead, Lance Lewis [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Terrani, Kurt A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Powers, Jeffrey J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Worrall, Andrew [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Robb, Kevin R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Snead, Mary A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This report is an overview of the implementation plan for ORNL's fully ceramic microencapsulated (FCM) light water reactor fuel. The fully ceramic microencapsulated fuel consists of tristructural isotropic (TRISO) particles embedded inside a fully dense SiC matrix and is intended for utilization in commercial light water reactor application.

  1. Technology Implementation Plan. Fully Ceramic Microencapsulated Fuel for Commercial Light Water Reactor Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snead, Lance Lewis; Terrani, Kurt A.; Powers, Jeffrey J.; Worrall, Andrew; Robb, Kevin R.; Snead, Mary A.

    2015-01-01

    This report is an overview of the implementation plan for ORNL's fully ceramic microencapsulated (FCM) light water reactor fuel. The fully ceramic microencapsulated fuel consists of tristructural isotropic (TRISO) particles embedded inside a fully dense SiC matrix and is intended for utilization in commercial light water reactor application.

  2. Radiological monitoring plan for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant: Surface water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permit TN0002968, issued April 28, 1995, requires that the Y-12 Plant Radiological Monitoring Plan for surface water be modified (Part 111-H). These modifications shall consist of expanding the plan to include storm water monitoring and an assessment of alpha, beta, and gamma emitters. In addition, a meeting was held with personnel from the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) on May 4, 1995. In this meeting, TDEC personnel provided guidance to Y-12 Plant personnel in regard to the contents of the modified plan. This report contains a revised plan incorporating the permit requirements and guidance provided by TDEC personnel. In addition, modifications were made to address future requirements of the new regulation for radiation protection of the public and the environment in regards to surface water monitoring

  3. In support of water-resource planning – highlighting key ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... urgent need to provide clear, easily-understandable information on the consequences for the river ecosystem of various tradeoffs characteristic of water resource developments. The results indicated that abstracting during high flows in winter and river restoration work can have positive ecological and agricultural returns.

  4. Service water system repair/replacement guidelines: Planning and implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frederick, G.J.; Gandy, D.W.; Peterson, A.G. Jr.; Findlan, S.J.

    1993-11-01

    Service water system failures have prompted concerns related to extended power plant operating life and plant availability. Selection and procurement of materials for repair or replacement of piping and components may be the most important factors in improving service water system reliability. The authors examined factors that contribute to reduced SWS reliability. The factors include material selection inadequacies, water treatment problems, operational/maintenance practices, fabrication procedures, environmental degradation mechanisms, and coating problems. The authors investigated material selection for replacement and repair, taking into account fabrication practices, environmental concerns, and cost comparisons of materials. They examined specific components such as piping, pumps, valves, and heat exchangers with regard to material selection and fabrication practice. Although proper material selection is essential in upgrading and maintaining the designed functions of a SWS, it is critical to address SWS repair/replacement activities with a systemwide approach. Degradation of materials in SWS applications are plant specific, depending on factors unique to each site such as geographic location, existing materials, operating procedures, and environment. All these characteristics must be addressed in making repair/replacement decisions. Criteria that must be integrated for successful long-term operation of SWS include the following: Materials selection (upgrade or in-kind replacement), Evaluation of root cause or nature of the failure mechanism, Scope of the repair/replacement activities, Material compatibility of the existing materials, Operational and maintenance procedures, Code or jurisdictional requirements, Economic considerations, Water treatment programs, System design improvements or modifications

  5. Urban Waters Grant Supports Chester’s Green Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Pennsylvania Horticultural Society (PHS) is using an EPA Urban Waters Small Grant to train employees and under-skilled and at-risk residents of the City of Chester, PA, in maintaining trees and other green features to control stormwater pollution.

  6. Robust Decision Making and Info-Gap Decision Theory for water resource system planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matrosov, Evgenii S.; Woods, Ashley M.; Harou, Julien J.

    2013-06-01

    Stationarity assumptions of linked human-water systems are frequently invalid given the difficult-to-predict changes affecting such systems. In this case water planning occurs under conditions of deep or severe uncertainty, where the statistical distributions of future conditions and events are poorly known. In such situations predictive system simulation models are typically run under different scenarios to evaluate the performance of future plans under different conditions. Given that there are many possible plans and many possible futures, which simulations will lead to the best designs? Robust Decision Making (RDM) and Info-Gap Decision Theory (IGDT) provide a structured approach to planning complex systems under such uncertainty. Both RDM and IGDT make repeated use of trusted simulation models to evaluate different plans under different future conditions. Both methods seek to identify robust rather than optimal decisions, where a robust decision works satisfactorily over a broad range of possible futures. IGDT efficiently charts system performance with robustness and opportuneness plots summarising system performance for different plans under the most dire and favourable sets of future conditions. RDM samples a wider range of dire, benign and opportune futures and offers a holistic assessment of the performance of different options. RDM also identifies through ‘scenario discovery' which combinations of uncertain future stresses lead to system vulnerabilities. In our study we apply both frameworks to a water resource system planning problem: London's water supply system expansion in the Thames basin, UK. The methods help identify which out of 20 proposed water supply infrastructure portfolios is the most robust given severely uncertain future hydrological inflows, water demands and energy prices. Multiple criteria of system performance are considered: service reliability, storage susceptibility, capital and operating cost, energy use and environmental flows

  7. [GIS and scenario analysis aid to water pollution control planning of river basin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shao-ping; Cheng, Sheng-tong; Jia, Hai-feng; Ou, Zhi-dan; Tan, Bin

    2004-07-01

    The forward and backward algorithms for watershed water pollution control planning were summarized in this paper as well as their advantages and shortages. The spatial databases of water environmental function region, pollution sources, monitoring sections and sewer outlets were built with ARCGIS8.1 as the platform in the case study of Ganjiang valley, Jiangxi province. Based on the principles of the forward algorithm, four scenarios were designed for the watershed pollution control. Under these scenarios, ten sets of planning schemes were generated to implement cascade pollution source control. The investment costs of sewage treatment for these schemes were estimated by means of a series of cost-effective functions; with pollution source prediction, the water quality was modeled with CSTR model for each planning scheme. The modeled results of different planning schemes were visualized through GIS to aid decision-making. With the results of investment cost and water quality attainment as decision-making accords and based on the analysis of the economic endurable capacity for water pollution control in Ganjiang river basin, two optimized schemes were proposed. The research shows that GIS technology and scenario analysis can provide a good guidance to the synthesis, integrity and sustainability aspects for river basin water quality planning.

  8. 76 FR 295 - Proposed Amendments to the Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive Plan To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... contains salts and other chemicals that present water treatment challenges. This Article provides that any... buildings, public roads, public water supply wells, and domestic water supply wells as provided by...

  9. Artificial Intelligence in Public Health Prevention of Legionelosis in Drinking Water Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Sinčak

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Good quality water supplies and safe sanitation in urban areas are a big challenge for governments throughout the world. Providing adequate water quality is a basic requirement for our lives. The colony forming units of the bacterium Legionella pneumophila in potable water represent a big problem which cannot be overlooked for health protection reasons. We analysed several methods to program a virtual hot water tank with AI (artificial intelligence tools including neuro-fuzzy systems as a precaution against legionelosis. The main goal of this paper is to present research which simulates the temperature profile in the water tank. This research presents a tool for a water management system to simulate conditions which are able to prevent legionelosis outbreaks in a water system. The challenge is to create a virtual water tank simulator including the water environment which can simulate a situation which is common in building water distribution systems. The key feature of the presented system is its adaptation to any hot water tank. While respecting the basic parameters of hot water, a water supplier and building maintainer are required to ensure the predefined quality and water temperature at each sampling site and avoid the growth of Legionella. The presented system is one small contribution how to overcome a situation when legionelosis could find good conditions to spread and jeopardize human lives.

  10. Artificial intelligence in public health prevention of legionelosis in drinking water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinčak, Peter; Ondo, Jaroslav; Kaposztasova, Daniela; Virčikova, Maria; Vranayova, Zuzana; Sabol, Jakub

    2014-08-21

    Good quality water supplies and safe sanitation in urban areas are a big challenge for governments throughout the world. Providing adequate water quality is a basic requirement for our lives. The colony forming units of the bacterium Legionella pneumophila in potable water represent a big problem which cannot be overlooked for health protection reasons. We analysed several methods to program a virtual hot water tank with AI (artificial intelligence) tools including neuro-fuzzy systems as a precaution against legionelosis. The main goal of this paper is to present research which simulates the temperature profile in the water tank. This research presents a tool for a water management system to simulate conditions which are able to prevent legionelosis outbreaks in a water system. The challenge is to create a virtual water tank simulator including the water environment which can simulate a situation which is common in building water distribution systems. The key feature of the presented system is its adaptation to any hot water tank. While respecting the basic parameters of hot water, a water supplier and building maintainer are required to ensure the predefined quality and water temperature at each sampling site and avoid the growth of Legionella. The presented system is one small contribution how to overcome a situation when legionelosis could find good conditions to spread and jeopardize human lives.

  11. Artificial Intelligence in Public Health Prevention of Legionelosis in Drinking Water Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinčak, Peter; Ondo, Jaroslav; Kaposztasova, Daniela; Virčikova, Maria; Vranayova, Zuzana; Sabol, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    Good quality water supplies and safe sanitation in urban areas are a big challenge for governments throughout the world. Providing adequate water quality is a basic requirement for our lives. The colony forming units of the bacterium Legionella pneumophila in potable water represent a big problem which cannot be overlooked for health protection reasons. We analysed several methods to program a virtual hot water tank with AI (artificial intelligence) tools including neuro-fuzzy systems as a precaution against legionelosis. The main goal of this paper is to present research which simulates the temperature profile in the water tank. This research presents a tool for a water management system to simulate conditions which are able to prevent legionelosis outbreaks in a water system. The challenge is to create a virtual water tank simulator including the water environment which can simulate a situation which is common in building water distribution systems. The key feature of the presented system is its adaptation to any hot water tank. While respecting the basic parameters of hot water, a water supplier and building maintainer are required to ensure the predefined quality and water temperature at each sampling site and avoid the growth of Legionella. The presented system is one small contribution how to overcome a situation when legionelosis could find good conditions to spread and jeopardize human lives. PMID:25153475

  12. Water resource systems planning and management an introduction to methods, models, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Loucks, Daniel P

    2017-01-01

    This book is open access under a CC BY-NC 4.0 license. This revised, updated textbook presents a systems approach to the planning, management, and operation of water resources infrastructure in the environment. Previously published in 2005 by UNESCO and Deltares (Delft Hydraulics at the time), this new edition, written again with contributions from Jery R. Stedinger, Jozef P. M. Dijkman, and Monique T. Villars, is aimed equally at students and professionals. It introduces readers to the concept of viewing issues involving water resources as a system of multiple interacting components and scales. It offers guidelines for initiating and carrying out water resource system planning and management projects. It introduces alternative optimization, simulation, and statistical methods useful for project identification, design, siting, operation and evaluation and for studying post-planning issues. The authors cover both basin-wide and urban water issues and present ways of identifying and evaluating alternatives for ...

  13. LANDSAT supports data needs for EPA 208 planning. [water quality control and waste treatment management

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Excerpts from federal legislation and regulations mandating areawide waster treatment management as a means of restoring and maintaining the integrity of the nation's water are presented along with requirements for grants to the states for water quality planning, management, and implementation. Experiences using LANDSAT to identify nonpoint sources of water pollution as well as land/use/land cover features in South Dakota, Kentucky, Georgia, New Jersey, and Texas are described. Present activities suggest that this type of remote sensing is an efficient, effective tool for areawide water quality planning. Interaction with cognizant federal, state, and local government personnel involved in EPA section 208 planning activities can guide the development of new capabilities and enhance their utility and prospect for use.

  14. Predictors of dentists' behaviours in delivering prevention in primary dental care in England: using the theory of planned behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Huda; Kolliakou, Anna; Ntouva, Antiopi; Murphy, Marie; Newton, Tim; Tsakos, Georgios; Watt, Richard G

    2016-02-08

    To explore the factors predicting preventive behaviours among NHS dentists in Camden, Islington and Haringey in London, using constructs from the Theory of Planned Behaviour. A cross-sectional survey of NHS dentists working in North Central London was conducted. A self-completed questionnaire based on the theoretical framework of the Theory of Planned Behaviour was developed. It assessed dentists' attitudes, current preventive activities, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control in delivering preventive care. In model 1, logistic regression was conducted to assess the relationship between a range of preventive behaviours (diet, smoking and alcohol) and the three TPB constructs attitude, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control. Model 2 was adjusted for intention. Overall, 164 questionnaires were returned (response rate: 55.0%). Dentists' attitudes were important predictors of preventive behaviours among a sample of dentists in relation to asking and providing diet, alcohol and tobacco advice. A dentist was 3.73 times (95 % CI: 1.70, 8.18) more likely ask about a patient's diet, if they had a positive attitude towards prevention, when adjusted for age, sex and intention. A similar pattern emerged for alcohol advice (OR 2.35, 95 % CI 1.12, 4.96). Dentists who had a positive attitude were also 2.59 times more likely to provide smoking cessation advice. The findings of this study have demonstrated that dentists' attitudes are important predictors of preventive behaviours in relation to delivery of diet, smoking and alcohol advice.

  15. Treatment planning: A key milestone to prevent treatment dropout in adolescents with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrosiers, Lyne; Saint-Jean, Micheline; Breton, Jean-Jacques

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to gain a broader appreciation of processes involved in treatment dropout in adolescents with borderline personality disorder (BPD). A constructivist grounded theory was chosen using a multiple-case research design with three embedded levels of analysis (adolescent, parent, and care setting). Theoretical sampling and the different stages of analysis specific to grounded theory were performed according to the iterative process of constant comparative analysis. Twelve cases were examined (nine dropouts among adolescents with BPD and for the purpose of falsification, one dropout of suicidal adolescent without BPD and two completed treatments among adolescents with BPD). To document the cases, three groups of informants were recruited (adolescents, parents, and therapists involved in the treatment) and 34 interviews were conducted. Psychological characteristics, perception of mental illness and mental health care, and help-seeking context were the specific treatment dropout vulnerabilities identified in adolescents with BPD and in their parents. However, their disengagement became an issue only when care-setting response--including mitigation of accessibility problems, adaptation of services to needs of adolescents with BPD, preparation for treatment, and concern for clinicians' disposition to treat--was ill-suited to these treatment dropout vulnerabilities. Treatment planning proves to be a key milestone to properly engage adolescents with BPD and their parent. Systematic assessment of treatment dropout vulnerabilities before the intervention plan is laid out could foster better-suited responses of the care setting thus decreasing the incidence of treatment discontinuation in adolescents with BPD. Treatment dropout vulnerabilities specific to adolescents with BPD and their parents can be detected before the beginning of treatment. Premature treatment termination may be prevented if the care setting considers these vulnerabilities at treatment

  16. Satellite imagery can support water planning in the Central Valley

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong, Liheng; Hawkins, Tom; Holland, Kyle; Gong, Peng; Biging, Gregory S

    2009-01-01

    Most agricultural systems in California’s Central Valley are purposely flexible and intentionally designed to meet the demands of dynamic markets such as corn, tomatoes and cotton. As a result, crops change annually and semiannually, which makes estimating agricultural water use difficult, especially given the existing method by which agricultural land use is identified and mapped. A minor portion of agricultural land is surveyed annually for land-use type, and every 5 to 8 years the entire v...

  17. Scenario Development for Water Resources Planning and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, S.; Mahmoud, M.; Liu, Y.; Hartman, H.; Wagener, T.; Gupta, H.

    2006-12-01

    The main objective of scenario development for water resources is to inform policy-makers about the implications of various policies to inform decision-making. Although there have been a number of studies conducted in the relatively-new and recent field of scenario analysis and development, very few of those have been explicitly applied to water resource issues. More evident is the absence of an established formal approach to develop and apply scenarios. Scenario development is a process that evaluates possible future states of the world by examining several feasible scenarios. A scenario is a projection of various physical and socioeconomic conditions that describe change from the current state to a future state. In this paper, a general framework for scenario development with special emphasis on applications to water resources is considered. The process comprises several progressive and reiterative phases: scenario definition, scenario construction, scenario analysis, scenario assessment, and risk management. Several characteristics of scenarios that are important in describing scenarios are also taken into account; these include scenario types, scenario themes, scenario likelihoods and scenario categories. A hindrance to the adoption of a unified framework for scenario development is inconsistency in the terminology used by scenario developers. To address this problem, we propose a consistent terminology of basic and frequent terms. Outreach for this formal approach is partially maintained through an interactive community website that seeks to educate potential scenario developers about the scenario development process, share and exchange information and resources on scenarios to foster a multidisciplinary community of scenario developers, and establish a unified framework for scenario development with regards to terminology and guidelines. The website provides information on scenario development, current scenario-related activities, key water resources scenario

  18. Quality-assurance plan for groundwater activities, U.S. Geological Survey, Washington Water Science Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozar, Mark D.; Kahle, Sue C.

    2013-01-01

    This report documents the standard procedures, policies, and field methods used by the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) Washington Water Science Center staff for activities related to the collection, processing, analysis, storage, and publication of groundwater data. This groundwater quality-assurance plan changes through time to accommodate new methods and requirements developed by the Washington Water Science Center and the USGS Office of Groundwater. The plan is based largely on requirements and guidelines provided by the USGS Office of Groundwater, or the USGS Water Mission Area. Regular updates to this plan represent an integral part of the quality-assurance process. Because numerous policy memoranda have been issued by the Office of Groundwater since the previous groundwater quality assurance plan was written, this report is a substantial revision of the previous report, supplants it, and contains significant additional policies not covered in the previous report. This updated plan includes information related to the organization and responsibilities of USGS Washington Water Science Center staff, training, safety, project proposal development, project review procedures, data collection activities, data processing activities, report review procedures, and archiving of field data and interpretative information pertaining to groundwater flow models, borehole aquifer tests, and aquifer tests. Important updates from the previous groundwater quality assurance plan include: (1) procedures for documenting and archiving of groundwater flow models; (2) revisions to procedures and policies for the creation of sites in the Groundwater Site Inventory database; (3) adoption of new water-level forms to be used within the USGS Washington Water Science Center; (4) procedures for future creation of borehole geophysics, surface geophysics, and aquifer-test archives; and (5) use of the USGS Multi Optional Network Key Entry System software for entry of routine water-level data

  19. 36 CFR 223.113 - Modification of contracts to prevent environmental damage or to conform to forest plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modification of contracts to prevent environmental damage or to conform to forest plans. 223.113 Section 223.113 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM...

  20. The Application of the Theory of Reasoned Action and Planned Behavior to Prevention Science in Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, John L.; Netland, Jason D.

    2008-01-01

    The theory of reasoned action and planned behavior (TRA/PB) is a model of behavior change that has been extensively studied in the health sciences but has had limited exposure in the counseling psychology literature. The model offers counseling psychologists a framework to conceptualize prevention research and practice. The model is important to…

  1. Identification, assessment, and control of hazards in water supply: experiences from Water Safety Plan implementations in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mälzer, H-J; Staben, N; Hein, A; Merkel, W

    2010-01-01

    According to the recommendations of the World Health Organization (WHO) for Water Safety Plans (WSP), a Technical Risk Management was developed, which considers standard demands in drinking water treatment in Germany. It was already implemented at several drinking water treatment plants of different size and treatment processes in Germany. Hazards affecting water quality, continuity, and the reliability of supply from catchment to treatment and distribution could be identified by a systematic approach, and suitable control measures were defined. Experiences are presented by detailed examples covering methods, practical consequences, and further outcomes. The method and the benefits for the water suppliers are discussed and an outlook on the future role of WSPs in German water supply is given.

  2. Application of Water Evaluation and Planning Model for Integrated Water Resources Management: Case Study of Langat River Basin, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, W. K.; Lai, S. H.

    2017-06-01

    Due to the effects of climate change and the increasing demand on water, sustainable development in term of water resources management has become a major challenge. In this context, the application of simulation models is useful to duel with the uncertainty and complexity of water system by providing stakeholders with the best solution. This paper outlines an integrated management planning network is developed based on Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP) to evaluate current and future water management system of Langat River Basin, Malaysia under various scenarios. The WEAP model is known as an integrated decision support system investigate major stresses on demand and supply in terms of water availability in catchment scale. In fact, WEAP is applicable to simulate complex systems including various sectors within a single catchment or transboundary river system. To construct the model, by taking account of the Langat catchment and the corresponding demand points, we defined the hydrological model into 10 sub-hydrological catchments and 17 demand points included the export of treated water to the major cities outside the catchment. The model is calibrated and verified by several quantitative statistics (coefficient of determination, R2; Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency, NSE and Percent bias, PBIAS). The trend of supply and demand in the catchment is evaluated under three scenarios to 2050, 1: Population growth rate, 2: Demand side management (DSM) and 3: Combination of DSM and reduce non-revenue water (NRW). Results show that by reducing NRW and proper DSM, unmet demand able to reduce significantly.

  3. Peru Water Resources: Integrating NASA Earth Observations into Water Resource Planning and Management in Perus La Libertad Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padgett-Vasquez, Steve; Steentofte, Catherine; Holbrook, Abigail

    2014-01-01

    Developing countries often struggle with providing water security and sanitation services to their populations. An important aspect of improving security and sanitation is developing a comprehensive understanding of the country's water budget. Water For People, a non-profit organization dedicated to providing clean drinking water, is working with the Peruvian government to develop a water budget for the La Libertad region of Peru which includes the creation of an extensive watershed management plan. Currently, the data archive of the necessary variables to create the water management plan is extremely limited. Implementing NASA Earth observations has bolstered the dataset being used by Water For People, and the METRIC (Mapping EvapoTranspiration at High Resolution and Internalized Calibration) model has allowed for the estimation of the evapotranspiration values for the region. Landsat 8 imagery and the DEM (Digital Elevation Model) from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) sensor onboard Terra were used to derive the land cover information, and were used in conjunction with local weather data of Cascas from Peru's National Meteorological and Hydrological Service (SENAMHI). Python was used to combine input variables and METRIC model calculations to approximate the evapotranspiration values for the Ochape sub-basin of the Chicama River watershed. Once calculated, the evapotranspiration values and methodology were shared Water For People to help supplement their decision support tools in the La Libertad region of Peru and potentially apply the methodology in other areas of need.

  4. Water Market-scale Agricultural Planning: Promoting Competing Water Resource Use Efficiency Through Agro-Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delorit, J. D.; Block, P. J.

    2017-12-01

    Where strong water rights law and corresponding markets exist as a coupled econo-legal mechanism, water rights holders are permitted to trade allocations to promote economic water resource use efficiency. In locations where hydrologic uncertainty drives the assignment of annual per-water right allocation values by water resource managers, collaborative water resource decision making by water rights holders, specifically those involved in agricultural production, can result in both resource and economic Pareto efficiency. Such is the case in semi-arid North Chile, where interactions between representative farmer groups, treated as competitive bilateral monopolies, and modeled at water market-scale, can provide both price and water right allocation distribution signals for unregulated, temporary water right leasing markets. For the range of feasible per-water right allocation values, a coupled agricultural-economic model is developed to describe the equilibrium distribution of water, the corresponding market price of water rights and the net surplus generated by collaboration between competing agricultural uses. Further, this research describes a per-water right inflection point for allocations where economic efficiency is not possible, and where price negotiation among competing agricultural uses is required. An investigation of the effects of water right supply and demand inequality at the market-scale is completed to characterize optimal market performance under existing water rights law. The broader insights of this research suggest that water rights holders engaged in agriculture can achieve economic benefits from forming crop-type cooperatives and by accurately assessing the economic value of allocation.

  5. How to approach the acute respiratory distress syndrome: Prevention, plan, and prudence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Younsuck

    2017-05-01

    The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is typically manifested by refractory hypoxemia with high mortality. A correct diagnosis is the first step to achieve better outcomes. An early intervention to manage modifiable risk factors of ARDS development and the avoidance of aggravating factors that increase disease severity and progression should be carefully addressed. A management plan is necessary at an early stage of ARDS to determine the level of intensive care. It should be carefully decided which therapeutic measures should be performed depending on the patient׳s underlying clinical condition. The clinician׳s considerate prudence is required in decisions of when to apply intensive measures for an ARDS treatment. Mechanical ventilator support should be carefully used depending on the patient׳s severity and pathological phase. Decreasing inappropriate alveolar strain through a low tidal volume under optimal positive end-expiratory pressure is key for ventilator support in ARDS. The extracorporeal membrane oxygenation applied in the experienced centers seems to improve the survival of patients with severe ARDS. A constellation of physical and psychological problems can develop or persist for up to 5 years in patients with ARDS. Therefore, an early mobilization with rehabilitation, even during an intensive care unit stay, should be seriously considered whenever feasible. Lastly, prevention of aspiration, stress ulcers, deep vein thrombosis, catheter-related infection, overhydration, and heavy sedation is essential to achieve better outcomes in ARDS. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Respiratory Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Wind Turbine Blade Life-Time Assessment Model for Preventive Planning of Operation and Maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Florian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Out of the total wind turbine failure events, blade damage accounts for a substantial part, with some studies estimating it at around 23%. Current operation and maintenance (O&M practices typically make use of corrective type maintenance as the basic approach, implying high costs for repair and replacement activities as well as large revenue losses, mainly in the case of offshore wind farms. The recent development and evolution of condition monitoring techniques, as well as the fact that an increasing number of installed turbines are equipped with online monitoring systems, offers a large amount of information on the blades structural health to the decision maker. Further, inspections of the blades are often performed in connection with service. In light of the obtained information, a preventive type of maintenance becomes feasible, with the potential of predicting the blades remaining life to support O&M decisions for avoiding major failure events. The present paper presents a fracture mechanics based model for estimating the remaining life of a wind turbine blade, focusing on the crack propagation in the blades adhesive joints. A generic crack propagation model is built in Matlab based on a Paris law approach. The model is used within a risk-based maintenance decision framework to optimize maintenance planning for the blades lifetime.

  7. Human-caused wildfire risk rating for prevention planning in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Jesús; Vega-Garcia, Cristina; Chuvieco, Emilio

    2009-02-01

    This paper identifies human factors associated with high forest fire risk in Spain and analyses the spatial distribution of fire occurrence in the country. The spatial units were 6,066 municipalities of the Spanish peninsular territory and Balearic Islands. The study covered a 13-year series of fire occurrence data. One hundred and eight variables were generated and input to a dedicated Geographic Information System (GIS) to model different factors related to fire ignition. After exploratory analysis, 29 were selected to build a predictive model of human fire ignition using logistic regression analysis. The binary model estimated the probability of high or low occurrence of forest fires, as defined by an ignition danger index that is currently used by the Spanish forest service (number of fires divided by forest area in each municipality). Thirteen explanatory variables were identified by the model. They were related to agricultural landscape fragmentation, agricultural abandonment and development processes. The prediction agreement found between the model binary outputs and the historical fire data was 85.3% for the model building dataset (60% of municipalities). A slightly lower predictive power (76.2%) was found for the validation data (the remaining 40%). The probabilistic output of the logistic was significantly related to the raw ignition index (Spearman correlation of 0.710) used by the Spanish Forest Service. Therefore, the model can be considered a good predictor of human-caused fire risk, aiding spatial decisions related to prevention planning in Spanish municipalities.

  8. Active prevention of postpartum endometritis in pregnant women with anaerobic dysbiosis and planned cesarian section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voronin K,V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the structure of inflammatory di¬seases postpartum endometritis (PE retains its leading position. The likelihood of postpartum endometritis deve¬lopment after cesarean section increases by 5-10 times compared with spontaneous labor and its frequency has no tendency to decrease. The urgency of PE problem is determined not only by its high prevalence, economic losses, but its possible complications (uterine suture failure and generalization of infection as well. Clinical picture of PE currently is characterized by late manifastation, presence of atypical and asymptomatic forms with mismatched general reaction of the organism and severity of the local pathological process. The leading role in the etiology of PE belongs to conditionaly pathogenic microflora, in the most cases (90% presence of strict anaerobic nonsporeforming mic¬roorganisms, composing part of the normal flora of the genital tract in women. The aim of the study was the development of the principles of active prevention of postpartum endometritis in women with severe vaginal anaerobic dysbiosis while planning cesarean section.

  9. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Error processing SSI file About Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Heart disease and stroke are an epidemic in ... secondhand smoke. Barriers to Effective Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Many people with key risk factors for heart ...

  10. Prevention and mitigation of steam generator water hammer events in PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, J.T.; Anderson, N.

    1983-01-01

    Water hammer in nuclear power plants is an unresolved safety issue under study by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This article summarizes (1) the causes of steam generator water hammer (SGWH) events in pressurized-water reactors (PWRs), (2) various methods used to prevent or mitigate SGWH events, and (3) modifications that have been made at each operating PWR. The NRC staff considers the issue of SGWH in top feedring designs to be technically resolved. This article does not address technical findings relevant to water hammer in preheat-type steam generators

  11. Prevention and mitigation of steam-generator water-hammer events in PWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, J.T.; Anderson, N.

    1982-11-01

    Water hammer in nuclear power plants is an unresolved safety issue under study at the NRC (USI A-1). One of the identified safety concerns is steam generator water hammer (SGWH) in pressurized-water reactor (PWR) plants. This report presents a summary of: (1) the causes of SGWH; (2) various fixes employed to prevent or mitigate SGWH; and (3) the nature and status of modifications that have been made at each operating PWR plant. The NRC staff considers that the issue of SGWH in top feedring designs has been technically resolved. This report does not address technical findings relevant to water hammer in preheat type steam generators. 10 figures, 2 tables

  12. Study on Urban Green Zones Planning Standard considering the Water Resources constraints in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiahong; Wang, Minna; Hou, Zhuo; Qin, Dayong

    2010-05-01

    China is currently undergoing rapid urbanization and is no doubt, in a key period of urbanization. In order to improve people's urban environment, quality of life and living experiences, many cities have assigned large areas of artificial green spaces as part of their master plans. However, most of the existing green space/ zone planning do not consider the availability, requirements and constraints of water resources. Hence, the implementations of such plans fly in the face of water resources scarcity and associated risks. This paper investigates the relationship the level of economic development, and a composite index for local water resources and localized urban planning, for 26 cities in China. Using remote sensing image interpretation technology, the status quo of urban green space data can be extracted and the above relationship can be quantified using factor analysis. Based on the results of such factor analysis, China's urbanization relationship with water resources can be grouped into three classifications, i.e. urban green space planning standards: (1) Northwest criteria; (2) Yangtse & Huaihe River criteria; (3) South criteria. Three cities are selected from three typical climatic zones: Lanzhou, Hefei, and Hangzhou for verification of this relationship. The study showed that the three criteria proposed in this paper can serve as a basis for future planning of urban green spaces.

  13. Urban adaptation to mega-drought: Anticipatory water modeling, policy, and planning in Phoenix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gober, P.; Sampson, D. A.; Quay, R.; White, D. D.; Chow, W.

    2016-12-01

    There is increasing interest in using the results of water models for long-term planning and policy analysis. Achieving this goal requires more effective integration of human dimensions into water modeling and a paradigm shift in the way models are developed and used. A user-defined focus argues in favor of models that are designed to foster public debate and engagement about the difficult trade-offs that are inevitable in managing complex water systems. These models also emphasize decision making under uncertainty and anticipatory planning, and are developed through a collaborative and iterative process. This paper demonstrates the use of anticipatory modeling for long-term drought planning in Phoenix, one of the largest and fastest growing urban areas in the southwestern USA. WaterSim 5, an anticipatory water policy and planning model, was used to explore groundwater sustainability outcomes for mega-drought conditions across a range of policies, including population growth management, water conservation, water banking, direct reuse of RO reclaimed water, and water augmentation. Results revealed that business-as-usual population growth, per capita use trends, and management strategies may not be sustainable over the long term, even without mega-drought conditions as years of available groundwater supply decline over the simulation period from 2000 to 2060. Adding mega-drought increases the decline in aquifer levels and increases the variability in flows and uncertainty about future groundwater supplies. Simulations that combine drought management policies can return the region to sustainable. Results demonstrate the value of long-term planning and policy analysis for anticipating and adapting to environmental change.

  14. Describing The Water Contingency Plan During Water Crisis in Malaysian Nuclear Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Suhaimi Yahaya; Alwi Othman; Abdul Murad Abu Bakar; Abdul Rahman Norazumin; Nazri Talib

    2015-01-01

    The status of buildings, infrastructures and radiation plants in Nuclear Malaysia are in good condition in term of water supplies. Unfortunately with the numbers of water crisis occurs recently due to shortage of treated water from SYABAS especially during hot weather had caused low water pressure and also water rationing in Selangor and Klang Valley. This event would affect the component of fire protection system and cooling system in buildings, infrastructures, reactor facility and radiation plants in Nuclear Malaysia. (author)

  15. Health Department HIV Prevention Programs That Support the National HIV/AIDS Strategy: The Enhanced Comprehensive HIV Prevention Planning Project, 2010-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Holly H; Hoyte, Tamika; Purcell, David W; Van Handel, Michelle; Williams, Weston; Krueger, Amy; Dietz, Patricia; Stratford, Dale; Heitgerd, Janet; Dunbar, Erica; Wan, Choi; Linley, Laurie A; Flores, Stephen A

    2016-01-01

    The Enhanced Comprehensive HIV Prevention Planning project was the first initiative of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to address the goals of the National HIV/AIDS Strategy (NHAS). Health departments in 12 U.S. cities with a high prevalence of AIDS conducted comprehensive program planning and implemented cost-effective, scalable HIV prevention interventions that targeted high-risk populations. We examined trends in health department HIV prevention programs in these cities during the project. We analyzed the number of people who received partner services, condoms distributed, and people tested for HIV, as well as funding allocations for selected HIV prevention programs by year and by site from October 2010 through September 2013. We assessed trends in the proportional change in services and allocations during the project period using generalized estimating equations. We also conducted thematic coding of program activities that targeted people living with HIV infection (PLWH). We found significant increases in funding allocations for HIV testing and condom distribution. All HIV partner services indicators, condom distribution, and HIV testing of African American and Hispanic/Latino populations significantly increased. HIV tests associated with a new diagnosis increased significantly among those self-identifying as Hispanic/Latino but significantly decreased among African Americans. For programs targeting PLWH, health department activities included implementing new program models, improving local data use, and building local capacity to enhance linkage to HIV medical care, retention in care, and treatment adherence. Overall, these findings indicate that health departments in areas with a high burden of AIDS successfully shifted their HIV prevention resources to scale up important HIV programs and make progress toward NHAS goals.

  16. Radiological monitoring plan for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant: Surface Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-10-01

    The Y-12 Plant conducts a surface water monitoring program in response to DOE Orders and state of Tennessee requirements under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES). The anticipated codification of DOE Order 5400.5 for radiation protection of the public and the environment (10 CFR Part 834) will require an environmental radiation protection plan (ERPP). The NPDES permit issued by the state of Tennessee requires a radiological monitoring plan (RMP) for Y-12 Plant surface waters. In a May 4, 1995 memo, the state of Tennessee, Division of Water Pollution Control, stated their desired needs and goals regarding the content of RMPs, associated documentation, and data resulting from the RMPs required under the NPDES permitting system (L. Bunting, General Discussion, Radiological Monitoring Plans, Tennessee Division of Water Pollution Control, May 4,1995). Appendix A provides an overview of how the Y-12 Plant will begin to address these needs and goals. It provides a more complete, documented basis for the current Y-12 Plant surface water monitoring program and is intended to supplement documentation provided in the Annual Site Environmental Reports (ASERs), NPDES reports, Groundwater Quality Assessment Reports, and studies conducted under the Y-12 Plant Environmental Restoration (ER) Program. The purpose of this update to the Y-12 Plant RMP is to satisfy the requirements of the current NPDES permit, DOE Order 5400.5, and 10 CFR Part 834, as current proposed, by defining the radiological monitoring plan for surface water for the Y-12 Plant. This plan includes initial storm water monitoring and data analysis. Related activities such as sanitary sewer and sediment monitoring are also summarized. The plan discusses monitoring goals necessary to determine background concentrations of radionuclides, to quantify releases, determine trends, satisfy regulatory requirements, support consequence assessments, and meet requirements that releases be ''as low as

  17. Assessment of Land and Water Resource Implications of the UK 2050 Carbon Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konadu, D. D.; Sobral Mourao, Z.; Skelton, S.; Lupton, R.

    2015-12-01

    The UK Carbon Plan presents four low-carbon energy system pathways that achieves 80% GHG emission targets by 2050, stipulated in the UK Climate Change Act (2008). However, some of the energy technologies prescribed under these pathways are land and water intensive; but would the increase demand for land and water under these pathways lead to increased competition and stress on agricultural land, and water resources in the UK? To answer the above question, this study uses an integrated modelling approach, ForeseerTM, which characterises the interdependencies and evaluates the land and water requirement for the pathways, based on scenarios of power plant location, and the energy crop yield projections. The outcome is compared with sustainable limits of resource appropriation to assess potential stresses and competition for water and land by other sectors of the economy. The results show the Carbon Plan pathways have low overall impacts on UK water resources, but agricultural land use and food production could be significantly impacted. The impact on agricultural land use is shown to be mainly driven by projections for transport decarbonisation via indigenously sourced biofuels. On the other hand, the impact on water resources is mainly associated with increased inland thermal electricity generation capacity, which would compete with other industrial and public water demands. The results highlight the need for a critical appraisal of UK's long term low-carbon energy system planning, in particular bioenergy sourcing strategy, and the siting of thermal power generation in order to avert potential resource stress and competition.

  18. Impact of Operating Rules on Planning Capacity Expansion of Urban Water Supply Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Neufville, R.; Galelli, S.; Tian, X.

    2017-12-01

    This study addresses the impact of operating rules on capacity planning of urban water supply systems. The continuous growth of metropolitan areas represents a major challenge for water utilities, which often rely on industrial water supply (e.g., desalination, reclaimed water) to complement natural resources (e.g., reservoirs). These additional sources increase the reliability of supply, equipping operators with additional means to hedge against droughts. How do their rules for using industrial water supply impact the performance of water supply system? How might it affect long-term plans for capacity expansion? Possibly significantly, as demonstrated by the analysis of the operations and planning of a water supply system inspired by Singapore. Our analysis explores the system dynamics under multiple inflow and management scenarios to understand the extent to which alternative operating rules for the use of industrial water supply affect system performance. Results first show that these operating rules can have significant impact on the variability in system performance (e.g., reliability, energy use) comparable to that of hydro-climatological conditions. Further analyses of several capacity expansion exercises—based on our original hydrological and management scenarios—show that operating rules significantly affect the timing and magnitude of critical decisions, such as the construction of new desalination plants. These results have two implications: Capacity expansion analysis should consider the effect of a priori uncertainty about operating rules; and operators should consider how their flexibility in operating rules can affect their perceived need for capacity.

  19. Beyond Dry Feet? Experiences from a Participatory Water-Management Planning Case in The Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machiel Lamers

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Participation of stakeholders in planning processes is increasingly seen as an essential element in adaptive and integrated water management and sometimes a policy requirement from higher-level governance bodies. Despite an extensive literature on the advantages and disadvantages of public participation and criteria for effective participation, not much is known about how water managers should proceed in a given context. Water-management agencies have to face the challenge of effectively involving stakeholders in developing their water-management plans and must design and implement a balanced process approach among the available time, finances, organization, and facilitation without compromising their authority. This article presents a participatory planning process designed and implemented at Water Board "Hoogheemraadschap De Stichtse Rijnlanden" (HDSR in the center of The Netherlands. For a period of 2 yrs, these three groups were involved in various ways, participating in different types of meetings and workshops, using a range of participatory tools and techniques. The process and results of the three groups were monitored and evaluated using a tailored evaluation strategy. This paper analyzes the way the design and implementation of the process is perceived by both the conveners and participants and suggests practical lessons for water managers. Based on our case, it is argued that a careful process design, a thorough and continuous stakeholder analysis, building reflective workshops within and after the process, and ensuring experienced and qualified process leaders can greatly enhance the adaptive capacity and successful outcome of the participatory planning process.

  20. Indexes for water management and planning on the Paraopeba River Basin, Minas Gerais State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Marcel Barros da Silva

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the true amount of officially granted use of water and the spatial distribution of water usage in a watershed has become indispensable for the appropriate management of water resources. In this process, the use of indexes allows for the identification of possible water use conflicts. The objective of this study was to evaluate the indexes of conflict regarding water use in the management (icg and planning (icp of water resources in the Paraopeba River Basin, focusing on identifying possible water resource conflicts and on providing supportive information for the water management agency in Minas Gerais State. Besides the Digital Elevation Model (DEM for hydrological analyses to calculate the drainage area for every river segment, the official amount of granted water use and estimated river flows at watershed confluences was also needed. The results of the icg calculation demonstrated that in 22.7% of the analyzed river segments the use of water was higher than what is legally granted, and this indicates a potential conflict regarding water use. The icp analyses showed that in three river segments the use of water was higher than the long-term mean flow. The combined icg and icp analyses led us to conclude that in the water use conflict scenario the solution could be establishing an infrastructure that would allow a year-round increase in the availability of water to be granted.

  1. Water safety plan at the Saharawi refugee camps in Tindouf (Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. García

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 1975, about 165,000 people from Western Sahara are living as refugees in the Sahara Desert near Tindouf (Algeria. Available water resources come from deep boreholes located up to tens of kilometers away from the settlements of the population, bulk water is treated in reverse osmosis plants and by chlorination systems and, after, distributed through a network of taps and water tankers. Water supply system complexity and extreme conditions force the elaboration of a Water Safety Plan, aiming to guarantee appropriate provision and quality of water. The plan follows a risk assessment methodology and establishes control mechanisms to minimize risk impacts, which are compiled in six action protocols for infrastructures and water quality monitoring. As a novel contribution, the proposed methodology developed in the refugee camps incorporates besides the conventional water quality assessment concepts, the analysis of the volume of supplied water, linked with some water-washed diseases. Since the end of 2014, those protocols have begun to be applied obtaining results that have a positive effect on the life quality of refugees.

  2. Rehabilitation Planning of Water Distribution Network through a Reliability—Based Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna D’Ercole

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The efficient and effective management of existing water distribution systems (WDSs faces challenges related to aging of infrastructure, population growth, extended urbanization, climate change impacts and environmental pollution. Therefore, there is a need for integrated solutions that support decision makers to plan today potential interventions, considering the possible consequences and variations in mid- and long-term perspectives. This study is a part of a more comprehensive project, where advanced hydraulic analysis of WDS is coupled with a dynamic resources input-output analysis model. The proposed modeling solution provides a robust tool to support planning of intervention actions and can be applied to optimize the performance of a water supply system considering energy consumption and environmental impacts. This paper presents an application of the proposed method in pipe rehabilitation/replacement planning, maximizing the network mechanical reliability and minimizing the risk of unsupplied water demand and pressure deficit evaluated at nodal level, under given economic constraints.

  3. 40 CFR 265 interim-status ground-water monitoring plan for the 2101-M pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamness, M.A.; Luttrell, S.P.; Dudziak, S.

    1989-03-01

    This report outlines a ground-water monitoring plan for the 2101-M pond, located in the southwestern part of the 200-East Area on the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. It has been determined that hazardous materials may have been discharged to the pond. Installation of an interim-status ground-water monitoring system is required under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act to determine if hazardous chemicals are moving out of the pond. This plan describes the location of new wells for the monitoring system, how the wells are to be completed, the data to be collected, and how those data can be used to determine the source and extent of any ground-water contamination from the 2101-M pond. Four new wells are planned, one upgradient and three downgradient. 35 refs., 12 figs., 9 tabs

  4. Strategic water planning for south east England: preparing for proposed development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, B A

    2003-01-01

    The South East of England has one of the fastest growing and economically active populations in Europe, with associated significant pressures from development, particularly housing and transport. Sustainable water management has been identified as a major issue for future development of the region. The South East England Regional Assembly and the Environment Agency have carried out a study to investigate the potential constraints that flood risk, water resources, and water quality may pose on development. The study aims to improve understanding in order to inform the revision of regional planning polices and suggest practical guidance for local authorities to implement such policies. Wide technical consultation was carried out with the Environment Agency, local planning authorities and development agencies. Threshold Assessment was investigated as a technique to assess the potential impacts on the environment of various levels of forecast growth within selected parts of the region. Initial results indicate the need for more strategic and better integrated planning which recognises environmental and development boundaries.

  5. Managing Water for African Cities Johannesburg City Implementation Plan Environmental Component Appraisal Report

    OpenAIRE

    Damhaug, T.

    2000-01-01

    Årsliste 2000 This is an appraisal of the environmental component of the Johannesburg City Implementation Plan under the Habitat guided programme "Managing Water for African Cities". The objective of this appraisal was to ensure the conformity of the plan with the objectives of the Regional Project and South Africa's needs and to explore the availability of domestic resources (human, institutional, and financial) required for efficient project implementation. The environmental component wi...

  6. Developing a Robust Strategy for Implementing a Water Resources Master Plan in Lima, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, N.; Groves, D.; Bonzanigo, L.; Molina-Perez, E.

    2015-12-01

    Lima, the capital of Peru, faces significant water stress. It is the fifth largest metropolitan area in Latin America, and the second largest desert city in the world. The city has developed a Master Plan of major investment projects to improve water reliability until 2040. Yet key questions remain. Is the Master Plan sufficient for ensuring reliability in the face of deeply uncertain future climate change and demand? How do uncertain budget and project feasibility conditions shape Lima's options? How should the investments in the plan be prioritized, and can some be delayed? Lima is not alone in facing these planning challenges. Governments invest billions of dollars annually in long-term projects. Yet deep uncertainties pose formidable challenges to making near-term decisions that make long-term sense. The World Bank has spearheaded a community of practice on methods for Decision Making Under Deep Uncertainty (DMU). This pilot project in Peru is the first in-depth application of DMU techniques to water supply planning in a developing country. It builds on prior analysis done in New York, California, and for the Colorado River, yet shows how these methods can be applied in regions which do not have as advanced data or tools available. The project combines three methods in particular -- Robust Decision Making, Decision Scaling, and Adaptive Pathways -- to help Lima implement its Master Plan in a way that is robust, no-regret, and adaptive. It was done in close partnership with SEDAPAL, the water utility company in Lima, and in coordination with other national WRM and meteorological agencies. This talk will: Present the planning challenges Lima and other cities face, including climate change Describe DMU methodologies and how they were applied in collaboration with SEDAPAL Summarize recommendations for achieving long-term water reliability in Lima Suggest how these methodologies can benefit other investment projects in developing countries.

  7. Cross-sector emergency planning for water supply utilities and healthcare facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welter, Gregory; Socher, Myra; Needham, Patricia; Bieber, Steve; Bonnaffon, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to outline the criticality of water supply in sustained operations of healthcare facilities, particularly during community emergencies, and to advocate for enhanced cross-sector support from the water utilities in meeting this need. Information and ideas presented here were developed in the course of a regional project sponsored by the Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments (MWCOG) for development of emergency water supply operations plans for critical water uses in the Washington, DC, area. © 2013 American Society for Healthcare Risk Management of the American Hospital Association.

  8. Acute Upper Thermal Limits of Three Aquatic Invasive Invertebrates: Hot Water Treatment to Prevent Upstream Transport of Invasive Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Jessica; Moy, Philip; de Stasio, Bart

    2011-01-01

    Transport of aquatic invasive species (AIS) by boats traveling up rivers and streams is an important mechanism of secondary spread of AIS into watersheds. Because physical barriers to AIS movement also prevent navigation, alternate methods for preventing spread are necessary while allowing upstream navigation. One promising approach is to lift boats over physical barriers and then use hot water immersion to kill AIS attached to the hull, motor, or fishing gear. However, few data have been published on the acute upper thermal tolerance limits of potential invaders treated in this manner. To test the potential effectiveness of this approach for a planned boat lift on the Fox River of northeastern WI, USA, acute upper thermal limits were determined for three AIS, adult zebra mussels ( Dreissena polymorpha), quagga mussels ( Dreissena rostriformis bugensis), and spiny water fleas ( Bythotrephes longimanus) from the local area employing temperatures from 32 to 54°C and immersion times from 1 to 20 min. Mortality was determined after immersion followed by a 20-min recovery period. Immersion at 43°C for at least 5 min was required to ensure 100% mortality for all three species, but due to variability in the response by Bythotrephes a 10 min immersion would be more reliable. Overall there were no significant differences between the three species in acute upper thermal limits. Heated water can be an efficient, environmentally sound, and cost effective method of controlling AIS potentially transferred by boats, and our results should have both specific and wide-ranging applications in the prevention of the spread of aquatic invasive species.

  9. 50 CFR 300.65 - Catch sharing plan and domestic management measures in waters in and off Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... measures in waters in and off Alaska. 300.65 Section 300.65 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING... sharing plan and domestic management measures in waters in and off Alaska. (a) A catch sharing plan (CSP... Ketchikan and Juneau non-subsistence marine waters areas as defined in paragraphs (h)(3)(i) and (h)(3)(ii...

  10. Water Reserves Program. An adaptation strategy to prevent imbalance of water in nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-Rodriguez, S. A.; López Pérez, M.; Barrios Ordóñez, J.; Wickel, B.; Villón Bracamonte, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    Freshwater ecosystems occupy approximately 1% of the earth's surface yet possess about 12% of all known animal species. By virtue of their position in the landscape they connect terrestrial and coastal marine biomes and provide and sustain ecosystem services vital to the health and persistence of human communities. These services include the supply of water for food production, urban and industrial consumption, among others. Over the past century many freshwater ecosystems around the world have been heavily modified or lost due to the alteration of flow regimes (e.g. damming, canalization, diversion, over-abstraction). The synergistic impacts of land use change, changes in flows, chemical deterioration, and climate change have left many systems and their species very little room to adjust to change, while future projections indicate a steady increase imbalance in water demand for food and energy production and water supply to suit the needs of a growing world population. In Mexico, the focus has been to secure water for human development and maximize economic growth, which has resulted in allocation of water beyond available amounts, and that in many river basins has led imbalance of water in nature. As a consequence episodic water scarcity severely constrains freshwater ecosystems and the services they provide. Climatic change and variability are presenting serious challenges to a country that already is experiencing serious strain on its water resources. However, freshwater ecosystems are recognized by law as legitimate user of water, and mandate a flow allocation for the environment ('water reserve' or 'environmental flows'). Based on this legal provision the Mexican government through the National Water Commission (Conagua), with support of the Alliance WWF - Fundación Gonzalo Río Arronte, and the Interamerican Development Bank, has launched a national program to identify and implement 'water reserves': basins where environmental flows will be secured and

  11. Local heat stroke prevention plans in Japan: characteristics and elements for public health adaptation to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Gerardo Sanchez; Imai, Chisato; Masumo, Kanako

    2011-12-01

    The adverse health effects from hot weather and heat waves represent significant public health risks in vulnerable areas worldwide. Rising temperatures due to climate change are aggravating these risks in a context of fast urbanization, population growth and societal ageing. However, environmental heat-related health effects are largely preventable through adequate preparedness and responses. Public health adaptation to climate change will often require the implementation of heat wave warning systems and targeted preventive activities at different levels. While several national governments have established such systems at the country level, municipalities do not generally play a major role in the prevention of heat disorders. This paper analyzes selected examples of locally operated heat-health prevention plans in Japan. The analysis of these plans highlights their strengths, but also the need of local institutions for assistance to make the transition towards an effective public health management of high temperatures and heat waves. It can also provide useful elements for municipal governments in vulnerable areas, both in planning their climate change and health adaptation activities or to better protect their communities against current health effects from heat.

  12. The contribution of family planning towards the prevention of vertical HIV transmission in Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Hladik

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Uganda has one of the highest total fertility rates (TFR worldwide. We compared the effects of antiretroviral (ARV prophylaxis for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT to that of existing family planning (FP use and estimated the burden of pediatric HIV disease due to unwanted fertility. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using the demographic software Spectrum, a baseline mathematical projection to estimate the current pediatric HIV burden in Uganda was compared to three hypothetical projections: 1 without ARV-PMTCT (to estimate the effect of ARV-PMTCT, 2 without contraception (effect of existing FP use, 3 without unwanted fertility (effect of unmet FP needs. Key input parameters included HIV prevalence, ARV-PMTCT uptake, MTCT probabilities, and TFR. We estimate that in 2007, an estimated 25,000 vertical infections and 17,000 pediatric AIDS deaths occurred (baseline projection. Existing ARV-PMTCT likely averted 8.1% of infections and 8.5% of deaths. FP use likely averted 19.7% of infections and 13.1% of deaths. Unwanted fertility accounted for 21.3% of infections and 13.4% of deaths. During 2008-2012, an estimated 131,000 vertical infections and 71,000 pediatric AIDS deaths will occur. The projected scale up of ARV-PMTCT (from 39%-57% may avert 18.1% of infections and 24.5% of deaths. Projected FP use may avert 21.6% of infections and 18.5% of deaths. Unwanted fertility will account for 24.5% of infections and 19.8% of deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Existing FP use contributes as much or more than ARV-PMTCT in mitigating pediatric HIV in Uganda. Expanding FP services can substantially contribute towards PMTCT.

  13. Water Accounting Plus for Water Resources Reporting and River Basin Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karimi, P.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis introduces Water Accounting Plus (WA+), which is a new framework designed to provide explicit spatial information on water depletion and net withdrawal processes in complex river basins. WA+ is a simple, yet comprehensive and understandable water accounting framework that provides a

  14. South Australia's River Murray: Social and cultural values in water planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Carla; Tan, Poh-Ling

    2012-12-01

    SummaryThe South Australian River Murray is at the end of the Murray-Darling Basin which spans four Australian states, and is reliant on upstream flow. Under the Murray-Darling Basin Agreement, South Australia has an annual entitlement of 1850 GL flow. In the recent debilitating drought, the Agreement was put 'on hold' while emergency sharing arrangements provided for critical human needs, with meagre supplies for any other consumptive use. The drought also impacted on environmental values already compromised by river regulation and the high levels of water consumption. Conducted during the policy development phase of a second water allocation plan, our research trialled three tools designed to assess economic, social and cultural values for the new plan. The first was a pilot social impact study of effects of changing water availability in the Murraylands. In the second, researchers used a participatory modelling tool conjunctively with multi-criteria analysis to identify community values relevant to the prioritisation of environmental assets in the context of water scarcity. The third tool addressed Indigenous cultural values associated with water. Results of trials demonstrate that identifying public and social values in water require a number of interactive and deliberative tools in order to engage the broad community in water planning. Of the three tools, the most innovative was the second tool as it facilitated deliberation about the relative importance of the environment and helped shift individuals from entrenched interest based positions to consensus on values in wetlands.

  15. 76 FR 10899 - Proposed HHS Recommendation for Fluoride Concentration in Drinking Water for Prevention of Dental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-28

    ... address changes in the prevalence of dental fluorosis, fluid intake among children, and the contribution... dental caries while limiting the risk of dental fluorosis. The proposed recommendation was published in... Drinking Water for Prevention of Dental Caries; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Office of the Secretary...

  16. Environmental planning and management in an age of uncertainty: the case of the Water Framework Directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jeremy G; White, Iain

    2012-12-30

    Scenario planning is one of the most prominent methods applied by organisations to assist long-term decision making. This paper uses a case study method to demonstrate how scenarios can be operationalised to inform future strategies and to challenge rigid silo-based decision making approaches. The WaterProof Northwest scenarios developed by the authors in collaboration with a range of stakeholders, and described within this paper, offer a platform for considering the future of the water environment. The scenarios were developed in the context of meeting the goals of the European Water Framework Directive. This Directive has the core aim of improving the chemical and ecological status of Europe's water bodies. The scenarios highlight that water bodies in the case study area (the region of Northwest England) are impacted directly by a wide array of driving forces which will affect the state of the water environment over the coming decades. This analysis demonstrates that organisations responsible for creating and implementing long-term plans and policies to manage water are often far removed from the forces that will influence the effectiveness of the exercises that they are engaged in. The WaterProof Northwest scenarios highlight that organisations need different decision making approaches in order to adapt to modern environmental challenges. They also raise questions over whether environmental legislation such as the Water Framework Directive should incorporate a futures perspective in recognition of the wide ranging forces influencing their implementation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A Generalized Decision Framework Using Multi-objective Optimization for Water Resources Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basdekas, L.; Stewart, N.; Triana, E.

    2013-12-01

    Colorado Springs Utilities (CSU) is currently engaged in an Integrated Water Resource Plan (IWRP) to address the complex planning scenarios, across multiple time scales, currently faced by CSU. The modeling framework developed for the IWRP uses a flexible data-centered Decision Support System (DSS) with a MODSIM-based modeling system to represent the operation of the current CSU raw water system coupled with a state-of-the-art multi-objective optimization algorithm. Three basic components are required for the framework, which can be implemented for planning horizons ranging from seasonal to interdecadal. First, a water resources system model is required that is capable of reasonable system simulation to resolve performance metrics at the appropriate temporal and spatial scales of interest. The system model should be an existing simulation model, or one developed during the planning process with stakeholders, so that 'buy-in' has already been achieved. Second, a hydrologic scenario tool(s) capable of generating a range of plausible inflows for the planning period of interest is required. This may include paleo informed or climate change informed sequences. Third, a multi-objective optimization model that can be wrapped around the system simulation model is required. The new generation of multi-objective optimization models do not require parameterization which greatly reduces problem complexity. Bridging the gap between research and practice will be evident as we use a case study from CSU's planning process to demonstrate this framework with specific competing water management objectives. Careful formulation of objective functions, choice of decision variables, and system constraints will be discussed. Rather than treating results as theoretically Pareto optimal in a planning process, we use the powerful multi-objective optimization models as tools to more efficiently and effectively move out of the inferior decision space. The use of this framework will help CSU

  18. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Experimental Test Site (Site 300) Potable Water System Operations Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocampo, Ruben P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bellah, Wendy [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-03-04

    The existing Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Site 300 drinking water system operation schematic is shown in Figures 1 and 2 below. The sources of water are from two Site 300 wells (Well #18 and Well #20) and San Francisco Public Utilities Commission (SFPUC) Hetch-Hetchy water through the Thomas shaft pumping station. Currently, Well #20 with 300 gallons per minute (gpm) pump capacity is the primary source of well water used during the months of September through July, while Well #18 with 225 gpm pump capacity is the source of well water for the month of August. The well water is chlorinated using sodium hypochlorite to provide required residual chlorine throughout Site 300. Well water chlorination is covered in the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Experimental Test Site (Site 300) Chlorination Plan (“the Chlorination Plan”; LLNL-TR-642903; current version dated August 2013). The third source of water is the SFPUC Hetch-Hetchy Water System through the Thomas shaft facility with a 150 gpm pump capacity. At the Thomas shaft station the pumped water is treated through SFPUC-owned and operated ultraviolet (UV) reactor disinfection units on its way to Site 300. The Thomas Shaft Hetch- Hetchy water line is connected to the Site 300 water system through the line common to Well pumps #18 and #20 at valve box #1.

  19. LLNL Experimental Test Site (Site 300) Potable Water System Operations Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocampo, R. P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bellah, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-09-14

    The existing Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Site 300 drinking water system operation schematic is shown in Figures 1 and 2 below. The sources of water are from two Site 300 wells (Well #18 and Well #20) and San Francisco Public Utilities Commission (SFPUC) Hetch-Hetchy water through the Thomas shaft pumping station. Currently, Well #20 with 300 gallons per minute (gpm) pump capacity is the primary source of well water used during the months of September through July, while Well #18 with 225 gpm pump capacity is the source of well water for the month of August. The well water is chlorinated using sodium hypochlorite to provide required residual chlorine throughout Site 300. Well water chlorination is covered in the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Experimental Test Site (Site 300) Chlorination Plan (“the Chlorination Plan”; LLNL-TR-642903; current version dated August 2013). The third source of water is the SFPUC Hetch-Hetchy Water System through the Thomas shaft facility with a 150 gpm pump capacity. At the Thomas shaft station the pumped water is treated through SFPUC-owned and operated ultraviolet (UV) reactor disinfection units on its way to Site 300. The Thomas Shaft Hetch- Hetchy water line is connected to the Site 300 water system through the line common to Well pumps #18 and #20 at valve box #1.

  20. Post conflict water management: learning from the past for recovery planning in the Orontes River basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Saadé-Sbeih

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Water management is a fundamental issue in post-conflict planning in Syria. Based on historical water balance assessment, this study identifies the drivers of the profound changes that took place in the Lebanese and Syrian parts of the Orontes River basin since the 1930s. Both drastic effects of the conflict on the hydro-system and the strong uncontrolled anthropization of the river basin prior to the crisis have to be considered in the design of recovery interventions.

  1. Post conflict water management: learning from the past for recovery planning in the Orontes River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadé-Sbeih, Myriam; Zwahlen, François; Haj Asaad, Ahmed; Gonzalez, Raoul; Jaubert, Ronald

    2016-10-01

    Water management is a fundamental issue in post-conflict planning in Syria. Based on historical water balance assessment, this study identifies the drivers of the profound changes that took place in the Lebanese and Syrian parts of the Orontes River basin since the 1930s. Both drastic effects of the conflict on the hydro-system and the strong uncontrolled anthropization of the river basin prior to the crisis have to be considered in the design of recovery interventions.

  2. A new concept in preventing water leakage through single-wythe concrete masonry walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauve, D.; Sroka, K.; Nmai, C.

    1999-07-01

    In this paper, the details of a unique patented, water-repellent concrete block design that prevents moisture that enters the core are from reaching interior surfaces are presented. The subject water leakage-controlling concrete masonry unit (WLC CMU) employs a three stage water leakage prevention process, as follows: (1) the use of water-repellent admixtures and performance-optimized mix designs to resist the passage of wind-driven rain through the block and mortar itself; (2) a horizontal beveled edge, and chamfered vertical sides of the block's face shell that provide improved access for proper joint tooling and facilities water drainage away from bed joint areas; and (3) a series of grooves and channels that prevent moisture migration across the block web surfaces, and directs it to the flawed courses where it can be effectively drained from the building envelope. Wind-driven rain tests performed by the National Concrete Masonry Association (NCMA) clearly showed the benefits of WLC CMU technology. Using identical materials, mix design, and block manufacturing equipment, a 99% reduction of moisture penetration to the core area was witnessed twice after 72 hours of ASTM E 514 testing.

  3. WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT : AN ANALYSIS OF THE MUNICIPAL PLAN OF BASIC SANITATION XANGRILÁ/ RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Barbosa de Souza

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to analyze the way how is the regionalization and management of water resources from the Municipal Plan analysis Sewerage Shangri-La (PMSBX, which in itself shows the importance of the subject, even before the outbreak of the recent water crisis in 2014 in São Paulo, at which water management has become widely discussed. The main objective is to study the legislation and documents related to water resources, especially in relation to water regionalization, participation and conflict resolution. Thus, this aims to bring the discussion laws and concepts, considering its importance, especially in times of globalization, as well as answer the question that underlies this study: "What are the interrelationships between the National Basic Sanitation Policy (Law No. 11.445, of January 5, 2007, the National Basic Sanitation Plan and Sanitation Municipal Basic Plan for Xangri-Lá/RS?". The method used in the research is based on analysis of legislation and documents created by civil society, which are important on the subject, checking how the governance, management and water regionalization are given in Brazilian context, gaucho and regional. From a preliminary analysis can point out that the legislation, as well as the documents investigated, even in the solidification phase, run through by several challenges to its effective implementation.

  4. Scenario-based water resources planning for utilities in the Lake Victoria region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Vishal K.; Aslam, Omar; Dale, Larry; Miller, Norman; Purkey, David R.

    Urban areas in the Lake Victoria (LV) region are experiencing the highest growth rates in Africa. As efforts to meet increasing demand accelerate, integrated water resources management (IWRM) tools provide opportunities for utilities and other stakeholders to develop a planning framework comprehensive enough to include short term (e.g. landuse change), as well as longer term (e.g. climate change) scenarios. This paper presents IWRM models built using the Water Evaluation And Planning (WEAP) decision support system, for three towns in the LV region - Bukoba (Tanzania), Masaka (Uganda), and Kisii (Kenya). Each model was calibrated under current system performance based on site visits, utility reporting and interviews. Projected water supply, demand, revenues and costs were then evaluated against a combination of climate, demographic and infrastructure scenarios up to 2050. Our results show that water supply in all three towns is currently infrastructure limited; achieving existing design capacity could meet most projected demand until 2020s in Masaka beyond which new supply and conservation strategies would be needed. In Bukoba, reducing leakages would provide little performance improvement in the short-term, but doubling capacity would meet all demands until 2050. In Kisii, major infrastructure investment is urgently needed. In Masaka, streamflow simulations show that wetland sources could satisfy all demand until 2050, but at the cost of almost no water downstream of the intake. These models demonstrate the value of IWRM tools for developing water management plans that integrate hydroclimatology-driven supply to demand projections on a single platform.

  5. [Challenges and countermeasures for water conservancy combined with schistosomiasis prevention and control in China in new era].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia-Sheng, Wang; Jin-You, Lu; Feng-Yang, Min; Kong-Xian, Zhu

    2017-04-27

    The spread of schistosomiasis seriously threaten the health of people and hinder the economic and social development in China. The water conservancy combined with schistosomiasis prevention and control effectively controlled the spread of schistosomiasis by controlling the spread of Oncomelania hupensis , the only intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum . This paper reviews the evolution of the strategy of schistosomiasis prevention and control in China and points out the historical role of water conservancy combined with schistosomiasis prevention and control. Furthermore, this article analyzes the problems and challenges of water conservancy combined with schistosomiasis prevention and control in the new period. In response to the challenges, the new strategy of water conservancy combined with schistosomiasis prevention and control is put forward, including: developing the research of the new strategy of water conservancy combined with schistosomiasis prevention and control, enhancing the research of water conservancy technology combined with schistosomiasis prevention and control, improving the efficiency and applicability of water conservancy projects combined with schistosomiasis prevention and control, strengthening the guidance of water conservancy technology combined with schistosomiasis prevention and control, and perfecting the evaluation system.

  6. 40 CFR 112.10 - Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan requirements for onshore oil drilling and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION Requirements for Petroleum Oils and Non-Petroleum Oils, Except Animal Fats and Oils and Greases, and Fish and Marine Mammal Oils; and Vegetable Oils (Including Oils from Seeds, Nuts, Fruits, and Kernels) § 112.10...

  7. A framework for planning of sustainable water and sanitation systems in peri-urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Törnqvist, R; Norström, A; Kärrman, E; Malmqvist, P-A

    2008-01-01

    There are billions of people around the world that lack access to safe water supply and basic sanitation, a situation which puts the affected in severe health conditions as well as economical and social despair. Many of those lacking adequate water supply and sanitation systems can be found at the fringe of the cities in so called peri-urban areas, especially in the developing world. Planning in these areas is highly complex due to challenging environmental and physical conditions, high population density and unclear institutional boundaries. This article presents a framework aiming to support the planning process for sustainable water and sanitation systems in peri-urban areas. The suggested framework is based on different available planning approaches from a review of literature and websites of organisations and companies. It consists of a recommendation of important steps in the planning process as well as supporting tools. Further, it incorporates a set of sustainability criteria important for the peri-urban context and allows for the development of site specific systems. The framework has the aim to be flexible for different planning situations, and for suiting planners with different perspectives and amount of resources. (c) IWA Publishing 2008.

  8. Optimizing production and imperfect preventive maintenance planning's integration in failure-prone manufacturing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghezzaf, El-Houssaine; Khatab, Abdelhakim; Tam, Phuoc Le

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the issue of integrating production and maintenance planning in a failure-prone manufacturing system. It is assumed that the system's operating state is stochastically predictable, in terms of its operating age, and that it can accordingly be preventively maintained during preplanned periods. Preventive maintenance is assumed to be imperfect, that is when performed, it brings the manufacturing system to an operating state that lies between ‘as bad as old’ and ‘as good as new’. Only an overhauling of the system brings it to a ‘as good as new’ operating state again. A practical integrated production and preventive maintenance planning model, that takes into account the system's manufacturing capacity and its operational reliability state, is developed. The model is naturally formulated as a mixed-integer non-linear optimization problem, for which an extended mixed-integer linear reformulation is proposed. This reformulation, while it solves the proposed integrated planning problem to optimality, remains quite demanding in terms of computational time. A fix-and-optimize procedure, that takes advantage of some properties of the original model, is then proposed. The reformulation and the fix-and-optimize procedure are tested on some test instances adapted from those available in the literature. The results show that the proposed fix-and-optimize procedure performs quite well and opens new research direction for future improvements. - Highlights: • Integration of production planning and imperfect preventive maintenance is explored. • Imperfect maintenance is modeled using a fitting age reduction hybrid hazard rate. • A practical approximate optimization model for this integration is proposed. • The resulting naturally MINL optimization model is reformulated and solved as a MILP. • An effective fix-and-optimize procedure is proposed for large instances of this MILP.

  9. The Action Plan for Preventing Homelessness in Finland 2016-2019 : The Culmination of an Integrated Strategy to End Homelessness?

    OpenAIRE

    Pleace, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    The integrated Finnish National Homelessness Strategy is often seen as the envy of the economically developed world. Challenges remain and progress is not always even, but Finland is approaching a point at which recurrent and long-term homelessness will be nearly eradicated and experi- ence of any form of homelessness will become uncommon. The 2016-2019 Action Plan for Preventing Homelessness in Finland is the third stage of the implementation of an integrated homelessness strategy, which beg...

  10. Beyond dry feet. Experiences from a participatory water management planning case in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, M.A.J.; Ottow, B.; Francois, G.; Korff, von Y.

    2010-01-01

    Participation of stakeholders in planning processes is increasingly seen as an essential element in adaptive and integrated water management and sometimes a policy requirement from higher-level governance bodies. Despite an extensive literature on the advantages and disadvantages of public

  11. Applying Recreation Survey Results to Recreation Planning for Water-Based Recreation Areas in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett Duncan; John Mintz; Douglas Rischbieter; John Baas

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on identifying applications of recreation survey results in the context of water-based recreation planning. Recreation researchers have sometimes been criticized for conducting research that is weak in applied value (Cordell 1999). The paper also focuses on the important, but sometimes forgotten role that private entities play (e.g., Pacific Gas and...

  12. Port Cities and Urban Waterfronts : How Localized Planning Ignores Water as Connector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hein, C.M.

    2016-01-01

    People have redesigned coastlines, creating ports, shaping waterfronts, and building cities to connect water and land. Specialists from many disciplines have explored the function and design of the water–land transition over many centuries. Among them is planning, a discipline that engages both with

  13. INNOVATION AND RESEARCH FOR WATER INFRASTRUCTURE FOR THE 21ST CENTURY RESEARCH PLAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    This plan has been developed to provide the Office of Research and Development (ORD) with a guide for implementing a research program that addresses high priority needs of the Nation relating to its drinking water and wastewater infrastructure. By identifying these critical need...

  14. Opportunities and Constraints for Climate Adaptation in Regional Water and Land Use Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werners, S.E.; West, J.; Leemans, R.; Tabara, J.D.; Dai, X.; Flachner, Z.; Neufeldt, H.; McEvoy, D.; Cots, F.; Trombi, G.

    2011-01-01

    Whereas the literature on adaptation is rich in detail on the impacts of, vulnerability to, and constraints of climate adaptation, less is known about the conditions that facilitate adaptation in practice. We examined the constraints and opportunities for adaptation in water and land use planning in

  15. Constraints and opportunities for climate adaptation in regional water and land use planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werners, S.E.; Tàbara, J.D.; Dai, X.; Flachner, Z.; Neufeldt, H.; McEvoy, D.; West, J.; Cots, F.; Trombi, G.; Leemans, R.

    2009-01-01

    Whereas the literature on adaptation is rich in detail on impacts, vulnerability and constraints to climate adaptation, less is known about the conditions that facilitate adaptation in practice. We examined the constraints and opportunities for adaptation in water and land use planning in three

  16. Levels of participation and interactional issue framing in a water area planning process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francois, G.; Dewulf, A.; Taillieu, T.

    2008-01-01

    Session 1-2 Levels of participation and their impact on interactional issue framing in a water area planning process Greet François 1, Art Dewulf 2, Tharsi Taillieu 1 1 K.U.Leuven - Research group for Work, Organisational and Personnel Psychology 2 Wageningen University - Public Administration and

  17. Strategic plan for science-U.S. Geological Survey, Ohio Water Science Center, 2010-15

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2010-01-01

    This Science Plan identifies specific scientific and technical programmatic issues of current importance to Ohio and the Nation. An examination of those issues yielded a set of five major focus areas with associated science goals and strategies that the Ohio Water Science Center will emphasize in its program during 2010-15. A primary goal of the Science Plan is to establish a relevant multidisciplinary scientific and technical program that generates high-quality products that meet or exceed the expectations of our partners while supporting the goals and initiatives of the U.S. Geological Survey. The Science Plan will be used to set the direction of new and existing programs and will influence future training and hiring decisions by the Ohio Water Science Center.

  18. Incorporating green infrastructure into water resources management plans to address water quality impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Managers of urban watersheds with excessive nutrient loads are more frequently turning to green infrastructure (GI) to manage their water quality impairments. The effectiveness of GI is dependent on a number of factors, including (1) the type and placement of GI within the waters...

  19. Sustainable water quality management framework and a strategy planning system for a river basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ching-Ho; Liu, Wei-Lin; Leu, Horng-Guang

    2006-12-01

    In Taiwan, the authorities have spent years working on remedying polluted rivers. Generally, the remediation planning works are divided into two phases. During the first phase, the allowed pollution discharge quantity and abatement quantity of each drainage zone, including the assimilative capacity, are generated based on the total river basin. In the second phase, the abatement action plans for each pollution source in each drainage zone are respectively devised by the related organizations based on the strategies generated during the first phase. However, the effectiveness of linking the two phases is usually poor. Highly integrated performances are not always achieved because the separate two-phase method does not take system and management thinking into consideration in the planning stage. This study pioneers the use of the Managing for Results (MFR) method in planning strategies and action plans for river water quality management. A sustainable management framework is proposed based on the concept and method of MFR, Management Thinking, and System Analysis. The framework, consisting of planning, implementation, and controlling stages, systematically considers the relationships and interactions among four factors: environment, society, economy, and institution, based on the principles of sustainable development. Based on the framework, the Modified Bounded Implicit Enumeration algorithm, which is used as a solving method, is combined with Visual Basic software and MS Excel to develop a computer system for strategy planning. The Shetzu River, located in northern Taiwan, is applied as a case study. According to the theoretical, practical, and regulatory considerations, the result-oriented objectives are defined to first improve the pollution length of the Shetzu River in specific remediation periods to finally meet regulated water quality standards. The objectives are then addressed as some of the constraints for the strategy planning model. The model objective

  20. Plan to Prevent and Respond to Sexual Assault of Military Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    males is limited. The Department is now working to increase research-informed, gender -specific prevention techniques that address male specific...training must aim to prevent the broad range of sexual misconduct and unlawful discrimination . Gap between Standard and Existing Practices The Services...supervisor training to engage leaders in preventing male victimization and reducing associated stigma (objective 2) 11 • Gender -responsive treatment (to

  1. Corrosion of circulating water pipings in thermal and nuclear power stations and corrosion prevention measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hachiya, Minoru

    1982-01-01

    In the age of energy conservation at present, the power generation facilities have been examined from the viewpoint of performance, endurance and economy, and in particular, the prevention of the loss due to the corrosion of various facilities is one of most important problems. Since circulating water pipings are in contact with sea water and soil, the peculiar corrosion phenomena are brought about on their external and internal surfaces. Namely, the pitting corrosion due to the environment of soil quality difference, the defects of coating and the contact with reinforcing bars in concrete occurs on the external surface, and the overall corrosion due to the increase of flow velocity and the pitting corrosion due to the defects of coating, the contact with different kinds of metals and the gap in corrosion-resistant steel occur on the internal surface. As the measures for corrosion prevention, corrosion-preventive coating and electric corrosion prevention are applied. The principle, the potential and current density, the system, the design procedure and the examples of application of electric corrosion prevention are described. (Kako, I.)

  2. Towards integrated water resources management in Colombia: challenges and opportunities for spatial environmental planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Sergio; Hernández, Sebastián

    2015-04-01

    Only until 2010 was enacted the first national policy related to the integrated management of water resources in Colombia. In 2011 was established the Directorate for Integrated Water Resources Management within the Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development. Between 2010 to 2013 were adopted the regulatory instruments to be developed within the hierarchical structure for spatial environmental planning around the water resources, considering both a transdisciplinary framework and a multi-ethnic and multi-participatory approach. In this context, there is a breakthrough in the development of strategic and tactic actions summarized as follows: i) technical guidelines or projects were developed for the spatial environmental planning at the macroscale river basins (i.e. Magdalena-Cauca river basin with 2.3 million hectares), meso-scale (river basins from 50.000 to 2 million hectares and aquifers) and local scale (catchments areas less than 50.000 hectares); ii) there is an advance in the knowledge of key hydrological processes in the basins of the country as well as actions to restore and preserve ecosystems essential for the regulation of water supply and ecosystem services; iii) demand characterization introducing regional talks with socio-economic stakeholders and promoting water efficiency actions; iv) water use regulation as a way for decontamination and achieving quality standards for prospective uses; v) introduction of risks analysis associated with water resources in the spatial environmental planning and establishment of mitigation and adaptation measures; vi) strengthening the monitoring network of water quality and hydrometeorological variables; vii) strengthening interactions with national and international research as well as the implementation of a national information system of water resources; viii) steps towards water governance with the introduction of socio-economic stakeholder in the spatial environmental planning and implementation of

  3. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Aging & Health A to Z Find a Geriatrics Healthcare Professional Medications & Older Adults Making Your Wishes ... Prevention Hearing Loss Heart Attack High Blood Pressure Nutrition Osteoporosis Shingles Skin Cancer Related News Quitting Smoking, ...

  4. [Fluoride content of bottled natural mineral waters in Spain and prevention of dental caries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraver, Francisco; Vitoria, Isidro; Almerich-Silla, José Manuel; Armijo, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the concentration of fluoride in natural mineral waters marketed in Spain in order to prevent tooth decay without the risk of causing dental fluorosis Descriptive and cross-sectional study during 2012. Natural mineral waters marketed in Spain. Three bottles with different bottling dates of 109 natural mineral waters (97 Spanish and 12 imported brands). Determination of fluoride by ion chromatography Median fluoride concentrations of the natural mineral waters bottled in Spain was 0.22 (range 0.00-4.16; interquartile range:0.37). Most samples (61 brands, 62%) contained less than 0.3mg/L. There are 19 Spanish brands with more than 0.6 mg/L. The median level in imported brands was 0.35 (range 0.10-1.21; interquartile range: 0.23). Only 28 of the 109 brands examined (25.6%) specified the fluoride content on the label. Good correlation was observed between the concentrations indicated and those determined. Fluoride concentrations in natural mineral waters showed high variation. Given the growing consumption of natural mineral waters in Spain, this type of information is important to make proper use of fluoride in the primary prevention of dental caries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of Disinfectants on Preventing the Cross-Contamination of Pathogens in Fresh Produce Washing Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Banach

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The potential cross-contamination of pathogens between clean and contaminated produce in the washing tank is highly dependent on the water quality. Process wash water disinfectants are applied to maintain the water quality during processing. The review examines the efficacy of process wash water disinfectants during produce processing with the aim to prevent cross-contamination of pathogens. Process wash water disinfection requires short contact times so microorganisms are rapidly inactivated. Free chlorine, chlorine dioxide, ozone, and peracetic acid were considered suitable disinfectants. A disinfectant’s reactivity with the organic matter will determine the disinfectant residual, which is of paramount importance for microbial inactivation and should be monitored in situ. Furthermore, the chemical and worker safety, and the legislative framework will determine the suitability of a disinfection technique. Current research often focuses on produce decontamination and to a lesser extent on preventing cross-contamination. Further research on a sanitizer’s efficacy in the washing water is recommended at the laboratory scale, in particular with experimental designs reflecting industrial conditions. Validation on the industrial scale is warranted to better understand the overall effects of a sanitizer.

  6. Effect of Disinfectants on Preventing the Cross-Contamination of Pathogens in Fresh Produce Washing Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banach, Jennifer L.; Sampers, Imca; Van Haute, Sam; van der Fels-Klerx, H.J. (Ine)

    2015-01-01

    The potential cross-contamination of pathogens between clean and contaminated produce in the washing tank is highly dependent on the water quality. Process wash water disinfectants are applied to maintain the water quality during processing. The review examines the efficacy of process wash water disinfectants during produce processing with the aim to prevent cross-contamination of pathogens. Process wash water disinfection requires short contact times so microorganisms are rapidly inactivated. Free chlorine, chlorine dioxide, ozone, and peracetic acid were considered suitable disinfectants. A disinfectant’s reactivity with the organic matter will determine the disinfectant residual, which is of paramount importance for microbial inactivation and should be monitored in situ. Furthermore, the chemical and worker safety, and the legislative framework will determine the suitability of a disinfection technique. Current research often focuses on produce decontamination and to a lesser extent on preventing cross-contamination. Further research on a sanitizer’s efficacy in the washing water is recommended at the laboratory scale, in particular with experimental designs reflecting industrial conditions. Validation on the industrial scale is warranted to better understand the overall effects of a sanitizer. PMID:26213953

  7. Test plan for reactions between spent fuel and J-13 well water under unsaturated conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finn, P.A.; Wronkiewicz, D.J.; Hoh, J.C.; Emery, J.W.; Hafenrichter, L.D.; Bates, J.K.

    1993-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project is evaluating the long-term performance of a high-level nuclear waste form, spent fuel from commercial reactors. Permanent disposal of the spent fuel is possible in a potential repository to be located in the volcanic tuff beds near Yucca Mountain, Nevada. During the post-containment period the spent fuel could be exposed to water condensation since of the cladding is assumed to fail during this time. Spent fuel leach (SFL) tests are designed to simulate and monitor the release of radionuclides from the spent fuel under this condition. This Test Plan addresses the anticipated conditions whereby spent fuel is contacted by small amounts of water that trickle through the spent fuel container. Two complentary test plans are presented, one to examine the reaction of spent fuel and J-13 well water under unsaturated conditions and the second to examine the reaction of unirradiated UO 2 pellets and J-13 well water under unsaturated conditions. The former test plan examines the importance of the water content, the oxygen content as affected by radiolysis, the fuel burnup, fuel surface area, and temperature. The latter test plant examines the effect of the non-presence of Teflon in the test vessel

  8. Using a Participatory Stakeholder Process to Plan Water Development in Koraro, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Alfredo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the results of a one-day participatory workshop in Koraro, Ethiopia conducted prior to major development interventions in the region. The methodology of the workshop, structured to generate data useful for understanding the physical and social systems integral to water resources planning, provides a framework for future water need explorations in similar settings in Ethiopia and elsewhere. The use of only improved water sources as a metric for access to water under-represents the situation in Koraro, as many rely on streambeds for water due to the perceived cleanliness and low salinity of this unimproved water source. The reliance on metrics common in the Millennium Development Goals and Sustainable Development Goals, such as a minimum distance to a water source and the categorization of potable water based on type of water source, using varying figures (from as many as 30 to as few as four can lead to assessments regarding the amount of additional sources necessary to allow access to specific locales, that are not consistent with actual need. Since the workshop, the Millennium Village Project has constructed over 30 wells in the region, following the most commonly used distance and source type metrics with less than desirable results. The water access evaluations alone do not address the needs of Koraro residents.

  9. Long-term integrated river basin planning and management of water quantity and water quality in mining impacted catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohle, Ina; Zimmermann, Kai; Claus, Thomas; Koch, Hagen; Gädeke, Anne; Uhlmann, Wilfried; Kaltofen, Michael; Müller, Fabian; Redetzky, Michael; Schramm, Martina; Schoenheinz, Dagmar; Grünewald, Uwe

    2015-04-01

    During the last decades, socioeconomic change in the catchment of the Spree River, a tributary of the Elbe, has been to a large extent associated with lignite mining activities and the rapid decrease of these activities in the 1990s. There are multiple interconnections between lignite mining and water management both in terms of water quantity and quality. During the active mining period a large-scale groundwater depression cone has been formed while river discharges have been artificially increased. Now, the decommissioned opencast mines are being transformed into Europe's largest man-made lake district. However, acid mine drainage causes low pH in post mining lakes and high concentrations of iron and sulphate in post mining lakes and the river system. Next to potential changes in mining activities, also the potential impacts of climate change (increasing temperature and decreasing precipitation) on water resources of the region are of major interest. The fundamental question is to what extent problems in terms of water quantity and water quality are exacerbated and whether they can be mitigated by adaptation measures. In consequence, long term water resource planning in the region has to formulate adaptation measures to climate change and socioeconomic change in terms of mining activities which consider both, water quantity and water quality aspects. To assess potential impacts of climate and socioeconomic change on water quantity and water quality of the Spree River catchment up to the Spremberg reservoir in the scenario period up to 2052, we used a model chain which consists of (i) the regional climate model STAR (scenarios with a further increase in temperature of 0 and 2 K), (ii) mining scenarios (mining discharges, cooling water consumption of thermal power plants), (iii) the ecohydrological model SWIM (natural water balance), (iv) the long term water management model WBalMo (managed discharges, withdrawal of water users, reservoir operation) and (v) the

  10. 78 FR 35951 - Proposed Low-Effect Habitat Conservation Plan for the City of Santa Cruz Graham Hill Water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ...] Proposed Low-Effect Habitat Conservation Plan for the City of Santa Cruz Graham Hill Water Treatment Plant... lawful activities associated with the operation and maintenance of the existing Graham Hill Water... Graham Hill Water Treatment Plant. The Graham Hill Water Treatment Plant site contains habitat...

  11. Moisture absorption characteristics of the Orbiter thermal protection system and methods used to prevent water ingestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomburg, C.; Dotts, R. L.; Tillian, D. J.

    1983-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Orbiter's silica tile Thermal Protection System (TPS) is beset by the moisture absorption problems inherently associated with low density, highly porous insulation systems. Attention is presently given to the comparative success of methods for the minimization and/or prevention of water ingestion by the TPS tiles, covering the development of water-repellent agents and their tile application techniques, flight test program results, and materials improvements. The use of external films for rewaterproofing of the TPS tiles after each mission have demonstrated marginal to unacceptable performance. By contrast, a tile interior waterproofing agent has shown promise.

  12. Planning support for reducing risks related to flooding and water quality in the City of Stockholm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mörtberg, Ulla; Lundgren, Kajsa; Kalantari, Zahra

    2017-04-01

    The urbanization trend during the last decades have several environmental impacts, particularly associated with increasing runoff and flood hazard, and decreasing water quality. These topics have been investigated all around the world, but relatively little is known about the impacts of urban development at the early stage of the urban planning in cities. This project aims to develop planning support tools for addressing impacts of different urbanization patterns in alternative planning scenarios on surface water within the City of Stockholm, the capital of Sweden. With the help of urban planners at the municipality, alternative future urban scenarios will be created and assessed from a hydro-meteorological risk assessment perspective. The scenarios will include alternative development patterns for buildings, infrastructure and supply of several regulating and cultural ecosystem services. For the water-related risk assessment, a hydrological model will be set up and validated using available data for a selected catchment that is affected by the scenarios. This will then be used to assess the impacts of the scenarios on the hydrological response and its implications. In the end, the results are expected to contribute to identifying how localization and type of different ecosystem services in the urban planning can be employed as nature-based solutions for hydro-meteorological risk reduction and climate adaptation.

  13. How best can we plan & implement HIV prevention? A review of successful evidence based practices & research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar Chattu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Context: Around 2.5 million people become infected with HIV each year and its impact on human life and public health can only be tackled and reversed only by sound prevention strategies. Aim: This paper aims to provide the reader about different types of prevention strategies that are effective and practiced in various countries with special emphasis on evidence for success. It also highlights the importance of to the evidence based medicine& strategies. It describes about the importance of combination prevention, which encompasses complementary behavioral, biomedical and structural prevention strategies. Methods & Materials: Searches for peer reviewed journal articles was conducted using the search engines to gather the information from databases of medicine, health sciences and social sciences. Information for each strategy is organized & presented systematically with detailed discussion. Results: For a successful reduction in HIV transmission, there is a great need for combined effects of radical & sustainable behavioral changes among individuals who are potentially at risk. Second, combination prevention is essential for HIV prevention is neither simple nor simplistic. Reductions in HIV transmission need widespread and sustained efforts. A mix of communication channels are essential to disseminate messages to motivate people to engage in various methods of risk reduction. Conclusions: The effect of behavioral strategies could be increased by aiming for many goals that are achieved by use of multilevel approaches with populations both uninfected and infected with HIV. Combination prevention programs operate on different levels to address the specific, but diverse needs of the populations at risk of HIV infection.

  14. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A

    2001-01-01

    , breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....

  15. Urban water supply infrastructure planning under predictive groundwater uncertainty: Bayesian updating and flexible design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, S.; Strzepek, K.

    2017-12-01

    Many urban water planners face increased pressure on water supply systems from increasing demands from population and economic growth in combination with uncertain water supply, driven by short-term climate variability and long-term climate change. These uncertainties are often exacerbated in groundwater-dependent water systems due to the extra difficulty in measuring groundwater storage, recharge, and sustainable yield. Groundwater models are typically under-parameterized due to the high data requirements for calibration and limited data availability, leading to uncertainty in the models' predictions. We develop an integrated approach to urban water supply planning that combines predictive groundwater uncertainty analysis with adaptive water supply planning using multi-stage decision analysis. This allows us to compare the value of collecting additional groundwater data and reducing predictive uncertainty with the value of using water infrastructure planning that is flexible, modular, and can react quickly in response to unexpected changes in groundwater availability. We apply this approach to a case from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Riyadh relies on fossil groundwater aquifers and desalination for urban use. The main fossil aquifers incur minimal recharge and face depletion as a result of intense withdrawals for urban and agricultural use. As the water table declines and pumping becomes uneconomical, Riyadh will have to build new supply infrastructure, decrease demand, or increase the efficiency of its distribution system. However, poor groundwater characterization has led to severe uncertainty in aquifer parameters such as hydraulic conductivity, and therefore severe uncertainty in how the water table will respond to pumping over time and when these transitions will be necessary: the potential depletion time varies from approximately five years to 100 years. This case is an excellent candidate for flexible planning both because of its severity and the potential for

  16. A Youth Suicide Prevention Plan for Canada: A Systematic Review of Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Kathryn; Rhodes, Anne E; Duda, Stephanie; Cheung, Amy H; Manassis, Katharina; Links, Paul; Mushquash, Christopher; Braunberger, Peter; Newton, Amanda S; Kutcher, Stanley; Bridge, Jeffrey A; Santos, Robert G; Manion, Ian G; Mclennan, John D; Bagnell, Alexa; Lipman, Ellen; Rice, Maureen; Szatmari, Peter

    2015-06-01

    We conducted an expedited knowledge synthesis (EKS) to facilitate evidence-informed decision making concerning youth suicide prevention, specifically school-based strategies and nonschool-based interventions designed to prevent repeat attempts. Systematic review of review methods were applied. Inclusion criteria were as follows: systematic review or meta-analysis; prevention in youth 0 to 24 years; peer-reviewed English literature. Review quality was determined with AMSTAR (a measurement tool to assess systematic reviews). Nominal group methods quantified consensus on recommendations derived from the findings. No included review addressing school-based prevention (n = 7) reported decreased suicide death rates based on randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or controlled cohort studies (CCSs), but reduced suicide attempts, suicidal ideation, and proxy measures of suicide risk were reported (based on RCTs and CCSs). Included reviews addressing prevention of repeat suicide attempts (n = 14) found the following: emergency department transition programs may reduce suicide deaths, hospitalizations, and treatment nonadherence (based on RCTs and CCSs); training primary care providers in depression treatment may reduce repeated attempts (based on one RCT); antidepressants may increase short-term suicide risk in some patients (based on RCTs and meta-analyses); this increase is offset by overall population-based reductions in suicide associated with antidepressant treatment of youth depression (based on observational studies); and prevention with psychosocial interventions requires further evaluation. No review addressed sex or gender differences systematically, Aboriginal youth as a special population, harm, or cost-effectiveness. Consensus on 6 recommendations ranged from 73% to 100%. Our EKS facilitates decision maker access to what is known about effective youth suicide prevention interventions. A national research-to-practice network that links researchers and decision

  17. Beyond optimality: Multistakeholder robustness tradeoffs for regional water portfolio planning under deep uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Jonathan D.; Zeff, Harrison B.; Reed, Patrick M.; Characklis, Gregory W.

    2014-10-01

    While optimality is a foundational mathematical concept in water resources planning and management, "optimal" solutions may be vulnerable to failure if deeply uncertain future conditions deviate from those assumed during optimization. These vulnerabilities may produce severely asymmetric impacts across a region, making it vital to evaluate the robustness of management strategies as well as their impacts for regional stakeholders. In this study, we contribute a multistakeholder many-objective robust decision making (MORDM) framework that blends many-objective search and uncertainty analysis tools to discover key tradeoffs between water supply alternatives and their robustness to deep uncertainties (e.g., population pressures, climate change, and financial risks). The proposed framework is demonstrated for four interconnected water utilities representing major stakeholders in the "Research Triangle" region of North Carolina, U.S. The utilities supply well over one million customers and have the ability to collectively manage drought via transfer agreements and shared infrastructure. We show that water portfolios for this region that compose optimal tradeoffs (i.e., Pareto-approximate solutions) under expected future conditions may suffer significantly degraded performance with only modest changes in deeply uncertain hydrologic and economic factors. We then use the Patient Rule Induction Method (PRIM) to identify which uncertain factors drive the individual and collective vulnerabilities for the four cooperating utilities. Our framework identifies key stakeholder dependencies and robustness tradeoffs associated with cooperative regional planning, which are critical to understanding the tensions between individual versus regional water supply goals. Cooperative demand management was found to be the key factor controlling the robustness of regional water supply planning, dominating other hydroclimatic and economic uncertainties through the 2025 planning horizon. Results

  18. Influence of kinesiotherapy in water and on land to prevent violations of posture in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitnikova N.S.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Disclosed problems prevent incorrect posture in children with exercise in the water therapeutic swimming and Pilates. Developed and tested methodology which was aimed at restoring and improving spinal mobility impairments, respiratory system and retention of skill correct posture. Proved that when properly used kinesotherapy patients increased efficiency, activated natural systems to adapt, improve the state of the central and autonomic nervous system is stimulated by mental activity and improvement occurs.

  19. Availability of Clean Tap Water and Medical Services Prevents the Incidence of Typhoid Fever

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Deog-Yong; Lee, Esther; Park, HyeMin; Kim, SeongHan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: In this study, the factors that induced a decrease in the incidence of typhoid fever were analyzed. Based on the study results, we propose a quantitative and concrete solution to reduce the incidence of typhoid fever. Methods: We analyzed the incidence and fatality rate of typhoid fever in Korea. Tap water service rate and the number of pharmacies, which affect the incidence rate of typhoid fever, were used as environmental factors. Results: To prevent typhoid fever in the communit...

  20. Experiential Learning through Role-Playing: Enhancing Stakeholder Collaboration in Water Safety Plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliana Ferrero

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Improved water safety management, as addressed by the Sustainable Development Goals, can be aided by Water Safety Planning, a risk-assessment and risk-management approach introduced by the World Health Organization and implemented to date in 93 countries around the globe. Yet, this approach still encounters some challenges in practice, including that of securing collaboration among the broad range of stakeholders involved. This paper presents a role-playing game designed to foster stakeholder collaboration in Water Safety Plans (WSP. In this role-play, participants take on different stakeholders’ roles during a collective (team-based decision-making process to improve water supply safety in a fictive town. The game is the result of a transdisciplinary initiative aimed at integrating knowledge across technical and governance aspects of WSPs into an active learning experience for water sector actors from diverse backgrounds. It exposes participants to the four phases of Kolb’s experiential learning cycle: concrete experience, reflective observation, conceptualization and active experimentation. This paper discusses potential impacts of the WSP role-play, including skills and knowledge development among participants, which can support cross-sectoral integration and dealing with complexity in decision-making. These are capacity assets strongly needed to address water safety management challenges in a sustainable way.

  1. Sensitivity-Informed De Novo Programming for Many-Objective Water Portfolio Planning Under Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprzyk, J. R.; Reed, P. M.; Kirsch, B. R.; Characklis, G. W.

    2009-12-01

    Risk-based water supply management presents severe cognitive, computational, and social challenges to planning in a changing world. Decision aiding frameworks must confront the cognitive biases implicit to risk, the severe uncertainties associated with long term planning horizons, and the consequent ambiguities that shape how we define and solve water resources planning and management problems. This paper proposes and demonstrates a new interactive framework for sensitivity informed de novo programming. The theoretical focus of our many-objective de novo programming is to promote learning and evolving problem formulations to enhance risk-based decision making. We have demonstrated our proposed de novo programming framework using a case study for a single city’s water supply in the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) in Texas. Key decisions in this case study include the purchase of permanent rights to reservoir inflows and anticipatory thresholds for acquiring transfers of water through optioning and spot leases. A 10-year Monte Carlo simulation driven by historical data is used to provide performance metrics for the supply portfolios. The three major components of our methodology include Sobol globoal sensitivity analysis, many-objective evolutionary optimization and interactive tradeoff visualization. The interplay between these components allows us to evaluate alternative design metrics, their decision variable controls and the consequent system vulnerabilities. Our LRGV case study measures water supply portfolios’ efficiency, reliability, and utilization of transfers in the water supply market. The sensitivity analysis is used interactively over interannual, annual, and monthly time scales to indicate how the problem controls change as a function of the timescale of interest. These results have been used then to improve our exploration and understanding of LRGV costs, vulnerabilities, and the water portfolios’ critical reliability constraints. These results

  2. Rhode Island Water Supply System Management Plan Database (WSSMP-Version 1.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granato, Gregory E.

    2004-01-01

    In Rhode Island, the availability of water of sufficient quality and quantity to meet current and future environmental and economic needs is vital to life and the State's economy. Water suppliers, the Rhode Island Water Resources Board (RIWRB), and other State agencies responsible for water resources in Rhode Island need information about available resources, the water-supply infrastructure, and water use patterns. These decision makers need historical, current, and future water-resource information. In 1997, the State of Rhode Island formalized a system of Water Supply System Management Plans (WSSMPs) to characterize and document relevant water-supply information. All major water suppliers (those that obtain, transport, purchase, or sell more than 50 million gallons of water per year) are required to prepare, maintain, and carry out WSSMPs. An electronic database for this WSSMP information has been deemed necessary by the RIWRB for water suppliers and State agencies to consistently document, maintain, and interpret the information in these plans. Availability of WSSMP data in standard formats will allow water suppliers and State agencies to improve the understanding of water-supply systems and to plan for future needs or water-supply emergencies. In 2002, however, the Rhode Island General Assembly passed a law that classifies some of the WSSMP information as confidential to protect the water-supply infrastructure from potential terrorist threats. Therefore the WSSMP database was designed for an implementation method that will balance security concerns with the information needs of the RIWRB, suppliers, other State agencies, and the public. A WSSMP database was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the RIWRB. The database was designed to catalog WSSMP information in a format that would accommodate synthesis of current and future information about Rhode Island's water-supply infrastructure. This report documents the design and implementation of

  3. NOTE: Patient-specific planning for prevention of mechanical collisions during radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nioutsikou, Elena; Bedford, James L.; Webb, Steve

    2003-11-01

    A common unwanted difficulty in treatment planning, especially in non-coplanar radiotherapy set-ups, is the potential collision of the rotating gantry with the couch and/or the patient's body. A technique and computer program that detects these and signals avoidance of such beam directions is presented. The problem was approached using analytical geometry. The separate components within the treatment room have either been measured and modelled for an Elekta linear accelerator, or read out from a Pinnacle3 treatment planning system and are represented as an integer grid of points in three-dimensional (3D) space. The module is attached to the treatment planning system and can provide rejection or acceptance of unwanted beam directions in a plan. In contrast to previous work that has only used patient models, each individual patient's outlines are considered here in their actual treatment position inclusive of any immobilization device. The extremities of the patient superiorly and inferiorly to the scanned region are simulated by an expanded version of the RANDO phantom. In this way, 'potential' collisions can be detected in addition to the certain ones. Patient position is not a limiting factor for the accuracy of the collision detection anymore, as each set-up is always created around the isocentre. Maps of allowed and forbidden zones within the treatment suite have been created by running the code for all possible gantry and couch angles for three commonly arising cases: a head and neck plan utilizing a small stereotactic collimator, a prostate plan with multileaf collimators and an abdominal plan with the lead tray attached. In the last case, the 3D map permitted significantly fewer set-up combinations. Good agreement between prediction and experiment confirmed the capability of the program and introduces a promising add-on for treatment planning.

  4. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Falls City, Texas. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    Planned, routine ground water sampling activities at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site near Falls City, Texas, are described in this water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP). The following plan identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, and sampling frequency for the routine monitoring stations at the site. The ground water data are used for site characterization and risk assessment. The regulatory basis for routine ground water monitoring at UMTRA Project sites is derived from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations in 40 CFR Part 192. Sampling procedures are guided by the UMTRA Project standard operating procedures (SOP) (JEG, n.d.), the Technical Approach Document (TAD) (DOE, 1989), and the most effective technical approach for the site. The Falls City site is in Karnes County, Texas, approximately 8 miles [13 kilometers southwest of the town of Falls City and 46 mi (74 km) southeast of San Antonio, Texas. Before surface remedial action, the tailings site consisted of two parcels. Parcel A consisted of the mill site, one mill building, five tailings piles, and one tailings pond south of Farm-to-Market (FM) Road 1344 and west of FM 791. A sixth tailings pile designated Parcel B was north of FM 791 and east of FM 1344

  5. Fact Sheet: Clean Air Act Section 112(r): Accidental Release Prevention / Risk Management Plan Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is required to publish regulations and guidance for chemical accident prevention at facilities that pose the greatest risk of harm from accidental releases of regulated flammable and toxic substances above threshold quantities.

  6. 40 CFR 112.9 - Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan Requirements for onshore oil production...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION Requirements for Petroleum Oils and Non-Petroleum Oils, Except Animal Fats and Oils and Greases, and Fish and Marine Mammal Oils; and Vegetable Oils (Including Oils from...

  7. Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan TA-60 Asphalt Batch Plant Revision 2: January 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval, Leonard Frank [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The Stormwater Pollution Prevention Team (PPT) is applicable to operations at the Technical Area (TA)- 60 Asphalt Batch Plant (ABP) located on Eniwetok Drive/Sigma Mesa, in Los Alamos County, New Mexico at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

  8. A proposed water sector plan for the Dr Kenneth Kaunda District Municipality (Dr KKDM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Diedericks

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The radical reform of potable water services provisioning by means of promulgation of the Water Services Act 108 of 1997 and the National Water Act 36 of 1998 in South Africa (SA started a process of addressing the imbalance which existed in how the national resource was distributed. Water is now recognised as a scarce resource that belongs to all the people of the country and consequently it should be managed in an integrated way for social and economic development including future growth (Fuggle and Rabie 2005:293; Riemann, Chimboza and Fubesi 2012:446. The provision of potable water by water services authorities (WSAs is an important basic service that faces a number of challenges such as the use of out-dated infrastructure and a lack of skilled and knowledgeable people that place overt pressure on demand for service delivery. It is against this background that the researchers have undertaken to investigate how a municipality which is forced to obtain its potable water supply from nearby surface- and groundwater catchments, can manage it in a more effective, efficient, equal, economic and sustainable manner by means of improved planning procedures to enhance co-operative governance and intergovernmental relations. A qualitative research design was used to conduct the study, which included a literature review, semi-structured interviews, non-probability data sampling and scientific analyses of responses. Furthermore, a case-study approach was followed by the researchers, with Dr Kenneth Kaunda District Municipality (Dr KKDM as the unit of analysis (the locus. The major research finding of the study included that a Water Sector Plan (WSP was lacking and non-existent in the Dr Kenneth Kaunda District Municipality (Dr KKDM and therefore water services delivery could not be coordinated effectively.

  9. Incorporating economic valuation into fire prevention planning and management in Southern European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Varela

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: This article describes and analyzes the links between the fire-based scientific knowledge, the social perception of fire prevention and forest fires and the economic valuation requirements to assess social preferences for fire prevention measures. Area of study: Southern European countries. Material and Methods: For that purpose, we develop a critical revision of the existing literature on economic valuation of social preferences for fire risk reduction and fire prevention in terms of its links with fire science and social perceptions and the applicability of these results in fire management policies. Research highlights: The assessment of social preferences for fire related issues is challenging due to the difficulty of setting sound valuation scenarios that can simultaneously be relevant for the respondents and derive conclusions useful for fire management. Most of the revised studies set up valuation scenarios focused on the final management outcome e.g. number of burnt hectares, what is easier for the respondents to evaluate but weakens the scientific relationship with fire management, making difficult reaching conclusions for sound management advice. A more recent set of valuation studies has been developed where risk perception of homeowners is further assessed as a key variable determining their preferences in valuation scenarios. These studies are relevant for mangers setting fire prevention programs in wildland urban interface areas as understanding the factors that may promote or hinder the enrolment of these homeowners in fire prevention activities may have direct implication in addressing communication programs to promote fire prevention management.

  10. Optimum fuel loading and operation planning for light water reactor power stations. Part I. Pressurized water reactor case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, T.

    1978-01-01

    A planning tool for strategic operation of nuclear power plants has been presented with a wider view on the overall utility system management. The tool was flexible enough to be capable of checking the feasibility of the proposed alternative plans as well as optimizing the plans in terms of the minimization of system operating costs over several refueling cycles. The problem was defined in a small-scale utility system that consisted of a nuclear power plant and a replacement power station. The optimum design was made on an in-core refueling pattern, its associated number of fuel assemblies, and the time length of coastdown operation. The optimization was subject to several physical and engineering constraints on reactor operation. Following the general decomposition approach, the method utilized iterative linear programming and a gradient projection algorithm of nonlinear programming. A typical pressurized water reactor was studied. The economic gain was obtained mainly by filling margins originally involved in the reactivity and burnup limitations as well as by optimum coastdown operations. The flexibility of the method was especially enhanced in a case of recovery planning after unexpected plant outages with subsequent forced power reductions

  11. Pregnancy prevention and condom use practices among HIV-infected women on antiretroviral therapy seeking family planning in Lilongwe, Malawi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa B Haddad

    Full Text Available Programs for integration of family planning into HIV care must recognize current practices and desires among clients to appropriately target and tailor interventions. We sought to evaluate fertility intentions, unintended pregnancy, contraceptive and condom use among a cohort of HIV-infected women seeking family planning services within an antiretroviral therapy (ART clinic.200 women completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire during enrollment into a prospective contraceptive study at the Lighthouse Clinic, an HIV/ART clinic in Lilongwe, Malawi, between August and December 2010.Most women (95% did not desire future pregnancy. Prior reported unintended pregnancy rates were high (69% unplanned and 61% unhappy with timing of last pregnancy. Condom use was inconsistent, even among couples with discordant HIV status, with lack of use often attributed to partner's refusal. Higher education, older age, lower parity and having an HIV negative partner were factors associated with consistent condom usage.High rates of unintended pregnancy among these women underscore the need for integ rating family planning, sexually transmitted infection (STI prevention, and HIV services. Contraceptive access and use, including condoms, must be improved with specific efforts to enlist partner support. Messages regarding the importance of condom usage in conjunction with more effective modern contraceptive methods for both infection and pregnancy prevention must continue to be reinforced over the course of ongoing ART treatment.

  12. National action plan for non-communicable diseases prevention and control in Iran; a response to emerging epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peykari, Niloofar; Hashemi, Hassan; Dinarvand, Rasoul; Haji-Aghajani, Mohammad; Malekzadeh, Reza; Sadrolsadat, Ali; Sayyari, Ali Akbar; Asadi-Lari, Mohsen; Delavari, Alireza; Farzadfar, Farshad; Haghdoost, Aliakbar; Heshmat, Ramin; Jamshidi, Hamidreza; Kalantari, Naser; Koosha, Ahmad; Takian, Amirhossein; Larijani, Bagher

    2017-01-01

    Emerging Non-communicable diseases burden move United Nation to call for 25% reduction by 2025 in premature mortality from non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The World Health Organization (WHO) developed global action plan for prevention and control NCDs, but the countries' contexts, priorities, and health care system might be different. Therefore, WHO expects from countries to meet national commitments to achieve the 25 by 25 goal through adapted targets and action plan. In this regards, sustainable high-level political statement plays a key role in rules and regulation support, and multi-sectoral collaborations to NCDs' prevention and control by considering the sustainable development goals and universal health coverage factors. Therefore, Iran established the national authority's structure as Iranian Non Communicable Diseases Committee (INCDC) and developed NCDs' national action plan through multi-sectoral approach and collaboration researchers and policy makers. Translation Iran's expertise could be benefit to mobilizing leadership in other countries for practical action to save the millions of peoples.

  13. Measuring the Sustainability of Water Plans in Inter-Regional Spanish River Basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María M. Borrego-Marín

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses and compares the sustainability of the water plans in the Spanish River basins according to the objectives of the Water Framework Directive. Even though the concept of sustainability has been traditionally associated with the triple bottom line framework, composed of economic, environmental, and social dimensions, in this paper sustainability has been enlarged by including governance aspects. Two multicriteria decision analysis approaches are proposed to aggregate the sustainability dimensions. Results show that the environmental dimension plays the most important role in the whole sustainability (40% of water basins, followed by both economic and social criteria (25%. By contrast, the dimension of governance is the least important for sustainability (11%. A classification of the Spanish basins according to their sustainability indicates that the water agency with the highest sustainability is Western Cantabrian, followed by Eastern Cantabrian and Tagus. By contrast, Minho-Sil, Jucar, and Douro are the least sustainable.

  14. Intention to quit water pipe smoking among Arab Americans: Application of the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athamneh, Liqa; Essien, E James; Sansgiry, Sujit S; Abughosh, Susan

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of theory of planned behavior (TPB) constructs on the intention to quit water pipe smoking by using an observational, survey-based, cross-sectional study design with a convenient sample of Arab American adults in Houston, Texas. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to determine predictors of intention to quit water pipe smoking in the next year. A total of 340 participants completed the survey. Behavioral evaluation, normative beliefs, and motivation to comply were significant predictors of an intention to quit water pipe smoking adjusting for age, gender, income, marital status, and education. Interventions and strategies that include these constructs will assist water pipe smokers in quitting.

  15. Reformulation linearization technique based branch-and-reduce approach applied to regional water supply system planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Fujun; Bayraksan, Güzin; Lansey, Kevin

    2016-03-01

    A regional water supply system design problem that determines pipe and pump design parameters and water flows over a multi-year planning horizon is considered. A non-convex nonlinear model is formulated and solved by a branch-and-reduce global optimization approach. The lower bounding problem is constructed via a three-pronged effort that involves transforming the space of certain decision variables, polyhedral outer approximations, and the Reformulation Linearization Technique (RLT). Range reduction techniques are employed systematically to speed up convergence. Computational results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed algorithm; in particular, the critical role range reduction techniques could play in RLT based branch-and-bound methods. Results also indicate using reclaimed water not only saves freshwater sources but is also a cost-effective non-potable water source in arid regions. Supplemental data for this article can be accessed at http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0305215X.2015.1016508.

  16. Revised ground-water monitoring compliance plan for the 300 area process trenches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schalla, R.; Aaberg, R.L.; Bates, D.J.; Carlile, J.V.M.; Freshley, M.D.; Liikala, T.L.; Mitchell, P.J.; Olsen, K.B.; Rieger, J.T.

    1988-09-01

    This document contains ground-water monitoring plans for process-water disposal trenches located on the Hanford Site. These trenches, designated the 300 Area Process Trenches, have been used since 1973 for disposal of water that contains small quantities of both chemicals and radionuclides. The ground-water monitoring plans contained herein represent revision and expansion of an effort initiated in June 1985. At that time, a facility-specific monitoring program was implemented at the 300 Area Process Trenches as part of a regulatory compliance effort for hazardous chemicals being conducted on the Hanford Site. This monitoring program was based on the ground-water monitoring requirements for interim-status facilities, which are those facilities that do not yet have final permits, but are authorized to continue interim operations while engaged in the permitting process. The applicable monitoring requirements are described in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), 40 CFR 265.90 of the federal regulations, and in WAC 173-303-400 of Washington State's regulations (Washington State Department of Ecology 1986). The program implemented for the process trenches was designed to be an alternate program, which is required instead of the standard detection program when a facility is known or suspected to have contaminated the ground water in the uppermost aquifer. The plans for the program, contained in a document prepared by the US Department of Energy (USDOE) in 1985, called for monthly sampling of 14 of the 37 existing monitoring wells at the 300 Area plus the installation and sampling of 2 new wells. 27 refs., 25 figs., 15 tabs.

  17. Use of isotope techniques in water resources inventory planning and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The seminar, sponsored jointly by the IAEA, UNESCO, and WHO, was organized by the Isotope Hydrology Section for hydrologists and hydrogeologists from English-speaking African countries who have primary administrative and technical responsibility in planning, implementing, and supervising programmes in the field of water resources in their countries. The aim of the seminar was to discuss and to inform the participants of both the theoretical and applied aspects of isotope techniques in hydrology and their potential use in studies dealing with water resources inventory, planning, and development. A similar regional seminar was organized in 1973 by the IAEA in Mexico City for Latin- American countries. In 1979, such a seminar will be held for French-speaking African countries. The Nairobi seminar was held at the East African Institute for Meteorological Training and Research. It was opened by the Minister for Water Development of the Kenyan Government, Dr. Gikonyo Kiano, who stressed the importance of water development problems in the African region and who appreciated the IAEA/UNESCO/WHO initiative in holding the seminar on isotope techniques in water resources in Nairobi. The programme of seminar lectures and discussions included the following topics. 1 Basic principles of radioisotope techniques and stable isotope ratios in hydrology 2. Tritium and radiocarbon as environmental tracers for dating water bodies 3 Isotope techniques in studying the origin of groundwater, recharge, and flow of groundwater. 4. Isotope techniques for identification of surface and groundwater relationships. 5 Surface water studies including lake dynamics, discharge measurements and sediment transport 6. Isotope methods in aquifer characteristics. 7 Isotope methods in geothermal resources prospecting. 8. Isotope techniques in hydraulics engineering. Each topic was illustrated with detailed descriptions of case studies During discussions, participants presented important problems (of water

  18. UMTRA project technical assistance contractor quality assurance implementation plan for surface and ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) Quality Assurance Implementation Plan (QAIP) outlines the primary requirements for integrating quality functions for TAC technical activities applied to the surface and ground water phases of the UMTRA Project. The QAIP is subordinate to the latest issue of the UMTRA Project TAC Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP). The QAIP addresses technical aspects of the TAC UMTRA Project surface and ground water programs. The QAIP is authorized and approved by the TAC Project Manager and QA manager. The QA program is designed to use monitoring, audit, and surveillance functions as management tools to ensure that all Project organization activities are carried out in a manner that will protect public health and safety, promote the success of the UMTRA Project and meet or exceed contract requirements

  19. Nuisance Wildlife Education and Prevention Plan for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giffen, Neil R [ORNL

    2007-05-01

    This document outlines a plan for management of nuisance wildlife at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Nuisance wildlife management includes wildlife population control through hunting, trapping, removal, and habitat manipulation; wildlife damage control; and law enforcement. This plan covers the following subjects: (1) roles and responsibilities of individuals, groups, and agencies; (2) the general protocol for reducing nuisance wildlife problems; and (3) species-specific methodologies for resolving nuisance wildlife management issues for mammals, birds, snakes, and insects. Achievement of the objectives of this plan will be a joint effort between the Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency (TWRA); U. S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS)-Wildlife Services (WS); and ORNL through agreements between TWRA and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE); DOE and UT-Battelle, LLC; and UT-Battelle, LLC; and USDA, APHIS-WS.

  20. The materials concept in German light water reactors. A contribution to plant safety, economic performance and damage prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilg, Ulf

    2008-01-01

    Major decisions taken as early as in the planning and construction phases of nuclear power plants may influence overall plant life. Component quality at the beginning of plant life is determined very much also by a balanced inclusion of the 'design, choice of materials, manufacturing and inspection' elements. One example of the holistic treatment of design, choice of material, and manufacture of important safety-related components in pressurized water reactors is the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) in which the ferritic compound tubes, with inside claddings, for the control rod drive nozzles are screwed into the vessel top. Also the choice of Incoloy 800 for the steam generator tubes, and the design of the main coolant pipes with inside claddings as seamless pipe bends / straight pipes with integrated nozzles connected to mixed welds with austenitic pipes are other special design features of the Siemens/KWU plants. A demonstrably high quality standard by international comparison to this day has been exhibited by the austenitic RPV internals of boiling water reactors, which were made of a low-carbon Nb-stabilized austenitic steel grade by optimum manufacturing technologies. The same material is used for backfitting austenitic pipes. Reliable and safe operation of German nuclear power plants has been demonstrated for more than 4 decades. One major element in this performance is the materials concept adopted in Germany also in the interest of damage prevention. (orig.)

  1. Use of geographic information systems for planning HIV prevention interventions for high-risk youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geanuracos, Catherine G; Cunningham, Shayna D; Weiss, George; Forte, Draco; Reid, Lisa M Henry; Ellen, Jonathan M

    2007-11-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) analysis is an emerging tool for public health intervention planning. Connect to Protect, a researcher-community collaboration working in 15 cities to reduce HIV infection among youths, developed GIS databases of local health, crime, and demographic data to evaluate the geographic epidemiology of sexually transmitted infections and HIV risk among adolescents. We describe the process and problems of data acquisition, analysis, and mapping in the development of structural interventions, demonstrating how program planners can use this technology to inform and improve planning decisions. The Connect to Protect project's experience suggests strategies for incorporating public data and GIS technology into the next generation of public health interventions.

  2. Availability of clean tap water and medical services prevents the incidence of typhoid Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Deog-Yong; Lee, Esther; Park, Hyemin; Kim, Seonghan

    2013-04-01

    In this study, the factors that induced a decrease in the incidence of typhoid fever were analyzed. Based on the study results, we propose a quantitative and concrete solution to reduce the incidence of typhoid fever. We analyzed the incidence and fatality rate of typhoid fever in Korea. Tap water service rate and the number of pharmacies, which affect the incidence rate of typhoid fever, were used as environmental factors. To prevent typhoid fever in the community, it is necessary to provide clean tap water service to 35.5% of the population, with an individual requiring 173 L of clean water daily. Appropriate access to clean water (51% service coverage, 307 L) helped the population to maintain individual hygiene and food safety practices, which brought about a decrease in the incidence of typhoid fever, and subsequently a decrease in fatality rate, which was achieved twice. During the 8-year study period, the fatality rate decreased to 1% when the population has access to proper medical service. The fatality rate was primarily affected by the availability of medical services as well as by the incidence of typhoid fever. However, an analysis of the study results showed that the incidence of typhoid fever was affected only by the availability of clean water through the tap water system.

  3. Implementing the Bio-fuel Plan while considering water resource protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This report recalls the objectives of the 'Bio-fuel Plan', and analyses firstly their implications in terms of cultivated surfaces either by using land fallows, or by substitution to other crops, or by intensification, and secondly, the consequences of these different options for water resources. The authors finally discusses the agronomic issue related to the protection of colza, the content of the environmental charter for the cultivation of winter colza, and some financial and practical conditions for the development of energetic crops

  4. Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan for the TA-60-01 Heavy Equipment Shop, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Revision 3, January 2018

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgin, Jillian Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-02-01

    This Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) was developed in accordance with the provisions of the Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. §§1251 et seq., as amended), and the Multi-Sector General Permit for Storm Water Discharges Associated with Industrial Activity (U.S. EPA, June 2015) issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and using the industry specific permit requirements for Sector P-Land Transportation and Warehousing as a guide. This SWPPP applies to discharges of stormwater from the operational areas of the TA-60-01 Heavy Equipment Shop at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Los Alamos National Laboratory (also referred to as LANL or the “Laboratory”) is owned by the Department of Energy (DOE), and is operated by Los Alamos National Security, LLC (LANS). Throughout this document, the term “facility” refers to the TA-60-01 Heavy Equipment Shop and associated areas. The current permit expires at midnight on June 4, 2020.

  5. Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan for the TA-03-22 Power and Steam Plant, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Revision 3, January 2018

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgin, Jillian Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-02-01

    This Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) was developed in accordance with the provisions of the Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. §§1251 et seq., as amended), and the Multi-Sector General Permit for Storm Water Discharges Associated with Industrial Activity (U.S. EPA, June 2015) issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and using the industry specific permit requirements for Sector O-Steam Electric Generating Facilities as a guide. This SWPPP applies to discharges of stormwater from the operational areas of the TA-03-22 Power and Steam Plant at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Los Alamos National Laboratory (also referred to as LANL or the “Laboratory”) is owned by the Department of Energy (DOE), and is operated by Los Alamos National Security, LLC (LANS). Throughout this document, the term “facility” refers to the TA-03-22 Power and Steam Plant and associated areas. The current permit expires at midnight on June 4, 2020.

  6. Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan for the TA-03-38 Metals Fabrication Shop, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Revision 3, January 2018

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgin, Jillian Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-02-01

    This Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) was developed in accordance with the provisions of the Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. §§1251 et seq., as amended), and the Multi-Sector General Permit for Storm Water Discharges Associated with Industrial Activity (U.S. EPA, June 2015) issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and using the industry specific permit requirements for Sector AA-Fabricated Metal Products as a guide. This SWPPP applies to discharges of stormwater from the operational areas of the TA-03-38 Metals Fabrication Shop at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Los Alamos National Laboratory (also referred to as LANL or the “Laboratory”) is owned by the Department of Energy (DOE), and is operated by Los Alamos National Security, LLC (LANS). Throughout this document, the term “facility” refers to the TA-03-38 Metals Fabrication Shop and associated areas. The current permit expires at midnight on June 4, 2020.

  7. Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan for the TA-03-38 Carpenter's Shop, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Revision 3, January 2018

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgin, Jillian Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-02-01

    This Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) was developed in accordance with the provisions of the Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. §§1251 et seq., as amended), and the Multi-Sector General Permit for Storm Water Discharges Associated with Industrial Activity (U.S. EPA, June 2015) issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and using the industry specific permit requirements for Sector A–Timber Products, Subsector A4 (Wood Products Facilities not elsewhere classified) as a guide. This SWPPP applies to discharges of stormwater from the operational areas of the TA-03-38 Carpenter’s Shop at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Los Alamos National Laboratory (also referred to as LANL or the “Laboratory”) is owned by the Department of Energy (DOE), and is operated by Los Alamos National Security, LLC (LANS). Throughout this document, the term “facility” refers to the TA-03-38 Carpenter’s Shop and associated areas. The current permit expires at midnight on June 4, 2020.

  8. Operational readiness review implementation plan for K Basin sludge water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IRWIN, R.M.

    2003-01-01

    This Implementation Plan (IP) has been prepared consistent with the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 425.1B, ''Startup and Restart of Nuclear Facilities'', and DOE-STD-3006-2000, ''Planning and Conduct of Operational Readiness Reviews'' (ORR) (DOE 2002). The scope of the DOE ORR is described in the RL ''Plan of Action, K Basin Sludge Water System'' (Veitenheimer 2003), prepared by DOE project line management and approved by the RL Manager, the designated Approval Authority, on March 20, 2003. The scope of the contractor ORR is described in the contractor ''Plan of Action for the K Basins Sludge Water System Operational Readiness Review'' (FH 2002a) which was prepared by Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project line management and approved by the DOE Richland Operations Office (RL) Manager on December 19, 2002. DOE Order 425.1B indicates that the Secretarial Officer is the Authorization Authority when substantial modifications are made to a Hazard Category 2 nuclear facility. This Authorization Authority has been delegated to the RL Manager by memorandum from Jessie Hill Roberson, dated February 5, 2003 (Roberson 2003). This IP provides the overall approach and guidelines for performance of the DOE ORR. Appendix A contains the Criteria and Review Approach Documents (CRAD), which define the review objectives and criteria as well as the approach for assessing each objective. ORR results will be published in a final report, as discussed in Section 9.4

  9. The role of organizational culture and leadership in water safety plan implementation for improved risk management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerill, Corinna; Pollard, Simon J T; Smith, Jennifer A

    2010-09-15

    Appropriate implementation of WSPs offers an important opportunity to engage in and promote preventative risk management within water utilities. To ensure success, the whole organization, especially executive management, need to be advocates. Illustrated by two case studies, we discuss the influence of organizational culture on buy-in and commitment to public health protection and WSPs. Despite an internal desire to undertake risk management, some aspects of organizational culture prevented these from reaching full potential. Enabling cultural features included: camaraderie; competition; proactive, involved leaders; community focus; customer service mentality; transparency; accountability; competent workforce; empowerment; appreciation of successes, and a continual improvement culture. Blocking features included: poor communication; inflexibility; complacency; lack of awareness, interest or reward and coercion. We urge water utilities to consider the influence of organizational culture on the success and sustainability of WSP adoption, and better understand how effective leadership can mould culture to support implementation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The role of organizational culture and leadership in water safety plan implementation for improved risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summerill, Corinna; Pollard, Simon J.T.; Smith, Jennifer A.

    2010-01-01

    Appropriate implementation of WSPs offers an important opportunity to engage in and promote preventative risk management within water utilities. To ensure success, the whole organization, especially executive management, need to be advocates. Illustrated by two case studies, we discuss the influence of organizational culture on buy-in and commitment to public health protection and WSPs. Despite an internal desire to undertake risk management, some aspects of organizational culture prevented these from reaching full potential. Enabling cultural features included: camaraderie; competition; proactive, involved leaders; community focus; customer service mentality; transparency; accountability; competent workforce; empowerment; appreciation of successes, and a continual improvement culture. Blocking features included: poor communication; inflexibility; complacency; lack of awareness, interest or reward and coercion. We urge water utilities to consider the influence of organizational culture on the success and sustainability of WSP adoption, and better understand how effective leadership can mould culture to support implementation.

  11. The role of organizational culture and leadership in water safety plan implementation for improved risk management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summerill, Corinna, E-mail: c.summerill@cranfield.ac.uk [Cranfield University, Centre for Water Science, School of Applied Sciences, Cranfield, Bedfordshire, MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Pollard, Simon J.T., E-mail: s.pollard@cranfield.ac.uk [Collaborative Centre of Excellence in Understanding and Managing Natural and Environmental Risks, School of Applied Sciences, Cranfield, Bedfordshire, MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Smith, Jennifer A., E-mail: j.a.smith@cranfield.ac.uk [Cranfield University, Centre for Water Science, School of Applied Sciences, Cranfield, Bedfordshire, MK43 0AL (United Kingdom)

    2010-09-15

    Appropriate implementation of WSPs offers an important opportunity to engage in and promote preventative risk management within water utilities. To ensure success, the whole organization, especially executive management, need to be advocates. Illustrated by two case studies, we discuss the influence of organizational culture on buy-in and commitment to public health protection and WSPs. Despite an internal desire to undertake risk management, some aspects of organizational culture prevented these from reaching full potential. Enabling cultural features included: camaraderie; competition; proactive, involved leaders; community focus; customer service mentality; transparency; accountability; competent workforce; empowerment; appreciation of successes, and a continual improvement culture. Blocking features included: poor communication; inflexibility; complacency; lack of awareness, interest or reward and coercion. We urge water utilities to consider the influence of organizational culture on the success and sustainability of WSP adoption, and better understand how effective leadership can mould culture to support implementation.

  12. ROLE OF PASSIVE SAFETY FEATURES IN PREVENTION AND MITIGATION OF SEVERE PLANT CONDITIONS IN INDIAN ADVANCED HEAVY WATER REACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIKAS JAIN

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Pressing demands of economic competitiveness, the need for large-scale deployment, minimizing the need of human intervention, and experience from the past events and incidents at operating reactors have guided the evolution and innovations in reactor technologies. Indian innovative reactor ‘AHWR’ is a pressure-tube type natural circulation based boiling water reactor that is designed to meet such requirements, which essentially reflect the needs of next generation reactors. The reactor employs various passive features to prevent and mitigate accidental conditions, like a slightly negative void reactivity coefficient, passive poison injection to scram the reactor in event of failure of the wired shutdown systems, a large elevated pool of water as a heat sink inside the containment, passive decay heat removal based on natural circulation and passive valves, passive ECC injection, etc. It is designed to meet the fundamental safety requirements of safe shutdown, safe decay heat removal and confinement of activity with no impact in public domain, and hence, no need for emergency planning under all conceivable scenarios. This paper examines the role of the various passive safety systems in prevention and mitigation of severe plant conditions that may arise in event of multiple failures. For the purpose of demonstration of the effectiveness of its passive features, postulated scenarios on the lines of three major severe accidents in the history of nuclear power reactors are considered, namely; the Three Mile Island (TMI, Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents. Severe plant conditions along the lines of these scenarios are postulated to the extent conceivable in the reactor under consideration and analyzed using best estimate system thermal-hydraulics code RELAP5/Mod3.2. It is found that the various passive systems incorporated enable the reactor to tolerate the postulated accident conditions without causing severe plant conditions and core degradation.

  13. Role of Passive Safety Features in Prevention And Mitigation of Severe Plant Conditions in Indian Advanced Heavy Water Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Vikas; Nayak, A.; Dhiman, M.; Kulkarni, P. P.; Vijayan, P. K.; Vaze, K. K. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2013-10-15

    Pressing demands of economic competitiveness, the need for large-scale deployment, minimizing the need of human intervention, and experience from the past events and incidents at operating reactors have guided the evolution and innovations in reactor technologies. Indian innovative reactor 'AHWR' is a pressure-tube type natural circulation based boiling water reactor that is designed to meet such requirements, which essentially reflect the needs of next generation reactors. The reactor employs various passive features to prevent and mitigate accidental conditions, like a slightly negative void reactivity coefficient, passive poison injection to scram the reactor in event of failure of the wired shutdown systems, a large elevated pool of water as a heat sink inside the containment, passive decay heat removal based on natural circulation and passive valves, passive ECC injection, etc. It is designed to meet the fundamental safety requirements of safe shutdown, safe decay heat removal and confinement of activity with no impact in public domain, and hence, no need for emergency planning under all conceivable scenarios. This paper examines the role of the various passive safety systems in prevention and mitigation of severe plant conditions that may arise in event of multiple failures. For the purpose of demonstration of the effectiveness of its passive features, postulated scenarios on the lines of three major severe accidents in the history of nuclear power reactors are considered, namely; the Three Mile Island (TMI), Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents. Severe plant conditions along the lines of these scenarios are postulated to the extent conceivable in the reactor under consideration and analyzed using best estimate system thermal-hydraulics code RELAP5/Mod3.2. It is found that the various passive systems incorporated enable the reactor to tolerate the postulated accident conditions without causing severe plant conditions and core degradation.

  14. Stochastic Optimization in The Power Management of Bottled Water Production Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoro, Budi; Nababan, Esther; Mawengkang, Herman

    2018-01-01

    This paper review a model developed to minimize production costs on bottled water production planning through stochastic optimization. As we know, that planning a management means to achieve the goal that have been applied, since each management level in the organization need a planning activities. The built models is a two-stage stochastic models that aims to minimize the cost on production of bottled water by observing that during the production process, neither interfernce nor vice versa occurs. The models were develop to minimaze production cost, assuming the availability of packing raw materials used considered to meet for each kind of bottles. The minimum cost for each kind production of bottled water are expressed in the expectation of each production with a scenario probability. The probability of uncertainly is a representation of the number of productions and the timing of power supply interruption. This is to ensure that the number of interruption that occur does not exceed the limit of the contract agreement that has been made by the company with power suppliers.

  15. Using the Concept of "Population Dose" in Planning and Evaluating Community-Level Obesity Prevention Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheadle, Allen; Schwartz, Pamela M.; Rauzon, Suzanne; Bourcier, Emily; Senter, Sandra; Spring, Rebecca; Beery, William L.

    2013-01-01

    When planning and evaluating community-level initiatives focused on policy and environment change, it is useful to have estimates of the impact on behavioral outcomes of particular strategies (e.g., building a new walking trail to promote physical activity). We have created a measure of estimated strategy-level impact--"population dose"--based on…

  16. 76 FR 66882 - Approval and Promulgation of State Implementation Plans; Missouri: Prevention of Significant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ... Significant Deterioration; Greenhouse Gas Tailoring Rule; New Source Review Reform AGENCY: Environmental... Missouri State Implementation Plan (SIP) relating to regulation of Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) under Missouri's... Greenhouse Gas Tailoring Final Rule,'' which EPA issued by notice dated June 3, 2010. These revisions were...

  17. 75 FR 81858 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Mississippi: Prevention of Significant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... Regulatory Development Section, Air Planning Branch, Air, Pesticides and Toxics Management Division, U.S..., Air, Pesticides and Toxics Management Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 4, 61...; Greenhouse Gas Tailoring Rule Revision AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule...

  18. Intention to Enact and Enactment of Gatekeeper Behaviors for Suicide Prevention: an Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlman, Shane T W; Walch, Susan E; Bauer, Kristina N; Glenn, April D

    2017-08-01

    Gatekeeper training for suicide prevention was evaluated on a college campus to examine the impact of training on gatekeeper enactment of behaviors in support of suicide prevention and identify predictors of enactment of gatekeeper behaviors. Trained gatekeepers (N = 216) displayed greater perceived knowledge and self-efficacy for suicide prevention and reported higher rates of self-reported actual gatekeeper behaviors, including inquiring about suicidal ideation and referring for mental health treatment when they encountered someone in distress, compared to their untrained counterparts (N = 169). Consistent with the Theory of Planned Behavior, SEM results indicated that attitudes, self-efficacy, and perceived knowledge explained intentions to engage in gatekeeper behaviors, accounting for 59% of the variance in intentions to inquire about suicidal ideation and supporting the role of attitudes and perceived behavioral control in intentions to act. These intentions explained self-reported actual gatekeeper behaviors among participants who encountered someone in distress, with each one-point increase in intention associated with nearly twice the likelihood of both inquiring about suicidal ideation and referring someone for mental health care. On the other hand, self-reported situational barriers were associated with a decreased likelihood of referral behavior, indicating the role of actual behavioral control over volitional actions. Findings support the value of gatekeeper training for promoting factors that influence the likelihood of action on behalf of suicide prevention.

  19. Water in urban planning, Salt Creek Basin, Illinois water management as related to alternative land-use practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spieker, Andrew Maute

    1970-01-01

    Water management can be an integral part of urban comprehensive planning in a large metropolitan area. Water both imposes constraints on land use and offers opportunities for coordinated land and water management. Salt Creek basin in Cook and Du Page Counties of the Chicago metropolitan area is typical of rapidly developing suburban areas and has been selected to illustrate some of these constraints and opportunities and to suggest the effects of alternative solutions. The present study concentrates on the related problems of ground-water recharge, water quality, management of flood plains, and flood-control measures. Salt Creek basin has a drainage area of 150 square miles. It is in flat to. gently rolling terrain, underlain by glacial drift as much as 200 feet thick which covers a dolomite aquifer. In 1964, the population of the basin was about 400,000, and 40 percent of the land was in urban development. The population is expected to number 550,000 to 650,000 by 1990, and most of the land will be taken by urban development. Salt Creek is a sluggish stream, typical of small drainage channels in the headwaters area of northeastern Illinois. Low flows of 15 to 25 cubic feet per second in the lower part of the basin consist largely of sewage effluent. Nearly all the public water supplies in the basin depend on ground water. Of the total pumpage of 27.5 million gallons per day, 17.5 million gallons per day is pumped from the deep (Cambrian-Ordovician) aquifers and 10 million gallons per day is pumped from the shallow (Silurian dolomite and glacial drift) aquifers. The potential yield of the shallow aquifers, particularly glacial drift in the northern part of the basin, far exceeds present use. The largest concentration of pumpage from the shallow ,aquifers is in the Hinsdale-La Grange area. Salt Creek serves as an important source of recharge to these supplies, particularly just east of Hinsdale. The entire reach of Salt Creek south and east of Elmhurst can be

  20. Supplement to the UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Slick Rock, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) provides the regulatory and technical basis for ground water and surface water sampling at the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Union Carbide (UC) and North Continent (NC) processing sites and the Burro Canyon disposal site near Slick Rock, Colorado. The initial WSAP was finalized in August 1994 and will be completely revised in accordance with the WSAP guidance document (DOE, 1995) in late 1996. This version supplements the initial WSAP, reflects only minor changes in sampling that occurred in 1995, covers sampling scheduled for early 1996, and provides a preliminary projection of the next 5 years of sampling and monitoring activities. Once surface remedial action is completed at the former processing sites, additional and more detailed hydrogeologic characterization may be needed to develop the Ground Water Program conceptual ground water model and proposed compliance strategy. In addition, background ground water quality needs to be clearly defined to ensure that the baseline risk assessment accurately estimated risks from the contaminants of potential concern in contaminated ground water at the UC and NC sites

  1. Wildfire Prevention and Suppression plans enhancing: a first overview on strength and weakness in Italian stakeholders experiences and perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonora, Laura; Conese, Claudio; Barbati, Anna

    2014-05-01

    Fires and wildfires represent an element of vulnerability for forests, considering that have now reached a level beyond which further burning would seriously endanger the ecosystem services and their sustainable management. It is fundamental to support fire-fighting Centres by giving them tools, useful to faces future trends; in this sense the first step is to examine technical and operative procedures to evaluate their strong and weak aspects, in collaboration with personnel responsible of risk management, suppression coordination and patrol responsible of direct attack. The aims this work is to identify present elements of strength ad problematic aspects to tuning the wildfire suppression actions to future changes; this is a crucial challenge both for policy and territory planners and managers. Historical investigation lines on forest fire covered the basilar and fundamental dynamics which understanding was necessary to confine and fight the wildfire phenomenon. At the present all the competences, knowledge and connections acquired are translating and including in the Plans, sharing innovative strategies -with the "direct involved actors"- trying to decrease the fire trend. Stakeholders underlined that collaboration between research and territorial Institutions are producing positive results, showing the conceptual rightness and the well-run of the in-progress implementations. The Italian framework of wildfire prevention plans is very peculiar because the Plans related to prevention and active intervention procedure are coincident. Normative, procedural, economic and logistic aspects are considered and handled in the same general document; each year the local structures, designed by the Regions, have in charge the draft of the operative plan, defining and managing the means and patrols distribution and turnover. In the present work 3 Italian Regions (Tuscany, Puglia and Sardinia, with different territorial and vegetation characteristics and affected by different

  2. Preventing baby bottle tooth decay in American Indian and Alaska native communities: a model for planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruerd, B; Kinney, M B; Bothwell, E

    1989-01-01

    Baby bottle tooth decay (BBTD) is a preventable dental disease which surveys have shown affects more than 50 percent of Native American children. An experimental program to prevent BBTD was implemented in 12 Native American communities. The project represented a cooperative effort by three Department of Health and Human Service agencies: Administration for Children, Youth, and Families, Head Start Bureau; Indian Health Service, Dental Program; and Centers for Disease Control, Dental Disease Prevention Activity. Intervention strategies included the training of parent volunteers, health professionals, and the tribal employees who counseled caretakers of young children and made group presentations. There was also a media campaign in each community that ran for a 3-year period. Numerous educational materials were developed including training manuals, counseling booklets, tippee cups, posters, and bumper stickers. The BBTD project's planners encouraged tailoring the education materials and strategies to fit each community. Preliminary results documented statistically significant decreases in the prevalence of BBTD at the pilot sites. This multidisciplinary, comprehensive intervention offers a model for organizing members of minority communities to prevent health problems. Images p634-a p635-a p635-b PMID:2511598

  3. 40 CFR 112.11 - Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan requirements for offshore oil drilling...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... POLLUTION PREVENTION Requirements for Petroleum Oils and Non-Petroleum Oils, Except Animal Fats and Oils and Greases, and Fish and Marine Mammal Oils; and Vegetable Oils (Including Oils from Seeds, Nuts, Fruits, and... equipped with dump valves which predominantly fail in the closed position and where pollution risk is high...

  4. Setting up Suicide Prevention Plans at the Local Level: The Methodology of Focus Groups with Stakeholders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poma, Stefano Zanone; Grossi, Antonello; Venturini, Monica; Cristina, Contessa; Toniolo, Emanuele

    2011-01-01

    In the prevention of suicide, there is a need to transform clinical studies into health promotion by a cooperation with territorial agencies. A survey on a group of stakeholders was performed with the methodology of focus group. The evaluation criteria used by the participants were practical and not methodological and were closely linked to the…

  5. 75 FR 68272 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Kentucky: Prevention of Significant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    ... two changes impacting the Commonwealth of Kentucky's New Source Review (NSR) Prevention of Significant... revision. A. What are GHGs and their sources? A detailed explanation of GHGs, climate change and the impact... years old, as well as anthropogenic CO 2 emissions from land-use changes such as deforestation, perturb...

  6. Water management, environmental protection and spatial planning reconciliation: "Accommodating" the Danube and the Tisa river in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pihler Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Water management in Serbia has been mostly operating in a framework of public companies and institutions focused on strictly sectorial and technical expertise on hydraulic engineering, environmental protection and navigable traffic engineering within the highly autonomous legislative framework. On the cross-point of spatial planning and water management there is a growing debate on the important discourses of the policy domains. Seeing rivers as an “accommodated” generator of opportunities is a statement which is opposing the traditional consideration of strict separation of water from the land. Spatial planning as a framework for regulating the land use has an important function in integrating the water management and landscape more closely. In Serbian spatial planning practice there is growing practice of area-specific development planning (reflected through the Spatial plans for the special-purpose areas which are considered to accommodate new ideas on spatiality better than the traditional, sectorial planning documents. The question is placed as to how these practices could direct new spatial arrangements of integrative collaborative spatial planning and not just merely reflect the framework of the existing planning order. This paper seeks the potential and actual role of spatial planning in addressing challenges related to particular river environments on the Tisa and the Danube rivers. The research is based on the analysis of two Spatial plans for the special-purpose areas which are still in conceptual phase - The Cultural landscape of Bač and Multifunctional ecological corridor of the Tisa river.

  7. Non-alcohol fatty liver disease in Asia: Prevention and planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashtari, Sara; Pourhoseingholi, Mohamad Amin; Zali, Mohamad Reza

    2015-07-08

    To review all of epidemiological aspects of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and also prevent this disease is examined. We conducted a systematic review according to the PRISMA guidelines. All searches for writing this review is based on the papers was found in PubMed (MEDLINE), Cochrane database and Scopus in August and September 2014 for topic of NAFLD in Asia and the way of prevention of this disease, with no language limitations. All relevant articles were accessed in full text and all relevant materials was evaluated and reviewed. NAFLD is the most common liver disorder in worldwide, with an estimated with 20%-30% prevalence in Western countries and 2%-4% worldwide. The prevalence of NAFLD in Asia, depending on location (urban vs rural), gender, ethnicity, and age is variable between 15%-20%. According to the many studies in the world, the relationship between NAFLD, obesity, diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome (MS) is quiet obvious. Prevalence of NAFLD in Asian countries seems to be lower than the Western countries but, it has increased recently due to the rise of obesity, type 2 diabetes and MS in this region. One of the main reasons for the increase in obesity, diabetes and MS in Asia is a lifestyle change and industrialization. Today, NAFLD is recognized as a major chronic liver disease in Asia. Therefore, prevention of this disease in Asian countries is very important and the best strategy for prevention and control of NAFLD is lifestyle modifications. Lifestyle modification programs are typically designed to change bad eating habits and increase physical activity that is associated with clinically significant improvements in obesity, type 2 diabetes and MS. Prevention of NAFLD is very important in Asian countries particularly in Arab countries because of high prevalence of obesity, diabetes and MS.

  8. 15 CFR 923.43 - Direct State land and water use planning and regulation-Technique B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Direct State land and water use... Authorities and Organization § 923.43 Direct State land and water use planning and regulation—Technique B. (a... subsection 306(d)(11) of the Act for control of land and water uses within the coastal zone. The second such...

  9. Microbiological Surveillance and State of the Art Technological Strategies for the Prevention of Dialysis Water Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Galfrè

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Methods: The present report attempts to illustrate the positive impact on the microbiological quality of dialysis patients over a 15-year period through the progressive implementation of state-of-the-art technological strategies and the optimization of microbiological surveillance procedures in five dialysis units in Sardinia. Results: Following on better microbiological, quality controls of dialysis water and improvement of procedures and equipment, a drastic improvement of microbiological water quality was observed in a total of 945 samples. The main aim was to introduce the use of microbiological culture methods as recommended by the most important guidelines. The microbiological results obtained have led to a progressive refining of controls and introduction of new materials and equipment, including two-stage osmosis and piping distribution rings featuring a greater capacity to prevent biofilm adhesion. The actions undertaken have resulted in unexpected quality improvements. Conclusions: Dialysis water should be viewed by the nephrologist as a medicinal product exerting a demonstrable positive impact on microinflammation in dialysis patients. A synergic effort between nephrologists and microbiologists undoubtedly constitutes the most effective means of preventing dialysis infections.

  10. Microbiological surveillance and state of the art technological strategies for the prevention of dialysis water pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolasco, Piergiorgio; Contu, Antonio; Meloni, Patrizia; Vacca, Dorio; Galfrè, Andrea

    2012-08-01

    The present report attempts to illustrate the positive impact on the microbiological quality of dialysis patients over a 15-year period through the progressive implementation of state-of-the-art technological strategies and the optimization of microbiological surveillance procedures in five dialysis units in Sardinia. Following on better microbiological, quality controls of dialysis water and improvement of procedures and equipment, a drastic improvement of microbiological water quality was observed in a total of 945 samples. The main aim was to introduce the use of microbiological culture methods as recommended by the most important guidelines. The microbiological results obtained have led to a progressive refining of controls and introduction of new materials and equipment, including two-stage osmosis and piping distribution rings featuring a greater capacity to prevent biofilm adhesion. The actions undertaken have resulted in unexpected quality improvements. Dialysis water should be viewed by the nephrologist as a medicinal product exerting a demonstrable positive impact on microinflammation in dialysis patients. A synergic effort between nephrologists and microbiologists undoubtedly constitutes the most effective means of preventing dialysis infections.

  11. Porphyrin photosensitised processes in the prevention and treatment of water- and vector-borne diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppellotti, O; Fabris, C; Soncin, M; Magaraggia, M; Camerin, M; Jori, G; Guidolin, L

    2012-01-01

    Water- and vector-borne diseases are a global burden which is estimated to cause several million deaths and innumerable cases of sickness every year. These infectious illnesses are emerging or resurging as a result of several factors, such as changes in climate, in public health and demography policy, as well as the spread of resistance to insecticide and drug, and genetic changes in pathogens. Integrated prevention strategies must be developed and implemented in endemic disease areas to reverse the trend of emergent/resurgent water- and vector-borne diseases. With this perspective porphyrins and their analogues, that have been shown to act as very efficient photosensitising agents against a broad number of microbial pathogens (bacteria, fungi, protozoa) and parasitic animals, could represent an important tool for the prevention and control of these pathologies. The application of photosensitised processes can be exploited to address environmental problems of high significance, including the decontamination of waste waters, the disinfection of fish-farming tanks and the control of populations of noxious insects. Such diversified applications take advantage of the availability of a truly large number of porphyrin derivatives with chemical structures which can be tailored to comply with the physical and chemical properties, as well as the biological features of several milieus. In addition, the property typical of porphyrins to absorb essentially all the wavelengths in the sun emission spectrum allows the promotion of processes largely based on natural resources with significant energy saving and low impact on the ecosystems.

  12. Electrolyte-carbohydrate beverage prevents water loss in the early stage of high altitude training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagisawa, Kae; Ito, Osamu; Nagai, Satsuki; Onishi, Shohei

    2012-01-01

    To prevent water loss in the early stage of high altitude training, we focused on the effect of electrolyte-carbohydrate beverage (EC). Subjects were 16 male university students who belonged to a ski club. They had ski training at an altitude of 1,800 m. The water (WT) group drank only water, and the EC group drank only an electrolyte-carbohydrate beverage. They arrived at the training site in the late afternoon. The study started at 7 pm on the day of arrival and continued until noon of the 4(th) day. In the first 12 hours, 1 L of beverages were given. On the second and third days, 2.5 L of beverages were given. All subjects ate the same meals. Each morning while in fasting condition, subjects were weighed and blood was withdrawn for various parameters (hemoglobin, hematocrit, sodium, potassium and aldosterone). Urine was collected at 12 hour intervals for a total 60 hours (5 times). The urine volume, gravity, sodium and potassium concentrations were measured. Peripheral oxygen saturation and heart rate were measured during sleep with a pulse oximeter. Liquid intakes in both groups were similar, hence the electrolytes intake was higher in the EC group than in the WT group. The total urine volume was lower in the EC group than in the WT group, respectively (paltitude training may be effective in decreasing urinary output and preventing loss of blood plasma volume.

  13. Drinking Water to Prevent Postvaccination Presyncope in Adolescents: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Alex R; Barnett, Elizabeth D; Walter, Emmanuel B; Hornik, Christoph; Pierre-Joseph, Natalie; Broder, Karen R; Silverstein, Michael; Harrington, Theresa

    2017-11-01

    Postvaccination syncope can cause injury. Drinking water prephlebotomy increases peripheral vascular tone, decreasing risk of blood-donation presyncope and syncope. This study evaluated whether drinking water prevaccination reduces postvaccination presyncope, a potential syncope precursor. We conducted a randomized trial of subjects aged 11 to 21 years receiving ≥1 intramuscular vaccine in primary care clinics. Intervention subjects were encouraged to drink 500 mL of water, with vaccination recommended 10 to 60 minutes later. Control subjects received usual care. Presyncope symptoms were assessed with a 12-item survey during the 20-minutes postvaccination. Symptoms were classified with a primary cutoff sensitive for presyncope, and a secondary, more restrictive cutoff requiring greater symptoms. Results were adjusted for clustering by recruitment center. There were 906 subjects randomly assigned to the control group and 901 subjects randomly assigned to the intervention group. None had syncope. Presyncope occurred in 36.2% of subjects by using the primary definition, and in 8.0% of subjects by using the restrictive definition. There were no significant differences in presyncope by intervention group for the primary (1-sided test, P = .24) or restrictive outcome (1-sided test, P = .17). Among intervention subjects vaccinated within 10 to 60 minutes after drinking all 500 mL of water ( n = 519), no reduction in presyncope was observed for the primary or restrictive outcome (1-sided tests, P = .13, P = .17). In multivariable regression analysis, presyncope was associated with younger age, history of passing out or nearly passing out after a shot or blood draw, prevaccination anxiety, receiving >1 injected vaccine, and greater postvaccination pain. Drinking water before vaccination did not prevent postvaccination presyncope. Predictors of postvaccination presyncope suggest opportunities for presyncope and syncope prevention interventions. Copyright © 2017 by the

  14. Supplement to the UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Maybell, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) supplement supports the regulatory and technical basis for water sampling at the Maybell, Colorado, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site, as defined in the 1994 WSAP document for Maybell (DOE, 1994a). Further, this supplement serves to confirm our present understanding of the site relative to the hydrogeology and contaminant distribution as well as our intention to continue to use the sampling strategy as presented in the 1994 WSAP document for Maybell. Ground water and surface water monitoring activities are derived from the US Environmental Protection Agency regulations in 40 CFR Part 192 (1994) and 60 CFR 2854 (1 995). Sampling procedures are guided by the UMTRA Project standard operating procedures (JEG, n.d.), the Technical Approach Document (DOE, 1989), and the most effective technical approach for the site. Additional site-specific documents relevant to the Maybell site are the Maybell Baseline Risk Assessment (currently in progress), the Maybell Remedial Action Plan (RAP) (DOE, 1994b), and the Maybell Environmental Assessment (DOE, 1995)

  15. Georgia Institute of Technology chilled water system evaluation and master plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-15

    As the host of the Olympic Village for the 1996 Atlanta Olympics, Georgia Tech has experienced a surge in construction activities over the last three years. Over 1.3 million square feet of new buildings have been constructed on the Georgia Tech campus. This growth has placed a strain on the Georgia Tech community and challenged the facilities support staff charged with planning and organizing utility services. In concert with Olympic construction, utility planners have worked to ensure long term benefits for Georgia Tech facilities while meeting the short term requirements of the Olympic Games. The concentration of building construction in the northwest quadrant of the campus allowed planners to construct a satellite chilled water plant to serve the needs of this area and provide the opportunity to integrate this section of the campus with the main campus chilled water system. This assessment and master plan, funded in part by the US Department of Energy, has evaluated the chilled water infrastructure at Georgia Tech, identified ongoing problems and made recommendations for long term chilled water infrastructure development and efficiency improvements. The Georgia Tech office of Facilities and RDA Engineering, Inc. have worked together to assemble relevant information and prepare the recommendations contained in this document.

  16. Does the Presense of Water Fluoridation Alter the Use of Dental Preventive Services on United States Air Force Bases?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bober-Moken, Irene

    1999-01-01

    ... application of fluorides, oral hygiene counseling, diet planning and dental prophylaxis. Are these procedures employed at different rates relative to the presence or absence of fluoride in the community water supply...

  17. Factors determining water treatment behavior for the prevention of cholera in Chad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilje, Jonathan; Kessely, Hamit; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2015-07-01

    Cholera is a well-known and feared disease in developing countries, and is linked to high rates of morbidity and mortality. Contaminated drinking water and the lack of sufficient treatment are two of the key causes of high transmission rates. This article presents a representative health survey performed in Chad to inform future intervention strategies in the prevention and control of cholera. To identify critical psychological factors for behavior change, structured household interviews were administered to N = 1,017 primary caregivers, assessing their thoughts and attitudes toward household water treatment according to the Risk, Attitude, Norm, Ability, and Self-regulation model. The intervention potential for each factor was estimated by analyzing differences in means between groups of current performers and nonperformers of water treatment. Personal risk evaluation for diarrheal diseases and particularly for cholera was very low among the study population. Likewise, the perception of social norms was found to be rather unfavorable for water treatment behaviors. In addition, self-reported ability estimates (self-efficacy) revealed some potential for intervention. A mass radio campaign is proposed, using information and normative behavior change techniques, in combination with community meetings focused on targeting abilities and personal commitment to water treatment. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  18. Use of Geographic Information Systems for Planning HIV Prevention Interventions for High-Risk Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geanuracos, Catherine G.; Cunningham, Shayna D.; Weiss, George; Forte, Draco; Henry Reid, Lisa M.; Ellen, Jonathan M.

    2007-01-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) analysis is an emerging tool for public health intervention planning. Connect to Protect, a researcher–community collaboration working in 15 cities to reduce HIV infection among youths, developed GIS databases of local health, crime, and demographic data to evaluate the geographic epidemiology of sexually transmitted infections and HIV risk among adolescents. We describe the process and problems of data acquisition, analysis, and mapping in the development of structural interventions, demonstrating how program planners can use this technology to inform and improve planning decisions. The Connect to Protect project’s experience suggests strategies for incorporating public data and GIS technology into the next generation of public health interventions. PMID:17901452

  19. Numerical model for a watering plan to wash out organic matter from the municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash layer in closed system disposal facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Kazuei; Furuichi, Toru; Tanikawa, Noboru

    2009-02-01

    Bottom ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) is a main type of waste that is landfilled in Japan. The long-term elution of organic matter from the MSWI bottom ash layers is a concern because maintenance and operational costs of leachate treatment facilities are high. In closed system disposal facilities (CSDFs), which have a roof to prevent rainfall from infiltrating into the waste layers, water must be supplied artificially and its quantity can be controlled. However, the quantity of water needed and how to apply it (the intensity, period and frequency) have not been clearly defined. In order to discuss an effective watering plan, this study proposes a new washout model to clarify a fundamental mechanism of total organic carbon (TOC) elution behavior from MSWI bottom ash layers. The washout model considers three phases: solid, immobile water and mobile water. The parameters, including two mass transfer coefficients of the solid-immobile water phases and immobile-mobile water phases, were determined by one-dimensional column experiments for about 2 years. The intensity, period and frequency of watering and other factors were discussed based on a numerical analysis using the above parameters. As a result, our washout model explained adequately the elution behavior of TOC from the MSWI bottom ash layer before carbonation occurred (pH approximately 8.3). The determined parameters and numerical analysis suggested that there is a possibility that the minimum amount of water needed for washing out TOC per unit weight of MSWI bottom ash layer could be determined, which depends on the two mass transfer coefficients and the depth of the MSWI bottom ash layer. Knowledge about the fundamental mechanism of the elution behavior of TOC from the MSWI bottom ash layer before carbonation occurs, clarified by this study, will help an effective watering plan in CSDFs.

  20. Reproductive justice & preventable deaths: State funding, family planning, abortion, and infant mortality, US 1980–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Krieger

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Little current research examines associations between infant mortality and US states’ funding for family planning services and for abortion, despite growing efforts to restrict reproductive rights and services and documented associations between unintended pregnancy and infant mortality. Material and methods: We obtained publicly available data on state-only public funding for family planning and abortion services (years available: 1980, 1987, 1994, 2001, 2006, and 2010 and corresponding annual data on US county infant death rates. We modeled the funding as both fraction of state expenditures and per capita spending (per woman, age 15–44. State-level covariates comprised: Title X and Medicaid per capita funding, fertility rate, and percent of counties with no abortion services; county-level covariates were: median family income, and percent: black infants, adults without a high school education, urban, and female labor force participation. We used Possion log-linear models for: (1 repeat cross-sectional analyses, with random state and county effects; and (2 panel analysis, with fixed state effects. Results: Four findings were robust to analytic approach. First, since 2000, the rate ratio for infant death comparing states in the top funding quartile vs. no funding for abortion services ranged (in models including all covariates between 0.94 and 0.98 (95% confidence intervals excluding 1, except for the 2001 cross-sectional analysis, whose upper bound equaled 1, yielding an average 15% reduction in risk (range: 8–22%. Second, a similar risk reduction for state per capita funding for family planning services occurred in 1994. Third, the excess risk associated with lower county income increased over time, and fourth, remained persistently high for counties with a high percent of black infants. Conclusions: Insofar as reducing infant mortality is a government priority, our data underscore the need, despite heightened contention

  1. Guidance document for preparing water sampling and analysis plans for UMTRA Project sites. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    A water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) is prepared for each Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site to provide the rationale for routine ground water sampling at disposal sites and former processing sites. The WSAP identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequency for the routine ground water monitoring stations at each site. This guidance document has been prepared by the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). Its purpose is to provide a consistent technical approach for sampling and monitoring activities performed under the WSAP and to provide a consistent format for the WSAP documents. It is designed for use by the TAC in preparing WSAPs and by the DOE, US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, state and tribal agencies, other regulatory agencies, and the public in evaluating the content of WSAPS

  2. New York City Energy-Water Integrated Planning: A Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatt,V.; Crosson, K. M.; Horak, W.; Reisman, A.

    2008-12-16

    The New York City Energy-Water Integrated Planning Pilot Study is one of several projects funded by Sandia National Laboratories under the U.S. Department of Energy Energy-Water Nexus Program. These projects are intended to clarify some key issues and research needs identified during the Energy-Water Nexus Roadmapping activities. The objectives of the New York City Pilot Project are twofold: to identify energy-water nexus issues in an established urban area in conjunction with a group of key stakeholders and to define and apply an integrated energy and water decision support tool, as proof-of-concept, to one or more of these issues. During the course of this study, the Brookhaven National Laboratory project team worked very closely with members of a Pilot Project Steering Committee. The Steering Committee members brought a breadth of experience across the energy, water and climate disciplines, and all are well versed in the particular issues faced by an urban environment, and by New York City in particular. The first task was to identify energy-water issues of importance to New York City. This exercise was followed by discussion of the qualities and capabilities that an ideal decision support tool should display to address these issues. The decision was made to start with an existing energy model, the New York City version of the MARKAL model, developed originally at BNL and now used globally by many groups for energy analysis. MARKAL has the virtue of being well-vetted, transparent, and capable of calculating 'material' flows, such as water use by the energy system and energy requirements of water technology. The Steering Committee members defined five scenarios of interest, representing a broad spectrum of New York City energy-water issues. Brookhaven National Laboratory researchers developed a model framework (Water-MARKAL) at the desired level of detail to address the scenarios, and then attempted to gather the New York City-specific information

  3. Corrosion Prevention and Control Planning Guidebook for Military Systems and Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-02

    Sacrificial coatings (e.g., galvanizing)  Surface modification (e.g., weld overlays , electro-plating)  Sealants (e.g., wet installed fasteners...operational environment should be avoided. Consider compatibility when using multiple materials. If dissimilar materials cannot be avoided, isolate those... Dissimilar Metals.  MIL-HDBK-1568, Military Handbook: Materials and Processes for Corrosion Prevention and Control in Aerospace Weapons Systems (18 July

  4. Public health program planning logic model for community engaged type 2 diabetes management and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Joseph F

    2014-02-01

    Diabetes remains a growing epidemic with widening health inequity gaps in disease management, self-management knowledge, access to care and outcomes. Yet there is a paucity of evaluation tools for community engaged interventions aimed at closing the gaps and improving health. The Guide to Community Preventive Services (the Community Guide) developed by the Task Force on Community Preventive Services (the Task Force) at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends two healthcare system level interventions, case management interventions and disease management programs, to improve glycemic control. However, as a public health resource guide for diabetes interventions a model for community engagement is a glaringly absent component of the Community Guide recommendations. In large part there are few evidence-based interventions featuring community engagement as a practice and system-level focus of chronic disease and Type 2 diabetes management. The central argument presented in this paper is that the absence of these types of interventions is due to the lack of tools for modeling and evaluating such interventions, especially among disparate and poor populations. A conceptual model emphasizing action-oriented micro-level community engagement is needed to complement the Community Guide and serve as the basis for testing and evaluation of these kinds of interventions. A unique logic model advancing the Community Guide diabetes recommendations toward measureable and sustainable community engagement for improved Type 2 diabetes outcomes is presented. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Sustainability of Water Safety Plans Developed in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Rondi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In developing countries, the drinking water supply is still an open issue. In sub-Saharan Africa, only 68% of the population has access to improved sources of drinking water. Moreover, some regions are affected by geogenic contaminants (e.g., fluoride and arsenic and the lack of access to sanitation facilities and hygiene practices causes high microbiological contamination of drinking water in the supply chain. The Water Safety Plan (WSP approach introduced by the World Health Organisation (WHO in 2004 is now under development in several developing countries in order to face up to these issues. The WSP approach was elaborated within two cooperation projects implemented in rural areas of Burkina Faso and Senegal by two Italian NGOs (Non-Governmental Organisations. In order to evaluate its sustainability, a questionnaire based on five different sustainability elements and a cost and time consumption evaluation were carried out and applied in both the case studies. Results demonstrated that the questionnaire can provide a useful and interesting overview regarding the sustainability of the WSP; however, further surveys in the field are recommended for gathering more information. Time and costs related to the WSP elaboration, implementation, and management were demonstrated not to be negligible and above all strongly dependent on water quality and the water supply system complexity.

  6. Collision-Induced Melting in Collisions of Water Ice Nanograins: Strong Deformations and Prevention of Bouncing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nietiadi, Maureen L.; Umstätter, Philipp; Alabd Alhafez, Iyad; Rosandi, Yudi; Bringa, Eduardo M.; Urbassek, Herbert M.

    2017-11-01

    Collisions between ice grains are ubiquitous in the outer solar system. The mechanics of such collisions is traditionally described by the elastic contact theory of adhesive spheres. Here we use molecular dynamics simulations to study collisions between nanometer-sized amorphous water ice grains. We demonstrate that the collision-induced heating leads to grain melting in the interface of the colliding grains. The large lateral deformations and grain sticking induced considerably modify available macroscopic collision models. We report on systematic increases of the contact radius, strong grain deformations, and the prevention of grain bouncing.

  7. Water planning in a changing climate: how do you plan for a future when the past no longer represents the future?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuen, Emma

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Full text: By 2030, the catchments across south-west Western Australia can expect decreases in runoff ranging from 5% to 40% relative to 1990. This has ramifications, not only for consumptive and non-consumptive uses, but for the way decisions are made in an environment of uncertainty. Traditionally, water planning has assumed a static environment whereby statistically defensible climatic records have been used in decision-making. While climate modelling may provide projections of plausible climatic futures, this needs to be integrated with socio-political and economic futures when considering the environment in which regional water plans will apply. Where climate change is slow, enabling biophysical and social systems have time to adapt to long-term water resources planning needs that incorporate principles of intergenerational equity, the precautionary principle and resilience in management strategies. However where changes in climate are poorly recognised against the background of inherent climate variability or where step changes in rainfall occur or threshold assimilative levels of ecosystems are exceeded, conflict and uncertainty challenge the decisionmaking processes. Within the backdrop of climate change, the Department of Water is developing a Regional Water Plan for the southwest which will set the strategic direction on water resources for the next 25 years. In order to move forward with this process, the water sector must undergo a number of transformations: from linear science to complex dynamic systems thinking; from 'decide and defend'to increased community engagement when dealing with both complexity and uncertainty; from conservation of 'museum pieces' to innovation, partnerships and adaptive management. This paper will discuss the philosophy behind the decision-making framework based on experiences from business management and other sectors. It will also discuss an action research process that could be used in the South West Water Plan

  8. Study of Water Quality Changes due to Offshore Dike Development Plan at Semarang Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, M.; Hakim, B. A.

    2018-03-01

    Now, coast of Semarang Gulf is experiencing rapid growth because Semarang as a center economic growth in Central Java. On the other hand, coast of Gulf Semarang also experience a variety of very complex problems, such as tidal flood, land subsidence, as well as coastal damage due to erosion and sedimentation process. To overcome these problems BPPT and other institutions proposed construction of offshore dike. Construction of the offshore dike is a technology intervention to the marine environment that will certainly affect the hydrodynamic balance in coastal water including water quality in the Gulf of Semarang. Therefore, to determine changes in water quality that will happen is necessary to study the water quality modeling. The study was conducted by using a computational modeling software MIKE-21 Eco Lab Module from DHI. Based on this study result knowed that development offshore dike will change water quality in the west and east dam that formed. In west dam the average value of the DO decline 81.56% - 93.32 % and the average value of BOD rise from 22.01 to 31.19% and in the east dam, there is an increase average value DO of 83.19% - 75.80%, while the average value of BOD decrease by 95,04% - 96.01%. To prevent the downward trend in water quality due to the construction of the offshore dike, its necessary precautions at the upstream area before entering the Gulf of Semarang.

  9. Subproject plan for demonstration of 3M technology for treatment of N Basin water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plastino, J.C.

    1996-02-01

    A dissolved radionuclides removal demonstration is being conducted at the 105-N Basin as part of the 100-N Area Projects' policy of aggressively integrating innovative technologies to achieve more cost effective, faster, and/or safer deactivation operations. This subproject plan demonstrates new technology (marketed by the 3M trademark Company) that absorbs specific ions from water. The demonstration will take place at the spent fuel basin at the N Reactor facility. The 105-N Basin contains 1 million gal of water consisting of approximately 32 Ci of dissolved 90 Sr at a concentration of 8.4 uCi/L and 7.3 Ci of dissolved 137 Cs at a concentration of 1.92 uCi/L. The Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement [Ecology et al. 1990]) Milestone M-16-01E-T2 requires the initiation of pretreatment and removal of all N Reactor fuel storage basin waters by September 30, 1996, pursuant to the N Reactor Deactivation Program Plan (WHC 1993). 105-N Basin dewatering is on the critical path for overall deactivation of N Reactor by March 1997. The 105-N Basin Deactivation Program Plan (BHI 1995) includes removing debris, hardware, algae and sediment from the basin, followed by pretreatment (filtration) and removal of the 1005-N Basin water. Final water removal is currently scheduled for September 30, 1996. The recommended method of the 105-N Basin water is the treatment of the water at the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) in the 200 East Area. The demonstration of the 3M technology could be a feasible treatment alternative to the ETF if the ETF is not available to meet the project schedule or if additional pretreatment is needed to reduce the inventory of radioactive species to be handled at the ETF. Demonstration of this technology could be of value for other fuel basins at the Hanford Site and possibly other US Department of Energy (DOE) sites and non- DOE nuclear power plants

  10. International tax planning & prevention of abuse under domestic tax law, tax treaties & EC-law

    OpenAIRE

    De Broe, Luc

    2007-01-01

    PART ONE:THE USE OF CONDUIT & BASE COMPANIES IN INTERNATIONAL TAX PLANNING 1 1. CONDUIT COMPANIES 1 1.1. Treaty shopping 1 1.1.1. Description of the term “Treaty shopping” in relation to conduit companies 1 1.1.2. Basic features of “Treaty Shopping” in relation to conduit companies 6 1.1.2.1. Form of the conduit: company or partnership ? 6 1.1.2.2. Tax considerations in setting up the conduit 8 1.2. Directive shopping 11 1.2.1. Description of the term ...

  11. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright- Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 4, Health and Safety Plan (HSP); Phase 1, Task 4 Field Investigation report: Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    This Health and Safety Plan (HSP) was developed for the Environmental Investigation of Ground-water Contamination Investigation at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio, based on the projected scope of work for the Phase 1, Task 4 Field Investigation. The HSP describes hazards that may be encountered during the investigation, assesses the hazards, and indicates what type of personal protective equipment is to be used for each task performed. The HSP also addresses the medical monitoring program, decontamination procedures, air monitoring, training, site control, accident prevention, and emergency response.

  12. Forming mechanism and prevention of water-coal-burst disaster on extremely inclined faces under Ordovician aquifer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Q.; Qian, Z.; Dong, D.; Song, E.; Hong, Y. [China University Of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China). Beijing Campus

    2000-08-01

    The formation of a saturated body of coal-water mixture is due to the actions of multiple controlling factors of water source, coal characteristics, potential energy and time. Coal-water burst disaster is characterized by paroxysm, huge energy, short duration, strong explosive force and causing severe damages. Very often it takes place only under special background conditions. In extremely inclined coal seam districts, because the working faces are generally arranged under water-prevention coal pillars, the mining inbreak heights are too near the location of the body of coal-water mixture. Hence the mining activity may induce the occurrence of coal-water burst disaster. Based on the analysis of the disaster mechanism, some effective preventive measures for coal-water burst disaster in coal mines are put forward. 3 refs., 1 fig.

  13. Time Effect of Water Injection on the Mechanical Properties of Coal and Its Application in Rockburst Prevention in Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofei Liu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Coal seam water injection is widely used to prevent rockbursts in coal mines, and the duration of water injection is an important parameter related to the effectiveness of rockburst prevention, making it of practical importance to optimize the effective water injection duration. This paper presents the test results of the mechanical properties and pore structure of samples with different soaking time, obtained from a working face where rockburst occurred. Soaking time changes the mechanical properties of samples, and this time effect differs with the coal size (from centimeter to nanometer size. Results of numerical simulation and on-site tests in the Changgouyu coal mine demonstrated that water injection can effectively soften coal bodies and release or transfer stresses, and the time effect of water injection on rock prevention and control is apparent.

  14. Wind turbine blade life-time assessment model for preventive planning of operation and maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Florian, Mihai; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2014-01-01

    of information on the blades structural health to the decision maker. Further, inspections of the blades are often performed in connection with service. In light of the obtained information, a preventive type of maintenance becomes feasible, with the potential of predicting the blades remaining life to support O......&M decisions for avoiding major failure events. The present paper presents a fracture mechanics based model for estimating the remaining life of a wind turbine blade, focusing on the crack propagation in the blades adhesive joints. A generic crack propagation model is built in Matlab based on a Paris law...

  15. Planning and Corrupting Water Resources Development: The Case of Small Reservoirs in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe Venot

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural (water development is once again at the fore of the development agenda of sub-Saharan Africa. Yet, corruption is seen as a major obstacle to the sustainability of future investments in the sector but there is still little empirical evidence on the ways corruption pervades development projects. This paper documents the planning and implementation processes of two specific small reservoir programmes in the north of Ghana. We specifically delve into the dynamics of corruption and interrogate the ways they add to the inherent unpredictability of development planning. We argue that operational limitations of small reservoirs such as poor infrastructure, lack of managerial and organisational capacity at the community level and weak market integration and public support are the symptoms – rather than inherent problems – of wider lapses in the planning processes that govern the development of small reservoirs in Ghana and plausibly worldwide. A suite of petty misconduct and corrupt practices during the planning, tendering, supervision, and administration of contracts for the rehabilitation and construction of small reservoirs results in delays in implementation, poor construction, escalating costs, and ultimately failures of small reservoirs vis-à-vis their intended goals and a widely shared frustration among donor agencies, civil servants, contractors, and communities. Such practices hang on and can only be addressed through a better understanding of the complex web of formal decisions and informal rules that shape the understanding and actions of the state.

  16. Investigation into the use of a water curtain over openings to prevent fire spread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turco Matt

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of several full-scale experiments to study heat radiation attenuation and shielding using sprinklers to create a water curtain between a compartment fire and a target wall. This work builds on the concept that water absorbs and scatters heat radiation and applies it as a shielding mechanism, which can be used to protect personnel and property exposed to an opening during a compartment fire. The purpose of the study is to determine the effectiveness of a water curtain created using sprinkler heads in attenuating the heat flux from flames exiting a compartment fire, shielding the target wall and preventing fire spread. The results show that the water curtain reduces heat flux to the target wall which may allow for decreasing the building distance from the property line. Heat fluxes along the target wall are compared to heat fluxes required for the piloted ignition of wood products. The effects of fire size, sprinkler system flow rate, and separation distance to the target wall are discussed.

  17. Preventive measures of water pollution in China; Chugoku ni okeru suishitsu odaku boshi taisaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, Y.; Huang, X.

    1996-01-10

    This paper describes the progress and the major results of research and development on technologies and measures to prevent water pollution in China. Tests and researches have been performed on an upward anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), a vertical baffled anaerobic sludge blanket, two-phase anaerobic digestion, and an anaerobic fluidized bed. When anaerobically digested sludge and aerobic active sludge are inoculated in the UASB, particle-shaped sludge was formed well in both sludges. This technology has begun to be used in breweries and citric acid factories. With anaerobic treatment of waste water containing sulfate, the sulfate was recovered as sulfur by using the first and second phases. Research and development is being progressed on the oxidation ditch technology as an improved version of the active sludge method. In a pilot test of a soil treatment system and a stabilization pond treatment system as alternative technology for the active sludge method, the BOD in the treated water was found 2.5 mg{times}1/l. Attentions are drawn on primary treatment, a living organism contact oxidation method, and a continuous filtration treatment process as technologies to turn polluted water into resources. 6 refs., 1 tab.

  18. Preliminary review of fisheries conservation gains within BC Hydro's water use planning process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orr, C. [Watershed Watch Salmon Society, Coquitlam, BC (Canada); Clayton, G.; Lewis, R.; Louie, R.; McAdam, S.; McFarlane, S.; Munro, J.; Ptolemy, R.; Werring, J.; Wightman, C.

    2004-05-01

    In 1998, the Government of British Columbia requested that BC Hydro review the water use and operating conditions of its power generation facilities. A water use plan (WUP) was to be produced for each of the facilities. As a supporter of processes that improve water management, Watershed Watch has been actively involved in British Columbia's WUP process. In the past 4 years, it has participated in the Coquitlam-Buntzen WUP consultative committee, the Coquitlam fish technical committee, the First Nations WUP committee, the fisheries advisory team on WUP, and the green hydro working group. Watershed Watch commissioned Quadra Planning Consultants to prepare this first independent assessment of the largest water restoration project undertaken in British Columbia. This report is an overview level analysis of the results thus far, of the WUP process from a fisheries conservation perspective, including First Nations expectations and interests related to fisheries. It focuses on the fish conservation gains that result from the WUP initiative. The report also examines how successfully the WUP incorporate First Nations' traditional ecological knowledge. An environmental lawyer examined whether the WUP process satisfies the expectations of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). This report indicates that the WUP has improved the knowledge base and better defined the flow requirements for fish conservation at BC Hydro facilities. The outcomes for fish conservation have been mostly positive. The following 7 operating alternatives were recommended: reduced flows; rapid flow fluctuation; adequate flushing flows; altered water quality; entrainment of fish; flow diversion; and, reservoir drawdown. An ongoing monitoring program was also recommended. 11 refs., 16 tabs., 1 appendix.

  19. Preliminary review of fisheries conservation gains within BC Hydro's water use planning process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orr, C.; Clayton, G.; Lewis, R.; Louie, R.; McAdam, S.; McFarlane, S.; Munro, J.; Ptolemy, R.; Werring, J.; Wightman, C.

    2004-05-01

    In 1998, the Government of British Columbia requested that BC Hydro review the water use and operating conditions of its power generation facilities. A water use plan (WUP) was to be produced for each of the facilities. As a supporter of processes that improve water management, Watershed Watch has been actively involved in British Columbia's WUP process. In the past 4 years, it has participated in the Coquitlam-Buntzen WUP consultative committee, the Coquitlam fish technical committee, the First Nations WUP committee, the fisheries advisory team on WUP, and the green hydro working group. Watershed Watch commissioned Quadra Planning Consultants to prepare this first independent assessment of the largest water restoration project undertaken in British Columbia. This report is an overview level analysis of the results thus far, of the WUP process from a fisheries conservation perspective, including First Nations expectations and interests related to fisheries. It focuses on the fish conservation gains that result from the WUP initiative. The report also examines how successfully the WUP incorporate First Nations' traditional ecological knowledge. An environmental lawyer examined whether the WUP process satisfies the expectations of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). This report indicates that the WUP has improved the knowledge base and better defined the flow requirements for fish conservation at BC Hydro facilities. The outcomes for fish conservation have been mostly positive. The following 7 operating alternatives were recommended: reduced flows; rapid flow fluctuation; adequate flushing flows; altered water quality; entrainment of fish; flow diversion; and, reservoir drawdown. An ongoing monitoring program was also recommended. 11 refs., 16 tabs., 1 appendix

  20. Long-term Planning for Sustainable Water and Wastewater Infrastructure in Wellpinit, Washington, for the Spokane Tribe of Indians

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Spokane Tribe initiated a long-term planning process for a water and wastewater infrastructure system that can support the tribe’s goals to add compact, mixed-use development in the town of Wellpinit.