McCreary, Linda L.; Kaponda, Chrissie P. N.; Kafulafula, Ursula K.; Ngalande, Rebecca C.; Kumbani, Lily C.; Jere, Diana L. N.; Norr, James L.; Norr, Kathleen F.
This paper reports the process evaluation of a peer group intervention for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention which had positive outcomes for three target groups in Malawi: rural adults, adolescents and urban hospital workers. The six-session intervention was delivered to small groups of 10-12 participants by 85 trained volunteer peer…
This report describes the implementation and short-term results of a peer group intervention for HIV prevention on the HIV-related attitudes, knowledge and behaviours of primary school teachers in Malawi. The intervention, based on the social-cognitive learning model, took place in 2000 at two teacher training colleges ...
Kaponda, Chrissie P. N.; Norr, Kathleen F.; Crittenden, Kathleen S.; Norr, James L.; McCreary, Linda L.; Kachingwe, Sitingawawo I.; Mbeba, Mary M.; Jere, Diana L. N.; Dancy, Barbara L.
This study used a quasi-experimental design to evaluate a six-session peer group intervention for HIV prevention among rural adults in Malawi. Two rural districts were randomly assigned to intervention and control conditions. Independent random samples of community adults compared the districts at baseline and at 6 and 18 months postintervention.…
Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Durant, Shelley; Shaw, Heather; Wade, Emily
The present preliminary trials tested whether undergraduate peer leaders can effectively deliver a dissonance-based eating disorder prevention program, which could facilitate broad dissemination of this efficacious intervention. In Study 1, female undergraduates (N=171) were randomized to peer-led groups, clinician-led groups, or an educational brochure control condition. In Study 2, which improved a design limitation of Study 1 by using completely parallel outcome measures across conditions, female undergraduates (N=148) were randomized to either immediate peer-led groups or a waitlist control condition. In Study 1, participants in peer- and clinician-led groups showed significantly greater pre-post reductions in risk factors and eating disorder symptoms than controls (M d=.64 and .98 respectively), though clinician- versus peer-led groups had higher attendance and competence ratings, and produced stronger effects at posttest (M d=.32) and at 1-year follow-up (M d=.26). In Study 2, participants in peer-led groups showed greater pre-post reductions in all outcomes than waitlist controls (M d=.75). Results provide novel evidence that dissonance-based eating disorder prevention groups led by undergraduate peers are feasible and produce greater reductions in eating disorder risk factors and symptoms than minimal-intervention control conditions, but indicate that effects are smaller for peer- versus clinician-led groups. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cordero Coma, Julia
The twofold function of condom use - contraception and sexually transmitted disease protection - should be taken into account when understanding attitudes towards this practice. Emphasis on the interpretation of condom use as a protective practice conflicts with the norms of fidelity and trust, which regulate marriage. The alternative interpretation of condom use as a contraceptive method may be less problematic. This paper analyzes the extent to which the attitude of married men and women towards condom use with their spouses, and their actual use of condoms within marriage, are affected by their expectations about the dominant attitudes and behaviors in their peer group. I expect that a social consensus on understanding condom use as an HIV-preventive behavior will not make this practice more acceptable within marriage, while social acceptance of modern contraception and, more specifically, of the use of condoms for contraceptive purposes will. Two waves of a longitudinal survey from 1996 to 1999 in rural Kenya are analyzed using fixed-effects regression. Social support for each function of condom use is measured with indicators of the proportion of individuals in the peer group that use condoms for a particular purpose or have a positive attitude towards each of the uses, according to the respondent. The results support the hypothesis for men, but are inconclusive for women. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Norr, Kathleen F; Ferrer, Lilian; Cianelli, Rosina; Crittenden, Kathleen S; Irarrázabal, Lisette; Cabieses, Báltica; Araya, Alejandra; Bernales, Margarita
We tested the impacts of a professionally assisted peer-group intervention on Chilean health workers' HIV-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors using a quasi-experimental design with a pretest and 3-month posttest. Two Santiago suburbs were randomly assigned to the intervention or delayed intervention control condition. Five community clinics per suburb participated. Interested workers at the intervention (n = 262) and control (n = 293) clinics participated and completed both evaluations. At posttest, intervention clinic workers had higher knowledge and more positive attitudes regarding HIV, condoms, stigmatization, and self-efficacy for prevention. They reported more partner discussion about safer sex, less unprotected sex, and more involvement in HIV prevention activities in the clinic and the community, but they did not report fewer sexual partners or more standard precautions behaviors. Because of these positive impacts, the program will become a regular continuing education unit that can be used to meet health-worker licensing requirements. Copyright © 2012 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Connolly, Jennifer; Friedlander, Laura
The peer group is a critical social context for dating and romantic relationships. Peer groups provide opportunities to meet potential dating partners and set norms for acceptable dating behaviors. This article explores how peer groups influence dating and dating aggression, as well as how they can be used in prevention efforts. It also reviews…
Sukatendel, K.; Napitupulu, T. E.; Rusmalawati; Andayani, L. S.; Yustina, I.
According to Behavioral and Biological Integrated Surveillance (BBIS) in Indonesia, 2011, there was an increase in syphilis surveillance in men who like to commit sexual intercourse with other men (MSM). It was 13% of the 3% in BBIS 2007 in bad STI prevention behavior. There were 478 MSM have visited STI-VCT clinic in Medan throughout 2015, and syphilis-infected 59 men. This study aims to analyze the influence of perception and peer support on prevention of STI in MSM at Veteran STI-VCT Clinic in Medan, 2016. It was a mixed method quantitative and qualitative study with the cross-sectional approach, enrolled 50 respondents. Data were collected and analyzed with SPSS 19. There was the influence of perception and peer support on STI prevention behavior of MSM group at STI-VCT Veteran Clinic in Medan.
Culp, Linda; Malone, Virginia
Explains how peer scores can be used to constitute one part of students' grades on group projects. Contributions students make to a project are defined in four categories: creativity/ideas contributed, research/data collection, writing/typing/artwork, and organizing/collating. A scoring rubric for these categories is presented. (PR)
Laursen, Brett; Bukowski, William M; Nurmi, Jari-Eri; Marion, Donna; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Kiuru, Noona
This study examines variability in patterns of peer group antipathy. Same-grade adolescent peer groups were identified from sociometric nominations of preferred affiliates in a community sample of 600 Finnish ninth-grade middle school students (mean age=15.0 years). Hierarchical linear modeling determined characteristics of youths in actor groups (nominators) that predicted antipathy for youths in target groups (nominatees) on the basis of target group characteristics. Most antipathies were based on dissimilarity between groups representing the mainstream culture and groups opposed to it. The higher a peer group's school burnout, the more its members disliked students in peer groups with higher school grades and students in peer groups with higher sports participation. Conversely, the higher a peer group's school grades, the more its members disliked students in peer groups with higher school burnout. Students in peer groups with less problem behavior disliked students in peer groups with more problem behavior. There was some evidence of rivalry within the mainstream culture: The higher a group's school grades, the more its members disliked groups whose members participated in sports. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The implementation and evaluation of a peer education and support programme in secondary schools to prevent and reduce high-risk sexual behaviour amongst adolescents is discussed.The aims of the programme were to provide accurate information about HIV/AIDS, discuss and reconsider peer group norms, and ...
Triantafyllou, Eva; Timcenko, Olga
the administrative burden is one of the common reported challenges of peer assessment, computer assisted peer assessment is also briefly reviewed. Finally, opportunities and challenges in applying peer assessment in a project-based creative engineering program are presented based on the review of the literature.......Peer review has proved to be beneficial in project-based environments by involving students in the process and encouraging them to take ownership of their learning. This article reviews how peer assessment has been employed within group work for different engineering programs. Since...
Laursen, Brett; Bukowski, William M.; Nurmi, Jari-Eri; Marion, Donna; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Kiuru, Noona
This study examines variability in patterns of peer group antipathy. Same-grade adolescent peer groups were identified from sociometric nominations of preferred affiliates in a community sample of 600 Finnish ninth-grade middle school students (mean age = 15.0 years). Hierarchical linear modeling determined characteristics of youths in actor…
Oster, R A
A peer counseling program was developed as a method for preventing drug and alcohol abuse among high school juniors and seniors. The program was implemented and the results were monitored to evaluate the impact of the program on the students. An analysis of the data showed that the students were able to learn and utilize peer counseling skills but that the prevention of drug abuse could not be documented in this study. Subjective reports, however, were found to support the effects of the program.
Nesdale, Drew; Durkin, Kevin; Maass, Anne; Kiesner, Jeff; Griffiths, Judith; Daly, Josh; McKenzie, David
Two simulation studies examined the effect of peer group rejection on 7 and 9 year old children's outgroup prejudice. In Study 1, children (n = 88) pretended that they were accepted or rejected by their assigned group, prior to competing with a lower status outgroup. Results indicated that rejected versus accepted children showed increased…
Chu, Judy Y.
Adolescent boys perceive their male peer group culture--and their socialization toward masculine norms emphasized within this culture--as negatively influencing their abilities to develop close male friendships. Boys who manage to develop close, male friendships, however, draw strength from these relationships to resist the social pressures of…
Tate, Thomas F.; Copas, Randall L.
Peer group treatment has been subject to two main lines of criticism. Some suggest any program which aggregates antisocial youth inevitably fosters negative peer influence. Others are concerned that certain peer programs are based on coercive peer confrontation. Positive Peer Culture [PPC] is an antidote to both of these varieties of toxic group…
... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Composition of peer review groups. 3401.13 Section... Peer Review of Research Applications for Funding § 3401.13 Composition of peer review groups. Peer review group members will be selected based upon their training or experience in relevant scientific or...
... PROGRAM Scientific Peer Review of Research Grant Applications § 3411.11 Composition of peer review groups. (a) Peer review group members and ad hoc reviewers will be selected based upon their training and... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Composition of peer review groups. 3411.11 Section...
... PROGRAM Scientific Peer Review of Research Grant Applications § 3415.11 Composition of peer review groups. (a) Peer review group members and ad hoc reviewers will be selected based upon their training and... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Composition of peer review groups. 3415.11 Section...
... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Composition of peer review groups. 3400.11 Section..., EDUCATION, AND EXTENSION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL RESEARCH GRANTS PROGRAM Scientific Peer Review of Research Grant Applications § 3400.11 Composition of peer review groups. (a) Peer review group...
Sallee, Margaret W.; Tierney, William G.
The authors examine how peer relationships influence students' academic success. After defining peer groups, the article considers the ways in which students' peer networks facilitate or inhibit access to academic resources. The authors argue that the composition and purpose of a peer group influences academic achievement and students' likelihood…
Conner, William; Nahrstedt, Klara; Gupta, Indranil
This paper presents a framework for preventing both selfishness and denial-of-service attacks in peer-to-peer media streaming systems. Our framework, called Oversight, achieves prevention of these undesirable activities by running a separate peer-to-peer download rate enforcement protocol along with the underlying peer-to-peer media streaming protocol. This separate Oversight protocol enforces download rate limitations on each participating peer. These limitations prevent selfish or malicious nodes from downloading an overwhelming amount of media stream data that could potentially exhaust the entire system. Since Oversight is based on a peer-to-peer architecture, it can accomplish this enforcement functionality in a scalable, efficient, and decentralized way that fits better with peer-to-peer media streaming systems compared to other solutions based on central server architectures. As peer-to-peer media streaming systems continue to grow in popularity, the threat of selfish and malicious peers participating in such large peer-to-peer networks will continue to grow as well. For example, since peer-to-peer media streaming systems allow users to send small request messages that result in the streaming of large media objects, these systems provide an opportunity for malicious users to exhaust resources in the system with little effort expended on their part. However, Oversight addresses these threats associated with selfish or malicious peers who cause such disruptions with excessive download requests. We evaluated our Oversight solution through simulations and our results show that applying Oversight to peer-to-peer media streaming systems can prevent both selfishness and denial-of-service attacks by effectively limiting the download rates of all nodes in the system.
What Works Clearinghouse, 2007
"Peer Tutoring and Response Groups" aims to improve the language and achievement of English language learners by pairing or grouping students to work on a task. The students may be grouped by age or ability (English-only, bilingual, or limited English proficient) or the groups may be mixed. Both peer tutoring pairs and peer response…
Briggs, S; Slater, T; Bowley, J
WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Group suicidal behaviour can be devastating for all concerned. There is an absence of research on adolescent suicidal group behaviour. The perspectives of practitioners' experiences of these groups are largely lacking from research literature. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: Practitioners work regularly with suicidal behaviour in adolescent peer groups. Practitioners identify peer relationships in groups as complex, including elements that are both suicide encouraging and preventing. Practitioners identify a range of ways in which young people become involved in suicidal behaviour in groups, including indirectly through risk taking and care-seeking as well as directly suicidal or self-harming. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Assessments of young people should routinely include a focus on the qualities of peer relations, including those in the online/digital realm. Assessments and interventions need to consider the complexity of group relationships and roles, and the multiplicity of factors that can contribute to suicidal behaviour in groups. Interventions that sustain therapeutic connectedness are helpful for taking dynamic/fluctuating risks into account. Introduction Group suicidal behaviour by young people can have harmful effects; it may be increasing, influenced by online media and reported increasing self-harm rates; new knowledge and understanding to inform interventions is required. Aim To explore how practitioners experience group suicidal behaviour amongst adolescents, how they assess risks/needs, and how these insights inform understanding about these groups. Method Ten practitioners, including Mental Health Nurses, were interviewed in one multidisciplinary CAMHS, in England. Data analysis was by Thematic Analysis (Braun & Clarke 2006). Results Participants described frequently working with suicidal groups. Roles in groups include suicide encouraging and preventing. Practitioners identify risky and
... States. Being a member of a scientific peer review group does not make an individual an officer or... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Composition of peer review groups. 52h.4 Section... PEER REVIEW OF RESEARCH GRANT APPLICATIONS AND RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACT PROJECTS § 52h.4...
Preliminary research findings from Brazil and Kenya indicate that, when women are provided with female condoms and peer group support, traditional obstacles to safe sex practices can be overcome. In these countries, as well as many others, women face cultural barriers to negotiating condom use with male partners. The study, conducted by the Women's Health Initiative of Family Health International's AIDS Control and Prevention Project, involved 106 Kenyan and 103 Brazilian women. A female focus group was held at the beginning of the study, followed by two peer support group meetings, with another focus group at the end of the study. Group support was an essential element in the acceptance process. Women who were afraid or unsuccessful with initial use were encouraged by other group members to try different, non-threatening approaches to the negotiation of female condom use and given suggestions for overcoming difficulties with insertion and lubrication. Some of these strategies included laying the female condom on the bed so the male partner raises the subject of its use and telling the partner the doctor had recommended the method to avoid the negative side effects associated with the pill. When female condom use is presented as a form of pregnancy prevention, the association of condoms with infidelity is overcome.
Catanzarite, Julie A.; Robinson, Myles D.
Student peer educators have been used by higher education intuitions to influence the education and retention of college students for many years, and most institutions have some type of peer educator program. Newton and Ender (2010) broadly define the role of peer educators as "students who have been selected, trained, and designated by a…
Full Text Available In peer-to-peer (P2P overlay networks, a group of n (≥2 peer processes have to cooperate with each other. Each peer sends messages to every peer and receives messages from every peer in a group. In group communications, each message sent by a peer is required to be causally delivered to every peer. Most of the protocols designed to ensure causal message order are designed for networks with a plain architecture. These protocols can be adapted to use in free scale and hierarchical topologies; however, the amount of control information is O(n, where n is the number of peers in the system. Some protocols are designed for a free scale or hierarchical networks, but in general they force the whole system to accomplish the same order viewed by a super peer. In this paper, we present a protocol that is specifically designed to work with a free scale peer-to-peer network. By using the information about the network’s architecture and by representing message dependencies on a bit level, the proposed protocol ensures causal message ordering without enforcing super peers order. The designed protocol is simulated and compared with the Immediate Dependency Relation and the Dependency Sequences protocols to show its lower overhead.
Harakeh, Zeena; Vollebergh, Wilma A M
The aim of this experimental observational study is to examine whether, in a group setting (same-sex triads), passive peer influence (imitation) in the context of homogeneous and heterogeneous (contradictory) behavior of peer models affects young adults' smoking behavior. An experiment was conducted among 48 daily-smoking college and university students aged 17-25. Participants had to complete a 30-min music task with two same-sex confederates. We tested the following three conditions: (a) neither of the confederates is smoking, (b) one confederate is smoking and the other is not, and (c) both confederates are smoking. The primary outcome tested was the total number of cigarettes smoked during the task. Students in the condition with two smoking peer models and in the condition with one smoking peer model and one nonsmoking peer model smoked significantly more cigarettes than those in the condition with two nonsmoking peer models. However, results for the condition with two smoking peer models did not differ significantly from the condition with one smoking peer model and one nonsmoking peer model. Our findings show that in a group setting, the impact of the homogeneity of smoking peers on young adults' smoking behavior is not greater than the impact of the heterogeneity of smoking and nonsmoking peers. This would suggest that the smoking peer in the group has a greater impact on the daily-smoking young adult, thus reducing or even eliminating the protective effect of the nonsmoking peer model.
Jurado, Juan A.
Group projects have been shown to be effective for providing peer feedback in classrooms. While students in regular enrollment classes benefit from peer feedback, low-enrollment classes face many challenges. This study compares peer feedback effectiveness between two interior design studio classes with different design projects. In one class,…
The aim of the project was to evaluate a peer education programme in Zambia run by local people in relation to changes in behaviours, the effects of the programme on the community and the dynamics of peer health promotion. A qualitative process evaluation using focus groups consisting of both participants in the peer ...
Stant, A.D.; Castelein, S.; Bruggeman, R.; Busschbach, J.T.; van der Gaag, M.; Knegtering, H.; Wiersma, D.
Peer support groups are rarely available for patients with psychosis, despite potential clinical and economic advantages of such groups. In this study, 106 patients with psychosis were randomly allocated to minimally guided peer support in addition to care as usual (CAU), or CAU only. No relevant
Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine; Madsen, Lene Møller
In 2008 University of Aarhus, Denmark, issued a report concerning student experience with the study environment. Among the university's eight faculties, the Danish School of Education (DPU) held the sad record of having the lowest student well-being. This led to an action research project 'Facili...... on the students' own resources, using peer-learning and facilitating these activities....
Vollet, Justin W.; Kindermann, Thomas A.; Skinner, Ellen A.
This study focused on the joint effects of teachers and peer groups as predictors of change in students' engagement during the first year of middle school, when the importance of peer relationships normatively increases and the quality of teacher-student relationships typically declines. To explore cumulative and contextualized joint effects, the…
Abou-ezzeddine, Tania; Schwartz, David; Chang, Lei; Lee-Shin, Yoolim; Farver, JoAnn; Xu, Yiyuan
This study examined the moderating role of positive peer relationships in the relation between behavioral or academic risk factors and victimization in Asian children's peer groups. We recruited 296 children (161 boys, 135 girls) from Tianjin, China (mean age of 11.5 years) and 122 children (66 boys, 56 girls) from Seoul, South Korea (approximate…
Simons-Morton, Bruce G.; Farhat, Tilda
This review addresses peer group influences on adolescent smoking with a particular focus on recently published longitudinal studies that have investigated the topic. Specifically, we examine the theoretical explanations for how social influence works with respect to adolescent smoking; discuss the association between peer and adolescent smoking;…
Full Text Available Introduction: Menopause woman has higher depression level than pre and postmenopause woman. Many woman who are getting menopause will feel lonely and don’t have any friends to talk, if this situation continue it can cause menopausal depression. Peer group support is one of group therapy which gives opportunity to menopause woman to get mutual support and help them to face the problem. This aimed of this study was to analyze the effect of peer group support in the menopause woman depression level. Method: A quasy experimental pre-post test design was used in this study. There were 16 menopause women taken from Cepokomulyo Kepanjen. The independent variable was peer group support and the dependent variable was the depression level. Data were analyzed by Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test and Mann Whitney U Test with the significance level α<0.05. Result: Result showed that there was an effect of peer group support in the menopause woman depression level with significance level p=0.011 (treatment group and p=0.23 (controlled group and the result of Mann Whitney U Test showed that p=0.02. Discussion: It can be concluded that peer group support can reduce the menopause woman depression level. It can be suggested to the institutional to practice peer group support to help menopause woman reduce their depression level.
Chou, Calvin L; Teherani, Arianne; Masters, Dylan E; Vener, Margo; Wamsley, Maria; Poncelet, Ann
When medical students move from the classroom into clinical practice environments, their roles and learning challenges shift dramatically from a formal curricular approach to a workplace learning model. Continuity among peers during clinical clerkships may play an important role in this different mode of learning. We explored students' perceptions about how they achieved workplace learning in the context of intentionally formed or ad hoc peer groups. We invited students in clerkship program models with continuity (CMCs) and in traditional block clerkships (BCs) to complete a survey about peer relationships with open-ended questions based on a workplace learning framework, including themes of workplace-based relationships, the nature of work practices, and selection of tasks and activities. We conducted qualitative content analysis to characterize students' experiences. In both BCs and CMCs, peer groups provided rich resources, including anticipatory guidance about clinical expectations of students, best practices in interacting with patients and supervisors, helpful advice in transitioning between rotations, and information about implicit rules of clerkships. Students also used each other as benchmarks for gauging strengths and deficits in their own knowledge and skills. Students achieve many aspects of workplace learning in clerkships through formal or informal workplace-based peer groups. In these groups, peers provide accessible, real-time, and relevant resources to help each other navigate transitions, clarify roles and tasks, manage interpersonal challenges, and decrease isolation. Medical schools can support effective workplace learning for medical students by incorporating continuity with peers in the main clinical clerkship year.
Jaganath, Devan; Gill, Harkiran K; Cohen, Adam Carl; Young, Sean D
Novel methods, such as Internet-based interventions, are needed to combat the spread of HIV. While past initiatives have used the Internet to promote HIV prevention, the growing popularity, decreasing digital divide, and multi-functionality of social networking sites, such as Facebook, make this an ideal time to develop innovative ways to use online social networking sites to scale HIV prevention interventions among high-risk groups. The UCLA Harnessing Online Peer Education study is a longitudinal experimental study to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary effectiveness of using social media for peer-led HIV prevention, specifically among African American and Latino Men who have Sex with Men (MSM). No curriculum currently exists to train peer leaders in delivering culturally aware HIV prevention messages using social media. Training was created that adapted the Community Popular Opinion Leader (C-POL) model, for use on social networking sites. Peer leaders are recruited who represent the target population and have experience with both social media and community outreach. The curriculum contains the following elements: discussion and role playing exercises to integrate basic knowledge of HIV/AIDS, awareness of sociocultural HIV/AIDS issues in the age of technology, and communication methods for training peer leaders in effective, interactive social media-based HIV prevention. Ethical issues related to Facebook and health interventions are integrated throughout the sessions. Training outcomes have been developed for long-term assessment of retention and efficacy. This is the first C-POL curriculum that has been adapted for use on social networking websites. Although this curriculum has been used to target African-American and Latino MSM, it has been created to allow generalization to other high-risk groups.
Stuart, Jennifer; Fondacaro, Mark; Miller, Scott A.; Brown, Veda; Brank, Eve M.
The involvement of adolescents with deviant peer groups is one of the strongest proximal correlates to juvenile delinquency and stems from a variety of causes. Past research has linked ineffective parenting with peer variables, including deviant peer group involvement and peer conflict during adolescence. In this study, adolescents' appraisals of…
Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Rizzo, Michael T; Killen, Melanie
To investigate the social cognitive skills related to challenging gender stereotypes, children (N = 61, 3-6 years) evaluated a peer who challenged gender stereotypic norms held by the peer's group. Participants with false belief theory of mind (FB ToM) competence were more likely than participants who did not have FB ToM to expect a peer to challenge the group's stereotypes and propose that the group engage in a non-stereotypic activity. Further, participants with FB ToM rated challenging the peer group more positively. Participants without FB ToM did not differentiate between their own and the group's evaluation of challenges to the group's stereotypic norms, but those with ToM competence asserted that they would be more supportive of challenging the group norm than would the peer group. Results reveal the importance of social-cognitive competencies for recognizing the legitimacy of challenging stereotypes, and for understanding one's own and other group perspectives. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Delisle, Vanessa C; Gumuchian, Stephanie T; Kloda, Lorie A; Boruff, Jill; El-Baalbaki, Ghassan; K?rner, Annett; Malcarne, Vanessa L; Thombs, Brett D
Objective Peer facilitators play an important role in determining the success of many support groups for patients with medical illnesses. However, many facilitators do not receive training for their role and report a number of challenges in fulfilling their responsibilities. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the effects of training and support programmes for peer facilitators of support groups for people with medical illnesses on (1) the competency and self-efficacy of g...
Starling, Paulette V.; Baker, Stanley B.
Discusses a thematic analysis of retrospective phenomenological interviews with four group counseling practicum participants. Suggests the importance of peer feedback supports experimenting with different approaches to the group process. Recommends future research on the impact of group counseling practicum supervision be structured to allow…
Xie, Hongling; Shi, Bing
The Social Cognitive Mapping procedure was used to identify peer social groups in 26 fifth-grade classrooms from six elementary schools in a northeastern urban school district. Four group structural features were examined: size, the number of subcliques, cohesion, and salience hierarchy. Ethnic diversity index was calculated for each group. An…
Poteat, V. Paul
A social developmental framework was applied to test for the socialization of homophobic attitudes and behavior within adolescent peer groups (Grades 7-11; aged 12-17 years). Substantial similarity within and differences across groups were documented. Multilevel models identified a group socializing contextual effect, predicting homophobic…
Dumenco, Luba; Engle, Deborah L; Goodell, Kristen; Nagler, Alisa; Ovitsh, Robin K; Whicker, Shari A
After participating in a group peer-review exercise at a workshop presented by Academic Medicine and MedEdPORTAL editors at the 2015 Association of American Medical Colleges Medical Education Meeting, the authors realized that the way their work group reviewed a manuscript was very different from the way by which they each would have reviewed the paper as an individual. Further, the group peer-review process yielded more robust feedback for the manuscript's authors than did the traditional individual peer-review process. This realization motivated the authors to reconvene and collaborate to write this Commentary to share their experience and propose the expanded use of group peer review in medical education scholarship.The authors consider the benefits of a peer-review process for reviewers, including learning how to improve their own manuscripts. They suggest that the benefits of a team review model may be similar to those of teamwork and team-based learning in medicine and medical education. They call for research to investigate this, to provide evidence to support group review, and to determine whether specific paper types would benefit most from team review (e.g., particularly complex manuscripts, those receiving widely disparate initial individual reviews). In addition, the authors propose ways in which a team-based approach to peer review could be expanded by journals and institutions. They believe that exploring the use of group peer review potentially could create a new methodology for skill development in research and scholarly writing and could enhance the quality of medical education scholarship.
Ilakkuvan, Vinu; Snyder, Melanie G.; Wiggins, Jane
Students on a college campus are involved in each other's lives in ways that are pervasive and consequential, including during times of distress. A comprehensive campus based suicide prevention plan includes strategies to promote peer involvement that are both safe and effective. Careful program planning, careful training and careful messaging are…
La Greca, Annette M.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Mufson, Laura; Chan, Sherilynn
Background Social anxiety disorder (SAD) and depression are common among adolescents, frequently comorbid, and resistant to change. Prevention programs for adolescent SAD are scant, and depression prevention programs do not fully address peer-risk factors. One critical peer-risk factor for SAD and depression is peer victimization. We describe the development and initial evaluation of a transdiagnostic school-based preventive intervention for adolescents with elevated symptoms of social anxiety and/or depression and elevated peer victimization. We modified Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skills Training for depression, incorporating strategies for dealing with social anxiety and peer victimization. Objective Our open trial assessed the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary benefit of the modified program (called UTalk) for adolescents at risk for SAD or depression and who also reported peer victimization. Method Adolescents (N=14; 13–18 years; 79% girls; 86% Hispanic) were recruited and completed measures of peer victimization, social anxiety, and depression both pre- and post-intervention and provided ratings of treatment satisfaction. Independent evaluators (IEs) rated youths’ clinical severity. The intervention (3 individual and 10 group sessions) was conducted weekly during school. Results Regarding feasibility, 86% of the adolescents completed the intervention (M attendance=11.58 sessions). Satisfaction ratings were uniformly positive. Intention-to-treat analyses revealed significant declines in adolescent- and IE-rated social anxiety and depression and in reports of peer victimization. Additional secondary benefits were observed. Conclusions Although further evaluation is needed, the UTalk intervention appears feasible to administer in schools, with high satisfaction and preliminary benefit. Implications for research on the prevention of adolescent SAD and depression are discussed. PMID:27857509
La Greca, Annette M; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Mufson, Laura; Chan, Sherilynn
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) and depression are common among adolescents, frequently comorbid, and resistant to change. Prevention programs for adolescent SAD are scant, and depression prevention programs do not fully address peer-risk factors. One critical peer-risk factor for SAD and depression is peer victimization. We describe the development and initial evaluation of a transdiagnostic school-based preventive intervention for adolescents with elevated symptoms of social anxiety and/or depression and elevated peer victimization. We modified Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skills Training for depression, incorporating strategies for dealing with social anxiety and peer victimization. Our open trial assessed the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary benefit of the modified program (called UTalk) for adolescents at risk for SAD or depression and who also reported peer victimization. Adolescents (N=14; 13-18 years; 79% girls; 86% Hispanic) were recruited and completed measures of peer victimization, social anxiety, and depression both pre- and post-intervention and provided ratings of treatment satisfaction. Independent evaluators (IEs) rated youths' clinical severity. The intervention (3 individual and 10 group sessions) was conducted weekly during school. Regarding feasibility, 86% of the adolescents completed the intervention ( M attendance=11.58 sessions). Satisfaction ratings were uniformly positive. Intention-to-treat analyses revealed significant declines in adolescent- and IE-rated social anxiety and depression and in reports of peer victimization. Additional secondary benefits were observed. Although further evaluation is needed, the UTalk intervention appears feasible to administer in schools, with high satisfaction and preliminary benefit. Implications for research on the prevention of adolescent SAD and depression are discussed.
Shi, Bing; Xie, Hongling
The influence of high-status peers on a target individual's physical and manipulative social aggression in peer groups was examined in a diverse sample of seventh-grade students. A total of 245 individual members belonging to 65 groups were included in analyses. Aggression was assessed by peer and victim nominations in the fall and spring…
Lotrean, L. M.; Dijk, F.; Mesters, I.; Ionut, C.; De Vries, H.
The goal of this study was to assess the effects of a school-based smoking prevention programme that used both a video and peer-led discussion groups among Romanian junior high school students aged 13-14 years. The programme embraced the social influence approach and concentrated on enhancing self-efficacy and the acquisition of cigarette refusal…
Recommendations were made to change the system in order to eliminate the negative aspects and after careful consideration and programme changes, implemented in 2001. It therefore became necessary to evaluate the revised system of peer group supervision and guidance for effectiveness. A qualitative, descriptive ...
Although research has investigated laughter in professional communication settings, fewer studies have explored laughter-talk in second language (L2) classrooms. This study examines L2 university students' use of laughter-talk in peer group conversation to understand the linguistics of affect and its interactional effects. The author draws upon…
The main purpose of this dissertation was to relate a study within the framework of Peer Student Group Research to the basic Process-Product Paradigm for Research on Teaching. Information about previous research within this field was given in the chapter on background. A total of 287 peer students at the Department of Education, Umeå University and at the teacher training colleges at Umeå and Luleå participated in this study. Thirty-one students worked individually and constituted a control g...
Full Text Available Introduction: Homeless and beggar are social problem in our society. The reason of people who becomes homeless and beggar can be influenced by internal factors such as lazy to work, mental and physical illness. Meanwhile, it also can be influenced by external factors, such as economy, geography, social, education, pshycology, culture and religion. The aimed of this study was to analyze the effect of peer group support to perception about the homeless and beggar. Method: A quasy experimental two group pre-post test purposive sampling design was used in this study. The subjects were homeless and beggar which stay at Lingkungan Pondok Sosial (Liponsos Keputih-Surabaya for at least three day. There were 16 respondent who met to the inclusion criteria which divided into two group (controlled and treatment. Data were analyzed by using Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test and Mann Whitney U Test with significance level α≤0.05. Result: The result showed that controlled group has significance level p=0.109 and treatment group has significance level p=0.017, statistically by using Mann Whitney U Test showed p=0.021. Discussion: It can be concluded that peer group support can change the perception about the homeless and beggar who stayed at Liponsos Surabaya. Peer group support can used continuously as social activity at Liponsos.
Shin, Sung Rae; Oh, Pok Ja; Youn, Hye Kyung; Shin, Sun Hwa
The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a school-based peer leader centered smoking prevention program. Non-equivalent control group with a pre/post-test design was used. Students (n=174) in two boys' junior high schools located in D city, Korea participated with 85 being selected for the experimental group and 89 for the control group. Five sessions were given to the experimental group and a 50 minute lecture to the control group. Knowledge, attitude, non-smoking intention, and non-smoking efficacy were measured for the both experimental and control group at two weeks before the program and one month after the program was completed. Data were analyzed using χ²-test, Fisher's exact test, independent t-test and paired t-test with the SPSS 21.0 program. The experimental group showed higher overall knowledge, negative attitude toward smoking, and higher non-smoking intention and efficacy. After receiving the school based peer leader centered smoking prevention program scores for attitude toward smoking and non-smoking efficacy increased in the experimental group were higher than in the control group. The school-based peer leader centered smoking prevention program needs longitudinal evaluation, but from this study, there is an indication that this program can be used with junior high school students and effectively change students' attitude toward smoking and promote non-smoking efficacy.
Full Text Available Kathlene Tracy,1,2 Samantha P Wallace3 1Community Research and Recovery Program (CRRP, Department of Psychiatry, New York University School of Medicine, 2New York Harbor Healthcare System (NYHHS, New York, 3Department of Community Health Sciences, State University of New York Downstate School of Public Health, Brooklyn, NY, USA Objective: Peer support can be defined as the process of giving and receiving nonprofessional, nonclinical assistance from individuals with similar conditions or circumstances to achieve long-term recovery from psychiatric, alcohol, and/or other drug-related problems. Recently, there has been a dramatic rise in the adoption of alternative forms of peer support services to assist recovery from substance use disorders; however, often peer support has not been separated out as a formalized intervention component and rigorously empirically tested, making it difficult to determine its effects. This article reports the results of a literature review that was undertaken to assess the effects of peer support groups, one aspect of peer support services, in the treatment of addiction.Methods: The authors of this article searched electronic databases of relevant peer-reviewed research literature including PubMed and MedLINE.Results: Ten studies met our minimum inclusion criteria, including randomized controlled trials or pre-/post-data studies, adult participants, inclusion of group format, substance use-related, and US-conducted studies published in 1999 or later. Studies demonstrated associated benefits in the following areas: 1 substance use, 2 treatment engagement, 3 human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis C virus risk behaviors, and 4 secondary substance-related behaviors such as craving and self-efficacy. Limitations were noted on the relative lack of rigorously tested empirical studies within the literature and inability to disentangle the effects of the group treatment that is often included as a component of other services
Golonka, Megan M; Peairs, Kristen F; Malone, Patrick S; Grimes, Christina L; Costanzo, Philip R
In adolescent social groups, natural peer leaders have been found to engage in more frequent experimentation with substance use and to possess disproportionate power to affect the behavior and social choices of their associated peer followers. In the current exploratory study, we used sociometrics and social cognitive mapping to identify natural leaders of cliques in a seventh grade population and invited the leaders to develop anti-drug presentations for an audience of younger peers. The program employed social-psychological approaches directed at having leaders proceed from extrinsic inducements to intrinsic identification with their persuasive products in the context of the group intervention process. The goals of the intervention were to induce substance resistant self-persuasion in the leaders and to produce a spread of this resistance effect to their peer followers. To test the intervention, we compared the substance use behaviors of the selected leaders and their peers to a control cohort. The study found preliminary support that the intervention produced changes in the substance use behavior among the leaders who participated in the intervention, but did not detect a spread to non-leader peers in the short term. This descriptive study speaks to the plausibility of employing self-persuasion paradigms to bring about change in high-risk behaviors among highly central adolescents. In addition, it highlights the viability of applying social psychological principles to prevention work and calls for more research in this area.
Full Text Available This paper deals with net based examination,tutoring and scaffolding of groups of different sizes: Firstfor very small groups, then for normal sized groups around100 students and finally for very large groups. The threedifferent methods can be applied to internationally basedcourses. Methods which support deep learning throughtutoring, scaffolding, project work and peer learning arealso mentioned.
Delisle, Vanessa C; Gumuchian, Stephanie T; Kloda, Lorie A; Boruff, Jill; El-Baalbaki, Ghassan; Körner, Annett; Malcarne, Vanessa L; Thombs, Brett D
Peer facilitators play an important role in determining the success of many support groups for patients with medical illnesses. However, many facilitators do not receive training for their role and report a number of challenges in fulfilling their responsibilities. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the effects of training and support programmes for peer facilitators of support groups for people with medical illnesses on (1) the competency and self-efficacy of group facilitators and (2) self-efficacy for disease management, health outcomes and satisfaction with support groups among group members. Searches included the CENTRAL, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Web of Science databases from inception through 8 April 2016; reference list reviews; citation tracking of included articles; and trial registry reviews. Eligible studies were randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in any language that evaluated the effects of training programmes for peer facilitators compared with no training or alternative training formats on (1) competency or self-efficacy of peer facilitators, and (2) self-efficacy for disease management, health outcomes and satisfaction with groups of group members. The Cochrane Risk of Bias tool was used to assess risk of bias. There were 9757 unique titles/abstracts and 2 full-text publications reviewed. 1 RCT met inclusion criteria. The study evaluated the confidence and self-efficacy of cancer support group facilitators randomised to 4 months access to a website and discussion forum (N=23; low resource) versus website, discussion forum and 2-day training workshop (N=29). There were no significant differences in facilitator confidence (Hedges' g=0.16, 95% CI -0.39 to 0.71) or self-efficacy (Hedges' g=0.31, 95% CI -0.24 to 0.86). Risk of bias was unclear or high for 4 of 6 domains. Well-designed and well-conducted, adequately powered trials of peer support group facilitator training programmes for patients with medical illnesses
Liamputtong, Pranee; Koh, Lee; Wollersheim, Dennis; Walker, Rae
In this article, we discuss qualitative findings basing on the experiences of refugee women living in Melbourne, Australia, who participated in a peer support training programme and received a free mobile phone. We pay attention to social support as a health enhancing strategy and empowerment that occurred among the participants. Participation in peer support groups and access to a mobile phone were beneficial for the women. Peer support functioned as social support among group members. The programme allowed the women to be connected to their families and the wider communities and assisted them to access health care and other settlement aspects with greater ease. It also increased personal empowerment among the women. Our programme shows that by tapping on community resources to ameliorate personal or resettlement issues, the burden on service providers can be reduced. Our findings also offer a model for future research and programmes regarding refugee people elsewhere. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
La Greca, Annette M.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Mufson, Laura; Chan, Sherilynn
Background: Social anxiety disorder (SAD) and depression are common among adolescents, frequently comorbid, and resistant to change. Prevention programs for adolescent SAD are scant, and depression prevention programs do not fully address peer-risk factors. One critical peer-risk factor for SAD and depression is peer victimization. We describe the…
Kiuru, Noona; Burk, William J; Laursen, Brett; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
This paper examined the relative influence of selection and socialization on alcohol and tobacco use in adolescent peer networks and peer groups. The sample included 1419 Finnish secondary education students (690 males and 729 females, mean age 16 years at the outset) from nine schools. Participants identified three school friends and described their alcohol and tobacco use on two occasions one year apart. Actor-based models simultaneously examined changes in peer network ties and changes in individual behaviors for all participants within each school. Multi-level analyses examined changes in individual behaviors for adolescents entering new peer groups and adolescents in stable peer groups, both of which were embedded within the school-based peer networks. Similar results emerged from both analytic methods: Selection and socialization contributed to similarity of alcohol use, but only selection was a factor in tobacco use. Copyright © 2010 The Association for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hitti, Aline; Killen, Melanie
This study investigated three factors that contribute to social exclusion: group norms, individual characteristics, and stereotypes. Non-Arab American 12- and 16-year-olds (N = 199) judged their expectations about the inclusivity of Arab American and non-Arab American peer groups toward new peers characterized by: (a) different ethnic identity but similar interests (e.g., hobbies) and (b) same ethnic identity but different interests. Participants expected that when groups had exclusive norms, Arab American peers would base inclusion decisions on ethnic identity, but that their own non-Arab group would base decisions on shared interests. Participants who reported stereotypes expected their in-group to be ethnically less inclusive. With age, ethnic-based exclusion increased. The findings are discussed in light of current research on developmental intergroup relationships. © 2015 The Authors. Child Development © 2015 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Fisher, Edwin B; Ayala, Guadalupe X; Ibarra, Leticia; Cherrington, Andrea L; Elder, John P; Tang, Tricia S; Heisler, Michele; Safford, Monika M; Simmons, David
SUBSTANTIAL: evidence documents the benefits of peer support provided by community health workers, lay health advisors, promotores de salud, and others. The papers in this supplement, all supported by the Peers for Progress program of the American Academy of Family Physicians Foundation, contribute to the growing body of literature addressing the efficacy, effectiveness, feasibility, reach, sustainability, and adoption of peer support for diabetes self-management. They and additional papers supported by Peers for Progress contribute to understanding how peer support can be implemented in real world settings. Topics include examination of the peers who provide peer support, reaching the hardly reached, success factors in peer support interventions, proactive approaches, attention to emotions, peer support in behavioral health, dissemination models and their application in China, peer support in the patient-centered medical home, research challenges, and policy implications. © 2015 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.
Khong, Linda A M; Berlach, Richard G; Hill, Keith D; Hill, Anne-Marie
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of delivering a contemporary peer-led falls prevention education presentation on community-dwelling older adults' beliefs, knowledge, motivation and intention to engage in falls prevention strategies. A two-group quasi-experimental pre-test-post-test study using a convenience sample was conducted. A new falls prevention training package for peer educators was developed, drawing on contemporary adult learning and behaviour change principles. A 1-h presentation was delivered to community-dwelling older adults by peer educators trained with the new package (intervention group). Control group participants received an existing, 1-h falls prevention presentation by trained peer educators who had not received the adult learning and behaviour change training. Participants in both groups completed a purpose-developed questionnaire at pre-presentation, immediately post-presentation and at one-month follow-up. Participants' levels of beliefs, knowledge, motivation and intention were compared across these three points of time. Generalised estimating equations models examined associations in the quantitative data, while deductive content analysis was used for qualitative data. Participants (control n = 99; intervention n = 133) in both groups showed significantly increased levels of beliefs and knowledge about falls prevention, and intention to engage in falls prevention strategies over time compared to baseline. The intervention group was significantly more likely to report a clear action plan to undertake falls prevention strategies compared to the control group. Peer-led falls prevention education is an effective approach for raising older adults' beliefs, knowledge and intention to engage in falls prevention strategies.
Duarte, Rosa; Escario, Jose-Julian; Molina, Jose-Alberto
The aim of this paper is to explore the influence of peer behaviour on student marijuana consumption. Our hypothesis is that, in contrast to the traditional measures of peer group effects carried out at class or school level, the use of a closer peer group, which we relate to the group of friends, is more relevant in the explanation of marijuana…
Ellis, Wendy E.; Chung-Hall, Janet; Dumas, Tara M.
Past research has shown that adolescent peer groups make a significant contribution to shaping behavior but less is known about the role of peer groups in adolescent dating relationships. This longitudinal study examined the contribution of aggressive peer group norms on relationship quality and dating violence among dating adolescents. At the…
Ledetra Shanta Bridges
Full Text Available Background: Suicide rates are high among African American students because they are at greater risk of depression. A commonly used suicide prevention approach is the gatekeeper training. However, gatekeeper training is neither evidence-based nor has it been identified as culturally-appropriate for African American college students. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate an online peer-to-peer PRECEDE-PROCEED model based depression awareness and suicide prevention program that was culturally appropriate for African American college students.Methods: The setting was a predominantly Black institution in southern USA. A pre-experimental repeated measures one group design was used to measure changes in peer educators’ (n = 29predisposing factors regarding knowledge, skills and attitudes pertaining to depression,reinforcing factors or receiving support from peers, healthcare professionals and teachers to help someone with depression, enabling factors or sureness of finding organizations to help someone with depression, and behavior for helping someone with depression at pretest, Protestant 1-month follow-up. A post test only one group design was also used to measure effect on predisposing factors and behavior of students (n = 300 trained by peer educators.Results: There were statistically significant improvements in attitudes related to depression as disease (P = 0.003; η2 = 0.39, attitudes about managing depression (P = 0.0001; η2 = 0.30, skills(P = 0.0001; η2 = 0.41, reinforcing factors (P = 0.018; η2 = 0.13, enabling factors (P = 0.0001;η2 = 0.31, and behavior (P = 0.016; η2 = 0.14. Changes in knowledge about depression and attitudes about helping people with depression were not statistically significant over time for peer educators. The peer-to-peer training was not completely effective in transferring corresponding changes for students trained by peers.Conclusion: The program was effective for peer educators but
Kiuru, Noona; Burk, William J.; Laursen, Brett; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
This paper examined the relative influence of selection and socialization on alcohol and tobacco use in adolescent peer networks and peer groups. The sample included 1419 Finnish secondary education students (690 males and 729 females, mean age 16 years at the outset) from nine schools. Participants identified three school friends and described…
Kiuru, N.; Burk, W.J.; Laursen, B.; Salmela-Aro, K.; Nurmi, J.E.
This paper examined the relative influence of selection and socialization on alcohol and tobacco use in adolescent peer networks and peer groups. The sample included 1419 Finnish secondary education students (690 males and 729 females, mean age 16 years at the outset) from nine schools. Participants
Mason-Jones, Amanda J.; Flisher, Alan J.; Mathews, Catherine
Characteristics of learners who become peer educators are rarely explored despite the potential relevance to the success of peer education programmes. Fifteen high schools selected to implement peer education HIV prevention programmes in South Africa were recruited. A total of 2339 Grade 10 learners were surveyed and comparisons were made between…
Pokhrel, Pallav; Sussman, Steven; Black, David; Sun, Ping
Adolescent peer group self-identification refers to adolescents' affiliation with reputation-based peer groups such as "Goths" or "Jocks." These groups tend to vary on normative characteristics, including the group members' attitudes and behaviors. This article examined whether adolescents' baseline peer group self-identification predicted their self-reported relational and physical aggression 1 year later. Self-report data were collected from 1614 students from 9 regular and 9 continuation (alternative) high schools in Southern California, at baseline and 1-year follow-up. Subjects' mean baseline age was 15.21 years (SD = 1.18) and 51.6% of the subjects were female. Findings indicated that compared with self-identified "Regular" or "Normal" students, adolescents who identified with high-risk peer groups (eg, "Druggies,"Goths") tended to report higher relational and physical aggression 1 year later, controlling for baseline aggression and demographic variables. In addition, adolescents' self-identification with high-status peer groups (eg, "Jocks,"Populars") was predictive of higher relational aggression 1 year later. Gender and school type (ie, regular vs continuation) were not found to moderate these effects. It appears that peer group self-identification is a salient predictor of physical and relational aggression across gender and school type. Adolescents who identify with high-risk peer groups tend to report higher levels of physical as well as relational aggression in the future. In addition, adolescents who affiliate with elite groups tend to become more relationally aggressive over time. School-based prevention programs targeting aggression may benefit from addressing the impacts of peer group self-identification on adolescents' aggressive behavior.
... INITIATIVE COMPETITIVE GRANTS PROGRAM Scientific Peer Review of Research Grant Applications § 3411.10 Establishment and operation of peer review groups. Subject to § 3411.5, the Administrator shall adopt procedures... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishment and operation of peer review groups...
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... ASSESSMENT RESEARCH GRANTS PROGRAM Scientific Peer Review of Research Grant Applications § 3415.10 Establishment and operation of peer review groups. Subject to § 3415.5, the Administrator shall adopt procedures... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishment and operation of peer review groups...
... GRANTS SCIENTIFIC PEER REVIEW OF RESEARCH GRANT APPLICATIONS AND RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACT PROJECTS § 52h.3 Establishment and operation of peer review groups. (a) To the extent applicable, the... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Establishment and operation of peer review groups...
... GRANTS PROGRAM Scientific Peer Review of Research Grant Applications § 3400.10 Establishment and operation of peer review groups. Subject to § 3400.5, the Administrator will adopt procedures for the... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishment and operation of peer review groups...
Cantinotti, Michael; Désormeaux-Moreau, Marjorie; Balbinotti, Marcos
Students in psychology generally have difficulties to successfully accomplish mandatory courses in statistics. Group peer-tutoring is a pedagogical strategy to support them with a peer that has already successfully mastered the content of such a course. In order to specifically tailor group peer-tutoring to the needs of students and to sustain…
Kendler, Kenneth S; Jacobson, Kristen C; Gardner, Charles O; Gillespie, Nathan; Aggen, Steven A; Prescott, Carol A
Peer-group deviance is strongly associated with externalizing behaviors. We have limited knowledge of the sources of individual differences in peer-group deviance. To clarify genetic and environmental contributions to peer-group deviance in twins from midchildhood through early adulthood. Retrospective assessments using a life-history calendar. Analysis by biometric growth curves. General community. Members of male-male pairs from the population-based Virginia Twin Registry personally interviewed in 1998-2004 (n = 1802). Self-reported peer-group deviance at ages 8 to 11, 12 to 14, 15 to 17, 18 to 21, and 22 to 25 years. Mean and variance of peer-group deviance increased substantially with age. Genetic effects on peer-group deviance showed a strong and steady increase over time. Family environment generally declined in importance over time. Individual-specific environmental influences on peer-group deviance levels were stable in the first 3 age periods and then increased as most twins left home. When standardized, the heritability of peer-group deviance is approximately 30% at ages 8 to 11 years and rises to approximately 50% across the last 3 time periods. Both genes and shared environment contributed to individual differences in the developmental trajectory of peer-group deviance. However, while the correlation between childhood peer-group deviance levels and the subsequent slope of peer-group deviance over time resulting from genetic factors was positive, the same relationship resulting from shared environmental factors was negative. As male twins mature and create their own social worlds, genetic factors play an increasingly important role in their choice of peers, while shared environment becomes less influential. The individual-specific environment increases in importance when individuals leave home. Individuals who have deviant peers in childhood, as a result of genetic vs shared environmental influences, have distinct developmental trajectories
Liu, Qin; Liu, Liping; Vu, Huyen; Liu, Xiaoxue; Tang, Shenglan; Wang, Hong
The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of tuberculosis (TB) education through a comparison of peer-led and teacher-led methods of education about TB prevention among middle school students in rural Chongqing, China. A preintervention and postintervention questionnaire survey was conducted in 2 different middle school student groups to measure changes in knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) status of those students before and after each TB education program. Of 1265 students participating in the preintervention survey, 1176 completed the postintervention survey. KAP scores of both peer-led and teacher-led groups after intervention improved by as much as 2 times compared with before the intervention and those of the control group (P led education group (P led group had a larger improvement than the peer-led group in practice scores (P < .01) in immediate effect evaluation. © 2013 APJPH.
Peer tutor-led small group sessions are a valuable learning strategy but students may lack confidence in the absence of a content expert. This study examined whether faculty reinforcement of peer tutor-led small group content was beneficial. Two peer tutor-led small group sessions were compared with one faculty-led small group session using questionnaires sent to student participants and interviews with the peer tutors. One peer tutor-led session was followed by a lecture with revision of the small group content; after the second, students submitted a group report which was corrected and returned to them with comments. Student participants and peer tutors identified increased discussion and opportunity for personal reflection as major benefits of the peer tutor-led small group sessions, but students did express uncertainty about gaps in their learning following these sessions. Both methods of subsequent faculty reinforcement were perceived as valuable by student participants and peer tutors. Knowing in advance that the group report would be corrected reduced discussion in some groups, potentially negating one of the major benefits of the peer tutor-led sessions. Faculty reinforcement of peer-tutor led small group content benefits students but close attention should be paid to the method of reinforcement.
Full Text Available In recent years, the complex network as the frontier of complex system has received more and more attention. Peer-to-peer (P2P networks with openness, anonymity, and dynamic nature are vulnerable and are easily attacked by peers with malicious behaviors. Building trusted relationships among peers in a large-scale distributed P2P system is a fundamental and challenging research topic. Based on interpersonal relationships among peers of large-scale P2P networks, we present prevention and trust evaluation scheme, called IRTrust. The framework incorporates a strategy of identity authentication and a global trust of peers to improve the ability of resisting the malicious behaviors. It uses the quality of service (QoS, quality of recommendation (QoR, and comprehensive risk factor to evaluate the trustworthiness of a peer, which is applicable for large-scale unstructured P2P networks. The proposed IRTrust can defend against several kinds of malicious attacks, such as simple malicious attacks, collusive attacks, strategic attacks, and sybil attacks. Our simulation results show that the proposed scheme provides greater accuracy and stronger resistance compared with existing global trust schemes. The proposed scheme has potential application in secure P2P network coding.
Magnisalis, Ioannis; Demetriadis, Stavros; Papadopoulos, Pantelis M.
Research on the impact of peer rating (PR) has provided encouraging results, as a method to foster collaborative learning and improve its outcomes. The scope of this paper is to discuss peer rating towards two specific directions that usually are neglected in the CSCL field, namely: (a) coaching ...... as off-line expert/teacher rating, with indications that this process can foster collaboration....
Shi, Bing; Xie, Hongling
We explored the effects of 3 group features (i.e., status, cohesion, and ethnic composition) on socialization processes of aggression in early adolescents' natural peer social groups. Gender differences in these effects were also determined. A total of 245 seventh-grade individuals belonging to 65 peer groups were included in the analyses. All 3…
Vapirev, E.; Georgiev, J.; Sabinov, S.
The objective of the Atomic Questions Group (AQG) peer review mission (17-19 Nov 2003) was to monitor the status of the recommendations contained in the 2001 Report on Nuclear Safety in the Context of Enlargement focusing specifically those recommendations identified in the 2002 Peer Review Status Report as requiring further attention or monitoring. Most AQG/WPNS 2001 recommendations were found as adequately addressed with the exception of the following to which Bulgaria was expected to devote further attention: 2nd General Recommendation NPP type I regarding Safety Analysis Reports (SARs); 1st Specific Recommendation NPP type I regarding the new nuclear legislation; 1st General Recommendation Other Nuclear Installations type II regarding the storage of radioactive waste. In addition WPNS recommended further monitoring of the following commitments: 1st General Recommendation NPP type I regarding the plant specific safety improvement programmes - to ensure that the programmes are completed in accordance with the plans; 2nd General Recommendation NPP type I regarding Safety Analysis Reports (SARs) - to ensure that the SARs are completed in accordance with the plans; 2nd General Recommendation NPP type I regarding Emergency Operating Procedures (EOPs) - to ensure the completion of work on EOPs in accordance with the plans and so that these provide for the development of appropriate guidance on the management of beyond design basis accidents; 2nd Specific Recommendation NPP type I regarding the resources of the regulator - to ensure that adequate human and financial resources will be provided according to the developed plan; 5th Specific Recommendation NPP type I regarding the implementation of specific upgrading improvements at Kozloduy units 3 and 4- to specifically follow these items during the monitoring associated with 1st General recommendation NPP type I, Upgrading programme; 6th Specific Recommendation NPP type I regarding high-energy pipe breaks at Kozloduy
Bell, Sarah L; Audrey, Suzanne; Cooper, Ashley R; Noble, Sian; Campbell, Rona
Obesity in young people is a major public health concern. Energy balance, the interrelationship between diet and physical activity, is known to be a key determinant. Evidence supports the development of school-based approaches to obesity prevention. ASSIST (A Stop Smoking in Schools Trial) is an effective school-based, peer-led smoking prevention programme for 12-13-year-old students, based on diffusion of innovations theory. The AHEAD (Activity and Healthy Eating in ADolescence) study tested the feasibility of adapting ASSIST to an obesity prevention intervention. The AHEAD intervention was tested and refined during a pilot study in one school, followed by an exploratory trial in six schools. Quantitative (self-report behavioural questionnaires and evaluation forms) and qualitative (structured observations, focus groups and interviews) research methods were used to examine the implementation and acceptability of the intervention. The potential effectiveness of the intervention in increasing healthy eating was measured using self-report behavioural questionnaires. Activity monitors (accelerometers) were used to measure physical activity. Results show it was feasible to implement the AHEAD intervention, which was well received. However, implementation was resource and labour intensive and relatively expensive. Furthermore, there was no evidence of promise that the intervention would increase physical activity or healthy eating in adolescents. Although diet and physical activity are both relevant for obesity prevention, the focus on two behaviours appeared too complex for informal diffusion through peer networks. This identifies a tension, particularly for adolescent peer-led health promotion, between the desire not to isolate or oversimplify health behaviours and the need to present clear, succinct health promotion messages. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press.
Brenick, Alaina; Romano, Kelly
Cultural group identity and group norms are significantly related to social exclusion evaluations (Bennett, ). This study examined 241 Jewish-American mid (M = 14.18 years, SD = 0.42) to late (M = 17.21 years, SD = 0.43; MageTOTAL = 15.54 years, SD = 1.57) adolescents' cultural identities and contextually salient perceived group norms in relation to their evaluations of Arab-American inclusion and exclusion across two contexts (peers vs. family at home). Results suggest that perceived group norms are related to the context in which they are applied: parents in the home and peers in the peer context. Peers remained a significant source of perceived group norms in the home context. Significant interactions emerged between perceived parent group norms and cultural identity. Findings highlight the need to address group-specific norms by context to ensure maximum effectiveness for intergroup interventions. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Fisher, Edwin B; Coufal, Muchieh Maggy; Parada, Humberto; Robinette, Jennifer B; Tang, Patrick Y; Urlaub, Diana M; Castillo, Claudia; Guzman-Corrales, Laura M; Hino, Sayaka; Hunter, Jaimie; Katz, Ariana W; Symes, Yael R; Worley, Heidi P; Xu, Cuirong
As reviewed in the article by Perry and colleagues (2014) in this volume, ample evidence has documented the contributions of peer support (PS) to health, health care, and prevention. Building on that foundation, this article discusses characteristics, contexts, and dissemination of PS, including (a) fundamental aspects of the social support that is often central to it; (b) cultural influences and ways PS can be tailored to specific groups; (c) key features of PS and the importance of ongoing support and backup of peer supporters and other factors related to its success; (d) directions in which PS can be expanded beyond prevention and chronic disease management, such as in mental health or interventions to prevent rehospitalization; (e) other opportunities through the US Affordable Care Act, such as through patient-centered medical homes and chronic health homes; and (f) organizational and policy issues that will govern its dissemination. All these demonstrate the extent to which PS needs to reflect its contexts--intended audience, health problems, organizational and cultural settings--and, thus, the importance of dissemination policies that lead to flexible response to contexts rather than constraint by overly prescriptive guidelines.
Athletes can be involved as role models and leaders--in collaboration with coaches and other staff--to enhance life skills and prevent substance use among their peers. "Drugs in Sport" is a peer education program involving collegiate athletes visiting middle schools to speak with school children. This article discusses the structure of the Drugs…
Crittenden, Kathleen S; Kaponda, Chrissie P N; Jere, Diana L; McCreary, Linda L; Norr, Kathleen F
This paper examines whether a peer group intervention that reduced self-reported risky behaviors for rural adults in Malawi also had impacts on non-participants in the same communities. We randomly assigned two districts to the intervention and control conditions, and conducted surveys at baseline and 18 months post-intervention using unmatched independent random samples of intervention and control communities in 2003-2006. The six-session peer group intervention was offered to same-gender groups by trained volunteers. In this analysis, we divided the post-intervention sample into three exposure groups: 243 participants and 170 non-participants from the intervention district (total n = 415) and 413 control individuals. Controlling for demographics and participation, there were significant favorable diffusion effects on five partially overlapping behavioral outcomes: partner communication, ever used condoms, unprotected sex, recent HIV test, and a community HIV prevention index. Non-participants in the intervention district had more favorable outcomes on these behaviors than survey respondents in the control district. One behavioral outcome, community HIV prevention, showed both participation and diffusion effects. Participating in the intervention had a significant effect on six psychosocial outcomes: HIV knowledge (two measures), hope, condom attitudes, and self-efficacy for community HIV prevention and for safer sex; there were no diffusion effects. This pattern of results suggests that the behavioral changes promoted in the intervention spread to others in the same community, most likely through direct contact between participants and non-participants. These findings support the idea that diffusion of HIV-related behavior changes can occur for peer group interventions in communities, adding to the body of research supporting diffusion of innovations theory as a robust approach to accelerating change. If diffusion occurs, peer group intervention may be more
Poteat, V. Paul; Mereish, Ethan H.; Birkett, Michelle
Social development theories highlight the centrality of peer groups during adolescence and their role in socializing attitudes and behaviors. In this longitudinal study, we tested the effects of group-level prejudice on ensuing positive and negative interpersonal interactions among peers over a 7-month period. We used social network analysis to…
Amoco-US Environmental Protection Agency, pollution prevention project, Yorktown, Virginia: Project peer review. Report of the Peer Review Committee of the Amoco/EPA Pollution Prevention Project at the Yorktown, Virginia refinery
Klee, H.; Podar, M.
The Amoco/EPA Pollution Prevention Project involved a number of representatives from federal and Virginia regulatory agencies, and Amoco's refining business. Participants believed that the Project could benefit from a broader perspective than these organizations along might provide. The Project Work Group selected an independent Peer Review Process which was conducted by Resource for the Future (RFF), a Washington DC think tank. A group of technical, policy and environmental experts from diverse backgrounds served as Peer Review members. The Peer Review Committee met on three occasions to discuss (1) the Project Work Plan (2) sampling data and interpretation and (3) project conclusions and recommendations. The focus of the meeting was on the general scope and content of the project
Wallien, M.S.C.; Veenstra, R.; Kreukels, B.P.C.; Cohen-Kettenis, P.T.
In this sociometric study, we aimed to investigate the social position of gender-referred children in a naturalistic environment. We used a peer nomination technique to examine their social position in the class and we specifically examined bullying and victimization of gender dysphoric children. A
Peters, Ingrid A.; Schölmerich, Vera L. N.; van Veen, Daniëlle W.; Steegers, Eric A. P.; Denktas, Semiha
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to study the characteristics of the participants and the success of the recruitment methods and increase in knowledge of participants in reproductive health peer education. Dutch perinatal mortality rates are relatively high compared to other European countries. Non-Western ethnic minorities show particularly…
Capuano, Nicola; Loia, Vincenzo; Orciuoli, Francesco
Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) are becoming an increasingly popular choice for education but, to reach their full extent, they require the resolution of new issues like assessing students at scale. A feasible approach to tackle this problem is peer assessment, in which students also play the role of assessor for assignments submitted by…
The aim was firstly to determine if peers and parents had a different impact on the personality development of the adolescent. A second aim was to determine if gender played a role in this regard. An empirical investigation was carried out involving 98 learners from Grades 8 to 11 (53 boys and 55 girls). The respondents ...
Kench, Peter L.; Field, Nikki; Agudera, Maila; Gill, Margo
Group work has many benefits for a student's professional development but it is difficult to determine the individual contributions to the group assessment tasks. Peer assessment of an individual's contribution to group work can be used to encourage student participation. It is important that the method of peer assessment is fair and that the students' submissions be treated confidentially. A model for peer assessment of individual contributions to the group assessment is described. Students who did not participate adequately in the group were penalised resulting in a reduced individual grade. Perceptions of the peer assessment method are reported for students enrolled (n = 169) in the subject 'Medical Radiations Project'. The questionnaire showed a positive student response towards the peer assessment model.
Khong, Linda; Farringdon, Fiona; Hill, Keith D; Hill, Anne-Marie
Falls are common in older people. Despite strong evidence for effective falls prevention strategies, there appears to be limited translation of these strategies from research to clinical practice. Use of peers in delivering falls prevention education messages has been proposed to improve uptake of falls prevention strategies and facilitate translation to practice. Volunteer peer educators often deliver educational presentations on falls prevention to community-dwelling older adults. However, research evaluating the effectiveness of peer-led education approaches in falls prevention has been limited and no known study has evaluated such a program from the perspective of peer educators involved in delivering the message. The purpose of this study was to explore peer educators' perspective about their role in delivering peer-led falls prevention education for community-dwelling older adults. A two-stage qualitative inductive constant comparative design was used. In stage one (core component) focus group interviews involving a total of eleven participants were conducted. During stage two (supplementary component) semi-structured interviews with two participants were conducted. Data were analysed thematically by two researchers independently. Key themes were identified and findings were displayed in a conceptual framework. Peer educators were motivated to deliver educational presentations and importantly, to reach an optimal peer connection with their audience. Key themes identified included both personal and organisational factors that impact on educators' capacity to facilitate their peers' engagement with the message. Personal factors that facilitated message delivery and engagement included peer-to-peer connection and perceived credibility, while barriers included a reluctance to accept the message that they were at risk of falling by some members in the audience. Organisational factors, including ongoing training for peer educators and formative feedback following
Khong, Linda A M; Berlach, Richard G; Hill, Keith D; Hill, Anne-Marie
Falls among older adults are a major problem. Despite considerable progress in falls prevention research, older adults often show low motivation to engage in recommended preventive strategies. Peer-led falls prevention education for older adults may have potential for bridging the research evidence-practice gap, thereby promoting the uptake of falls prevention strategies. We evaluated peer educators' presentations of falls prevention education to community-dwelling older adults in regard to established criteria that were consistent with adult learning principles, the framework of health behaviour change, falls prevention guidelines, and recommendations for providing falls prevention information. We conducted a within-stage mixed model study using purposive and snowball sampling techniques to recruit 10 experts to evaluate video recordings of the delivery of three peer-led falls prevention presentations. Each expert viewed three videos and rated them using a questionnaire containing both open-ended and closed items. There was a good level of expert agreement across the questionnaire domains. Though the experts rated some aspects of the presentations highly, they thought that the presentations were mainly didactic in delivery, not consistently personally relevant to the older adult audience, and did not encourage older adults to engage in the preventive strategies that were presented. Based on the experts' findings, we developed five key themes and recommendations for the effective delivery of peer-led falls prevention presentations. These included recommending that peer educators share falls prevention messages in a more interactive and experiential manner and that uptake of strategies should be facilitated by encouraging the older adults to develop a personalised action plan. Findings suggest that if peer-led falls prevention presentations capitalise on older adults' capability, opportunity, and motivation, the older adults may be more receptive to take up falls
De Smet, Marijke; Van Keer, Hilde; Valcke, Martin
In the present study cross-age peer tutoring was implemented in a higher education context. Fourth-year students (N=39) operated as online tutors to support freshmen in discussing cases and solving authentic problems. This study contributes to a better understanding of the supportive interventions of tutors in asynchronous discussion groups. Peer…
Dixon, Roz; Smith, Peter; Jenks, Chris
Why are students who have special educational needs at greater risk of bullying than their peers when educated in mainstream settings? This case study of one mainstream secondary school describes the various facets of the peer group dynamics that underpinned social aggression and exclusion towards students who were hearing impaired. These students…
Street "doctory" is a form of peer-based medical care performed in street settings among a group of heroin addicts in Yamuna Bazaar, New Delhi. Using participant observation and semi-structured interviews, this study describes three components of the practice, and suggests that each contained peer learning processes. First, participants…
Skaniakos, Terhi; Penttinen, Leena; Lairio, Marjatta
Peer mentoring is one of the most important guidance practices for first-year students entering higher education and academic life. We are interested in mentors' roles and apply the ideas of group counseling in order to increase the understanding of peer mentoring. Other aspects of guidance--content, methods, and collaboration--are approached on…
Siegal, M.; Boyes, M. C.
In this review, little support is found for Piaget's claim that with increasing peer group interaction adult authority becomes less legitimate to the child. It is suggested that the adult exerts increasing influence with age on children's moral judgment and, therefore, emphasis on peer-centered moral education may be misdirected. (Author/SJL)
Griffin, Jennifer Adams
This teacher research studied second graders' small-group, peer-led discussions about three genres of literature--realistic fiction, biography picture books, and science information books--across one school year (during three units in the fall, winter, and spring). It set out to explore how this peer talk, in general, mediated children's responses…
Kamps, Debra M.; And Others
A reversal design was used in two elementary classrooms to examine effects of cooperative learning groups (CLG) in reading instruction for three students with autism and their general education peers. Results demonstrated increased reading gains, academic engagement, and peer interaction during CLG conditions. Results also documented the…
Fong, Lin Siew
Peer-tutoring sessions of two groups of advanced diploma in financial accounting students with mixed proficiency were analysed thoroughly in this study. Numerous studies in peer tutoring have produced favourable results to both tutors and tutees due to the scaffolding process which promotes effective learning. However, there is a lack of studies…
Nijs, Sara; Penne, Anneleen; Vlaskamp, Carla; Maes, Bea
Background: Children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) meet other children with PIMD in day care centres or schools. This study explores the peer-directed behaviours of children with PIMD, the peer interaction-influencing behaviour of the direct support workers and the children's positioning. Method: Group activities for…
Norr, Kathleen F.; McElmurry, Beverly J.; Slutas, Frances M.; Christiansen, Carol D.; Misner, Susan J.; Marks, Beth A.
Using primary health care and peer leadership models, U.S. nurses trained Lithuanian health professionals as community peer leaders in AIDS prevention. A national continuing education program is in place to sustain the initiative in Lithuania. (SK)
Conclusion: The students’ points of view showed that peer groups and sports have a very high effect on education and training process thus leading to the improvement of social relationship and increasinglearning in different groups. Therefore, strengthening the peer groups and sport teams in educational environments has a very important influence on socialization of teenagers and youth thereby facilitating the acquisition of life skills and learning process and thus the education and training development in society
Convey, Mark R.; Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Weeks, Margaret R.; Li, Jianghong
Peer-delivered HIV prevention and intervention programs play an important role in halting the spread of HIV. Rigorous scientific analysis of the forementioned programs have focused on the immediate reduction of risk-related behaviors among the target populations. In our longitudinal study of the RAP Peer Intervention for HIV, we assessed the long-term behavioral effects of a peer-led HIV intervention project with active drug users. Initial analysis of the qualitative data highlights the role of altruism as a motivator in sustaining peer educators beyond the immediate goals of the project. We contend that altruism found in volunteers is an important factor in maintaining long-term participation in HIV intervention programs and initiatives using peer educators. PMID:20639354
Menting, Barbara; Koot, Hans; van Lier, Pol
Difficulties in peer acceptance during elementary school have been associated with emotional and behavioural problems. This study used a randomized controlled intervention design to test whether improvements in peer acceptance mediated reduced rates of emotional and behavioural problems in intervention compared to control-group children. A total…
CHAMPS Peer Leadership, Inc., Scottsdale, AZ.
Conflict and violence on the part of adolescents and pre-adolescents has been a growing problem. Young people will respond to an "anti-gang message" if that message is delivered from their peer group. This manual describes a peer approach to impact young people about productive ways to handle conflict. Older students are trained to operate puppets…
Roberts, Chris; Jorm, Christine; Gentilcore, Stacey; Crossley, Jim
Peer assessment of professional behaviour within problem-based learning (PBL) groups can support learning and provide opportunities to identify and remediate problem behaviours. We investigated whether a peer assessment of learning behaviours in PBL is sufficiently valid to support decision making about student professional behaviours. Data were available for two cohorts of students, in which each student was rated by all of their PBL group peers using a modified version of a previously validated scale. Following the provision of feedback to the students, their behaviours were again peer-assessed. A generalisability study was undertaken to calculate the students' professional behaviour scores, sources of error that impacted the reliability of the assessment, changes in student rating behaviour, and changes in mean scores after the delivery of feedback. Peer assessment of professional learning behaviour was highly reliable for within-group comparisons (G = 0.81-0.87), but poor for across-group comparisons (G = 0.47-0.53). Feedback increased the range of ratings given by assessors and brought their mean ratings into closer alignment. More of the increased variance was attributable to assessee performance than to assessor stringency and hence there was a slight improvement in reliability, especially for comparisons across groups. Mean professional behaviour scores were unchanged. Peer assessment of professional learning behaviours may be unreliable for decision making outside a PBL group. Faculty members should not draw conclusions from peer assessment about a student's behaviour compared with that of their peers in the cohort, and such a tool may not be appropriate for summative assessment. Health professional educators interested in assessing student professional behaviours in PBL groups might focus on opportunities for the provision of formative peer feedback and its impact on learning. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical
van Beynen, Kaya; Swenson, Camielle
Student-run Facebook groups offer librarians a new means of interacting with students in their native digital domain. Facebook groups, a service launched in 2010 enables university students to create a virtual forum to discuss their concerns, issues, and promote events. While still a relatively new feature, these groups are increasingly being…
The purpose of this research was to evaluate the use of online peer evaluation forms for online group activities in improving group project outcomes. The investigator developed and used a web-based Google Forms® self and peer evaluation form of 2 group assignments' rubric for junior and senior nursing students. The form covered elements of the assignments including: research activity, analysis of the literature, writing of report, participation in making of presentation, overall contribution to the project, and participation in the weekly group discussions. Items were rated from 1 (did not contribute) to 5 (outstanding contribution) in addition to NA when one activity did not apply. The self and peer evaluation process was conducted twice: once after group assignment 1 and once after group assignment 2. The group assignments final products were done in the form of VoiceThread online presentations that were shared with the rest of the class reflecting the groups' work on a health informatics topic of interest. Data collected as the students completed self and peer evaluations for group assignments 1 and 2. Also, optional comments regarding member performance were collected to add contextual information in addition to ratings. Students received credit for completing the peer evaluations and the grade for the particular assignment was affected by their performance based on peer evaluations of their contributions. Students' peer evaluations showed in a color-coded spreadsheet which enabled the course faculty to view real time results of students' ratings after each assignment. The faculty provided timely and tailored feedback to groups or individuals as needed, using positive feedback and commending high performance while urging struggling individual students and groups to improve lower ratings in specific areas. Comparing evaluations of both assignments, there were statistically significant improvements among all students. The mean scores of the entire sample were
Full Text Available People often conform to the behavior of others with whom they identify. However, it is unclear what fundamental mechanisms underlie this type of conformity. Here, we investigate the processes mediating in-group conformity by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Participants completed a perceptual decision-making task while undergoing fMRI, during which they were exposed to the judgments of both in-group and out-group members. Our data suggest that conformity to the in-group is mediated by both positive affect as well as the cognitive capacity of perspective taking. Examining the processes that drive in-group conformity by utilizing a basic decision-making paradigm combined with neuroimaging methods provides important insights into the potential mechanisms of conformity. These results may provide an integral step in developing more effective campaigns using group conformity as a tool for behavioral change.
Stallen, Mirre; Smidts, Ale; Sanfey, Alan G
People often conform to the behavior of others with whom they identify. However, it is unclear what fundamental mechanisms underlie this type of conformity. Here, we investigate the processes mediating in-group conformity by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants completed a perceptual decision-making task while undergoing fMRI, during which they were exposed to the judgments of both in-group and out-group members. Our data suggest that conformity to the in-group is mediated by both positive affect as well as the cognitive capacity of perspective taking. Examining the processes that drive in-group conformity by utilizing a basic decision-making paradigm combined with neuroimaging methods provides important insights into the potential mechanisms of conformity. These results may provide an integral step in developing more effective campaigns using group conformity as a tool for behavioral change.
Patel, Vimla L; Branch, Timothy; Gutnik, Lily; Arocha, Jose F
High-risk behavior in youths related to HIV transmission continues to occur despite large-scale efforts to disseminate information about safe sexual practices through education. Our study examined the relationships among knowledge, decision-making strategies, and risk assessment about HIV by youths during peer group focused discussions. Two focus groups with first-year college students were conducted, with a series of questions about risk for HIV transmission as prompts. All group interactions were recorded, transcribed and analyzed using methods of discourse analysis to characterize a detailed description of the interactions. The results indicated that youths negotiated their perspectives with the use of justification and elaboration to support alternative opinions and positions. They used concrete experiential examples to further explain and illustrate their positions, Opposing views or arguments met with requests for clarification and further negotiation. This cycle of clarification-negotiation shaped their understanding of HIV-related concepts. The use of strategies, such as justification of alternative positions and the use of examples as support for arguments to clarify and negotiate various perspectives, could be used as a tool for designing educational programs to improve understanding of health related issues, such as HIV transmission and prevention.
Sullivan, Lauren L; Ballen, Cissy J; Cotner, Sehoya
Women are underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines. Evidence suggests the microclimate of the classroom is an important factor influencing female course grades and interest, which encourages retention of women in STEM fields. Here, we test whether the gender composition of small (8-9 person) learning groups impacts course performance, sense of social belonging, and intragroup peer evaluations of intellectual contributions. Across two undergraduate active learning courses in introductory biology, we manipulated the classroom microclimate by varying the gender ratios of learning groups, ranging from 0% female to 100% female. We found that as the percent of women in groups increased, so did overall course performance for all students, regardless of gender. Additionally, women assigned higher peer- evaluations in groups with more women than groups with less women. Our work demonstrates an added benefit of the retention of women in STEM: increased performance for all, and positive peer perceptions for women.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship among family characteristic, peer group, character (respectful and empathy, and bullying of youth at Bogor City. This study also aim to analyse the difference of peer group cohesiveness, bullying role, and character based on sex and school group. Fifty female and fifty male students, ages 16-18, from public and private vocational high school were selected by cluster random sampling. Result showed that there was significant difference at peer group cohesiveness between private and public schools, but no difference between male and female students. Female students more respectful than male and it were significantly different. Based on school group, there was no difference on their character. Female students also had higher score of bullying and they dominantly conducted verbal bullying. Ages of parents was significantly related to character of youth (respectful and empathy. Peer group cohesiveness was significantly related to bullying; the more cohessive to their peers, more bullying conducted by youth. It also showed that character were negatively significant related with bullying.
Stallen, M.; Smidts, A.; Sanfey, A.G.
People often conform to the behavior of others with whom they identify. However, it is unclear what fundamental mechanisms underlie this type of conformity. Here, we investigate the processes mediating in-group conformity by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants completed
M. Stallen (Mirre); A. Smidts (Ale); A.G. Sanfey (Alan)
textabstractPeople often conform to the behavior of others with whom they identify. However, it is unclear what fundamental mechanisms underlie this type of conformity. Here, we investigate the processes mediating in-group conformity by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).
Bugaj, Till Johannes; Mücksch, Christine; Schmid, Carolin; Junne, Florian; Erschens, Rebecca; Herzog, Wolfgang; Nikendei, Christoph
From the beginning of the first year of medical studies, increased psychological stress and elevated burnout prevalence rates can be registered compared to sample populations. Characterized by learning "on an equal footing", the principle of peer-assisted learning (PAL) is widely used in medical education. This report aims to showcase the development and evaluation of peer-led stress prevention seminars for first year medical students after one year of implementation. With each of the three sessions lasting 90 min., the stress prevention seminars took place in small groups (6-10 students) in the period from November 2013 to January 2014 and from November 2014 to December 2014 at the Medical Faculty of Heidelberg. Led by trained peers, the seminar content ranged from psycho-educational elements, i.e. time management strategy development and test anxiety assistance, to relaxation techniques. All seminar sessions were evaluated via questionnaire. All questions were answered on a Likert scale ranging from 1 to 7 (1=strongly agree; 7=strongly disagree). 75 students consented to participate in seminars (65% female; aged 20.5±3.3 years). The series of seminars was averagely given the school grade of 1.2±0.4 (1=very good to 6=unsatisfactory) in WS 2013/14 and 1.5±0.5 in the following year and the peer tutors' competence was evaluated as very high (1.4 to 1.5 approval rate on the Likert scale). The seminar sessions' importance to the students is underlined by their very positive evaluations. This offer seems to have benefited students especially during the demanding transitional phase at the start of their studies. Both the implementation of the preventive measure at an early stage as well as the use of PAL seem to have proven effective. PAL seems to be effective in the field of stress prevention. However, specific efficacy studies are still lacking.
Early onset group B streptococcal (EOGBS) infection causes significant neonatal morbidity and mortality. We determined the incidence of EOGBS at Galway University Hospital (GUH) and examined any "missed opportunities" for preventing neonatal infection between 2004 and 2009. Our obstetric approach is risk-based. The incidence was 0.45\\/1,000 live-births; one death and one with neurological sequelae. A single mother received IAP; however we could not determine any potential for reducing cases of EOGBS by improving current IAP usage.
Gabriela Silva Leite
Full Text Available ABSTRACTSex workers have been the protagonists and focus of HIV prevention campaigns and research since the late 1980s in Brazil. Through a review of national and international literature, combined with a history of sex workers' involvement in the construction of the Brazilian response, this article explores the overlaps and disconnects between research and practice in contexts of prostitution over the past three decades. We review the scientific literature on the epidemiology of HIV among sex workers and prevention methodologies. We conclude that although research focus and designs often reinforce the idea that sex workers' vulnerability is due to their sexual relationships with clients, their greatest vulnerability has been found to be with their nonpaying intimate partners. Few studies explore their work contexts and structural factors that influence safe sex practices with both types of partners. The negative effects of criminalization, stigma, and exclusively biomedical and peer education-based approaches are well documented in the scientific literature and experiences of sex worker activists, as is the importance of prevention programs that combine empowerment and human rightsbased approach to reduce HIV infection rates. We conclude that there is a need for actions, policies, and research that encompass the environment and context of sex workers' lives and reincorporate the human rights and citizenship frame that dominated the Brazilian response until the end of the 2000s. As part of HIV prevention efforts, female sex workers need to be considered above all as women, equal to all others.
Becker, Carolyn Black; Bull, Stephanie; Schaumberg, Katherine; Cauble, Adele; Franco, Amanda
The aim of this study was to replicate and extend results of a previous trial that investigated the effectiveness of 2 peer-led eating disorders prevention interventions in reducing eating disorder risk factors in undergraduate women (C. B. Becker, L. M. Smith, & A. C. Ciao, 2006). To extend findings from the previous study by allowing for…
Wilson, Travis; Karimpour, Ramin; Rodkin, Philip C.
Focusing on a sample of 382 African American (206 female) and 264 European American (132 female) students in diverse fourth and fifth grade classrooms, this study investigated three questions concerning the connections between peer groups and academic achievement during early adolescence: (a) How is group structure (i.e., hierarchy and cohesion)…
Myers, Scott A.; Shimotsu, Stephanie; Byrnes, Kerry; Frisby, Brandi N.; Durbin, James; Loy, Brianna N.
Based on the typology posited by Kram and Isabella (1985) that identifies three peer relationships present in organizations (i.e., information, collegial, and special), this assessment examined the association between students' perceptions of their in-class group members and six group outcomes (i.e., grouphate, cohesion, relational satisfaction,…
in the pedagogical work. This article challenges the implicit understanding that social work is the primary source of identity transformation and that peer group interaction is mainly an obstacle to overcome. On the contrary, this article argues that learning about the social dynamics of the children's group...... is a precondition for understanding how social work influences individual children. © The Author(s), 2009....
De Backer, Liesje; Van Keer, Hilde; Valcke, Martin
The study examines whether structuring (SS) versus problematising scaffolds (PS) differently affect reciprocal peer-tutoring (RPT) groups' adoption of particular regulation skills, deep-level regulation, and tutee-initiated regulation. A quasi-experimental design involving two experimental groups (SS versus PS condition) was adopted. The first,…
Glaser, Darrell J.
Four alternative structures of peer groups are compared in an empirical analysis of teenage dropouts and recent drug use. In general, individual-specific covariates remain robust regardless of group structure specification in dropout models, but lose significance in models of drug-use. Estimates of correlated school effects depend on the…
Sierksma, Jellie; Thijs, Jochem; Verkuijten, Maykel
Two studies examined children's (8- to 13-year-olds) intergroup helping intentions. In Study 1, 856 children indicated their intention to help national in-group or out-group peers in a high need situation and in either a public or private context. Results showed that children's empathic tendencies
Hall, Kimberly R.; Rushing, Jeri Lynn; Khurshid, Ayesha
Problem-focused interventions are considered to be one of the most effective group counseling strategies with adolescents. This article describes a problem-focused group counseling model, Solving Problems Together (SPT), that focuses on working with students who struggle with negative peer pressure. Adapted from the teaching philosophy of…
Overbeek, Geertjan; Bot, Sander M.; Meeus, Wim H. J.; Sentse, Miranda; Knibbe, Ronald A.; Engels, Rutger
We examined the hypothesis that best friends and members from a broader peer group would not differ in the amount of influence they have on young adults' alcohol consumption and that what counts would be the mere presence of drinking peers in a given context--irrespective of the type of relationship such peers would have with the target young…
Full Text Available The goal of this study is twofold: (i to develop an explanatory model to examine the relationship between school environment/climate and peer victimization and (ii to determine whether previous models of preventive strategies in a single school or district could be expanded to the nationally representative sample of adolescents across multiple schools. The analyses in the current study are based on data from the Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC 2005-2006 US study, and the sample consists of 7,001 students from 195 different schools. The findings reveal that students attending schools in which bullying prevention programs are implemented are more likely to have experienced peer victimization, compared to those attending schools without bullying prevention. Study limitations and implications for future research are discussed.
Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Shaw, Heather; Gau, Jeff M
Because independent trials have provided evidence for the efficacy and effectiveness of the dissonance-based Body Project eating disorder prevention program, the present trial tested whether clinicians produce the largest intervention effects, or whether delivery can be task-shifted to less expensive undergraduate peer educators or to Internet delivery without effect size attenuation, focusing on acute effects. In this study, 680 young women (M age = 22.2 years, SD = 7.1) recruited at colleges in 2 states were randomized to clinician-led Body Project groups, peer-led Body Project groups, the Internet-based eBody Project, or an educational video control condition. Participants in all 3 variants of the Body Project intervention showed significantly greater reductions in eating disorder risk factors and symptoms than did educational video controls. Participants in clinician-led and peer-led Body Project groups showed significantly greater reductions in risk factors than did eBody Project participants, but effects for the 2 types of groups were similar. Eating disorder onset over 7-month follow-up was significantly lower for peer-led Body Project group participants versus eBody Project participants (2.2% vs. 8.4%) but did not differ significantly between other conditions. The evidence that all 3 dissonance-based prevention programs outperformed an educational video condition, that both group-based interventions outperformed the Internet-based intervention in risk factor reductions, and that the peer-led groups showed lower eating disorder onset over follow-up than did the Internet-based intervention is novel. These acute-effects data suggest that both group-based interventions produce superior eating disorder prevention effects than does the Internet-based intervention and that delivery can be task-shifted to peer leaders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Prescription Peer Academic Detailing (Rx-PAD project is an educational intervention study aiming at improving GPs' competence in pharmacotherapy. GPs in CME peer groups were randomised to receive a tailored intervention, either to support a safer prescription practice for elderly patients or to improve prescribing of antibiotics to patients with respiratory tract infections. The project was based on the principles of peer group academic detailing, incorporating individual feedback on GPs' prescription patterns. We did a study to explore GPs and tutors' experiences with peer group academic detailing, and to explore GPs' reasons for deviating from recommended prescribing practice. Methods Data was collected through nine focus group interviews with a total of 39 GPs and 20 tutors. Transcripts from the interviews were analyzed by two researchers according to a procedure for thematic content analysis. Results A shared understanding of the complex decision-making involved in prescribing in general practice was reported by both GPs and tutors as essential for an open discussion in the CME groups. Tutors experienced that CME groups differed regarding structure and atmosphere, and in some groups it was a challenge to run the scheme as planned. Individual feedback motivated GPs to reflect on and to improve their prescribing practice, though feedback reports could cause distress if the prescribing practice was unfavourable. Explanations for inappropriate prescriptions were lack of knowledge, factors associated with patients, the GP's background, the practice, and other health professionals or health care facilities. Conclusions GPs and tutors experienced peer group academic detailing as a suitable method to discuss and learn more about pharmacotherapy. An important outcome for GPs was being more reflective about their prescriptions. Disclosure of inappropriate prescribing can cause distress in some doctors, and tutors must be
Nesi, Jacqueline; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Prinstein, Mitchell J
As social media use becomes increasingly widespread among adolescents, research in this area has accumulated rapidly. Researchers have shown a growing interest in the impact of social media on adolescents' peer experiences, including the ways that the social media context shapes a variety of peer relations constructs. This paper represents Part 2 of a two-part theoretical review. In this review, we offer a new model for understanding the transformative role of social media in adolescents' peer experiences, with the goal of stimulating future empirical work that is grounded in theory. The transformation framework suggests that the features of the social media context transform adolescents' peer experiences by changing their frequency or immediacy, amplifying demands, altering their qualitative nature, and/or offering new opportunities for compensatory or novel behaviors. In the current paper, we consider the ways that social media may transform peer relations constructs that often occur at the group level. Our review focuses on three key constructs: peer victimization, peer status, and peer influence. We selectively review and highlight existing evidence for the transformation of these domains through social media. In addition, we discuss methodological considerations and key conceptual principles for future work. The current framework offers a new theoretical perspective through which peer relations researchers may consider adolescent social media use.
Full Text Available Background: Self-transcendence can organize the challenges of multiple sclerosis patients to achieve and maintain a constant state of well-being and sense of integrity in the disease process. As a research based on self-transcendence didn't done in Iran, the present study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of peer groups on promoting selftranscendence level in multiple sclerosis (MS patients. Materials and Methods: This study is a before and after quasi-experimental study that was conducted on 33 patients with confirmed MS participated in three peer support groups: 10 men in male group, 11 women in female group and 12 men and women in mixed group. Eight weekly sessions and each session was 2 hours were held. Data collection tool was Self-Transcendence Scale (STS with 15 item and Cronbach's coefficient was 0.68 that after modifying, it increased to 0.81. Patients completed self administered questionnaires pre- and post of sessions. Results: Results showed that peer support groups promote the self-transcendence (p=0.001 with increases in mean self-transcendence scores in all 3 groups (men group: 0.008, women group 0.005 and mixed group: 0.003. Comparing scores before and after intervention demonstrated that self-transcendence increased equally in all groups. Conclusion: The results showed an improving in self-transcendence in peer support group participants at the end of the intervention. The results can be used in areas of nursing education and management. It is proposed that the self-transcendence assessment to be done in other chronic disease in order to evaluate its efficiency.
Fisher, Jacob C
Virtually all social diffusion work relies on a common formal basis, which predicts that consensus will develop among a connected population as the result of diffusion. In spite of the popularity of social diffusion models that predict consensus, few empirical studies examine consensus, or a clustering of attitudes, directly. Those that do either focus on the coordinating role of strict hierarchies, or on the results of online experiments, and do not consider how consensus occurs among groups in situ . This study uses longitudinal data on adolescent social networks to show how meso-level social structures, such as informal peer groups, moderate the process of consensus formation. Using a novel method for controlling for selection into a group, I find that centralized peer groups, meaning groups with clear leaders, have very low levels of consensus, while cohesive peer groups, meaning groups where more ties hold the members of the group together, have very high levels of consensus. This finding is robust to two different measures of cohesion and consensus. This suggests that consensus occurs either through central leaders' enforcement or through diffusion of attitudes, but that central leaders have limited ability to enforce when people can leave the group easily.
Stromberg, H.M.; DeHaan, M.S.; Gentillon, C.D.; Wilson, G.E.; Vanden Heuvel, L.N.
Accurate performance evaluation and plant trending by the performance indicator program are integral parts of monitoring the operation of commercial nuclear power plants. The presentations of the NRC/AEOD performance indicator program have undergone a number of enhancements. The diversity of the commercial nuclear plants, coupled with continued improvements in the performance indicator program, has resulted in the evaluation of plants in logical peer groups and highlighted the need to evaluate the impact of plant operational conditions on the performance indicators. These enhancements allow a more-meaningful evaluation of operating commercial nuclear power plant performance. This report proposes methods to enhance the presentation of the performance indicator data by analyzing the data in logical peer groups and displaying the performance indicator data based on the operational status of the plants. Previously, preliminary development of the operational cycle displays of the performance indicator data was documented. This report extends the earlier findings and presents the continued development of the peer groups and operational cycle trend and deviation data and displays. This report describes the peer groups and enhanced PI data presentations by considering the operational cycle phase breakdowns, calculation methods, and presentation methods
Zhao, Huahui; Sullivan, Kirk P. H.; Mellenius, Ingmarie
A key reason for using asynchronous computer conferencing in instruction is its potential for supporting collaborative learning. However, few studies have examined collaboration in computer conferencing. This study examined collaboration in six peer review groups within an asynchronous computer conferencing. Eighteen tertiary students participated…
Pijl, Sip Jan; Skaalvik, Einar M.; Skaalvik, Sidsel
One of the effects of implementing inclusive education is that the composition of the peer group of students with disabilities has changed from one consisting of only such students to one with no, or very few, students with disabilities. The question arises as to the implications of this situation
Lansford, Jennifer E.; Killeya-Jones, Ley A.; Miller, Shari; Costanzo, Philip R.
Sociometric nominations, social cognitive maps, and self-report questionnaires were completed in consecutive years by 327 students (56% girls) followed longitudinally from grade 7 to grade 8 to examine the stability of social standing in peer groups and correlates of changes in social standing. Social preference, perceived popularity, network…
Lauridsen, Karen M.; Madsen, Henning
to this form of cooperation differ widely. This paper discusses the benefits and tensions of work in diverse peer groups exemplified by the findings of a study of student responses to intercultural collaboration in a master of business programme. One conclusion is that the international students are more...
Castelein, S.; Bruggeman, R.; van Busschbach, J. T.; van der Gaag, M.; Stant, A. D.; Knegtering, H.; Wiersma, D.
Objective: To investigate the effect of a (minimally) guided peer support group (GPSG) for people with psychosis on social network, social support, self-efficacy, self-esteem, and quality of life, and to evaluate the intervention and its economic consequences. Method: In a multi-center randomized
Stromberg, H.M.; DeHaan, M.S.; Gentillon, C.D.; Wilson, G.E. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Vanden Heuvel, L.N. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))
Accurate performance evaluation and plant trending by the performance indicator program are integral parts of monitoring the operation of commercial nuclear power plants. The presentations of the NRC/AEOD performance indicator program have undergone a number of enhancements. The diversity of the commercial nuclear plants, coupled with continued improvements in the performance indicator program, has resulted in the evaluation of plants in logical peer groups and highlighted the need to evaluate the impact of plant operational conditions on the performance indicators. These enhancements allow a more-meaningful evaluation of operating commercial nuclear power plant performance. This report proposes methods to enhance the presentation of the performance indicator data by analyzing the data in logical peer groups and displaying the performance indicator data based on the operational status of the plants. Previously, preliminary development of the operational cycle displays of the performance indicator data was documented. This report extends the earlier findings and presents the continued development of the peer groups and operational cycle trend and deviation data and displays. This report describes the peer groups and enhanced PI data presentations by considering the operational cycle phase breakdowns, calculation methods, and presentation methods.
Closson, Leanna M.; Watanabe, Lori
Victimization has been primarily studied within the broader peer group, leaving other potentially important contexts, such as friendship cliques, unexplored. This study examined the role of popularity in identifying protective factors that buffer against victimization within early adolescents' (N = 387) friendship cliques. Previously identified…
Patel, Vimla L.; Branch, Timothy; Gutnik, Lily; Arocha, Jose F.
High-risk behavior in youths related to HIV transmission continues to occur despite large-scale efforts to disseminate information about safe sexual practices through education. Our study examined the relationships among knowledge, decision-making strategies, and risk assessment about HIV by youths during peer group focused discussions. Two focus…
Phielix, Chris; Prins, Frans; Kirschner, Paul A.
Phielix, C., Prins, F. J., & Kirschner, P. A. (2010). Awareness of group performance in a CSCL-environment: Effects of peer feedback and reflection. Computers in Human Behavior, 26(2), 151-161. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2009.10.011
Alm, Susanne; Bäckman, Olof
The article analyses aspects of gender composition and social dominance in peer groups and school classes and their effects on the degree of openness to gender-atypical occupations in young adolescents. The data set used contains information for some 13,000 girls and boys living in Stockholm in the early 1960s. Results from multi-level regressions…
Thurlings, Marieke; Vermeulen, Marjan; Kreijns, Karel; Bastiaens, Theo; Stijnen, Sjef
Research suggests that feedback is an essential element in learning. This study focuses on feedback that teachers provide in reciprocal peer groups to improve their performance in the classroom. The Teacher Feedback Observation Scheme (TFOS) was developed to identify feedback patterns, which
Masland, Lindsay C.; Lease, A. Michele
This study investigated whether academic achievement motivation and social identity explain variation in children's conformity to positive academic behaviors (n = 455 children in grades three through five). Structural equation modeling suggested that academic value and peer group academic norms were positively related to academic conformity.…
van Prooijen, J.W.; van den Bos, K; Wilke, H.A.M.
The authors focus on the relation between group membership and procedural justice. They argue that whether people are socially included or excluded by their peers influences their reactions to unrelated experiences of procedural justice. Findings from 2 experiments corroborate the prediction that
De Backer, Liesje; Van Keer, Hilde; Moerkerke, Beatrijs; Valcke, Martin
We aimed to investigate how metacognitive regulation is characterised during collaborative learning in a higher education reciprocal peer tutoring (RPT) setting. Sixty-four Educational Sciences students participated in a semester-long RPT-intervention and tutored one another in small groups of six. All sessions of five randomly selected RPT-groups…
Oddo, Maria; Barnett, David W.; Hawkins, Renee O.; Musti-Rao, Shobana
Previous research has investigated the efficacy of peer-mediated repeated reading (RR) interventions carried out by student dyads. This research extends the existing research by investigating the impact of RR on oral reading fluency and comprehension when carried out by a teacher in small groups of fourth-grade students. Outcomes were analyzed…
Sharma, Bal Krishna
This study presents a sequential analysis of the enactment of teacher identity in closing disagreements among students in small group peer interactions in an advanced academic writing class. In doing so, it discusses: (a) the micro-details of how oppositional stances and opinions are constructed, challenged and/or defended; (b) the sequential…
Wang, Dawei; Zhu, Liping; Maguire, Phil; Liu, Yixin; Pang, Kaiyuan; Li, Zhenying; Hu, Yixin
This study explores the influence of different social reference points and different comparison group sizes on risky decision-making. Participants were presented with a scenario describing an exam, and presented with the opportunity of making a risky decision in the context of different information provided about the performance of their peers. We found that behavior was influenced, not only by comparison with peers, but also by the size of the comparison group. Specifically, the larger the reference group, the more polarized the behavior it prompted. In situations describing social loss, participants were led to make riskier decisions after comparing themselves against larger groups, while in situations describing social gain, they become more risk averse. These results indicate that decision making is influenced both by social comparison and the number of people making up the social reference group.
Potterton, S L; Bell, N J; Whay, H R; Berry, E A; Atkinson, O C D; Dean, R S; Main, D C J; Huxley, J N
The aim of this study was to collate and review the peer and non-peer reviewed English language literature on the treatment and prevention of foot lameness in cattle published since January 2000. The study aimed to identify deficits in knowledge and areas of disparity between what is recommended in the field by veterinarians, foot trimmers and advisors and what has been substantiated experimentally. Peer reviewed literature containing original work was gathered by searching three databases. Papers were categorised and reviewed if they contained material on treatment or prevention. Non-peer reviewed clinical materials were collated from a range of sources. The materials were reviewed and categorised based on whether they recommended a range of possible treatment and prevention strategies. The peer reviewed data base contained 591 papers, of which 286 contained information on treatment or prevention. The vast majority of papers (258) concerned prevention; only a small number covered treatment (31) and of these only three contained information on the treatment of sole ulcers or white line disease. The number of intervention studies and trials was low; most papers on prevention were observational. Generally, lesion specific outcomes were not described making the findings of these papers difficult to use clinically. The non-peer reviewed material contained 46 sources; they varied significantly in regard to the treatments they advocated with some texts directly contradicting each other. Some aspects of prevention recommended in these sources seemed poorly supported by findings from the research literature. Well designed intervention studies are required to address these deficits. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cianciolo, Anna T; Kidd, Bryan; Murray, Sean
Near-peer and faculty staff tutors may facilitate problem-based learning (PBL) through different means. Near-peer tutors are thought to compensate for their lack of subject matter expertise with greater adeptness at group facilitation and a better understanding of their learners. However, theoretical explanations of tutor effectiveness have been developed largely from recollections of tutor practices gathered through student evaluation surveys, focus groups and interviews. A closer look at what happens during PBL sessions tutored by near-peers and faculty members seems warranted to augment theory from a grounded perspective. We conducted an observational study to explore interactional practices during PBL tutorials at our medical school, at which near-peer tutoring of Year 2 students is an established practice. Between October 2014 and May 2015, video-recordings were made of nine purposively sampled tutor groups using three tutor types (near-peer, clinical faculty and basic science faculty staff) across three systems-based units. An investigator team comprising a Year 2 student, a Year 4 student and a behavioural scientist independently analysed the videos until their observations reached saturation and then met face to face to discuss their detailed field notes. Through constant comparison, narratives of tutor practices and group dynamics were generated for each of the nine tutor groups, representing the collective impressions of the members of the investigator team. Variation was greater within than across tutor types. Tutors' practices idiosyncratically and sometimes substantially diverged from PBL principles, yet all tutors attempted to convey authority or 'insider' status with respect to the short- and long-term goals of medical education. Students prompted these status demonstrations by expressing gratitude, asking questions and exhibiting analogous status demonstrations themselves. Understanding the socio-cognitive nature of tutoring from a grounded
Full Text Available 55 (2002) 331?345 Peer education, gender and the development of critical consciousness: participatory HIV prevention by South African youth Catherine Campbella,*, Catherine MacPhailb a Department of Social Psychology, London School of Economics... of empowerment, which believesthat people can be empowered at the individual level through methods such as assertiveness training courses. Others have been fiercely critical of the psychological reduction- ism inherent in this understanding of empowerment...
Kamp, Rachelle J A; van Berkel, Henk J M; Popeijus, Herman E; Leppink, Jimmie; Schmidt, Henk G; Dolmans, Diana H J M
Even though peer process feedback is an often used tool to enhance the effectiveness of collaborative learning environments like PBL, the conditions under which it is best facilitated still need to be investigated. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of individual versus shared reflection and goal setting on students' individual contributions to the group and their academic achievement. In addition, the influence of prior knowledge on the effectiveness of peer feedback was studied. In this pretest-intervention-posttest study 242 first year students were divided into three conditions: condition 1 (individual reflection and goal setting), condition 2 (individual and shared reflection and goal setting), and condition 3 (control group). Results indicated that the quality of individual contributions to the tutorial group did not improve after receiving the peer feedback, nor did it differ between the three conditions. With regard to academic achievement, only males in conditions 1 and 2 showed better academic achievement compared with condition 3. However, there was no difference between both ways of reflection and goal setting with regard to achievement, indicating that both ways are equally effective. Nevertheless, it is still too early to conclude that peer feedback combined with reflection and goal setting is not effective in enhancing students' individual contributions. Students only had a limited number of opportunities to improve their contributions. Therefore, future research should investigate whether an increase in number of tutorial group meetings can enhance the effectiveness of peer feedback. In addition, the effect of quality of reflection and goal setting could be taken into consideration in future research.
Full Text Available Introduction: Cervical cancer is one of the disease that can be found among women in all over the world, including in Indonesia. This disease remains a significant problem as the primary cause of death among other cancer diseases in women. Cervical cancer may influence all aspects of human life, whether it is physiological, psychological or social. Stress in patients with cervical cancer is generally increasing due to the rejection of their degrading health condition. The aimed of this study was to analyze the influence of peer group support on the improvement of self concept in patients with post-radical hysterectomy cervical cancer in Obstetric Wards, Dr Soetomo Hospital, Surabaya. Method: A quasy experimental with static group comparison and consecutive sampling design was used in this study. Population in this study was patients with post radical hysterectomy cervical cancer treated in Obstetric Wards, Dr Soetomo Hospital, Surabaya. There were 20 respondents divided into each 10 respondents for control group and treatment group. The independent variable was peer group support and the dependent variable was self concept. Data for self concept were collected by using questionaire then analyzed by using Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test and Mann Whitney U Test with significance level α≤0.05. Result: The results revealed that peer group support had significance influence to the improvement of self concept in post-radical hysterectomy patients (p=0.000. Discussion: It,s can be concluded that peer group support increase of self concept in post-radical hysterectomy patients.
Medley, Amy; Kennedy, Caitlin; O'Reilly, Kevin; Sweat, Michael
Peer education for HIV prevention has been widely implemented in developing countries, yet the effectiveness of this intervention has not been systematically evaluated. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of peer education interventions in developing countries published between January 1990 and November 2006. Standardized methods of…
Full Text Available In recent years, synchronous online peer response groups have been increasingly used in English as a foreign language (EFL writing. This article describes a study of synchronous online interaction among three small peer groups in a Taiwanese undergraduate EFL writing class. An environmental analysis of students’ online discourse in two writing tasks showed that meaning negotiation, error correction, and technical actions seldom occurred and that social talk, task management, and content discussion predominated the chat. Further analysis indicates that relationships among different types of online interaction and their connections with subsequent writing and revision are complex and depend on group makeup and dynamics. Findings suggest that such complex activity may not guarantee revision. Writing instructors may need to proactively model, scaffold and support revision-related online discourse if it is to be of benefit.
Becker, Carolyn Black; Wilson, Chantale; Williams, Allison; Kelly, Mackenzie; McDaniel, Leda; Elmquist, Joanna
Research supports the efficacy of both cognitive dissonance (CD) and healthy weight (HW) eating disorders prevention, and indicates that CD can be delivered by peer-facilitators, which facilitates dissemination. This study investigated if peer-facilitators can deliver HW when it is modified for their use and extended follow-up of peer-facilitated CD as compared to previous trials. Based on pilot data, we modified HW (MHW) to facilitate peer delivery, elaborate benefits of the healthy-ideal, and place greater emphasis on consuming nutrient dense foods. Female sorority members (N=106) were randomized to either two 2-h sessions of CD or MHW. Participants completed assessment pre- and post-intervention, and at 8-week, 8-month, and 14-month follow-up. Consistent with hypotheses, CD decreased negative affect, thin-ideal internalization, and bulimic pathology to a greater degree post-intervention. Both CD and MHW reduced negative affect, internalization, body dissatisfaction, dietary restraint, and bulimic pathology at 14 months. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tolli, M. V.
Peer education remains a popular strategy for health promotion and prevention, but evidence of its effectiveness is still limited. This article presents a systematic review of peer education interventions in the European Union that were published between January 1999 and May 2010. The objective of the review is to determine the effectiveness of…
Koo, Joung Hwa
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate how isolated immigrant adolescents seek and use necessary information when they are not able to use significant information sources--their peer groups--in the period of transition before new peer groups are established. Method: To achieve the study's purpose, sixteen recently arrived (three…
Tan, Teck Shuenn; Cheung, Wing Sum
The study investigated the effects of computer collaborative group work, facilitated by an adult, on peer acceptance of a junior boy with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). It aimed to ascertain whether collaborative group work on a computer, with the facilitation of an adult, could help to raise his peer acceptance among his…
Tracey D Fox
Full Text Available Despite the post-1994 government’s efforts to put the necessary legislation in place and to work hard to reform the education system in South Africa and improve standards, inequalities still exist in many schools. Instead of focusing on the barriers to learning in schools, this paper, within the framework of the asset-based approach, describes the experiences of learners involved in a cross-cultural peer teaching initiative between a privileged private school and a township school in Port Elizabeth. The aim of the project was to explore the possible advantages of cross-cultural peer tutoring of certain sections of the new Mathematics curriculum for both the tutors and tutees, especially to see whether the township learners’ understanding of the learning content could be improved. Both quantitative and qualitative research methods were used to collect the data. The results showed that the township learners’understanding of the mathematic topics dealt with during the peer teaching session was enhanced and that both groups gained from the cross-cultural peer teaching interaction.
Pavlović Miroslav V.
Full Text Available The paper analyzes the compatibility of the continuous in-service teacher training for prevention of peer violence and modern scientific knowledge in this area. The first part of the paper summarizes the results of 12 systematic reviews and meta-analyses of the effectiveness of the studies of antibullying programs published since 2000. which relate to the effects of uni-modal and multi-modal programs, and the efficacy of interventions used in anti-bullying programs. The second part of the paper analyses the approved programs of in-service teacher training, in which priority is given to the prevention of violence, abuse and negligence. We analyzed 39 programs of continuous in-service teacher training, and focused on the empirical bases of the programs (researches which confirm the effectiveness of a program and the contents of the training (the level of preventive activity, modality, field, and interventions. The results of the analysis of the programs of continuous in-service training for peer violence prevention are discussed in the context of modern scientific knowledge of effectiveness of anti-bullying programs and of professional development of teachers and counsellors.
Bugaj, Till Johannes
Full Text Available Introduction: From the beginning of the first year of medical studies, increased psychological stress and elevated burnout prevalence rates can be registered compared to sample populations. Characterized by learning “on an equal footing”, the principle of peer-assisted learning (PAL is widely used in medical education. This report aims to showcase the development and evaluation of peer-led stress prevention seminars for first year medical students after one year of implementation.Project description: With each of the three sessions lasting 90 min., the stress prevention seminars took place in small groups (6-10 students in the period from November 2013 to January 2014 and from November 2014 to December 2014 at the Medical Faculty of Heidelberg. Led by trained peers, the seminar content ranged from psycho-educational elements, i.e. time management strategy development and test anxiety assistance, to relaxation techniques. All seminar sessions were evaluated via questionnaire. All questions were answered on a Likert scale ranging from 1 to 7 (1=strongly agree; 7=strongly disagree.Results: 75 students consented to participate in seminars (65% female; aged 20.5±3.3 years. The series of seminars was averagely given the school grade of 1.2±0.4 (1=very good to 6=unsatisfactory in WS 2013/14 and 1.5±0.5 in the following year and the peer tutors’ competence was evaluated as very high (1.4 to 1.5 approval rate on the Likert scale.Discussion: The seminar sessions’ importance to the students is underlined by their very positive evaluations. This offer seems to have benefited students especially during the demanding transitional phase at the start of their studies. Both the implementation of the preventive measure at an early stage as well as the use of PAL seem to have proven effective.Conclusion: PAL seems to be effective in the field of stress prevention. However, specific efficacy studies are still lacking.
Full Text Available Characteristic teen expressive, always curious and receptive to new values in this era of globalization should be directed and escorted on positive things like Prambors Radio which serve Ad Links anti Violence. Therefore, this study aims to determine the extent of Exposure to Violence Ad Links Prambors Radio and Peer Group of the Attitudes of Teen Violence. The method used in this research is quantitative method, explanatory paradigm of positivistic. The theory used in this study is the Social Learning Theory by Bandura and the theory of Hierarchy Effect Model. This study uses survey respondents were 116 respondents who are listeners Prambors Radio. Based on this research, it can be concluded that the inundation Ad Links Anti Violence positively related to Attitude Teen Violence. In addition the results also showed that interaction with the Peer Group also showed a significant positive correlation to the attitude of Teen Violence.
Daniel, João R; Santos, António J; Antunes, Marta; Fernandes, Marília; Vaughn, Brian E
We used stochastic actor-based models to test whether the developmental dynamics of friendships and antipathies in preschool peer groups (followed throughout three school years) were co-dependent. We combined choices from three sociometric tasks of 142 children to identify friendship and antipathy ties and used SIENA to model network dynamics. Our results show that different social processes drive the development of friendship and antipathy ties, and that they do not develop in association (i.e., friendship ties are not dependent on existing antipathies, and vice-versa). These results differ from those of older children (age range = 10-14) suggesting that the interplay of friendship and antipathy only plays a significant role in the peer group context in older children. We propose these differences to be likely related with preschool age children's inaccurate perceptions of their classmates' relationships, particularly of their antipathies, and/or with the absence of shared norms to deal with antipathetic relationships.
Zhao, C. F.; Li, X. S.; Wang, G. H.; Li, L.
Abstract. Operators of a CO2 EOR asset need to know the relative performance level of their asset against its peers. The ongoing relative performance evaluation method is appropriate for this purpose. We first choose 52 CO2 assets around the world as the peer group, and then define the four ranking levels in terms of CO2consumption ratio. Only the final values of CO2consumption ratio for the group are obtained, and therefore cannot be used for an ongoing evaluation during a CO2 EOR asset’s life circle. Consequently, numerical reservoir simulation is employed to quantify the process values corresponding to the four ranking levels. Type curve plots are generated on the basis of the process values and utilized for the ongoing relative performance evaluation of a CO2 EOR asset in China.
Zachariah, Bobby; de Wit, Emma E.; Bahirat, Jyotsna Dnyaneshwar; Bunders-Aelen, Joske F.G.; Regeer, Barbara J.
Youth suicide is a public health problem in India, and young people in school, particularly adolescents, experience heavy psychological burden. Prevention programs, involving peer educators (PEs), have proved useful strategies to address this problem, but their impact on the PEs is less understood,
Ed Lester; Damian Schofield; Peter Chapman
An experiment undertaken with engineering undergraduate students at the University of Nottingham involved 26 groups of three being filmed during a study using a virtual-reality-based problem-solving exercise. After the exercise, each individual filled in a questionnaire relating to the exercise which allowed them to score themselves and their peers for contribution and overall grade. The comparing of video evidence with perceived contributions made it possible to observe patterns of behaviour...
Lemyre, Alexandre; Poliakova, Natalia; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E; Boivin, Michel; Bélanger, Richard E
Cigarette use and binge drinking are risky behaviors emerging during adolescence. Although many beneficial factors are well documented, studies linking shyness to substance use are somehow conflicting, which may be due to the contribution of moderators. Therefore, the present study has 2 objectives: (a) to prospectively analyze the association between shyness and substance use during adolescence, and (b) to test the moderating role of peer group affiliation on the relationship between shyness and substance use. Participants are 1447 adolescents from the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, a representative cohort of single-birth children born between 1997 and 1998 in the province of Quebec, Canada. Shyness was assessed at age 12 years. Peer group affiliation, as well as past year cigarette use and binge drinking were assessed at age 15 years. Logistic regressions were used to analyze the data. All analyses were carried out using weighted data accounting for the complex multistage sample design. Results show that shyness negatively predicts the use of tobacco and the occurrence of binge drinking while controlling for confounding variables. However, shyness does not interact with peer group affiliation in predicting substance use. This is the first study that confirms the presence of a negative relationship between shyness and substance use during adolescence over a 3-year period. Results suggest that shyness could exert a beneficial effect against substance use notwithstanding the adolescent's social context. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Introduction: Teen problems are conditions that need to be considered in national development in Indonesia. Teenagers problems occur, because they are not prepared regarding knowledge of aspects related to the problem of transition from childhood to adulthood. One of the problems faced by teenagers today is about the health of adolescents, especially related to reproductive health. Methods: This study uses a quantitative approach pre experiment with pre - post test design, the purpose of research, construction of models of healthy reproductive learning through peer groups in traditional schools and analyze the application of learning through peer group against knowledge female students about reproductive health. The sample was female students in Boarding school Miftahul Hasan Gunung Sepikul amounted to 50 female students, with purposive sampling technique. Results of analysis using Spearman's rho test ,P value of 0.00 obtained value where the value is < less than 0.05 so it can be concluded that there is a learning effect of reproductive health through peer groups for knowledge female students . Discuss: Boarding schools need to provide curriculum on reproductive health in order to improve the understanding of female students in healthy living behavior associated with reproductive organs.
Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Girard, Alain; Boivin, Michel; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E
Numerous studies have shown that aggressive and non-aggressive antisocial behaviors are important precursors of later adjustment problems. There is also strong empirical evidence that both types of antisocial behavior are partially influenced by genetic factors. However, despite its important theoretical and practical implications, no study has examined the question whether environmental factors differentially moderate the expression of genetic influences on the two types of antisocial behavior. Using a genetically informed design based on 266 monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs, this study examined whether the expression of genetic risk for aggressive and non-aggressive antisocial behavior varies depending on the peer group's injunctive norms (i.e., the degree of acceptability) of each type of antisocial behavior. Self-reported aggressive and non-aggressive antisocial behavior and classroom-based sociometric nominations were collected when participants were 10 years old. Multivariate genetic analyses revealed some common genetic factors influencing both types of antisocial behavior (i.e., general antisocial behavior) as well as genetic influences specific to non-aggressive antisocial behavior. However, genetic influences on general antisocial behavior, as well as specific genetic influences on non-aggressive antisocial behavior, vary depending on the injunctive classroom norms regarding these behaviors. These findings speak to the power of peer group norms in shaping aggressive and non-aggressive antisocial behavior. They also contribute further to understanding the distinctive development of both types of antisocial behavior. Finally, they may have important implications for prevention purposes.
This article reports on an exploratory study of giving medals as part of a peer rating system in a question-and-answer (Q&A) study group on Python, a programming language. There are no professional teachers tutoring learners. The study aimed to understand whether and how medals, awarded to responses in a peer-based learning environment, can…
Dugan, Erin; And Others
Cooperative learning groups were used to integrate two students with autism into a fourth-grade social studies class. Academic performance, academic engagement, peer interactions, and social and behavioral skills were assessed. Benefits were noted both for the target students and their peers for academic outcomes and social interactions. (SW)
Wang, Yanqing; Liang, Yaowen; Liu, Luning; Liu, Ying
Multi-peer assessment has often been used by teachers to reduce personal bias and make the assessment more reliable. This study reviews the design and development of multi-peer assessment systems that detect and solve two common issues in such systems: non-consensus among group members and personal radicalness in some assessments. A multi-peer…
Scott, Dee; Jelsma, Jennifer
The study aimed to investigate whether learning from peers, learning from a clinical educator, or being the peer teacher during clinical group sessions was more effective at enhancing student learning outcomes for different health conditions. A secondary aim was to determine which method students found more satisfactory. Physiotherapy students at…
... Strategies Currently, there is no vaccine to help mothers protect their newborns from group B strep bacteria and disease. Researchers are working on developing a vaccine, which may become available ...
Estrada, Ernesto; Vargas-Estrada, Eusebio
What is the effect of the combined direct and indirect social influences--peer pressure (PP)--on a social group's collective decisions? We present a model that captures PP as a function of the socio-cultural distance between individuals in a social group. Using this model and empirical data from 15 real-world social networks we found that the PP level determines how fast a social group reaches consensus. More importantly, the levels of PP determine the leaders who can achieve full control of their social groups. PP can overcome barriers imposed upon a consensus by the existence of tightly connected communities with local leaders or the existence of leaders with poor cohesiveness of opinions. A moderate level of PP is also necessary to explain the rate at which innovations diffuse through a variety of social groups.
Estrada, Ernesto; Vargas-Estrada, Eusebio
What is the effect of the combined direct and indirect social influences--peer pressure (PP)--on a social group's collective decisions? We present a model that captures PP as a function of the socio-cultural distance between individuals in a social group. Using this model and empirical data from 15 real-world social networks we found that the PP level determines how fast a social group reaches consensus. More importantly, the levels of PP determine the leaders who can achieve full control of their social groups. PP can overcome barriers imposed upon a consensus by the existence of tightly connected communities with local leaders or the existence of leaders with poor cohesiveness of opinions. A moderate level of PP is also necessary to explain the rate at which innovations diffuse through a variety of social groups.
Full Text Available Markus Krautter,1 Sven Andreesen,2 Nadja Köhl-Hackert,2 Katja Hoffmann,3 Wolfgang Herzog,2 Christoph Nikendei2 1Department of Nephrology, University of Heidelberg, 2Department of General Internal Medicine and Psychosomatics, University of Heidelberg Medical Hospital, 3Department of General Practice and Health Services Research, University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany Background: Peer-assisted learning (PAL has become a well-accepted teaching method within medical education. However, descriptions of on-ward PAL programs are rare. A focus group analysis of a newly established PAL program on an internal medicine ward was conducted to provide insights into PAL teaching from a student perspective.Purpose: To provide insights into students' experiences regarding their on-ward training with and without accompanying PAL tutors.Methods: A total of N=168 medical students in their sixth semester participated in the investigation (intervention group: N=88; control group: N=80. The intervention group took part in the PAL program, while the control group received standard on-ward training. There were seven focus groups with N=43 participants (intervention group: four focus groups, N=28 participants; control group: three focus groups, N=15 participants. The discussions were analyzed using content analysis.Results: The intervention group emphasized the role of the tutors as competent and well-trained teachers, most beneficial in supervising clinical skills. Tutors motivate students, help them to integrate into the ward team, and provide a non-fear-based working relationship whereby students' anxiety regarding working on ward decreases. The control group had to rely on autodidactic learning strategies when neither supervising physicians nor final-year students were available.Conclusion: On-ward PAL programs represent a particularly valuable tool for students' support in training clinical competencies on ward. The tutor–student working alliance
Schaubroeck, John M; Peng, Ann C; Hannah, Sean T
We develop a model in which abusive supervision undermines individuals' perceptions of the level of respect they are accorded by their group peers, which in turn reduces their performance and disconnects them psychologically from the organization. High group potency strengthens each of these connections. We studied the theorized relationships across 3 periods during a 10-week residential organizational entry program. Group potency, representing shared group perceptions, moderated relationships at the individual level. These included the negative relationship between abusive supervision (Time 1) and perceived peer respect (Time 2) and the relationship between perceived peer respect and organizational commitment, organizational identification, and turnover intention (Time 3). We found stronger relationships between abusive supervision and perceived peer respect--and between peer respect and the attitudinal outcomes and turnover intention--among groups with higher potency. Perceived peer respect was also positively related to followers' task performance. We discuss implications of the conceptual framework and findings for future research and theory development concerning how groups and individuals respond to abusive supervision and to treatment by their peers. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Pigott, H E; Fantuzzo, J W; Clement, P W
We evaluated the effects of reciprocal peer tutoring combined with group reinforcement contingencies on the arithmetic performance of 12 underachieving fifth-grade students. Results indicated that the intervention increased the students' arithmetic performance to a level indistinguishable from their classmates during treatment and 12-week follow-up phases. Pre-, post-, and follow-up sociometric data indicated that the students who participated in the treatment groups increased their amount of peer affiliation with other treatment group members.
Podschun, G D
Each year, there are approximately 2 million homeless and runaway youths in the United States. On any given night, there are 1,000 homeless youngsters living on the streets of San Diego, CA. Homeless young people are commonly involved in one or more of the following activities that place them at risk for HIV infection--unprotected sexual intercourse, needle-sharing in the use of injectable drugs, sex with someone who injects drugs. The Teen Peer Outreach-Street Work Project trains teen peer educators to work in three existing San Diego youth service programs with street outreach staff members to provide HIV prevention education and referral services to San Diego's homeless youth. Selected teens from the target population also participate in street-based case management that provides skill development to bring about behavioral and attitudinal changes. An HIV outreach program cannot stand alone and is most successful if it is integrated with services that meet the basic needs of its clients. In the three participating youth service programs of the Teen Peer Outreach-Street Work Project, food, clothes, and shelter information are provided. There are shelters in two of the three programs that become places where HIV educational messages, delivered on the street, can be reinforced. Immediate and concrete assistance can be offered to homeless youth. Low literacy among the target population presents a significant obstacle to adequate and appropriate HIV prevention education for homeless youth. Currently, education materials that specifically target homeless youth do not exit. The outreach street project is being expanded to develop materials for homeless youth with low literacy levels.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8464971
Vlašić Tanasković, Jelena; Coucke, Wim; Leniček Krleža, Jasna; Vuković Rodriguez, Jadranka
Laboratory evaluation through external quality assessment (EQA) schemes is often performed as 'peer group' comparison under the assumption that matrix effects influence the comparisons between results of different methods, for analytes where no commutable materials with reference value assignment are available. With EQA schemes that are not large but have many available instruments and reagent options for same analyte, homogenous peer groups must be created with adequate number of results to enable satisfactory statistical evaluation. We proposed a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA)-based test to evaluate heterogeneity of peer groups within the Croatian EQA biochemistry scheme and identify groups where further splitting might improve laboratory evaluation. EQA biochemistry results were divided according to instruments used per analyte and the MANOVA test was used to verify statistically significant differences between subgroups. The number of samples was determined by sample size calculation ensuring a power of 90% and allowing the false flagging rate to increase not more than 5%. When statistically significant differences between subgroups were found, clear improvement of laboratory evaluation was assessed before splitting groups. After evaluating 29 peer groups, we found strong evidence for further splitting of six groups. Overall improvement of 6% reported results were observed, with the percentage being as high as 27.4% for one particular method. Defining maximal allowable differences between subgroups based on flagging rate change, followed by sample size planning and MANOVA, identifies heterogeneous peer groups where further splitting improves laboratory evaluation and enables continuous monitoring for peer group heterogeneity within EQA schemes.
Scantling, Dane; Teichman, Amanda; Kucejko, Robert; McCracken, Brendan; Eakins, James; Burns, Richard
Missing life-threatening injuries is a persistent concern in any trauma program. Autopsy is a tool routinely utilized to determine an otherwise occult cause of death in many fields of medicine. It has been adopted as a required component of the trauma peer review (PR) process by both the American College of Surgeons and the Pennsylvania Trauma Foundation. We hypothesized that autopsy would not identify preventable deaths for augmentation of the PR process. A retrospective chart review using our institutional trauma registry of all trauma deaths between January 2012 and December 2015 was performed. Per the protocol of our level 1 center, all trauma deaths are referred to the medical examiner (ME) and reviewed as part of the trauma PR process. All autopsy results are evaluated with relation to injury severity score (ISS), trauma injury severity score (TRISS), nature of death, and injuries added by autopsy. ME reports are reviewed by the trauma medical director and referred back to the trauma PR committee if warranted. Trauma injury severity score methodology determines the probability of survival (Ps) given injuries identified. A patient with Ps of ≥0.5 is expected to survive their injuries. Cohorts were created based on when in the hospitalization death occurred: 48 h, or late death. A comparison was conducted between the ISS and Ps calculated during trauma workup and on autopsy using chi-square and Fischer's exact tests. A total of 173 patient deaths were referred to the ME with 123 responses received. Average length of stay was 2.61 d. Twenty-six patients had autopsy declined by the ME, 25 received an external examination only, and 72 received a full autopsy. Autopsy identified one case that was reconsidered in PR (P = 0.603) and added diagnoses, but not injuries, to one patient in the early death group (P = 1) and two in the late death group (P = 0.4921). No preventable cause of death was uncovered, and educational use was minimal. Autopsy did identify
Krautter, Markus; Andreesen, Sven; Köhl-Hackert, Nadja; Hoffmann, Katja; Herzog, Wolfgang; Nikendei, Christoph
Peer-assisted learning (PAL) has become a well-accepted teaching method within medical education. However, descriptions of on-ward PAL programs are rare. A focus group analysis of a newly established PAL program on an internal medicine ward was conducted to provide insights into PAL teaching from a student perspective. To provide insights into students' experiences regarding their on-ward training with and without accompanying PAL tutors. A total of N=168 medical students in their sixth semester participated in the investigation (intervention group: N=88; control group: N=80). The intervention group took part in the PAL program, while the control group received standard on-ward training. There were seven focus groups with N=43 participants (intervention group: four focus groups, N=28 participants; control group: three focus groups, N=15 participants). The discussions were analyzed using content analysis. The intervention group emphasized the role of the tutors as competent and well-trained teachers, most beneficial in supervising clinical skills. Tutors motivate students, help them to integrate into the ward team, and provide a non-fear-based working relationship whereby students' anxiety regarding working on ward decreases. The control group had to rely on autodidactic learning strategies when neither supervising physicians nor final-year students were available. On-ward PAL programs represent a particularly valuable tool for students' support in training clinical competencies on ward. The tutor-student working alliance acts through its flat hierarchy. Nevertheless, tutors cannot represent an adequate substitute for experienced physicians.
John Jairo Viafara
Full Text Available In order to become peer-tutors in a B.A program in Modern Languages, a group of EFL (English as a Foreign Language student teachers attended a study and research group in a university. Throughout their participation, prospective teachers collaborated and reflected by means of tasks completion and dialogue to learn the theory and practice of tutoring and research. Additionally, participants provided survey, journal and interview data to contribute with the exploration of how their group membership shaped them academically and personally. Results suggested that student teachers increased their knowledge of English due to their use of real-life group dynamics, among others. Furthermore, they updated and expanded their competencies to monitor pedagogical situations, design strategies and solve problems.
Elsey, Helen; Owiredu, Elizabeth; Thomson, Heather; Mann, Gemma; Mehta, Rashesh; Siddiqi, Kamran
Social norms approaches (SNA) are based on the premise that we frequently overestimate risk behaviours among our peers. By conducting campaigns to reduce these misperceptions, SNAs aim to reduce risk behaviours. This study examines the extent to which 12 to 13year old pupils overestimate smoking among their peers and explores the appropriateness of using SNA in secondary schools to prevent smoking uptake. The extent of overestimation of smoking among peers was assessed through an on-line SNA questionnaire in five schools (n=595). Based on questionnaire results, pupils developed SNA campaigns in each school. Qualitative methods of focus groups (7), interviews (7) and observation were used to explore in-depth, from the perspective of staff and pupils, the appropriateness and feasibility of the SNA to prevent smoking uptake in secondary schools. A quarter of pupils, 25.9% (95% CI 25.6% to 26.1%) believed that most of their peers smoked, however, only 3% (95% CI 2.8% to 3.3%) reported that they actually did; a difference of 22.9% (95% CI 19.1% to 26.6%). Self-reported smoking was not significantly different between schools (X(2)=8.7 p=0.064), however, perceptions of year group smoking was significantly different across schools (X(2)=63.9 ppeers in secondary schools, thus supporting a key premise of social norms theory. Implementing SNAs and studying effects is feasible within secondary schools. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Eaton, Julian; Bouras, Nick; Jones, Lynne; Hanlon, Charlotte; Stewart, Rob; Patel, Vikram
Regular appraisal and revalidation are now a routine part of professional life for doctors in the UK. For British-trained psychiatrists working abroad (in either development/humanitarian or academic fields) this is a cause of insecurity, as most of the processes of revalidation are tailored to those working in the standard structures of the National Health Service. This article explores the degree to which a peer group for psychiatrists working abroad has achieved its aim of helping its members to fulfil their revalidation requirements. It gives recommendations for how those considering work abroad can maximise their chances of remaining recognised under the revalidation system.
Full Text Available The authors study levels of sustainable development potential and determine the positions of Ukraine and other countries in the peer-groups , based on individual macroeconomic indicators. The research includes a comparative analysis of absolute and relative terms of GDP, industrial production and the index of competitiveness for the countries included to the peer-groups. The authors analyse the position of countries based on the GDP per capita and components of sustainable development (Quality of Life Index and Security of Life Index. In the article, the authors suggest the methodical approach of performing the comparative analysis of peer-group countries based on their indicators values. This approach gives the possibility to investigate the country’s potential in the limits of the chosen peer-group and propose the recommendations for increase of economic potential in purpose of sustainable development achievement.
Full Text Available An experiment undertaken with engineering undergraduate students at the University of Nottingham involved 26 groups of three being filmed during a study using a virtual-reality-based problem-solving exercise. After the exercise, each individual filled in a questionnaire relating to the exercise which allowed them to score themselves and their peers for contribution and overall grade. The comparing of video evidence with perceived contributions made it possible to observe patterns of behaviour based on temperament dominance. This ‘dominance’ was based on two simple parameters extracted from an electronic version of the Myers-Briggs test: first, the time taken to complete the study, called ‘decisiveness’, and secondly, the degree of Extroversion/Introversion. The more decisive subjects received higher marks from their peers, despite the absence of any video evidence that they had actually contributed more than their peers. The most dominant extroverts appear to ‘do more’ with respect to the physical operation of the mouse/keyboard and interaction with the visual simulation during the virtual-reality exercise. However, there was no link with these simple temperament measures with the degree of enjoyment of the tasks, which appeared to be highly consistent. The authors do not argue that visual-media tools, such as the virtual-reality environment described in this article, might offer solutions to problems associated with group work in engineering, but rather that information regarding the character traits of the participants may help to create more effective teams and to help understand the inter-personal dynamics within teams undertaking such tasks.
Schmidt, Megan R; Lisco, Claire G; Parrott, Dominic J; Tharp, Andra T
The present study sought to examine the interactive effects of an external locus of control and interaction in a negative peer group climate on men's perpetration of physical aggression and infliction of injury toward their female intimate partners. Participants were 206 heterosexual males recruited from the metro-Atlanta community who completed self-report measures of external locus of control, involvement in a negative peer group climate, and physical aggression and infliction of injury against intimate partners during the past 12 months. Negative peer group climate was conceptualized as a peer group that displays behavior which may instigate aggressive norms, attitudes, and behaviors. Results indicated that men with an external locus of control were more likely to perpetrate physical aggression toward and inflict injury on their intimate partners if they reported high, but not low, involvement in a negative peer group climate. These results extend current research suggesting external locus of control as a risk factor for intimate partner aggression by highlighting the impact of negative peer groups. Implications and future intervention research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.
João R. Daniel
Full Text Available We used stochastic actor-based models to test whether the developmental dynamics of friendships and antipathies in preschool peer groups (followed throughout three school years were co-dependent. We combined choices from three sociometric tasks of 142 children to identify friendship and antipathy ties and used SIENA to model network dynamics. Our results show that different social processes drive the development of friendship and antipathy ties, and that they do not develop in association (i.e., friendship ties are not dependent on existing antipathies, and vice-versa. These results differ from those of older children (age range = 10-14 suggesting that the interplay of friendship and antipathy only plays a significant role in the peer group context in older children. We propose these differences to be likely related with preschool age children’s inaccurate perceptions of their classmates’ relationships, particularly of their antipathies, and/or with the absence of shared norms to deal with antipathetic relationships.
Julià Cano, Albert; Escapa Solanas, Sandra; Marí-Klose, Marga; Marí-Klose, Pau
There are multiple factors that can affect the risk of tobacco use in adolescence. By analyzing these factors together we can disentangle the specific relevance of each of them in shaping teenagers' individual behavior. The goal of this research study is to deepen our understanding of the relationship between tobacco use in adolescence and socio-demographic and socio-emotional variables. We worked with a representative sample of 2,289 Catalan teenagers (aged 15-18) who responded to a questionnaire drawn up by the Families and Children Panel. Regression models were developed to assess the statistical associations of different mood states (sadness, nervousness and loneliness), peer-group characteristics and parenting styles, with tobacco use. The results indicate that addictive behavior is more likely when teenagers show negative mood states, controlling for socio-demographic variables and other risk factors. Among these additional factors, authoritative parenting styles reduce the risk of tobacco use, compared to authoritarian, permissive and neglectful parenting. Extensive tobacco use within the peer group is the risk factor most strongly associated with teenagers' individual behavior.
Kasari, Connie; Dean, Michelle; Kretzmann, Mark; Shih, Wendy; Orlich, Felice; Whitney, Rondalyn; Landa, Rebecca; Lord, Catherine; King, Bryan
Peer relationships improve for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in clinic-based social skills groups but rarely generalize to real world contexts. This study compares child outcomes of two social skills interventions conducted in schools with children in Kindergarten through fifth grade. Children with ASD were randomized to one of two interventions that varied on group composition (mixed typical and ASD vs. all ASD or social difficulties) and intervention approach (didactic SKILLS based vs. activity-based ENGAGE groups). Interventions were implemented at school for 8 weeks (16 sessions) with an 8-week follow-up. Innovative measures of peer nomination and playground peer engagement, as well as teacher reports of child behavior problems and teacher-child relationship were analyzed for 137 children with ASD across four sites. On the primary outcome of social network connections from the peer nomination measure, there was no main effect of treatment, but there were moderator effects. Children with low teacher-child closeness or high conflict improved more in their social connections if they received the SKILLS intervention, whereas children with higher teacher-child closeness improved more if they received the ENGAGE intervention. Only two secondary outcome measures yielded significant effects of treatment. Children in the SKILLS groups increased peer engagement and decreased isolation during recess. Child behavior problems and teacher-child closeness moderated peer engagement such that children with higher behavior problems and lower closeness benefitted more from SKILLS groups. These findings suggest that social skills groups conducted at school can affect both peer engagement during recess as well as peer acceptability. Child characteristics and teacher-child relationship prior to intervention yield important information on who might benefit from a specific social skills intervention. © 2015 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
Cousson-Gélie, Florence; Lareyre, Olivier; Margueritte, Maryline; Paillart, Julie; Huteau, Marie-Eve; Djoufelkit, Kela; Pereira, Bruno; Stoebner, Anne
In France, the issue of youth smoking remains a major challenge for public health. School failure, socio-economic and socio-cultural backgrounds influence the initiation and maintenance of smoking behavior in adolescents. Vocational students are at particularly high risk of using psychoactive substances, including tobacco. One of the most important factors is the environment, whether family, friends or peers. Therefore, peer education has a positive potential to change smoking behavior of adolescents. It has also been demonstrated that the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) has yielded the best prediction of intentions and behavior, in several health domains, including on tobacco. However, it is usually confined to the measurement of processes by which interventions change behavior, rather than to the development of these interventions. The objective of this paper is to describe the protocol for a randomized controlled trial of a peer intervention based on the TPB on a highly exposed young population. This is a cluster randomized controlled trial comparing an intervention group to a control group, randomized into clusters (professional schools and classes) and stratified in three departments (Hérault, Aude and Gard) in the Languedoc-Roussillon region. The primary issue is the prevalence of daily smoking at 24 months, defined by a daily tobacco use of at least 1 cigarette, validated by CO levels in exhaled air. The primary hypothesis is that intervention will lead to decrease the daily smoking prevalence of 10% between the intervention group and the control group during a 2-year follow-up. The results from this trial will provide evidence on the effectiveness of an innovative peer-to-peer intervention based on the TPB. ISRCTN: 37336035 , Retrospectively registered 11/12/2015.
Keifenheim, Katharina Eva; Petzold, Ernst Richard; Junne, Florian; Erschens, Rebecca Sarah; Speiser, Natalie; Herrmann-Werner, Anne; Zipfel, Stephan; Teufel, Martin
Background and Objectives: Among the clinical skills needed by all physicians, history taking is one of the most important. The teaching model for peer-assisted history-taking groups investigated in the present study consists of small-group courses in which students practice conducting medical interviews with real patients. The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate the expectations, experiences, and subjective learning progress of participants in peer-assisted history-taking groups. Methods: The 42 medical student participants completed a 4-month, peer-assisted, elective history-taking course, which both began and ended with a subjective assessment of their interview skills by way of a pseudonymized questionnaire. Measures comprised the students' self-assessment of their interview skills, their expectations of, and their experiences with the course and especially with the peer tutors. Results: Medical students' most important motivations in attending peer-assisted history-taking groups were becoming able to complete a structured medical interview, to mitigate difficult interviewing situations, and to address patients' emotional demands appropriately. By the end of the course, students' self-assessment of both their interview skills and management of emotional issues improved significantly. Students especially benefitted from individual feedback regarding interview style and relationship formation, as well as generally accepted and had their expectations met by peer tutors. Conclusions: To meet the important learning objectives of history-taking and management of emotional issues, as well as self-reflection and reflection of student-patient interactions, students in the field greatly appreciate practicing medical interviewing in small, peer-assisted groups with real patients. At the same time, peer tutors are experienced to be helpful and supportive and can help students to overcome inhibitions in making contact with patients.
Cinderey, Lynn Elizabeth
This research starts with a set of practical research questions to investigate a problem which occurs in some computing undergraduate modules that use group work as part of the learning and assessment strategy. In this study final year students with experience in information systems project work and trained in team processes met with small groups of first year computing students with the aim of turning the first year project group into a team. This study seeks to explore the experience of the final year students as they take on the role of peer tutor looking at the problems they perceive within the first year teams and the skills and knowledge they use to help them. The study includes the recruitment and training of final year students (n=9) and allocation to first year teams. The final year students acted as co-researchers and team leaders in L4 Information Systems project work and recorded their thoughts and observations in a diary during the first semester of 2008/9 academic year. Diary data was supplemented by interview data from a sample of final year students (n=4). The sample was selected based on the richness of the data provided in the diaries and the number of meetings held with their teams. Rich data and thick descriptions were essential for a phenomenological examination of the experience of the final year students. A number of findings emerged. A critical approach to analysis revealed ongoing conflicts occurred across cultural divides within the first year teams that final year leaders did not articulate or appear fully aware of. This had important implications for individual team members. Other findings which relate to issues of changing levels of motivation in the teams over the ten weeks, roles adopted by the leaders, ability to systematize the project or team processes and the ability to reflect on unsuccessful strategies also had implications for peer mentoring training and support. The picture that emerged from the data suggested that lack of
Scharett, Emma; Madathil, Kapil Chalil; Lopes, Snehal; Rogers, Hunter; Agnisarman, Sruthy; Narasimha, Shraddhaa; Ashok, Aparna; Dye, Cheryl
Caregivers of Alzheimer's patients find respite in online communities for solutions and emotional support. This study aims to understand the characteristics of information caregivers of Alzheimer's patients are searching for and the kind of support they receive through Internet-based peer support communities. Using a Web crawler written in Python Web programming language, we retrieved publicly available 2,500 random posts and their respective solutions from April 2012 to October 2016 on the solutions category of the Caregiver's Forum on ALZConnected.org . A content analysis was conducted on these randomly selected posts and 4,219 responses to those posts based on a classification system were derived from initial analyses of 750 posts and related responses. The results showed most posts (26%) related to queries about Alzheimer's symptoms, and the highest percentage of responses (45.56%) pertained to caregiver well-being. The LIWC analyses generated an average tone rating of 27.27 for the posts, implying a negative tone and 65.17 for their responses, implying a slightly positive tone. The ALZConnected.org Web site has the potential of being an emotionally supportive tool for caregivers; however, a more user-friendly interface is required to accommodate the needs of most caregivers and their technological skills. Solutions offered on the peer support groups are often subjective opinions of other caregivers and should not be considered professional or comprehensive; further research on educating caregivers using online forums is necessary.
AbdelSalam, Maha; El Tantawi, Maha; Al-Ansari, Asim; AlAgl, Adel; Al-Harbi, Fahad
To describe peer-assisted learning (PAL) groups formed by dental undergraduate students in a biomedical course and to investigate the association of individual and group characteristics with academic performance. In 2015, 92 fourth-year students (43 males and 49 females) in the College of Dentistry, University of Dammam, Saudi Arabia, were invited to form PAL groups to study a unit of a biomedical course. An examination was used to assess their knowledge after 2 weeks. In addition, a questionnaire and social network analysis were used to investigate (1) individual student attributes: gender, role, subject matter knowledge, grade in previous year, teaming with friends, previous communication with teammates, and content discussion, and (2) group attributes: group teacher's previous grade, number of colleagues with whom a student connected, teaming with friends, similarity of teammates' previous grades, and teacher having higher previous grades than other teammates. Regression analysis was used to assess the association of examination scores with individual and group attributes. The response rate was 80.4% (74 students: 36 males and 38 females). Students who previously scored grades A and B had higher examination scores than students with grades C/less (regression coefficient = 18.50 and 13.39) within the groups. Higher scores were not associated with working in groups including friends only (regression coefficient = 1.17) or when all students had similar previous grades (regression coefficient = 0.85). Students with previous high grades benefited to a greater extent from working in PAL groups. Similarity of teammates in PAL groups was not associated with better scores. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Menting, B.; van Lier, P.A.C.; Koot, H.M.
Difficulties in peer acceptance during elementary school have been associated with emotional and behavioural problems. This study used a randomized controlled intervention design to test whether improvements in peer acceptance mediated reduced rates of emotional and behavioural problems in
Conway, Christopher C.; Rancourt, Diana; Adelman, Caroline B.; Burk, William J.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.
Tests of interpersonal theories of depression have established that elevated depression levels among peers portend increases in individuals’ own depressive symptoms, a phenomenon known as depression socialization. Susceptibility to this socialization effect may be enhanced during the transition to adolescence as the strength of peer influence rises dramatically. Socialization of depressive symptoms among members of child and adolescent friendship groups was examined over a 1-year period among 648 youth in grades six through eight. Sociometric methods were utilized to identify friendship groups and ascertain the prospective effect of group-level depressive symptoms on youths’ own depressive symptoms. Hierarchical linear modeling results revealed a significant socialization effect and indicated that this effect was most potent for (a) girls and (b) individuals on the periphery of friendship groups. Future studies would benefit from incorporating child and adolescent peer groups as a developmentally salient context for interpersonal models of depression. PMID:21842961
In this paper, I report on an examination of the rhetoric and implementation of peer education in Myanmar. I demonstrate that while there was widespread consistency on interviewees' views of what peer education should involve, there was a significant gap between this rhetoric and the ways in which peer education was implemented, particularly in…
Treloar, Carla; Rance, Jake; Laybutt, Becky; Crawford, Sione
Despite advances in understanding the structural contexts in which drug use occurs and shifts beyond the individual-level focus of adult education theory, peer education models remain wedded to questions of individual behaviour. Our analysis examines the structural context of peer education and its implications for peer training. People who inject…
Burke, H. M.; Pedersen, K. F.; Williamson, N. E.
Youth peer education (YPE) programs are a popular strategy for HIV prevention in sub-Saharan Africa. However, research on the effectiveness of YPE programs is scarce and the wide variation in programs makes it difficult to generalize research findings. Measuring quality and comparing program effectiveness require the use of standardized…
Schwartz, David; Lansford, Jennifer E; Dodge, Kenneth A; Pettit, Gregory S; Bates, John E
This article presents a prospective investigation focusing on the moderating role of peer victimization on associations between harsh home environments in the preschool years and academic trajectories during elementary school. The participants were 388 children (198 boys, 190 girls) who we recruited as part of an ongoing multisite longitudinal investigation. Preschool home environment was assessed with structured interviews and questionnaires completed by parents. Peer victimization was assessed with a peer nomination inventory that was administered when the average age of the participants was approximately 8.5 years. Grade point averages (GPAs) were obtained from reviews of school records, conducted for 7 consecutive years. Indicators of restrictive punitive discipline and exposure to violence were associated with within-subject declines in academic functioning over 7 years. However, these effects were exacerbated for those children who had also experienced victimization in the peer group during the intervening years. (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Coogan, Brenda Anne; Kehle, Thomas J.; Bray, Melissa A.; Chafouleas, Sandra M.
Considerable research has demonstrated the effectiveness of interdependent and unknown dependent group contingencies on reducing inappropriate classroom behavior. Several investigators have focused on the addition of self-monitoring and peer feedback to these interdependent and unknown dependent group contingencies in order to further improve…
Schünemann, Nina; Spörer, Nadine; Völlinger, Vanessa A.; Brunstein, Joachim C.
The goal of this research was to highlight the role social regulatory processes play in making students' teamwork in reciprocal teaching (RT) groups (a classroom activity in which students take the teacher's role in small group reading sessions) effective. In addition to teamwork quality, we expected peer feedback to be a key factor in enhancing…
Engels, Y.; Verheijen, Nicole; Fleuren, M; Mokkink, Henk; Grol, R.
OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of small group continuous quality improvement (CQI) on the clinical practice of midwives in the Netherlands. DESIGN: Randomised pre-/post-test (balanced block). INTERVENTION: The CQI groups were assigned to either the set of peer review topics including 'perineal
Engels, Y.; Verheijen, N.; Fleuren, M.; Mokkink, H.; Grol, R.
Objective: To study the effects of small group continuous quality improvement (CQI) on the clinical practice of midwives in the Netherlands. Design: Randomised pre-/post-test (balanced block). Intervention: The CQI groups were assigned to either the set of peer review topics including 'perineal
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We performed a qualitative study among women within 5 years of Gestational Diabetes (GDM diagnosis. Our aim was to identify the key elements that would enhance participation in a type 2 diabetes (DM2 prevention program. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Potential participants received up to three invitation letters from their GDM physician. Four focus groups were held. Discussants were invited to comment on potential facilitators/barriers to participation and were probed on attitudes towards meal replacement and Internet/social media tools. Recurring themes were identified through qualitative content analysis of discussion transcripts. RESULTS: Among the 1,201 contacted and 79 eligible/interested, 29 women attended a focus group discussion. More than half of discussants were overweight/obese, and less than half were physically active. For DM2 prevention, a strong need for social support to achieve changes in dietary and physical activity habits was expressed. In this regard, face-to-face interactions with peers and professionals were preferred, with adjunctive roles for Internet/social media. Further, direct participation of partners/spouses in a DM2 prevention program was viewed as important to enhance support for behavioural change at home. Discussants highlighted work and child-related responsibilities as potential barriers to participation, and emphasized the importance of childcare support to allow attendance. Meal replacements were viewed with little interest, with concerns that their use would provide a poor example of eating behaviour to children. CONCLUSIONS: Among women within 5 years of a GDM diagnosis who participated in a focus group discussion, participation in a DM2 prevention program would be enhanced by face-to-face interactions with professionals and peers, provision of childcare support, and inclusion of spouses/partners.
Dasgupta, Kaberi; Da Costa, Deborah; Pillay, Sabrina; De Civita, Mirella; Gougeon, Réjeanne; Leong, Aaron; Bacon, Simon; Stotland, Stephen; Chetty, V Tony; Garfield, Natasha; Majdan, Agnieszka; Meltzer, Sara
We performed a qualitative study among women within 5 years of Gestational Diabetes (GDM) diagnosis. Our aim was to identify the key elements that would enhance participation in a type 2 diabetes (DM2) prevention program. Potential participants received up to three invitation letters from their GDM physician. Four focus groups were held. Discussants were invited to comment on potential facilitators/barriers to participation and were probed on attitudes towards meal replacement and Internet/social media tools. Recurring themes were identified through qualitative content analysis of discussion transcripts. Among the 1,201 contacted and 79 eligible/interested, 29 women attended a focus group discussion. More than half of discussants were overweight/obese, and less than half were physically active. For DM2 prevention, a strong need for social support to achieve changes in dietary and physical activity habits was expressed. In this regard, face-to-face interactions with peers and professionals were preferred, with adjunctive roles for Internet/social media. Further, direct participation of partners/spouses in a DM2 prevention program was viewed as important to enhance support for behavioural change at home. Discussants highlighted work and child-related responsibilities as potential barriers to participation, and emphasized the importance of childcare support to allow attendance. Meal replacements were viewed with little interest, with concerns that their use would provide a poor example of eating behaviour to children. Among women within 5 years of a GDM diagnosis who participated in a focus group discussion, participation in a DM2 prevention program would be enhanced by face-to-face interactions with professionals and peers, provision of childcare support, and inclusion of spouses/partners.
Pallaveshi, Luljeta; Balachandra, Krishna; Subramanian, Priya; Rudnick, Abraham
This pilot study evaluated the experience of people with co-occurring disorders (mental illness and addiction) in relation to peer-led and professional-led group interventions. The study used a qualitative (phenomenological) approach to evaluate the experience of a convenience sample of 6 individuals with co-occurring disorders who participated in up to 8 sessions each of both peer-led and professional-led group interventions (with a similar rate of attendance in both groups). The semi-structured interview data were coded and thematically analyzed. We found 5 themes within and across the 2 interventions. In both groups, participants experienced a positive environment and personal growth, and learned, albeit different things. They were more comfortable in the peer-led group and acquired more knowledge and skills in the professional-led group. Offering both peer-led and professional-led group interventions to people with co-occurring disorders may be better than offering either alone.
Smith, Mark A; Pitts, Elizabeth G
selection models of substance use propose that individuals choose or self-select into peer groups based on shared substance use histories. Few experimental studies have examined the role of selection in substance use, possibly because few preclinical models allow subjects to choose or select individuals based on a shared self-administration history. In the present study, we used custom-built, three-compartment, operant conditioning chambers that permitted multiple rats to self-administer cocaine simultaneously in the same session. Rats assigned to the center compartment had access to two response levers, each in close physical proximity to one of its partners. In one group, a rat with access to cocaine was assigned to the center compartment and flanked by one rat with access to cocaine and one rat without access. In a second group, a rat without access to cocaine was assigned to the center compartment and flanked by one rat with access to cocaine and one rat without access. In the first group, rats with access to cocaine emitted more responses on the lever in close proximity to the other rat with access to cocaine; in the second group, rats without access to cocaine emitted more responses on the lever in close proximity to the other rat without access. These preferences were not apparent immediately but developed gradually over the course of several days of testing. These data suggest that rats prefer to be in close physical proximity to another rat with a shared behavioral history during periods of drug self-administration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available El Salvador was one of three countries to receive funding from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria to conduct a combination HIV prevention intervention among transwomen (TW, men who have sex with men (MSM, and commercial sex workers (CSW. Program evaluation revealed that prevention activities reached only 50% of the target population. The purpose of this study is to examine the barriers that Salvadoran educators faced in implementing the peer education as designed and adaptations made as a result. Between March and June 2015, 18 in-depth interviews with educators were conducted. Violence was reported as the biggest barrier to intervention implementation. Other barriers differed by subpopulation. The level of violence and discrimination calls into question the feasibility and appropriateness of peer-led interventions in the Salvadoran context and demonstrates the importance of implementation research when translating HIV prevention interventions developed in high-income countries to low- and middle-income countries.
Vermeersch, Hans; T'Sjoen, Guy; Kaufman, J M; Vincke, J; Van Houtte, Mieke
Although the role of testosterone in the aetiology of social dominance is often suggested, surprisingly few studies have addressed the relationship between sex steroid hormones and dominance as a personality trait. In this paper, the relationship between testosterone and dominance is studied in a sample of adolescent boys and girls, taking into account the moderating role of gender ideology and same-sex peer group orientation. A direct association between free testosterone (FT) and dominance was found in girls but not in boys. In boys, masculine ideology moderated the relationship between FT and dominance, while in girls the relationship between FT and dominance was moderated by same-sex peer group affiliation.
Spicer, Rebecca S; Miller, Ted R
PeerCare is a workplace peer intervention program that focuses on changing workplace attitudes toward on-the-job substance use and trains workers to recognize, intervene with, and refer coworkers who have a problem. Monthly injuries at the study company (January 1983 through June 1996) were compared to counts at four other companies in the same industry. Using these panel data, fixed-effects negative binomial regression measured the association of the percentage of the workforce covered by PeerCare with the workplace injury rate. For every 1% increase in the workforce covered with PeerCare, the risk of injury declined by 0.9984 (95% confidence interval, 0.9975-0.9994). These findings suggest that, by June 1996, when 86% of the workforce was covered under PeerCare, the program had reduced injury rates by an average 14% per month. The findings support the implementation of peer intervention programs as a means to reduce workplace injuries.
Hawkins, Renee O.; Musti-Rao, Shobana; Hughes, Cynthia; Berry, Laura; McGuire, Shannon
Researchers have documented the positive effects of classwide peer tutoring on academic performance, engagement, and other social behaviors of students with and without disabilities. Commonly, in classwide peer tutoring, students are paired and the class is divided in half. Points are awarded for tutoring behavior and academic responding during…
Bruffee, Kenneth A.
The use of a peer tutoring writing program to promote intellectual growth and critical judgment at Brooklyn College is described. The plan makes expository writing the focus of peer influence. Its satisfactory effect on both tutors and tutees and its method of operation are discussed. (LBH)
Yusuf, Imran H; Ridyard, Edward; Fung, Timothy H M; Sipkova, Zuzana; Patel, Chetan K
To describe the conception and evaluation of a novel educational intervention to teach direct ophthalmoscopy with retinal simulators using a peer-assessed group objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) format. Prospective, single-centre educational trial at Oxford University Medical School, Oxford, U.K. A total of 160 consecutive undergraduate fifth-year medical students participated in the study. Students identified prior experience, teaching, examination, and feedback relevant to direct ophthalmoscopy. Students self-evaluated their perceived confidence across 6 domains of direct ophthalmoscopy examination before and after the educational intervention using a Likert-type psychometric scale. Wilcoxon matched pair testing was used to determine statistical significance for each domain. The group OSCE intervention increased confidence in direct ophthalmoscopy overall from 2.5% to 63.8% (p OSCE format, is effective in increasing confidence in all aspects of direct ophthalmoscopy. It may be insufficient alone for training in the identification and interpretation of posterior segment clinical signs. Diminishing ophthalmology clerkships worldwide require ophthalmologists to identify innovative teaching methods, using modern technology and pedagogy to deliver high-quality, yet high-throughput, training in direct ophthalmoscopy. This novel teaching strategy may be considered by ophthalmologists responsible for direct ophthalmoscopy training in a teaching hospital context. Copyright © 2017 Canadian Ophthalmological Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kaya, Taciser; Goksel Karatepe, Altinay; Atici Ozturk, Pinar; Gunaydin, Rezzan
To determine the effect of peer-led group education on the quality of life and depression in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Eighty patients with definite AS were allocated randomly to either the education or control group. The education group (n = 40) was subjected to a peer-led group education program about disease and was given an educational booklet, while the control group (n = 40) was given the educational booklet only. Levels of quality of life and depression were measured at baseline, immediately after education (fourth week) and at 6 months in both groups. The results are based on 56 (n = 27, education group; n = 29, control group) patients. The level of quality of life and depressive symptoms were not changed except for a deterioration in the social functioning subgroup of Short From (SF)-36 in both groups. When the groups were compared, there were no significant differences between changes in social functioning scores. Peer-led education did not alter quality of life levels and depression scores. However, because of the maintainance of quality of life levels, this type of intervention may be considered as a supplementary intervention to the standard medical care for management of AS. © 2013 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Scheepers, Daan; Ellemers, Naomi; Sassenberg, Kai
This research examines how group status affects the impact of individual power positions on promotion versus prevention choices in group decision making. We consider that high power not only implies control, but also indicates responsibility for the achievement of group goals. We argue that the nature of these goals depends on the current status of the group. In Experiment 1, individuals who were accorded high power showed more promotion-oriented decisions in the low group status condition while decisions were more prevention oriented under high group status. Experiment 2 replicated these effects, and further demonstrated that they only emerge when those in power are explicitly made accountable for the achievement of group goals. These results are discussed in relation to regulatory focus theory, power theories, and the role of social identities and group goals in group dynamics. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.
There is a considerable body of empirical research that has identified adolescent peer relationships as a primary factor involved in adolescent cigarette smoking. Despite this large research base, many questions remain unanswered about the mechanisms by which peers affect youths' smoking behavior. Understanding these processes of influence is key to the development of prevention and intervention programs designed to address adolescent smoking as a significant public health concern. In this paper, theoretical frameworks and empirical findings are reviewed critically which inform the current state of knowledge regarding peer influences on teenage smoking. Specifically, social learning theory, primary socialization theory, social identity theory and social network theory are discussed. Empirical findings regarding peer influence and selection, as well as multiple reference points in adolescent friendships, including best friendships, romantic relationships, peer groups and social crowds, are also reviewed. Review of this work reveals the contribution that peers have in adolescents' use of tobacco, in some cases promoting use, and in other cases deterring it. This review also suggests that peer influences on smoking are more subtle than commonly thought and need to be examined more carefully, including consideration of larger social contexts, e.g. the family, neighborhood, and media. Recommendations for future investigations are made, as well as suggestions for specific methodological approaches that offer promise for advancing our knowledge of the contribution of peers on adolescent tobacco use.
Miller, Ted R; Zaloshnja, Eduard; Spicer, Rebecca S
Few studies have evaluated the impact of workplace substance abuse prevention programs on occupational injury, despite this being a justification for these programs. This paper estimates the effectiveness and benefit-cost ratio of a peer-based substance abuse prevention program at a U.S. transportation company, implemented in phases from 1988 to 1990. The program focuses on changing workplace attitudes toward on-the-job substance use in addition to training workers to recognize and intervene with coworkers who have a problem. The program was strengthened by federally mandated random drug and alcohol testing (implemented, respectively, in 1990 and 1994). With time-series analysis, we analyzed the association of monthly injury rates and costs with phased program implementation, controlling for industry injury trend. The combination of the peer-based program and testing was associated with an approximate one-third reduction in injury rate, avoiding an estimated $48 million in employer costs in 1999. That year, the peer-based program cost the company $35 and testing cost another $35 per employee. The program avoided an estimated $1850 in employer injury costs per employee in 1999, corresponding to a benefit-cost ratio of 26:1. The findings suggest that peer-based programs buttressed by random testing can be cost-effective in the workplace.
Gómez-Pardo, Emilia; Fernández-Alvira, Juan Miguel; Vilanova, Marta; Haro, Domingo; Martínez, Ramona; Carvajal, Isabel; Carral, Vanesa; Rodríguez, Carla; de Miguel, Mercedes; Bodega, Patricia; Santos-Beneit, Gloria; Peñalvo, Jose Luis; Marina, Iñaki; Pérez-Farinós, Napoleón; Dal Re, Marian; Villar, Carmen; Robledo, Teresa; Vedanthan, Rajesh; Bansilal, Sameer; Fuster, Valentin
Cardiovascular diseases stem from modifiable risk factors. Peer support is a proven strategy for many chronic illnesses. Randomized trials assessing the efficacy of this strategy for global cardiovascular risk factor modification are lacking. This study assessed the hypothesis that a peer group strategy would help improve healthy behaviors in individuals with cardiovascular risk factors. A total of 543 adults 25 to 50 years of age with at least 1 risk factor were recruited; risk factors included hypertension (20%), overweight (82%), smoking (31%), and physical inactivity (81%). Subjects were randomized 1:1 to a peer group-based intervention group (IG) or a self-management control group (CG) for 12 months. Peer-elected leaders moderated monthly meetings involving role-play, brainstorming, and activities to address emotions, diet, and exercise. The primary outcome was mean change in a composite score related to blood pressure, exercise, weight, alimentation, and tobacco (Fuster-BEWAT score, 0 to 15). Multilevel models with municipality as a cluster variable were applied to assess differences between groups. Participants' mean age was 42 ± 6 years, 71% were female, and they had a mean baseline Fuster-BEWAT score of 8.42 ± 2.35. After 1 year, the mean scores were significantly higher in the IG (n = 277) than in the CG (n = 266) (IG mean score: 8.84; 95% confidence interval (CI): 8.37 to 9.32; CG mean score: 8.17; 95% CI: 7.55 to 8.79; p = 0.02). The increase in the overall score was significantly larger in the IG compared with the CG (difference: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.32 to 1.18; p = 0.02). The mean improvement in the individual components was uniformly greater in the IG, with a significant difference for the tobacco component. The peer group intervention had beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors, with significant improvements in the overall score and specifically on tobacco cessation. A follow-up assessment will be performed 1 year after the final assessment
Jostad, Candice M; Miltenberger, Raymond G; Kelso, Pamela; Knudson, Peter
Hundreds of accidental injuries and deaths to children occur annually in the United States as a result of firearm play. Behavioral skills training (BST) and in situ training have been found to be effective in teaching children the skills to use if they find a firearm, but training requires substantial time and effort. The current study examined the use of peers as tutors as a potential way to decrease the time and resources needed to teach these safety skills to youngsters. Peer trainers conducted BST and in situ training with other children. Children taught by the peer trainers acquired the safety skills and demonstrated them in naturalistic situations in which the skills were needed. Furthermore, all of the peer trainers acquired and maintained the skills. These results support the use of peer tutoring for teaching safety skills to other children.
Jostad, Candice M; Miltenberger, Raymond G; Kelso, Pamela; Knudson, Peter
Hundreds of accidental injuries and deaths to children occur annually in the United States as a result of firearm play. Behavioral skills training (BST) and in situ training have been found to be effective in teaching children the skills to use if they find a firearm, but training requires substantial time and effort. The current study examined the use of peers as tutors as a potential way to decrease the time and resources needed to teach these safety skills to youngsters. Peer trainers conducted BST and in situ training with other children. Children taught by the peer trainers acquired the safety skills and demonstrated them in naturalistic situations in which the skills were needed. Furthermore, all of the peer trainers acquired and maintained the skills. These results support the use of peer tutoring for teaching safety skills to other children. PMID:18468285
Full Text Available Here we describe a semester-long, multipart activity called “Read and wRite to reveal the Research process” (R3 that was designed to teach students the elements of a scientific research paper. We implemented R3 in an advanced immunology course. In R3, we paralleled the activities of reading, discussion, and presentation of relevant immunology work from primary research papers with student writing, discussion, and presentation of their own lab findings. We used reading, discussing, and writing activities to introduce students to the rationale for basic components of a scientific research paper, the method of composing a scientific paper, and the applications of course content to scientific research. As a final part of R3, students worked collaboratively to construct a Group Research Paper that reported on a hypothesis-driven research project, followed by a peer review activity that mimicked the last stage of the scientific publishing process. Assessment of student learning revealed a statistically significant gain in student performance on writing in the style of a research paper from the start of the semester to the end of the semester.
Kasari, Connie; Dean, Michelle; Kretzmann, Mark; Shih, Wendy; Orlich, Felice; Whitney, Rondalyn; Landa, Rebecca; Lord, Catherine; King, Bryan
Background: Peer relationships improve for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in clinic-based social skills groups but rarely generalize to real world contexts. This study compares child outcomes of two social skills interventions conducted in schools with children in Kindergarten through fifth grade. Method: Children with ASD were…
Vervloet, M.; Meulepas, M.A.; Cals, J.W.J.; Eimers, M.; Hoek, L.S. van der; Dijk, L. van
Irrational antibiotic use for respiratory tract infections (RTI) is a major driver of bacterial resistance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a multifaceted peer-group based intervention aiming to reduce RTI-related antibiotic prescriptions in family practice. This was a cluster
Cicognani, Elvira; Zani, Bruna
This study investigated the role of sensation seeking, peer group drinking and self-efficacy in refusing to drink alcohol in influencing alcohol consumption of a sample of 588 Italian university students. Results confirmed that heavy drinkers are typically males living in university residences. Alcohol use is more frequent among students with…
Dumas, Tara M.; Ellis, Wendy E.; Wolfe, David A.
We examined identity development as a moderator of the relation between peer group pressure and control and adolescents' engagement in risk behaviors. Participants (n = 1070; M[subscript age] = 15.45 years) completed a self-report measure of "identity exploration", the degree to which they have explored a variety of self-relevant values, beliefs…
Madsen, Louise Sofia; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Handberg, Charlotte
with joint inclusion of persons with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and relatives. Implications for Rehabilitation Peer group rehabilitation may facilitate an increased and personalised understanding of what it means to live with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. A programme design with six months of sequential...
Xiao, Lei; Song, Sanling; Chen, Xiaohui; Coit, David W.
Joint optimization models were developed combining group preventive maintenance of a series system and production scheduling. In this paper, we propose a joint optimization model to minimize the total cost including production cost, preventive maintenance cost, minimal repair cost for unexpected failures and tardiness cost. The total cost depends on both the production process and the machine maintenance plan associated with reliability. For the problems addressed in this research, any machine unavailability leads to system downtime. Therefore, it is important to optimize the preventive maintenance of machines because their performance impacts the collective production processing associated with all machines. Too lengthy preventive maintenance intervals may be associated with low scheduled machine maintenance cost, but may incur expensive costs for unplanned failure due to low machine reliability. Alternatively, too frequent preventive maintenance activities may achieve the desired high reliability machines, but unacceptably high scheduled maintenance cost. Additionally, product scheduling plans affect tardiness and maintenance cost. Two results are obtained when solving the problem; the optimal group preventive maintenance interval for machines, and the assignment of each job, including the corresponding start time and completion time. To solve this non-deterministic polynomial-time problem, random keys genetic algorithms are used, and a numerical example is solved to illustrate the proposed model. - Highlights: • Group preventive maintenance (PM) planning and production scheduling are jointed. • Maintenance interval and assignment of jobs are decided by minimizing total cost. • Relationships among system age, PM, job processing time are quantified. • Random keys genetic algorithms (GA) are used to solve the NP-hard problem. • Random keys GA and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) are compared.
Zanazzi, José Luis; Gomes, Luiz Flávio Autran Monteiro; Dimitroff, Magdalena
This paper describes an application in group decision making, aimed at developing a procedure to help define priorities in preventive maintenance activities. The method applied is called DRV Processes (Decision with Reduction of Variability) and it combines both statistical techniques and multicriteria decision aid procedures. Among its advantages, we may highlight the possibility of reducing the noise affecting information in group decision making and of reaching a consensual decision. This ...
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Background: this study in the prospect of promoting adherence to the primary and secondary preven- tion programmes will research knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of the student population attending high schools regarding HPV infections and will also promote health education sessions based on peer education.
Methods: we carried out a cross-sectional kaP survey regarding HPV infection, HPV vaccination, and sexual health, of students and a peer educational intervention. To verify the effectiveness of peer educators in changing opinions and beliefs about HPV a self-com- pletion questionnaire was made and distributed pre (T1 and post (T2 peer educator intervention. The same questionnaires were assigned to the control group.
Results: the sample consisted of 900 students, mean age was 16.6±1.4, having relationship 34.4%. at T1, 64.6% of students in experimental group said that they knew HPV, 83.4% how it is transmitted and 71.1% HPV vaccination, 54.7% perceived dangerousness with significant gender-related difference. at T2 the percentages increased. at T1, 14.1% of females were vaccinated at T2 they were 17.5%. The main factors associated with the students’ propensity to vaccination were: having at least one sister; being in favour of vaccinations in general; knowing that the vaccine is aimed at preventing cervical cancer; and being aware that they could be infected by HPV.
Conclusion: both the HPV test and HPV vaccine need effective communication and monitoring of the spread of knowledge, especially among women identified as most in need of information and included in the age group at risk, in wich it is crucial to encourage informed choices. This underlines the need to plan adequate educational programmes....
Pensuksan, Wipawan C; Taneepanichskul, Surasak; Williams, Michelle A
Excessive alcohol consumption, particularly among young males, is an important global health problem, in part because of the increased risks of intentional and non-intentional injuries, uses of illicit drug, crime, and psychiatric disorders. There are no data available to evaluate the extent to which interventions are effective in reducing hazardous/harmful alcohol consumption among young males in Thailand. We examined the efficacy of alcohol harm reduction strategies administered as a peer-drinking group motivational intervention (PD-GMI) among Thai male undergraduates. We used a quasi-experimental study design that included two student groups assessed at baseline and at two time points post-intervention. Participants were students enrolled in two public universities and who reported alcohol consumption during the current academic year. Students in one university were assigned to an assessment-only study group (n=110); and students in the other university were assigned to a 2-h PD-GMI (n=115). This intervention was designed to (1) increase the awareness of risks associated with hazardous/harmful alcohol consumption; (2) enhance students' motivation to change their drinking behaviours; and (3) encourage harm reduction strategies during episodes of alcohol consumption. Alcohol consumption and adverse consequences were assessed using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and the Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index (RAPI). Students receiving the intervention had significant reductions in mean AUDIT scores; 50.4% at baseline to 1-month and 61.2% at baseline to 3-month post-intervention. Their mean RAPI scores were also reduced; 42.0% at baseline to 1-month and 42.9% at baseline to 3-month post-intervention. Reductions in alcohol consumption and the prevalence of harmful alcohol consumption patterns were statistically significant among students in the intervention group versus those in the control group. The reductions remained after adjustments for baseline
Anjali Sunil Kumar Mall
Full Text Available Background: Tobacco use among adolescence is one of the important preventable causes of death as well as a leading public health problem all over the world. The present study was conducted with the objective of studying the effect of peer-led interventions on tobacco use among adolescents. Materials and Methods: Twenty schools were randomly selected and ten schools each were identified as cluster for intervention and control groups. A total of 402 students in intervention group and 422 in control group were studied. Results: About 48% and 41% of adolescents were consuming smokeless tobacco in any form in the intervention and control groups, respectively. Prevalence of consumption of smokeless tobacco was significantly high among boys as compared to girls. Pan masala was the most common form of consumption. After conducting A Stop Smoking in School Trial-like peer-led intervention, a significant reduction in tobacco consumption of any form was observed in the intervention group (48%–36% during the follow-up (Z = 3.2, P < 0.01. A significant reduction in exposure to passive smoking in the intervention group (32%–29% was also observed. All the students smoking initially had stopped smoking at the end of the follow-up in both the groups. Conclusion: It was found that peer-led intervention was effective in reducing the consumption of smokeless tobacco in any form. The rate of reduction was more in the first follow-up as compared to the end of the intervention. Sustained intervention in the form of retraining is needed for the long-term effect.
Sloman, Katherine; Thompson, Richard
Undergraduate students pursuing a three-year marine biology degree programme (n = 86) experienced a large-group drama aimed at allowing them to explore how scientific research is funded and the associated links between science and society. In the drama, Year 1 students played the "general public" who decided which environmental research areas should be prioritised for funding, Year 2 students were the "scientists" who had to prepare research proposals which they hoped to get funded, and Year 3 students were the "research panel" who decided which proposals to fund with input from the priorities set by the "general public". The drama, therefore, included an element of cross-year peer assessment where Year 3 students evaluated the research proposals prepared by the Year 2 students. Questionnaires were distributed at the end of the activity to gather: (1) student perceptions on the cross-year nature of the exercise, (2) the use of peer assessment, and (3) their overall views on the drama. The students valued the opportunity to interact with their peers from other years of the degree programme and most were comfortable with the use of cross-year peer assessment. The majority of students felt that they had increased their knowledge of how research proposals are funded and the perceived benefits of the large-group drama included increased critical thinking ability, confidence in presenting work to others, and enhanced communication skills. Only one student did not strongly advocate the use of this large-group drama in subsequent years.
Park, Sang-Won; Ko, Suhui; An, Hye-Sun; Bang, Ji Hwan; Chung, Woo-Young
Central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) can be prevented through well-coordinated, multifaceted programs. However, implementation of CLABSI prevention programs requires individualized strategies for different institutional situations, and the best strategy in resource-limited settings is uncertain. Peer tutoring may be an efficient and effective method that is applicable in such settings. A prospective intervention was performed to reduce CLABSIs in a surgical intensive care unit (SICU) at a tertiary hospital. The core interventions consisted of implementation of insertion and maintenance bundles for CLABSI prevention. The overall interventions were guided and coordinated by active educational programs using peer tutoring. The CLABSI rates were compared for 9 months pre-intervention, 6 months during the intervention and 9 months post-intervention. The CLABSI rate was further observed for three years after the intervention. The rate of CLABSIs per 1000 catheter-days decreased from 6.9 infections in the pre-intervention period to 2.4 and 1.8 in the intervention (6 m; P = 0.102) and post-intervention (9 m; P = 0.036) periods, respectively. A regression model showed a significantly decreasing trend in the infection rate from the pre-intervention period ( P peer tutoring in a resource-limited setting was useful and effectively reduced CLABSIs. However, maintaining the reduced CLABSI rate will require further strategies.
Writing a master's thesis is a lonely task, which often takes longer than the nominal time. A previous study has shown that a way to counter this is to give tutoring in groups instead of individually. This paper describes and evaluates an attempt to complement individual staff tutoring with group tutoring, formative peer assessment and a self-study methodology course, using e-learning methods and without increasing the total teacher time invested for each student. The results clearly indicate...
Mens, Petra F.; Scheelbeek, Pauline Fd; Al Atabbi, Hind; Enato, Ehijie Fo
There is limited uptake of measures to prevent malaria by pregnant women in Nigeria which is often related to the lack of knowledge on Malaria in Pregnancy (MIP) and its effects on mother and foetus. This study, explored peer to peer education as a tool in raising knowledge of MIP among women of
Mens, P.F.; Scheelbeek, P.F.D.; Al Atabbi, H.; Enato, E.F.O.
Background: There is limited uptake of measures to prevent malaria by pregnant women in Nigeria which is often related to the lack of knowledge on Malaria in Pregnancy (MIP) and its effects on mother and foetus. This study, explored peer to peer education as a tool in raising knowledge of MIP among
Full Text Available Abstract. This study investigated the relative benefits of peer-controlled and moderated online collaboration during group problem solving. Thirty-five self-selected groups of four or five students were randomly assigned to the two conditions, which used the same online collaborative tool to solve twelve problem scenarios in an undergraduate statistics course. A score for the correctness of the solutions and a reasoning score were analyzed. A survey was administered to reveal differences in students' related attitudes. Three conclusions were reached: 1. Groups assigned to moderated forums displayed significantly higher reasoning scores than those in the peer-controlled condition, but the moderation did not affect correctness of solutions. 2. Students in the moderated forums reported being more likely to choose to use an optional online forum for future collaborations. 3. Students who reported having no difficulty during collaboration reported being more likely to choose to use an optional online forum in the future.
Skov, Peter Rohde
In this paper I investigate whether a social contrast mechanism affects the choice of secondary schooling. Based on a theory of relative deprivation, a strand of research in social inequality of educational attainment shows that, controlling for the students ability, students who attends schools...... as a point of comparison. I investigate this theory using a school-by-grade fixed effects model and comprehensive administrative data. I examine the non-linear relationships between peers educational achievement on choice of secondary education. I show that the relative rank in the classroom have...... with more privileged peers have lower educational attainment and less prestigious labor market careers. This theory shows that students with similar ability may be regarded differently depending on context, which may affect the students' academic self-image. This also means that the students use their peers...
Steinebach, Christoph; Steinebach, Ursula; Brendtro, Larry K.
Positive Peer Culture (PPC) is a strength-oriented approach developed by Vorrath and Brendtro (1985) to prevent or reverse negative peer influence by building a climate of peer concern and respect. PPC operates in a range of settings including residential treatment, alternative schools, juvenile justice, and youth leadership groups. It is an…
Depression in Groups of Bullies and Victims: Evidence for the Differential Importance of Peer Status, Reciprocal Friends, School Liking, Academic Self-Efficacy, School Motivation and Academic Achievement
Stefanek, Elisabeth; Strohmeier, Dagmar; Yanagida, Takuya
The goals of this study were (1) to identify groups of bullies and victims, (2) to investigate level differences in depression, peer relationships, and academic variables, and (3) to examine how peer relationships and academic variables were associated with depression in these groups. The sample comprised 1,451 students (48.6% girls) aged 10-15…
Nabunya, Proscovia; Ssewamala, Fred M.; Mukasa, Miriam N.; Byansi, William; Nattabi, Jennifer
Adolescents and young adults in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are particularly vulnerable to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) infection. Adolescents orphaned as a direct result of HIV/AIDS are at an elevated risk of acquiring HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections. However, limited empirical evidence exists on HIV knowledge and prevention programs, especially those designed to address HIV information gaps among adolescents. This study evaluates the effect of a peer mentorship program provided in addition to other supportive services on HIV/AIDS knowledge, beliefs, and prevention attitudes, among school-going orphaned adolescents in southern Uganda. We utilize data from the Bridges to the Future Study, a 5-year longitudinal randomized experimental study funded by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. Out of the 1410 adolescents enrolled in the study (average age = 12.7 at study initiation), 855 of them participated in a nine-session, curriculum based peer mentorship program. We analyzed data collected at baseline and 12-months post intervention initiation. The results from bivariate and regression analysis indicate that, controlling for socioeconomic characteristics, adolescents who participated in a peer mentorship program were more likely than non-participants to report increased scores on HIV/AIDS knowledge(b = .86, 95%CI = .47 – 1.3, p ≤ .001); better scores on desired HIV/AIDS-related beliefs (b = .29, 95%CI = .06 – .52, p ≤ .01); and better scores on HIV/AIDS prevention attitudes (b = .76, 95%CI = .16 – 1.4, p ≤ .01). Overall, the study findings point to the potential role a of peer mentorship program in promoting the much-desired HIV/AIDS knowledge, beliefs, and prevention attitudes among orphaned adolescents. Future programs and policies that support AIDS-orphaned adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa should consider incorporating peer mentoring programs that provide
Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to investigate the conflict competence of children of preschool age and identification of its relationship with the child's sociometric status in the peer group. The hypothesis of the study was that there is a relationship between the sociometric status of preschoolers in the peer group and the strategy of their behavior in a conflict situation, a conflict of competence. The study involved children (41 children: 22 boys and 19 girls aged 5-7 years, attending preparatory groups in kindergartens in Moscow (in 2011-2013. The study was conducted using an experimental technique "Desk of cooperation" (M. Madsen, aimed at the study of conflict competence, the sociometric technique "Two Houses" (modification by R.I. Govorova, and a survey of educators aimed at identifying the status position in the preschool group peers. According to the survey, we can say that there are qualitative differences in the strategies of behavior in the conflict that children with different sociometric status choose.
van der Geest, Thea; Remmers, Tim
In a scientific-writing course, 15 of 54 students used a review-supporting computer program, PREP-EDITOR (PREP), to communicate with their peers about drafts. In an exploratory study, 10 students were interviewed regularly: 5 used PREP and 5 met face-to-face to exchange comments on drafts. The study
Cutrín, Olalla; Gómez-Fraguela, José Antonio; Sobral, Jorge
The aim of this study is to analyze the effects of parental knowledge, parental support, and family conflict through the affiliation with deviant peers on youth substance use (i.e., alcohol, cannabis, and other illicit substances), as well as unhealthy and antisocial behavior derived from substance consumption. A Spanish community sample was used…
Glover, Rebecca; Hammond, Nicholas B.; Smith, Justin; Guerra, Dalyana
Peer-led team learning (PLTL), specifically the model known as 'Workshops', has been shown to contribute positively and significantly to student success in STEM courses across subjects (Gosser et al., 2001). Our research adds to the SOTL literature describing the effectiveness of Workshops by reporting on the changes in student leaders. We examine…
Kulatunga, Ushiri; Lewis, Jennifer E.
Current literature has emphasized the lack of research into verbal behaviors of teachers as a barrier to understanding the effectiveness of instructional interventions. This study focuses on the verbal behaviors of peer leaders, who serve as de facto teachers in a college chemistry teaching reform based on cooperative learning. Video data obtained…
Eiser, J.R.; van der Pligt, J.
Administered a questionnaire to 2 samples of British 15-yr-old secondary school students: 178 Ss in an all-male school and 41 females and 59 males in a coeducational school. The measure investigated Ss' smoking attitudes and behavior and the effects of peer pressure on both. Results show that
Danielowich, Robert M.
Although most innovative professional development encourages reflective dialogue among teachers, we still know very little about how such dialogue enables teacher learning. This study describes how teachers make sense of the conflicts among their intended goals and actual practices by responding to their peers' teaching. Four teachers in a large…
Krieger, Janice L; Coveleski, Samantha; Hecht, Michael L; Miller-Day, Michelle; Graham, John W; Pettigrew, Jonathan; Kootsikas, Allison
Recent technological advances have increased the interest and ability of lay audiences to create messages; however, the feasibility of incorporating lay multimedia messages into health campaigns has seldom been examined. Drawing on the principle of cultural grounding and narrative engagement theory, this article seeks to examine what types of messages adolescents believe are most effective in persuading their peers to resist substance use and to provide empirical data on the extent to which audience-generated intervention messages are consistent with the associated campaign philosophy and branding. Data for the current study are prevention messages created by students as part of a four-lesson substance use prevention "booster" program delivered to eighth-grade students in 20 rural schools in Pennsylvania and Ohio during 2010-2011. Content analysis results indicate that didactic message strategies were more common in audience-generated messages than narrative strategies, although strategy was somewhat dependent on the medium used. Two of the most common strategies that adolescents used to persuade peers not to use substances were negative consequences and identity appeals, and messages varied in the degree to which they were consistent with the theoretical underpinnings and program philosophy of the prevention campaign. Implications of the current study for understanding the social construction of substance use prevention messages among adolescents and incorporating audience-generated messages in health communication campaigns are discussed.
Podschun, G D
Each year, there are approximately 2 million homeless and runaway youths in the United States. On any given night, there are 1,000 homeless youngsters living on the streets of San Diego, CA. Homeless young people are commonly involved in one or more of the following activities that place them at risk for HIV infection--unprotected sexual intercourse, needle-sharing in the use of injectable drugs, sex with someone who injects drugs. The Teen Peer Outreach-Street Work Project trains teen peer e...
Febres-Cordero, Belen; Brouwer, Kimberly C; Rocha-Jimenez, Teresita; Fernandez-Casanueva, Carmen; Morales-Miranda, Sonia; Goldenberg, Shira M
Migrant women engaged in precarious employment, such as sex work, frequently face pronounced social isolation alongside other barriers to health and human rights. Although peer support has been identified as a critical HIV and violence prevention intervention for sex workers, little is known about access to peer support or its role in shaping health and social outcomes for migrant sex workers. This article analyses the role of peer support in shaping vulnerability and resilience related to HIV/STI prevention and violence among international migrant sex workers at the Mexico-Guatemala border. This qualitative study is based on 31 semi-structured interviews conducted with international migrant sex workers in the Mexico-Guatemala border communities of Tapachula, Mexico and Tecún Umán and Quetzaltenango, Guatemala. Peer support was found to be critical for reducing social isolation; improving access to HIV/STI knowledge, prevention and resources; and mitigating workplace violence, particularly at the initial stages of migration and sex work. Peer support was especially critical for countering social isolation, and peers represented a valuable source of HIV/STI prevention knowledge and resources (e.g., condoms), as well as essential safety supports in the workplace. However, challenges to accessing peer support were noted, including difficulties establishing long-lasting relationships and other forms of social participation due to frequent mobility, as well as tensions among peers within some work environments. Variations in access to peer support related to country of work, work environment, sex work and migration stage, and sex work experience were also identified. Results indicate that peer-led and community empowerment interventions represent a promising strategy for promoting the health, safety and human rights of migrant sex workers. Tailored community empowerment interventions addressing the unique migration-related contexts and challenges faced by migrant sex
José Luis Zanazzi
Full Text Available This paper describes an application in group decision making, aimed at developing a procedure to help define priorities in preventive maintenance activities. The method applied is called DRV Processes (Decision with Reduction of Variability and it combines both statistical techniques and multicriteria decision aid procedures. Among its advantages, we may highlight the possibility of reducing the noise affecting information in group decision making and of reaching a consensual decision. This approach generally improves the level of shared knowledge and helps to avoid conflict within the group. The application was carried out in a major pharmaceutical production plant. The experience showed an eighty per cent reduction in the original amount of process noise. Moreover, the paper describes evidence of improvement in interpersonal relationships.
Brand, T; Böttcher, S; Jahn, I
The aim of this study was to assess methods used to access target groups in prevention projects funded within the prevention research framework by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research. A survey with prevention projects was conducted. Access strategies, communication channels, incentives, programme reach, and successful practical recruitment strategies were explored. 38 out of 60 projects took part in the survey. Most projects accessed their target group within structured settings (e. g., child day-care centers, schools, workplaces). Multiple communication channels and incentives were used, with written information and monetary incentives being used most frequently. Only few projects were able to report their programme reach adequately; programme reach was highest for programmes accessing the target groups in structured settings. The respondents viewed active recruitment via personal communication with the target group and key persons in the settings as the most successful strategy. The paper provides an overview on recruitment strategies used in current preven-tion projects. More systematic research on programme reach is necessary. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Ilkafah, Ilkafah; Kusnanto, Kusnanto
Introduction: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease with many complications. Self-efficacy is a psychosocial aspects refer to patient’s belief about their ability to do Diabetes managements. Self-efficacy can be enhanced by providing a mutual support from other Diabetic patients. This study aimed to analyze the influence of peer group support on self-efficacy, glicemic control and self-care activities of Diabetic patients. Method: This research was a pre-experimental with one-group pre-...
Chen, Xinyin; Chang, Lei; He, Yunfeng; Liu, Hongyun
This 2-year longitudinal study examined, in a sample of Chinese children (initial M age=11 years), the moderating effects of the peer group on relations between maternal supportive parenting and social and school adjustment. Data were collected from multiple sources including peer assessments, teacher ratings, school records, and maternal reports.…
Vanden Abeele, M.M.P.
There is considerable concern about adolescents producing, consuming, and distributing sexual materials via mobile phone communication. The purpose of this study was to examine key aspects of peer influence and the peer context in relation to two such practices: sexting and mobile porn use. The
Maria T Moreira
Full Text Available Young people tend to over-estimate peer group drinking levels. Personalised normative feedback (PNF aims to correct this misperception by providing information about personal drinking levels and patterns compared with norms in similar aged peer groups. PNF is intended to raise motivation for behaviour change and has been highlighted for alcohol misuse prevention by the British Government Behavioural Insight Team. The objective of the trial was to assess the effectiveness of PNF with college students for the prevention of alcohol misuse.Solomon three-group randomised controlled trial. 1751 students, from 22 British Universities, allocated to a PNF group, a normal control group, or a delayed measurement control group to allow assessment of any measurement effects. PNF was provided by email. Participants completed online questionnaires at baseline, 6- and 12-months (only 12-months for the delayed measurement controls. Drinking behaviour measures were (i alcohol disorders; (ii frequency; (iii typical quantity, (iv weekly consumption; (v alcohol-related problems; (vi perceived drinking norms; and (vii positive alcohol expectancies. Analyses focused on high-risk drinkers, as well as all students, because of research evidence for the prevention paradox in student drinkers.Follow-up rates were low, with only 50% and 40% responding at 6- and 12-months, respectively, though comparable to similar European studies. We found no evidence for any systematic attrition bias. Overall, statistical analyses with the high risk sub-sample, and for all students, showed no significant effects of the intervention, at either time-point, in a completed case analysis and a multiple imputation analysis.We found no evidence for the effectiveness of PNF for the prevention of alcohol misuse and alcohol-related problems in a UK student population.Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN30784467.
Slater, Michael D; Henry, Kimberly L
The present study tests prospective effects of music-related media content (from television, Internet, and magazines) on youth alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use initiation. Indirect effects through association with substance-using peers were tested in a 4-wave longitudinal data set (2,729 middle school students for the alcohol model, 2,716 students for the cigarette model, and 2,710 students for the marijuana model) from schools across the United States. In so doing, the authors examine theoretical claims regarding socialization mechanisms for effects of popular music listenership on substance use initiation. Results supported direct effects on alcohol and cigarette uptake, and indirect effects through association with substance-using peers on all 3 substances. This research, in combination with prior studies by several research teams, suggests elevated popular music involvement is a risk factor with respect to younger adolescents' substance use behavior. This influence is in part explained by the role of music-related media content in socialization to substance-using peer groups.
Full Text Available This article reports on an exploratory study of giving medals as part of a peer rating system in a question-and-answer (Q&A study group on Python, a programming language. There are no professional teachers tutoring learners. The study aimed to understand whether and how medals, awarded to responses in a peer-based learning environment, can work as a mechanism to assess the value of those responses when traditional markers of expertise are not always clearly defined and identifiable. Employing a mixed-method approach, the analysis examined (a the content of the answers that were awarded medals and their perceived immediate value and (b the nature of the networked relationships resulting from participants’ interactions. The findings suggest that the peer rating system makes visible what the participants find immediately valuable and allocates a form of recognition that extends the “legitimation code”, which refers to the credentials that make someone competent and worthy of recognition.
Hardegree-Ullman, Kevin; McGraw, A. M.; Towner, A. P.; Walker-LaFollette, A.; Robertson, A.; Smith, C.; Turner, J.; Biddle, L. I.; Thompson, R.
According to the American Institute of Physics, the number of graduate students enrolled in astronomy programs in the US has been steadily increasing in the past 15 years. Research experience is one of the key factors graduate admissions committees look for when choosing students. The University of Arizona Astronomy Club is setting a new precedent in research by having students introduce other students to research. This eases the transition to research projects, and allows students to work in a comfortable setting without the sometimes-overwhelming cognitive disconnect between a professor and their students. The University of Arizona's research projects have many benefits to all students involved. It is well established that people learn a subject best when they have to teach it to others. Students leading the projects learn alongside their peers in a peer-mentoring setting. When project leaders move on in their academic career, other project members can easily take the lead. Students learn how to work in teams, practice effective communication skills, and begin the processes of conducting a full research project, which are essential skills for all budding scientists. These research projects also give students hands-on research experience that supplement and greatly expand on concepts taught in the classroom, and make them more attractive to graduate schools and REU programs.
Leman, Patrick J.
Do children derive different benefits from group collaboration at different ages? In the present study, 183 children from two age groups (8.8 and 13.4 years) took part in a class quiz as members of a group, or individually. In some groups, cohesiveness was made salient by awarding prizes to the top performing groups. In other groups, prizes were…
Phillips, Jennifer; Gettig, Jacob; Goliak, Kristen; Allen, Sheila; Fjortoft, Nancy
The objective of this study was to gain an understanding of whether pharmacy students are using Facebook ® to create formal or informal workplace-based peer groups to learn from each other and share information while completing their advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs). Fourth-year pharmacy students from two colleges of pharmacy in the same geographical area were recruited by email to participate. Inclusion criteria were: completion of two or more APPEs, current assignment to an APPE rotation in the local area, and a Facebook ® profile. Two focus groups, of eight students each were conducted on each of the two colleges' campuses. An incentive to participate was provided. Thematic analysis was used to analyze responses. Students reported using Facebook ® to learn about rotation expectations, roles/responsibilities, and preceptors. However, frequency and depth of interactions varied among the participants. Most participants noted that they prefer more private methods of communication to learn about APPE experiences. Students found Facebook ® to be a good source of motivation and support during experiential learning. The use of social media sites like Facebook ® may help students form "virtual" workplace-based peer groups during APPEs. Pharmacy schools interested in providing support for formal workplace-based learning groups should consider using social media sites as one component of this program. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mens, Petra F; Scheelbeek, Pauline Fd; Al Atabbi, Hind; Enato, Ehijie Fo
There is limited uptake of measures to prevent malaria by pregnant women in Nigeria which is often related to the lack of knowledge on Malaria in Pregnancy (MIP) and its effects on mother and foetus. This study, explored peer to peer education as a tool in raising knowledge of MIP among women of child bearing age. 1105 women of child bearing age were interviewed in their households using a structured questionnaire about their knowledge of malaria in general, MIP and use of preventive measures. Thereafter, a peer education campaign was launched to raise the level of knowledge in the community. The interviews were repeated after the campaign and the responses between the pre- and post-intervention were compared. In the pre-assessment women on average answered 64.8% of the question on malaria and its possibility to prevent malaria correctly. The peer education campaign had a significant impact in raising the level of knowledge among the women; after the campaign the respondents answered on average 73.8% of the questions correctly. Stratified analysis on pre and post assessment scores for malaria in general (68.8 & 72.9%) and MIP (61.7 & 76.3%) showed also significant increase. Uptake of bed nets was reported to be low: 11.6% Peer education led to a significant increase in knowledge of malaria and its prevention but we could not asses its influence on the use of preventive measures.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs can be prevented through well-coordinated, multifaceted programs. However, implementation of CLABSI prevention programs requires individualized strategies for different institutional situations, and the best strategy in resource-limited settings is uncertain. Peer tutoring may be an efficient and effective method that is applicable in such settings. Methods A prospective intervention was performed to reduce CLABSIs in a surgical intensive care unit (SICU at a tertiary hospital. The core interventions consisted of implementation of insertion and maintenance bundles for CLABSI prevention. The overall interventions were guided and coordinated by active educational programs using peer tutoring. The CLABSI rates were compared for 9 months pre-intervention, 6 months during the intervention and 9 months post-intervention. The CLABSI rate was further observed for three years after the intervention. Results The rate of CLABSIs per 1000 catheter-days decreased from 6.9 infections in the pre-intervention period to 2.4 and 1.8 in the intervention (6 m; P = 0.102 and post-intervention (9 m; P = 0.036 periods, respectively. A regression model showed a significantly decreasing trend in the infection rate from the pre-intervention period (P < 0.001, with incidence-rate ratios of 0.348 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.98–1.23 in the intervention period and 0.257 (95% CI, 0.07–0.91 in the post-intervention period. However, after the 9-month post-intervention period, the yearly CLABSI rates reverted to 3.0–5.4 infections per 1000 catheter-days over 3 years. Conclusions Implementation of CLABSI prevention bundles using peer tutoring in a resource-limited setting was useful and effectively reduced CLABSIs. However, maintaining the reduced CLABSI rate will require further strategies.
Schwartz, David; Gorman, Andrea Hopmeyer; Nakamoto, Jonathan; McKay, Tara
This article reports a short-term longitudinal study focusing on popularity and social acceptance as predictors of academic engagement for a sample of 342 adolescents (approximate average age of 14). These youths were followed for 4 consecutive semesters. Popularity, social acceptance, and aggression were assessed with a peer nomination inventory, and data on academic engagement were obtained from school records. For adolescents who were highly aggressive, increases in popularity were associated with increases in unexplained absences and decreases in grade point average. Conversely, changes in social acceptance were not predictive of changes in grade point average or unexplained absences. These results highlight the importance of multidimensional conceptualizations of social standing for research on school adjustment during adolescence and emphasize the potential risks associated with popularity.
Charlotte L. Briggs
Full Text Available Inspired by reports of successful outcomes in health profession education literature, peer learning has progressively grown to become a fundamental characteristic of health profession curricula. Many studies, however, are anecdotal or philosophical in nature, particularly when addressing the effectiveness of assessments in the context of peer learning. This commentary provides an overview of the rationale for using group assessments in the basic sciences curriculum of health profession programs and highlights the challenges associated with implementing group assessments in this context. The dearth of appropriate means for measuring group process suggests that professional collaboration competencies need to be more clearly defined. Peer learning educators are advised to enhance their understanding of social psychological research in order to implement best practices in the development of appropriate group assessments for peer learning.
Conclusion: Not only the content matters to promote participation, interactive communication, but also context and style of the communication. To enhance self reflection and deeper understanding it is essential to deliver the information in an attractive context, which has been found relevant for the target group. Just providing information may be important but is not sufficient in order to change the behaviour. Information which is elaborated through discussion – even online – may transform information into deeper understanding respectively knowledge. Thus it is more likely to have an impact on future behaviour. The target group should be recognized as interaction group. This will help to improve the adaptation and intervention continuously. Nevertheless, prevention and behaviour change will take their time and will need continuous effort at high level. Future research is needed to measure the impact of vivid discussion on people who take part in these discussions in an active way, compared to those who only follow the conversation thread.
Backhaus, Samantha; Ibarra, Summer; Parrott, Devan; Malec, James
To compare the efficacy of 2 group treatments for persons with brain injury (BI) and their caregivers in promoting perceived self-efficacy (PSE) and emotional and neurobehavioral functioning. Randomized controlled trial. Outpatient BI rehabilitation. Subjects (N=38), including 19 with BI and 19 caregivers, participated in a BI coping skills group or a support group. BI coping skills is a manualized cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT). CBT was compared with a structurally equivalent support group. Brain Injury Coping Skills Questionnaire (PSE), Brief Symptom Inventory-18 ([BSI-18]; emotional distress), and Frontal Systems Behavior Scale (neurobehavioral functions). There were no significant differences between survivors and caregivers on the Brain Injury Coping Skills Questionnaire and BSI-18; therefore, groups were combined during final analyses. Frontal Systems Behavior Scale caregiver data were used for analysis. Both groups showed significantly improved PSE between baseline and follow-up on repeated-measures analysis of variance, with the CBT group showing greater stabilization of change. There was no significant group by time interaction on measures of neurobehavioral functions, but the CBT group showed significant improvements at 3-month follow-up. No significant effects were found on the BSI-18. To our knowledge, no studies to date have been published comparing a CBT intervention with a support group in a BI population with caregiver participation. This study showed that given equivalent group structure, individuals with BI and caregivers may benefit from either type of intervention in enhancing PSE or maintaining emotional stability. However, there was a trend for individuals who received CBT to maintain the effects of improved PSE, whereas support group participants showed a trend for decline. This study offers a new conceptualization that with certain group dynamics and support, individuals with BI and caregivers may benefit similarly from either a
Smith, J; Petibon, C
Psychotherapy for sex offenders has only very recently started to develop in France. The French law on compulsory treatment for sex offenders was voted in 1998, and many mental health practitioners are not trained to treat such patients yet. In our ambulatory forensic consultation, sex offenders have been treated since 1992 and group psychotherapy has been offered to them since 1994. Our first therapeutic models were the North-American behavioural-cognitive therapy and Pithers' relapse prevention model. Behavioural-cognitive theory describes paedophilia as an acquired sexual preference maintained by positive reinforcement. Pithers (1990) considered that relapse only occurs in high-risk situations, and that high-risk situations always come after offence precursors. In North America, relapse prevention consists in helping paedophiles spot their high-risk situations and offence precursors, and enhance their skills to cope with such situations or to prevent them. Therapy programs were developed according to these models, aiming to help offenders develop such skills, ie empathy, social skills, cognitive restructuring, self-esteem, etc. Trying to apply these therapy programs in France, our team quickly realised that we would have to adapt them to French culture. On the one hand, behavioural-cognitive theory did not seem satisfactory enough in explaining paedophilic behaviour and paedophilic preference. On the other hand, behavioural-cognitive therapy made patients into children too much and increased resistance. Therapy based on programs seemed too rigid for French patients and therapists, and we often felt we were working on an issue that would have been much more accurate to work on a few sessions earlier, when this issue was spontaneously brought up by a patient. We believe change occurs all the more as issues are worked on at the right moment for the patient. Moreover, on a cultural point of view, we also realised the use of programs in psychotherapy was difficult to
Joshi, Shashank V; Hartley, Samantha N; Kessler, Moira; Barstead, Maura
Suicide is a leading cause of preventable death in youth, and numerous curricula and other prevention and intervention programs have been developed in the last 15 years. Comprehensive suicide prevention planning should include the 4 components of health promotion, prevention/education, intervention, and postvention. School-based suicide prevention and mental health education programs have become more common as an efficient and cost-effective way to reach youth. Process considerations that are based on the principles of therapeutic engagement with patients and families can provide mental health professionals with strategies that can assist education professionals, students, and the larger school community simultaneously. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Szalai, M; Szirmai, A; Füge, K; Makai, A; Erdélyi, G; Prémusz, V; Bódis, J
Tumour-related peer support groups (PSGs) show long-term development in quality of life and coping, and decrease distress in cancer care. To clarify channels of social support in oncologic rehabilitation by combined exercise and psychosocial therapy, individual semi-structured interviews were conducted after 1 year additional belly dance rehabilitation in a closed PSG among 51 patients with malignant tumour diagnosis in Budapest, Hungary. Interview data were transcribed and analysed using qualitative content analysis (ATLAS.ti 6 Win). Results suggest that group experience provides emotional-, practical- and informational support. We could point out specific social effects of "role model" function and extend the coping model. The group dispose all the features of effective suggestion and may be effectively applied as additional therapy for patients with malignancies. The extended coping model and the introduction of "role model" function could be useful for PSGs' efficacy assessment. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Schmidt, Megan R.; Lisco, Claire G.; Parrott, Dominic J.; Tharp, Andra T.
The present study sought to examine the interactive effects of an external locus of control and interaction in a negative peer group climate on men’s perpetration of physical aggression and infliction of injury toward their female intimate partners. Participants were 206 heterosexual males recruited from the metro-Atlanta community who completed self-report measures of external locus of control, involvement in a negative peer group climate, and physical aggression and infliction of injury against intimate partners during the past 12 months. Negative peer group climate was conceptualized as a peer group that displays behavior which may instigate aggressive norms, attitudes, and behaviors. Results indicated that men with an external locus of control were more likely to perpetrate physical aggression toward and inflict injury on their intimate partners if they reported high, but not low, involvement in a negative peer group climate. These results extend current research suggesting external locus of control as a risk factor for intimate partner aggression by highlighting the impact of negative peer groups. Implications and future intervention research are discussed. PMID:25389191
Button, Katherine S; Bal, Liz; Clark, Anna; Shipley, Tim
The evidence that many of the findings in the published literature may be unreliable is compelling. There is an excess of positive results, often from studies with small sample sizes, or other methodological limitations, and the conspicuous absence of null findings from studies of a similar quality. This distorts the evidence base, leading to false conclusions and undermining scientific progress. Central to this problem is a peer-review system where the decisions of authors, reviewers, and editors are more influenced by impressive results than they are by the validity of the study design. To address this, BMC Psychology is launching a pilot to trial a new 'results-free' peer-review process, whereby editors and reviewers are blinded to the study's results, initially assessing manuscripts on the scientific merits of the rationale and methods alone. The aim is to improve the reliability and quality of published research, by focusing editorial decisions on the rigour of the methods, and preventing impressive ends justifying poor means.
Van der Heijden, Ingrid; Swartz, Sharlene
In addressing the psychosocial effects of the HIV and AIDS pandemic among vulnerable children, the issue of bereavement appears inadequately addressed. Amid the global discourse on children orphaned and made vulnerable by HIV and AIDS, this paper explores how cultural contexts and social environments in South Africa shape children's experience of grief. The argument draws on a number of qualitative studies and uses empirical evidence from an evaluation of a peer-led HIV/AIDS-prevention strategy aimed at providing psychosocial support for 10- to 13-year-old South African children living in resource-poor communities. The paper reveals a central paradox regarding how the intervention's objective of talking about death and eliciting memories of deceased loved ones with young children is confounded by cultural practices located in notions of silence and the need to protect children. The paper acknowledges the 'culture of silence' surrounding death in some African contexts, but concludes that peer-led strategies have the potential to naturally circumvent these cultural taboos, simultaneously creating a much-needed space for young children to cry and talk among themselves, even if remaining silent at home in the presence of adults.
This paper explores the role of study groups in mediating academic writing, particularly among multilingual black students at the University of the Western Cape (UWC). Using data from questionnaires, focus groups, and interviews, as well as academic texts generated by study groups, the paper focuses on the efficacy of ...
Bunga Christitha Rosha
Full Text Available ABSTRACTAdolescence is a phase of rapid growth experienced in human life. Adolescent girls will experience anincrease in body fat in•order to prepare reproduction. That makes the body more far from the ideal shape.These, sometime make adolescent girlsfeel dissatisfied with their body shape and eager to have an idealbody shape. The desire to have an ideal body shape is also influenced by the surrounding environment suchas peer group and media. This study discusses the determinant factors of body image and efforts to achieveideal body shape among adolescent girls in Bekasi. This is a quantitative research study with crosssectional design. Respondents in this study were 80 girls aged 11-19 years old in Bekasi. Data analysis wasperformed using descriptive, bivariate and multivariate. Chi square analysis was conducted prior to themultiple logistic regression test to determine the determinant variables of body image perceptions amongadolescent girls. The results showed that 73.8 percent of adolescent girlshad a negative body imageperception. The main determinant factors of body image perceptions on adolescent girls were having a peergroup (OR 5.09 ; 95% CI 1.02 -25.42 and monthly allowance (OR 3.61; 95% CI 1.22 -10.73. Effortsmade by respondents to achieve the body image were diet and physical activity, but the results of chisquare test showed that there were no relationship between the diet and physical activity behavior andperceptions of body image.Keywords: Body image, peer group, a monthly allowance ABSTRAKMasa remaja merupakan fase pertumbuhan cepat yang dialami dalam kehidupan manusia. Remaja putrikhususnya akan mengalami peningkatan lemak tubuh sebagai persiapan reproduksi yang membuattubuhnya semakin jauh dari bentuk ideal. Hal ini menyebabkan remaja putri merasa tidak puas akan bentuktubuhnya dan menginginkan bentuk tubuh ideal. Keinginan untuk memiliki tubuh yang ideal ini jugamerupakan pengaruh dari lingkungan sekitar seperti peer group
McFarlane, Judith; Karmaliani, Rozina; Maqbool Ahmed Khuwaja, Hussain; Gulzar, Saleema; Somani, Rozina; Saeed Ali, Tazeen; Somani, Yasmeen H; Shehzad Bhamani, Shireen; Krone, Ryan D; Paulson, Rene M; Muhammad, Atta; Jewkes, Rachel
Violence against and among children is a global public health problem that annually affects 50% of youth worldwide with major impacts on child development, education, and health including increased probability of major causes of morbidity and mortality in adulthood. It is also associated with the experience of and perpetration of later violence against women. The aim of this article is to describe the intervention, study design, methods, and baseline findings of a cluster randomized controlled trial underway in Pakistan to evaluate a school-based play intervention aiming to reduce peer violence and enhance mental health. A cluster randomized controlled design is being conducted with boys and girls in grade 6 in 40 schools in Hyderabad, Pakistan, over a period of 2 years. The Multidimensional Peer-Victimization and Peer Perpetration Scales and the Children's Depression Inventory 2 (CDI 2) are being used to measure the primary outcomes while investigator-derived scales are being used to assess domestic violence within the family. Specifics of the intervention, field logistics, ethical, and fidelity management issues employed to test the program's impact on school age youth in a volatile and politically unstable country form this report. A total of 1,752 school-age youth were enrolled and interviewed at baseline. Over the preceding 4 weeks, 94% of the boys and 85% of the girls reported 1 or more occurrences of victimization, and 85% of the boys and 66% of the girls reported 1 or more acts of perpetration. Boys reported more depression compared with girls, as well as higher negative mood and self-esteem scores and more interpersonal and emotional problems. Globally, prevalence of youth violence perpetration and victimization is high and associated with poor physical and emotional health. Applying a randomized controlled design to evaluate a peer violence prevention program built on a firm infrastructure and that is ready for scale-up and sustainability will make an
Full Text Available Despite the fact that HIV epidemic is mainly driven by injection drug use in Iran, partners of People Who Inject Drugs (PWID have been seriously neglected in terms of effective preventive interventions. Currently, sexual partners of PWID might have access to some harm reduction services at Voluntary Counselling and Testing (VCT centers; however, their needs have not been effectively targeted and met. Unfortunately, the current programs implemented by the Ministry of Health have overlooked the importance of this population in the course of the HIV epidemic throughout the country. In this policy brief, we are trying to draw the health policy-makers’ attention to this overlooked population and while reviewing the advantages and disadvantages of some of the readily available options on the table, come up with a recommended action to tackle this problem. Our recommended action that seems to have had promising results elsewhere in Asia would try to implement preventive interventions targeting this particular population through peer prevention programs.
Dasgupta, Nilanjana; Scircle, Melissa McManus; Hunsinger, Matthew
For years, public discourse in science education, technology, and policy-making has focused on the "leaky pipeline" problem: the observation that fewer women than men enter science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields and more women than men leave. Less attention has focused on experimentally testing solutions to this problem. We report an experiment investigating one solution: we created "microenvironments" (small groups) in engineering with varying proportions of women to identify which environment increases motivation and participation, and whether outcomes depend on students' academic stage. Female engineering students were randomly assigned to one of three engineering groups of varying sex composition: 75% women, 50% women, or 25% women. For first-years, group composition had a large effect: women in female-majority and sex-parity groups felt less anxious than women in female-minority groups. However, among advanced students, sex composition had no effect on anxiety. Importantly, group composition significantly affected verbal participation, regardless of women's academic seniority: women participated more in female-majority groups than sex-parity or female-minority groups. Additionally, when assigned to female-minority groups, women who harbored implicit masculine stereotypes about engineering reported less confidence and engineering career aspirations. However, in sex-parity and female-majority groups, confidence and career aspirations remained high regardless of implicit stereotypes. These data suggest that creating small groups with high proportions of women in otherwise male-dominated fields is one way to keep women engaged and aspiring toward engineering careers. Although sex parity works sometimes, it is insufficient to boost women's verbal participation in group work, which often affects learning and mastery.
De Smet, Marijke; Van Keer, Hilde; Valcke, Martin
This study explores cross-age peers' tutoring behavior to support freshmen collaborating online. The study fits in with the need to inquire into the process of peer facilitation in CSCL-environments and focuses on types of peer support and on the evolution over time. The study was conducted with 19 pairs of fourth-year students, each tutoring one…
Introduction: Little is known about how group cohesion develops in online support group communities. Previous research suggests that message content, self-disclosure, and emotional expression may be central to this process. The purpose of this study was to identify linguistic and qualitative characteristics of participants' messages that…
No mass lectures anymore but small-group teaching; this is the current trend in higher education and the way universities hope to attract future students. Students get to know each other easily when they collaborate in small groups. The question arises whether dividing a cohort of students in small
9 No. 3 has been successfully used for the prevention of tetanus, influenza and pertussis in infants. A trivalent GBS polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccine (against serotypes Ia, Ib and III) has completed phase-II evaluation among pregnant women and has the potential to prevent 70 - 80% of all invasive GBS disease.
Becker, Carolyn Black; Smith, Lisa M.; Ciao, Anna C.
The authors investigated the effectiveness of 2 interventions in reducing eating disorder risk factors under naturalistic conditions in sororities. On the basis of previous research, the campus sororities chose to implement a semimandatory, 2-session eating disorder prevention program to all new sorority members (N = 90) during sorority…
Pregnant women and women who might become pregnant, including middle school- and high school-age adolescents, continue to consume alcohol, placing themselves at risk of having a child with the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure. However, most prevention programs that attempt to increase public awareness and knowledge of FAS and related disorders…
Fleming, Jennie; Chong, Hannah Goodman; Skinner, Alison
The Centre for Social Action was commissioned by the Leicester City Council to evaluate its Teenage Pregnancy Prevention Strategy. This was a multi-stage project with a central element of consulting with young people. This article outlines the process that was followed in order to recruit, train and support young people through the process of…
Høybye, Mette Terp; Dalton, S O; Deltour, I
BACKGROUND: We conducted a randomised study to investigate whether providing a self-guided Internet support group to cancer patients affected mood disturbance and adjustment to cancer. METHODS: Baseline and 1-, 6- and 12-month assessments were conducted from 2004 to 2006 at a national rehabilitat...... of Internet-based support groups in cancer patients still needs to confirm long-lasting psychological effects.......BACKGROUND: We conducted a randomised study to investigate whether providing a self-guided Internet support group to cancer patients affected mood disturbance and adjustment to cancer. METHODS: Baseline and 1-, 6- and 12-month assessments were conducted from 2004 to 2006 at a national...... rehabilitation centre in Denmark. A total of 58 rehabilitation course weeks including 921 survivors of various cancers were randomly assigned to a control or an intervention group by cluster randomisation. The intervention was a lecture on the use of the Internet for support and information followed...
Martín Babarro, Javier; Díaz-Aguado, María José; Martínez Arias, Rosario; Steglich, Christian
This study addresses the interacting effects of classroom cohesion and hierarchy on the relationships between victimization and aggression with peer acceptance and rejection. Classroom cohesion and hierarchy were constructed from friendship nominations. Multilevel analysis conducted in a sample of seventh- and eighth-grade students from the…
Dasgupta, Nilanjana; Scircle, Melissa McManus; Hunsinger, Matthew
Advances in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics are critical to the American economy and require a robust workforce. The scarcity of women in this workforce is a well-recognized problem, but data-driven solutions to this problem are less common. We provide experimental evidence showing that gender composition of small groups in engineering has a substantial impact on undergraduate women’s persistence. Women participate more actively in engineering groups when members are mostly ...
Leadbeater, Bonnie J; Thompson, Kara; Sukhawathanakul, Paweena
Testing the theories that form the basis of prevention programs can enhance our understanding of behavioral change and inform the development, coordination, and adaptation of prevention programs. However, theories of change showing the linkages from intervention program components to risk or protective factors to desired outcomes across time are rarely specified or tested. In this 2-year longitudinal study, we test the theory that increases in two protective factors (i.e., children's prosocial leadership and their teachers' expectations of social responsibility) targeted by the WITS Programs (Walk Away, Ignore, Talk it Out, and Seek Help) would be associated with declines in peer victimization, aggression, and emotional problems. Participants included Canadian students, in grades 1-4 at baseline (n = 1329) and their parents and teachers. Consistent with our theory of change, variability in program implementation (adherence and integration) and in children's use of program skills (child responsiveness) are related to increases in both protective factors. Increases in these protective factors are associated with subsequent declines in children's aggression, victimization, and emotional problems. We discuss how enhancement of these protective factors may operate to improve child outcomes and the need for theory-based research to refine and improve the effectiveness of intervention strategies and to improve program scale-up. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.
Wolf, Kimberly; Africa, Adelene
Despite the popularity of peer education as an HIV prevention strategy across a range of contexts, understanding of the experiences of those intimately placed within these programmes is limited. Instead, the majority of research in this field relies on hegemonic notions of rational human behaviour that operate under the assumption that knowledge…
Winhusen, T.; Theobald, J.; Lewis, D.; Wilder, C. M.; Lyons, M. S.
Individuals with opioid use disorder experiencing a non-fatal opioid-overdose (OOD) are at heightened risk for future OODs; there are no interventions to facilitate treatment enrollment for these patients. Our goal was to develop and initially test the "tailored telephone intervention delivered by peers to prevent recurring…
The general goal of Danish residential care institutions with a therapeutic objective is to change children's behaviour and redirect their identity formation. This goal is pursued through an individualized focus on development. Dynamics of the resident group is rarely targeted directly in the pedagogical work. This article challenges the implicit…
Holge-Hazelton, B.; Tulinius, Anne-Charlotte
of professionalism within the individual are, however, difficult to assess. Aim. On the basis of a multiple case study, this paper describes the process of professional learning and challenges for individual GPs, as they take part in supervision groups focusing on children cases. Methods and Results. By using a two...
Marcoux, Sarah; Marken, Liv; Yu, Stan
This paper describes the results of a pilot project designed to improve students' academic writing in a large (200-student) first-year Agriculture class at the University of Saskatchewan. In collaboration with the course's professor, the Writing Centre coordinator and a summer student designed curriculum for four two-hour Writing Group sessions…
Reijntjes, A.; Thomaes, S.; Kamphuis, J.H.; Bushman, B.J.; Reitz, E.; Telch, M.J.
People often displace their anger and aggression against innocent targets, sometimes called scapegoats. Tragic historic events suggest that members of ethnic minority out-groups may be especially likely to be innocent targets. The current experiment examined displaced aggression of Dutch youths
Wu, Chengqing; Chanda, Emmanuel; Willison, John
Honours research projects in the School of Civil, Environmental and Mining Engineering at the University of Adelaide are run with small groups of students working with an academic supervisor in a chosen area for one year. The research project is mainly self-directed study, which makes it very difficult to fairly assess the contribution of…
Tsang, Annetta K. L.
University professional programs seek to develop students as reflective practitioners. The ability to critically reflect is often assumed to occur along the way. The explicit development of critical reflective skills among students is challenging. This study describes the utilization of online group discussion for critical reflection and provides…
Zentall, Sydney S.; Kuester, Deitra A.; Craig, Bruce A.
Cooperative learning has broad support as an instructional strategy to improve achievement. If the social behavior of students at risk for ADHD could be documented, cooperative groups could also provide a context for intervention. To this purpose, we observed 22 same-gender triads, with or without a member at risk for ADHD during problem-solving…
Despite the increase in Asian college student population, this group remains one of the most understudied, due to the myth of “model minority.” Many Asian students adjust well academically but often experience high levels of stress, anxiety, or depression due to factors such as acculturation to Western culture, pressure from parents to succeed, ethnic identity issues, intergenerational conflict, immigration status, racism, and discrimination. This study examined the role of five dimensions of...
Borders, L. DiAnne
Models that meet the Psychology Board of Australia's definition of peer consultation include dyadic, triadic, and group formats. Components of these models (e.g., goals, theoretical basis, role of leader, members' roles, structure, and steps in procedure, stages in group development) are presented, and evidence of their effectiveness is reviewed.…
Boer, Diana; Abubakar, Amina
Families are central to the social and emotional development of youth, and most families engage in musical activities together, such as listening to music or talking about their favorite songs. However, empirical evidence of the positive effects of musical family rituals on social cohesion and emotional well-being is scarce. Furthermore, the role of culture in the shaping of musical family rituals and their psychological benefits has been neglected entirely. This paper investigates musical rituals in families and in peer groups (as an important secondary socialization context) in two traditional/collectivistic and two secular/individualistic cultures, and across two developmental stages (adolescence vs. young adulthood). Based on cross-sectional data from 760 young people in Kenya, the Philippines, New Zealand, and Germany, our study revealed that across cultures music listening in families and in peer groups contributes to family and peer cohesion, respectively. Furthermore, the direct contribution of music in peer groups on well-being appears across cultural contexts, whereas musical family rituals affect emotional well-being in more traditional/collectivistic contexts. Developmental analyses show that musical family rituals are consistently and strongly related to family cohesion across developmental stages, whereas musical rituals in peer groups appear more dependent on the developmental stage (in interaction with culture). Contributing to developmental as well as cross-cultural psychology, this research elucidated musical rituals and their positive effects on the emotional and social development of young people across cultures. The implications for future research and family interventions are discussed. PMID:24847296
Kalman, C.S.; Milner-Bolotin, M.; Antimitova, T.
We report on an experiment comparing examinations of concepts using slightly modified peer instruction (MPI) interventions with a conceptual conflict strategy based on collaborative groups (CG). Four interventions were utilized in two sections of an introductory physics course for science students. Both instructors and strategies were alternated in the two classes so that instructor dependence could be factored out and so that each class could serve as both an experimental and a control group. The gain on the Force Concept Inventory (FCI) used as a pre- and post-test is essentially the same in both classes. The instructors were experienced in use of MPI, but this was the first time that these instructors had used a collaborative group activity in their classes and only used it for the two interventions in each class described in this paper. CG appears to be more effective as a teaching method than PI. It also should be noted that the effectiveness of both teaching methods seems to be instructor independent as long as the instructors followed the same protocol. (author)
Kalman, C.S., E-mail: Calvin.Kalman@concordia.ca [Concordia Univ., Dept. of Physics, Montreal, QC (Canada); Milner-Bolotin, M. [Univ. of British Columbia, Dept. of Curriculum and Pedagogy, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Antimitova, T. [Ryerson Univ., Dept. of Physics, Toronto, ON (Canada)
We report on an experiment comparing examinations of concepts using slightly modified peer instruction (MPI) interventions with a conceptual conflict strategy based on collaborative groups (CG). Four interventions were utilized in two sections of an introductory physics course for science students. Both instructors and strategies were alternated in the two classes so that instructor dependence could be factored out and so that each class could serve as both an experimental and a control group. The gain on the Force Concept Inventory (FCI) used as a pre- and post-test is essentially the same in both classes. The instructors were experienced in use of MPI, but this was the first time that these instructors had used a collaborative group activity in their classes and only used it for the two interventions in each class described in this paper. CG appears to be more effective as a teaching method than PI. It also should be noted that the effectiveness of both teaching methods seems to be instructor independent as long as the instructors followed the same protocol. (author)
Pololi, Linda H; Evans, Arthur T
To address a dearth of mentoring and to avoid the pitfalls of dyadic mentoring, the authors implemented and evaluated a novel collaborative group peer mentoring program in a large academic department of medicine. The mentoring program aimed to facilitate faculty in their career planning, and targeted either early-career or midcareer faculty in 5 cohorts over 4 years, from 2010 to 2014. Each cohort of 9-12 faculty participated in a yearlong program with foundations in adult learning, relationship formation, mindfulness, and culture change. Participants convened for an entire day, once a month. Sessions incorporated facilitated stepwise and values-based career planning, skill development, and reflective practice. Early-career faculty participated in an integrated writing program and midcareer faculty in leadership development. Overall attendance of the 51 participants was 96%, and only 3 of 51 faculty who completed the program left the medical school during the 4 years. All faculty completed a written detailed structured academic development plan. Participants experienced an enhanced, inclusive, and appreciative culture; clarified their own career goals, values, strengths and priorities; enhanced their enthusiasm for collaboration; and developed skills. The program results highlight the need for faculty to personally experience the power of forming deep relationships with their peers for fostering successful career development and vitality. The outcomes of faculty humanity, vitality, professionalism, relationships, appreciation of diversity, and creativity are essential to the multiple missions of academic medicine. © 2015 The Alliance for Continuing Education in the Health Professions, the Society for Academic Continuing Medical Education, and the Council on Continuing Medical Education, Association for Hospital Medical Education.
Kushwaha, Komal P; Sankar, Jhuma; Sankar, M Jeeva; Gupta, Arun; Dadhich, J P; Gupta, Y P; Bhatt, Girish C; Ansari, Dilshad A; Sharma, B
Our primary objective was to evaluate the effect of peer counselling by mother support groups (MSG's) in improving the infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices in the community. We conducted this repeated-measure before and after study in the Lalitpur district of Uttar Pradesh, India between 2006 and 2011. We assessed the IYCF practices before and after creating MSG's within the community. The feeding practices were reassessed at two time points-2 (T1) and 5 years (T2) after the intervention and compared with that of the pre-intervention phase (T0). The total population covered by the project from the time of its initiation was 105000. A total of 425 (T0), 480 (T1) and 521 (T2) mother infant pairs were selected from this population. There was significant improvement in the following IYCF practices in the community (represented as %; adjOR (95% CI, p) such as initiation of breast feeding within 1 hour at both T1 (71% vs. 11%); 19.6 (13.6, 28.2, p = feeds at both T1 (67% vs. 15%); 12.6 (CI: 9.0, 17.6, pfeeding for 6 months at both T1 (50% vs. 7%); 13.6 (7.6, 25.0, p = feeding at T1 (85% vs. 54%); 5.6 (3.6, 8.7, p = feeding along with continued breast feeding at both T1 (36% vs. 4.5%); 6 (1.15, 31.4, p = 0.033) and T2 (42% vs. 4.5%); 8.06 (1.96, 49.1, p = 0.005) as compared to pre-intervention period (T0) after adjusting for important social and demographic variables. Peer counseling by MSG's improved the IYCF practices in the district and could be sustained.
Selker, Leopold; And Others
This article addresses the concept of "special needs" as it applies to health promotion and disease prevention. The three sections of this article deal with three special subgroups of the general population: the elderly, those with disabilities, and those with cultural heritages that are not the same as the majority population's. (Author/CT)
Cho, Youngsuk; Je, Sangmo; Yoon, Yoo Sang; Roh, Hye Rin; Chang, Chulho; Kang, Hyunggoo; Lim, Taeho
Students are largely providing feedback to one another when instructor facilitates peer feedback rather than teaching in group training. The number of students in a group affect the learning of students in the group training. We aimed to investigate whether a larger group size increases students' test scores on a post-training test with peer feedback facilitated by instructor after video-guided basic life support (BLS) refresher training. Students' one-rescuer adult BLS skills were assessed by a 2-min checklist-based test 1 year after the initial training. A cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of student number in a group on BLS refresher training. Participants included 115 final-year medical students undergoing their emergency medicine clerkship. The median number of students was 8 in the large groups and 4 in the standard group. The primary outcome was to examine group differences in post-training test scores after video-guided BLS training. Secondary outcomes included the feedback time, number of feedback topics, and results of end-of-training evaluation questionnaires. Scores on the post-training test increased over three consecutive tests with instructor-led peer feedback, but not differ between large and standard groups. The feedback time was longer and number of feedback topics generated by students were higher in standard groups compared to large groups on the first and second tests. The end-of-training questionnaire revealed that the students in large groups preferred the smaller group size compared to their actual group size. In this BLS refresher training, the instructor-led group feedback increased the test score after tutorial video-guided BLS learning, irrespective of the group size. A smaller group size allowed more participations in peer feedback.
Full Text Available When people become victims of terrorism in a country other than their own, they often face diverse legal, financial, cultural and political difficulties. This paper addresses peer support groups in their various forms (e.g. therapeutic support groups, victim association gatherings, online forums, etc., as an effective way of helping people affected by cross-border terrorist attacks to deal with the complex problems they face, thus alleviating some of their suffering. It focuses on two major international incidents affecting British nationals: the attacks of 11 September 2001 and the Paris attacks of 13 November 2015. The author was an initiator of peer-support systems for the UK-based bereaved and survivors following both atrocities. Here, she draws on her experience to highlight the benefits and identify potential challenges of such peer-support groups in tackling some of the complex problems individuals affected by cross-border terrorist attacks encounter.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Peer support interventions can improve carer wellbeing and interventions that engage both the carer and person with dementia can have significant mutual benefits. Existing research has been criticised for inadequate rigour of design or reporting. This paper describes the protocol for a complex trial that evaluates one-to-one peer support and a group reminiscence programme, both separately and together, in a factorial design. Design A 2 × 2 factorial multi-site randomised controlled trial of individual peer support and group reminiscence interventions for family carers and people with dementia in community settings in England, addressing both effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. Discussion The methods described in this protocol have implications for research into psychosocial interventions, particularly complex interventions seeking to test both individual and group approaches. Trial Registration ISRCTN37956201
Henriksen, Christian Bugge; Bregnhøj, Henrik; Rosthøj, Susanne
This paper explores the application of learning designs featuring formalised and structured technology enhanced peer learning. These include student produced learning elements, peer review discussions and peer assessment in the BSc/MSc level summer course Restoration of European Ecosystems...... and Freshwaters (REEF), the Master thesis preparation seminars for the Master of Public Health (MPH) and the MOOC course Global Environmental Management (GEM). The application of student produced learning elements and peer review discussions is investigated by analyzing quotes from course evaluations...... and performing focus group interviews. The application of peer assessment is investigated by analyzing the agreement of peer assessment between students assessing the same assignment. Our analyses confirm previous research on the value of peer learning and peer assessment and we argue that there could also...
O'Connor, Shannon M; Burt, S Alexandra; VanHuysse, Jessica L; Klump, Kelly L
Previous studies suggest strong associations between exposure to weight-conscious peer groups and increased levels of disordered eating. This association has been attributed to socialization effects (i.e., membership leads to disordered eating); however, selection effects (i.e., selecting into peer groups based on genetic and/or environmental predispositions toward disordered eating) could contribute to or even account for these associations. The current study was the first to use a co-twin control design to disentangle these types of selection factors from socialization effects. Participants included 610 female twins (ages 8-14) drawn from the Michigan State University Twin Registry. To comprehensively examine a range of eating pathology, several disordered eating attitudes and behaviors (e.g., body dissatisfaction, binge eating) were examined via self-report questionnaires. Questionnaires also were used to assess peer group emphasis on body weight and shape. Replicating previous results, significant individual-level associations were found between membership in weight-conscious peer groups and disordered eating. However, co-twin control analyses indicated that these associations were largely due to genetic and/or shared environmental selection factors rather than pure socialization effects. Importantly, results remained unchanged when controlling for pubertal status, suggesting that effects do not vary across developmental stage. Overall, these findings question whether associations between weight-conscious peer groups and disordered eating are due entirely to socialization processes. Future studies are needed to identify the specific genetic and/or shared environmental factors that may drive selection into weight-conscious peer groups. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Vagharseyyedin, Seyyed Abolfazl; Gholami, Mojtaba; Hajihoseini, Morteza; Esmaeili, Aliakbar
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of peer group support on family adaptation of wives of war veterans suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In this randomized controlled trial, 80 wives of war veterans with PTSD were incorporated, and selected participants were randomly assigned into intervention and control groups (n = 40 per group). The intervention group was divided into four subgroups, with each participating in eight weekly based 1.5-hr peer support group sessions and the control group received no intervention. Demographics form and Family Adaptation Scale (FAS) developed by Antonovsky and Sourani (1988) were applied. The total mean scores of family adaptation increased significantly more in the intervention group than in the control group (p = .033). Furthermore, the time × group interaction effects were significant for internal family fit (p = .013) and a combination of both family fit and family community fit (p = .020) dimensions. Nonetheless family fit dimensions mean scores had no significant increase in the intervention group than the control group over time (p = .948). Peer support group can be a useful tool for health care professionals to enhance family adaptation in spouses of war veterans with PTSD. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Stewart, Greg L.; Courtright, Stephen H.; Barrick, Murray R.
The authors use a multilevel framework to introduce peer-based control as a motivational state that emerges in self-managing teams. The authors specifically describe how "peer-based rational control", which is defined as team members perceiving the distribution of economic rewards as dependent on input from teammates, extends and…
Barber, William H.
Describes a case study illustrating organizational and system contingencies for introducing and maintaining a support group for oncology nursing staff in a large general hospital culture. Criteria for long-run survivability of innovation in a work system are applied to a group structured like that described by Balint for training physicians in…
Savage, Matthew W; Menegatos, Lisa; Roberto, Anthony J
Despite the risks involved when mixing alcohol with casual sexual activity, the majority of college students engage in hookups, and the majority of those hookups involve alcohol. This study focused on the protective role college students' peers can play and the situational factors that might influence their willingness to intervene when a close friend is about to hook up intoxicated. Drawing on the theory of planned behavior (TPB), this study investigated differences in students' (N = 1270) attitudes, norms, perceived behavioral control, and intentions to persuade a close friend not to engage in a hypothetical drunken hookup using a 2 (friend sex) × 2 (participant sex) × 2 (sober/intoxicated) factorial design. Results indicated significant differences in the TPB variables. Participants intended to intervene with female friends, but not male friends, and women were more likely to intervene than men. Participants in the sober condition had stronger intentions to intervene than those in the intoxicated condition, but this effect was driven by increases in men's intentions when sober. Implications for theory and prevention programming are discussed.
Phillips, Peter; Glover, Chris; Allan, Teresa; Khoo, Mary Ellen
Aims: This study used group psycho-education methods to assist injecting heroin users in preventing, and responding to overdose. Methods: An "OD Prevention" group was advertised in a London prescribing service and associated primary care unit. The intervention took place in a small group over one afternoon (3.5 hours), and trained…
... you when they think you're making a mistake or doing something risky. Socializing. Your peer group gives you opportunities to try out new social skills. Getting to know lots of different people — such as classmates or teammates — gives you a chance to learn how to expand your circle of friends, build ...
Full Text Available Although many preventive efforts and treaties, chemical warfare agents have still been a severe assault form against both military and civilian individuals. The most important chemical warfare agents sulphur mustard and others are easy to handle and cheap those the important reasons to accept sulphur mustard as a chemical warfare agent. Many individuals attacked by sulphur mustard have severe health problems such as respiratory system diseases. After ten years of sulphur mustard exposure, several health problems such as respiratory tract problems (%42.5, eye problems (%40 and other systemic diseases have been observed to insist on induviduals when examined. Exposure of even single sulphur mustard exposure has been seen to result high level of disability and early deaths. In spite of the fact that there is no available antidote and/or remedy against sulphur mustard exposure, our country has an incremental chemical assault threat for both military personels and civilians because of its jeopolitics position. Experimental studies regarding sulphur mustard toxicity will be helpful for novel preventive strategies and antidot devolepment. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(3.000: 209-214
Burt, S. Alexandra; O’Connor, Shannon; Thompson, J. Kevin; Klump, Kelly L.
Affiliation with weight conscious peer groups is theorized to increase thin-ideal internalization through socialization processes. However, selection effects could contribute if genetic and/or environmental predispositions lead to affiliation with weight conscious peers. Co-twin control methodology was used to examine socialization and selection effects in 614 female twins (ages 8–15) from the Michigan State University Twin Registry (MSUTR). Thin-ideal internalization and peer group characteristics were assessed via self-report questionnaires. Results suggested the presence of both socialization and selection effects. In terms of socialization, twins who reported increased exposure to weight conscious peers relative to their co-twins had elevated thin-ideal internalization scores, regardless of zygosity. However, associations between weight conscious peers and thin-ideal internationalization within twin pairs were attenuated, suggesting that genetic and shared environmental selection effects also contribute. Findings significantly extend previous work by confirming the presence of socialization processes and highlighting selection processes to be examined in future longitudinal research. PMID:26859605
VanHuysse, Jessica L; Burt, S Alexandra; O'Connor, Shannon M; Thompson, J Kevin; Klump, Kelly L
Affiliation with weight conscious peer groups is theorized to increase thin-ideal internalization through socialization processes. However, selection effects could contribute if genetic and/or environmental predispositions lead to affiliation with weight conscious peers. Co-twin control methodology was used to examine socialization and selection effects in 614 female twins (ages 8-15) from the Michigan State University Twin Registry (MSUTR). Thin-ideal internalization and peer group characteristics were assessed via self-report questionnaires. Results suggested the presence of both socialization and selection effects. In terms of socialization, twins who reported increased exposure to weight conscious peers relative to their co-twins had elevated thin-ideal internalization scores, regardless of zygosity. However, associations between weight conscious peers and thin-ideal internationalization within twin pairs were attenuated, suggesting that genetic and shared environmental selection effects also contribute. Findings significantly extend previous work by confirming the presence of socialization processes and highlighting selection processes to be examined in future longitudinal research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Voisin, Dexter R.; Bird, Jason D. P.
This study explored the beliefs of African American male adolescents concerning the high rates of HIV infection among their peers and their reasons for those beliefs. In-depth interviews were conducted with a sample of 16 male African Americans, and a thematic analysis of the data was conducted. Half of the participants believed that peers were…
Larsen, R.D.; Bouvin, N.O.
This paper presents HyperPeer, a framework for developing peer-to-peer based hypermedia. The distribution of hypermedia structures is handled through a peer-to-peer (P2P) network, allowing for highly scalable sharing between users. A central challenge of all decentralized systems is to locate...... material of interest and this paper presents the HyperPeer Hierarchy of Resemblance (HR) searching algorithm, which provides an efficient search as well as partitioning of the network into groups of common interest....
van Aken, W G; Christiaens, G C
In the Netherlands last year two important policy changes were introduced to prevent haemolytic disease of the newborn: antenatal administration of anti RhD immunoglobulin and screening for antibodies against irregular erythrocyte antigens in all pregnant women. As the predictive value of such antibodies for the detection of hemolytic disease of the newborn is limited, it is uncertain if this measure is really cost-effective. Because blood transfusion is the most important probable cause of the immunization, and because of the clinical severity of anti-K antibodies, it is advised to give exclusively K negative blood to girls and women under the age of 45 years. In addition there is a need for a uniform protocol to deal with women who have been exposed to immunization.
The Nutritional Science Research Group (NSRG) promotes and supports studies establishing a comprehensive understanding of the precise role of diet and food components in modulating cancer risk and tumor cell behavior. This focus includes approaches to characterize molecular targets and variability in individual responses to nutrients and dietary patterns. |
Thondhlana, Gladman; Belluigi, Dina Zoe
Participatory assessment is increasingly employed in higher education worldwide as a formative mechanism to support students' active learning. But do students in an increasingly relationally diverse environment perceive that peer assessment of individuals' contributions to group-work tasks enhances their learning? Recognising the impact of…
Lazarowitz, Reuven; Hertz-Lazarowitz, Rachel; Khalil, Mahmood; Ron, Salit
The model of the six mirrors of the classroom and its use in teaching biology in a cooperative learning mode were implemented in high school classrooms. In this study we present: a) The model of the six mirrors of the classroom (MSMC). b) Cooperative learning settings: 1. The Group Investigation; 2. The Jigsaw Method; and 3. Peer Tutoring in Small…
House, Collette R.
School leaders commonly face issues of loneliness, isolation, burnout, and depression. The purpose of this qualitative multiple-case study was to explore self-initiated peer support group participation for professional impact and personal impact on school leaders facing issues of loneliness, isolation, stress, and burnout. This study provides an…
Hamm, Jill V.
The purpose of this study was to examine teachers' attunement to student peer group affiliations as a factor in students' experiences of the school social-affect context. First, the author and her colleagues hypothesize that teacher attunement will be greater in intervention versus control schools following initial SEALS training. Second, they…
Hanlon, C A; Olson, J G; Clark, C J
Substantial changes in the epizootic characteristics of rabies have transpired in the United States during the past 50 years. Traditional veterinary practices and public health recommendations have effectively controlled rabies in dogs and prevented associated human fatalities; however, they have been unable to adequately address the problem of rabies in wildlife. Attributable in part to a renewed focus on emerging infectious diseases, a conference was held at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 1993 to begin discussion focused on the reemergence of rabies and to formulate new suggestions for prevention and control of rabies in the United States. Three major working groups were formed from a national committee of professionals representing a broad array of biomedical disciplines. These groups concentrated on prevention of rabies in human beings, education, laboratory diagnosis of rabies, and rabies control in animals. The groups described the perceived minimum requirements to promote prevention and control of rabies in the United States into the next century. The following article describes the needs and recommendations identified by the prevention and education working group. Two other articles, scheduled for the Nov 15 and Dec 1, 1999 issues of JAVMA, will relay the needs and recommendations of the working groups on laboratory diagnosis of rabies and rabies in wildlife.
Conway, C.C.; Rancourt, D.; Adelman, C.B.; Burk, W.J.; Prinstein, M.J.
Tests of interpersonal theories of depression have established that elevated depression levels among peers portend increases in individuals' own depressive symptoms, a phenomenon known as depression socialization. Susceptibility to this socialization effect may be enhanced during the transition to
Drewes, Yvonne M; Koenen, Julia M; de Ruijter, Wouter; van Dijk-van Dijk, D J Annemarie; van der Weele, Gerda M; Middelkoop, Barend J C; Reis, Ria; Assendelft, Willem J J; Gussekloo, Jacobijn
Preventive care traditionally aims to prevent diseases or injuries. For older people, different aims of prevention, such as maintenance of independence and wellbeing, are increasingly important. To explore GPs' perspectives on preventive care for older people. Qualitative study comprising six focus groups with GPs in the Netherlands. The focus-group discussions with 37 GPs were analysed using the framework analysis method. Whether or not to implement preventive care for older people depends on the patient's individual level of vitality, as perceived by the GP. For older people with a high level of vitality, GPs confine their role to standardised disease-oriented prevention on a patient's request; when the vitality levels in older people fall, the scope of preventive care shifts from prevention of disease to prevention of functional decline. For older, vulnerable people, GPs expect most benefit from a proactive, individualised approach, enabling them to live as independently as possible. Based on these perspectives, a conceptual model for preventive care was developed, which describes GPs' different perspectives toward older people who are vulnerable and those with high levels of vitality. It focuses on five main dimensions: aim of care (prevention of disease versus prevention of functional decline), concept of care (disease model versus functional model), initiator (older persons themselves versus GP), target groups (people with requests versus specified risk groups), and content of preventive care (mainly cardiovascular risk management versus functional decline). GPs' perspectives on preventive care are determined by their perception of the level of vitality of their older patients. Preventive care for older people with high levels of vitality may consist of a standardised disease-oriented approach; those who are vulnerable will need an individualised approach to prevent functional decline.
... and management, integrative health care practices, and health promotion. Membership and Designation... HUMAN SERVICES Establishment of the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and... March 23, 2010. The Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health...
Denise Moreno Ramírez
Full Text Available Government-led pollution prevention programs tend to focus on large businesses due to their potential to pollute larger quantities, therefore leaving a gap in programs targeting small and home-based businesses. In light of this gap, we set out to determine if a voluntary, peer education approach led by female, Hispanic community health workers (promotoras can influence small and home-based businesses to implement pollution prevention strategies on-site. This paper describes a partnership between promotoras from a non-profit organization and researchers from a university working together to reach these businesses in a predominately Hispanic area of Tucson, Arizona. From 2008 to 2011, the promotora-led pollution prevention program reached a total of 640 small and home-based businesses. Program activities include technical trainings for promotoras and businesses, generation of culturally and language appropriate educational materials, and face-to-face peer education via multiple on-site visits. To determine the overall effectiveness of the program, surveys were used to measure best practices implemented on-site, perceptions towards pollution prevention, and overall satisfaction with the industry-specific trainings. This paper demonstrates that promotoras can promote the implementation of pollution prevention best practices by Hispanic small and home-based businesses considered “hard-to-reach” by government-led programs.
Bosi, Sandra; Gorini, Giuseppe; Tamelli, Marco; Monti, Claudia; Storani, Simone; Carreras, Giulia; Martini, Andrea; Allara, Elias; Angelini, Paola; Faggiano, Fabrizio
Few school programs are effective in preventing adolescents' tobacco smoking initiation. The "Lega contro i Tumori - Luoghi di Prevenzione" is a cluster randomized controlled trial designed to evaluate a school-based peer-led smoking prevention intervention with extracurricular activities for students aged 14-15 years. This paper presents the study design and the baseline characteristics of the study population. Twenty secondary schools located in the Reggio Emilia province took part in the study. Five schools were excluded because they already participated in smoking prevention interventions. The schools were randomized to control or intervention arms. The study population consisted of students attending the first grade. Components of the intervention included 1) the out-of-school "Smoking Prevention Tour" (SPT) at the "Luoghi di Prevenzione" Center, a 4-hour (4 sessions) extracurricular activity; 2) the "Smoke-free Schools" intervention, combining a life-skills-based peer-led intervention at school, an in-depth lesson on one of the SPT sessions, and enforcement surveillance of the school antismoking policy. Tobacco use was studied through a questionnaire administered before and 6 months after the intervention. Eleven high schools and 9 vocational secondary schools took part in the study for a total of 2,476 out of 3,050 eligible students (81.2%). The proportions of respondents in high schools and vocational secondary schools were 90.9% and 64.5%, respectively (P preventing smoking initiation.
Moreno Ramírez, Denise; Ramírez-Andreotta, Mónica D.; Vea, Lourdes; Estrella-Sánchez, Rocío; Wolf, Ann Marie A.; Kilungo, Aminata; Spitz, Anna H.; Betterton, Eric A.
Government-led pollution prevention programs tend to focus on large businesses due to their potential to pollute larger quantities, therefore leaving a gap in programs targeting small and home-based businesses. In light of this gap, we set out to determine if a voluntary, peer education approach led by female, Hispanic community health workers (promotoras) can influence small and home-based businesses to implement pollution prevention strategies on-site. This paper describes a partnership between promotoras from a non-profit organization and researchers from a university working together to reach these businesses in a predominately Hispanic area of Tucson, Arizona. From 2008 to 2011, the promotora-led pollution prevention program reached a total of 640 small and home-based businesses. Program activities include technical trainings for promotoras and businesses, generation of culturally and language appropriate educational materials, and face-to-face peer education via multiple on-site visits. To determine the overall effectiveness of the program, surveys were used to measure best practices implemented on-site, perceptions towards pollution prevention, and overall satisfaction with the industry-specific trainings. This paper demonstrates that promotoras can promote the implementation of pollution prevention best practices by Hispanic small and home-based businesses considered “hard-to-reach” by government-led programs. PMID:26371028
Reiser, Jenson E.; Murphy, Susan L.; McCarthy, Christopher J.
A stress prevention and mindfulness (SPAM) group is described, which is a 6-week psychoeducational and support group for teachers. The group incorporated psychoeducation about stress and utilized elements of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR). The group was implemented in a public charter school in the Southwest. Preliminary evaluation…
Full Text Available Abstract Background While the HIV epidemic is levelling off in sub-Saharan Africa, it remains at an unacceptably high level. Young people aged 15-24 years remain particularly vulnerable, resulting in a regional HIV prevalence of 1.4% in young men and 3.3% in young women. This study assesses the effectiveness of a peer-led HIV prevention intervention in secondary schools in Rwanda on young people’s sexual behavior, HIV knowledge and attitudes. Methods In a non-randomized longitudinal controlled trial, fourteen schools were selected in two neighboring districts in Rwanda Bugesera (intervention and Rwamagana (control. Students (n = 1950 in eight intervention and six control schools participated in three surveys (baseline, six and twelve months in the intervention. Analysis was done using linear and logistic regression using generalized estimation equations adjusted for propensity score. Results The overall retention rate was 72%. Time trends in sexual risk behavior (being sexually active, sex in last six months, condom use at last sex were not significantly different in students from intervention and control schools, nor was the intervention associated with increased knowledge, perceived severity or perceived susceptibility. It did significantly reduce reported stigma. Conclusions Analyzing this and other interventions, we identified several reasons for the observed limited effectiveness of peer education: 1 intervention activities (spreading information are not tuned to objectives (changing behavior; 2 young people prefer receiving HIV information from other sources than peers; 3 outcome indicators are not adequate and the context of the relationship in which sex occurs and the context in which sex occurs is ignored. Effectiveness of peer education may increase through integration in holistic interventions and redefining peer educators’ role as focal points for sensitization and referral to experts and services. Finally, we argue that a
Lenton, Simon; Dietze, Paul; Olsen, Anna; Wiggins, Nicole; McDonald, David; Fowlie, Carrie
Since the mid-1990s, there have been calls to make naloxone, a prescription-only medicine in many countries, available to heroin and other opioid users and their peers and family members to prevent overdose deaths. In Australia there were calls for a trial of peer naloxone in 2000, yet at the end of that year, heroin availability and harm rapidly declined, and a trial did not proceed. In other countries, a number of peer naloxone programs have been successfully implemented. Although a controlled trial had not been conducted, evidence of program implementation demonstrated that trained injecting drug-using peers and others could successfully administer naloxone to reverse heroin overdose, with few, if any, adverse effects. In 2009 Australian drug researchers advocated the broader availability of naloxone for peer administration in cases of opioid overdose. Industrious local advocacy and program development work by a number of stakeholders, notably by the Canberra Alliance for Harm Minimisation and Advocacy, a drug user organisation, contributed to the rollout of Australia's first prescription naloxone program in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT). Over the subsequent 18 months, prescription naloxone programs were commenced in four other Australian states. The development of Australia's first take-home naloxone program in the ACT has been an 'ice-breaker' for development of other Australian programs. Issues to be addressed to facilitate future scale-up of naloxone programs concern scheduling and cost, legal protections for lay administration, prescribing as a barrier to scale-up; intranasal administration, administration by service providers and collaboration between stakeholders. © 2014 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
Oransky, Matthew; Marecek, Jeanne
This study examines the peer relations and emotion practices of adolescent boys in light of their expectations and assumptions about masculinity. We carried out semistructured interviews with middle-class and upper-middle-class boys from an independent high school. The boys reported that they assiduously avoided displays of emotional or physical…
Schwartz, David; Hopmeyer-Gorman, Andrea; Toblin, Robin L.; Abou-ezzeddine, Tania
This chapter focuses on the moderating role of inimical peer relationships in the association between community violence exposure and children's functioning difficulties. A series of hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated that community violence exposure is consistently related to psychosocial maladjustment only for children who are…
Janssen, Rianne; Wouters, Sofie; Huygh, Tine; Denies, Katrijn; Verschueren, Karine
According to the big-fish-little-pond (BFLP) model, the self-concept is not only influenced in a positive way by one's own achievement, but also in a negative way by one's relative achievement in comparison with one's immediate peers. This study investigates whether the BFLP effect also holds for second language acquisition. A random sample of…
Koster, Marloes; Nakken, Han; Pijl, Sip Jan; van Houten, Els
Maximizing the interaction between pupils with and without special needs is generally considered an important aspect of inclusion. However, it is frequently questioned whether pupils with special educational needs (SEN) in regular classrooms have interactions and friendships with their peers. In order to be able to evaluate these relationships, it…
Pazos, Pilar; Micari, Marina; Light, Gregory
Collaborative learning is being used extensively by educators at all levels. Peer-led team learning in a version of collaborative learning that has shown consistent success in science, technology, engineering and mathematics disciplines. Using a multi-phase research study we describe the development of an observation instrument that can be used to…
Valkenburg-van den Berg, Arijaantje Willemijntje (Arijaan)
Group B Streptococcus (GBS, Streptococcus agalactiae) has been recognized as an important cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. The frequency of GBS colonization ranges from 10% to 35% in women of reproductive age. GBS colonization can be transient, intermittent or persistent. Vertical
Reiser, Jenson E.; McCarthy, Christopher J.
This exploratory study evaluated a short-term (6-8 weeks) psychoeducation and support group for teachers focused on stress prevention and mindfulness (labeled SPAM group). A total of 4 groups were implemented in different schools, and evaluation was conducted with quantitative (pre- and post-measures of teacher vulnerability to stress, job…
Kafle, K K; Bhuju, G B; Karkee, S B; Prasad, R R; Shrestha, N; Shrestha, A D; Das, P L; Chataut, B D; Shrestha, A; Suvedi, B K
Monitoring/supervision is an essential component for improving the quality of health services including rational use of medicines. A new bottom-up approach of monitoring/supervision consisting of self-assessment/ peer-group discussion was found to be effective in improving prescribing practices. The new strategy significantly improved the prescribing practices based on standard treatment guidelines. The government has implemented it as a Program in primary health care services of Nepal. This article aims to share the implementation status of the self-assessment/peer-group discussion Program for improving the prescribing practices of common health problems and availability of drugs in the district health system. Concurrent mixed research design was applied for data collection. The data were collected at different levels of health care system using in-depth interviews, participatory observations and documentary analysis. The Management Division, Department of Health Services implemented the Program in 2009-10 and the PHC Revitalization Division, DoHs is the implementation division since 2010-11. The Program comprised revision of participant's and trainer's manuals, training of trainers and prescribers, finalisation of health conditions and indicators, distribution of carbon copy prescription pads, and conduction of peer-group discussions.The Program was implemented in number of districts. The government made the policy decision to implement the Program for monitoring prescribing practices and the availability of free drugs in districts. However, it has covered only few districts and needs escalation to cover all 75 districts of the country.
Gradowski, T.; Mrowinski, M.J.; Kosinski, R.A.
This paper presents results of a research conducted on a simple model of a peer-to-peer network (a network in which users exchange files directly, without any central server involved). The conditions necessary for the file exchange process to be efficient and stable are investigated through numerical simulations and analytical calculations based on the master equation. Ways of preventing free-riding (selfish behavior, when users download files without sharing them) are also discussed.(author)
Baker, Charlene K
Prior research suggests that peers are important to adolescent dating experiences. However, questions remain about the role peers play in adolescent relationships, including dating violence. To fill this gap, eight sex-specific focus groups were conducted with 39 high school-aged teens, all of whom had experienced prior relationship problems. Participants described how peers helped them initiate dating relationships, but once in the relationship, peers would spread rumors and create dramas that led to jealousy, discord, and violence between the couple. Prevention programs should focus on cultivating peers as helpful bystanders and counteracting peer actions that lead to dating violence. © The Author(s) 2016.
In 1974 the IAEA established a special Nuclear Safety Standards (NUSS) programme under which 5 Codes and 55 Safety Guides have been produced in the areas of Governmental Organization, Siting, Design, Operation and Quality Assurance. The NUSS Codes and Guides are a collection of basic and derived requirements for the safety of nuclear power plants with thermal neutron reactors. They have been developed in a complex manner which ensured the best possible international consensus. This broad consensus is one of the reasons for a relatively general wording of the main principles and is sometimes a cause of problems in their application to the detailed design of nuclear power plants. The requirements, particularly those of the Codes, often need interpretation when applied to specific cases. In many areas national regulations and technical standards are available, but often even these do not answer all questions and only the practice used in applying certain rules fully reflects the outcome of the detailed consideration given to solving individual cases. In order to present further information on the application and interpretation in the NUSS Codes and Safety Guides, the preparation of a series of Safety Practice publications has been initiated. It is hoped that many Member States will be able to benefit from the experience presented in these documents. It is hoped that this publication will be useful for regulators and will also provide information for operating organizations. The document is a compilation of the reports of all of the 1989/90 Peer Group discussions held to consider regulatory inspection and enforcement of good practices. Therefore names of participated countries or the situation of regulatory practices reflect those at time when discussions took place. It identifies those common regulatory features which require continuous reinforcement and the examples of good regulatory practices which were recommended by the senior regulators attending the Peer Group
Mira Utami Ningsih
Full Text Available Introduction: Dengue Hemorrhage Fever is a disease with prevalence that keep on higher and spread wider. Prevention and control of DHF are affected by environment and social-behavioral factors. So that, some efforts are needed to increase people awareness in prevention of DHF by giving health education. This study was aimed to fi nd out the difference effectiveness of elucidation and group counseling method to emendation of patriarch behavior in DHF prevention. Method: This study used pre-post test design. The population is patriarch in Monjok Pemamoran Village RT 01. Samples were 40 patriarchs taken by purposive sampling. Independent variables were elucidation and group counseling. Dependent variables were patriarch behavior including knowledge, attitude and practice. Data were collected using questionnaire and observation sheet then analyzed using Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test and Mann Whitney U-test. Result: The result revealed that there are significant effect of elucidation and group counseling to emendation of patriarch behavior in DHF prevention. Except in patriarch’s practice, there were no difference effectiveness of elucidation and group counseling to emendation of patriarch’s knowledge and attitude. There was difference effectiveness of elucidation and group counseling method to emendation of patriarch’s practice in prevention of DHF. Discussion: From this study in can be concluded that, both elucidation and group counseling can affect patriarch’s behavior in prevention of DHF but group counseling method is more effective. That’s why, it is hoped that paramedic can apply that method to society in purpose to increase prevention and control of DHF and prevents the outbreak.
Choi, Sarah E; Kwon, Ivy; Chang, Emiley; Araiza, Daniel; Thorpe, Carol Lee; Sarkisian, Catherine A
To gain better understanding of (i) beliefs and knowledge about stroke; (ii) attitudes about walking for stroke prevention; and (iii) barriers and facilitators to walking among Korean seniors for the cultural tailoring of a stroke prevention walking programme. Physical inactivity is a major risk factor for stroke. Korean immigrant seniors are one of the most sedentary ethnic groups in the United States. An explorative study using focus group data. Twenty-nine Korean immigrant seniors (64-90 years of age) who had been told by a doctor at least once that their blood pressure was elevated participated in 3 focus groups. Each focus group consisted of 8-11 participants. Focus group audiotapes were transcribed and analysed using standard content analysis methods. Participants identified physical and psychological imbalances (e.g. too much work and stress) as the primary causes of stroke. Restoring 'balance' was identified as a powerful means of stroke prevention. A subset of participants expressed that prevention may be beyond human control. Overall, participants acknowledged the importance of walking for stroke prevention, but described barriers such as lack of personal motivation and unsafe environment. Many participants believed that providing opportunities for socialisation while walking and combining walking with health information sessions would facilitate participation in and maintenance of a walking programme. Korean immigrant seniors believe strongly that imbalance is a primary cause of stroke. Restoring balance as a way to prevent stroke is culturally special among Koreans and provides a conceptual base in culturally tailoring our stroke prevention walking intervention for Korean immigrant seniors. A stroke prevention walking programme for Korean immigrant seniors may have greater impact by addressing beliefs about stroke causes and prevention such as physical and psychological imbalances and the importance of maintaining emotional well-being. © 2016 John
Harrison, Lee H
For decades, there was no licensed vaccine for prevention of endemic capsular group B meningococcal disease, despite the availability of vaccines for prevention of the other most common meningococcal capsular groups. Recently, however, two new vaccines have been licensed for prevention of group B disease. Although immunogenic and considered to have an acceptable safety profile, there are many scientific unknowns about these vaccines, including effectiveness against antigenically diverse endemic meningococcal strains; duration of protection; whether they provide any herd protection; and whether there will be meningococcal antigenic changes that will diminish effectiveness over time. In addition, these vaccines present societal dilemmas that could influence how they are used in the U.S., including high vaccine cost in the face of a historically low incidence of meningococcal disease. These issues are discussed in this review. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Osei, Gershon K.; Gorey, Kevin M.; Jozefowicz, Debra M. Hernandez
Background: Evidence of treatment foster care (TFC) and group care's (GC) potential to prevent delinquency and crime has been developing. Objectives: We clarified the state of comparative knowledge with a historical overview. Then we explored the hypothesis that smaller, probably better resourced group homes with smaller staff/resident ratios have…
Poma, Stefano Zanone; Grossi, Antonello; Venturini, Monica; Cristina, Contessa; Toniolo, Emanuele
In the prevention of suicide, there is a need to transform clinical studies into health promotion by a cooperation with territorial agencies. A survey on a group of stakeholders was performed with the methodology of focus group. The evaluation criteria used by the participants were practical and not methodological and were closely linked to the…
The 20th century was a century of genocide and other great violence between groups within societies. Already at the beginning of the 21st century, there have been mass killings, civil wars, violent conflict, and terrorism. This article summarizes influences that tend to lead to intense group violence. It then considers prevention, stressing early…
Jackson, Kristina M; Roberts, Megan E; Colby, Suzanne M; Barnett, Nancy P; Abar, Caitlin C; Merrill, Jennifer E
Objective: The goal of this study was to explore the effect of subjective peer norms on adolescents’ willingness to drink and whether this association was moderated by sensitivity to peer approval, prior alcohol use, and gender. Method: The sample was 1,023 middle-school students (52% female; 76% White; 12% Hispanic; Mage = 12.22 years) enrolled in a prospective study of drinking initiation and progression. Using web-based surveys, participants reported on their willingness to drink alcohol if offered by (a) a best friend or (b) a classmate, peer norms for two referent groups (close friends and classmates), history of sipping or consuming a full drink of alcohol, and sensitivity to peer approval (extreme peer orientation). Items were re-assessed at two follow-ups (administered 6 months apart). Results: Multilevel models revealed that measures of peer norms were significantly associated with both willingness outcomes, with the greatest prediction by descriptive norms. The association between norms and willingness was magnified for girls, those with limited prior experience with alcohol, and youths with low sensitivity to peer approval. Conclusions: Social norms appear to play a key role in substance use decisions and are relevant when considering more reactive behaviors that reflect willingness to drink under conducive circumstances. Prevention programs might target individuals with higher willingness, particularly girls who perceive others to be drinking and youths who have not yet sipped alcohol but report a higher perceived prevalence of alcohol consumption among both friends and peers. PMID:24766752
Young, Lindsay E; Schumm, Phil; Alon, Leigh; Bouris, Alida; Ferreira, Matthew; Hill, Brandon; Khanna, Aditya S; Valente, Thomas W; Schneider, John A
been enrolled (more than 100% target enrollment) and have completed baseline data collection. A majority of participants in both intervention and control groups reported having heard of PrEP before enrolling in the study, yet also reported having had no current or prior experience taking PrEP. Statistical analyses await completion of Year 1 of the trial in March 2018. PrEP Chicago addresses a gap in HIV prevention research and intervention design by utilizing the existing social networks among young Black men who have sex with men as mechanisms for information diffusion, behavioral influence, social support, and empowerment. Therefore, interventions that leverage peer influence processes to facilitate PrEP uptake are promising strategies to improve sexual health engagement and overcome disparities in outcomes among this at-risk population.
Ambrose, Mark; Murray, Linda; Handoyo, Nicholas E; Tunggal, Deif; Cooling, Nick
There is limited research to inform effective pedagogies for teaching global health to undergraduate medical students. Theoretically, using a combination of teaching pedagogies typically used in 'international classrooms' may prove to be an effective way of learning global health. This pilot study aimed to explore the experiences of medical students in Australia and Indonesia who participated in a reciprocal intercultural participatory peer e-learning activity (RIPPLE) in global health. Seventy-one third year medical students (49 from Australia and 22 from Indonesia) from the University of Tasmania (Australia) and the University of Nusa Cendana (Indonesia) participated in the RIPPLE activity. Participants were randomly distributed into 11 intercultural 'virtual' groups. The groups collaborated online over two weeks to study a global health topic of their choice, and each group produced a structured research abstract. Pre- and post-RIPPLE questionnaires were used to capture students' experiences of the activity. Descriptive quantitative data were analysed with Microsoft Excel and qualitative data were thematically analysed. Students' motivation to volunteer for this activity included: curiosity about the innovative approach to learning; wanting to expand knowledge of global health; hoping to build personal and professional relationships; and a desire to be part of an intercultural experience. Afer completing the RIPPLE program, participants reported on global health knowledge acquisition, the development of peer relationships, and insight into another culture. Barriers to achieving the learning outcomes associated with RIPPLE included problems with establishing consistent online communication, and effectively managing time to simultaneously complete RIPPLE and other curricula activities. Medical students from both countries found benefits in working together in small virtual groups to complement existing teaching in global health. However, our pilot study
Brack, Amy Badura; Millard, Michele; Shah, Kinjal
Objective, Participants and Methods: To determine whether peer educators are considered peers by their audiences, the authors compared 28 peer educators and 28 college students on their personal qualities using self-report surveys. Results: Students who wanted to become peer educators reported higher self-esteem, greater leadership skills, and…
Peer tutoring is essentially peers teaching each other. Many teachers already incorporate this idea into their classrooms in other curricular areas and appreciate the benefits that come from this type of teaching. Teachers can implement peer tutoring by teaching a small group of students a subject, or using a group that already understands the…
This document provides guidance to generator groups for preparing and maintaining documentation of Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization (P2/WMin) Program activities. The guidance is one of a hierarchical series that includes the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan (DOE-RL, 1998a) and Prime Contractor implementation plans describing programs required by Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) 3002(b) and (300501) (RCRA and EPA, 1994). Documentation guidance for the following five P2/WMin elements are discussed: Fiscal Year (FY) Goals; Budget and Staffing; Waste Minimization (WMinn ) Assessments (WMAs); Pollution Prevention (P2) Reporting; WMin Certification
This document provides guidance to generator groups for preparing and maintaining documentation of Pollution Prevention Waste Minimization (P2/WMin) Program activities. The guidance is one of a hierarchical series that includes the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan (DOE-RL, 1998a) and Prime contractor implementation plans describing programs required by Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) 3002(b) and 3005(h) (RCRA and EPA, 1994). Documentation guidance for the following five P2/WMin elements are discussed: Fiscal Year (FY) Goals; Budget and Staffing; Waste Minimization (WMin) Assessments (WMAs); Quarterly Pollution Prevention (P2) Reporting WMin Certification
Background Patient safety is fundamental in high quality healthcare systems but despite an excellent record of perinatal care in Sweden some children still suffer from substandard care and unnecessary birth injuries. Sustainable patient safety improvements assume changes in key actors’ mental models, norms and culture as well as in the tools, design and organisation of work. Interventions positively affecting team mental models on safety issues are a first step to enhancing change. Our purpose was to study a national intervention programme for the prevention of birth injuries with the aim to elucidate how the main interventions of self-assessment, peer review, feedback and written agreement for change affected the teams and their mental model of patient safety, and thereby their readiness for change. Knowledge of relevant considerations before implementing this type of patient safety intervention series could thereby be increased. Methods Eighty participants in twenty-seven maternity units were interviewed after the first intervention sequence of the programme. A content analysis using a priori coding was performed in order to relate results to the anticipated outcomes of three basic interventions: self-assessment, peer review and written feedback, and agreement for change. Results The self-assessment procedure was valuable and served as a useful tool for elucidating strengths and weaknesses and identifying areas for improvement for a safer delivery in maternity units. The peer-review intervention was appreciated, despite it being of less value when considering the contribution to explicit outcome effects (i.e. new input to team mental models and new suggestions for actions). The feedback report and the mutual agreement on measures for improvements reached when signing the contract seemed exert positive pressures for change. Conclusions Our findings are in line with several studies stressing the importance of self-evaluation by encouraging a thorough review of
Nyström Monica E
Full Text Available Abstract Background Patient safety is fundamental in high quality healthcare systems but despite an excellent record of perinatal care in Sweden some children still suffer from substandard care and unnecessary birth injuries. Sustainable patient safety improvements assume changes in key actors’ mental models, norms and culture as well as in the tools, design and organisation of work. Interventions positively affecting team mental models on safety issues are a first step to enhancing change. Our purpose was to study a national intervention programme for the prevention of birth injuries with the aim to elucidate how the main interventions of self-assessment, peer review, feedback and written agreement for change affected the teams and their mental model of patient safety, and thereby their readiness for change. Knowledge of relevant considerations before implementing this type of patient safety intervention series could thereby be increased. Methods Eighty participants in twenty-seven maternity units were interviewed after the first intervention sequence of the programme. A content analysis using a priori coding was performed in order to relate results to the anticipated outcomes of three basic interventions: self-assessment, peer review and written feedback, and agreement for change. Results The self-assessment procedure was valuable and served as a useful tool for elucidating strengths and weaknesses and identifying areas for improvement for a safer delivery in maternity units. The peer-review intervention was appreciated, despite it being of less value when considering the contribution to explicit outcome effects (i.e. new input to team mental models and new suggestions for actions. The feedback report and the mutual agreement on measures for improvements reached when signing the contract seemed exert positive pressures for change. Conclusions Our findings are in line with several studies stressing the importance of self-evaluation by
The 20th century was a century of genocide and other great violence between groups within societies. Already at the beginning of the 21st century, there have been mass killings, civil wars, violent conflict, and terrorism. This article summarizes influences that tend to lead to intense group violence. It then considers prevention, stressing early prevention--and reconciliation as an aspect of prevention--and focusing on central principles and practices. The principles include developing positive orientations to previously devalued groups; healing from past victimization and promoting altruism born of suffering; moderating respect for authority; creating constructive ideologies; promoting understanding of the origins of violence, its impact, and avenues to prevention; promoting truth, justice, and a shared history; and raising inclusively caring, morally courageous children. Practices related to all of these are also discussed. The article stresses the role of progressive change, that is, of psychological, behavioral, and social evolution, in both extreme violence and positive relations between groups; the role of passive bystanders in the unfolding of violence; and the role of active bystandership in the prevention of violence, in the promotion of reconciliation, and in the development of harmonious societies. It emphasizes psychological processes but notes the importance of creating societal institutions. The author cites findings from both laboratory research and case studies, reviews interventions and their evaluation in Rwanda, and points to the need for further research. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved
Cheung, Yee Tak Derek; Chan, Ching Han Helen; Wang, Man Ping; Li, Ho Cheung William; Lam, Tai-Hing
Online social groups have been increasingly used for smoking cessation intervention. This study aimed to explore the social support components of the online discussion through WhatsApp and Facebook, how these components addressed the need of relapse prevention, and how the participants evaluated this intervention. We coded and analyzed the posts (N = 467) by the 82 recent quitters in WhatsApp and Facebook social groups, who were recruited from the eight smoking cessation clinics in Hong Kong to participate in a pragmatic randomized trial of relapse prevention. Participants' postintervention feedback was collected from the 13 qualitative interviews after the intervention. The WhatsApp social groups had more participants' posts than the Facebook counterparts. The participants' posts in the online social groups could be classified as sharing views and experiences (55.5%), encouragement (28.7%), and knowledge and information (15.8%). About half of the participants' posts (52.9%) addressed the themes listed in the U.S. Clinical Practice Guideline for preventing smoking relapse. The participants perceived the posts as useful reminders for smoking cessation, but avoidance of reporting relapse, inactive discussions, and uninteresting content were barriers to the success of the intervention. Online social groups provided a useful platform for the delivery of cessation support and encouragement of reporting abstinence, which support relapse prevention. The effectiveness of such intervention can be improved by encouraging more self-report of relapse, active discussions, sharing of interesting content, and using an appropriate discussion platform. Quitters who participate in the online social groups can benefit from peer support and information sharing, and hence prevent smoking relapse.
Ramos, Rebecca L; Green, Nancy Lorenza; Shulman, Lawrence C
Promotoras along the U.S.-Mexico border in the role of animadoras (motivators) used a chain referral strategy called Pasa la Voz (Spread the Word). Latinas at high to moderate risk of HIV infection became better informed about prevention, accessed prevention services, and referred other at-risk Latinas for services.
Oman, Roy F; Vesely, Sara K; Green, Jennifer; Fluhr, Janene; Williams, Jean
Youth living in group home settings are at significantly greater risk for sexual risk behaviors; however, there are no sexual health programs designed specifically for these youth. The study's purpose was to assess the effectiveness of a teen pregnancy-prevention program for youth living in group home foster care settings and other out-of-home placements. The study design was a cluster randomized controlled trial involving youth (N = 1,037) recruited from 44 residential group homes located in California, Maryland, and Oklahoma. Within each state, youth (mean age = 16.2 years; 82% male; 37% Hispanic, 20% African-American, 20% white, and 17% multiracial) in half the group homes were randomly assigned to the intervention group (n = 40 clusters) and the other half were randomly assigned to a control group that offered "usual care" (n = 40 clusters). The intervention (i.e., Power Through Choices [PTC]) was a 10-session, age-appropriate, and medically accurate sexual health education program. Compared to the control group, youth in the PTC intervention showed significantly greater improvements (p teen pregnancy-prevention program designed for youth living in foster care settings and other out-of-home placements. The numerous significant improvements in short-term outcomes are encouraging and provide preliminary evidence that the PTC program is an effective pregnancy-prevention program. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This manual provides the necessary guidance to contractor generator groups for developing and maintaining documentation of their pollution prevention (P2) program activities. Preparation of program documentation will demonstrate compliance with contractor and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requirements, as well as state and federal regulations. Contractor waste generator groups are no longer required to prepare and update facility waste minimization plans. Developing and maintaining program documentation replace this requirement
S, Lim; Dunbar, James; Versace, Vin
Aims To explore the acceptability of a telephone- or a group-delivered diabetes prevention program for women with previous gestational diabetes and to compare the characteristics associated with program engagement. Methods Postpartum women participated in a lifestyle modification program delivere...
Monshouwer, K.; Smit, H.F.E.; Ruiter, M.; Ormel, H.; Verhulst, F.; Vollebergh, w.; Oldehinkel, T.
Background: Depression in adolescence is associated with long-term adverse consequences. The aim of the present study is to identify target groups at increased risk of developing depression in early adolescence, such that prevention is associated with the largest health benefit at population-level
Monshouwer, K.; Smit, F.; Ruiter, M.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, F.; Vollebergh, W.; Oldehinkel, T.
Background: Depression in adolescence is associated with long-term adverse consequences. The aim of the present study is to identify target groups at increased risk of developing depression in early adolescence, such that prevention is associated with the largest health benefit at population-level
Clemency, Colleen E.; Rayle, Andrea Dixon
This article presents an innovative multiple family psychoeducational group for the prevention of disordered eating among adolescent females. An overview of the concerns facing adolescents today is presented, including sociocultural norms, body dissatisfaction associated with pubertal changes, teasing regarding weight and shape, and family…
The Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group conducts and fosters the development of research on the prevention and early detection of breast cancer, cervix and human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers, endometrial cancers, ovarian cancers, and precursor conditions related to these cancers. |
Nikendei, C; Andreesen, S; Hoffmann, K; Junger, J
Peer-assisted learning (PAL) has become a well-accepted teaching method within medical education. However, descriptions of on-ward PAL programmes are rare. We introduced a PAL programme with a focus on clinical competencies on internal medicine wards. To assess the effects of an on-ward PAL programme on self-assessed clinical competencies. A total of 168 medical students were randomly assigned to one of the seven intervention wards or one of the seven control wards. During their 5-week ward-placement, the intervention group (IG; n = 88) received 10 patient-centred tutorials lead by final year tutors: (I) history taking, (II) physical examination, (III) blood withdrawal, (IV) infusion, (V) patient files, (VI and VII) ECG, (VIII-X) chart rounds. The control group (CG; n = 80) did not take part in the PAL programme. Clinical competencies were self-assessed pre- and post-intervention. For five of the ten assessed clinical competencies, increases in self-confidence ratings were significantly higher in the IG as compared to CG. RESULTS provide preliminary evidence to suggest that PAL programmes on internal medicine wards and with final year students as peer tutors may represent a valuable additional tool within medical clerkships. However, the findings must be confirmed and clarified in further research.
... lifestyle-based chronic disease prevention and management, integrative health care practices, and health... HUMAN SERVICES Re-Establishment of the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative... Services announces re- establishment of the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative...
Dapp, U; Anders, J; Meier-Baumgartner, H P; v Renteln-Kruse, W
Nearly all diseases in old age that are epidemiologically important can be reduced or prevented successfully through consequent changes in individual lifestyle, a systematic provision of measures in primary prevention (i.e. vaccination programmes) and the creation of health promoting settings. However, at the moment the amount of potential for preventative interventions is neither systematically nor sufficiently utilised in Germany. Two different preventative approaches: a) multidimensional advice session in small groups through an interdisciplinary team at a geriatric centre (seniors come to seek advice offered at a centre) or b) multidimensional advice at the seniors home through one member of the interdisciplinary team from the geriatric centre (expert takes advice to seniors home) were tested simultaneously with a well-described study sample of 804 independent community-dwelling senior citizens aged 60 years or over, without need of care and cognitive impairments recruited from general practices. Information about target group specific approaches in health promotion and prevention for senior citizens were retrieved from analyses of sociodemographic, medical, psychological and spacial characteristics of this study sample. The majority of the study sample (580 out of 804 or 72.1%) decided to participate: a) 86.7% (503 out of 580) attended at the geriatric centre and sought advice in group sessions and b) 13.3% (77 out of 580) decided to receive advice in a preventive home visit. A total of 224 seniors (224 out of 804 or 27.9%) refused to participate at all. These three target groups were characterised on the basis of their age, gender, education, social background, health status, health behaviour, use of preventive care, self perceived health, functional disabilities, social net and social participation and distance or accessibility of preventative approaches. The 503 senior citizens who participated in small group sessions at the geriatric centre were
Cruz, Theresa H; Hess, Julia Meredith; Woelk, Leona; Bear, Samantha
Sexual violence is of special concern in New Mexico because of the presence of large priority populations in which its prevalence is high. This article describes a 3-component approach to developing a strategic plan to prevent sexual violence in the state that consisted of an advisory group, subject matter experts, and focus groups from geographically and demographically diverse communities. Both common and community-specific themes emerged from the focus groups and were included in the strategic plan. By incorporating community needs and experiences, this approach fosters increased investment in plan implementation.
Addresses the need for a theoretical analysis of the peer tutoring process by discussing: definitions of the process, the psychological and educational processes in peer tutoring as a learning and teaching experience, and the conceptualization of peer tutoring as a cooperative social system and a group reward structure. (Author/ABB)
Takeda, Sachiko; Homberg, Fabian
The importance of teamwork skills as part of employability has been widely acknowledged and accompanied by active research on successful cooperative learning. However, relatively few studies have focused on the effects of gender on students' group work, and only a limited number of empirical studies exist that examine students' group work process…
Jozkowski, Kristen N.; Henry, Dayna S.; Sturm, Ashley A.
Introduction: Sexual assault continues to be a pervasive health issue among college students in the USA. Prevention education initiatives have been implemented to address this concern. However, little is known about college students' perceptions of such programming. The purpose of this study was to assess predictors of college students'…
Earhart, James Allen, Jr.
Bullying in schools has revealed deleterious psychosocial consequences for bullies, victims, and bystanders. Programs aimed at preventing bullying have largely revealed limited positive outcomes. Efforts that have been associated with positive results have drawn from the social-ecological model, focusing on the constellation of individual…
de Souza, Rebecca; Dauner, Kim Nichols; Goei, Ryan; LaCaille, Lara; Kotowski, Michael R.; Schultz, Jennifer Feenstra; LaCaille, Rick; Versnik Nowak, Amy L.
Background: Obesity prevention efforts typically involve changing eating and exercise behaviors as well as the physical and social environment in which those behaviors occur. Due to existing social networks, worksites are a logical choice for implementing such interventions. Purpose: This article describes the development and implementation of a…
This document provides guidance to generator groups for preparing and maintaining documentation of Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization (P2/WMin) Program activities. The guidance is one of a hierarchical series that includes the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan (DOE-RL, 2000) and Prime Contractor implementation plans describing programs required by Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) 3002(b) and 3005(h) (RCRA and EPA, 1994) and Department of Energy Acquisition Regulations (DEAR) (48 CFR 970.5204-2 and 48 CFR 970.5204-78). Documentation guidance for the following five P2/WMin elements is discussed: Fiscal Year (FY) Goals; Budget and Staffing; Pollution Prevention (P2) Reporting; WMin Certification; and Waste Minimization (WMin) Assessments (WMAs)
This document provides guidance to generator groups for preparing and maintaining documentation of Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization (P2/WMin) Program activities. The guidance is one of a hierarchical series that includes the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan (DOE-RL, 2000) and Prime Contractor implementation plans describing programs required by Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) 3002(b) and 3005(h) (RCRA and EPA, 1994) and Department of Energy Acquisition Regulations (DEAR) (48 CFR 970.5204-2 and 48 CFR 970.5204-78). Documentation guidance for the following five P2/WMin elements is discussed: Fiscal Year (FY) Goals; Budget and Staffing; Pollution Prevention (P2) Reporting; WMin Certification; and Waste Minimization (WMin) Assessments (WMAs).
Layzer, Carolyn; Rosapep, Lauren; Barr, Sherry
This process study is a companion to a randomized evaluation of a school-based, peer-led comprehensive sexual health education program, Teen Prevention Education Program (Teen PEP), in which 11th- and 12th-grade students are trained by school health educators to conduct informative workshops with ninth-grade peers in schools in North Carolina. The process study was designed to understand youth participants' perspectives on the program in order to gain insight into program effectiveness. This is a mixed-methods study in 7 schools, with online surveys (N = 88) and 8 focus groups with peer educators (N = 116), end-of-program surveys (N = 1122), 8 focus groups with ninth-grade workshop participants (N = 89), and observations of the Teen PEP class and workshops during the semester of implementation in each school, 2012-2014. Both peer educators and ninth graders perceived benefits of participating in Teen PEP across a range of domains, including intentions, skills, and knowledge and that the peer education modality was important in their valuation of the experience. Our findings suggest that the peer-led comprehensive sexual health education approach embodied in Teen PEP can be an important educational mechanism for teaching students information and skills to promote sexual health. © 2017, American School Health Association.
Dugan, E; Kamps, D; Leonard, B
We investigated the use of cooperative learning groups as an instructional strategy for integrating 2 students with autism into a fourth-grade social studies class. Baseline consisted of 40 min of teacher-led sessions including lecture, questions and discussion with students, and the use of maps. The intervention condition consisted of 10 min of teacher introduction of new material, followed by cooperative learning groups that included tutoring on key words and facts, a team activity, and a w...
Skinner, Martie L; Haggerty, Kevin P; Casey-Goldstein, Mary; Thompson, Ronald W; Buddenberg, Laura; Mason, W Alex
The changes in Washington State and Colorado marijuana laws call for the development of new brief family-focused adolescent marijuana use preventive interventions that are relevant for and tailored to the context of legalization for retail sale. To that end, focus groups with parents and teens were conducted to find out about their concerns and needs in the context of legalization. Six semi-structured focus groups (3 with parents, 3 with teens) were conducted in Washington State in 2013 related to consequences of teen marijuana use and messages that would be effective in helping to prevent teens from using marijuana in the context of legal adult use. A total of 33 teens and 35 parents participated. Three primary themes were common to these parents and teens: the negative consequences of marijuana use during adolescence on mental, physical, and social health; the need for more or better information; and the need for information/messages to come from trusted sources. The themes related to potential prevention messages include the use of fear; stories about real people; focusing on short-term consequences; and teens needing alternative activities (something better to do). The results suggest that parents and teens need information about the new retail marijuana legalization law. Teens are open to both information and guidance from parents as long as it is calm and respectful. Firsthand accounts of consequences of marijuana use from peers and adults, rather than threats from authority figures, could hold some promise for persuading teens to avoid marijuana use.
Tindall, Judith A.
The goal of this book is to provide a program designed to teach peer helping professionals a method and rationale for training peer helpers. Peer helping programs are a major delivery system of affective education or deliberate psychological education. Peer helping programs can provide prevention, intervention, and support systems for people.…
Dong, Ying; Li, Mingshu; Chen, Meizhang; Zheng, Shengli
Discusses digital intellectual property rights relating to peer-to-peer networks, using Napster as an example. Suggests anti-piracy solutions to prevent litigation and considers how libraries can develop potential service models using peer-to-peer networks, including the development of personal libraries on the Internet, interlibrary loan,…
Mann, Michael J; Kristjansson, Alfgeir L; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Smith, Megan L
Although an ecological perspective suggests the importance of multiple levels of intervention, most bullying research has emphasized individual- and school-focused strategies. This study investigated community and family factors that influence school efforts to reduce odds of group bullying behavior and victimization. We used multilevel logistic regression to analyze data from the 2009 Youth in Iceland population school survey (N = 7084, response rate: 83.5%, 50.8% girls). Parental support and time spent with parents were protective against group bullying behavior while worsening relationships with teachers and disliking school increased the likelihood of such behavior. Knowing kids in the area increased the likelihood of group bullying while intergenerational closure was a protective factor. Normlessness was consistently positively related to group bullying. We found no indication of higher-level relationships across the bullying models. Parental support was protective against victimization. Disliking school, intergenerational closure, and anomie/normlessness were strongly and negatively related to victimization. We found some indication of multilevel relationships for victimization. Findings support efforts to increase family and community connection, closure, and support as a part of school-based intervention. These factors become more important as young people participate in or experience greater odds of group bullying behavior and victimization. © 2015, American School Health Association.
Juul, Lise; Rowlands, Gill; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen
AIMS: To investigate associations between health literacy (HL) and diet and physical activity, and motivation and diet and physical activity in Danish people with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We used a cross-sectional design including 194 individuals with type 2 diabetes participating in peer......, for people with type 2 diabetes, functional HL and autonomous motivation may be important drivers for following diet recommendations, and autonomous motivation may be the most important factor for following recommendations regarding physical activity. These concepts may therefore be highly relevant......-led support groups provided by the Danish Diabetes Association between January-December 2015. The participants completed a questionnaire at the first meeting including; The Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities (SDSCA) measure, The Treatment Self-Regulation Questionnaire (TSRQ) (Self-Determination Theory...
McGloin, Jean Marie; Sullivan, Christopher J; Thomas, Kyle J
This article focuses on the degree to which friends' influence on substance use is conditioned by the consistency between their behavior and that of schoolmates (individuals enrolled in the same school, but not identified as friends), contributing to the literature on the complexity of interactive social influences during adolescence. Specifically, it hypothesizes that friends' influence will diminish as their norms become less similar to that of schoolmates. The authors also propose that this conditioning relationship is related to the density of the friendship group. This study uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health (AddHealth) (n ~ 8,000, 55% female) to examine the interactive relationship between friend and schoolmate influences on adolescent substance use (smoking and drinking). The sample contains students ranging from age 11 to 22 and is 60% White. The findings demonstrate that, as the substance use of the friendship group becomes more dissimilar from schoolmates' substance use, the friendship group's influence on adolescent substance use diminishes. Further, the results demonstrate that this conditioning relationship does not emerge when the friendship group is highly dense.
Kjeldmand, Dorte; Holmström, Inger
General practitioners (GPs) occupy a central position in health care and often have demanding working situations. This corps shows signs of exhaustion, and many consider quitting their job or plan to retire early. It is therefore urgent to find ways of improving GP's satisfaction with their work. One approach might be Balint group participation. The aim of this study was to explore GPs' experience of participating in Balint groups and its influence on their work life. We conducted a descriptive, qualitative study. Nine GPs who had participated in Balint groups for 3 to 15 years were interviewed. A phenomenologic analysis was carried out to describe the phenomenon of Balint group participation. The GPs perceived that their Balint group participation influenced their work life. Analyses revealed several interrelating themes: competence, professional identity, and a sense of security, which increased through parallel processes, creating a base of endurance and satisfaction, thus enabling the GPs to rediscover the joy of being a physician. The GPs in this study described their Balint group participation as beneficial and essential to their work life as physicians in several ways. It seemed to increase their competence in patient encounters and enabled them to endure in their job and find joy and challenge in their relationships with patients. Balint groups might thus help GPs handle a demanding work life and prevent burnout. These groups might not suit all GPs, however, and additional ways to reduce stress and increase job satisfaction should be offered.
Julia Cordero Coma
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Recent research on the HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa has highlighted the relevance of married individuals' extramarital sexual behavior for the spread of the disease. At the same time, there is social disapproval of sexual infidelity. OBJECTIVE This article examines the extent to which Malawian married men's likelihood of having extramarital sex is influenced by their expectations about the prevalence of extramarital relationships in their social network. It also explores whether this effect depends on the network density, and whether it is also observed when the extramarital behavior of a particularly influential actor is controlled for. METHODS Data from the last two waves, 2004 and 2006, of the longitudinal survey provided by the Malawi Diffusion and Ideational Change Project are analyzed both cross-sectionally and through a panel analysis with fixed effects. The longitudinal approach enables the researcher to deal with the potential non-random distribution of social interactions among respondents, which bias the estimation in the cross-sectional analysis. RESULTS Married men's expectations about the prevalence of extramarital sexual relationships in the network were shown to have a substantial influence on their extramarital behavior, and the impact was found to be bigger in dense networks. In addition, there was some evidence that the perceived dominant behavior in the peer group is relevant, independent of the extramarital behavior of the respondents' best friends.
McGarvey, Elizabeth L; Collie, Kate R; Fraser, Gertrude; Shufflebarger, Cindy; Lloyd, Bronwyn; Norman Oliver, M
This study about maternal feeding practices and beliefs was conducted as background for the development of a childhood obesity prevention program for multi-ethnic parents in the USA receiving services from a federal government supplemental nutrition program for low-income mothers. Using a grounded theory approach, focus groups were conducted with low-income African American, white non-Hispanic (i.e. the majority Caucasian American population), Hispanic and Vietnamese parents to collect cross-cultural perspectives on: (a) infant and child feeding practices, (b) childhood overweight, (c) healthy dietary intake, (d) physical activity and inactivity, and (e) infant feeding information sources. A content analysis of the data yielded three main themes common to all four groups: (a) lack of awareness of the relationship between increased physical activity and health, (b) the use of food to influence behavior, and (c) the loss of parental control over feeding when a child starts child care or school, and revealed perspectives on age-appropriate food, infant satiety, overweight and information sources that were specific to each group. Interventions that enhance parent self-efficacy that build on themes that are specific to ethnic groups toward preventing childhood obesity are needed. There is also a need for culturally appropriate information for governmental nutrition programs that is in the client's own language and takes into account ethnic differences in beliefs and traditions.
Vervloet, Marcia; Meulepas, Marianne A; Cals, Jochen W L; Eimers, Mariëtta; van der Hoek, Lucas S; van Dijk, Liset
Irrational antibiotic use for respiratory tract infections (RTI) is a major driver of bacterial resistance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a multifaceted peer-group based intervention aiming to reduce RTI-related antibiotic prescriptions in family practice. This was a cluster randomized controlled trial with pre- and follow-up measurement. The intervention was implemented through PharmacoTherapy Audit Meetings (PTAM) in which family physicians (FPs) and pharmacists collaborate. Four PTAM groups received the intervention consisting of: (1) FP communication skills training, including communication about delayed prescribing; (2) implementation of antibiotic prescribing agreements in FPs' Electronic Prescribing Systems; (3) quarterly feedback figures for FPs. Four other PTAM groups were matched controls. Primary outcome measure was the number of RTI-related antibiotic prescriptions after the intervention, assessed with multilevel linear regression analyses. Total number and number of prescriptions stratified by age (under/over 12 years) were analysed. At baseline, the average total number of RTI-related antibiotic prescriptions per 1,000 patients was 207.9 and 176.7 in the intervention and control PTAM groups, respectively. At follow-up, FPs in both the intervention and control groups prescribed significantly less antibiotics. For adolescents and adults, the drop in number of antibiotic prescription was significantly larger in the intervention groups (-27.8 per 1,000 patients) than the control groups (-7.2 per 1,000 patients; Pantibiotic prescriptions for adolescents and adults. To affect antibiotic prescribing in children other methods are needed.
Yap, Tracey L; Kennerly, Susan; Corazzini, Kirsten; Porter, Kristie; Toles, Mark; Anderson, Ruth A
The purpose of the manuscript is to describe long-term care (LTC) staff perceptions of a music cueing intervention designed to improve staff integration of pressure ulcer (PrU) prevention guidelines regarding consistent and regular movement of LTC residents a minimum of every two hours. The Diffusion of Innovation (DOI) model guided staff interviews about their perceptions of the intervention's characteristics, outcomes, and sustainability. This was a qualitative, observational study of staff perceptions of the PrU prevention intervention conducted in Midwestern U.S. LTC facilities (N = 45 staff members). One focus group was held in each of eight intervention facilities using a semi-structured interview protocol. Transcripts were analyzed using thematic content analysis, and summaries for each category were compared across groups. The a priori codes (observability, trialability, compatibility, relative advantage and complexity) described the innovation characteristics, and the sixth code, sustainability, was identified in the data. Within each code, two themes emerged as a positive or negative response regarding characteristics of the innovation. Moreover, within the sustainability code, a third theme emerged that was labeled "brainstormed ideas", focusing on strategies for improving the innovation. Cueing LTC staff using music offers a sustainable potential to improve PrU prevention practices, to increase resident movement, which can subsequently lead to a reduction in PrUs.
Tracey L. Yap
Full Text Available The purpose of the manuscript is to describe long-term care (LTC staff perceptions of a music cueing intervention designed to improve staff integration of pressure ulcer (PrU prevention guidelines regarding consistent and regular movement of LTC residents a minimum of every two hours. The Diffusion of Innovation (DOI model guided staff interviews about their perceptions of the intervention’s characteristics, outcomes, and sustainability. Methods: This was a qualitative, observational study of staff perceptions of the PrU prevention intervention conducted in Midwestern U.S. LTC facilities (N = 45 staff members. One focus group was held in each of eight intervention facilities using a semi-structured interview protocol. Transcripts were analyzed using thematic content analysis, and summaries for each category were compared across groups. Results: The a priori codes (observability, trialability, compatibility, relative advantage and complexity described the innovation characteristics, and the sixth code, sustainability, was identified in the data. Within each code, two themes emerged as a positive or negative response regarding characteristics of the innovation. Moreover, within the sustainability code, a third theme emerged that was labeled “brainstormed ideas”, focusing on strategies for improving the innovation. Implications: Cueing LTC staff using music offers a sustainable potential to improve PrU prevention practices, to increase resident movement, which can subsequently lead to a reduction in PrUs.
Onezi, Hamidi Al; Khalifa, Mohamed; El-Metwally, Ashraf; Househ, Mowafa
Tobacco smoking remains a major preventable cause of mortality and morbidity across the globe. People who attempt to quit smoking often experience episodes of relapse before finally quitting. Understanding the part that social networking sites and social media can play in smoking cessation and prevention of relapse is important to aid the development of novel techniques to curb the smoking epidemic. This study investigated the use of extra-treatment provided outside of the formal healthcare setting, bolstered by online social support in order to prevent smoking relapse in Saudi Arabia. This cross-sectional study included 473 smokers taking part in smoking cessation intervention programs run by the Riyadh branch of King Abdul-Aziz Medical City and PURITY, a Saudi anti-smoking association. Only subjects who expressed an interest in quitting smoking, and those attempting to quit, were considered for inclusion. The sample was divided into three groups: subjects who subscribed to support groups on Twitter (n = 150), and WhatsApp (n = 150), and a control group of subjects who had not subscribed to any social media support groups (n = 173). A significant difference was found between the mean average numbers of people who quit smoking among the three groups, with social media support proving to be more effective than other traditional methods. Our findings imply that Twitter and WhatsApp users found it easier to quit smoking than those who did not take part in these social media groups. Social media provides a good platform to discuss smoking cessation treatment, and thus reduce smoking relapses. Our findings support the suggestion that more social media support groups should be developed to help people to effectively cease smoking after abstinence. Individuals who struggle to quit smoking should be encouraged to join support groups on their social media platform of choice to increase their likelihood of quitting. Future studies should assess the effectiveness
Fernandez, Isabel Diana; Becerra, Adan; Chin, Nancy P
Worksites provide multiple advantages to prevent and treat obesity and to test environmental interventions to tackle its multiple causal factors. We present a literature review of group-randomized and non-randomized trials that tested worksite environmental, multiple component interventions for obesity prevention and control paying particular attention to the conduct of formative research prior to intervention development. The evidence on environmental interventions on measures of obesity appears to be strong since most of the studies have a low (4/8) and unclear (2/8) risk of bias. Among the studies reviewed whose potential risk of bias was low, the magnitude of the effect was modest and sometimes in the unexpected direction. None of the four studies describing an explicit formative research stage with clear integration of findings into the intervention was able to demonstrate an effect on the main outcome of interest. We present alternative explanation for the findings and recommendations for future research.
White, Katherine M; O'Connor, Erin L; Hamilton, Kyra
Although class attendance is linked to academic performance, questions remain about what determines students' decisions to attend or miss class. In addition to the constructs of a common decision-making model, the theory of planned behaviour, the present study examined the influence of student role identity and university student (in-group) identification for predicting both the initiation and maintenance of students' attendance at voluntary peer-assisted study sessions in a statistics subject. University students enrolled in a statistics subject were invited to complete a questionnaire at two time points across the academic semester. A total of 79 university students completed questionnaires at the first data collection point, with 46 students completing the questionnaire at the second data collection point. Twice during the semester, students' attitudes, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control, student role identity, in-group identification, and intention to attend study sessions were assessed via on-line questionnaires. Objective measures of class attendance records for each half-semester (or 'term') were obtained. Across both terms, students' attitudes predicted their attendance intentions, with intentions predicting class attendance. Earlier in the semester, in addition to perceived behavioural control, both student role identity and in-group identification predicted students' attendance intentions, with only role identity influencing intentions later in the semester. These findings highlight the possible chronology that different identity influences have in determining students' initial and maintained attendance at voluntary sessions designed to facilitate their learning. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.
Batenburg, Anika; Das, Enny
Previous research on the effects of online peer support on psychological well-being of patients with cancer showed mixed findings. There is a need for longitudinal studies explaining if and when online peer-led support groups are beneficial. How patients cope with emotions that come along with the cancer diagnosis might influence effectiveness of online participation. Emotional approach coping is a construct encompassing the intentional use of emotional processing and emotional expression in efforts to manage adverse circumstances. In this longitudinal study, we hypothesize that mixed findings in previous research are partly caused by individual differences in coping with emotions, which may moderate the effects of online support group participation on patients' well-being. A total of 133 Dutch patients with breast cancer filled out a baseline (T0) and a follow-up (T1, 6 months later) questionnaire assessing intensity of online participation within the online support community, emotional approach coping (ie, actively processing and expressing emotions), and psychological well-being (depression, emotional well-being, and breast cancer-related concerns). There were 109 patients who visited an online support community at both points in time. Repeated measures ANOVAs assessed change in well-being over time. Results showed 3-way interactions of time, online intensity of participation, and emotional approach coping on emotional well-being (F1,89=4.232, P=.04, η(2) ρ=.045) and depression (F1,88=8.167, P=.005, η(2) ρ=.085). Online support group participation increased emotional well-being over time for patients who scored low on emotional approach coping at T0, provided that they were highly active online. Patients who were highly active online with a high score on emotional approach coping reported no change in sense of well-being, but showed the highest score on well-being overall. Participating less frequently online was only beneficial for patients who scored high
Maniam, T; Chinna, Karuthan; Lim, C H; Kadir, A B; Nurashikin, I; Salina, A A; Mariapun, Jeevitha
The aim of this paper is to identify at-risk groups for a focused suicide prevention program for Malaysia. Data from 20,552 persons aged 16 years and above (males 45.9%), was obtained using stratified, random sampling in a national survey of psychiatric morbidity using locally validated General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) which included questions on suicidal ideation. The overall prevalence of suicidal ideation (SI) was 6.3%, CI 6.1-6.8 (n=1288). Logistic regression analysis was performed with age, ethnicity, gender, urban/rural residence, age group, marital status, household income, type of household, presence of chronic pain, social dysfunction, somatic, anxiety or depressive symptoms, obesity, and chronic medical illnesses as independent variables. Only Insomnia, Religion, Marital Status, Depression, Social Dysfunction and Anxiety were seen to be significant predictors. Prevalence of SI was significantly higher among Indians (11.0%, CI 9.5-12.5), especially those of the Hindu faith (12.2%, CI 10.5-14.0), Chinese (9.7%, CI 8.8-10.7) and those having depressive symptoms. In a developing country with competing priorities, prudent allocation of resources requires focusing suicide prevention efforts on treating depression in vulnerable groups. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kim, Kwang Ho; Dutta, Tanmoy; Walter, Eric D.; Isern, Nancy G.; Cort, John R.; Simmons, Blake A.; Singh, Seema
Chemoselective blocking of the phenolic hydroxyl (Ar-OH) group by methylation was found to suppress secondary repolymerization and charring during lignin depolymerization. Methylation of Ar-OH prevents formation of reactive quinone methide intermediates, which are partly responsible for undesirable secondary repolymerization reactions. Instead, this structurally modified lignin produces more relatively low molecular weight products from lignin depolymerization compared to unmodified lignin. This result demonstrates that structural modification of lignin is desirable for production of low molecular weight phenolic products. This approach could be directed toward alteration of natural lignification processes to produce biomass more amenable to chemical depolymerization.
networking, operating systems and embedded systems. Peer-to-Peer (P2P) networking in recent times has been touted as the 'killer application' that is poised to shape the. Internet's future. The purpose of this article is to define P2P and explain its working. We also describe various models. ofP2P and diverse applications of ...
Ligia Regina Sansigolo Kerr-Pontes
Full Text Available HIV infection is spreading among the poor, women, and migrant communities in the interior of Northeast Brazil. The research focused on different configurations, beliefs, representations, and forms of social organization of behavior thought to be associated with the population's capacity to efficiently follow AIDS prevention measures. Participants located in neighborhoods known for having large migrant populations were identified by Family Health Program Workers in Fortaleza and Teresina. The study adopted a qualitative methodology. Several belief-system concepts and values, as well as the social organization of sexuality revealed in the study, represent obstacles both to AIDS prevention and condom use. Hunger, lack of prospects, and fear are associated with a social situation of poverty, exclusion, prejudice, and total absence of basic human rights When examined together, these elements define different configurations in the migrants' increased vulnerability to HIV/AIDS. The groups' increased vulnerability relates to the socioeconomic complexity that must be considered in HIV/AIDS control and prevention programs.
Psychometric properties of the Peer Attitudes Toward Children who Stutter (PATCS) scale (Langevin, M., & Hagler, P. (2004). Development of a scale to measure peer attitudes toward children who stutter. In A.K. Bothe (Ed.), Evidence-based treatment of stuttering: empirical bases and clinical applications (pp. 139-171). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence…
De Smet, Marijke; Van Keer, Hilde; De Wever, Bram; Valcke, Martin
This study was conducted in an authentic university setting with fourth-year Educational Sciences' students operating as online peer tutors to facilitate freshman tutees' online collaboration and knowledge construction in a blended "Instructional Sciences" course. Taking into account prior research uncovering weaknesses in online peer tutor…
Brânzei, R.; Fragnelli, V.; Tijs, S.H.
A class of cooperative games is introduced which arises from situations in which a set of agents is hierarchically structured and where potential individual economic abilities interfere with the behavioristic rules induced by the organization structure.These games form a cone generated by a specific
Maina, Geoffrey; Strudwick, Gillian; Lalani, Yasmin; Boakye, Francis; Wilton, Leo; Nelson, LaRon E
Men who have sex with men (MSM) in Ghana are at an increased risk of contracting HIV. Understanding the social networks of MSM may support the development of HIV prevention strategies for this unique population. This article explores the structure and function of the social networks of MSM from 22 focus groups drawn from two urban and one rural setting in Ghana. Gaining insights into the characteristics of these networks will allow health care providers to design HIV prevention efforts and increase access to these programs. Copyright © 2017 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. All rights reserved.
Twaij, H; Oussedik, S; Hoffmeyer, P
The maintenance of quality and integrity in clinical and basic science research depends upon peer review. This process has stood the test of time and has evolved to meet increasing work loads, and ways of detecting fraud in the scientific community. However, in the 21st century, the emphasis on evidence-based medicine and good science has placed pressure on the ways in which the peer review system is used by most journals. This paper reviews the peer review system and the problems it faces in the digital age, and proposes possible solutions.
Brown, Sharon A; García, Alexandra A; Steinhardt, Mary A; Guevara, Henry; Moore, Claire; Brown, Adama; Winter, Mary A
The purpose was to conduct focus groups with Hispanic employees to obtain input into adaptation of previous DSME interventions for use as a workplace diabetes prevention program. From a list of interested Hispanic employees who attended a local health fair (n = 68), 36 were randomly selected to participate in focus groups held during supper mealtime breaks. An experienced bilingual moderator directed the sessions, using interview guidelines developed by the research team. Participants' ages ranged from 22 to 65 years (mean = 50.4, n = 36, SD = 10.7), 7 males and 29 females attended, and 53% had type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Employees expressed a keen interest in diabetes classes and recommended a focus on preparing healthier Hispanic foods. Primary barriers to promoting healthier lifestyles were work schedules; many employees worked 2 part-time or full-time jobs. Administrators and direct supervisors of the employees were highly supportive of a workplace diabetes prevention program. The consistent message was that a workplace program would be the ideal solution for Hispanic employees to learn about diabetes and healthy behaviors, given their busy schedules, family responsibilities, and limited resources. If found to be effective, such a workplace program would be generalizable to other service employees who have disproportionate diabetes rates. © 2015 The Author(s).
Rohde, Paul; Stice, Eric; Shaw, Heather; Gau, Jeff M
Conduct a pilot trial testing whether a new cognitive-behavioral (CB) group prevention program that incorporated cognitive-dissonance change principles was feasible and appeared effective in reducing depressive symptoms and major depressive disorder onset relative to a brochure control condition in college students with elevated depressive symptoms. 59 college students (M age = 21.8, SD = 2.3; 68% female, 70% White) were randomized to the 6-session Change Ahead group or educational brochure control condition, completing assessments at pretest, posttest, and 3-month follow-up. Recruitment and screening methods were effective and intervention attendance was high (86% attended all 6 sessions). Change Ahead participants showed medium-large reductions in depressive symptoms at posttest (M d = 0.64), though the effect attenuated by 3-month follow-up. Incidence of major depression onset at 3-month follow-up was 4% for Change Ahead participants versus 13% (difference ns). Change Ahead appears highly feasible and showed positive indications of reduced acute phase depressive symptoms and MDD onset relative to a minimal intervention control in this initial pilot. Given the brevity of the intervention, its apparent feasibility, and the lack of evidence-based depression prevention programs for college students, continued evaluation of Change Ahead appears warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Money, Deborah; Allen, Victoria M
To review the evidence in the literature and to provide recommendations on the management of pregnant women in labour for the prevention of early-onset neonatal group B streptococcal disease. The key revisions in this updated guideline include changed recommendations for regimens for antibiotic prophylaxis, susceptibility testing, and management of women with pre-labour rupture of membranes. Maternal outcomes evaluated included exposure to antibiotics in pregnancy and labour and complications related to antibiotic use. Neonatal outcomes of rates of early-onset group B streptococcal infections are evaluated. Published literature was retrieved through searches of MEDLINE, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Library from January 1980 to July 2012 using appropriate controlled vocabulary and key words (group B streptococcus, antibiotic therapy, infection, prevention). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies. There were no date or language restrictions. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to May 2013. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies. The quality of evidence in this document was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table 1). The recommendations in this guideline are designed to help clinicians identify and manage pregnancies at risk for neonatal group B streptococcal disease to optimize maternal and perinatal outcomes. No cost-benefit analysis is provided. There is good evidence based on randomized control trial data that in women with pre-labour rupture of membranes at term who are colonized with group B streptococcus, rates of neonatal infection are
In march 1992, participants met in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil for the 10th Meeting of the PAHO Technical Advisory Group (TAG) on Vaccine-Preventable Diseases. Immunization coverage for all vaccines exceeded 75%. In 1991, only 9 confirmed cases of wild poliovirus occurred out of 4000 stool specimens examined. These cases were in Colombia and Peru. Many national immunization days and mop-up operations complement routine immunization services and have contributed greatly to interruption of the wild poliovirus in the Americas. Social mobilization efforts and mass media campaigns have increased coverage rates nationally and regionally. Surveillance efforts continue to improve. Almost 20,000 health units in Latin America report each week on the existence or nonexistence of acute flaccid paralysis cases. TAG continues to prefer the oral polio vaccine for the eradication program in the Americas. Participants discussed issues pertaining to certification of polio eradication. Measles incidence in the Americas is still falling and intervals between outbreaks are growing. Some countries in the English-speaking Caribbean using a month long, mass vaccination strategy have apparently interrupted measles transmission. Since measles causes more deaths than any other vaccine preventable disease, PAHO's TAG places it as the highest priority. The proportion of neonatal tetanus cases that are being investigated is growing (1991=8% and 1990=35%). Participants challenged Venezuela and Panama to vaccinate 100% of reproductive age women in high risk areas before the next meeting. Inadequate data on pertussis prevents PAHO from measuring any changes in pertussis epidemiology. Some countries have set up systems to monitor adverse events associated with vaccination. Participants agreed that member nations should begin hepatitis B vaccination programs for high risk groups.
Brown, Tiffany A; Keel, Pamela K
Gay males have increased risk for eating disorders compared to heterosexual males, establishing a need to develop and empirically evaluate programs to reduce risk for this population. The present study investigated the acceptability and efficacy of a cognitive dissonance-based (DB) intervention (The PRIDE Body Project(©)) in reducing eating disorder risk factors among gay males in a university-based setting. Eighty-seven gay males were randomized to either a 2-session DB intervention (n = 47) or a waitlist control condition (n = 40). Participants completed eating disorder risk factor assessments pre-intervention, post-intervention, and at 4-week follow-up, and those receiving the intervention completed post-treatment acceptability measures. Acceptability ratings were highly favorable. Regarding efficacy, the DB condition was associated with significantly greater decreases in body dissatisfaction, drive for muscularity, self-objectification, partner-objectification, body-ideal internalization, dietary restraint, and bulimic symptoms compared to waitlist control from pre- to post-intervention. Improvements in the DB group were maintained at 4-week follow-up, with the exception of body-ideal internalization. Body-ideal internalization mediated treatment effects on bulimic symptoms. Results support the acceptability and efficacy of The PRIDE Body Project(©) and provide support for theoretical models of eating pathology in gay men. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Latkin, Carl A.; Kukhareva, Polina V.; Malov, Sergey V.; Batluk, Julia V.; Shaboltas, Alla V.; Skochilov, Roman V.; Sokolov, Nicolay V.; Verevochkin, Sergei V.; Hudgens, Michael G.; Kozlov, Andrei P.
We evaluated the efficacy of a peer-educator network intervention as a strategy to reduce HIV acquisition among injection drug users (IDUs) and their drug and/or sexual networks. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in St. Petersburg, Russia among IDU index participants and their risk network participants. Network units were randomized to the control or experimental intervention. Only the experimental index participants received training sessions to communicate risk reduction techniques to their network members. Analysis includes 76 index and 84 network participants who were HIV uninfected. The main outcome measure was HIV sero-conversion. The incidence rates in the control and experimental groups were 19.57 (95 % CI 10.74–35.65) and 7.76 (95 % CI 3.51–17.19) cases per 100 p/y, respectively. The IRR was 0.41 (95 % CI 0.15–1.08) without a statistically significant difference between the two groups (log rank test statistic X2 = 2.73, permutation p value = 0.16). Retention rate was 67 % with a third of the loss due to incarceration or death. The results show a promising trend that this strategy would be successful in reducing the acquisition of HIV among IDUs. PMID:23881187
Jelić Marija M.
Full Text Available Problems with peers are more common among children with intellectual disabilities (ID than typical development (TD children. As a lack of research in this field states the heterogeneity of the samples in relation to the level of disability and age, which is important for the ability to plan preventive programs and targeted interventions. The aim of this study was to examine the association between intellectual status and age with peer relationships. The study included 206 students aged 12 to 18 years, of which 76 with mild ID and 130 TD. Peer relationships were measured by Rahim Organizational Conflict Inventory (compromise, problem solving, yielding, avoidance and domination and by The Strenghts and Difficulties Questionnaires, subscale Problems with peers, form for teachers. The main findings showed that students with mild ID have more problems with peers than TD students. Unlike TD students, students with mild IO at secondary school more often yielding and avoidance conflicts. At later age dominance is less frequent in both groups of students, and problem solving and compromise are statistically more frequent in students with mild ID group than in TD peers group. It was concluded that negative social experience of young people with mild ID simultaneously motivate to constructive and destructive ways of resolving conflicts.
Meningococcal disease remains a feared and devastating cause of sepsis and meningitis. Disease incidence is highest among infants and children although a significant burden of disease is experienced by adolescents, young adults and those with specific risk-factors. Prevention of disease against capsular groups A, C, W and Y; 4 of the 5 most pathogenic groups is achievable using capsular polysaccharide vaccines. It has only recently been possible to provide protection against capsular group B (MenB) strains following the licensure of a 4 component group B vaccine (4CMenB) in Europe in 2013. Following licensure, 4CMenB has been used in specific at-risk groups and in response to outbreaks of MenB disease. The largest outbreak interventions have been in students at 2 universities in the United States and for all individuals aged 2 months to 20 years of age in Quebec, Canada. The vaccine was recommended in February 2014 for implementation into the UK infant schedule at 2, 4 and 12 months of age, although it has taken over 12 months to resolve procurement discussions to enable implementation. The UK recommendation incorporates prophylactic paracetamol with infant doses when 4CMenB is administered concomitantly with routine vaccines. This is based on recent data demonstrating the ability of paracetamol to reduce fever rates to background levels without impacting immunogenicity. Post-implementation surveillance will be important to provide vaccine efficacy data as this was not possible to determine in pre-licensure studies due to the relative infrequency of MenB cases.
According to a 2009 UNAIDS report the HIV/AIDS prevalence rate in Zanzibar, Tanzania, is low in the general population (0.6%), but high among vulnerable groups, specifically sex workers (10.8%), injecting drug users (15.1%), and men who have sex with men (12.3%). In response to this concentrated epidemic, the Government of Zanzibar, international and local non-profit organisations have focused their prevention activities on these marginal populations. Although these efforts are beneficial in terms of disseminating information about HIV/AIDS and referring clients to health clinics, they fail to address how the socio-economic status of these groups places them at a greater risk for contracting and dying from the virus. Furthermore, there is an absence of qualitative research on these populations which is needed to understand the challenges these groups face and to improve the effectiveness of interventions. Through interviews with employees of government agencies and non-profit organisations, medical professionals, vulnerable populations and HIV/AIDS patients, this paper used a political economy of health and syndemic framework to examine how local realities inform and challenge HIV/AIDS programmes in Zanzibar.
Pérez-Jiménez, David; Seal, David W.; Serrano-García, Irma
Although HIV prevention interventions for women are efficacious, long-term behavior change maintenance within power-imbalanced heterosexual relationships has been difficult. To explore the feasibility, content, and format of an HIV intervention for Latino couples, the authors conducted 13 focus groups with HIV/AIDS researchers, service providers, and heterosexual men and women in Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic, and Mexico. Reasons that participants thought that men should be involved in prevention efforts included promotion of shared responsibility, creation of a safe environment for open conversation about sex, and increased sexual negotiation skills. Perceived barriers to men’s involvement included cultural taboos, sexual conservatism associated with Catholicism and machismo, and power-imbalanced relationships. Participants stressed the need for recruitment of men within naturally occurring settings or by influential community leaders. Participants indicated that couples-level interventions would be successful if they used strong coed facilitators, included both unigender and mixed-gender discussion opportunities, and addressed personally meaningful topics. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:19209976
Pérez-Jiménez, David; Seal, David W; Serrano-García, Irma
Although HIV prevention interventions for women are efficacious, long-term behavior change maintenance within power-imbalanced heterosexual relationships has been difficult. To explore the feasibility, content, and format of an HIV intervention for Latino couples, the authors conducted 13 focus groups with HIV/AIDS researchers, service providers, and heterosexual men and women in Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic, and Mexico. Reasons that participants thought that men should be involved in prevention efforts included promotion of shared responsibility, creation of a safe environment for open conversation about sex, and increased sexual negotiation skills. Perceived barriers to men's involvement included cultural taboos, sexual conservatism associated with Catholicism and machismo, and power-imbalanced relationships. Participants stressed the need for recruitment of men within naturally occurring settings or by influential community leaders. Participants indicated that couples-level interventions would be successful if they used strong coed facilitators, included both unigender and mixed-gender discussion opportunities, and addressed personally meaningful topics. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Ybarra, Michele L; DuBois, L Zachary; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Prescott, Tonya L; Mustanski, Brian
Seventy-five 14-18-year-old gay, bisexual, and queer (GBQ) males provided feedback about how their participation in national, online focus groups (FG) about GBQ sexual health related topics resulted in behavioral and attitudinal changes. Most sexually experienced youth agreed that their participation positively changed their views and behavioral intentions. Some said that being in the FG made them more comfortable talking about sex, their sexuality, and making safer choices such as negotiating condoms. Others indicated intentions to become more involved in the LGBT community. Sexually inexperienced FG participants similarly said that the FG discussion positively affected them-most commonly by reducing their sense of isolation as young GBQ men who were waiting to have sex. Many also thought that they would become more vocal advocates of abstinence and/or safe sex. Online FGs and facilitated discussion boards should be further explored as a low-cost HIV prevention program for GBQ youth.
Full Text Available The prevention of perinatal group B streptococcal (GBS disease is based on the screening of all pregnant women at 35-37 weeks’ gestation for vaginal and rectal GBS colonization. The colonized women receive intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis. Our study reports the different rates of maternal GBS colonization between April 2008 and March 2011. We have collected 3430 samples by swabbing both the lower vagina and rectum and we have employed two different laboratory methods: direct agar plating and selective enrichment broth. The rates of maternal GBS colonization increased from 10.5% during 2008-2009, to 12.2% during 2009-2010 and to 14.4% during 2010-2011, when we have introduced the Todd Hewitt broth. Our results show that the use of an enrichment broth improves detection of GBS carriers women.
Ward, Stéphanie A; Bélanger, Mathieu F; Donovan, Denise; Carrier, Natalie
Children learn by observing and imitating others, meaning that their eating behaviors and physical activity may be influenced by their peers. This paper systematically reviews how preschoolers' eating behaviors and physical activity relate to their peers' behaviors, and discusses avenues for future research. Six databases were searched for quantitative, peer-reviewed studies published up to July 2015 reporting on the correlates, predictors or effectiveness of peers on eating behaviors and physical activity in preschoolers. Risk of bias was independently assessed by two evaluators using the Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies. Thirteen articles were included: six measured physical activity, and seven assessed eating behaviors. Four of the six physical activity studies reported that children were more active when peers were present, while large peer group size was negatively associated with physical activity in two cross-sectional studies. All nutrition interventions reported that children's eating behaviors may be influenced by their peers. Although supported by weak evidence, peers appear to influence children's eating behaviors and physical activity. However, this influence may be moderated by the number of peers, gender, age and the perceived status of the role models. Future obesity prevention interventions should consider involving peers as agents for positive eating behaviors and physical activity in preschoolers.
Balconi, Michela; Pagani, Silvia
The perception and interpretation of social hierarchies are a key part of our social life. In the present research we considered the activation of cortical areas, mainly the prefrontal cortex, related to social ranking perception in conjunction with some personality components (BAS - Behavioral Activation System - and BIS - Behavioral Inhibition System). In two experiments we manipulated the perceived superior/inferior status during a competitive cognitive task. Indeed, we created an explicit and strongly reinforced social hierarchy based on incidental rating in an attentional task. Specifically, a peer group comparison was undertaken and improved (Experiment 1) or decreased (Experiment 2) performance was artificially manipulated by the experimenter. For each experiment two groups were compared, based on a BAS and BIS dichotomy. Alpha band modulation in prefrontal cortex, behavioral measures (performance: error rate, ER; response times, RTs), and self-perceived ranking were considered. Repeated measures ANOVAs and regression analyses showed in Experiment 1 a significant improved cognitive performance (decreased ER and RTs) and higher self-perceived ranking in high-BAS participants. Moreover, their prefrontal activity was increased within the left side (alpha band decreasing). Conversely, in Experiment 2 a significant decreased cognitive performance (increased ER and RTs) and lower self-perceived ranking was observed in higher-BIS participants. Their prefrontal right activity was increased in comparison with higher BAS. The regression analyses confirmed the significant predictive role of alpha band modulation with respect of subjects' performance and self-perception of social ranking, differently for BAS/BIS components. The present results suggest that social status perception is directly modulated by cortical activity and personality correlates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lays Cavallero Pagliosa
Full Text Available Introduction Falls in elderly people are an increasing public health problem resulting in high costs to health services. Thus, it is essential to invest in the development of actions and programs focused on decreasing such risks. Objective To verify the effects of a program of health promotion and prevention of falls in relation to balance and functional abilities in elderly people participating in interaction groups in Caxias do Sul City, RS State. Materials and methods For this purpose, 14 elderly people were selected for assessment and reassessment through the following instruments: the Barthel Index, Timed Up and Go Test (TUG, Berg Balance Scale (BBS, and a questionnaire to characterize the sample. Over the course of 2 months, group activities were conducted in a multi-sensory and proprioceptive circuit with a frequency of 2 times per week, totaling 14 meetings. Results The average age of participants was about 72 years old, mostly women (78.6%; 64.3% of them had experienced falls, and 92.9% had already practiced physical activities. After the intervention, there was an average increase of 9.14 points in the BBS (p = 0.000 and an average reduction of 4.4 seconds in gait speed on the TUG test (p = 0.000. Conclusion The application of the proposed program resulted in increasing balance and gait performance of the elderly, reducing the risk of falls.
Jaber, Linda A.; Pinelli, Nicole R.; Brown, Morton B.; Funnell, Martha M.; Anderson, Robert; Hammad, Adnan; Herman, William H.
AIMS To assess the feasibility and acceptability of a community-based, culturally-specific, Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP)-adapted, group lifestyle intervention in Arab-Americans. METHODS Overweight (BMI≥27 kg/m2) Arab-Americans aged ≥30 years and without a history of diabetes were recruited to participate in a 24-week group lifestyle intervention. The DPP core-curriculum was culturally rewritten, translated into Arabic, and delivered in weekly sessions over a 12-week period. Follow-up was performed at week-24. The primary goals were to achieve ≥7% weight loss and ≥150 minutes/week of physical activity. An intent-to-treat analysis was performed. RESULTS Of the 71 participants (mean age±SD 47±10 years, 38% males), 44% achieved ≥7% weight loss, 59% achieved ≥5% reduction in weight, and 78% reached the physical activity goal of ≥150-minutes/week. The mean±SD weight loss was 5.2±4.4 kg at week-24 (pArab-Americans. PMID:21168232
Leke, Robert J I; de Gil, Marina Padilla; Távara, Luis; Faúndes, Anibal
The Working Group of the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) on the Prevention of Unsafe Abortion and its Consequences received a mandate to contribute to reduce the number of women who have to resort to induced abortion and the maternal mortality and morbidity associated with unsafe abortion by minimizing unintended pregnancies, improving access to safe abortion services, and increasing the quality of and access to post-abortion care, including post-abortion contraception. A project proposal was prepared and approved by an anonymous donor, funding a structure headed by a general coordinator, the Chair of the Working Group, together with 6 regional coordinators and 1 assistant regional coordinator, plus 43 focal points nominated by the participating societies. A situational analysis of induced/unsafe abortion for each country was prepared by the focal points with the technical support of the Guttmacher Institute, and a plan of action based on the findings of the analysis. The situational analysis and plans of action were discussed at 7 regional workshops held between June and August, 2008. Fifty-four member societies nominated a focal point, 48 attended the regional workshops, and 43 had a plan of action approved by their governments and respective societies. The plans of action are currently in the process of implementation, with the collaboration of a number of national and international agencies and organizations. (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Peer-teknikker brugt i undervisning vinder frem mange steder. Teknikkerne er skalerbare til meget store hold af studerende, og ses derfor som et af de værktøjer, der med fordel kan introduceres som underviser, når holdstørrelserne vokser.......Peer-teknikker brugt i undervisning vinder frem mange steder. Teknikkerne er skalerbare til meget store hold af studerende, og ses derfor som et af de værktøjer, der med fordel kan introduceres som underviser, når holdstørrelserne vokser....
Winter, Julia; Jablonski-Momeni, Anahita; Ladda, Annett; Pieper, Klaus
In one region of Germany, a group of children took part in regular fluoride gel applications during primary school following intensified prevention in kindergarten. This observational study aimed to ascertain whether the dental health of primary school children can be improved by introducing a group prevention program based on applications of fluoride gel. The subjects were distributed among six groups with varying preventive measures in kindergarten and at school. The basis for determining caries experience and calculating the caries increment consisted of dental findings gathered in the second and fourth grade. While second graders without professionally supported daily toothbrushing in kindergarten exhibited an average d 3 -6 mft of 2.17, in those who had enjoyed intensive dental prevention, the corresponding value was 19% lower (d 3-6 mft = 1.74). The caries increment was significantly lower mainly among children who had received the maximum of group prevention (intensive prevention in kindergarten and gel program at school). The results show that intensified preventive programs in kindergartens and schools, based mainly on supervised toothbrushing, have a positive effect on the dental health of primary school children. Such programs are efficient in reducing caries experience especially in socially deprived areas.
Durbeej, Natalie; Elgán, Tobias H; Jalling, Camilla; Gripenberg, Johanna
Alcohol intoxication and overserving of alcohol at sporting events are of great concern, given the relationships between alcohol consumption, public disturbances, and violence. During recent years this matter has been on the agenda for Swedish policymakers, authorities and key stakeholders, with demands that actions be taken. There is promising potential for utilizing an environmental approach to alcohol prevention as a strategy to reduce the level of alcohol intoxication among spectators at sporting events. Examples of prevention strategies may be community mobilization, Responsible Beverage Service training, policy work, and improved controls and sanctions. This paper describes the design of a quasi-experimental control group study to examine the effects of a multi-component community-based alcohol intervention at matches in the Swedish Premier Football League. A baseline assessment was conducted during 2015 and at least two follow-up assessments will be conducted in 2016 and 2017. The two largest cities in Sweden are included in the study, with Stockholm as the intervention area and Gothenburg as the control area. The setting is Licensed Premises (LP) inside and outside Swedish football arenas, in addition to arena entrances. Spectators are randomly selected and invited to participate in the study by providing a breath alcohol sample as a proxy for Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC). Actors are hired and trained by an expert panel to act out a standardized scene of severe pseudo-intoxication. Four types of cross-sectional data are generated: (i) BAC levels among ≥ 4 200 spectators, frequency of alcohol service to pseudo-intoxicated patrons attempting to purchase alcohol at LP (ii) outside the arenas (≥200 attempts) and (iii) inside the arenas (≥ 200 attempts), and (iv) frequency of security staff interventions towards pseudo-intoxicated patrons attempting to enter the arenas (≥ 200 attempts). There is an urgent need nationally and internationally to
Juul, Lise; Rowlands, Gill; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen
To investigate associations between health literacy (HL) and diet and physical activity, and motivation and diet and physical activity in Danish people with type 2 diabetes. We used a cross-sectional design including 194 individuals with type 2 diabetes participating in peer-led support groups provided by the Danish Diabetes Association between January-December 2015. The participants completed a questionnaire at the first meeting including; The Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities (SDSCA) measure, The Treatment Self-Regulation Questionnaire (TSRQ) (Self-Determination Theory) measuring type of motivation, and two HL scales: The HLS-EU-Q16, and the Diabetes Health Literacy scale (Ishikawa, H). Data were analyzed using linear regression models adjusting for age, gender, educational level, diabetes duration, motivation and HL. The adjusted β (95%CI) showed that autonomous motivation and functional HL were associated with following recommended diet: autonomous motivation; 0.43 (0.06; 0.80) and functional HL; 0.52 (0.02; 1.00). Autonomous motivation was related to following physical activity recommendations; β (95%CI) 0.56 (0.16; 0.96). This study indicates that, for people with type 2 diabetes, functional HL and autonomous motivation may be important drivers for following diet recommendations, and autonomous motivation may be the most important factor for following recommendations regarding physical activity. These concepts may therefore be highly relevant to address in interventions to people with type 2 diabetes. Different interventions are suggested. Copyright © 2018 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lugtenberg, Marjolein; van Beurden, Karlijn M; Brouwers, Evelien P M; Terluin, Berend; van Weeghel, Jaap; van der Klink, Jac J L; Joosen, Margot C W
Despite the impact of mental health problems on sickness absence, only few occupational health guidelines addressing these problems are available. Moreover, adherence has found to be suboptimal. To improve adherence to the Dutch guideline on mental health problems a training was developed for Dutch occupational physicians (OPs) focusing on identifying barriers and addressing them. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of the barriers that OPs perceived in adhering to the Dutch guideline on mental health problems as well as their solutions to overcome them. A qualitative study was conducted using data from the peer group training. Thirty-two (6 groups of 4 to 6) OPs received a multiple-session interactive training over the course of a year, focusing on identifying and addressing barriers, using a Plan-Do-Check-Act approach. Sessions were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. Thematic content analysis was performed by two researchers with a selection of 50 % (21 out of 42) of the transcripts to identify the perceived barriers and the suggested solutions, using AtlasTi 7.0. Knowledge-related barriers were perceived regarding the content of all parts of the guideline. Commonly perceived attitude-related barriers were a lack of self-efficacy to perform certain guideline recommendations and difficulties with changing habits and routines. External barriers that were commonly perceived were work-contextual barriers, such as a lack of time/work pressure, tight contracts between occupational health services (OHSs) and employers, and conflicting policy of and a lack of collaboration with other parties (e.g. employer, other healthcare providers). The most often tested solutions by OPs during the training were sharing information, experiences, tips and tricks and referring to existing tools, or developing new tools to facilitate guideline usage. Dutch OPs perceive a range of knowledge-related, attitude-related and external barriers in adhering to the guideline on
Johansson, Erika; Borell, Lena; Jonsson, Hans
It has been suggested that the prevention of disability and falls should be conducted from a client-centred approach, especially when it includes how individuals learn new strategies in everyday life. In addition, programmes for the prevention of falls need to be multi-professional and multidisciplinary in order to be effective. In preventive work with clients, using the approach of client-centredness, the therapists work together with the clients to enable them to achieve occupational goals. There are few studies in fall prevention that have explored group leaders' experiences, i.e., studies that focus on the experiences of group leaders when working from a client-centred approach. This study aims to explore, by the use of focus-group interviews, the therapists' experiences of being group leaders in a fall-prevention programme that applied the ideas and approaches described above. The analysis revealed that a change in the role of being a group leader had taken place during the intervention process. Three primary categories pertaining to this process were identified: (i) the group leaders moved between the role of expert and the role of facilitator; the group climate (ii) facilitated the translation of expert knowledge to applied knowledge; and (iii) increased awareness as a prerequisite for change.
Bozdog, Nicolae Vladimir; Voulgaris, Spyros; Bal, Henri; van Halteren, Aart
This paper presents Peer Matcher, a fully decentralized algorithm solving the k-clique matching problem. The aim of k-clique matching is to cluster a set of nodes having pair wise weights into k-size groups of maximal total weight. Since solving the problem requires exponential time, Peer Matcher
Gallay, Olivier; Korpela, Kari; Tapio, Niemi; Nurminen, Jukka K.; Kersten, Wolfgang; Blecker, Thorsten; Ringle, Christian M.
We introduce a novel platform for decentralized logistics, the aim of which is to magnify and accelerate the impact offered by the integration of the most recent advances in Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) to multi-modal freight operations. The essence of our peer-to-peer (P2P) framework distributes the management of the logistics operations to the multiple actors according to their available computational resources. As a result, this new approach prevents the dominant playe...
- PEER REVIEWER Understanding The Dynamics Interaction Within Indonesia Healthcare Competition (Penulis: Indrianty Sudirman). Jurnal International: European Journal of Business and Management ISSN: 2222-1905 (Paper), 2222-2839 (Online), Vol. 4, No.11. Tahun 2012. Hal. 94-100. Penerbit: IISTE www.iiste.org
- PEER REVIEWER Effectiveness of Fungal and Bacterial Isolates Fruits Againts Fusarium oxysporum f, sp passifl (Penulis: Hilda Karim, Tutik Kuswinanti, Ade Rosmana Burhanuddin). International Journal of agricultural system. (IJAS) ISSN: 2337-9782. Vol. 1 . No. 2, December 2013. Penerbit: Pascasarjana Unhas. Hal.120-126 www.pasca.unhas.ac.id
Gold, Christian; Saarikallio, Suvi; Crooke, Alexander Hew Dale; McFerran, Katrina Skewes
Music forms an important part of the lives and identities of adolescents and may have positive or negative mental health implications. Music therapy can be effective for mental disorders such as depression, but its preventive potential is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine whether group music therapy (GMT) is an effective intervention for young people who may be at risk of developing mental health problems, as indicated via unhealthy music use. The main question was whether GMT can reduce unhealthy uses of music and increase potentials for healthy uses of music, compared to self-directed music listening (SDML). We were also interested in effects of GMT on depressive symptoms, psychosocial well-being, rumination, and reflection. In an exploratory cluster-randomized trial in Australian schools, 100 students with self-reported unhealthy music use were invited to GMT (weekly sessions over 8 weeks) or SDML. Changes in the Healthy-Unhealthy Music Scale (HUMS) and mental health outcomes were measured over 3 months. Both interventions were well accepted. No effects were found between GMT and SDML (all p > 0.05); both groups tended to show small improvements over time. Younger participants benefited more from GMT, and older ones more from SDML (p = 0.018). GMT was associated with similar changes as SDML. Further research is needed to improve the processes of selecting participants for targeted interventions; to determine optimal dosage; and to provide more reliable evidence of effects of music-based interventions for adolescents. © the American Music Therapy Association 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com
Glassman, Jill R.; Potter, Susan C.; Baumler, Elizabeth R.; Coyle, Karin K.
Introduction: Group-randomized trials (GRTs) are one of the most rigorous methods for evaluating the effectiveness of group-based health risk prevention programs. Efficiently designing GRTs with a sample size that is sufficient for meeting the trial's power and precision goals while not wasting resources exceeding them requires estimates of the…
Black, Beverly M.; Weisz, Arlene N.; Jayasundara, Dheeshana S.
A dating violence and sexual assault prevention program was presented to 396, predominately African American, middle schoolers in two inner city schools in the United States. In one school the program was offered with a same-gender group composition; in the other school, the same program was offered with mixed-gender group composition. A…
Belgrave, Faye Z.; Corneille, Maya; Hood, Kristina; Foster-Woodson, Julia; Fitzgerald, Angela
The enormous HIV/AIDS disparity among African American women and women in other ethnic groups dictates the need to implement the most effective HIV prevention interventions. This study examined the impact of perceived group support on HIV protective behaviors (i.e., attitudes and behaviors related to condom use, alcohol, and drugs) of African…
Full Text Available In this announcement, a group of the leading world experts in the sphere of the vaccination are proud to present a strategic vision of the chicken-pox immuno prevention trends in the partner countries, as well as the basic recommendations for the vaccination in the partner countries.Key words: chicken-pox, vaccination, children.
... Error processing SSI file About Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Heart disease and stroke are an epidemic in ... secondhand smoke. Barriers to Effective Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Many people with key risk factors for heart ...
Nørgaard, Maria Kümpel; Hansen, Kathrine Nørgaard; Grunert, Klaus G
Purpose – The purpose of the research presented in this paper is 1) To explore peer influence and the social and symbolic meaning that adolescents (10 to 16 years) attach to snacks; and 2) to investigate the relative influence of peer influence compared to personal factors in explaining perceived...... importance of snack attributes; and 3) To investigate age and gender differences in the peer influence process. Design/methodology/approach – A web-based survey distributed via email was combined with follow-up focus groups including adolescents aged 10 to 16 years in Denmark. Findings – The survey results...... show that the youngest adolescents and the girls perceived the highest influence from peers, and that peer social influence has more effect on what adolescents perceive as important snack attributes as compared to more personal factors. The focus group results show that adolescents purchase and consume...
Afsaneh Malekpour Tehrani
Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. It seems that breast cancer patients benefit from meeting someone who had a similar experience. This study evaluated the effect of two kinds of interventions (peer support and educational program on quality of life in breast cancer patients. Methods: This study was a controlled clinical trial on women with non-metastatic breast cancer. The patients studied in two experimental and control groups. Experimental group took part in peer support program and control group passed a routine educational program during 3 months. The authors administered SF-36 for evaluating the quality of life pre-and post intervention. Also, patient′s adherence was assessed by means of a simple checklist. Results: Two groups were similar with respect of age, age of onset of the disease, duration of having breast cancer, marital status, type of the treatment receiving now, and type of the received surgery. In the control group, there were statistically significant improvements in body pain, role-physical, role-emotional and social functioning. In experimental group, role-physical, vitality, social functioning, role-emotional and mental health showed significant improvement. Vitality score and mental health score in experimental group was significantly higher than that of the control group, both with p < 0.001. Also, it was shown that adherence was in high levels in both groups and no significant difference was seen after the study was done. Conclusions: According to the results of this study, supporting the patients with breast cancer by forming peer groups or by means of educational sessions could improve their life qualities.
Pier, Elizabeth L.; Raclaw, Joshua; Nathan, Mitchell J.; Kaatz, Anna; Carnes, Molly; Ford, Cecilia E.
Grant peer review is a foundational component of scientific research. In the context of grant review meetings, the review process is a collaborative, socially mediated, locally constructed decision-making task. The current study examines how collaborative discussion affects reviewers' scores of grant proposals, how different review panels score…
To be effective, whistleblowing policies should be adapted to the organisational culture. They need to be custom-made and not follow a one-size-fits-all logic, specifically when they are installed to stimulate responsible peer reporting, a highly sensitive and value-laden type of whistleblowing.
Espelage, Dorothy L.
One notable gap in the evolving literature on bullying and victimization during early adolescence is the role that peers play in promoting such behavior by either reinforcing the aggressor, failing to intervene to stop the victimization, or affiliating with students who bully. This Spanish-language Digest looks at the limited research available on…
Brown, C Hendricks; Kellam, Sheppard G; Kaupert, Sheila; Muthén, Bengt O; Wang, Wei; Muthén, Linda K; Chamberlain, Patricia; PoVey, Craig L; Cady, Rick; Valente, Thomas W; Ogihara, Mitsunori; Prado, Guillermo J; Pantin, Hilda M; Gallo, Carlos G; Szapocznik, José; Czaja, Sara J; McManus, John W
What progress prevention research has made comes through strategic partnerships with communities and institutions that host this research, as well as professional and practice networks that facilitate the diffusion of knowledge about prevention. We discuss partnership issues related to the design, analysis, and implementation of prevention research and especially how rigorous designs, including random assignment, get resolved through a partnership between community stakeholders, institutions, and researchers. These partnerships shape not only study design, but they determine the data that can be collected and how results and new methods are disseminated. We also examine a second type of partnership to improve the implementation of effective prevention programs into practice. We draw on social networks to studying partnership formation and function. The experience of the Prevention Science and Methodology Group, which itself is a networked partnership between scientists and methodologists, is highlighted.
Brown, C. Hendricks; Kellam, Sheppard G.; Kaupert, Sheila; Muthén, Bengt O.; Wang, Wei; Muthén, Linda K.; Chamberlain, Patricia; PoVey, Craig L.; Cady, Rick; Valente, Thomas W.; Ogihara, Mitsunori; Prado, Guillermo J.; Pantin, Hilda M.; Gallo, Carlos G.; Szapocznik, José; Czaja, Sara J.; McManus, John W.
What progress prevention research has made comes through strategic partnerships with communities and institutions that host this research, as well as professional and practice networks that facilitate the diffusion of knowledge about prevention. We discuss partnership issues related to the design, analysis, and implementation of prevention research and especially how rigorous designs, including random assignment, get resolved through a partnership between community stakeholders, institutions, and researchers. These partnerships shape not only study design, but they determine the data that can be collected and how results and new methods are disseminated. We also examine a second type of partnership to improve the implementation of effective prevention programs into practice. We draw on social networks to studying partnership formation and function. The experience of the Prevention Science and Methodology Group, which itself is a networked partnership between scientists and methodologists, is highlighted. PMID:22160786
Card, Josefina J.; Kuhn, Tamara; Solomon, Julie; Benner, Tabitha A.; Wingood, Gina M.; DiClemente, Ralph J.
We describe development of SAHARA (SiSTAS Accessing HIV/AIDS Resources At-a-click), an innovative HIV prevention program that uses a computer to deliver an updated version of SiSTA, a widely used, effective group-level HIV prevention intervention for African American women ages 18-29. Fidelity to SiSTA's core components was achieved using: (1)…
Seidell, J.C.; Nooyens, A.C.J.; Visscher, T.L.S.
Cost-effective prevention strategies to prevent weight gain and the development of obesity should be based on appropriate knowledge of the determinants of weight gain. The body of evidence on the dietary determinants of weight gain is, however, fragmentary at best, partly because inappropriate
Seidell, Jacob C; Nooyens, Astrid J; Visscher, Tommy L S
Cost-effective prevention strategies to prevent weight gain and the development of obesity should be based on appropriate knowledge of the determinants of weight gain. The body of evidence on the dietary determinants of weight gain is, however, fragmentary at best, partly because inappropriate
Yeung, Ryan; Nguyen-Hoang, Phuong
The authors examine endogenous peer effects, which occur when a student's behavior or outcome is a function of the behavior or outcome of his or her peer group. Endogenous peer effects have important implications for educational policies such as busing, school choice and tracking. In this study, the authors quantitatively review the literature on…
Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Weeks, Margaret R; Convey, Mark; Li, Jianghong
The authors present a model of interactive social psychological and relational feedback processes leading to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk reduction behavior change among active drug users trained as Peer Health Advocates (PHAs). The model is supported by data from qualitative interviews with PHAs and members of their drug-using networks in the Risk Avoidance Partnership (RAP) project. Results suggest three mutually reinforcing social psychological processes that motivate PHAs to provide HIV prevention intervention to their peers and to reduce their own risk behaviors: development of a prosocial identity, positive social reinforcement from drug users and community members, and cognitive dissonance associated with continued risk behavior while engaging in health advocacy. These processes directly influence peer interventionists' motivation and efficacy to continue giving intervention to their peers, and to reduce their HIV risk behaviors. The authors discuss implications of the model for continued research on effective HIV prevention in high-risk groups.
Weichold, Karina; Tomasik, Martin J.; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Spaeth, Michael
In this study, the effectiveness of a life skills program to impede tobacco use in early adolescence was scrutinized. The focus was on the mediating role of yielding to peer pressure. The universal school-based life skills program IPSY (Information + Psychosocial Competence = Protection) against adolescent substance use was implemented over 3…
Regulatory good practices relating to monitoring and assessment of ageing nuclear power plants. A compilation of the 1991/92 Peer Group discussion considerations as they relate to operational plants. Working material
In 1974 the IAEA established a Nuclear Safety Standards (NUSS) programme within which 5 Codes and 55 Safety Guides have been produced in the areas of Governmental Organization, Siting, Design, Operation and Quality Assurance. The NUSS Codes and Guides are a collection of basic and derived requirements for the safety of nuclear power plants with thermal neutron reactors. They have been developed in such a manner as to ensure the broadest international consensus. This broad consensus is one of the reasons for the relatively general wording of the main principles and sometimes causes problems when these principles are applied in the design of nuclear power plants. The requirements, particularly those of the Codes, often need interpretation in specific cases. In many areas national regulations and technical standards are available, but often these leave some questions unanswered and their practical application on a case-by-case basis is necessary. To assist in the application and interpretation of the NUSS Safety Standards and Safety Guides, the preparation of a number of Safety Practices publications has been commenced. Ibis publication is intended to assist regulators and also operating organizations. It is a compilation of the reports of the 1991/92 Peer Group discussions which considered regulatory good practices relating to monitoring and assessment of the ageing of nuclear power plants. Therefore names of participated countries in this documents are those at time of 1991/92 Peer Group discussions. It identifies those common regulatory features which require continuous reinforcement and examples of good regulatory practices that were recommended by senior regulators in the Peer Group discussions. The purpose of this publication is to provide a compilation of the 1991/92 Peer Group discussions relating to operational plant. This document the covers practices in the 20 countries participating in this round of Peer Group discussions. The document is a synopsis of
Tigelaar, A.S.; Hiemstra, Djoerd; Trieschnigg, Rudolf Berend
Peer-to-peer technology is widely used for file sharing. In the past decade a number of prototype peer-to-peer information retrieval systems have been developed. Unfortunately, none of these have seen widespread real- world adoption and thus, in contrast with file sharing, information retrieval is
Tigelaar, A.S.; Hiemstra, D.; Trieschnigg, D.
Peer-to-peer technology is widely used for file sharing. In the past decade a number of prototype peer-to-peer information retrieval systems have been developed. Unfortunately, none of these have seen widespread real- world adoption and thus, in contrast with file sharing, information retrieval is
Perry, Gad; Bertoluci, Jaime; Bury, R. Bruce; Hansen, Robert W.; Jehle, Robert; Measey, John; Moon, Brad R.; Muths, Erin L.; Zuffi, Marco A.L.
Peer review is the best available mechanism for assessing and improving the quality of scientific work. As herpetology broadens its disciplinary and geographic boundaries, high-quality external review is ever more essential. We are writing this editorial jointly because the review process has become increasingly difficult. The resulting delays slow publication times, negatively affect performance reviews, tenure, promotions, and grant proposal success. It harms authors, agencies, and institutions (Ware 2011).
Stephens, T; Braithwaite, R L; Taylor, S E
Currently little attention has been directed, with the exception of peer education efforts, to constructively develop new and innovative ways to promote HIV/AIDS primary prevention among African American (AA) adolescents and young adults. With this in mind, the aim of this conceptual effort is to present a HIV/AIDS preventive counseling protocol developed for use with AA young adults that makes use of hip-hop music, a form of music popularized by young AAs. The author contend that an increased understanding of the relationships that many AA young adults have with hip-hop music may be used by disease prevention personnel to educate these populations about protective factors for HIV. Making use of hip-hop music is one strategy for integrating counseling in prevention and health maintenance. The overall implications of using hip-hop music in health promotion are unlimited. First, this method makes use of cultural relevant materials to address the educational and health needs of the target community. Second, it is grounded in an approach that serves to stimulate cooperative learning based on peer developed content. Moreover, the use of this medium can be applied to other health promotion activities such as violence/harm reduction and substance abuse prevention, upon reviews of songs for appropriate content. The authors contend that such an approach holds heuristic value in dealing with HIV/AIDS prevention among AA young adults. Additional testing of the intervention is warranted in the refinement of this innovative intervention.
Palesh, Oxana; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Mustian, Karen; Minasian, Lori; Rowland, Julia; Sprod, Lisa; Janelsins, Michelle; Peppone, Luke; Sloan, Jeff; Engquist, Karen Basen; Jones, Lee; Buist, Diana; Paskett, Electra
As the number of cancer survivors expands, the need for cancer control and survivorship research becomes increasingly important. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Cooperative Groups may offer a viable platform to perform such research. Observational, preventive, and behavioral research can often be performed within the cooperative group setting, especially if resources needed for evaluation are fairly simple, if protocols are easily implemented within the typical clinical setting, and if in...
... Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health AGENCY: Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the... Public Health Service. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In accordance with Section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory... scheduled to be held for the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public...
... Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health AGENCY: Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the... Public Health Service. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In accordance with Section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory... scheduled to be held for the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public...
... Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health AGENCY: Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the... Public Health Service. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In accordance with Section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory... scheduled to be held for the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public...
Lisha, Nadra E; Jordan, Jeffrey W; Ling, Pamela M
In California, young adult tobacco prevention is of prime importance; 63% of smokers start by the age of 18 years, and 97% start by the age of 26 years. We examined social affiliation with 'peer crowd' (eg, Hipsters) as an innovative way to identify high-risk tobacco users. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted in 2014 (N=3368) among young adult bar patrons in 3 California cities. We examined use rates of five products (cigarettes, e-cigarettes, hookah, cigars and smokeless tobacco) by five race/ethnicity categories. Peer crowd affiliation was scored based on respondents' selecting pictures of young adults representing those most and least likely to be in their friend group. Respondents were classified into categories based on the highest score; the peer crowd score was also examined as a continuous predictor. Logistic regression models with each tobacco product as the outcome tested the unique contribution of peer crowd affiliation, controlling for race/ethnicity, age, sex, sexual orientation and city. Respondents affiliating with Hip Hop and Hipster peer crowds reported significantly higher rates of tobacco use. As a categorical predictor, peer crowd was related to tobacco use, independent of associations with race/ethnicity. As a continuous predictor, Hip Hop peer crowd affiliation was also associated with tobacco use, and Young Professional affiliation was negatively associated, independent of demographic factors. Tobacco product use is not the same across racial/ethnic groups or peer crowds, and peer crowd predicts tobacco use independent of race/ethnicity. Antitobacco interventions targeting peer crowds may be an effective way to reach young adult tobacco users. NCT01686178, Pre-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
... Contact Aging & Health A to Z Find a Geriatrics Healthcare Professional Medications & Older Adults Making Your Wishes ... Prevention Hearing Loss Heart Attack High Blood Pressure Nutrition Osteoporosis Shingles Skin Cancer Related News Quitting Smoking, ...
Witvliet, Miranda; van Lier, Pol A C; Cuijpers, Pim; Koot, Hans M
In this study, the authors used a randomized controlled trial to explore the link between having positive peer relations and externalizing outcomes in 758 children followed from kindergarten to the end of 2nd grade. Children were randomly assigned to the Good Behavior Game (GBG), a universal classroom-based preventive intervention, or a control condition. Children's acceptance by peers, their number of mutual friends, and their proximity to others were assessed annually through peer ratings. Externalizing behavior was annually rated by teachers. Reductions in children's externalizing behavior and improvements in positive peer relations were found among GBG children, as compared with control-group children. Reductions in externalizing behavior appeared to be partly mediated by the improvements in peer acceptance. This mediating role of peer acceptance was found for boys only. The results suggest that positive peer relations are not just markers, but they are environmental mediators of boys' externalizing behavior development. Implications for research and prevention are discussed. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.
Newsome, Sandy; Waldo, Michael; Gruszka, Clare
This study examined the effects a 6-week mindfulness group had on 31 college students who were intending to enter helping professions (e.g., nursing, social work, counseling, psychology, and teaching). Group activities included meditation, yoga, a body scan exercise, and qi gong. The group members completed the Perceived Stress Scale, the…
Selikow, Terry-Ann; Ahmed, Nazeema; Flisher, Alan J; Mathews, Catherine; Mukoma, Wanjiru
Young people in South Africa are susceptible to HIV infection. They are vulnerable to peer pressure to have sex, but little is known about how peer pressure operates. The aim of the study was to understand how negative peer pressure increases high risk sexual behaviour among young adolescents in Cape Town, South Africa. Qualitative research methods were used. Eight focus groups were conducted with young people between the ages of 13 and 14 years. Peer pressure among both boys and girls undermines healthy social norms and HIV prevention messages to abstain, be faithful, use a condom and delay sexual debut. HIV prevention projects need to engage with peer pressure with the aim of changing harmful social norms into healthy norms. Increased communication with adults about sex is one way to decrease the impact of negative peer pressure. Peer education is a further mechanism by which trained peers can role model healthy social norms and challenge a peer culture that promotes high risk sexual behaviour. Successful HIV prevention interventions need to engage with the disconnect between educational messages and social messages and to exploit the gaps between awareness, decision making, norms, intentions and actions as spaces for positive interventions.
Padget, Alison; Bell, Mary Lou; Shamblen, Stephen R.; Ringwalt, Chris
This study examined the impact on high school students who taught elementary students MADD's Protecting You/Protecting Me (PY/PM), an alcohol use prevention and vehicle safety program. High school students (N = 188) enrolled in a peer helping course completed surveys before and after teaching PY/PM, and a comparison group of peer helper students…
Reniers, Renate L E P; Beavan, Amanda; Keogan, Louise; Furneaux, Andrea; Mayhew, Samantha; Wood, Stephen J
The presence of peers is suggested to increase risk-taking behaviour by heightening response to reward. The current study investigated this using a computerized financial risk-taking task which was performed twice by a group of young adults (n = 201, median age 19.8 years): once alone and once while in the presence of two peers. An overall increase in risk-taking was observed when with peers compared to when alone (CHANGE). CHANGE was positively associated with self-reported levels of reward responsiveness and fun seeking while older age and lack of perseverance were associated with reduced CHANGE. The association between risk-taking when with peers and both resistance to the influence of peers and age was indirect through reward responsiveness. Reward responsiveness was positively associated with impulsiveness. Only in those who showed a peer-related decrease in risk-taking (1/3 of participants), risk-taking in the presence of peers was associated with increased impulsiveness. The current findings suggest an important role for reward responsiveness in risk-taking behaviour and demonstrate the influence of peers. Increased understanding of these processes has direct implications for prevention and intervention efforts. Placing risk-taking behaviour within varying (social) contexts with an eye for differences in personality, development, and emotions provides ample scope for future research. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.
Butler, Scott M.; Hartzell, Rose M.; Sherwood, Catherine M.
Peer education, facilitation, and counseling programs are commonly utilized in primary and secondary prevention programs within colleges and universities. In addition, peer-based human sexuality discussions have been used as an adjunct to traditional human sexuality pedagogic programs over the last 20 years. Whereas ample evidence suggests that…
Woodgate, Roberta L; Busolo, David S
Peer influence, peer selection, and health risk awareness are factors in smoking among youth. Despite the numerous studies on the social context, social network, and how youth define themselves and their smoking status in relation to tobacco use, qualitative knowledge about the role of smoking within peer relationships from youth themselves is only emerging. In this paper, qualitative findings describing Canadian youth's perspectives and experiences of smoking within the context of peer relationships are presented. To examine youth's perceptions, a qualitative research study design was used. Seventy-five Canadian youth aged 11-19 years participated in open-ended interviews, focus groups, and photovoice methods. Data analysis involved several levels of analysis consistent with qualitative research. Youth who smoked were perceived by non-smoking peers as less popular and less socially accepted as represented by the theme: The coolness (not so cool) factor. Non-smoking youth felt that peers who smoked strained relationships and forced them to set boundaries and negotiate friendships as denoted by the theme: Negotiating friendships: Being influenced, but also influencing. Finally, in the theme of Making sense of peers who smoke, youth struggled to understand peers who continued to smoke and why they would start in the first place. As reinforced in this study, Canadian youth increasingly view smoking as unhealthy and uncool. Moreover, youth report resisting peer influence to smoke and in fact, are now influencing their friends who smoke to quit. The self-empowerment stories of non-smoker youth reinforces the idea that the social meaning of smoking with peers is continuing to change from one where youth accepted and participated in the smoking behaviors of their peers, to an environment where youth's perceptions of personal health is paramount. Findings from this study could be used to guide health promotion and smoking prevention programs and campaigns for youth.
Halken, S; Høst, A
, breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....
Hinrichsen, Gregory A.; And Others
The purpose of this study was to determine what kinds of people are motivated to join a medical self-help group and whether and in what areas of psychological and social functioning such self-help groups have positive benefits for adolescents and their families. Extensive survey questionnaires were sent throughout the United States to all former…
... AGENCY Notice of Peer Review Meeting for the External Peer Review Drafts of Two Documents on Using... announcing that Eastern Research Group, Inc. (ERG), an EPA contractor for external scientific peer review, will convene an independent panel of experts and organize and conduct an external peer review meeting...