WorldWideScience

Sample records for prevention p2 compliance

  1. Major weapon system environmental life-cycle cost estimating for Conservation, Cleanup, Compliance and Pollution Prevention (C3P2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Wesley; Thurston, Marland; Hood, Christopher

    1995-01-01

    The Titan 4 Space Launch Vehicle Program is one of many major weapon system programs that have modified acquisition plans and operational procedures to meet new, stringent environmental rules and regulations. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Defense (DOD) mandate to reduce the use of ozone depleting chemicals (ODC's) is just one of the regulatory changes that has affected the program. In the last few years, public environmental awareness, coupled with stricter environmental regulations, has created the need for DOD to produce environmental life-cycle cost estimates (ELCCE) for every major weapon system acquisition program. The environmental impact of the weapon system must be assessed and budgeted, considering all costs, from cradle to grave. The Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) has proposed that organizations consider Conservation, Cleanup, Compliance and Pollution Prevention (C(sup 3)P(sup 2)) issues associated with each acquisition program to assess life-cycle impacts and costs. The Air Force selected the Titan 4 system as the pilot program for estimating life-cycle environmental costs. The estimating task required participants to develop an ELCCE methodology, collect data to test the methodology and produce a credible cost estimate within the DOD C(sup 3)P(sup 2) definition. The estimating methodology included using the Program Office weapon system description and work breakdown structure together with operational site and manufacturing plant visits to identify environmental cost drivers. The results of the Titan IV ELCCE process are discussed and expanded to demonstrate how they can be applied to satisfy any life-cycle environmental cost estimating requirement.

  2. Microglia P2Y13 Receptors Prevent Astrocyte Proliferation Mediated by P2Y1 Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Quintas

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral inflammation is a common feature of several neurodegenerative diseases that requires a fine interplay between astrocytes and microglia to acquire appropriate phenotypes for an efficient response to neuronal damage. During brain inflammation, ATP is massively released into the extracellular medium and converted into ADP. Both nucleotides acting on P2 receptors, modulate astrogliosis through mechanisms involving microglia-astrocytes communication. In previous studies, primary cultures of astrocytes and co-cultures of astrocytes and microglia were used to investigate the influence of microglia on astroglial proliferation induced by ADPβS, a stable ADP analog. In astrocyte cultures, ADPβS increased cell proliferation through activation of P2Y1 and P2Y12 receptors, an effect abolished in co-cultures (of astrocytes with ∼12.5% microglia. The possibility that the loss of the ADPβS-mediated effect could have been caused by a microglia-induced degradation of ADPβS or by a preferential microglial localization of P2Y1 or P2Y12 receptors was excluded. Since ADPβS also activates P2Y13 receptors, the contribution of microglial P2Y13 receptors to prevent the proliferative effect of ADPβS in co-cultures was investigated. The results obtained indicate that P2Y13 receptors are low expressed in astrocytes and mainly expressed in microglia. Furthermore, in co-cultures, ADPβS induced astroglial proliferation in the presence of the selective P2Y13 antagonist MRS 2211 (3 μM and of the selective P2Y12 antagonist AR-C66096 (0.1 μM, suggesting that activation of microglial P2Y12 and P2Y13 receptors may induce the release of messengers that inhibit astroglial proliferation mediated by P2Y1,12 receptors. In this microglia-astrocyte paracrine communication, P2Y12 receptors exert opposite effects in astroglial proliferation as a result of its cellular localization: cooperating in astrocytes with P2Y1 receptors to directly stimulate proliferation and in

  3. Pollution Prevention Successes Database (P2SDb) user guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    When Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessments (P2OAs) were launched at the Hanford Site during the summer of 1994, the first comment received from those using them expressed the desire for a method to report assessments electronically. As a temporary measure, macros were developed for use on word processing systems, but a more formal database was obviously needed. Additionally, increased DOE and Washington state reporting requirements for pollution prevention suggested that a database system would streamline the reporting process. The Pollution Prevention Group of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) contracted with the Data Automation Engineering Department from ICF Kaiser Hanford Company (ICFKH) to develop the system. The scope was to develop a database that will track P2OAs conducted by the facilities and contractors at the Hanford Site. It will also track pollution prevention accomplishments that are not the result of P2OAs and document a portion of the Process Waste Assessments conducted in the past. To accommodate the above criteria, yet complete the system in a timely manner, the Pollution Prevention Successes Database (P2SDb) is being implemented in three phases. The first phase will automate the worksheets to provide both input and output of the data associated with the worksheets. The second phase will automate standard summary reports and ad hoc reports. The third phase will provide automated searching of the database to facilitate the sharing of pollution prevention experiences among various users. This User's Guide addresses only the Phase 1 system

  4. Improving compliance with hormonal replacement therapy in primary osteoporosis prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, P; Hermann, A P; Gram, J

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate whether introduction of treatment alternatives would improve compliance with hormonal replacement therapy (HRT) as primary osteoporosis prevention in women not tolerating the first line osteoporosis prevention schedule.......To evaluate whether introduction of treatment alternatives would improve compliance with hormonal replacement therapy (HRT) as primary osteoporosis prevention in women not tolerating the first line osteoporosis prevention schedule....

  5. Compliance With Infection Prevention Guidelines By Health Care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    revealed varied levels of compliance on different components of infection prevention. The highest level of compliance (100%) was with single use of needles and syringes while the lowest (35.1) was with decontamination of needles and syringes with 0.5% chlorine solution prior to disposal. Compliance with hand hygiene ...

  6. The Cellular Prion Protein Prevents Copper-Induced Inhibition of P2X4 Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón A. Lorca

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the physiological function of the cellular prion protein (PrPC remains unknown, several evidences support the notion of its role in copper homeostasis. PrPC binds Cu2+ through a domain composed by four to five repeats of eight amino acids. Previously, we have shown that the perfusion of this domain prevents and reverses the inhibition by Cu2+ of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP-evoked currents in the P2X4 receptor subtype, highlighting a modulatory role for PrPC in synaptic transmission through regulation of Cu2+ levels. Here, we study the effect of full-length PrPC in Cu2+ inhibition of P2X4 receptor when both are coexpressed. PrPC expression does not significantly change the ATP concentration-response curve in oocytes expressing P2X4 receptors. However, the presence of PrPC reduces the inhibition by Cu2+ of the ATP-elicited currents in these oocytes, confirming our previous observations with the Cu2+ binding domain. Thus, our observations suggest a role for PrPC in modulating synaptic activity through binding of extracellular Cu2+.

  7. 76 FR 64296 - Oil Pollution Prevention; Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Rule-Compliance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-18

    ... Oil Pollution Prevention; Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Rule--Compliance Date... Federal Register. List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 112 Oil pollution prevention, Farms, Compliance date... proposing to amend the date by which farms must prepare or amend, and implement their Spill Prevention...

  8. Air compliance through pollution prevention at Air Force Materiel Command facilities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolpa, R.; Ryckman, S.J. Jr.; Smith, A.E.

    1999-03-19

    Options for air compliance through pollution prevention (P2) have been identified at 14 facilities of the US Air Force Materiel Command, ranging from depots with significant light industrial activity to laboratories. Previous P2 efforts concentrated on reducing hazardous and solid wastes, with any reduction in air impacts generally being a collateral benefit. This work focused on reducing air emissions and air compliance vulnerabilities. P2 options were identified in three stages. First, potentially applicable P2 options were identified from Internet and published information. Attention was given to identifying the types of sources to which an option could be applied, the option's state of development, and constraints that could limit its application. Traditional P2 options involving technology or equipment changes and material substitution were considered. In addition, newer approaches based on administrative ''controls'' were considered. These included inserting P2 into operating permits in exchange for administrative relief, privatization, derating boilers, and reducing an installation's potential to emit and compliance vulnerability by separating sources not under the Air Force's ''common control.'' Next, criteria and toxic emissions inventories by source category were prepared from inventory data supplied by facilities. The major problems at this stage were differences in the levels of detail provided by facilities and in the categories used by different installations. Emitting categories were matched to P2 option categories to identify candidate options. Candidates were screened to account for local regulations and technical information about sources in the inventories. When possible, emission reductions were estimated to help facility personnel prioritize options. Some options identified are being actively pursued by facilities to determine their site-specific feasibility. Although much work has been

  9. 76 FR 72120 - Oil Pollution Prevention; Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Rule-Compliance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-22

    ... Oil Pollution Prevention; Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Rule--Compliance Date... rule will be effective November 22, 2011. List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 112 Oil pollution prevention... Regulations is amended as follows: PART 112--OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION 0 1. The authority citation for part 112...

  10. 75 FR 63093 - Oil Pollution Prevention; Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Rule-Compliance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-14

    ... Oil Pollution Prevention; Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Rule--Compliance Date... certain facilities must prepare or amend their Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Plans... facilities must prepare or amend their Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Plans (or ``Plan...

  11. 76 FR 64245 - Oil Pollution Prevention; Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Rule-Compliance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-18

    ... Oil Pollution Prevention; Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Rule--Compliance Date... burden to comply with the regulations contained in 40 CFR part 112--Oil Pollution Prevention. However, in... rule will be effective November 7, 2011. List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 112 Oil pollution prevention...

  12. Making The Decision: Pollution Prevention (P2) Equipment Evaluation, Procurement, Implementation and Monitoring

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Timothy C

    1998-01-01

    .... What is your primary objective? Is it waste reduction or saving money? Are you planning to select the best P2 options for achieving your waste reduction goals, or are you limited to selecting those options that show significant cost savings...

  13. 75 FR 18849 - Small Entity Compliance Guide: Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ...] Small Entity Compliance Guide: Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production... ``Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production, Storage, and Transportation--Small... requiring shell egg producers to implement measures to prevent Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) from...

  14. A proposed framework for conducting pollution prevention design assessments (P2DAs) on U.S. Department of Energy design projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorsey, J.A.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this manual is to provide a framework for project managers, engineers, and designers to integrate pollution prevention principles and features into DOE design projects. The framework suggested is referred to as the pollution prevention design assessment (P2DA). The P2DA is based on DOE's method for conducting pollution prevention opportunity assessments (PPOAs) on existing waste-generating operations, but the P2DA is modified because the facility or process it assesses does not physically exist during design. Before the P2DA framework is introduced in the manual, recommendations for establishing the P2DA team and budget are provided. Specific pollution prevention requirements and opportunities for each design stage as delineated in DOE Order 4700.1 Project Management System are also discussed and a sample format for drafting a P2DA report is provided in the appendix. The scope of this manual includes not only the P2DA framework, but also a background discussion of pollution prevention and related topics; the regulatory requirements mandating design for pollution prevention; the benefits and barriers of designing for pollution prevention; and the impact that pollution prevention and related environmental avoidance concepts have had on the engineering profession

  15. The selective antagonism of P2X7 and P2Y1 receptors prevents synaptic failure and affects cell proliferation induced by oxygen and glucose deprivation in rat dentate gyrus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Maraula

    Full Text Available Purinergic P2X and P2Y receptors are broadly expressed on both neurons and glial cells in the central nervous system (CNS, including dentate gyrus (DG. The aim of this research was to determine the synaptic and proliferative response of the DG to severe oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD in acute rat hippocampal slices and to investigate the contribution of P2X7 and P2Y1 receptor antagonism to recovery of synaptic activity after OGD. Extracellular field excitatory post-synaptic potentials (fEPSPs in granule cells of the DG were recorded from rat hippocampal slices. Nine-min OGD elicited an irreversible loss of fEPSP and was invariably followed by the appearance of anoxic depolarization (AD. Application of MRS2179 (selective antagonist of P2Y1 receptor and BBG (selective antagonist of P2X7 receptor, before and during OGD, prevented AD appearance and allowed a significant recovery of neurotransmission after 9-min OGD. The effects of 9-min OGD on proliferation and maturation of cells localized in the subgranular zone (SGZ of slices prepared from rats treated with 5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU were investigated. Slices were further incubated with an immature neuron marker, doublecortin (DCX. The number of BrdU+ cells in the SGZ was significantly decreased 6 hours after OGD. This effect was antagonized by BBG, but not by MRS2179. Twenty-four hours after 9-min OGD, the number of BrdU+ cells returned to control values and a significant increase of DCX immunofluorescence was observed. This phenomenon was still evident when BBG, but not MRS2179, was applied during OGD. Furthermore, the P2Y1 antagonist reduced the number of BrdU+ cells at this time. The data demonstrate that P2X7 and P2Y1 activation contributes to early damage induced by OGD in the DG. At later stages after the insult, P2Y1 receptors might play an additional and different role in promoting cell proliferation and maturation in the DG.

  16. Tool for evaluation compliance standards and expectations in occupational risk prevention by collaborating companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran Perez, A.; Gomez Pardo, M. A.; Cao Tejero, R.; Millan Verdejo, J. A.; Blas Perez, P.

    2013-01-01

    Within the framework of a single security in ANAV, in our Action Plan on prevention, we consider it essential to include workers from ECCE working for and by ANAV in compliance with standards and expectations both in the accounts of the incidents. With this system is intended to standardize a set of observed deviations report and a tool for measuring the degree of compliance, allowing to monitor the evolution of each company and the effectiveness of prevention plan.

  17. Does educating nurses with ventilator-associated pneumonia prevention guidelines improve their compliance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloush, Sami M

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to compare the compliance with ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP)-prevention guidelines between nurses who underwent an intensive educational program and those who did not, and to investigate other factors that influence nurses' compliance. A 2-group posttest design was used to examine the effect of the VAP-prevention guidelines education on nurses' compliance. Participants were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. The overall nurses' compliance scores were moderate. There was no statistically significant difference in compliance between the nurses who received VAP education and those who did not (t[100] = -1.43; P = .15). The number of beds in the unit and the nurse-patient ratio were found to influence nurses' compliance. Education in VAP-prevention guidelines will not improve nurses' compliance unless other confounding factors, such as their workload, are controlled. It is imperative to reduce nurses' workload to improve their compliance and enhance the effectiveness of education. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Compliance With Infection Prevention Guidelines By Health Care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    the health workers' curricular, provision of in-service training in infection ... cheaper infection prevention and control methods7. In Zambia ... Zambia Infection Prevention Guidelines in 2003. This ..... Control (IPC) Policies and Guidelines or.

  19. The effectiveness of a multidisciplinary QI activity for accidental fall prevention: Staff compliance is critical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohde Sachiko

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accidental falls among inpatients are a substantial cause of hospital injury. A number of successful experimental studies on fall prevention have shown the importance and efficacy of multifactorial intervention, though success rates vary. However, the importance of staff compliance with these effective, but often time-consuming, multifactorial interventions has not been fully investigated in a routine clinical setting. The purpose of this observational study was to describe the effectiveness of a multidisciplinary quality improvement (QI activity for accidental fall prevention, with particular focus on staff compliance in a non-experimental clinical setting. Methods This observational study was conducted from July 2004 through December 2010 at St. Luke’s International Hospital in Tokyo, Japan. The QI activity for in-patient falls prevention consisted of: 1 the fall risk assessment tool, 2 an intervention protocol to prevent in-patient falls, 3 specific environmental safety interventions, 4 staff education, and 5 multidisciplinary healthcare staff compliance monitoring and feedback mechanisms. Results The overall fall rate was 2.13 falls per 1000 patient days (350/164331 in 2004 versus 1.53 falls per 1000 patient days (263/172325 in 2010, representing a significant decrease (p = 0.039. In the first 6 months, compliance with use of the falling risk assessment tool at admission was 91.5% in 2007 (3998/4368, increasing to 97.6% in 2010 (10564/10828. The staff compliance rate of implementing an appropriate intervention plan was 85.9% in 2007, increasing to 95.3% in 2010. Conclusion In our study we observed a substantial decrease in patient fall rates and an increase of staff compliance with a newly implemented falls prevention program. A systematized QI approach that closely involves, encourages, and educates healthcare staff at multiple levels is effective.

  20. 15 CFR 291.4 - National industry-specific pollution prevention and environmental compliance resource centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false National industry-specific pollution prevention and environmental compliance resource centers. 291.4 Section 291.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAM...

  1. Preventing nosocomial infections: improving compliance with standard precautions in an Indonesian teaching hospital.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duerink, D.O.; Farida, H.; Nagelkerke, N.J.; Wahyono, H.; Keuter, M.; Lestari, E.S.; Hadi, U.; Broek, P.J.J.A. van den

    2006-01-01

    Standard precautions can prevent transmission of micro-organisms. This study investigated hand hygiene, handling of needles and use of personal protective equipment in an Indonesian teaching hospital, and performed a multi-faceted intervention study to improve compliance. An intervention was

  2. Compliance with Prevention Practices and their Association with Central Line-Associated Blood Stream Infections in Neonatal Intensive Care Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachariah, Philip; Furuya, E. Yoko; Edwards, Jeffrey; Dick, Andrew; Liu, Hangsheng; Herzig, Carolyn; Pogorzelska-Maziarz, Monika; Stone, Patricia W.; Saiman, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Background Bundles and checklists have been shown to decrease CLABSIs, but implementation of these practices and association with CLABSI rates have not been described nationally. We describe implementation and levels of compliance with prevention practices in a sample of US Neonatal ICUs and assess their association with CLABSI rates. Methods An online survey assessing infection prevention practices was sent to hospitals participating in National Healthcare Safety Network CLABSI surveillance in October 2011. Participating hospitals permitted access to their NICU CLABSI rates. Multivariable regressions were used to test the association between compliance with NICU specific CLABSI prevention practices and corresponding CLABSI rates. Results Overall, 190 Level II/III and Level III NICUs participated. The majority of NICUs had written policies (84%-93%) and monitored compliance with bundles and checklists (88% - 91%). Reporting ≥ 95% compliance for any of the practices ranged from 50%- 63%. Reporting ≥ 95% compliance with insertion checklist and assessment of daily line necessity were significantly associated with lower CLABSI rates (pprevention policies and monitor compliance, although reporting compliance ≥ 95% was suboptimal. Reporting ≥ 95% compliance with select CLABSI prevention practices was associated with lower CLABSI rates. Further studies should focus on identifying and improving compliance with effective CLABSI prevention practices in neonates. PMID:25087136

  3. Oral administration of Lactococcus lactis-expressing heat shock protein 65 and tandemly repeated IA2P2 prevents type 1 diabetes in NOD mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kun-Feng; Liu, Xiao-Rui; Li, Guo-Liang; Lu, Shi-Ping; Jin, Liang; Wu, Jie

    2016-06-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by the destruction of insulin-secreting β cells upon autoreactive T cell attack. Oral administration of autoantigens is an attractive approach to treating T1DM, but an effective carrier should be used in order to protect antigens. Lactococcus lactis, a safe engineering strain, was used for this task in the present study. Two recombinant L. lactis expressing protein HSP65-6IA2P2 were used and be investigated the effects and mechanisms against T1DM in NOD mice. Our findings demonstrate that recombinant L. lactis strains can successfully both deliver antigens to intestinal mucosa and maintain the epitopes for a long time in NOD mice. Oral administration of recombinant L. lactis could prevent hyperglycemia, improve glucose tolerance, and reduce insulitis by inhibiting antigen-specific proliferation of T cells, augmenting regulatory immune reactions, and balancing ratios of Th17/Tregs and Th1/Th2. These results prove that orally administrated L. lactis expressing HSP65-6IA2P2 is an effective approach for the prevention of T1DM in NOD mice. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Preventive Neuromuscular Training for Young Female Athletes: Comparison of Coach and Athlete Compliance Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Dai; Mattacola, Carl G; Bush, Heather M; Thomas, Staci M; Foss, Kim D Barber; Myer, Gregory D; Hewett, Timothy E

    2017-01-01

     Fewer athletic injuries and lower anterior cruciate ligament injury incidence rates were noted in studies of neuromuscular-training (NMT) interventions that had high compliance rates. However, several groups have demonstrated that preventive NMT interventions were limited by low compliance rates.  To descriptively analyze coach and athlete compliance with preventive NMT and compare the compliance between study arms as well as among school levels and sports.  Randomized, controlled clinical trial.  Middle and high school athletic programs. Participants or Other Participants: A total of 52 teams, comprising 547 female athletes, were randomly assigned to the experimental or control group and followed for 1 athletic season.  The experimental group (n = 30 teams [301 athletes]: 12 basketball teams [125 athletes], 6 soccer teams [74 athletes], and 12 volleyball teams [102 athletes]) participated in an NMT program aimed at reducing traumatic knee injuries through a trunk-stabilization and hip-strengthening program. The control group (n = 22 teams [246 athletes]: 11 basketball teams [116 athletes], 5 soccer teams [68 athletes], and 6 volleyball teams [62 athletes]) performed a resistive rubber-band running program.  Compliance with the assigned intervention protocols (3 times per week during the preseason [mean = 3.4 weeks] and 2 times per week in-season [mean = 11.9 weeks] of coaches [coach compliance] and athletes [athlete compliance]) was measured descriptively. Using an independent t test, we compared coach and athlete compliance between the study arms. A 2-way analysis of variance was calculated to compare differences between coach and athlete compliance by school level (middle and high schools) and sport (basketball, soccer, and volleyball).  The protocols were completed at a mean rate of 1.3 ± 1.1 times per week during the preseason and 1.2 ± 0.5 times per week in-season. A total of 88.4% of athletes completed 2/3 of the intervention sessions

  5. Compliance as factor for prevent complications of using of contact lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Y. Markova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study is to identify the role of compliance in the prevention of complications while wearing soft contact lenses (SCL. 2257 patients in the «Center of vision correction contact» were examined. The age of patients was from12 till 46 years. 58 % female, 42 % male. 47.5 % patients were using daily disposable lenses, 52.5 % — lenses of planned replacement: 23.4 % — 2 weeks, 25.1 % — 1 month, 4 % — 3 months. All patients were using SCL for at least 1 year. The benefits of contact lens are compared with the glasses by different authors. However, any contact lens are a foreign body for the eye, which requires special care, and in case of non-compliance with the doctor’s recommendations may cause the complications. This study has shown that compliance among patients using contact lenses is below 50 %. The main reason for noncompliance of patients is the lack of time and attention to the health of patients. For achievement of compliance and prevention of complications of contact lens is recommended to regularly take the following necessary measures: patient education, explaining to him the need for each stage of lens care, which increases motivation. At the same time, the learning process can be demonstrated to have complications arise in the case of disturbances. Optimization of individual therapeutic program, which is the correct selection of contact lenses and care products tailored to the individual needs of the patient, his lifestyle and personal finance. However, the risk of complications depends not only on the doctor or the manufacturer, but to a greater extent on the patient. In other words, compliance — a necessary condition for ensuring the effectiveness of contact lens and avoiding the occurrence of complications.

  6. Compliance with preventive care following dental treatment of children under general anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peerbhay, F B M

    2009-11-01

    This study evaluated the self-reported preventive dental care compliance of parents/families whose children received dental treatment under general anaesthesia. Complete records of 68 pediatric patients who attended the University of Stellenbosch's Paediatric Dentistry Department for dental treatment were included in the survey. Parents of 41 (60%) patients were interviewed telephonically to evaluate parental dental health knowledge and preventive practices. The majority (85%) of parents had a good idea about the aetiology of dental caries. An assessment of the children's dental health behaviour reveals that parents were mostly responsible for brushing the childs' teeth (44%).The majority of parents (51%) reported that following dental treatment of the child under general anaesthesia, there was no change in their child's frequency of sugar consumption. Sixty-three percent of children treated under GA had returned for the one-week follow-up. However, only 22% of children returned for the three-month follow up appointment. Parents were informed about the importance of these follow-up appointments. Parental belief that proper dental health behaviour helps maintain the teeth, did not influence parents preventive compliance, despite them having received preventive instruction. Parents were mostly responsible for brushing their child's teeth following dental treatment of their children under general anaesthesia. This research found however that, in the majority of cases there was no change in the children's frequency of sugar intake.

  7. Environmental implementation plan: Chapter 5, Chemical management, pollution prevention and other compliance programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, G.L.

    1993-01-01

    Compliance with environmental regulations and US Department of Energy Orders (DOE) relating to environmental protection is an important part of SRS's program. Over the past few years, the number of environmental regulations has increased. The strategy to comply with new and existing environmental regulations and DOE orders is described in chapter two. In this chapter, the following environmental programs are described: Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA); Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA); Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA); and SPCC/BMP/Pollution Prevention Plans;The implementation section identifies issues and those responsible to achieve defined objectives

  8. Aspirin for Evidence-Based Preeclampsia Prevention trial: influence of compliance on beneficial effect of aspirin in prevention of preterm preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, David; Poon, Liona C; Rolnik, Daniel L; Syngelaki, Argyro; Delgado, Juan Luis; Vojtassakova, Denisa; de Alvarado, Mercedes; Kapeti, Evgenia; Rehal, Anoop; Pazos, Andrea; Carbone, Ilma Floriana; Dutemeyer, Vivien; Plasencia, Walter; Papantoniou, Nikos; Nicolaides, Kypros H

    2017-12-01

    The Aspirin for Evidence-Based Preeclampsia Prevention trial was a multicenter study in women with singleton pregnancies. Screening was carried out at 11-13 weeks' gestation with an algorithm that combines maternal factors and biomarkers (mean arterial pressure, uterine artery pulsatility index, and maternal serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein A and placental growth factor). Those with an estimated risk for preterm preeclampsia of >1 in 100 were invited to participate in a double-blind trial of aspirin (150 mg/d) vs placebo from 11-14 until 36 weeks' gestation. Preterm preeclampsia with delivery at preeclampsia in the Aspirin for Evidence-Based Preeclampsia Prevention trial. This was a secondary analysis of data from the trial. The proportion of prescribed tablets taken was used as an overall measure of compliance. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the effect of aspirin on the incidence of preterm preeclampsia according to compliance of preeclampsia at screening and the participating center. The choice of cut-off of 90% was based on an exploratory analysis of the treatment effect. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate predictors of compliance ≥90% among maternal characteristics and medical history. Preterm preeclampsia occurred in 5/555 (0.9%) participants in the aspirin group with compliance ≥90%, in 8/243 (3.3%) of participants in the aspirin group with compliance preeclampsia was 0.24 (95% confidence interval, 0.09-0.65) for compliance ≥90% and 0.59 (95% confidence interval, 0.23-1.53) for compliance preeclampsia and negatively associated with smoking, maternal age preeclampsia in a previous pregnancy. The beneficial effect of aspirin in the prevention of preterm preeclampsia appears to depend on compliance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Compliance With Injury Prevention Measures in Youth Pitchers: Survey of Coaches in Little League of Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamias-Velázquez, Kristian J; Figueroa-Negrón, Mariam M; Tirado-Crespo, Janiliz; Mulero-Portela, Ana L

    2016-05-01

    Because of the problem of elbow and shoulder injuries in baseball pitchers between 9 and 14 years of age, the USA Baseball Medical & Safety Advisory Committee and the Department of Recreation and Sports in Puerto Rico developed injury prevention guidelines for pitchers. The purpose of this study was to determine the compliance of pitching coaches of 9- to 14-year-old Little League teams in Puerto Rico with the Administrative Order 2006-01 and the USA Baseball guidelines. (1) The coaches will have a satisfactory level of compliance with the Administrative Order as well as with the USA Baseball guidelines and (2) both the level of education of the coach as well as the years of experience will correlate with the level of compliance. Descriptive cross-sectional study. Level 5. A self-administered questionnaire was developed based on the Administrative Order and on the USA Baseball guidelines. A descriptive univariate analysis was conducted to determine the mean coach compliance with both guidelines. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to describe the correlation between the level of education and the years of experience of the coaches with the level of compliance. Thirty-five coaches (response rate, 78%) participated in the study. On average, the coaches complied with 70% of the Administrative Order and with 73% of the USA Baseball guidelines. No significant correlations were found. The coaches who participated in the study did not reflect a satisfactory level of compliance with the USA Baseball guidelines or with the Administrative Order. These findings emphasize the need for reinforcing compliance with the injury prevention guidelines and the need to provide resources and training to coaches to effectively prevent elbow and shoulder injuries in pitchers. © 2016 The Author(s).

  10. Environmental Compliance and Pollution Prevention Training Manual for Campus-Based Organizations--Operational and Facility Maintenance Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Dept. of Environmental Conservation, Albany.

    This manual was designed to be used as part of the Workshop on Environmental Compliance and Pollution Prevention for campus-based facilities. It contains basic information on New York state and federal laws, rules, and regulations for protecting the environment. The information presented is a summary with emphasis on those items believed to be…

  11. [Compliance with recommendations in secondary prevention of stroke in primary care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamayo-Ojeda, Carmen; Parellada-Esquius, Neus; Salvador-González, Betlem; Oriol-Torón, Pilar Ángeles; Rodríguez-Garrido, M Dolores; Muñoz-Segura, Dolores

    Knowing compliance with secondary prevention recommendations of stroke in primary care and to identify factors associated with compliance. Multi-centre cross-sectional. Health primary care centres in a metropolitan area (944,280 inhabitants). Patients aged 18years and over with ischemic brain disease diagnosis prior to 6months before the study. Clinical history records of demographic variables, risk factors and cardiovascular comorbidity, drugs, blood pressure values (BP), LDL-cholesterol and medical visits by doctor and nurses after the event. Good adherence was considered when BP <140/90 mmHg, LDL-cholesterol <100 mg/dL, smoking abstention and preventive drugs prescription (anti-platelet/anticoagulants, statins and angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin-receptor-antagonists or diuretics) during the last 18months. A total of 21,976 patients, mean age 73.12 years (SD: 12.13), 48% women, 72.7% with stroke. Co-morbidity: hypertension 70.8%, dyslipidemia 55.1%, DM 30.9%, atrial fibrillation 14.1%, ischemic heart disease 13.5%, chronic renal failure 12.5%, heart failure 8.8%, peripheral arterial disease 6.2%, dementia 7.8%. No record was found for smoking in 3.7%, for BP in 3.5% and for LDL in 6.5%. Optimal control: abstention smoking in 3.7%, BP <140/90 in 65.7% and LDL <100 mg/dL in 41.0%. 86.2% anti-platelet/anticoagulants, 61.3% statins and 61.8% angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin-receptor-antagonists or diuretic. Registration and risk factors control was higher in 66-79years aged and lower in 18-40years aged. The implementation of clinical guidelines recommendations for stroke prevention in primary care must be improved, especially among younger population. Organizational changes and more active involvement by professionals and strategies against therapeutic inertia must be taken. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Compliance of an elderly hip fracture population with secondary preventative measures. Efficacy of a simple clinical practice intervention.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Street, John

    2012-02-03

    Secondary pharmaceutical measures are effective in all age groups for the prevention of osteoporotic fractures. This prospective study determines the demographics of 566 consecutive osteoporotic hip fractures presenting to a Level 1 Trauma Center. We examine the efficacy of simple treatment recommendations for pharmaceutical treatment of osteoporosis and the factors determining general practitioner and patient compliance with these recommendations in a community setting. One out of four patients (24.5%) had sustained a previous fragility fracture. Mean age was 80 years. Twenty five percent were resident in a nursing home and only 10% were taking anti-resorptive therapy preoperatively. In hospital mortality was 6%, and 39% of recruited patients were dead at 12 months. By this time more than half the survivors were resident in a nursing home. The compliance with anti-resorptive therapy had increased to over 70% consequent to our simple recommendations. Significant differences in GP and patient compliance were observed between nursing home and own residence dwellers. This study demonstrates the efficacy of a simple clinical practice intervention in increasing patient and GP compliance with secondary fracture prevention measures. We also discuss many of the confounding issues determining this compliance.

  13. Compliance with the standards for prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia by nurses in the intensive care units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiede Masomeh Tabaeian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP is the most common infection in the intensive care unit, and has many side effects such as increased mortality, increased length of hospital stay, and increased health costs. This study aimed to evaluate the compliance with the standards for prevention of VAP by nurses in the intensive care units. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 120 nurses in 11 intensive care units of hospitals affiliated to Isfahan university of Medical Sciences, Iran, were assessed for 4 months from July to October 2014. The implementation of all measures for the prevention of VAP was investigated through observation and using a checklist. Results: The mean compliance with the standards for the prevention of VAP in the intensive care unit by the nurses was 56.32%; analysis of variance test showed significant difference between the hospitals (P < 0.001. Disposable ventilator circuit was performed for all patients; however, reviewing the patient readiness for separation from the ventilator was not conducted on a daily basis. Conclusions: Compliance with the standards for the prevention of VAP in the intensive care units was relatively acceptable; however, it still requires serious attention by the officials with training and sensitization of nurses in implementing preventive measures, especially through the provision of clinical guidelines and related protocols.

  14. Pilot Study to Evaluate Compliance and Tolerability of Cranberry Capsules in Pregnancy for the Prevention of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Deborah A; Rumney, Pamela J; Hindra, Sasha; Guzman, Lizette; Le, Jennifer; Nageotte, Michael

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the compliance with and tolerability of daily cranberry capsule ingestion for asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) prevention in pregnancy. A total of 49 pregnant women from two sites were randomly assigned to cranberry or matching placebo, two doses daily, at gestational ages less than 16 weeks. Patients were followed monthly for urinary tract infection until delivery. Up to seven monthly visits were scheduled for each patient. Delivery data were evaluated. Of 38 evaluable patients, the mean compliance rate over the study period was 82% (range, 20%-100%). This compliance rate and the 74% of patients achieving good (≥75%) compliance were similar between those who received cranberry capsules and placebo. Compliance evaluation revealed that most patients stopped capsule consumption after 34-38 weeks of participation. Multivariate logistic regression and longitudinal analysis showed a significant interaction time effect with cranberry treatment. However, cranberry consumption was not a significant predictor of gastrointestinal intolerance or study withdrawal. Although 30% of patients withdrew for various reasons, only 1 withdrew because of intolerance to the cranberry capsules. Loss to follow-up was mostly due to provider change (9 of 49 [18%]) and therapy disinterest (4 of 49 [8%]). Seven cases of ASB occurred in 5 patients: 2 of 24 (8%) in the cranberry group and 3 of 25 (12%) in the placebo group. No cases of cystitis or pyelonephritis were observed. One third of pregnant women could not complete the study protocol for various reasons. Compliance with and tolerability of cranberry capsule ingestion appear good; these capsules provide a potentially effective means to prevent ASB in pregnancy. Further studies with large samples are necessary to confirm the findings.

  15. Compliance With Protocols for Prevention of Neonatal Group B Streptococcal Sepsis: Practicalities and Limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwendolyn L. Gilbert

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare two protocols for intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP against neonatal group B streptococcal (GBS sepsis, with respect to staff compliance, in a prospective cohort study in the obstetric units of a community hospital (A and a university teaching hospital (B.

  16. Study of compliance with a new, targeted antenatal D immunization prevention programme in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkjaer, M B; Perslev, A; Clausen, F B

    2012-01-01

    A targeted routine antenatal anti-D prophylaxis programme was implemented in Denmark where anti-D immunoglobulin is given based on the result from noninvasive antenatal screening for fetal RHD. Our objective was to evaluate compliance with this new programme right after its initiation. Materials and...

  17. Compliance with malaria chemoprophylaxis and preventative measures against mosquito bites among Dutch travellers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cobelens, F. G.; Leentvaar-Kuijpers, A.

    1997-01-01

    Self-reported compliance with a malaria chemoprophylaxis regimen of proguanil (PG) plus chloroquine (CQ) was assessed in a cohort of 547 Dutch travellers who visited a single travel clinic when travelling to various areas endemic for falciparum malaria. 503 (92%) had taken PG/CQ prophylaxis, but

  18. Corruption and compliance: preventive legislations and policies in international business projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsh PATHAK

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to provide an insight on the international phenomenon of corruption, dealing with its existence, and whether compliance is higher with Anti-Corruption laws or with corruption itself, resulting in anti-corruption laws being much less effective than the legislators intended it to be and the reasons for increasing demand worldwide for new governance standards and higher compliance controls and other effective anti-corruption laws and policies in light of rapid increase in corruption every year. This article further deals with the diagnosis and measures to deal with the cause of corruption – the short-comings in anti-corruption law – the reasons why corporations are willing to face continuing legal risks and adverse publicity but still indulge in corrupt practices and the extent of negative impact the prevailing levels of corruption ultimately have on international business and trade. Strict compliance controls are being introduced with increasing enforcement of anti-corruption laws internationally and nations have also started to focus on individual and corporate liability in cases of violation of anti-corruption laws, for both government and private organisations. In this context of far-reaching developments, whether European and South-east Asian Countries like India and International Business Organisations can act in ignorance or buck up and accept this trend, slowly and steadily moving towards a less corrupt nation and International business projects – if not towards a totally corruption free one, keeping in mind the growth of international trade and Commerce and its sustainability.

  19. Compliance with the national palestinian infection prevention and control protocol at governmental paediatric hospitals in gaza governorates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eljedi, Ashraf; Dalo, Shareef

    2014-08-01

    Nosocomial infections are a significant burden for both patients and the healthcare system. For this reason, infection prevention and control (IPC) practices are extremely important. The Palestinian Ministry of Health adopted the national IPC Protocol in 2004. This study aimed to assess the compliance of healthcare providers (HCPs) with the Protocol in three governmental paediatric hospitals in Gaza governorates. This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted from February to November 2010. Data were collected from a sample of doctors, nurses and physiotherapists (N = 334) using a self-administered questionnaire and observation checklists to record HCP practices and assess the hospital environment. The response rate was 92%. The most important reasons for non-compliance with the IPC Protocol were the absence of an education programme (61.5%), lack of knowledge (52.4%) and the scarcity of required supplies (46.9%). Only 2.3% of respondents had a copy of the IPC Protocol, while 65.8% did not know of its existence. Only 16.9% had participated in training sessions regarding general IPC practices. The observation checklist regarding HCP practices revealed low levels of compliance in hand washing (45.9%), wearing gloves (40.7%) and using antiseptics/disinfectants (49.16%). The health facilities checklist indicated that there was a lack of certain essential equipment and materials, such as covered waste containers and heavy-duty gloves. Due to the lack of HPC knowledge, the authors recommend that the IPC Protocol be made available in all hospitals. In addition, a qualified team should implement intensive IPC education and training programmes and facilities should provide the required equipment and materials.

  20. Association Between Employee Dental Claims, Health Risks, Workplace Productivity, and Preventive Services Compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Wayne N; Chen, Chin-Yu; Li, Xingquan; Schultz, Alyssa B

    2017-08-01

    This study examined differences in health risks and workplace outcomes among employees who utilized preventive dental services compared with other employees. A retrospective observational study of employees of a large financial services corporation, with data from health risk appraisal questionnaires, medical claims, pharmacy claims, and dental claims. Employees with no dental claims were significantly more likely to have a variety of health risk factors (such as obesity and tobacco use), health conditions (such as diabetes), absenteeism, and lost on-the-job productivity, and were significantly less likely to be compliant with clinical preventive services compared with those with preventive dental claims. Employees with preventive dental claims had fewer health risks and medical conditions and better health and productivity measures. Study employees underutilized free dental care; employers should incorporate preventive dental care awareness into their worksite wellness programs.

  1. Compliance Framing - Framing Compliance

    OpenAIRE

    Lutz-Ulrich Haack; Martin C. Reimann

    2012-01-01

    Corporations have to install various organizational measures to comply with legal as well as internal guidelines systematically. Compliance management systems have the challenging task to make use of an internal compliance-marketing approach in order to ensure not only an adequate but also effective compliance-culture. Compliance-literature and findings of persuasive goal-framing-theory give opposite implications for establishing a rather values- versus rule-based compliance-culture respectiv...

  2. Towards changing healthcare workers' behaviour: a qualitative study exploring non-compliance through appraisals of infection prevention and control practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, N; Castro-Sánchez, E; Charani, E; Drumright, L N; Holmes, A H

    2015-06-01

    Improving behaviour in infection prevention and control (IPC) practice remains a challenge, and understanding the determinants of healthcare workers' (HCWs) behaviour is fundamental to develop effective and sustained behaviour change interventions. To identify behaviours of HCWs that facilitated non-compliance with IPC practices, focusing on how appraisals of IPC duties and social and environmental circumstances shaped and influenced non-compliant behaviour. This study aimed to: (1) identify how HCWs rationalized their own behaviour and the behaviour of others; (2) highlight challenging areas of IPC compliance; and (3) describe the context of the working environment that may explain inconsistencies in IPC practices. Clinical staff at a National Health Service hospital group in London, UK were interviewed between December 2010 and July 2011 using qualitative methods. Responses were analysed using a thematic framework. Three ways in which HCWs appraised their behaviour were identified through accounts of IPC policies and practices: (1) attribution of responsibilities, with ambiguity about responsibility for certain IPC practices; (2) prioritization and risk appraisal, which demonstrated a divergence in values attached to some IPC policies and practices; and (3) hierarchy of influence highlighted that traditional clinical roles challenged work relationships. Overall, behaviours are not entirely independent of policy rules, but often an amalgamation of local normative practices, individual preferences and a degree of professional isolation. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Pollution prevention program implementation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engel, J.A.

    1996-09-01

    The Pollution Prevention Program Implementation Plan (the Plan) describes the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (PNNL) Pollution Prevention (P2) Program. The Plan also shows how the P2 Program at PNNL will be in support of and in compliance with the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention (WMin/P2) Awareness Program Plan and the Hanford Site Guide for Preparing and Maintaining Generator Group Pollution Prevention Program Documentation. In addition, this plan describes how PNNL will demonstrate compliance with various legal and policy requirements for P2. This plan documents the strategy for implementing the PNNL P2 Program. The scope of the P2 Program includes implementing and helping to implement P2 activities at PNNL. These activities will be implemented according to the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) hierarchy of source reduction, recycling, treatment, and disposal. The PNNL P2 Program covers all wastes generated at the Laboratory. These include hazardous waste, low-level radioactive waste, radioactive mixed waste, radioactive liquid waste system waste, polychlorinated biphenyl waste, transuranic waste, and sanitary waste generated by activities at PNNL. Materials, resource, and energy conservation are also within the scope of the PNNL P2 Program

  4. Oil spill prevention: Regulatory trends and compliance at existing storage terminals and refineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janisz, A.J.

    1993-01-01

    In 1973, the Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) regulations were promulgated. The objective of the regulations was to prevent oil spills. However, in the late 1980s and early 1990s, several catastrophic spills of oils led to review of oil spill prevention regulations by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the US Coast Guard, and the Department of the Interior's Minerals Management Service. The reviews led to promulgation of various acts and regulations including the proposed revisions to the SPCC regulations, the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA-90), and others. Numerous facilities within the petroleum and chemical industry were or will be affected by these regulations. This paper discusses regulatory trends for spill planning and prevention in general, but principally concentrates on above ground storage tanks at facilities storing or refining petroleum products. The paper includes discussions of bills on above ground storage tanks and proposed national standards, as well as regulatory trends in various states. Proposed SPCC regulations and their effects on the industry are also discussed, including requirements for impermeable surfaces and increasing secondary containment capacity. Management strategies to review facility operations and prepare for upgrades are outlined. The paper discusses the types of upgrades typically necessary at existing storage terminals and refineries and discusses information necessary to prepare conceptual designs and cost estimates. Cost estimates for typical upgrades, such as raising earthen berms and installing isolation valves, are presented. Facilities in the state of New Jersey are used as examples, because regulations in New Jersey are similar to the proposed federal regulations

  5. Achieving multiple compliance objectives through a storm water pollution prevention plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, K.J.; Cataldo, R. [ENSR, Acton, MA (United States)

    1997-09-01

    All across the US, facility managers and environmental staff are trying to keep up with proliferating regulations and associated filing and reporting requirements. Added to the already full plate of regulations is the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) program for storm water management. The NPDES program requires a permit for the discharge of runoff from facilities based on Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) code. Some businesses do not yet need to comply with NPDES, as not all types of facilities were included in the Phase 1 list of regulated activities (September 1992). However, most businesses will be included as part of Phase 2 by 2002. Furthermore, states adopting administration of the NPDES program have the option of accelerating the process. In addition to filing for a permit, the NPDES storm water program requires the preparation and implementation of a Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP). A properly prepared SWPPP can help facilities more easily comply with regulatory requirements and serve as an overall facility management tool.

  6. Neighborhood Inequalities in Retailers' Compliance With the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act of 2009, January 2014-July 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joseph G L; Baker, Hannah M; Ranney, Leah M; Goldstein, Adam O

    2015-10-08

    Retailer noncompliance with limited US tobacco regulations on advertising and labeling was historically patterned by neighborhood in ways that promote health disparities. In 2010, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) began enforcing stronger tobacco retailer regulations under the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act of 2009. However, recent research has found no differences in compliance by neighborhood characteristics for FDA advertising and labeling inspections. We sought to investigate the neighborhood characteristics associated with retailer noncompliance with specific FDA advertising and labeling inspections (ie, violations of bans on self-service displays, selling single cigarettes, false or mislabeled products, vending machines, flavored cigarettes, and free samples). We coded FDA advertising and labeling warning letters (n = 718) for type of violations and geocoded advertising and labeling inspections from January 1 through July 31, 2014 (N = 33,543). Using multilevel models, we examined cross-sectional associations between types of violations and neighborhood characteristics previously associated with disparities (ie, percentage black, Latino, under the poverty line, and younger than 18 years). Retailer advertising and labeling violations are patterned by who lives in the neighborhood; regulated tobacco products are more likely to be stored behind the counter as the percentage of black or Latino residents increases, and single cigarettes are more often available for purchase in neighborhoods as the percentage of black, poor, or young residents increases. Contrary to previous null findings, noncompliance with FDA advertising and labeling regulations is patterned by neighborhood characteristics, sometimes in opposite directions. Given the low likelihood of self-service violations in the same neighborhoods that have high likelihood of single cigarette sales, we suggest targeted approaches to FDA retailer inspections and education campaigns.

  7. Worker education level is a factor in self-compliance with dust-preventive methods among small-scale agate industrial workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Bhagwan D

    2013-01-01

    High incidences of silicosis are continuing to be reported among the agate workers of small-scale household agate processing units in the Khambhat region of Gujarat (India). The objective of this study was to investigate reasons behind the high prevalence of silicosis, and factors affecting the noncompliance with preventive methods among agate workers. The study was conducted using a questionnaire-based structured interview method among 82 agate workers in Khambhat to assess their awareness level about silicosis and preventive methods, existing morbidity, worker's attitude toward health, and the prevalence of actual use of preventive methods to avoid silica exposure. The majority of the workers (55%) were aware of silicosis and the harmful effects of silica dust exposure (72%) and knew about simple preventive methods to avoid silica dust exposure (80%), but only a minority of the workers (22%) were actually using the simple and available dust-preventive methods. Only 9% of the uneducated workers were using the preventive methods, while usage was higher among educated workers (28%), who had five or more years of schooling, and these workers had fewer health conditions or less morbidity. Gender and job duration had no effect on the usage of dust-preventive methods. The data suggest that noncompliance with use of dust-preventive methods could be the reason behind the higher prevalence of silicosis and health morbidity in agate workers, and that years of schooling plays a significant role in the increased usage and self-compliance with dust-preventive methods among agate workers.

  8. Tool for evaluation compliance standards and expectations in occupational risk prevention by collaborating companies; Herramienta para evaluacion cumplimiento normas y expectativas en prevencion de riesgos laborales por pare de empresas colaboradoras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran Perez, A.; Gomez Pardo, M. A.; Cao Tejero, R.; Millan Verdejo, J. A.; Blas Perez, P.

    2013-07-01

    Within the framework of a single security in ANAV, in our Action Plan on prevention, we consider it essential to include workers from ECCE working for and by ANAV in compliance with standards and expectations both in the accounts of the incidents. With this system is intended to standardize a set of observed deviations report and a tool for measuring the degree of compliance, allowing to monitor the evolution of each company and the effectiveness of prevention plan.

  9. Single administration of p2TA (AB103, a CD28 antagonist peptide, prevents inflammatory and thrombotic reactions and protects against gastrointestinal injury in total-body irradiated mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salida Mirzoeva

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to elucidate the action of the CD28 mimetic peptide p2TA (AB103 that attenuates an excessive inflammatory response in mitigating radiation-induced inflammatory injuries. BALB/c and A/J mice were divided into four groups: Control (C, Peptide (P; 5 mg/kg of p2TA peptide, Radiation (R; total body irradiation with 8 Gy γ-rays, and Radiation + Peptide (RP; irradiation followed by p2TA peptide 24 h later. Gastrointestinal tissue damage was evaluated by analysis of jejunum histopathology and immunohistochemistry for cell proliferation (Cyclin D1 and inflammation (COX-2 markers, as well as the presence of macrophages (F4/80. Pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and KC as well as fibrinogen were quantified in plasma samples obtained from the same mice. Our results demonstrated that administration of p2TA peptide significantly reduced the irradiation-induced increase of IL-6 and fibrinogen in plasma 7 days after exposure. Seven days after total body irradiation with 8 Gy of gamma rays numbers of intestinal crypt cells were reduced and villi were shorter in irradiated animals compared to the controls. The p2TA peptide delivery 24 h after irradiation led to improved morphology of villi and crypts, increased Cyclin D1 expression, decreased COX-2 staining and decreased numbers of macrophages in small intestine of irradiated mice. Our study suggests that attenuation of CD28 signaling is a promising therapeutic approach for mitigation of radiation-induced tissue injury.

  10. RCR audit of compliance with UK guidelines for the prevention and detection of acute kidney injury in adult patients undergoing iodinated contrast media injections for CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, L H; Drinkwater, K J; Howlett, D C

    2017-12-01

    To determine radiology departmental compliance with current UK guidance on contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) and to provide data on the incidence of clinically significant post-contrast AKI (PC-AKI) in computed tomography (CT) practice. A questionnaire was sent to all UK acute National Health Service (NHS) providers (NHS boards in Scotland, local health boards in Wales, NHS trusts in England and health and social care trusts in Northern Ireland) to assess compliance of provider protocols with current UK guidelines for the prevention, recognition, and management of CI-AKI. Audit data were collected for 40 consecutive fit outpatients and 40 consecutive acutely unwell patients/inpatients from hospitals within each participating provider to assess clinical compliance. Eighty-nine of 172 (52%) health service providers responded, and data on 7,159 contrast-enhanced CT examinations were provided. Compliance with guidelines was poor with wide variation in clinical practice. The observed incidence of clinically significant (requiring treatment or resulting in death) PC-AKI was zero in 3,590 outpatients, although two patients developed AKI due to other causes (sepsis and progressive malignancy). Fourteen out of 3,569 (0.4%) patients in the inpatient group developed clinically significant PC-AKI, and a further 17 patients were identified who met the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) definition of AKI (Electronic Supplementary Material Appendix S1), but did not require active treatment, giving an overall incidence of AKI of 0.9%. In patients at high risk due to impaired renal function prior to the scan, there was no difference in the median serum creatinine (SCr) before and after contrast medium administration in either group. Health service provider protocols and clinical practice demonstrate poor compliance with current UK guidance on CI-AKI. A very low incidence of PC- AKI was demonstrated. Copyright © 2017 The Royal College of Radiologists

  11. Transforming environmental permitting and compliance policies to promote pollution prevention: Removing barriers and providing incentives to foster technology innovation, economic productivity, and environmental protection. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, D.R.; Kerr, R.L.; Fleischer, S.; Gorsen, M.; Harris, E.

    1993-04-01

    The Technology Innovation and Economics (TIE) Committee, a standing committee of EPA's National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT), has concluded that major changes are needed in federal and state permitting and compliance programs to encourage adoption of practical pollution prevention approaches to environmental protection. The Committee recommends seven major areas for improvement, including: (1) Redesigning permit procedures to encourage regulated facilities to expand multi-media and pollution prevention environmental improvement efforts; (2) Accelerating development and use of innovative pollution prevention technologies and techniques through special permitting and review procedures during RD ampersand D and commercialization phases; (3) Developing and expanding federal and state pollution prevention enforcement initiative; (4) Supporting state initiatives in pollution prevention facility planning; (5) Expanding pollution prevention-related training, educational and technology diffusion efforts to better reach managers in all sectors of the economy; (6) Altering personnel reward systems to encourage EPA staff to champion pollution prevention; (7) Expanding and publicizing the system of national awards honoring outstanding pollution prevention research, training and technology implementation

  12. Assessing Compliance With Mercaptopurine Treatment in Younger Patients With Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in First Remission | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    This randomized phase III trial studies compliance to a mercaptopurine treatment intervention compared to standard of care in younger patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in remission. Assessing ways to help patients who have acute lymphoblastic leukemia to take their medications as prescribed may help them in taking their medications more consistently and may improve

  13. Environmental Restoration Contractor Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duvon, D. K.

    1998-01-01

    This plan contains the Pollution Prevention (P2) Program for the Environmental Restoration Contractor (ERC). The plan outlines the activities and schedules developed by the Bechtel Hanford, Inc.(BHI) to reduce the quantity and toxicity of waste dispositioned as a result of restoration and remediation activities. The purpose of this plan is to guide ERC projects in meeting and documenting compliance with requirements for pollution prevention. This plan contains the objectives, strategy, and support activities of the ERC P2 Program

  14. Evaluation of the effectiveness and compliance of intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) in the control of malaria in pregnant women in south eastern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nduka, F O; Nwosu, E; Oguariri, R M

    2011-01-01

    Controlling malaria in pregnancy has been an important component of the millennium development goal and intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) is considered an important tool in controlling malaria among pregnant women. In this study, we evaluated the level of compliance to IPT use as well as its effect on malaria infection among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in south eastern Nigeria. Peripheral blood smears and placental histology were used as diagnostic tools to determine infection rate. Our data show that compliance to IPT use was poor (33%) when compared with non-compliance (67%). Infection rate was significantly lower among IPT users (39%) than in non-users (71%) (X2 = 39.95; P<0.05). Maternal anaemia was also lower in IPT users (4%) than in non-users (18%). Taken together, IPT use appears to be important in reducing infection rate and maternal anaemia. Therefore, its adoption is highly recommended and this could be improved through public enlightenment campaign and adequate funding. PMID:22325819

  15. 40 CFR 63.1213 - How can the compliance date be extended to install pollution prevention or waste minimization...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to install pollution prevention or waste minimization controls? 63.1213 Section 63.1213 Protection of... pollution prevention or waste minimization controls? (a) Applicability. You may request from the... must contain the following information: (i) A description of pollution prevention or waste minimization...

  16. Criminal Compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Antonella Andretta

    2015-10-01

    The article discusses the concepts of both compliance and criminal compliance, its main components and structure as well as the main rules relating to its global application, and finally his emergence in the Ecuadorian legal system.

  17. Towards P2P XML Database Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Zhang (Ying)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractTo ease the development of data-intensive P2P applications, we envision a P2P XML Database Management System (P2P XDBMS) that acts as a database middle-ware, providing a uniform database abstraction on top of a dynamic set of distributed data sources. In this PhD work, we research which

  18. Awareness of and compliance with healthy oral habits reported by children and their parents in Democratic People's Republic of Korea after a preventive programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarvonen, Pirkko-Liisa; Sipilä, Kirsi; Ri, Yon Sil; Jang, Jong Hyon; Kim, Jong Hyok; Suominen, Anna L

    2016-10-01

    The study aimed to examine awareness of and compliance with healthy oral habits reported by children and their parents in Pyongyang, Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), after a preventive programme. The data were collected in 2013 with self-completed, partly structured questionnaires from 1994 children aged 10 and 13 years and from 200 parents. Association between awareness of and compliance with healthy oral habits reported by the children and their parents was evaluated using Chi square tests and multivariate logistic regression analyses, children's oral health habits according to themselves and their parents were analysed using McNemar's test. Both children and their parents seemed to be familiar with healthy oral habits, although the awareness was not directly related to the reports of the children's oral practices. Most of the children reported brushing their teeth at least twice a day, using fluoride toothpaste and drinking water for thirst but frequent sweet snacking was common. Children's and their parents' reports were consistent with regard to sweet snacking frequency (p = 0.736) and the main thirst quencher (p = 0.349). Awareness of healthy oral habits appeared to be good among children and their parents. Unhealthy oral habits seemed to coincide with one another.

  19. Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy: the effect of new delivery approaches on access and compliance rates in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbonye, Anthony K; Magnussen, Pascal; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian

    2007-01-01

    and increase access and compliance to it. METHODS: The study was designed to assess new approaches of delivering IPT through these groups and compare it with IPT at health units. The primary outcome measures were: the proportion of adolescents and primigravidae accessed; gestational age at recruitment...... and the proportion of women who completed two doses of sulfadoxine-pyremethamine. RESULTS: Two thousand seven hundred and eighty-five pregnant women (78% of those in the study area) participated. With new approaches, 92.4% of the women received IPT during the second trimester as recommended by the policy, vs. 76.......1% at health units, P approaches (P approaches also accessed IPT early: the mean gestational age when receiving the first dose of sulfadoxine...

  20. Adjusting tidal volume to stress index in an open lung condition optimizes ventilation and prevents overdistension in an experimental model of lung injury and reduced chest wall compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, Carlos; Suárez-Sipmann, Fernando; Gutierrez, Andrea; Tusman, Gerardo; Carbonell, Jose; García, Marisa; Piqueras, Laura; Compañ, Desamparados; Flores, Susanie; Soro, Marina; Llombart, Alicia; Belda, Francisco Javier

    2015-01-13

    The stress index (SI), a parameter derived from the shape of the pressure-time curve, can identify injurious mechanical ventilation. We tested the hypothesis that adjusting tidal volume (VT) to a non-injurious SI in an open lung condition avoids hypoventilation while preventing overdistension in an experimental model of combined lung injury and low chest-wall compliance (Ccw). Lung injury was induced by repeated lung lavages using warm saline solution, and Ccw was reduced by controlled intra-abdominal air-insufflation in 22 anesthetized, paralyzed and mechanically ventilated pigs. After injury animals were recruited and submitted to a positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) titration trial to find the PEEP level resulting in maximum compliance. During a subsequent four hours of mechanical ventilation, VT was adjusted to keep a plateau pressure (Pplat) of 30 cmH2O (Pplat-group, n = 11) or to a SI between 0.95 and 1.05 (SI-group, n = 11). Respiratory rate was adjusted to maintain a 'normal' PaCO2 (35 to 65 mmHg). SI, lung mechanics, arterial-blood gases haemodynamics pro-inflammatory cytokines and histopathology were analyzed. In addition Computed Tomography (CT) data were acquired at end expiration and end inspiration in six animals. PaCO2 was significantly higher in the Pplat-group (82 versus 53 mmHg, P = 0.01), with a resulting lower pH (7.19 versus 7.34, P = 0.01). We observed significant differences in VT (7.3 versus 5.4 mlKg(-1), P = 0.002) and Pplat values (30 versus 35 cmH2O, P = 0.001) between the Pplat-group and SI-group respectively. SI (1.03 versus 0.99, P = 0.42) and end-inspiratory transpulmonary pressure (PTP) (17 versus 18 cmH2O, P = 0.42) were similar in the Pplat- and SI-groups respectively, without differences in overinflated lung areas at end- inspiration in both groups. Cytokines and histopathology showed no differences. Setting tidal volume to a non-injurious stress index in an open lung condition improves

  1. Awareness of need and actual use of prophylaxis: lack of patient compliance in the prevention of bacterial endocarditis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, J. T.; van Wijk, W.; Thompson, J.; Valkenburg, H. A.; Michel, M. F.

    1992-01-01

    Antibiotics are given before some medical and dental procedures to patients with congenital or acquired heart disease to prevent endocarditis. The majority of practitioners and patients are aware of the need for this prophylaxis, although in practice prophylaxis is administered infrequently. It is

  2. P2X receptors in epithelia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leipziger, Jens Georg

    2015-01-01

    P2X receptors are ubiquitously expressed in all epithelial tissues but their functional roles are less well studied. Here we review the current state of knowledge by focusing on functional effects of P2X receptor in secretory and in absorptive tissues. In glandular tissue like the parotid gland...

  3. Compliance Issues in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedek, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Efficiency in the 1980's, quality in the 1990's, compliance in the 2010's - private sector management techniques and mechanisms find their way to public services. This paper facilitates the understanding of how compliance management controls can improve operations and prevent or detect failure or wrong doing. The last few years' empirical research…

  4. Compliance status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the activities conducted to ensure that the Hanford Site is in compliance with federal environmental protection statutes and related Washington State and local environmental protection regulations and the status of Hanford's compliance with these requirements. Environmental permits required under the environmental protection regulations are discussed under the applicable statute

  5. Compliance status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the activities conducted to ensure that the Hanford Site is in compliance with federal environmental protection statutes and related Washington State and local environmental protection regulations and the status of Hanford`s compliance with these requirements. Environmental permits required under the environmental protection regulations are discussed under the applicable statute.

  6. Performing compliance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wimmelmann, Camilla Lawaetz

    2017-01-01

    the local policy workers front-staged some practices in the implementation process and back-staged others. The local policy workers deliberately performed ‘guideline compliance’ by using information control and impression management techniques. The findings suggest that local guideline compliance should...... be regarded as a staged performance in which deliberate techniques are used to produce and manage certain impressions of compliance....

  7. A critical look at the function of the P2Y11 receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreisig, Karin; Kornum, Birgitte Rahbek

    2016-01-01

    The P2Y11 receptor is a member of the purinergic receptor family. It has been overlooked, somewhat due to the lack of a P2ry11 gene orthologue in the murine genome, which prevents the generation of knockout mice, which have been so helpful for defining the roles of other P2Y receptors. Furthermor...

  8. Doctors' knowledge, attitudes, and compliance with 2013 ACC/AHA guidelines for prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Sajita; Fung, Selwyn Sze-Wang; Waters, David D

    2015-01-01

    There is an unmet need for strategies to prevent atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in Singapore. The main objective of this study was to investigate Singapore physicians' response to the 2013 American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) guidelines for treatment of cholesterol and their impact on clinical practice. This survey was conducted in two stages, qualitative and quantitative. Physicians were initially screened on the basis of an initial screener questionnaire, and eligible physicians were then included in the study. Qualitative (n=19) and quantitative (n=66) surveys were completed by eligible physicians from Singapore. Physicians were less familiar with the 2013 ACC/AHA guidelines (35%) as compared with the Singapore Ministry of Health (MoH) lipid guidelines 2006 (49%). Of the physicians whose opinion was sought on the ACC/AHA guidelines, more than 50% disagreed with the definition of high-, moderate-, and low-intensity statin therapy; recommendation of atorvastatin 40-80 mg and rosuvastatin 20-40 mg as medications for high-intensity statin therapy; and classification of individuals who would benefit from moderate- to high-intensity statin therapy. Most physicians assumed that Asians may be intolerant to high-intensity statin therapy. Although embracing the 2013 ACC/AHA guidelines in clinical practice is expected to provide better clinical care to patients, our study revealed high reluctance by physicians, especially in the use of high-dose statins. However, ACC/AHA guidelines can be easily adopted in Asia as there is a wealth of data available for atorvastatin in primary and secondary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease with similar efficacy and safety profiles in the white and Asian populations.

  9. Doctors’ knowledge, attitudes, and compliance with 2013 ACC/AHA guidelines for prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Sajita; Fung, Selwyn Sze-Wang; Waters, David D

    2015-01-01

    Purpose There is an unmet need for strategies to prevent atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in Singapore. The main objective of this study was to investigate Singapore physicians’ response to the 2013 American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) guidelines for treatment of cholesterol and their impact on clinical practice. Methods This survey was conducted in two stages, qualitative and quantitative. Physicians were initially screened on the basis of an initial screener questionnaire, and eligible physicians were then included in the study. Results Qualitative (n=19) and quantitative (n=66) surveys were completed by eligible physicians from Singapore. Physicians were less familiar with the 2013 ACC/AHA guidelines (35%) as compared with the Singapore Ministry of Health (MoH) lipid guidelines 2006 (49%). Of the physicians whose opinion was sought on the ACC/AHA guidelines, more than 50% disagreed with the definition of high-, moderate-, and low-intensity statin therapy; recommendation of atorvastatin 40–80 mg and rosuvastatin 20–40 mg as medications for high-intensity statin therapy; and classification of individuals who would benefit from moderate- to high-intensity statin therapy. Most physicians assumed that Asians may be intolerant to high-intensity statin therapy. Conclusion Although embracing the 2013 ACC/AHA guidelines in clinical practice is expected to provide better clinical care to patients, our study revealed high reluctance by physicians, especially in the use of high-dose statins. However, ACC/AHA guidelines can be easily adopted in Asia as there is a wealth of data available for atorvastatin in primary and secondary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease with similar efficacy and safety profiles in the white and Asian populations. PMID:26082642

  10. Relationship between Risk Factor Control and Compliance with a Lifestyle Modification Program in the Stenting Aggressive Medical Management for Prevention of Recurrent Stroke in Intracranial Stenosis Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Tanya N; Al Kasab, Sami; Nizam, Azhar; Lynn, Michael J; Harrell, Jamie; Derdeyn, Colin P; Fiorella, David; Janis, L Scott; Lane, Bethany F; Montgomery, Jean; Chimowitz, Marc I

    2018-03-01

    Lifestyle modification programs have improved the achievement of risk factor targets in a variety of clinical settings, including patients who have previously suffered a stroke or transient ischemic attack and those with multiple risk factors. Stenting Aggressive Medical Management for Prevention of Recurrent Stroke in Intracranial Stenosis (SAMMPRIS) was the first vascular disease prevention trial to provide a commercially available lifestyle modification program to enhance risk factor control. We sought to determine the relationship between compliance with this program and risk factor control in SAMMPRIS. SAMMPRIS aggressive medical management included a telephonic lifestyle modification program provided free of charge to all subjects (n = 451) during their participation in the study. Subjects with fewer than 3 expected lifestyle-coaching calls were excluded from these analyses. Compliant subjects (n = 201) had  greater than or equal to 78.5% of calls (median % of completed/expected calls). Noncompliant subjects (n = 200) had less than 78.5% of calls or refused to participate. Mean risk factor values or % in-target for each risk factor was compared between compliant versus noncompliant subjects, using t tests and chi-square tests. Risk factor changes from baseline to follow-up were compared between the groups to account for baseline differences. Compliant subjects had better risk factor control throughout follow-up for low-density lipoprotein, systolic blood pressure (SBP), hemoglobin A1c (HgA1c), non-high-density lipoprotein, nonsmoking, and exercise than noncompliant subjects, but there was no difference for body mass index. After adjusting for baseline differences between the groups, compliant subjects had a greater change from baseline than noncompliant subjects for SBP did at 24 months and HgA1c at 6 months. SAMMPRIS subjects who were compliant with the lifestyle modification program had better risk factor control during the study for almost

  11. Anonymity in P2P Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzanares-Lopez, Pilar; Muñoz-Gea, Juan Pedro; Malgosa-Sanahuja, Josemaria; Sanchez-Aarnoutse, Juan Carlos

    In the last years, the use of peer-to-peer (P2P) applications to share and exchange knowledge among people around the world has experienced an exponential growth. Therefore, it is understandable that, like in any successful communication mechanism used by a lot of humans being, the anonymity can be a desirable characteristic in this scenario. Anonymity in P2P networks can be obtained by means of different methods, although the most significant ones are broadcast protocols, dining-cryptographer (DC) nets and multiple-hop paths. Each of these methods can be tunable in order to build a real anonymity P2P application. In addition, there is a mathematical tool called entropy that can be used in some scenarios to quantify anonymity in communication networks. In some cases, it can be calculated analytically but in others it is necessary to use simulation to obtain the network entropy.

  12. Thermoelastic properties of Zn3P2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerward, Leif; Olsen, J. Staun; Waśkowska, A.

    2011-01-01

    The bulk modulus and thermal expansion of Zn3P2 has been investigated at pressures up to 21GPa and temperatures down to 100K. The experimental zero-pressure bulk modulus is 80.7 ± 1.8GPa, in accordance with the bulk modulus scaling and lattice properties of the related compound Cd3P2. A tetragonal...... to orthorhombic phase transformation occurs above 11GPa with a relative volume change of-7.1%. Values for the thermal expansion coefficient are reported at 293, 200 and 100K....

  13. P2X Receptors and Synaptic Plasticity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pankratov, Y.; Lalo, U.; Krishtal, A.; Verkhratsky, Alexei

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 158, č. 1 (2009), s. 137-148 ISSN 0306-4522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : ATP * P2X receptors * synaptic plasticity Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.292, year: 2009

  14. Neighborhood Inequalities in Retailers’ Compliance With the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act of 2009, January 2014–July 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Hannah M.; Ranney, Leah M.; Goldstein, Adam O.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Retailer noncompliance with limited US tobacco regulations on advertising and labeling was historically patterned by neighborhood in ways that promote health disparities. In 2010, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) began enforcing stronger tobacco retailer regulations under the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act of 2009. However, recent research has found no differences in compliance by neighborhood characteristics for FDA advertising and labeling inspections. We sought to investigate the neighborhood characteristics associated with retailer noncompliance with specific FDA advertising and labeling inspections (ie, violations of bans on self-service displays, selling single cigarettes, false or mislabeled products, vending machines, flavored cigarettes, and free samples). Methods We coded FDA advertising and labeling warning letters (n = 718) for type of violations and geocoded advertising and labeling inspections from January 1 through July 31, 2014 (N = 33,543). Using multilevel models, we examined cross-sectional associations between types of violations and neighborhood characteristics previously associated with disparities (ie, percentage black, Latino, under the poverty line, and younger than 18 years). Results Retailer advertising and labeling violations are patterned by who lives in the neighborhood; regulated tobacco products are more likely to be stored behind the counter as the percentage of black or Latino residents increases, and single cigarettes are more often available for purchase in neighborhoods as the percentage of black, poor, or young residents increases. Conclusion Contrary to previous null findings, noncompliance with FDA advertising and labeling regulations is patterned by neighborhood characteristics, sometimes in opposite directions. Given the low likelihood of self-service violations in the same neighborhoods that have high likelihood of single cigarette sales, we suggest targeted approaches to FDA

  15. PPADS and suramin as antagonists at cloned P2Y- and P2U-purinoceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, S J; Brown, C A; Weisman, G A; Turner, J T; Erb, L; Boarder, M R

    1996-06-01

    1. The effect of suramin and pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulphonic acid (PPADS) on the stimulation of phospholipase C in 1321N1 cells transfected with the human P2U-purinoceptor (h-P2U-1321N1 cells) or with the turkey P2Y-purinoceptor (t-P2Y-1321N1 cells) was investigated. 2-Methylthioadenosine triphosphate (2MeSATP) was used as the agonist at t-P2Y-1321N1 cells and uridine triphosphate (UTP) at h-P2U-1321N1 cells. 2. Suramin caused a parallel shift to the right of the concentration-response curves for 2MeSATP in the t-P2Y-1321N1 cells, yielding a Schild plot with a slope of 1.16 +/- 0.08 and a pA2 value of 5.77 +/- 0.11. 3. Suramin also caused a shift to the right of concentration-response curves for UTP in the h-P2U-1321N1 cells, and on Schild plots gave a slope different from unity (1.57 +/- 0.19) and an apparent pA2 value of 4.32 +/- 0.13. Suramin was therefore a less potent antagonist at the P2U-purinoceptor than the P2Y-purinoceptor. 4. In the presence of the ectonucleotidase inhibitor, ARL 67156 (6-N,N-diethyl-beta,gamma-dibromomethylene-D-ATP) there was no significant difference in the EC50 or shapes of curves with either cell type, and no difference in pA2 values for suramin. 5. PPADS caused an increase in the EC50 for 2MeSATP in the t-P2Y-1321N1 cells. The Schild plot had a slope different from unity (0.55 +/- 0.15) and an X-intercept corresponding to an apparent pA2 of 5.98 +/- 0.65. 6. PPADS up to 30 microM had no effect on the concentration-response curve for UTP with the h-P2U-1321N1 cells. 7. In conclusion, suramin and PPADS show clear differences in their action at the 2 receptor types, in each case being substantially more effective as an antagonist at the P2Y-purinoceptor than at the P2U-purinoceptor. Ectonucleotidase breakdown had little influence on the nature of the responses at the two receptor types, or in their differential sensitivity to suramin.

  16. Medicinal chemistry of adenosine, P2Y and P2X receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Kenneth A; Müller, Christa E

    2016-05-01

    Pharmacological tool compounds are now available to define action at the adenosine (ARs), P2Y and P2X receptors. We present a selection of the most commonly used agents to study purines in the nervous system. Some of these compounds, including A1 and A3 AR agonists, P2Y1R and P2Y12R antagonists, and P2X3, P2X4 and P2X7 antagonists, are potentially of clinical use in treatment of disorders of the nervous system, such as chronic pain, neurodegeneration and brain injury. Agonists of the A2AAR and P2Y2R are already used clinically, P2Y12R antagonists are widely used antithrombotics and an antagonist of the A2AAR is approved in Japan for treating Parkinson's disease. The selectivity defined for some of the previously introduced compounds has been revised with updated pharmacological characterization, for example, various AR agonists and antagonists were deemed A1AR or A3AR selective based on human data, but species differences indicated a reduction in selectivity ratios in other species. Also, many of the P2R ligands still lack bioavailability due to charged groups or hydrolytic (either enzymatic or chemical) instability. X-ray crystallographic structures of AR and P2YRs have shifted the mode of ligand discovery to structure-based approaches rather than previous empirical approaches. The X-ray structures can be utilized either for in silico screening of chemically diverse libraries for the discovery of novel ligands or for enhancement of the properties of known ligands by chemical modification. Although X-ray structures of the zebrafish P2X4R have been reported, there is scant structural information about ligand recognition in these trimeric ion channels. In summary, there are definitive, selective agonists and antagonists for all of the ARs and some of the P2YRs; while the pharmacochemistry of P2XRs is still in nascent stages. The therapeutic potential of selectively modulating these receptors is continuing to gain interest in such fields as cancer, inflammation, pain

  17. Retailer opinions about and compliance with family smoking prevention and tobacco control act point of sale provisions: a survey of tobacco retailers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Shyanika W; Emery, Sherry L; Ennett, Susan; Reyes, Heathe Luz McNaughton; Scott, John C; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2015-09-11

    The objectives of this study were to document retailer opinions about tobacco control policy at the point of sale (POS) and link these opinions with store level compliance with sales and marketing provisions of the Tobacco Control Act. This study conducted interviews of 252 tobacco retailers in three counties in North Carolina and linked their opinions with in-person observational audit data of their stores' compliance with POS policies. We conducted analyses examining retailer factors associated with noncompliance using Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) controlling for individual, store, neighborhood, and county factors. Over 90 % of retailers support minors' access provisions and a large minority (over 40 %) support graphic warnings and promotion bans. Low levels of support were found for a potential ban on menthol cigarettes (17 %). Store noncompliance with tobacco control policies was associated with both more reported retailer barriers to compliance and less support for POS policies. Awareness of and source of information about tobacco control regulations were not associated with compliance when accounting for neighborhood and county characteristics. Retailers expressed some support for a wide range of POS policies. Advocates and government agencies tasked with enforcement can work with retailers as stakeholders to enhance support, mitigate barriers, and promote compliance with tobacco control efforts at the point of sale.

  18. Python passive network mapping P2NMAP

    CERN Document Server

    Hosmer, Chet

    2015-01-01

    Python Passive Network Mapping: P2NMAP is the first book to reveal a revolutionary and open source method for exposing nefarious network activity. The ""Heartbleed"" vulnerability has revealed significant weaknesses within enterprise environments related to the lack of a definitive mapping of network assets. In Python Passive Network Mapping, Chet Hosmer shows you how to effectively and definitively passively map networks. Active or probing methods to network mapping have traditionally been used, but they have many drawbacks - they can disrupt operations, crash systems, and - most important

  19. Track reconstruction for the P2 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyukin, Alexey [JGU, Mainz (Germany); Collaboration: P2-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The P2 experiment at the future MESA accelerator in Mainz will measure elastically scattered electrons from a hydrogen or lead target in order to determine the parity violating asymmetry for different beam polarisations, which is created due to the weak charge of the target. The asymmetry can provide access to the Weinberg angle and the neutron skin of heavy nuclei. These quantities depend heavily on the momentum transfer Q{sup 2}, thus a reconstruction of single electron tracks in an inhomogeneous magnetic field is necessary. For this, the P2 detector will have four tracking planes of thin high voltage monolithic active pixel sensors (HV-MAPS). The scattered electrons propagate through a magnetic field and hit all four planes. In order to fit the hit positions the General Broken Lines method is used. As a fast propagator, a variation of the Runge-Kutta algorithm is applied, which solves the equation of motion in an inhomogeneous magnetic field numerically, such that the final state momentum and scattering angle can be reconstructed. The initial momentum and incident angle can vary strongly due to the thickness of the target, limiting the reconstruction quality. The average single track Q{sup 2} value of 0.006 GeV{sup 2}/c{sup 2} can be reconstructed with about 4 % uncertainty in a first analysis of the Geant4 simulation, leading to a high total precision due to large electron numbers in the experiment.

  20. Identification of 6H1 as a P2Y purinoceptor: P2Y5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, T E; Kaplan, M G; Barnard, E A

    1996-02-06

    We have determined the identity of the orphan G-protein coupled receptor cDNA, 6H1, present in activated chicken T cells, as a subtype of P2Y purinoceptor. This identification is based on first on the degree of sequence identity shared with recently cloned members of the P2Y receptor family and second on the pharmacological profile. Upon transient expression in COS-7 cells the 6H1 receptor bound the radiolabel [35S]dATP alpha S specifically and with high affinity (Kd, 10 nM). This specific binding could be competitively displaced by a range of ligands active at P2 purinoceptors, with ATP being the most active (K (i)), 116 nM). Such competition studies have established the following rank order of activity: ATP ADP 2-methylthioATP alpha, beta-methylene ATP, UTP, thus confirming 6H1 as a member of the growing family of P2Y purinoceptors. As the fifth receptor of this type to be identified we suggest that it be named P2Y5.

  1. Functional and molecular evidence for heteromeric association of P2Y1 receptor with P2Y2 and P2Y4 receptors in mouse granulocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro-Filho, Antonio Carlos; Buri, Marcus Vinicius; Barros, Carlos Castilho; Dreyfuss, Juliana Luporini; Nader, Helena Bonciani; Justo, Giselle Zenker; Craveiro, Rogério Bastos; Pesquero, João Bosco; Miranda, Antonio; Ferreira, Alice Teixeira; Paredes-Gamero, Edgar Julian

    2016-07-07

    All hematopoietic cells express P2 receptors, however pharmacological characteristics such as expression and affinity in granulocytes are unknown. Pharmacological characteristics of P2 receptors were evaluated by Ca(2+) measurements using Fura-2 fluorophore. P2 receptors expression were analyzed by flow cytometry and RT-PCR. P2 interaction were shown by coimmunoprecipitation, western blotting and FRET. Granulocytes were responsive to P2Y agonists, whereas P2X agonists were ineffective. Ca(2+) increase, elicited by ADP and UTP was dependent on intracellular stocks and sensitive to G-coupled receptor inhibition. Moreover, MRS2179, a specific antagonist of the P2Y1 receptor, abolished ADP response. Interestingly, ADP and UTP exhibited full heterologous desensitization, suggesting that these agonists interact with the same receptor. The heteromeric association between P2Y1 receptor and the P2Y2 and P2Y4 receptors was shown by immunoprecipitation and FRET analysis. Clear evidence of heteromeric association of P2Y receptors was found during the evaluation of P2 receptors present in mice granulocytes, which could impact in the classical pharmacology of P2Y receptors in granulocytes.

  2. Environmental Compliance Mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merkouris, Panagiotis; Fitzmaurice, Malgosia

    2017-01-01

    Compliance mechanisms can be found in treaties regulating such diverse issues as human rights, disarmament law, and environmental law. In this bibliography, the focus will be on compliance mechanisms of multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs). Compliance with norms of international

  3. Lack of the purinergic receptor P2X7 results in resistance to contact hypersensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Felix C.; Esser, Philipp R.; Müller, Tobias; Ganesan, Jayanthi; Pellegatti, Patrizia; Simon, Markus M.; Zeiser, Robert; Idzko, Marco; Jakob, Thilo

    2010-01-01

    Sensitization to contact allergens requires activation of the innate immune system by endogenous danger signals. However, the mechanisms through which contact allergens activate innate signaling pathways are incompletely understood. In this study, we demonstrate that mice lacking the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) receptor P2X7 are resistant to contact hypersensitivity (CHS). P2X7-deficient dendritic cells fail to induce sensitization to contact allergens and do not release IL-1β in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and ATP. These defects are restored by pretreatment with LPS and alum in an NLRP3- and ASC-dependent manner. Whereas pretreatment of wild-type mice with P2X7 antagonists, the ATP-degrading enzyme apyrase or IL-1 receptor antagonist, prevents CHS, IL-1β injection restores CHS in P2X7-deficient mice. Thus, P2X7 is a crucial receptor for extracellular ATP released in skin in response to contact allergens. The lack of P2X7 triggering prevents IL-1β release, which is an essential step in the sensitization process. Interference with P2X7 signaling may be a promising strategy for the prevention of allergic contact dermatitis. PMID:21059855

  4. Managing P2P services via the IMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liotta, A.; Lin, L.

    2007-01-01

    The key aim of our work was to illustrate the benefits and means to deploy P2P services via the IMS. Having demonstrated the technical viability of P2P-IMS we have also found a way to add a new management dimension to existing P2P systems. P2P-IMS comes with a natural "data management" mechanism,

  5. Bone phenotypes of P2 receptor knockout mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orriss, Isabel; Syberg, Susanne; Wang, Ning

    2011-01-01

    The action of extracellular nucleotides is mediated by ionotropic P2X receptors and G-protein coupled P2Y receptors. The human genome contains 7 P2X and 8 P2Y receptor genes. Knockout mice strains are available for most of them. As their phenotypic analysis is progressing, bone abnormalities have...... been observed in an impressive number of these mice: distinct abnormalities in P2X7-/- mice, depending on the gene targeting construct and the genetic background, decreased bone mass in P2Y1-/- mice, increased bone mass in P2Y2-/- mice, decreased bone resorption in P2Y6-/- mice, decreased bone...... formation and bone resorption in P2Y13-/- mice. These findings demonstrate the unexpected importance of extracellular nucleotide signalling in the regulation of bone metabolism via multiple P2 receptors and distinct mechanisms involving both osteoblasts and osteoclasts....

  6. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A

    2001-01-01

    , breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....

  7. Environmental Restoration Contractor Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, R.A.

    1996-03-01

    This plan contains the Environmental Restoration Contractor (ERC) Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention (WMin/P2) Program. The plan outlines the activities and schedules developed by the ERC to reduce the quantity and toxicity of waste dispositioned as a result of restoration and remediation activities. This plan satisfies US Department of Energy (DOE) requirements including the Pollution Prevention Awareness program required by DOE Order 5400.1 (DOE 1988). This plan is consistent with Executive Order 12856 and Secretary O'Leary's pollution prevention Policy Statement of December 27, 1994, which set US and DOE pollution prevention policies, respectively. It is also consistent with the DOE Pollution Prevention Crosscut Plan, 1994, which provides guidance in meeting the DOE goals in pollution prevention. The purpose of this plan is to aid ERC projects in meeting and documenting compliance with requirements for WMin/P2. This plan contains the objectives, strategy, and support activities of the ERC Team WMin/P2 program. The basic elements of the plan are pollution prevention goals, waste assessments of major waste streams, implementation of feasible waste minimization opportunities, and a process for reporting achievements. Wherever appropriate, the ERC will integrate the pollution prevention activities in this plan into regular program activities rather than establishing separate WMin/P2 activities. Moreover, wherever possible, existing documents, procedures, and activities will be used to meet WMin/P2 requirements

  8. Structural and Molecular Modeling Features of P2X Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Anastacio Alves

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently, adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP is recognized as the extracellular messenger that acts through P2 receptors. P2 receptors are divided into two subtypes: P2Y metabotropic receptors and P2X ionotropic receptors, both of which are found in virtually all mammalian cell types studied. Due to the difficulty in studying membrane protein structures by X-ray crystallography or NMR techniques, there is little information about these structures available in the literature. Two structures of the P2X4 receptor in truncated form have been solved by crystallography. Molecular modeling has proven to be an excellent tool for studying ionotropic receptors. Recently, modeling studies carried out on P2X receptors have advanced our knowledge of the P2X receptor structure-function relationships. This review presents a brief history of ion channel structural studies and shows how modeling approaches can be used to address relevant questions about P2X receptors.

  9. Neuropharmacology of purinergic receptors in human submucous plexus: Involvement of P2X₁, P2X₂, P2X₃ channels, P2Y and A₃ metabotropic receptors in neurotransmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liñán-Rico, A; Wunderlich, J E; Enneking, J T; Tso, D R; Grants, I; Williams, K C; Otey, A; Michel, K; Schemann, M; Needleman, B; Harzman, A; Christofi, F L

    2015-08-01

    The role of purinergic signaling in human ENS is not well understood. We sought to further characterize the neuropharmacology of purinergic receptors in human ENS and test the hypothesis that endogenous purines are critical regulators of neurotransmission. LSCM-Fluo-4/(Ca(2+))-imaging of postsynaptic Ca(2+) transients (PSCaTs) was used as a reporter of synaptic transmission evoked by fiber tract electrical stimulation in human SMP surgical preparations. Pharmacological analysis of purinergic signaling was done in 1,556 neurons (identified by HuC/D-immunoreactivity) in 235 ganglia from 107 patients; P2XR-immunoreactivity was evaluated in 19 patients. Real-time MSORT (Di-8-ANEPPS) imaging tested effects of adenosine on fast excitatory synaptic potentials (fEPSPs). Synaptic transmission is sensitive to pharmacological manipulations that alter accumulation of extracellular purines: Apyrase blocks PSCaTs in a majority of neurons. An ecto-NTPDase-inhibitor 6-N,N-diethyl-D-β,γ-dibromomethyleneATP or adenosine deaminase augments PSCaTs. Blockade of reuptake/deamination of eADO inhibits PSCaTs. Adenosine inhibits fEPSPs and PSCaTs (IC50 = 25 µM), sensitive to MRS1220-antagonism (A3AR). A P2Y agonist ADPβS inhibits PSCaTs (IC50 = 111 nM) in neurons without stimulatory ADPbS responses (EC50 = 960 nM). ATP or a P2X1,2,2/3 (α,β-MeATP) agonist evokes fast, slow, biphasic Ca(2+) transients or Ca(2+) oscillations (ATP,EC50 = 400 mM). PSCaTs are sensitive to P2X1 antagonist NF279. Low (20 nM) or high (5 µM) concentrations of P2X antagonist TNP-ATP block PSCaTs in different neurons; proportions of neurons with P2XR-immunoreactivity follow the order P2X2 > P2X1 > P2X3; P2X1 + P2X2 and P2X3 + P2X2 are co-localized. RT-PCR identified mRNA-transcripts for P2X1-7, P2Y1,2,12-14R. Purines are critical regulators of neurotransmission in human ENS. Purinergic signaling involves P2X1, P2X2, P2X3 channels, P2X1 + P2X2 co-localization and inhibitory P2Y or A3 receptors. These are

  10. Acoustic and elastic properties of Sn2P2S6 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mys, O; Martynyuk-Lototska, I; Vlokh, R; Grabar, A

    2009-01-01

    We present the results concerned with acoustic and elastic properties of Sn 2 P 2 S 6 crystals. The complete matrices of elastic stiffness and compliance coefficients are determined in both the crystallographic coordinate system and the system associated with eigenvectors of the elastic stiffness tensor. The acoustic slowness surfaces are constructed and the propagation and polarization directions of the slowest acoustic waves promising for acousto-optic interactions are determined on this basis. The acoustic obliquity angle and the deviation of polarization of the acoustic waves from purely transverse or longitudinal states are quantitatively analysed.

  11. Acoustic and elastic properties of Sn(2)P(2)S(6) crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mys, O; Martynyuk-Lototska, I; Grabar, A; Vlokh, R

    2009-07-01

    We present the results concerned with acoustic and elastic properties of Sn(2)P(2)S(6) crystals. The complete matrices of elastic stiffness and compliance coefficients are determined in both the crystallographic coordinate system and the system associated with eigenvectors of the elastic stiffness tensor. The acoustic slowness surfaces are constructed and the propagation and polarization directions of the slowest acoustic waves promising for acousto-optic interactions are determined on this basis. The acoustic obliquity angle and the deviation of polarization of the acoustic waves from purely transverse or longitudinal states are quantitatively analysed.

  12. Network-Aware DHT-Based P2P Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayçal, Marguerite; Serhrouchni, Ahmed

    P2P networks lay over existing IP networks and infrastructure. This chapter investigates the relation between both layers, details the motivations for network awareness in P2P systems, and elucidates the requirements P2P systems have to meet for efficient network awareness. Since new P2P systems are mostly based on DHTs, we also present and analyse DHT-based architectures. And after a brief presentation of different existing network-awareness solutions, the chapter goes on effective cooperation between P2P traffic and network providers' business agreements, and introduces emerging DHT-based P2P systems that are network aware through a semantic defined for resource sharing. These new systems ensure also a certain context-awareness. So, they are analyzed and compared before an open end on prospects of network awareness in P2P systems.

  13. Risk Management of P2P Internet Financing Service Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalei, Li

    2017-09-01

    Since 2005, the world’s first P2P Internet financing service platform Zopa in UK was introduced, in the development of “Internet +” trend, P2P Internet financing service platform has been developed rapidly. In 2007, China’s first P2P platform “filming loan” was established, marking the P2P Internet financing service platform to enter China and the rapid development. At the same time, China’s P2P Internet financing service platform also appeared in different forms of risk. This paper focuses on the analysis of the causes of risk of P2P Internet financing service platform and the performance of risk management process. It provides a solution to the Internet risk management plan, and explains the risk management system of the whole P2P Internet financing service platform and the future development direction.

  14. P2X4: A fast and sensitive purinergic receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaanus Suurväli

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular nucleotides have been recognized as important mediators of activation, triggering multiple responses via plasma membrane receptors known as P2 receptors. P2 receptors comprise P2X ionotropic receptors and G protein-coupled P2Y receptors. P2X receptors are expressed in many tissues, where they are involved in a number of functions including synaptic transmission, muscle contraction, platelet aggregation, inflammation, macrophage activation, differentiation and proliferation, neuropathic and inflammatory pain. P2X4 is one of the most sensitive purinergic receptors (at nanomolar ATP concentrations, about one thousand times more than the archetypal P2X7. P2X4 is widely expressed in central and peripheral neurons, in microglia, and also found in various epithelial tissues and endothelial cells. It localizes on the plasma membrane, but also in intracellular compartments. P2X4 is preferentially localized in lysosomes, where it is protected from proteolysis by its glycosylation. High ATP concentration in the lysosomes does not activate P2X4 at low pH; P2X4 gets activated by intra-lysosomal ATP only in its fully dissociated tetra-anionic form, when the pH increases to 7.4. Thus, P2X4 is functioning as a Ca2+-channel after the fusion of late endosomes and lysosomes. P2X4 modulates major neurotransmitter systems and regulates alcohol-induced responses in microglia. P2X4 is one of the key receptors mediating neuropathic pain. However, injury-induced upregulation of P2X4 expression is gender dependent and plays a key role in pain difference between males and females. P2X4 is also involved in inflammation. Extracellular ATP being a pro-inflammatory molecule, P2X4 can trigger inflammation in response to high ATP release. It is therefore involved in multiple pathologies, like post-ischemic inflammation, rheumatoid arthritis, airways inflammation in asthma, neurodegenerative diseases and even metabolic syndrome. Although P2X4 remains poorly

  15. P2X1 receptors and the endothelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LS Harrington

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Adenosine triphosphate (ATP is now established as a principle vaso-active mediator in the vasculature. Its actions on arteries are complex, and are mediated by the P2X and P2Y receptor families. It is generally accepted that ATP induces a bi-phasic response in arteries, inducing contraction via the P2X and P2Y receptors on the smooth muscle cells, and vasodilation via the actions of P2Y receptors located on the endothelium. However, a number of recent studies have placed P2X1 receptors on the endothelium of some arteries. The use of a specific P2X1 receptor ligand, a, b methylene ATP has demonstrated that P2X1 receptors also have a bi-functional role. The actions of ATP on P2X1 receptors is therefore dependant on its location, inducing contraction when located on the smooth muscle cells, and dilation when expressed on the endothelium, comparable to that of P2Y receptors.

  16. 40 CFR 68.58 - Compliance audits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Program 2 Prevention Program § 68.58 Compliance audits. (a) The owner or... in the process. (c) The owner or operator shall develop a report of the audit findings. (d) The owner...

  17. 40 CFR 68.79 - Compliance audits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Program 3 Prevention Program § 68.79 Compliance audits. (a) The owner or... in the process. (c) A report of the findings of the audit shall be developed. (d) The owner or...

  18. Hyperglycemia-induced Renal P2X7 Receptor Activation Enhances Diabetes-related Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert I. Menzies

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a leading cause of renal disease. Glomerular mesangial expansion and fibrosis are hallmarks of diabetic nephropathy and this is thought to be promoted by infiltration of circulating macrophages. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 has been shown to attract macrophages in kidney diseases. P2X7 receptors (P2X7R are highly expressed on macrophages and are essential components of pro-inflammatory signaling in multiple tissues. Here we show that in diabetic patients, renal P2X7R expression is associated with severe mesangial expansion, impaired glomerular filtration (≤40 ml/min/1.73 sq. m., and increased interstitial fibrosis. P2X7R activation enhanced the release of MCP-1 in human mesangial cells cultured under high glucose conditions. In mice, P2X7R-deficiency prevented glomerular macrophage attraction and collagen IV deposition; however, the more severe interstitial inflammation and fibrosis often seen in human diabetic kidney diseases was not modelled. Finally, we demonstrate that a P2X7R inhibitor (AZ11657312 can reduce renal macrophage accrual following the establishment of hyperglycemia in a model of diabetic nephropathy. Collectively these data suggest that P2X7R activation may contribute to the high prevalence of kidney disease found in diabetics.

  19. Deadline Compliance Status Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — These monthly Deadline Compliance Status Reports assist Participating Jurisdictions and HUD Field Offices in monitoring compliance with the 2-year commitment and...

  20. (p,2p) experiments at the University of Maryland cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, P.G.

    1976-11-01

    Some of the (p,2p) work which has been carried out at the Maryland Cyclotron is discussed. A brief introduction to the (p,2p) reaction is presented, and the types of experimental techniques utilized in (p,2p) studies are discussed. A brief introduction is given to the various theoretical treatments presently available to analyze (p,2p) reaction data. Secondly, experimental and theoretical studies of (p,2p) on d, 3 He, and 4 He carried out by the Maryland group are presented. Thirdly, (p,2p) results are discussed for 6 Li, 7 Li, and 12 C at 100 MeV. Fourthly, the effects of distortion on the experimental data are considered by presenting theoretical calculations for 12 C and 40 Ca at various bombarding energies

  1. Cryptocurrency Networks: A New P2P Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi Delgado-Segura

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available P2P networks are the mechanism used by cryptocurrencies to disseminate system information while keeping the whole system as much decentralized as possible. Cryptocurrency P2P networks have new characteristics that propose new challenges and avoid some problems of existing P2P networks. By characterizing the most relevant cryptocurrency network, Bitcoin, we provide details on different properties of cryptocurrency networks and their similarities and differences with standard P2P network paradigms. Our study allows us to conclude that cryptocurrency networks present a new paradigm of P2P networks due to the mechanisms they use to achieve high resilience and security. With this new paradigm, interesting research lines can be further developed, both in the focused field of P2P cryptocurrency networks and also when such networks are combined with other distributed scenarios.

  2. Molecular mechanisms of platelet P2Y(12) receptor regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Margaret R; Nisar, Shaista P; Mundell, Stuart J

    2013-02-01

    Platelets are critical for haemostasis, however inappropriate activation can lead to the development of arterial thrombosis, which can result in heart attack and stroke. ADP is a key platelet agonist that exerts its actions via stimulation of two surface GPCRs (G-protein-coupled receptors), P2Y(1) and P2Y(12). Similar to most GPCRs, P2Y receptor activity is tightly regulated by a number of complex mechanisms including receptor desensitization, internalization and recycling. In the present article, we review the molecular mechanisms that underlie P2Y(1) and P2Y(12) receptor regulation, with particular emphasis on the structural motifs within the P2Y(12) receptor, which are required to maintain regulatory protein interaction. The implications of these findings for platelet responsiveness are also discussed.

  3. Streamlining Compliance Validation Through Automation Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK xv LIST OF ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS ACAS Assured Compliance Assessment Suite AMP Apache- MySQL -PHP ANSI American...enemy. Of course , a common standard for DoD security personnel to write and share compliance validation content would prevent duplicate work and aid in...process and consume much of the SCAP content available. Finally, it is free and easy to install as part of the Apache/ MySQL /PHP (AMP) [37

  4. Supporting Collaboration and Creativity Through Mobile P2P Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzbicki, Adam; Datta, Anwitaman; Żaczek, Łukasz; Rzadca, Krzysztof

    Among many potential applications of mobile P2P systems, collaboration applications are among the most prominent. Examples of applications such as Groove (although not intended for mobile networks), collaboration tools for disaster recovery (the WORKPAD project), and Skype's collaboration extensions, all demonstrate the potential of P2P collaborative applications. Yet, the development of such applications for mobile P2P systems is still difficult because of the lack of middleware.

  5. Hanford site guide for preparing and maintaining generator group pollution prevention program documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    This manual provides the necessary guidance to contractor generator groups for developing and maintaining documentation of their pollution prevention (P2) program activities. Preparation of program documentation will demonstrate compliance with contractor and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requirements, as well as state and federal regulations. Contractor waste generator groups are no longer required to prepare and update facility waste minimization plans. Developing and maintaining program documentation replace this requirement

  6. Controlling P2P File-Sharing Networks Traffic

    OpenAIRE

    García Pineda, Miguel; HAMMOUMI, MOHAMMED; Canovas Solbes, Alejandro; Lloret, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    Since the appearance of Peer-To-Peer (P2P) file-sharing networks some time ago, many Internet users have chosen this technology to share and search programs, videos, music, documents, etc. The total number of P2P file-sharing users has been increasing and decreasing in the last decade depending on the creation or end of some well known P2P file-sharing systems. P2P file-sharing networks traffic is currently overloading some data networks and it is a major headache for netw...

  7. ZrCu2P2 and HfCu2P2 phosphides and their crystal structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomnitskaya, Ya.F.

    1986-01-01

    Isostructural ZrCu 2 P 2 and HfCu 2 P 2 compounds are prepared for the first time. X-ray diffraction analysis (of powder, DRON-2.0 diffractometer, FeKsub(α) radiation) was used to study crystal structure of HfCu 2 P 2 phosphide belonging to the CaAl 2 Si 2 structural type (sp. group P anti 3 m 1, R=0.095). Lattice parameters the compounds are as follows: for ZrCu 2 P 2 a=0.3810(1), c=0.6184(5); for HfCu 2 P 2 a=0.3799(1), c=0.6160(2) (nm). Atomic parameters in the HfCu 2 P 2 structure and interatomic distances are determined

  8. Neuropharmacology of Purinergic Receptors in Human Submucous Plexus: Involvement of P2X1, P2X2, P2X3 Channels, P2Y and A3 Metabotropic Receptors in Neurotransmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liñán-Rico, A.; Wunderlich, JE.; Enneking, JT.; Tso, DR.; Grants, I.; Williams, KC.; Otey, A.; Michel, K.; Schemann, M.; Needleman, B.; Harzman, A.; Christofi, FL.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale The role of purinergic signaling in the human ENS is not well understood. We sought to further characterize the neuropharmacology of purinergic receptors in human ENS and test the hypothesis that endogenous purines are critical regulators of neurotransmission. Experimental Approach LSCM-Fluo-4-(Ca2+)-imaging of postsynaptic Ca2+ transients (PSCaTs) was used as a reporter of neural activity. Synaptic transmission was evoked by fiber tract electrical stimulation in human SMP surgical preparations. Pharmacological analysis of purinergic signaling was done in 1,556 neurons from 234 separate ganglia 107 patients; immunochemical labeling for P2XRs of neurons in ganglia from 19 patients. Real-time MSORT (Di-8-ANEPPS) imaging was used to test effects of adenosine on fast excitatory synaptic potentials (fEPSPs). Results Synaptic transmission is sensitive to pharmacological manipulations that alter accumulation of extracellular purines. Apyrase blocks PSCaTs in a majority of neurons. An ecto-NTPDase-inhibitor 6-N,N-diethyl-D-β,γ-dibromomethyleneATP or adenosine deaminase augments PSCaTs. Blockade of reuptake/deamination of eADO inhibits PSCaTs. Adenosine inhibits fEPSPs and PSCaTs (IC50=25μM), sensitive to MRS1220-antagonism (A3AR). A P2Y agonist ADPβS inhibits PSCaTs (IC50=111nM) in neurons without stimulatory ADPβS responses (EC50=960nM). ATP or a P2X1,2,2/3 (α,β-MeATP) agonist evokes fast, slow, biphasic Ca2+ transients or Ca2+ oscillations (EC50=400μM). PSCaTs are sensitive to P2X1 antagonist NF279. Low (20nM) or high (5μM) concentrations of P2X antagonist TNP-ATP block PSCaTs in different neurons; proportions of neurons with P2XR-ir follow the order P2X2>P2X1≫P2X3; P2X1+ P2X2 and P2X3+P2X2 are co-localized. RT-PCR identified mRNA-transcripts for P2X1-7,P2Y1,2,12-14R. Responsive neurons were also identified by HuC/D-ir. Conclusions Purines are critical regulators of neurotransmission in the human enteric nervous system. Purinergic signaling involves

  9. Resource trade-off in P2P streaming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alhaisoni, M.; Liotta, A.; Ghanbari, M.

    2009-01-01

    P2P TV has emerged as a powerful alternative solution for multimedia streaming over the traditional client-server paradigm. It has proven to be a valid substitute for online applications which offer video-on-demand and real-time video. This is mainly due to the scalability and resiliency that P2P

  10. Corporate compliance: framework and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, N

    1999-01-01

    The federal government has created numerous programs to combat fraud and abuse. The government now encourages healthcare facilities to have a corporate compliance program (CCP), a plan that reduces the chances that the facility will violate laws or regulations. A CCP is an organization-wide program comprised of a code of conduct and written policies, internal monitoring and auditing standards, employee training, feedback mechanisms and other features, all designed to prevent and detect violations of governmental laws, regulations and policies. It is a system or method ensuring that employees understand and will comply with laws that apply to what they do every day. Seven factors, based on federal sentencing guidelines, provide the framework for developing a CCP. First, a facility must establish rules that are reasonably capable of reducing criminal conduct. Second, high-level personnel must oversee the compliance effort. Third, a facility must use due care in delegating authority in the compliance initiative. Fourth, standards must be communicated effectively to employees, and fifth, a facility must take reasonable steps to achieve compliance. Sixth, standards must be enforced consistently across the organization and last, standards must be modified or changed for reported concerns, to ensure they are not repeated. PROMINA Health System, Inc. in Atlanta, Ga., designed a program to meet federal guidelines. It started with a self-assessment to define its areas or risk. Next, it created the internal structure and assigned organizational responsibility for running the CCP. PROMINA then developed standards of business and professional conduct, established vehicles of communication and trained employees on the standards. Finally, it continues to develop evidence of the program's effectiveness by monitoring and documenting its compliance activities.

  11. P2Y2 and P2Y4 receptors regulate pancreatic Ca²+-activated K+ channels differently

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klærke, Susanne Edeling Hede; Amstrup, Jan; Klærke, Dan Arne

    2005-01-01

    Extracellular ATP is an important regulator of transepithelial transport in a number of tissues. In pancreatic ducts, we have shown that ATP modulates epithelial K+ channels via purinergic receptors, most likely the P2Y2 and P2Y4 receptors, but the identity of the involved K+ channels was not cle...

  12. Purinergní P2X rodina a specifické vlastnosti P2X7 podtypu

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jindřichová, Marie; Zemková, Hana

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 2 (2013), s. 40-46 ISSN 1210-6313 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GPP304/12/P371 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : extracellular ATP * purinergic P2X family * P2X7 receptor * cell proliferation and apoptosis Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  13. Environmental Restoration Contractor Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, R.A.

    1994-11-01

    The purpose of this plan is to establish the Environmental Restoration Contractor (ERC) Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention (WMin/P2) Program and outline the activities and schedules that will be employed to reduce the quantity and toxicity of wastes generated as a result of restoration and remediation activities. It is intended to satisfy the US Department of Energy (DOE) and other legal requirements. As such, the Pollution Prevention Awareness program required by DOE Order 5400.1 is included with the Pollution Prevention Program. This plan is also intended to aid projects in meeting and documenting compliance with the various requirements for WMin/P2, and contains the policy, objectives, strategy, and support activities of the WMin/P2 program. The basic elements of the plan are pollution prevention goals, waste assessments of major waste streams, implementation of feasible waste minimization opportunities, and a process for reporting achievements. Various pollution prevention techniques will be implemented with the support of employee training and awareness programs to reduce waste and still meet applicable requirements. Information about the Hanford Site is in the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan

  14. Synergistic action between inhibition of P2Y12/P2Y1 and P2Y12/thrombin in ADP- and thrombin-induced human platelet activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nylander, Sven; Mattsson, Christer; Ramström, Sofia; Lindahl, Tomas L

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate if there is a synergistic effect of a combination of P2Y12 and P2Y1 inhibition and P2Y12 and thrombin inhibition, on ADP- and thrombin-induced platelet activation, respectively. The rationale being that these combinations will cause a concurrent inhibition of both Gαq and Gαi signalling.Blood from healthy volunteers was preincubated with AR-C69931MX, a reversible P2Y12 antagonist; MRS2179, a reversible P2Y1 antagonist; or melagatran, a direct reversible thrombin inhibitor; alone or in various combinations prior to activation with ADP or thrombin. Platelet function in whole blood was assessed by flow cytometry using the antibody PAC-1 to estimate the expression of active αIIbβ3 (the fibrinogen receptor GPIIb/IIIa). A synergistic effect was evaluated by comparing the concentrations in the different combinations with those of corresponding equipotent concentrations of each single inhibitor alone. The equipotent single concentrations were experimentally obtained from concentration response curves performed in parallel.A synergistic effect regarding inhibition of ADP-induced platelet activation (10 μM) was obtained with different combinations of AR-C69931MX and MRS2179.Inhibition of thrombin-induced platelet activation (2 nM) with combinations of AR-C69931MX and the thrombin inhibitor melagatran did also result in a strong synergistic effect.To our knowledge, this is the first time that data supporting a synergistic effect has been published for the inhibitor combinations described.Whether this synergistic effect in vitro also results in an improved antithrombotic effect in vivo with or without an increased risk of bleeding remains to be studied in well-conducted clinical studies. PMID:15265806

  15. PPADS: an antagonist at endothelial P2Y-purinoceptors but not P2U-purinoceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C; Tanna, B; Boarder, M R

    1995-11-01

    1. Bovine aortic endothelial (BAE) cells contain two co-existing receptors for extracellular ATP, the P2Y and P2U-purinoceptors. Here we have determined whether the proposed P2X-purinoceptor antagonist, pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2', 4'-disulphonic acid (PPADS) could distinguish between these two receptor subtypes. 2. Cells labelled with myo-[2-3H]-inositol were stimulated with increasing concentrations of either the P2Y-agonist, 2MeSATP, or the P2U-agonist, UTP in the absence or presence of 30 microM PPADS. The accumulation of total [3H]-inositol (poly)phosphates mediated by 2MeSATP was markedly attenuated by PPADS, whereas the response to UTP was not significantly affected. 3. Stimulation of BAE cells with increasing concentrations of ATP showed a reduced response in the presence of 10 microM PPADS, but this effect of the antagonist was not significant. By contrast, inhibition of the response to ADP was profound and highly significant. 4. These observations show that PPADS is not a selective P2X-purinoceptor antagonist, but is able to distinguish between P2Y- and P2YU-purinoceptors in BAE cells, and indicate that this compound may provide a useful tool in the study of multiple subtypes of P2-purinoceptors. Furthermore the results are consistent with the hypothesis that ATP interacts with both receptor subtypes, but that the action of ADP is primarily at the P2Y-purinoceptor in these endothelial cells.

  16. The role of P2X receptors in bone biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, N R; Syberg, S; Ellegaard, M

    2015-01-01

    receptors regulate bone metabolism and especially for the P2X7 receptor an impressive amount of evidence has now documented its expression in osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteocytes as well as important functional roles in proliferation, differentiation, and function of the cells of bone. Key evidence has...... come from studies on murine knockout models and from pharmacologic studies on cells and animals. More recently, the role of P2X receptors in human bone diseases has been documented. Loss-of-functions polymorphisms in the P2X7 receptorare associated with bone loss and increased fracture risk. Very...

  17. Comparing Pedophile Activity in Different P2P Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Raphaël Fournier; Thibault Cholez; Matthieu Latapy; Isabelle Chrisment; Clémence Magnien; Olivier Festor; Ivan Daniloff

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Peer-to-peer (P2P) systems are widely used to exchange content over the Internet. Knowledge of pedophile activity in such networks remains limited, despite having important social consequences. Moreover, though there are different P2P systems in use, previous academic works on this topic focused on one system at a time and their results are not directly comparable. We design a methodology for comparing KAD and eDonkey, two P2P systems among the most prominent ones and ...

  18. P2X receptors, sensory neurons and pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bele, Tanja; Fabbretti, Elsa

    2015-01-01

    Pain represents a very large social and clinical problem since the current treatment provides insufficient pain relief. Plasticity of pain receptors together with sensitisation of sensory neurons, and the role of soluble mediators released from non-neuronal cells render difficult to understand the spatial and temporal scale of pain development, neuronal responses and disease progression. In pathological conditions, ATP is one of the most powerful mediators that activates P2X receptors that behave as sensitive ATP-detectors, such as neuronal P2X3 receptor subtypes and P2X4 and P2X7 receptors expressed on non-neuronal cells. Dissecting the molecular mechanisms occurring in sensory neurons and in accessory cells allows to design appropriate tissue- and cell- targeted approaches to treat chronic pain.

  19. Mapping Tax Compliance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Tax compliance denotes the act of reporting and paying taxes in accordance with the tax laws. Current social science scholarship on tax compliance can almost entirely be divided into behavioural psychology analyses and critical tax studies. This article, which presents two cases of how tax...... compliance is constructed, challenges the explanatory reaches of today's social science approaches, arguing that an alternative approach to understanding tax compliance is worthwhile exploring. This other choice of approach, inspired by actor–network theory (ANT), adopts a more practice-oriented focus...... that studies tax compliance where it takes place as well as what it is made of. Consequently, this article argues that tax compliance is a socio-material assemblage and that complying is a distributed action. The article concludes by highlighting how an ANT approach contributes to the further theoretical...

  20. The P2X7 Receptor Supports Both Life and Death in Fibrogenic Pancreatic Stellate Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haanes, Kristian; Schwab, Albrecht; Novak, Ivana

    2012-01-01

    The pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) have complex roles in pancreas, including tissue repair and fibrosis. PSCs surround ATP releasing exocrine cells, but little is known about purinergic receptors and their function in PSCs. Our aim was to resolve whether PSCs express the multifunctional P2X7...... versions of the receptor. In culture, the proliferation rate of the KO PSCs was significantly lower. Inclusion of apyrase reduced the proliferation rate in both WT and KO PSCs, indicating importance of endogenous ATP. Exogenous ATP had a two-sided effect. Proliferation of both WT and KO cells...... inhibitor az10606120. The P2X7 receptor-pore inhibitor A438079 partially prevented cell death induced by millimolar ATP concentrations. This study shows that ATP and P2X7 receptors are important regulators of PSC proliferation and death, and therefore might be potential targets for treatments of pancreatic...

  1. Tetravalent one-regular graphs of order 4p2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Yan-Quan; Kutnar, Klavdija; Marusic, Dragan

    2014-01-01

    A graph is one-regular if its automorphism group acts regularly on the set of its arcs. In this paper tetravalent one-regular graphs of order 4p2, where p is a prime, are classified.......A graph is one-regular if its automorphism group acts regularly on the set of its arcs. In this paper tetravalent one-regular graphs of order 4p2, where p is a prime, are classified....

  2. Meeting of the ITER SWG-P2 in Vienna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinkau, K.; Kishimoto, H.

    1999-01-01

    The Special Working Group established under Protocol 2 to the ITER IDA Agreement (SWG-P2) met at the IAEA in Vienna in 6-9 December 1999. This report contains excerpts from the report of the ITER SWG-P2 to the ITER Council on the Joint Implementation of ITER, detailing benefits, contributions, the legal framework, siting, licensing and decommissioning as well as procurement, staffing and intellectual property rights

  3. The role of P2X receptors in bone biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, N R; Syberg, S; Ellegaard, M

    2015-01-01

    Bone is a highly dynamic organ, being constantly modeled and remodeled in order to adapt to the changing need throughout life. Bone turnover involves the coordinated actions of bone formation and bone degradation. Over the past decade great effort has been put into the examination of how P2X receptors regulate bone metabolism and especially for the P2X7 receptor an impressive amount of evidence has now documented its expression in osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteocytes as well as important functional roles in proliferation, differentiation, and function of the cells of bone. Key evidence has come from studies on murine knockout models and from pharmacologic studies on cells and animals. More recently, the role of P2X receptors in human bone diseases has been documented. Loss-of-functions polymorphisms in the P2X7 receptorare associated with bone loss and increased fracture risk. Very recently a report from a genetic study in multiple myeloma demonstrated that decreased P2X7 receptor function was associated with increased risk of developing multiple myeloma. In contrast, the risk of developing myeloma bone disease and subsequent vertebral fractures was increased in subjects carrying P2X7 receptor gain-of-function alleles as compared to subjects only carrying loss-of-function or normal functioning alleles. It is evident that P2X receptors are important in regulating bone turnover and maintaining bone mass, and thereby holding great potential as novel drug targets for treatment of bone diseases. However, further research is needed before we fully understand the roles and effects of P2X receptors in bone.

  4. Data Sharing in DHT Based P2P Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncancio, Claudia; Del Pilar Villamil, María; Labbé, Cyril; Serrano-Alvarado, Patricia

    The evolution of peer-to-peer (P2P) systems triggered the building of large scale distributed applications. The main application domain is data sharing across a very large number of highly autonomous participants. Building such data sharing systems is particularly challenging because of the “extreme” characteristics of P2P infrastructures: massive distribution, high churn rate, no global control, potentially untrusted participants... This article focuses on declarative querying support, query optimization and data privacy on a major class of P2P systems, that based on Distributed Hash Table (P2P DHT). The usual approaches and the algorithms used by classic distributed systems and databases for providing data privacy and querying services are not well suited to P2P DHT systems. A considerable amount of work was required to adapt them for the new challenges such systems present. This paper describes the most important solutions found. It also identifies important future research trends in data management in P2P DHT systems.

  5. P2P Data Management in Mobile Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nida Sahar Sayeda

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth in wireless technologies has made wireless communication an important source for transporting data across different domains. In the same way, there are possibilities of many potential applications that can be deployed using WSNs (Wireless Sensor Networks. However, very limited applications are deployed in real life due to the uncertainty and dynamics of the environment and scare resources. This makes data management in WSN a challenging area to find an approach that suits its characteristics. Currently, the trend is to find efficient data management schemes using evolving technologies, i.e. P2P (Peer-to-Peer systems. Many P2P approaches have been applied in WSNs to carry out the data management due to similarities between WSN and P2P. With the similarities, there are differences too that makes P2P protocols inefficient in WSNs. Furthermore, to increase the efficiency and to exploit the delay tolerant nature of WSNs, where ever possible, the mobile WSNs are gaining importance. Thus, creating a three dimensional problem space to consider, i.e. mobility, WSNs and P2P. In this paper, an efficient algorithm is proposed for data management using P2P techniques for mobile WSNs. The real world implementation and deployment of proposed algorithm is also presented

  6. Accelerated FoxP2 evolution in echolocating bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Li

    Full Text Available FOXP2 is a transcription factor implicated in the development and neural control of orofacial coordination, particularly with respect to vocalisation. Observations that orthologues show almost no variation across vertebrates yet differ by two amino acids between humans and chimpanzees have led to speculation that recent evolutionary changes might relate to the emergence of language. Echolocating bats face especially challenging sensorimotor demands, using vocal signals for orientation and often for prey capture. To determine whether mutations in the FoxP2 gene could be associated with echolocation, we sequenced FoxP2 from echolocating and non-echolocating bats as well as a range of other mammal species. We found that contrary to previous reports, FoxP2 is not highly conserved across all nonhuman mammals but is extremely diverse in echolocating bats. We detected divergent selection (a change in selective pressure at FoxP2 between bats with contrasting sonar systems, suggesting the intriguing possibility of a role for FoxP2 in the evolution and development of echolocation. We speculate that observed accelerated evolution of FoxP2 in bats supports a previously proposed function in sensorimotor coordination.

  7. Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment for the SNL/NM cafeterias.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCord, Samuel Adam

    2005-12-01

    This Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (PPOA) was conducted for the two Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico cafeteria facilities between May and August 2005. The primary purpose of this PPOA is to assess waste and resource reduction opportunities and issue Pollution Prevention (P2) recommendations for Sandia's food service facilities. This PPOA contains recommendations for energy, water and resource reduction, as well as material substitution based upon environmentally preferable purchasing. Division 3000 has requested the PPOA report as part of the Division's compliance effort to implement the Environmental Management System (EMS) per DOE Order 450.1. This report contains a summary of the information collected and analyses performed with recommended options for implementation. The SNL/NM P2 Group will work with Division 3000 and the respective cafeteria facilities to implement these options.

  8. CHILDHOOD BLOOD LEAD LEVELS NOT AFFECTED BY HOUSING COMPLIANCE STATUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a secondary analysis of data from the Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program of Philadelphia (July 1, 1999 through September 1, 2004), the authors evaluated the effect of housing compliance status and time to achieve compliance on changes in children's blood lead levels. ...

  9. Determinants of Default in P2P Lending.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Serrano-Cinca

    Full Text Available This paper studies P2P lending and the factors explaining loan default. This is an important issue because in P2P lending individual investors bear the credit risk, instead of financial institutions, which are experts in dealing with this risk. P2P lenders suffer a severe problem of information asymmetry, because they are at a disadvantage facing the borrower. For this reason, P2P lending sites provide potential lenders with information about borrowers and their loan purpose. They also assign a grade to each loan. The empirical study is based on loans' data collected from Lending Club (N = 24,449 from 2008 to 2014 that are first analyzed by using univariate means tests and survival analysis. Factors explaining default are loan purpose, annual income, current housing situation, credit history and indebtedness. Secondly, a logistic regression model is developed to predict defaults. The grade assigned by the P2P lending site is the most predictive factor of default, but the accuracy of the model is improved by adding other information, especially the borrower's debt level.

  10. Determinants of Default in P2P Lending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Cinca, Carlos; Gutiérrez-Nieto, Begoña; López-Palacios, Luz

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies P2P lending and the factors explaining loan default. This is an important issue because in P2P lending individual investors bear the credit risk, instead of financial institutions, which are experts in dealing with this risk. P2P lenders suffer a severe problem of information asymmetry, because they are at a disadvantage facing the borrower. For this reason, P2P lending sites provide potential lenders with information about borrowers and their loan purpose. They also assign a grade to each loan. The empirical study is based on loans' data collected from Lending Club (N = 24,449) from 2008 to 2014 that are first analyzed by using univariate means tests and survival analysis. Factors explaining default are loan purpose, annual income, current housing situation, credit history and indebtedness. Secondly, a logistic regression model is developed to predict defaults. The grade assigned by the P2P lending site is the most predictive factor of default, but the accuracy of the model is improved by adding other information, especially the borrower's debt level.

  11. Choices that increase compliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, P.R.

    1991-01-01

    A compliance model is developed and tested using a survey of corporate officials and the regulatory arena of equal employment opportunity. Findings support the economic model of compliance in its conclusion that probability of detection and probable level of sanctions influence compliance decisions. Results also indicate that adjustments to the model that account for bounded rationality are valid. The key outcome, however, is that although all types of investigations play some role in enhancing compliance, those that stress sanctions and thus severity rather than certainty of detection may have the greatest positive influence on compliance. Enforcement programs attempting to operate simply as investigators of small-scale complaints will have less success than those with different types of investigations or a balanced type of single investigation. The results also suggest a more complex cognitive process on the part of regulated individuals than initially theorized. 34 refs., 3 tabs

  12. Probing the parameters of the HAT-P-2 system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Elizabeth; Naoz, Smadar; Batygin, Konstantin

    2018-04-01

    The HAT-P-2 system contributes an exceptional set of parameters to the exoplanetary inventory. HAT-P-2b weighs in at approximately 9 Jupiter masses, residing on one of the most eccentric, close-in orbits of any hot Jupiter (e~0.5, a~0.07). The identification of an RV trend points to the existence of an additional, long-period companion, which may have facilitated Kozai-Lidov cycles in the system over its multi-Gyr history. The well-constrained parameters of HAT-P-2b present an opportunity to predict the parameters of the perturber, and furthermore, to assess the tidal dissipation involved in the system's evolution. In this work, we employ an octupole-level secular model to account for the interaction of the two massive planets, thus classifying the system's deviations away from purely quadrupolar dynamics.

  13. Mobile P2P Web Services Using SIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Gehlen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Telecommunication networks and the Internet are growing together. Peer-to-Peer (P2P services which are originally offered by network providers, like telephony and messaging, are provided through VoIP and Instant Messaging (IM by Internet service providers, too. The IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS is the answer of the telecommunication industry to this trend and aims at providing Internet P2P and multimedia services controlled by the network operators. The IMS provides mobility and session management as well as message routing, security, and billing.

  14. Compliance with RSV prophylaxis: Global physicians’ perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari S Anderson

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Kari S Anderson, Victoria M Mullally, Linda M Fredrick, Andrew L CampbellAbbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL, USAAbstract: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is a significant cause of morbidity in high-risk infants. Palivizumab is proven to prevent serious RSV disease, but compliance with prophylaxis (monthly doses during the RSV season is essential to ensure protection. We invited 453 pediatricians to participate in a survey to identify their perspectives of barriers to compliance and interventions to improve compliance with palivizumab prophylaxis schedules. One hundred physicians from five continents completed the survey, identifying caregiver inconvenience, distance to clinic, cost of prophylaxis, and lack of understanding of the severity of RSV as the most common reasons for noncompliance. They recommended provision of educational materials about RSV, reminders from hospital or clinic, and administration of prophylaxis at home to increase compliance. Globally, physicians recognize several obstacles to prophylaxis compliance. This survey suggests that focused proactive interventions such as empowering caregivers with educational materials and reducing caregiver inconvenience may be instrumental to increase compliance.Keywords: medication adherence, respiratory syncytial virus infections, infant, premature, immunization, passive

  15. Compliance and Enforcement Actions (CEA) -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Compliance and Enforcement Actions application provides process assistance / improvements for conducting investigation and enforcement activities. The Compliance and...

  16. P2X receptor channels in endocrine glands

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stojilkovic, S. S.; Zemková, Hana

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 4 (2013), s. 173-180 ISSN 2190-460X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : ATP * purinergic P2X receptor channels * pituitary * endocrine glands Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  17. The P2P approach to interorganizational workflows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Weske, M.H.; Dittrich, K.R.; Geppert, A.; Norrie, M.C.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes in an informal way the Public-To-Private (P2P) approach to interorganizational workflows, which is based on a notion of inheritance. The approach consists of three steps: (1) create a common understanding of the interorganizational workflow by specifying a shared public

  18. Measurement and Analysis of P2P IPTV Program Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxian Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of P2P technology, P2P IPTV applications have received more and more attention. And program resource distribution is very important to P2P IPTV applications. In order to collect IPTV program resources, a distributed multi-protocol crawler is proposed. And the crawler has collected more than 13 million pieces of information of IPTV programs from 2009 to 2012. In addition, the distribution of IPTV programs is independent and incompact, resulting in chaos of program names, which obstructs searching and organizing programs. Thus, we focus on characteristic analysis of program resources, including the distributions of length of program names, the entropy of the character types, and hierarchy depth of programs. These analyses reveal the disorderly naming conventions of P2P IPTV programs. The analysis results can help to purify and extract useful information from chaotic names for better retrieval and accelerate automatic sorting of program and establishment of IPTV repository. In order to represent popularity of programs and to predict user behavior and popularity of hot programs over a period, we also put forward an analytical model of hot programs.

  19. Measurement and analysis of P2P IPTV program resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenxian; Chen, Xingshu; Wang, Haizhou; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of P2P technology, P2P IPTV applications have received more and more attention. And program resource distribution is very important to P2P IPTV applications. In order to collect IPTV program resources, a distributed multi-protocol crawler is proposed. And the crawler has collected more than 13 million pieces of information of IPTV programs from 2009 to 2012. In addition, the distribution of IPTV programs is independent and incompact, resulting in chaos of program names, which obstructs searching and organizing programs. Thus, we focus on characteristic analysis of program resources, including the distributions of length of program names, the entropy of the character types, and hierarchy depth of programs. These analyses reveal the disorderly naming conventions of P2P IPTV programs. The analysis results can help to purify and extract useful information from chaotic names for better retrieval and accelerate automatic sorting of program and establishment of IPTV repository. In order to represent popularity of programs and to predict user behavior and popularity of hot programs over a period, we also put forward an analytical model of hot programs.

  20. Comparing Pedophile Activity in Different P2P Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaël Fournier

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Peer-to-peer (P2P systems are widely used to exchange content over the Internet. Knowledge of pedophile activity in such networks remains limited, despite having important social consequences. Moreover, though there are different P2P systems in use, previous academic works on this topic focused on one system at a time and their results are not directly comparable. We design a methodology for comparing KAD and eDonkey, two P2P systems among the most prominent ones and with different anonymity levels. We monitor two eDonkey servers and the KAD network during several days and record hundreds of thousands of keyword-based queries. We detect pedophile-related queries with a previously validated tool and we propose, for the first time, a large-scale comparison of pedophile activity in two different P2P systems. We conclude that there are significantly fewer pedophile queries in KAD than in eDonkey (approximately 0.09% vs. 0.25%.

  1. P2X(3) receptor gating near normal body temperature

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kmyhz, V.; Maximyuk, O.; Teslenko, V.; Verkhratsky, Alexei; Krishtal, O.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 456, č. 12 (2008), s. 339-347 ISSN 0031-6768 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : P2X3 receptors * Temperature-sensitivity * Gating Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.526, year: 2008

  2. Evidence for requirement of tyrosine phosphorylation in endothelial P2Y- and P2U- purinoceptor stimulation of prostacyclin release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, A.; Patel, V.; Brown, C.; Boarder, M. R.

    1995-01-01

    1. The release of prostacyclin (PGI2) from vascular endothelial cells is stimulated by ATP acting at G protein-coupled P2-purinoceptors. Here we investigate the hypothesis that tyrosine protein phosphorylations are involved in this response. 2. The use of Western blots with anti-phosphotyrosine antibodies showed that 30 microM 2MeSATP (selective for P2Y-purinoceptors), 300 microM UTP (selective for P2U-purinoceptors) and 300 microM ATP (effective at both these purinoceptors), each stimulate the tyrosine phosphorylation of proteins in bovine cultured aortic endothelial cells. Each of these agonists also stimulates 6-keto PGF1 alpha accumulation in the medium (an index of PGI2 release) in these cells in the same period. 3. The tyrosine kinase inhibitor, genistein, inhibits the 6-keto PGF1 alpha response with the same concentration-dependency (1-100 microM) as the tyrosine phosphorylation response. 4. Tyrphostin, a structurally and functionally distinct tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is also a potent inhibitor (0.1-10 microM) of the 6-keto PGF1 alpha response. 5. Neither tyrphostin nor genistein inhibit the phospholipase C response to P2-purinoceptor stimulation. Furthermore, these inhibitors do not affect the 6-keto PGF1 alpha response to ionomycin. 6. These results show that the regulation of vascular endothelial cells by ATP acting at both P2Y- and P2U-purinoceptors involves the stimulation of tyrosine phosphorylation, and suggest that this is a necessary event for the purinoceptor-mediated stimulation of PGI2 production. Images Figure 1 Figure 5 PMID:8590971

  3. Regulatory Enforcement and Compliance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Peter J.; Winter, Søren

    1999-01-01

    This study of municipal enforcement of agro-environmental regulations in Denmark provides an empirical understanding of how enforcement affects compliance. A key contribution is sorting out the relative influence of inspectors' different styles of enforcement and choices made by enforcement...... agencies. The latter are shown to be more important in bringing about compliance than are inspectors' enforcement styles. Municipal agencies are shown to increase compliance through the use of third parties, more frequent inspection, and setting priorities for inspection of major items. The findings about...

  4. 28 CFR 73.4 - Partial compliance not deemed compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Partial compliance not deemed compliance. 73.4 Section 73.4 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) NOTIFICATIONS TO THE ATTORNEY GENERAL BY AGENTS OF FOREIGN GOVERNMENTS § 73.4 Partial compliance not deemed compliance. The fact...

  5. Structural basis for subtype-specific inhibition of the P2X7 receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karasawa, Akira; Kawate, Toshimitsu (Cornell)

    2016-12-09

    The P2X7 receptor is a non-selective cation channel activated by extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Chronic activation of P2X7 underlies many health problems such as pathologic pain, yet we lack effective antagonists due to poorly understood mechanisms of inhibition. Here we present crystal structures of a mammalian P2X7 receptor complexed with five structurally-unrelated antagonists. Unexpectedly, these drugs all bind to an allosteric site distinct from the ATP-binding pocket in a groove formed between two neighboring subunits. This novel drug-binding pocket accommodates a diversity of small molecules mainly through hydrophobic interactions. Functional assays propose that these compounds allosterically prevent narrowing of the drug-binding pocket and the turret-like architecture during channel opening, which is consistent with a site of action distal to the ATP-binding pocket. These novel mechanistic insights will facilitate the development of P2X7-specific drugs for treating human diseases.

  6. Environmental Compliance Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-02-01

    The Guide is intended to assist Department of Energy personnel by providing information on the NEPA process, the processes of other environmental statutes that bear on the NEPA process, the timing relationships between the NEPA process and these other processes, as well as timing relationships between the NEPA process and the development process for policies, programs, and projects. This information should be helpful not only in formulating environmental compliance plans but also in achieving compliance with NEPA and various other environmental statutes. The Guide is divided into three parts with related appendices: Part I provides guidance for developing environmental compliance plans for DOE actions; Part II is devoted to NEPA with detailed flowcharts depicting the compliance procedures required by CEQ regulations and Department of Energy NEPA Guidelines; and Part III contains a series of flowcharts for other Federal environmental requirements that may apply to DOE projects

  7. 340 Facility compliance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    English, S.L.

    1993-10-01

    This study provides an environmental compliance evaluation of the RLWS and the RPS systems of the 340 Facility. The emphasis of the evaluation centers on compliance with WAC requirements for hazardous and mixed waste facilities, federal regulations, and Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) requirements pertinent to the operation of the 340 Facility. The 340 Facility is not covered under either an interim status Part A permit or a RCRA Part B permit. The detailed discussion of compliance deficiencies are summarized in Section 2.0. This includes items of significance that require action to ensure facility compliance with WAC, federal regulations, and WHC requirements. Outstanding issues exist for radioactive airborne effluent sampling and monitoring, radioactive liquid effluent sampling and monitoring, non-radioactive liquid effluent sampling and monitoring, less than 90 day waste storage tanks, and requirements for a permitted facility

  8. Environmental Compliance Issue Coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    An order to establish the Department of Energy (DOE) requirements for coordination of significant environmental compliance issues to ensure timely development and consistent application of Departmental environmental policy and guidance

  9. Environmental Compliance Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-02-01

    The Guide is intended to assist Department of Energy personnel by providing information on the NEPA process, the processes of other environmental statutes that bear on the NEPA process, the timing relationships between the NEPA process and these other processes, as well as timing relationships between the NEPA process and the development process for policies, programs, and projects. This information should be helpful not only in formulating environmental compliance plans but also in achieving compliance with NEPA and various other environmental statutes. The Guide is divided into three parts with related appendices: Part I provides guidance for developing environmental compliance plans for DOE actions; Part II is devoted to NEPA with detailed flowcharts depicting the compliance procedures required by CEQ regulations and Department of Energy NEPA Guidelines; and Part III contains a series of flowcharts for other Federal environmental requirements that may apply to DOE projects.

  10. P2X1 Receptor Antagonists Inhibit HIV-1 Fusion by Blocking Virus-Coreceptor Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroud, Charline; Marin, Mariana; Hammonds, Jason; Spearman, Paul; Melikyan, Gregory B

    2015-09-01

    HIV-1 Env glycoprotein-mediated fusion is initiated upon sequential binding of Env to CD4 and the coreceptor CXCR4 or CCR5. Whereas these interactions are thought to be necessary and sufficient to promote HIV-1 fusion, other host factors can modulate this process. Previous studies reported potent inhibition of HIV-1 fusion by selective P2X1 receptor antagonists, including NF279, and suggested that these receptors play a role in HIV-1 entry. Here we investigated the mechanism of antiviral activity of NF279 and found that this compound does not inhibit HIV-1 fusion by preventing the activation of P2X1 channels but effectively blocks the binding of the virus to CXCR4 or CCR5. The notion of an off-target effect of NF279 on HIV-1 fusion is supported by the lack of detectable expression of P2X1 receptors in cells used in fusion experiments and by the fact that the addition of ATP or the enzymatic depletion of ATP in culture medium does not modulate viral fusion. Importantly, NF279 fails to inhibit HIV-1 fusion with cell lines and primary macrophages when added at an intermediate stage downstream of Env-CD4-coreceptor engagement. Conversely, in the presence of NF279, HIV-1 fusion is arrested downstream of CD4 binding but prior to coreceptor engagement. NF279 also antagonizes the signaling function of CCR5, CXCR4, and another chemokine receptor, as evidenced by the suppression of calcium responses elicited by specific ligands and by recombinant gp120. Collectively, our results demonstrate that NF279 is a dual HIV-1 coreceptor inhibitor that interferes with the functional engagement of CCR5 and CXCR4 by Env. Inhibition of P2X receptor activity suppresses HIV-1 fusion and replication, suggesting that P2X signaling is involved in HIV-1 entry. However, mechanistic experiments conducted in this study imply that P2X1 receptor is not expressed in target cells or involved in viral fusion. Instead, we found that inhibition of HIV-1 fusion by a specific P2X1 receptor antagonist, NF

  11. Supporting seamless mobility for P2P live streaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunsam; Kim, Sangjin; Lee, Choonhwa

    2014-01-01

    With advent of various mobile devices with powerful networking and computing capabilities, the users' demand to enjoy live video streaming services such as IPTV with mobile devices has been increasing rapidly. However, it is challenging to get over the degradation of service quality due to data loss caused by the handover. Although many handover schemes were proposed at protocol layers below the application layer, they inherently suffer from data loss while the network is being disconnected during the handover. We therefore propose an efficient application-layer handover scheme to support seamless mobility for P2P live streaming. By simulation experiments, we show that the P2P live streaming system with our proposed handover scheme can improve the playback continuity significantly compared to that without our scheme.

  12. Supporting Seamless Mobility for P2P Live Streaming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunsam Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With advent of various mobile devices with powerful networking and computing capabilities, the users' demand to enjoy live video streaming services such as IPTV with mobile devices has been increasing rapidly. However, it is challenging to get over the degradation of service quality due to data loss caused by the handover. Although many handover schemes were proposed at protocol layers below the application layer, they inherently suffer from data loss while the network is being disconnected during the handover. We therefore propose an efficient application-layer handover scheme to support seamless mobility for P2P live streaming. By simulation experiments, we show that the P2P live streaming system with our proposed handover scheme can improve the playback continuity significantly compared to that without our scheme.

  13. Energetic band structure of Zn3P2 crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamov, I. G.; Syrbu, N. N.; Dorogan, A. V.

    2013-01-01

    Optical functions n, k, ε1, ε2 and d2ε2/dE2 have been determined from experimental reflection spectra in the region of 1-10 eV. The revealed electronic transitions are localized in the Brillouin zone. The magnitude of valence band splitting caused by the spin-orbital interaction ΔSO is lower than the splitting caused by the crystal field ΔCR in the center of Brillouin zone and L and X points. The switching effects are investigated in Zn3P2 crystals. The characteristics of experimental samples with electric switching, adjustable resistors, and time relays based on Zn3P2 are presented.

  14. Towards secure mobile P2P applications using JXME

    OpenAIRE

    Domingo Prieto, Marc; Prieto Blázquez, Josep; Herrera Joancomartí, Jordi; Arnedo Moreno, Joan

    2014-01-01

    Mobile devices have become ubiquitous, allowing the integration of new information from a large range of devices. However, the development of new applications requires a powerful framework which simplifies their construction. JXME is the JXTA implementation for mobile devices using J2ME, its main value being its simplicity when creating peer-to-peer (P2P) applications on limited devices. On that regard, an issue that is becoming very important in the recent times is being able to provide ...

  15. Compliance to two city convenience store ordinance requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez, Cammie K Chaumont; Amandus, Harlan E; Wu, Nan; Hendricks, Scott A

    2015-01-01

    Background Robbery-related homicides and assaults are the leading cause of death in retail businesses. Robbery reduction approaches focus on compliance to Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) guidelines. Purpose We evaluated the level of compliance to CPTED guidelines specified by convenience store safety ordinances effective in 2010 in Dallas and Houston, Texas, USA. Methods Convenience stores were defined as businesses less than 10 000 square feet that sell grocery items. Store managers were interviewed for store ordinance requirements from August to November 2011, in a random sample of 594 (289 in Dallas, 305 in Houston) convenience stores that were open before and after the effective dates of their city’s ordinance. Data were collected in 2011 and analysed in 2012–2014. Results Overall, 9% of stores were in full compliance, although 79% reported being registered with the police departments as compliant. Compliance was consistently significantly higher in Dallas than in Houston for many requirements and by store type. Compliance was lower among single owner-operator stores compared with corporate/franchise stores. Compliance to individual requirements was lowest for signage and visibility. Conclusions Full compliance to the required safety measures is consistent with industry ‘best practices’ and evidence-based workplace violence prevention research findings. In Houston and Dallas compliance was higher for some CPTED requirements but not the less costly approaches that are also the more straightforward to adopt. PMID:26337569

  16. An unusual methylene aziridine refined in P2(1)/c and the nonstandard setting P2(1)/n.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feast, George C; Haestier, James; Page, Lee W; Robertson, Jeremy; Thompson, Amber L; Watkin, David J

    2009-12-01

    The unusual methylene aziridine 6-tert-butyl-3-oxa-2-thia-1-azabicyclo[5.1.0]oct-6-ene 2,2-dioxide, C(9)H(15)NO(3)S, was found to crystallize with two molecules in the asymmetric unit. The structure was solved in both the approximately orthogonal and the oblique settings of space group No. 14, viz. P2(1)/n and P2(1)/c, respectively. A comparison of these results clearly displayed an increase in the correlation between coordinates in the ac plane for the oblique cell. The increase in the corresponding covariances makes a significant contribution to the standard uncertainties of derived parameters, e.g. bond lengths. Since there is yet no CIF definition for the full variance-covariance matrix, there are clear advantages to reporting the structure in the nonstandard space-group setting.

  17. Final Design of the SLAC P2 Marx Klystron Modulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, M.A.; Benwell, A.; Burkhart, C.; Larsen, R.; MacNair, D.; Nguyen, M.; Olsen, J.; /SLAC

    2011-11-08

    The SLAC P2 Marx has been under development for two years, and follows on the P1 Marx as an alternative to the baseline klystron modulator for the International Linear Collider. The P2 Marx utilizes a redundant architecture, air-insulation, a control system with abundant diagnostic access, and a novel nested droop correction scheme. This paper is an overview of the design of this modulator. There are several points of emphasis for the P2 Marx design. First, the modulator must be compatible with the ILC two-tunnel design. In this scheme, the modulator and klystron are located within a service tunnel with limited access and available footprint for a modulator. Access to the modulator is only practical from one side. Second, the modulator must have high availability. Robust components are not sufficient alone to achieve availability much higher than 99%. Therefore, redundant architectures are necessary. Third, the modulator must be relatively low cost. Because of the large number of stations in the ILC, the investment needed for the modulator components is significant. High-volume construction techniques which take advantage of an economy of scale must be utilized. Fourth, the modulator must be simple and efficient to maintain. If a modulator does become inoperable, the MTTR must be small. Fifth, even though the present application for the modulator is for the ILC, future accelerators can also take advantage of this development effort. The hardware, software, and concepts developed in this project should be designed such that further development time necessary for other applications is minimal.

  18. Detecting P2P Botnet in Software Defined Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang-Chiuan Su

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Software Defined Network separates the control plane from network equipment and has great advantage in network management as compared with traditional approaches. With this paradigm, the security issues persist to exist and could become even worse because of the flexibility on handling the packets. In this paper we propose an effective framework by integrating SDN and machine learning to detect and categorize P2P network traffics. This work provides experimental evidence showing that our approach can automatically analyze network traffic and flexibly change flow entries in OpenFlow switches through the SDN controller. This can effectively help the network administrators manage related security problems.

  19. P2X7 receptors in satellite glial cells mediate high functional expression of P2X3 receptors in immature dorsal root ganglion neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yong

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purinergic P2X3 receptor (P2X3R expressed in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG sensory neuron and the P2X7 receptor (P2X7R expressed in the surrounding satellite glial cell (SGC are two major receptors participating in neuron-SGC communication in adult DRGs. Activation of P2X7Rs was found to tonically reduce the expression of P2X3Rs in DRGs, thus inhibiting the abnormal pain behaviors in adult rats. P2X receptors are also actively involved in sensory signaling in developing rodents. However, very little is known about the developmental change of P2X7Rs in DRGs and the interaction between P2X7Rs and P2X3Rs in those animals. We therefore examined the expression of P2X3Rs and P2X7Rs in postnatal rats and determined if P2X7R-P2X3R control exists in developing rats. Findings We immunostained DRGs of immature rats and found that P2X3Rs were expressed only in neurons and P2X7Rs were expressed only in SGCs. Western blot analyses indicated that P2X3R expression decreased while P2X7R expression increased with the age of rats. Electrophysiological studies showed that the number of DRG neurons responding to the stimulation of the P2XR agonist, α,β-meATP, was higher and the amplitudes of α,β-meATP-induced depolarizations were larger in immature DRG neurons. As a result, P2X3R-mediated flinching responses were much more pronounced in immature rats than those found in adult rats. When we reduced P2X7R expression with P2X7R-siRNA in postnatal and adult rats, P2X3R-mediated flinch responses were greatly enhanced in both rat populations. Conclusions These results show that the P2X7R expression increases as rats age. In addition, P2X7Rs in SGCs exert inhibitory control on the P2X3R expression and function in sensory neurons of immature rats, just as observed in adult rats. Regulation of P2X7R expression is likely an effective way to control P2X3R activity and manage pain relief in infants.

  20. Filtering SPAM in P2PSIP Communities with Web of Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkilä, Juho; Gurtov, Andrei

    Spam is a dominant problem on email systems today. One of the reasons is the lack of infrastructure for security and trust. As Voice over IP (VoIP) communication becomes increasingly popular, proliferation of spam calls is only a matter of time. As SIP identity scheme is practically similar to email, those share the same threats. We utilized Host Identity Protocol (HIP) to provide basic security, such as end-to-end encryption. To provide call filtering, however, other tools are needed. In this paper, we suggest applying trust paths familiar from the PGP web of trust to prevent unwanted communication in P2PSIP communities.

  1. Parameterization-based tracking for the P2 experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, Iurii

    2017-08-01

    The P2 experiment in Mainz aims to determine the weak mixing angle θW at low momentum transfer by measuring the parity-violating asymmetry of elastic electronproton scattering. In order to achieve the intended precision of Δ(sin2 θW)/sin2θW = 0:13% within the planned 10 000 hours of running the experiment has to operate at the rate of 1011 detected electrons per second. Although it is not required to measure the kinematic parameters of each individual electron, every attempt is made to achieve the highest possible throughput in the track reconstruction chain. In the present work a parameterization-based track reconstruction method is described. It is a variation of track following, where the results of the computation-heavy steps, namely the propagation of a track to the further detector plane, and the fitting, are pre-calculated, and expressed in terms of parametric analytic functions. This makes the algorithm extremely fast, and well-suited for an implementation on an FPGA. The method also takes implicitly into account the actual phase space distribution of the tracks already at the stage of candidate construction. Compared to a simple algorithm, that does not use such information, this allows reducing the combinatorial background by many orders of magnitude, down to O(1) background candidate per one signal track. The method is developed specifically for the P2 experiment in Mainz, and the presented implementation is tightly coupled to the experimental conditions.

  2. Parameterization-based tracking for the P2 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorokin, Iurii [Institut fuer Kernphysik and PRISMA Cluster of Excellence, Mainz (Germany); Collaboration: P2-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The P2 experiment at the new MESA accelerator in Mainz aims to determine the weak mixing angle by measuring the parity-violating asymmetry in elastic electron-proton scattering at low momentum transfer. To achieve an unprecedented precision an order of 10{sup 11} scattered electrons per second have to be acquired. %within the acceptance. Whereas the tracking system is not required to operate at such high rates, every attempt is made to achieve as high rate capability as possible. The P2 tracking system will consist of four planes of high-voltage monolithic active pixel sensors (HV-MAPS). With the present preliminary design one expects about 150 signal electron tracks and 20000 background hits (from bremsstrahlung photons) per plane in every 50 ns readout frame at the full rate. In order to cope with this extreme combinatorial background in on-line mode, a parameterization-based tracking is considered as a possible solution. The idea is to transform the hit positions into a set of weakly correlated quantities, and to find simple (e.g. polynomial) functions of these quantities, that would give the required characteristics of the track (e.g. momentum). The parameters of the functions are determined from a sample of high-quality tracks, taken either from a simulation, or reconstructed in a conventional way from a sample of low-rate data.

  3. Fundamental absorption edge of CdP2 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondar', G.I.; Koval', V.S.; Kurik, M.V.

    1986-01-01

    Fundamental absorption edge of tetragonal CdP 2 crystals is investigated within the temperature range of 4.2-293 K. The crystals are grown by the Bridgman methods and resublimation methods and possess different degree of perfection and purity. In perfect CdP 2 crystals with small concentration of impurities in the region of K > 20 cm -1 the shape of the absorption edge spectrum is described by the Urbach rule. The Urbach rule parameters are defined. The electron-phonon interaction is shown to be the determinant at K > 20 cm -1 and the direct vertical transition is observed. A slight additional absorption with maximum at 2.163 eV within the range of K -1 and at T ≤ 50 is associated with transition from shallow acceptor level to the conduction zone. The impurity leads to the shift of the fundamental absorption edge to the long-wavelength side and diffusion of electrons on impurities is resulted

  4. Compliance with physical exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Anne Sofie; Bønnelycke, Julie; Rosenkilde Larsen, Mads

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Sixty-one healthy, sedentary, moderately overweight young men participated in a randomised controlled trial to examine the effects of two different doses of endurance exercise on health behaviour and exercise compliance. Methods: Participants were randomised to a sedentary control group......), a post hoc thematic analysis was conducted to connect qualitative and quantitative data in a joint analysis. Results: Of the subjects interviewed, exercise compliance expressed as 95% CI was [96.8; 103%] in the MOD group and [82.9; 99.6%] in the HIGH group. The different doses of daily exercise equally...... or quantitative methodology alone. The preconditions of the TBP were fulfilled, and it represents a methodological model to explain the high degree of compliance and motivation to exercise....

  5. Deletion of P2X2 and P2X3 receptor subunits does not alter motility of the mouse colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew DeVries

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Purinergic P2X receptors contribute to neurotransmission in the gut. P2X receptors are ligand-gated cation channels that mediate synaptic excitation in subsets of enteric neurons. The present study evaluated colonic motility in vitro and in vivo in wild type (WT and P2X2 and P2X3 subunit knockout (KO mice. The muscarinic receptor agonist, bethanechol (0.3-3 micromolar, caused similar contractions of the longitudinal muscle in colon segments from WT, P2X2 and P2X3 subunit KO mice. Nicotine (1-300 micromolar, acting at neuronal nicotinic receptors, caused similar longitudinal muscle relaxations in colonic segments from WT and P2X2 and P2X3 subunit KO mice. Nicotine-induced relaxations were inhibited by nitro-L-arginine (NLA, 100 micromolar and apamin (0.1 micromolar which block inhibitory neuromuscular transmission. ATP (1-1000 micromolar caused contractions only in the presence of NLA and apamin. ATP-induced contractions were similar in colon segments from WT, P2X2 and P2X3 KO mice. The mouse colon generates spontaneous migrating motor complexes (MMCs in vitro. The MMC frequency was higher in P2X2 KO compared to WT tissues; other parameters of the MMC were similar in colon segments from WT, P2X2 and P2X3 KO mice. 5-Hydroxytryptophan-induced fecal output was similar in WT, P2X2 and P2X3 KO mice. These data indicate that nicotinic receptors are located predominately on inhibitory motor neurons supplying the longitudinal muscle in the mouse colon. P2X2 or P2X3 subunit containing receptors are not localized to motorneurons supplying the longitudinal muscle. Synaptic transmission mediated by P2X2 or P2X3 subunit containing receptors is not required for propulsive motility in the mouse colon.

  6. The hand hygiene compliance of student nurses during clinical placements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundal, Jorun Saetre; Aune, Anne Grethe; Storvig, Eline; Aasland, Jenny Kristin; Fjeldsaeter, Kaja Linn; Torjuul, Kirsti

    2017-12-01

    To observe student nurses' overall and moment-specific hand hygiene compliance during clinical placement. Hand hygiene is the single most important measure to prevent healthcare-associated infections. However, research has shown low compliance among healthcare workers. During clinical placements, student nurses perform various nursing tasks and procedures to a large number of patients, requiring extensive patient contact. It is crucial that they practice correct hand hygiene to prevent healthcare-associated infections. Open, standardised and nonparticipating observations. Twenty-nine student nurses were observed three times for 20 ± 10 min during clinical placement in a Norwegian university hospital. To measure compliance, we used WHO's Hand Hygiene Observation tool, based on the model "My five moments for hand hygiene". Overall hand hygiene compliance in the student group was 83.5%. Highest moment-specific compliance was after touching patient surroundings, after touching patients and after body fluid exposure risk. Lowest moment-specific compliance was recorded before touching patients or patient surroundings, and before clean/aseptic procedures. Nurse education needs to be improved both theoretically and during clinical placements in order to advance and sustain compliance among student nurses. Increasing healthcare workers' compliance with hand hygiene guidelines remains a challenge to the clinical community. In order to reduce healthcare-associated infections, it is important to educate student nurses to comply with the guidelines during clinical placements. Identifying student nurses' hand hygiene performance is the first step towards developing teaching methods to improve and sustain their overall and moment-specific compliance. As a measure to ensure student compliance during clinical placements, mentors should be aware of their influence on students' performance, act as hand hygiene ambassadors, encourage students to comply with established guidelines

  7. The Amsterdam Hip Protector Study: Compliance and determinants of compliance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schoor, N.M.; Asma, G.; Smit, J.H.; Bouter, L.M.; Lips, P.T.A.M.

    2003-01-01

    Hip protectors appear to be effective in reducing the incidence of hip fractures. However, compliance is often poor. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the compliance and determinants of compliance with external hip protectors. A prospective study was performed in residents from

  8. Rocky Flats Compliance Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) established the Office of Technology Development (EM-50) (OTD) as an element of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) in November 1989. The primary objective of the Office of Technology Development, Rocky Flats Compliance Program (RFCP), is to develop altemative treatment technologies for mixed low-level waste (wastes containing both hazardous and radioactive components) to use in bringing the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) into compliance with Federal and state regulations and agreements. Approximately 48,000 cubic feet of untreated low-level mixed waste, for which treatment has not been specified, are stored at the RFP. The cleanup of the Rocky Flats site is driven by agreements between DOE, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Colorado Department of Health (CDH). Under these agreements, a Comprehensive Treatment and Management Plan (CTMP) was drafted to outline the mechanisms by which RFP will achieve compliance with the regulations and agreements. This document describes DOE's strategy to treat low-level mixed waste to meet Land Disposal Restrictions and sets specific milestones related to the regulatory aspects of technology development. These milestones detail schedules for the development of technologies to treat all of the mixed wastes at the RFP. Under the Federal Facilities Compliance Act (FFCA), the CTMP has been incorporated into Rocky Flats Plant Conceptual Site Treatment Plan (CSTP). The CSTP will become the Rocky Flats Plant site Treatment Plan in 1995 and will supersede the CTMP

  9. Environmental compliance and cleanup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the roles of the principal agencies, organizations, and public in environmental compliance and cleanup of the Hanford Site. Regulatory oversight, the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, the role of Indian tribes, public participation, and CERCLA Natural Resource Damage Assessment Trustee Activities are all discussed.

  10. Validating year 2000 compliance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van Deursen (Arie); P. Klint (Paul); M.P.A. Sellink

    1997-01-01

    textabstractValidating year 2000 compliance involves the assessment of the correctness and quality of a year 2000 conversion. This entails inspecting both the quality of the conversion emph{process followed, and of the emph{result obtained, i.e., the converted system. This document provides an

  11. Strategisk compliance og regulering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kühn Pedersen, Mogens

    2016-01-01

    Denne artikel introducerer strategisk compliance og påpeger dens samspil med klassiske og nyere former for reguleringer i digital værdiskabelse. Konteksten er den digitale økonomi, som vokser frem imellem den materielle økonomis bærepiller: Virksomheder og markeder, men består af en helt ny...... materialitet, som er det digitale univers og dets modsvarighed i nye krav til compliance. Den nye materialitet stiller nye krav, hvad angår digitale processer og transaktioner. Klassisk regulering, som aktører ikke selv kan ændre, støder på egenregulering, hvor aktørerne selv opsætter regler for at skabe...... digital værdi. Dette kalder på strategisk compliance. Med digitalisering er strategisk compliance sat på dagsordnen i reguleringsdebatten. Vi hævder, at regulering og egenregulering kan komme til at virke komplementært i det post-industrielle, digitaliserede samfund....

  12. Environmental compliance and cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the roles of the principal agencies, organizations, and public in environmental compliance and cleanup of the Hanford Site. Regulatory oversight, the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, the role of Indian tribes, public participation, and CERCLA Natural Resource Damage Assessment Trustee Activities are all discussed

  13. Financial Markets and Compliance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Laar, T.A.H.M.; Bleker, Sylvie; Houben, Raf

    2017-01-01

    This chapter will focus on the goals of financial market regulation through the rules of economics, the strategies financial regulation employs to achieve these goals and the insights this provides for the compliance profession. For an overview of the goals and strategies of financial regulation

  14. Year 2000 compliance issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-03-01

    This month, we continue our coverage of the year 2000 (Y2K) problem as it affects healthcare facilities and the professionals who work in them. We present the following articles: "Checking PCs for Y2K Compliance"--In this article, we describe the probable sources of Y2K-related errors in PCs and present simple procedures for testing the Y2K compliance of PCs and application software. "Y2K Assessment Equipment Expectations"--In this article, we review the Y2K compliance data from a small sampling of hospitals to help answer the question "What percentage of medical equipment will likely be susceptible to Y2K problems?" "Y2K Labeling of Medical Devices"--In this article, we discuss the pros and cons of instituting a program to label each medical device with its Y2K status. Also in this section, we present an updated list of organizations that support ECRI's Position Statement on the testing of medical devices for Y2K compliance, which we published in the December 1998 issue of Health Devices (27[12]). And we remind readers of the services ECRI can offer to help healthcare institutions cope with the Y2K problem.

  15. The USAID Environmental Compliance Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Environmental Compliance Database is a record of environmental compliance submissions with their outcomes. Documents in the database can be found by visiting the...

  16. Opposing Roles of Calcium and Intracellular ATP on Gating of the Purinergic P2X2 Receptor Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milos B. Rokic

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available P2X2 receptors (P2X2R exhibit a slow desensitization during the initial ATP application and a progressive, calcium-dependent increase in rates of desensitization during repetitive stimulation. This pattern is observed in whole-cell recordings from cells expressing recombinant and native P2X2R. However, desensitization is not observed in perforated-patched cells and in two-electrode voltage clamped oocytes. Addition of ATP, but not ATPγS or GTP, in the pipette solution also abolishes progressive desensitization, whereas intracellular injection of apyrase facilitates receptor desensitization. Experiments with injection of alkaline phosphatase or addition of staurosporine and ATP in the intracellular solution suggest a role for a phosphorylation-dephosphorylation in receptor desensitization. Mutation of residues that are potential phosphorylation sites identified a critical role of the S363 residue in the intracellular ATP action. These findings indicate that intracellular calcium and ATP have opposing effects on P2X2R gating: calcium allosterically facilitates receptor desensitization and ATP covalently prevents the action of calcium. Single cell measurements further revealed that intracellular calcium stays elevated after washout in P2X2R-expressing cells and the blockade of mitochondrial sodium/calcium exchanger lowers calcium concentrations during washout periods to basal levels, suggesting a role of mitochondria in this process. Therefore, the metabolic state of the cell can influence P2X2R gating.

  17. C/2013 P2 Pan STARRS - The Manx Comet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meech, Karen J.; Yang, Bin; Keane, Jacqueline; Hainaut, Olivier; Kleyna, Jan; Hsieh, Henry; Bauer, James; Wainscoat, Richard; Veres, Peter

    2014-11-01

    On Aug 4, 2013 an apparently asteroidal object was discovered by the Pan STARRS1 (PS1) survey telescope on Haleakala at magnitude 20.4 (corresponding to a nucleus radius between 1.4-2.9 km for albedos between 0.25-0.04). PS1 pre-recovery images taken on July 26 and on Aug. 3 allowed a good orbit to be determined. The orbit looks like that of a long-period comet with a semi major axis of 2720 AU and an eccentricity of 0.999. Shortly following the discovery, reports from small telescopes came in that there was low level activity associated with this object (at r = 3.45 AU), and the object was designated P/2013 P2 (Pan STARRS). The activity was not seen in images obtained with PS1, the Faulkes N telescope or the CFHT 3.6m, however the object was passing through a region of significant nebulosity. Deep images obtained on the CFHT on Aug. 8 and follow up images obtained with the Gemini North 8m telescope on Sep. 9 showed a very faint tail extending a few arcsec to PA=45 deg (inconsistent with the earlier reports). The object was observed using several facilities up until solar conjunction, and again after perihelion (Feb. 17, 2014) in March, with little increase in activity. A search of the NEOWISE archives show no detection during the cryogenic and immediate pos-cryogenic phases, so we can only place an upper limit on the nucleus size from these data. An object on a long-period comet orbit at this heliocentric distance typically should be very active, and our team hypothesized that this could either be a nearly-extinct comet or possibly inner solar system material ejected to the outer solar system during planet migration as predicted by various dynamical models. To distinguish between these scenarios, we obtained both optical and near-IR spectra of P/2013 P2 on 2014 May 7 and 21, when the object was at r=2.97 and 2.99 AU, respectively. Initial reductions show no emission lines. We will report on our spectra and imaging data, and discuss the implications for the origin

  18. Building a tracking detector for the P2 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, Marco [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz (Germany); PRISMA Cluster of Excellence (Germany); Collaboration: P2-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The P2 Experiment aims to measure the weak mixing angle at low Q{sup 2} via the parity violating asymmetry in elastic electron-proton scattering. It will be located at the new Mainz Energy Recovery Superconducting Accelerator (MESA), which will provide a 150 μA beam of alternatingly polarized 150 MeV electrons. While the main asymmetry measurement is performed with integrating Cherenkov detectors, the tracking system is developed in order to determine the average momentum transfer of the electron and to reconstruct individual electron tracks for systematic studies. It will be built using the new technology of High Voltage Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (HV-MAPS) made of silicon thinned to 50 μm. The main challenge for the tracking system are very high expected particle rates. The expected rate of electrons that are scattered in the liquid hydrogen target and hit the tracking system is of the order 10{sup 5}mm{sup -2}s{sup -1} and is overwhelmed by more than 10{sup 7} mm{sup -2}s{sup -1} bremsstrahlung photons. Each of the tracking layers is envisaged to have a disc-like geometry. They are arranged as two double layers. Since only limited sensor area is affordable, each layer is divided into four segments with about 15 degree azimutal coverage. This layout is presented and motivated by investigations on the expected hit rates and the sensor response.

  19. Improved Degree Search Algorithms in Unstructured P2P Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guole Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Searching and retrieving the demanded correct information is one important problem in networks; especially, designing an efficient search algorithm is a key challenge in unstructured peer-to-peer (P2P networks. Breadth-first search (BFS and depth-first search (DFS are the current two typical search methods. BFS-based algorithms show the perfect performance in the aspect of search success rate of network resources, while bringing the huge search messages. On the contrary, DFS-based algorithms reduce the search message quantity and also cause the dropping of search success ratio. To address the problem that only one of performances is excellent, we propose two memory function degree search algorithms: memory function maximum degree algorithm (MD and memory function preference degree algorithm (PD. We study their performance including the search success rate and the search message quantity in different networks, which are scale-free networks, random graph networks, and small-world networks. Simulations show that the two performances are both excellent at the same time, and the performances are improved at least 10 times.

  20. 40 CFR 63.7826 - How do I demonstrate initial compliance with the operation and maintenance requirements that...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... preventative maintenance schedule and, as applicable, detailed descriptions of the corrective action procedures... compliance with the operation and maintenance requirements that apply to me? 63.7826 Section 63.7826... Compliance Requirements § 63.7826 How do I demonstrate initial compliance with the operation and maintenance...

  1. Peripheral nerve P2 basic protein and the Guillain-Barre syndrome : In vitro demonstration of P2-specific antibody-secreting cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijten, J.A.F.M.; Jong, W.A.C. de; Demel, R.A.; Heijnen, C.J.; Ballieux, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    An immune response to the peripheral nerve basic protein P2 may be operative in the pathogenesis of the Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). A method is described for the purification of P2 of human origin. Purified P2 was used to investigate whether lymphocytes derived from peripheral blood of GBS

  2. Agent Architectures for Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgemeestre, Brigitte; Hulstijn, Joris; Tan, Yao-Hua

    A Normative Multi-Agent System consists of autonomous agents who must comply with social norms. Different kinds of norms make different assumptions about the cognitive architecture of the agents. For example, a principle-based norm assumes that agents can reflect upon the consequences of their actions; a rule-based formulation only assumes that agents can avoid violations. In this paper we present several cognitive agent architectures for self-monitoring and compliance. We show how different assumptions about the cognitive architecture lead to different information needs when assessing compliance. The approach is validated with a case study of horizontal monitoring, an approach to corporate tax auditing recently introduced by the Dutch Customs and Tax Authority.

  3. Managing quality and compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Alice; Koppel, Carl

    2015-01-01

    Critical care nurses assume vital roles in maintaining patient care quality. There are distinct facets to the process including standard setting, regulatory compliance, and completion of reports associated with these endeavors. Typically, multiple niche software applications are required and user interfaces are varied and complex. Although there are distinct quality indicators that must be tracked as well as a list of serious or sentinel events that must be documented and reported, nurses may not know the precise steps to ensure that information is properly documented and actually reaches the proper authorities for further investigation and follow-up actions. Technology advances have permitted the evolution of a singular software platform, capable of monitoring quality indicators and managing all facets of reporting associated with regulatory compliance.

  4. Compliance among soft contact lens wearers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzman, Tomislav; Kutija, Marija Barisić; Masnec, Sanja; Jandroković, Sonja; Mrazovac, Danijela; Jurisić, Darija; Skegro, Ivan; Kalauz, Miro; Kordić, Rajko

    2014-12-01

    Contact lens compliance is proven to be crucial for preventing lens wear-related complications because of the interdependence of the steps in lens care regime and their influence on lens system microbial contamination. Awareness of the patients' lens handling compliance as well as correct recognition of non-compliant behaviours is the basis for creating more targeted strategies for patient education. The aim of this study was to investigate compliance among soft contact lens (SCL) wearers in different aspects of lens care handling and wearing habits. In our research 50 asymptomatic lens wearers filled out a questionnaire containing demographic data, lens type, hygiene and wearing habits, lenses and lens care system replacement schedule and self-evaluation of contact lens handling hygiene. We established criteria of compliance according to available manufacturer's recommendations, prior literature and our clinical experience. Only 2 (4%) of patients were fully compliant SCL wearers. The most common non-compliant behaviours were insufficient lens solution soaking time (62%), followed by failure to daily exchange lens case solution and showering while wearing lenses. 44% of patients reported storing lenses in saline solution. Mean lens storage case replacement was 3.6 months, with up to 78% patients replacing lens case at least once in 3 months. Average grade in self evaluating level of compliance was very good (4 +/- 0.78) (from 1-poor level of hygiene to 5-great level of hygiene). Lens wearers who reported excessive daily lens wear and more than 10 years of lens wearing experience were also found to be less compliant with other lens system care procedures. (t = -2.99, df=47, p rate, self grading was relatively high. Therefore, these results indicate the need for patient education and encouragement of better lens wearing habits and all of the lens maintenance steps at each patient visit.

  5. Pathophysiological consequences of receptor mistraffic: Tales from the platelet P2Y12 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Margaret R; Aungraheeta, Riyaad; Mundell, Stuart J

    2017-07-05

    Genetic variations in G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) genes can disrupt receptor function in a wide variety of human genetic diseases, including platelet bleeding disorders. Platelets are critical for haemostasis with inappropriate platelet activation leading to the development of arterial thrombosis, which can result in heart attack and stroke whilst decreased platelet activity is associated with an increased risk of bleeding. GPCRs expressed on the surface of platelets play key roles in regulating platelet activity and therefore function. Receptors include purinergic receptors (P2Y 1 and P2Y 12 ), proteinase-activated receptor (PAR1 and PAR4) and thromboxane receptors (TPα), among others. Pharmacological blockade of these receptors forms a powerful therapeutic tool in the treatment and prevention of arterial thrombosis. With the advance of genomic technologies, there has been a substantial increase in the identification of naturally occurring rare and common GPCR variants. These variants include single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertion or deletions that have the potential to alter GPCR expression or function. A number of defects in platelet GPCRs that disrupt receptor function have now been characterized in patients with mild bleeding disorders. This review will focus on rare, function-disrupting variants of platelet GPCRs with particular emphasis upon mutations in the P2Y 12 receptor gene that affect receptor traffic to modulate platelet function. Further this review will outline how the identification and characterization of function-disrupting GPCR mutations provides an essential link in translating our detailed understanding of receptor traffic and function in cell line studies into relevant human biological systems. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Job Burnout Reduces Hand Hygiene Compliance Among Nursing Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manomenidis, Georgios; Panagopoulou, Efharis; Montgomery, Anthony

    2017-10-13

    Health professional burnout has been associated with suboptimal care and reduced patient safety. However, the extent to which burnout influences hand hygiene compliance among health professionals has yet to be explored. The aim of the study was to examine whether job burnout reduces hand washing compliance among nursing staff. A diary study was conducted. Forty registered nurses working in a general city hospital in Thessaloniki, Greece, completed a questionnaire, while they were monitored for hand hygiene compliance following the World Health Organization protocol for hand hygiene assessment. Burnout was measured using validated items from the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Data were collected from September to October 2015. Multiple regression analysis showed that controlling for years in practice, burnout was negatively associated with hand hygiene compliance (R = 0.322, F(3,36) = 5.704, P compliance to hand hygiene among nurses. Given the crucial role of hand hygiene compliance for the prevention of in-hospital infections, this study highlights the need for interventions targeting the prevention of burnout among nursing staff.

  7. Compliance with Antimalaria Chemoprophylaxis in a Combat Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisson, Michael; Brisson, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Compliance with malaria chemoprophylaxis by military service members (MSMs) is notoriously low, ranging from 30% to 56%. Our objective was to determine the rate of compliance and reasons for non-compliance with malaria chemoprophylaxis among healthy US MSMs in Afghanistan. An eight-question, anonymous online survey was used to collect data regarding the compliance of healthy MSMs with malaria chemoprophylaxis. E-mail surveys were sent to 1,200 MSMs; 528 (44%) MSMs completed the survey. One-time daily doxycycline was the most commonly prescribed chemoprophylaxis (90%); 60% (N = 318) responded that they were compliant with their chemoprophylaxis as prescribed, whereas 40% (N = 221) indicated that they were not compliant. Compliance with daily dosing was 61% and weekly dosing was 38%. The most common reasons for non-compliance were gastrointestinal effects (39%), forgetfulness (31%), and low perception of risk (24%). Malaria chemoprophylaxis compliance by healthy MSMs in Afghanistan is poor. Side effects, forgetfulness, and lack of education are contributing factors. Commanders bear the primary responsibility for the health of their soldiers, and the individual MSM bears personal responsibility; however, additional public health interventions could possibly have a positive impact on prevention. PMID:22492140

  8. Structural organization of poliovirus RNA replication is mediated by viral proteins of the P2 genomic region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bienz, K.; Egger, D.; Troxler, M.; Pasamontes, L.

    1990-01-01

    Transcriptionally active replication complexes bound to smooth membrane vesicles were isolated from poliovirus-infected cells. In electron microscopic, negatively stained preparations, the replication complex appeared as an irregularly shaped, oblong structure attached to several virus-induced vesicles of a rosettelike arrangement. Electron microscopic immunocytochemistry of such preparations demonstrated that the poliovirus replication complex contains the proteins coded by the P2 genomic region (P2 proteins) in a membrane-associated form. In addition, the P2 proteins are also associated with viral RNA, and they can be cross-linked to viral RNA by UV irradiation. Guanidine hydrochloride prevented the P2 proteins from becoming membrane bound but did not change their association with viral RNA. The findings allow the conclusion that the protein 2C or 2C-containing precursor(s) is responsible for the attachment of the viral RNA to the vesicular membrane and for the spatial organization of the replication complex necessary for its proper functioning in viral transcription. A model for the structure of the viral replication complex and for the function of the 2C-containing P2 protein(s) and the vesicular membranes is proposed

  9. Family compliance with counseling for children traveling to the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillet-Gossot, Stéphanie; Laporte, Rémi; Noël, Guilhem; Gautret, Philippe; Soula, Georges; Delmont, Jean; Faucher, Benoit; Parola, Philippe; Osei, Lindsay; Minodier, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The number of people, both adults and children, traveling abroad, is on the rise. Some seek counseling at travel medicine centers before departure. A prospective study was conducted among children travel medicine center in Marseille, France, from February 2010 to February 2011. Parents were contacted by telephone 4 weeks after their return, and asked about compliance with pre-travel advice. One hundred sixty-seven children were evaluated after their trip. Compliance with immunizations, malaria chemoprophylaxis, and food-borne disease prevention was 71, 66, and 31%, respectively. Compliance with malaria chemoprophylaxis varied significantly with destination, and was higher for African destinations. Significant features associated with poor compliance with chemoprophylaxis were a trip to Asia or the Indian Ocean, age travel counseling in children traveling overseas was achieved only for drinking bottled water, using repellents, a routine vaccine update, and yellow fever immunization. © 2013 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  10. Low Compliance to Handwashing Program and High Nosocomial Infection in a Brazilian Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Borges, Lizandra Ferreira de Almeida e; Rocha, Lilian Alves; Nunes, Maria José; Gontijo Filho, Paulo Pinto

    2012-01-01

    Background. It is a fact that hand hygiene prevents nosocomial infection, but compliance with recommended instructions is commonly poor. The purpose of this study was to implement a hand hygiene program for increase compliance with hand hygiene and its relationship with nosocomial infection (NI) and MRSA infection/colonization rates. Methods. Compliance to hand hygiene was evaluated in a hospital by direct observation and measured of health care-associated infections, including methicillin re...

  11. Compliance. Regulatory policy P-211

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-05-01

    This regulatory policy describes the basic principles and directives for establishing and conducting the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) Compliance Program. The program is aimed at securing compliance by regulated persons with regulatory requirements made under the Nuclear Safety and Control Act ('the Act'). The policy applies to persons who are regulated by the CNSC through the Act, regulations and licences, as well as by decisions and orders made under the Act. The policy applies to officers and employees of the CNSC, and its authorized representatives or agents, who are involved in developing and carrying out compliance activities. Compliance, in the context of this policy, means conformity by regulated persons with the legally binding requirements of the Act, and the CNSC regulations, licences, decisions, and orders made under the Act. Compliance activities are CNSC measures of promotion, verification and enforcement aimed at securing compliance by regulated person with the applicable legally binding requirements. (author)

  12. Compliance to antihypertensive therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almas, A.; Hameed, A.; Ahmed, B.; Islam, M.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine compliance, factors affecting compliance to antihypertensive therapy and to compare compliant and non-compliant groups, in a tertiary care setting. Study Design: Analytical (cross-sectional) study. Place and Duration of Study: The outpatient clinics at the Aga Khan University from May 2004 to February 2005. Patients and Methods: Two hundred patients presenting to the outpatients clinic were included. All patients 18 years and above, who had stage 1 and 2 hypertension, had one clinic visit to a medicine clinic, 6 months prior to presentation and started on antihypertensive medicines, were included. Results: Sixty-six percent were males and 33.5 % were females. Mean age was 58.1 ( +- 12) years and mean duration of hypertension was 7.2 (+- 6.7) years. Fifty-seven percent were compliant and 43% were noncompliant. In the noncompliant group, 53.4 % had mild noncompliance, 24.4 % had severe non-compliance, while 22% had moderate noncompliance. Factors of noncompliance were 56.8% missed doses due to forgetfulness, 12.7% deliberately missed their doses, 11.6% could not take the medicine due to side effects, 10.4% did not take the dose due to increased number of tablets, 4.6% were not properly counseled by the physician and 3.48% did not take medicines due to cost issues. The mean systolic blood pressure was 126 +- 19.2 mmHg in the compliant group while it was 133 +- 16.5 mmHg in the noncompliant group (p-value 0.004). The mean diastolic blood pressure in the compliant group was 76 +- 11.9 mmHg, while in the noncompliant group it was 81.9 +- 10.9 mmHg (p-value 0.001). Conclusion: Compliance to antihypertensive therapy in a tertiary care center is significantly good. Forgetfulness was the major reason for noncompliance. The mean blood pressure control was better in the compliant group. (author)

  13. Extrinsic incentives and tax compliance

    OpenAIRE

    Sour, Laura; Gutiérrez Andrade, Miguel Ángel

    2011-01-01

    This paper models the impact of extrinsic incentives in a tax compliance model. It also provides experimental evidence that confirms the existence of a positive relationship between rewards and tax compliance. If individuals are audited, rewards for honest taxpayers are effective in increasing the level of tax compliance. These results are particularly relevant in countries where there is little respect for tax law since rewards can contribute to crowding in the intrinsic motivation to comply.

  14. Managing compliance risk after Mifid

    OpenAIRE

    P. Musile Tanzi; G. Gabbi; D. Previati; P. Schwizer

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to focus on changes in the compliance function within major European banks and other financial intermediaries and on the effects of Markets in Financial Instruments Directive (MiFID) implementation. Design/methodology/approach – The four areas of research seek to answer the following questions: Is the positioning of the compliance function “at the top” of the organizational structure? Are the roles attributed to the compliance function, th...

  15. Compliance to two city convenience store ordinance requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaumont Menéndez, Cammie K; Amandus, Harlan E; Wu, Nan; Hendricks, Scott A

    2016-04-01

    Robbery-related homicides and assaults are the leading cause of death in retail businesses. Robbery reduction approaches focus on compliance to Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) guidelines. We evaluated the level of compliance to CPTED guidelines specified by convenience store safety ordinances effective in 2010 in Dallas and Houston, Texas, USA. Convenience stores were defined as businesses less than 10 000 square feet that sell grocery items. Store managers were interviewed for store ordinance requirements from August to November 2011, in a random sample of 594 (289 in Dallas, 305 in Houston) convenience stores that were open before and after the effective dates of their city's ordinance. Data were collected in 2011 and analysed in 2012-2014. Overall, 9% of stores were in full compliance, although 79% reported being registered with the police departments as compliant. Compliance was consistently significantly higher in Dallas than in Houston for many requirements and by store type. Compliance was lower among single owner-operator stores compared with corporate/franchise stores. Compliance to individual requirements was lowest for signage and visibility. Full compliance to the required safety measures is consistent with industry 'best practices' and evidence-based workplace violence prevention research findings. In Houston and Dallas compliance was higher for some CPTED requirements but not the less costly approaches that are also the more straightforward to adopt. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. Gene-by-environment effect of house dust mite on purinergic receptor P2Y12 (P2RY12) and lung function in children with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunyavanich, S; Boyce, J A; Raby, B A; Weiss, S T

    2012-02-01

    Distinct receptors likely exist for leukotriene (LT)E(4), a potent mediator of airway inflammation. Purinergic receptor P2Y12 is needed for LTE(4)-induced airways inflammation, and P2Y12 antagonism attenuates house dust mite-induced pulmonary eosinophilia in mice. Although experimental data support a role for P2Y12 in airway inflammation, its role in human asthma has never been studied. To test for association between variants in the P2Y12 gene (P2RY12) and lung function in human subjects with asthma, and to examine for gene-by-environment interaction with house dust mite exposure. Nineteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in P2RY12 were genotyped in 422 children with asthma and their parents (n = 1266). Using family based methods, we tested for associations between these SNPs and five lung function measures. We performed haplotype association analyses and tested for gene-by-environment interactions using house dust mite exposure. We used the false discovery rate to account for multiple comparisons. Five SNPs in P2RY12 were associated with multiple lung function measures (P-values 0.006–0.025). Haplotypes in P2RY12 were also associated with lung function (P-values 0.0055–0.046). House dust mite exposure modulated associations between P2RY12 and lung function, with minor allele homozygotes exposed to house dust mite demonstrating worse lung function than those unexposed (significant interaction P-values 0.0028–0.040). The P2RY12 variants were associated with lung function in a large family-based asthma cohort. House dust mite exposure caused significant gene-by-environment effects. Our findings add the first human evidence to experimental data supporting a role for P2Y12 in lung function. P2Y12 could represent a novel target for asthma treatment.

  17. Quality beyond compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centanni, N; Monroe, M; White, L; Larson, R

    1999-01-01

    The service sector within the biopharmaceutical industry has experienced phenomenal growth over the past decade. In the highly regulated Good Laboratory Practices environment, the need for timely, high-quality service, accurate results, and on-time deliverables becomes paramount for the success and profitability of biopharmaceutical companies. The quality assurance process is a vital component of this drug product-development cycle and ensures compliance to the highest domestic and international regulatory standards. Quality-assurance professionals historically have held the role of independent auditors of the processes, who certify that results meet current standards of practice. Covance, a contract research organization that includes Good Laboratory Practices laboratories, reorganized and expanded the functional responsibilities of its quality assurance team in 1997. Auditors and quality assurance professionals have assumed roles beyond traditional compliance auditing and are forging new leadership and mentoring roles as process-improvement specialists. The results have been tangible, measurable benefits for clients and the Covance organization. This article provides an overview of this cultural change and the processes put in place to improve efficiency, productivity, and customer and employee satisfaction.

  18. Proactive compliance report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB) stipulates requirements to protect public safety, minimize environmental impacts, improve conservation, and ensure equity by promoting orderly and responsible energy development. Surveillance activities by the EUB, such as inspections and audits, ensures compliance with these requirements. This report presents statistical results of the enforcement ladder process (inspections, complaints, activities, major initiatives, and enforcement) for 2004 across ten EUB groups, including, Field Surveillance, Resources Applications Group, Operations Group, Environment Group, Utilities Branch, Facilities Applications Group, Corporate Compliance Group, Fort McMurray, Information and Dissemination Group, and Financial Management Group. When a noncompliance is identified, the EUB uses a process that has an established policy for EUB enforcement actions. Enforcement actions are determined by the severity of the noncompliance event and are escalated for subsequent noncompliance or failure to comply with the EUB's corrective order. Within the process, the EUB provides a grace period after an initial enforcement action. During this period, the EUB will take appropriate enforcement actions for subsequent noncompliances but will not escalate enforcement consequences. Enforcement consequences are escalated after the grace period has expired. 72 tabs

  19. Formalizing and appling compliance patterns for business process compliance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elgammal, A.; Turetken, O.; van den Heuvel, W.; Papazoglou, M.

    2016-01-01

    Today’s enterprises demand a high degree of compliance of business processes to meet diverse regulations and legislations. Several industrial studies have shown that compliance management is a daunting task, and organizations are still struggling and spending billions of dollars annually to ensure

  20. Formalizing and applying compliance patterns for business process compliance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elgammal, A.F.S.A.; Türetken, O.; van den Heuvel, W.J.A.M.; Papazoglou, M.

    Today’s enterprises demand a high degree of compliance of business processes to meet diverse regulations and legislations. Several industrial studies have shown that compliance management is a daunting task, and organizations are still struggling and spending billions of dollars annually to ensure

  1. Diagnostic information for compliance checking of temporal compliance requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramezani Taghiabadi, E.; Fahland, D.; Dongen, van B.F.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Salinesi, C.; Norrie, M.C.; Pastor, O.

    2013-01-01

    Compliance checking is gaining importance as today’s organizations need to show that operational processes are executed in a controlled manner while satisfying predefined (legal) requirements or service level agreements. Deviations may be costly and expose an organization to severe risks. Compliance

  2. Tools and drugs for uracil nucleotide-activated P2Y receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafehi, Muhammad; Müller, Christa E

    2018-04-13

    P2Y receptors (P2YRs) are a family of G protein-coupled receptors activated by extracellular nucleotides. Physiological P2YR agonists include purine and pyrimidine nucleoside di- and triphosphates, such as ATP, ADP, UTP, UDP, nucleotide sugars, and dinucleotides. Eight subtypes exist, P2Y 1 , P2Y 2 , P2Y 4 , P2Y 6 , P2Y 11 , P2Y 12 , P2Y 13 , and P2Y 14 , which represent current or potential future drug targets. Here we provide a comprehensive overview of ligands for the subgroup of the P2YR family that is activated by uracil nucleotides: P2Y 2 (UTP, also ATP and dinucleotides), P2Y 4 (UTP), P2Y 6 (UDP), and P2Y 14 (UDP, UDP-glucose, UDP-galactose). The physiological agonists are metabolically unstable due to their fast hydrolysis by ectonucleotidases. A number of agonists with increased potency, subtype-selectivity and/or enzymatic stability have been developed in recent years. Useful P2Y 2 R agonists include MRS2698 (6-01, highly selective) and PSB-1114 (6-05, increased metabolic stability). A potent and selective P2Y 2 R antagonist is AR-C118925 (10-01). For studies of the P2Y 4 R, MRS4062 (3-15) may be used as a selective agonist, while PSB-16133 (10-06) represents a selective antagonist. Several potent P2Y 6 R agonists have been developed including 5-methoxyuridine 5'-O-((R p )α-boranodiphosphate) (6-12), PSB-0474 (3-11), and MRS2693 (3-26). The isocyanate MRS2578 (10-08) is used as a selective P2Y 6 R antagonist, although its reactivity and low water-solubility are limiting. With MRS2905 (6-08), a potent and metabolically stable P2Y 14 R agonist is available, while PPTN (10-14) represents a potent and selective P2Y 14 R antagonist. The radioligand [ 3 H]UDP can be used to label P2Y 14 Rs. In addition, several fluorescent probes have been developed. Uracil nucleotide-activated P2YRs show great potential as drug targets, especially in inflammation, cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Apical P2XR contribute to [Ca2+]i signaling and Isc in mouse renal MCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liuzhe; Lynch, I Jeanette; Zheng, Wencui; Cash, Melanie N; Teng, Xueling; Wingo, Charles S; Verlander, Jill W; Xia, Shen-Ling

    2007-08-03

    We examined P2X receptor expression and distribution in the mouse collecting duct (CD) and their functional role in Ca(2+) signaling. Both P2X(1) and P2X(4) were detected by RT-PCR and Western blot. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated apical P2X(1) and P2X(4) immunoreactivity in principal cells in the outer medullary CD (OMCD) and inner medullary CD (IMCD). Luminal ATP induced an increase in Ca(2+) signaling in native medullary CD (MCD) as measured by fluorescence imaging. ATP also induced an increase in Ca(2+) signaling in MCD cells grown in primary culture but not in the presence of P2XR antagonist PPNDS. Short circuit current (I(sc)) measurement with mouse IMCD cells showed that P2XR agonist BzATP induced a larger I(sc) than did P2YR agonist UTP in the apical membrane. Our data reveal for the first time that P2X(1) and P2X(4) are cell-specific with prominent immunoreactivity in the apical area of MCD cells. The finding that P2XR blockade inhibits ATP-induced Ca(2+) signaling suggests that activation of P2XR is a key step in Ca(2+)-dependent purinergic signaling. The result that activation of P2XR produces large I(sc) indicates the necessity of P2XR in renal CD ion transport.

  4. P2X7 signaling promotes microsphere embolism-triggered microglia activation by maintaining elevation of Fas ligand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Ying-mei

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cerebral microvascular occlusion elicits microvascular injury which mimics the different degrees of stroke severity observed in patients, but the mechanisms underlying these embolic injuries are far from understood. The Fas ligand (FasL-Fas system has been implicated in a number of pathogenic states. Here, we examined the contribution of microglia-derived FasL to brain inflammatory injury, with a focus on the potential to suppress the FasL increase by inhibition of the P2X7-FasL signaling with pharmacological or genetic approaches during ischemia. Methods The cerebral microvascular occlusion was induced by microsphere injection in experimental animals. Morphological changes in microglial cells were studied immunohistochemically. The biochemical analyses were used to examine the intracellular changes of P2X7/FasL signaling. The BV-2 cells and primary microglia from mice genetically deficient in P2X7 were used to further establish a linkage between microglia activation and FasL overproduction. Results The FasL expression was continuously elevated and was spatiotemporally related to microglia activation following microsphere embolism. Notably, P2X7 expression concomitantly increased in microglia and presented a distribution pattern that was similar to that of FasL in ED1-positive cells at pathological process of microsphere embolism. Interestingly, FasL generation in cultured microglia cells subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation-treated neuron-conditioned medium was prevented by the silencing of P2X7. Furthermore, FasL induced the migration of BV-2 microglia, whereas the neutralization of FasL with a blocking antibody was highly effective in inhibiting ischemia-induced microglial mobility. Similar results were observed in primary microglia from wild-type mice or mice genetically deficient in P2X7. Finally, the degrees of FasL overproduction and neuronal death were consistently reduced in P2X7−/− mice compared with wild

  5. Ion channel regulation by phosphoinositides analyzed with VSPs – PI(4,5P2 affinity, phosphoinositide selectivity, and PI(4,5P2 pool accessibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra eRjasanow

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The activity of many proteins depends on the phosphoinositide (PI content of the membrane. E.g., dynamic changes of the concentration of PI(4,5P2 are cellular signals that regulate ion channels. The susceptibility of a channel to such dynamics depends on its affinity for PI(4,5P2. Yet, measuring affinities for endogenous PIs has not been possible directly, but has relied largely on the response to soluble analogs, which may not quantitatively reflect binding to native lipids.Voltage-sensitive phosphatases (VSPs turn over PI(4,5P2 to PI(4P when activated by depolarization. In combination with voltage-clamp electrophysiology VSPs are useful tools for rapid and reversible depletion of PI(4,5P2. Because cellular PI(4,5P2 is resynthesized rapidly, steady state PI(4,5P2 changes with the degree of VSP activation and thus depends on membrane potential.Here we show that titration of endogenous PI(4,5P2 with Ci-VSP allows for the quantification of relative PI(4,5P2 affinities of ion channels. The sensitivity of inward rectifier and voltage-gated K+ channels to Ci-VSP allowed for comparison of PI(4,5P2 affinities within and across channel subfamilies and detected changes of affinity in mutant channels. The results also reveal that VSPs are useful only for PI effectors with high binding specificity among PI isoforms, because PI(4,5P2 depletion occurs at constant overall PI level. Thus, Kir6.2, a channel activated by PI(4,5P2 and PI(4P was insensitive to VSP.Surprisingly, despite comparable PI(4,5P2 affinity as determined by Ci-VSP, the Kv7 and Kir channel families strongly differed in their sensitivity to receptor-mediated depletion of PI(4,5P2. While Kv7 members were highly sensitive to activation of PLC by Gq-coupled receptors, Kir channels were insensitive even when PI(4,5P2 affinity was lowered by mutation. We hypothesize that different channels may be associated with distinct pools of PI(4,5P2 that differ in their accessibility to PLC and VSPs.

  6. Acceptance and compliance with external hip protectors: A systematic review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schoor, N.M.; Deville, W.L.J.M.; Bouter, L.M.; Lips, P.T.A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Hip fractures may be prevented by the use of external hip protectors, but compliance is often poor. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the determinants of compliance with hip protectors by systematically reviewing the literature. A literature search was performed in PubMed, Embase

  7. Acceptance and compliance with external hip protectors: a systematic review of the literature.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoor, N.M. van; Devillé, W.L.; Bouter, L.M.; Lips, P.

    2002-01-01

    Hip fractures may be prevented by the use of external hip protectors, but compliance is often poor. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the determinants of compliance with hip protectors by systematically reviewing the literature. A literature search was performed in PubMed, Embase

  8. Compliance with national guidelines for the management of drug-drug interactions in Dutch community pharmacies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buurma, H.; Schalekamp, T.; Egberts, A.C.G.; Smet, P.A.G.M. de

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pharmacists contribute to the detection and prevention of drug therapy-related problems, including drug-drug interactions. Little is known about compliance with pharmacy practice guidelines for the management of drug-drug interaction alerts. OBJECTIVE: To measure the compliance of

  9. Diagnostic information in compliance checking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramezani Taghiabadi, E.; Fahland, D.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.

    2012-01-01

    Compliance checking is gaining importance as today's organizations need to show that operational processes are executed in a controlled manner while satisfying predefined (legal) requirements. Deviations may be costly and expose the organization to severe risks. Compliance checking is of growing

  10. Chronic administration of the selective P2X3, P2X2/3 receptor antagonist, A-317491, transiently attenuates cancer-induced bone pain in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rikke Rie; Nasser, Arafat; Falk, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    The purinergic P2X3 and P2X2/3 receptors are in the peripheral nervous system almost exclusively confined to afferent sensory neurons, where they are found both at peripheral and central synapses. The P2X3 receptor is implicated in both neuropathic and inflammatory pain. However, the role of the ......X3 receptor in chronic cancer-induced bone pain is less known. Here we investigated the effect of systemic acute and chronic administration of the selective P2X3, P2X2/3 receptor antagonist (5-[[[(3-Phenoxyphenyl)methyl][(1S)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-naphthalenyl]amino]carbonyl]-1...

  11. Environmental compliance assessment review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilliday, G.H.

    1991-01-01

    During the period 1972-1991, The United States Congress passed stringent environmental statues which the Environment Protection Agency implemented via regulations. The statues and regulations contain severe civil and criminal penalties. Civil violations resulted in fines, typically payable by the company. The act of willfully and knowingly violating the permit conditions or regulations can result in criminal charges being imposed upon the responsible part, i.e., either the company or individual. Criminal charges can include fines, lawyer fees, court costs and incarceration. This paper describes steps necessary to form an effective Environmental Compliance Assessment Review [CAR] program, train field and engineering personnel and perform a CAR audit. Additionally, the paper discusses the findings of a number of Exploration and Production [E and P] field audits

  12. A Study on Corporate Security Awareness and Compliance Behavior Intent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Christine Y.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the drivers to encourage employees' security compliance behavior is increasingly important in today's highly networked environment to protect computer and information assets of the company. The traditional approach for corporations to implement technology-based controls, to prevent security breaches is no longer sufficient.…

  13. Framing of information on the use of public finances, regulatory fit of recipients and tax compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holler, Marianne; Hoelzl, Erik; Kirchler, Erich; Leder, Susanne; Mannetti, Lucia

    2010-01-01

    Information campaigns to increase tax compliance could be framed in different ways. They can either highlight the potential gains when tax compliance is high, or the potential losses when compliance is low. According to regulatory focus theory, such framing should be most effective when it is congruent with the promotion or prevention focus of its recipients. Two studies confirmed the hypothesized interaction effects between recipients' regulatory focus and framing of information campaigns, with tax compliance being highest under conditions of regulatory fit. To address taxpayers effectively, information campaigns by tax authorities should consider the positive and negative framing of information, and the moderating effect of recipients' regulatory focus. PMID:20495689

  14. Framing of information on the use of public finances, regulatory fit of recipients and tax compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holler, Marianne; Hoelzl, Erik; Kirchler, Erich; Leder, Susanne; Mannetti, Lucia

    2008-08-01

    Information campaigns to increase tax compliance could be framed in different ways. They can either highlight the potential gains when tax compliance is high, or the potential losses when compliance is low. According to regulatory focus theory, such framing should be most effective when it is congruent with the promotion or prevention focus of its recipients. Two studies confirmed the hypothesized interaction effects between recipients' regulatory focus and framing of information campaigns, with tax compliance being highest under conditions of regulatory fit. To address taxpayers effectively, information campaigns by tax authorities should consider the positive and negative framing of information, and the moderating effect of recipients' regulatory focus.

  15. Effect of hand sanitizer location on hand hygiene compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cure, Laila; Van Enk, Richard

    2015-09-01

    Hand hygiene is the most important intervention to prevent infection in hospitals. Health care workers should clean their hands at least before and after contact with patients. Hand sanitizer dispensers are important to support hand hygiene because they can be made available throughout hospital units. The aim of this study was to determine whether the usability of sanitizer dispensers correlates with compliance of staff in using the sanitizer in a hospital. This study took place in a Midwest, 404-bed, private, nonprofit community hospital with 15 inpatient care units in addition to several ambulatory units. The usability and standardization of sanitizers in 12 participating inpatient units were evaluated. The hospital measured compliance of staff with hand hygiene as part of their quality improvement program. Data from 2010-2012 were analyzed to measure the relationship between compliance and usability using mixed-effects logistic regression models. The total usability score (P = .0046), visibility (P = .003), and accessibility of the sanitizer on entrance to the patient room (P = .00055) were statistically associated with higher observed compliance rates. Standardization alone showed no significant impact on observed compliance (P = .37). Hand hygiene compliance can be influenced by visibility and accessibility of dispensers. The sanitizer location should be part of multifaceted interventions to improve hand hygiene. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Sustained Release of Prostaglandin E2 in Fibroblasts Expressing Ectopically Cyclooxygenase 2 Impairs P2Y-Dependent Ca2+-Mobilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Pimentel-Santillana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The nucleotide uridine trisphosphate (UTP released to the extracellular milieu acts as a signaling molecule via activation of specific pyrimidine receptors (P2Y. P2Y receptors are G protein-coupled receptors expressed in many cell types. These receptors mediate several cell responses and they are involved in intracellular calcium mobilization. We investigated the role of the prostanoid PGE2 in P2Y signaling in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs, since these cells are involved in different ontogenic and physiopathological processes, among them is tissue repair following proinflammatory activation. Interestingly, Ca2+-mobilization induced by UTP-dependent P2Y activation was reduced by PGE2 when this prostanoid was produced by MEFs transfected with COX-2 or when PGE2 was added exogenously to the culture medium. This Ca2+-mobilization was important for the activation of different metabolic pathways in fibroblasts. Moreover, inhibition of COX-2 with selective coxibs prevented UTP-dependent P2Y activation in these cells. The inhibition of P2Y responses by PGE2 involves the activation of PKCs and PKD, a response that can be suppressed after pharmacological inhibition of these protein kinases. In addition to this, PGE2 reduces the fibroblast migration induced by P2Y-agonists such as UTP. Taken together, these data demonstrate that PGE2 is involved in the regulation of P2Y signaling in these cells.

  17. Important roles of P2Y receptors in the inflammation and cancer of digestive system

    OpenAIRE

    Wan, Han-Xing; Hu, Jian-Hong; Xie, Rei; Yang, Shi-Ming; Dong, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Purinergic signaling is important for many biological processes in humans. Purinoceptors P2Y are widely distributed in human digestive system and different subtypes of P2Y receptors mediate different physiological functions from metabolism, proliferation, differentiation to apoptosis etc. The P2Y receptors are essential in many gastrointestinal functions and also involve in the occurrence of some digestive diseases. Since different subtypes of P2Y receptors are present on the same cell of dig...

  18. 40 CFR 63.1108 - Compliance with standards and operation and maintenance requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., air pollution control technologies, recovery technologies, work practices, pollution prevention... Source Categories: Generic Maximum Achievable Control Technology Standards § 63.1108 Compliance with... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR...

  19. P2X7 receptor activation induces cell death and microparticle release in murine erythroleukemia cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Constantinescu, P.; Wang, B.; Kovacevic, K.; Jalilian, I.; Bosman, G.J.C.G.M.; Wiley, J.S.; Sluyter, R.

    2010-01-01

    Extracellular ATP induces cation fluxes in and impairs the growth of murine erythroleukemia (MEL) cells in a manner characteristic of the purinergic P2X7 receptor, however the presence of P2X7 in these cells is unknown. This study investigated whether MEL cells express functional P2X7. RT-PCR,

  20. Music2Share - Copyright-Compliant Music Sharing in P2P Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalker, Ton; Epema, Dick H.J.; Hartel, Pieter H.; Lagendijk, R. (Inald) L.; van Steen, Martinus Richardus; van Steen, Maarten

    Peer-to-Peer (P2P) networks are generally considered to be free havens for pirated content, in particular with respect to music. We describe a solution for the problem of copyright infringement in P2P networks for music sharing. In particular, we propose a P2P protocol that integrates the functions

  1. Music2Share --- Copyright-Compliant Music Sharing in P2P Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalker, T.; Epema, D.; Hartel, P.; Lagendijk, I.; van Steen, M.R.

    2004-01-01

    Peer-to-peer (P2P) networks are generally considered to be free havens for pirated content, in particular with respect to music. We describe a solution for the problem of copyright infringement in P2P networks for music sharing. In particular, we propose a P2P protocol that integrates the functions

  2. THE ROLE OF COMPLIANCE IN AN ORGANIZATION. WAYS OF IMPLEMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreescu Nicoleta Alina

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyzed the importance of ethical and conduct codes in implementing the compliance programs in an organization. We presented the assumptions that were the basis for the forming of ethic and compliance programs, as well as their evolution in the last decades. In the first part of this paper we highlighted the legislation that outlined principles required for organizations to implement their compliance programs and business ethics. This legislation came as a response to corporate scandals relating to bribery, fraud and corruption in the 70s, and governments of the affected countries were forced to react in order to prevent, detect inappropriate behaviour, as well as improve corporate behaviour. After coming into force of the Federal Law "The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977" (FCPA, 1977, there was an increase in the number of codes of conduct and corporate involvement in adopting a conduct supported by consumers and stakeholders and to redefine the standards and values, to create a new image corresponding to the new market requirements. In the Guidelines 2002 basic principles are set out in order to efficiently implement a compliance and ethics program in business. The case study was materialized in the analysis of ethics and compliance codes, and the method used for implementing them in three Romanian companies. Analyzing the three ethics and conduct codes, we can conclude that the most important factor to successfully implement ethics and compliance within an organization is "tone from the top". CEO conduct is one that has a direct effect on members of the organization. Furthermore, we followed capturing developments in the rules governing the international business ethics and evaluated the legal framework regulating these issues. The primary aim was to assess how rules are implemented throughout business ethics compliance programs developed at company level and to identify ways to promote - at an organizational level

  3. Circadian ATP Release in Organotypic Cultures of the Rat Suprachiasmatic Nucleus Is Dependent on P2X7 and P2Y Receptors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svobodová, Irena; Bhattacharya, Anirban; Ivetic, Milorad; Bendová, Z.; Zemková, Hana

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 9, Mar 6 (2018), č. článku 192. ISSN 1663-9812 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-12695S; GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069; GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1604; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : suprachiasmatic nucleus * organotypic cultures * astrocytes * P2X7 receptor * P2Y1 receptor * P2Y2 receptor * pannexin-1 hemichannel * ATP release Subject RIV: FH - Neurology OBOR OECD: Neurosciences (including psychophysiology Impact factor: 4.400, year: 2016

  4. Direct Observation on Spin-Coating Process of PS- b -P2VP Thin Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Hiroki; Takenaka, Mikihito; Miyazaki, Tsukasa; Fujiwara, Akihiko; Lee, Byeongdu; Shimokita, Keisuke; Nishibori, Eiji; Takata, Masaki

    2016-05-10

    We studied the structural development of symmetric poly(styrene-b-2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P2VP) block copolymers during spin-coating using in situ grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) measurements. During the spin-coating process, after the formation of the micelles in dilute solution, the selective solvent induced two kinds of the morphological transition. Firstly, the disordered spherical micelles were transformed into a BCC lattice of spheres of which the (110) plane was oriented perpendicularly to the substrate surface. Secondly, further evaporation induced a transition from spheres on the BCC lattice into cylindrical structures. The orientation of the cylinders perpendicular to the substrate surface was induced by solvent convection perpendicular to the substrate, which occurs during rapid solvent evaporation. After this transition, vitrification of PS and P2VP prevented any further transition from cylinders to the more thermodynamically stable lamellar structures, as are generally observed as the bulk equilibrium state.

  5. ARF6-dependent regulation of P2Y receptor traffic and function in human platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamarlapudi, Venkateswarlu; Owens, Sian E; Saha, Keya; Pope, Robert J; Mundell, Stuart J

    2012-01-01

    Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) is a critical regulator of platelet activation, mediating its actions through two G protein-coupled receptors, the P2Y(1) and P2Y(12) purinoceptors. Recently, we demonstrated that P2Y(1) and P2Y(12) purinoceptor activities are rapidly and reversibly modulated in human platelets, revealing that the underlying mechanism requires receptor internalization and subsequent trafficking as an essential part of this process. In this study we investigated the role of the small GTP-binding protein ADP ribosylation factor 6 (ARF6) in the internalization and function of P2Y(1) and P2Y(12) purinoceptors in human platelets. ARF6 has been implicated in the internalization of a number of GPCRs, although its precise molecular mechanism in this process remains unclear. In this study we show that activation of either P2Y(1) or P2Y(12) purinoceptors can stimulate ARF6 activity. Further blockade of ARF6 function either in cell lines or human platelets blocks P2Y purinoceptor internalization. This blockade of receptor internalization attenuates receptor resensitization. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Nm23-H1, a nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinase regulated by ARF6 which facilitates dynamin-dependent fission of coated vesicles during endocytosis, is also required for P2Y purinoceptor internalization. These data describe a novel function of ARF6 in the internalization of P2Y purinoceptors and demonstrate the integral importance of this small GTPase upon platelet ADP receptor function.

  6. ARF6-dependent regulation of P2Y receptor traffic and function in human platelets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkateswarlu Kanamarlapudi

    Full Text Available Adenosine diphosphate (ADP is a critical regulator of platelet activation, mediating its actions through two G protein-coupled receptors, the P2Y(1 and P2Y(12 purinoceptors. Recently, we demonstrated that P2Y(1 and P2Y(12 purinoceptor activities are rapidly and reversibly modulated in human platelets, revealing that the underlying mechanism requires receptor internalization and subsequent trafficking as an essential part of this process. In this study we investigated the role of the small GTP-binding protein ADP ribosylation factor 6 (ARF6 in the internalization and function of P2Y(1 and P2Y(12 purinoceptors in human platelets. ARF6 has been implicated in the internalization of a number of GPCRs, although its precise molecular mechanism in this process remains unclear. In this study we show that activation of either P2Y(1 or P2Y(12 purinoceptors can stimulate ARF6 activity. Further blockade of ARF6 function either in cell lines or human platelets blocks P2Y purinoceptor internalization. This blockade of receptor internalization attenuates receptor resensitization. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Nm23-H1, a nucleoside diphosphate (NDP kinase regulated by ARF6 which facilitates dynamin-dependent fission of coated vesicles during endocytosis, is also required for P2Y purinoceptor internalization. These data describe a novel function of ARF6 in the internalization of P2Y purinoceptors and demonstrate the integral importance of this small GTPase upon platelet ADP receptor function.

  7. Anisotropic thermal properties and ferroelectric phase transitions in layered CuInP2S6 and CuInP2Se6 crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liubachko, V.; Shvalya, V.; Oleaga, A.; Salazar, A.; Kohutych, A.; Pogodin, A.; Vysochanskii, Yu. M.

    2017-12-01

    Thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity have been studied for the layered crystals CuInP2S6, CuInP2Se6 from 30 K to 350 K, showing a relevant thermal anisotropy. Heat is much more efficiently transferred within the layers than perpendicular to them. The ferrielectric transition in CuInP2S6 is proven to be clearly first order while the ferroelectric one in CuInP2Se6 has a weak first order character. The behavior of the thermal conductivity as a function of temperature in the ferroelectric phases shows that heat conduction is phonon driven. Disorder in the paraelectric phases due to hopping motions of Cu ions significantly reduces the thermal conductivity to extremely low values.

  8. ATP and UTP responses of cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells revisited: dominance of P2Y2 receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Rajendra; Goh, Gareth; Ng, Leong L; Boarder, Michael R

    2003-01-01

    It has previously been shown that ATP and UTP stimulate P2Y receptors in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), but the nature of these receptors, in particular the contribution of P2Y2 and P2Y4 subtypes, has not been firmly established. Here we undertake a further pharmacological analysis of [3H]inositol polyphosphate responses to nucleotides in cultured rat VSMCs. ATP generated a response that was partial compared to UTP, as reported earlier. In the presence of a creatine phosphokinase (CPK) system for regenerating nucleoside triphosphates, the response to ATP was increased, the response to UTP was unchanged, and the difference between UTP and ATP concentration–response curves disappeared. Chromatographic analysis showed that ATP was degraded slightly faster than UTP. The response to UDP was always smaller than that to UTP, but with a shallow slope and a high potency component. In the presence of hexokinase (which prevents the accumulation of ATP/UTP from ADP/UDP), the maximum response to UDP was reduced and the high-potency component of the curve was retained. By contrast, the response to ADP was weaker throughout in the presence of hexokinase. ATPγS was an effective agonist with a similar EC50 to UTP, but with a lower maximum. ITP was a weak agonist compared with UTP. Suramin was an effective antagonist of the response to UTP (pA2=4.48), but not when ATP was the agonist. However, suramin was an effective antagonist (pA2=4.45) when stimulation with ATP was in the presence of the CPK regenerating system. Taken together with the results of others, these findings indicate that the response of cultured rat VSMCs to UTP and to ATP is predominantly at the P2Y2 receptor, and that there is also a response to UDP at the P2Y6 receptor. PMID:14597595

  9. Oil Mist Compliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarus, Lloyd

    2009-01-01

    This report summarizes activities at the KCP related to evaluating and modifying machine tools in order to be in compliance with Section 23 of DOE 10 CFR 851, Worker Safety and Health Program. Section 851.23 (a) states that 'Contractors must comply with the following safety and health standards that are applicable to the hazards in their covered workplace', and subsection 9 contains the following applicable standard: 'American Congress of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), 'Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices,' (2005) (incorporated by reference, see (section)851.27) when the ACGIH Threshold Limit Values are lower (more protective) than permissible exposure limits in 29 CFR 1910'. In the 2005 ACGIH Threshold Limit Value book a Notice of Change was issued for exposure to mineral oil mist used in metalworking fluids (MWFs). The effects of planning for the new facility and which machine tools would be making the transition to the new facility affected which machine tools were modified

  10. Oil Mist Compliance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazarus, Lloyd

    2009-02-02

    This report summarizes activities at the KCP related to evaluating and modifying machine tools in order to be in compliance with Section 23 of DOE 10 CFR 851, Worker Safety and Health Program. Section 851.23 (a) states that “Contractors must comply with the following safety and health standards that are applicable to the hazards in their covered workplace”, and subsection 9 contains the following applicable standard: “American Congress of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), ‘Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices,’ (2005) (incorporated by reference, see §851.27) when the ACGIH Threshold Limit Values are lower (more protective) than permissible exposure limits in 29 CFR 1910.” In the 2005 ACGIH – Threshold Limit Value book a Notice of Change was issued for exposure to mineral oil mist used in metalworking fluids (MWFs). The effects of planning for the new facility and which machine tools would be making the transition to the new facility affected which machine tools were modified.

  11. Environmental Compliance Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brownson, L.W.; Krsul, T.; Peralta, R.A.; Knudson, D.A.; Rosignolo, C.L.

    1992-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is developing the Environmental Compliance Management System (ECMS) as a comprehensive, cost-effective tool to ensure (1) that the Laboratory complies with all applicable federal and state environmental laws and regulations, (2) that environmental issues and concerns are recognized and considered in the early phases of projects; and (3) that Laboratory personnel conduct Laboratory operations in the most environmentally acceptable manner. The ECMS is an expert computer system which is designed to allow project engineers to perform an environmental evaluation of their projects. The system includes a Master Program which collects basic project information, provide utility functions, and access the environmental expert modules, environmental expert system modules for each federal and state environmental law which allows the user to obtain specific information on how an individual law may affect his project; and site-specific databases which contain information necessary for effective management of the site under environmental regulations. The ECMS will have the capability to complete and print many of the necessary environmental forms required by federal and state agencies, including the Department of Energy

  12. P2X receptors in the cardiovascular system and their potential as therapeutic targets in disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralevic, Vera

    2015-01-01

    This review considers the expression and roles of P2X receptors in the cardiovascular system in health and disease and their potential as therapeutic targets. P2X receptors are ligand gated ion channels which are activated by the endogenous ligand ATP. They are formed from the assembly of three P2X subunit proteins from the complement of seven (P2X1-7), which can associate to form homomeric or heteromeric P2X receptors. The P2X1 receptor is widely expressed in the cardiovascular system, being located in the heart, in the smooth muscle of the majority of blood vessels and in platelets. P2X1 receptors expressed in blood vessels can be activated by ATP coreleased with noradrenaline as a sympathetic neurotransmitter, leading to smooth muscle depolarisation and contraction. There is evidence that the purinergic component of sympathetic neurotransmission is increased in hypertension, identifying P2X1 receptors as a possible therapeutic target in this disorder. P2X3 and P2X2/3 receptors are expressed on cardiac sympathetic neurones and may, through positive feedback of neuronal ATP at this prejunctional site, amplify sympathetic neurotransmission. Activation of P2X receptors expressed in the heart increases cardiac myocyte contractility, and an important role of the P2X4 receptor in this has been identified. Deletion of P2X4 receptors in the heart depresses contractile performance in models of heart failure, while overexpression of P2X4 receptors has been shown to be cardioprotective, thus P2X4 receptors may be therapeutic targets in the treatment of heart disease. P2X receptors have been identified on endothelial cells. Although immunoreactivity for all P2X1-7 receptor proteins has been shown on the endothelium, relatively little is known about their function, with the exception of the endothelial P2X4 receptor, which has been shown to mediate endothelium-dependent vasodilatation to ATP released during shear stress. The potential of P2X receptors as therapeutic targets

  13. Magnified Bacteria Powerful Motivator for Hand Hygiene Compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Ashley

    2016-08-01

    Infection prevention specialists at Henry Ford Hospital in Detroit have found that showing healthcare workers magnified pictures of bacteria found ontheir hands and in their surrounding units can be a powerful motivator for improved hand hygiene compliance. When tested in four units during a one-month period, the intervention boosted hand hygiene compliance by an average of 24%. Investigators note that to be successful, the intervention must be paired with an effective compliance monitoring program. For the study, investigators visited each unit twice per week, during which they would swab various items as well as employees' hands using and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) meter, a hand-held device that measures living organisms. During each unit visit, infection prevention specialists would show unit personnel pictures from a compilation of 12 magnified images of bacteria that had been lifted from the unit. This was to demonstrate what the bacteria would look like under a microscope. The unsavory pictures produced immediate increases in had hygiene compliance, and prompted healthcare workers to see who could produce the best ATP meter readings on subsequent infection prevention specialist visits.

  14. Y2K compliance countdown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlotto, P W

    1999-01-01

    The new century brings unique challenges--especially Y2K compliance. This article presents nurse managers and executives with an overview of the issues and action steps to keep their organizations on track.

  15. Air Compliance Complaint Database (ACCD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — THIS DATA ASSET NO LONGER ACTIVE: This is metadata documentation for the Region 7 Air Compliance Complaint Database (ACCD) which logs all air pollution complaints...

  16. The Italian compliance assurance programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivelloni, S.

    1999-01-01

    An overview is given of the compliance assurance programme that is applied in Italy and the role of the different competent authorities that have responsibilities for the transport of radioactive materials is described. (author)

  17. Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The purpose of ICIS is to meet evolving Enforcement and Compliance business needs for EPA and State users by integrating information into a single integrated data...

  18. The Strategic Nature of Compliance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    König, Thomas; Mäder, Lars Kai

    2014-01-01

    by the anticipated enforcement decision of the monitoring agency and whether this agency is responsive to the probability of enforcement success and the potential sanctioning costs produced by noncomplying implementers. Compared to other monitoring systems, the centralized monitoring system of the European Union (EU......This compliance study models correct and timely implementation of policies in a multilevel system as a strategic game between a central monitoring agency and multiple implementers and evaluates statistically the empirical implications of this model. We test whether compliance is determined......) is praised for exemplary effectiveness, but our findings reveal that the monitoring agency refrains from enforcing compliance when the probability of success is low, and the sanctioning costs are high. This results in a compliance deficit, even though the selective enforcement activities of the monitoring...

  19. Compliance with removable orthodontic appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nirmal

    2017-12-22

    Data sourcesMedline via OVID, PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science Core Collection, LILACS and BBO databases. Unpublished clinical trials accessed using ClinicalTrials.gov, National Research Register, ProQuest Dissertation and Thesis database.Study selectionTwo authors searched studies from inception until May 2016 without language restrictions. Quantitative and qualitative studies incorporating objective data on compliance with removable appliances, barriers to appliance wear compliance, and interventions to improve compliance were included.Data extraction and synthesisQuality of research was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration's risk of bias tool, the risk of bias in non-randomised studies of interventions (ROBINS-I), and the mixed methods appraisal tool. Statistical heterogeneity was investigated by examining a graphic display of the estimated compliance levels in conjunction with 95% confidence intervals and quantified using the I-squared statistic. A weighted estimate of objective compliance levels for different appliances in relation to stipulated wear and self-reported levels was also calculated. Risk of publication bias was assessed using funnel plots. Meta-regression was undertaken to assess the relative effects of appliance type on compliance levels.ResultsTwenty-four studies met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 11 were included in the quantitative synthesis. The mean duration of objectively measured wear was considerably lower than stipulated wear time amongst all appliances. Headgear had the greatest discrepancy (5.81 hours, 95% confidence interval, 4.98, 6.64). Self-reported wear time was consistently higher than objectively measured wear time amongst all appliances. Headgear had the greatest discrepancy (5.02 hours, 95% confidence interval, 3.64, 6.40). Two studies found an increase in compliance with headgear and Hawley retainers when patients were aware of monitoring. Five studies found younger age groups to

  20. Post-translational regulation of P2X receptor channels: modulation by phospholipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis-Philippe eBernier

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available P2X receptor channels mediate fast excitatory signaling by ATP and play major roles in sensory transduction, neuro-immune communication and inflammatory response. P2X receptors constitute a gene family of calcium-permeable ATP-gated cation channels therefore the regulation of P2X signaling is critical for both membrane potential and intracellular calcium homeostasis. Phosphoinositides (PIPn are anionic signaling phospholipids that act as functional regulators of many types of ion channels. Direct PIPn binding was demonstrated for several ligand- or voltage-gated ion channels, however no generic motif emerged to accurately predict lipid-protein binding sites. This review presents what is currently known about the modulation of the different P2X subtypes by phospholipids and about critical determinants underlying their sensitivity to PIPn levels in the plasma membrane.All functional mammalian P2X subtypes tested, with the notable exception of P2X5, have been shown to be positively modulated by PIPn, i.e. homomeric P2X1, P2X2, P2X3, P2X4, and P2X7, as well as heteromeric P2X1/5 and P2X2/3 receptors. Based on various results reported on the aforementioned subtypes including mutagenesis of the prototypical PIPn-sensitive P2X4 and PIPn-insensitive P2X5 receptor subtypes, an increasing amount of functional, biochemical and structural evidence converges on the modulatory role of a short polybasic domain located in the proximal C-terminus of P2X subunits. This linear motif, semi-conserved in the P2X family, seems necessary and sufficient for encoding direct modulation of ATP-gated channels by PIPn. Furthermore, the physiological impact of the regulation of ionotropic purinergic responses by phospholipids on pain pathways was recently revealed in the context of native crosstalks between phospholipase C-linked metabotropic receptors and P2X receptor channels in DRG sensory neurons and microglia.

  1. Compliance with air quality regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steen, D.V.; Tackett, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    Due to the probable passage of Clean Air Act Amendments in 1990, electric utilities throughout the United States are faced with numerous choices to comply with the new acid rain regulations, expected in 1991. The choice of a compliance plan is not a simple task. Every compliance option will be costly. At Ohio Edison, deliberations are quite naturally influenced by past compliance with air quality regulations. This paper discusses compliance with air quality regulations in the 1970's, clean coal technologies and advanced scrubbers, and compliance with air quality regulations in 1995 - 2000. The choice of a compliance strategy for many utilities will involve serving customer loads through some combination of scrubbers, clean coal technologies, fuel switching, fuel blending, redispatch of units, and emissions trading. Whatever the final choice, it must be economic while providing sufficient flexibility to accommodate the critical uncertainties of load growth, state regulatory treatment, markets for emission allowances, advancements in control technologies, additional federal requirements for air emissions, equipment outages and fuel supply disruptions.s

  2. Synthesis of CaO-SiO2-P2O5 mesoporous bioactive glasses with high P2O5 content by evaporation induced self assembly process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shan; Li, Yanbao; Li, Dongxu

    2011-02-01

    Mesoporous bioactive glasses (MBGs) of the CaO-SiO(2)-P(2)O(5) system containing relatively high P(2)O(5) contents (10-30 mol%) were prepared from a sol-gel. An evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) technique was used with poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(propylene oxide)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) (EO(20)-PO(70)-EO(20), P123) acting as a template. The structural, morphological and textural properties of MBGs were investigated by small-angle X-ray diffraction (SAXRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and a N(2) sorption/desorption technique. SAXRD and TEM results display the reduced long-range ordering of mesopores with increasing P(2)O(5) content. N(2) sorption/desorption analysis shows that all three samples exhibit a type IV isotherm with type H1 hysteresis loops, characteristic of independent cylindrical slim pore channels and this material has a Barret-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) model pore size of ~4 nm and BET specific surface area ~430 m(2)/g. NMR results indicate a more condensed framework for samples with 30 mol% P(2)O(5) than samples with 10 mol% P(2)O(5). For in vitro bioactivity tests where samples were soaked in simulated body fluid (SBF), samples with 30 mol% P(2)O(5) showed higher crystallinity than those with lower P(2)O(5) contents Silicon concentration increased in SBF solution during the soaking period, which indicates MBGs can be degradable in SBF solution.

  3. Role of P2 Receptors as Modulators of Rat Eosinophil Recruitment in Allergic Inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anael Viana Pinto Alberto

    Full Text Available ATP and other nucleotides are released from cells through regulated pathways or following the loss of plasma membrane integrity. Once outside the cell, these compounds can activate P2 receptors: P2X ionotropic receptors and G protein-coupled P2Y receptors. Eosinophils represent major effector cells in the allergic inflammatory response and they are, in fact, associated with several physiological and pathological processes. Here we investigate the expression of P2 receptors and roles of those receptors in murine eosinophils. In this context, our first step was to investigate the expression and functionality of the P2X receptors by patch clamping, our results showed a potency ranking order of ATP>ATPγS> 2meSATP> ADP> αβmeATP> βγmeATP>BzATP> UTP> UDP>cAMP. This data suggest the presence of P2X1, P2X2 and P2X7. Next we evaluate by microfluorimetry the expression of P2Y receptors, our results based in the ranking order of potency (UTP>ATPγS> ATP > UDP> ADP >2meSATP > αβmeATP suggests the presence of P2Y2, P2Y4, P2Y6 and P2Y11. Moreover, we confirmed our findings by immunofluorescence assays. We also did chemotaxis assays to verify whether nucleotides could induce migration. After 1 or 2 hours of incubation, ATP increased migration of eosinophils, as well as ATPγS, a less hydrolysable analogue of ATP, while suramin a P2 blocker abolished migration. In keeping with this idea, we tested whether these receptors are implicated in the migration of eosinophils to an inflammation site in vivo, using a model of rat allergic pleurisy. In fact, migration of eosinophils has increased when ATP or ATPγS were applied in the pleural cavity, and once more suramin blocked this effect. We have demonstrated that rat eosinophils express P2X and P2Y receptors. In addition, the activation of P2 receptors can increase migration of eosinophils in vitro and in vivo, an effect blocked by suramin.

  4. Targeting of the P2X7 receptor in pancreatic cancer and stellate cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giannuzzo, Andrea; Saccomano, Mara; Napp, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    of PDAC. In the in vitro studies we show that human PDAC cells with luciferase gene (PancTu-1 Luc cells) express high levels of P2X7R protein. Allosteric P2X7R antagonist AZ10606120 inhibited cell proliferation in basal conditions, indicating that P2X7R was tonically active. Extracellular ATP and Bz......ATP, to which the P2X7R is more sensitive, further affected cell survival and confirmed complex functionality of P2X7R. PancTu-1 Luc migration and invasion was reduced by AZ10606120, and it was stimulated by PSCs, but not by PSCs from P2X7(-/-) animals. PancTu-1 Luc cells were orthotopically transplanted...

  5. In Vitro Binding of [³H]PSB-0413 to P2Y₁₂ Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis, Arnaud; Heim, Véronique; Ohlmann, Philippe; Gachet, Christian

    2015-12-08

    The P2Y₁₂/ADP receptor plays a central role in platelet activation. Characterization of this receptor is mandatory for studying disorders associated with a P2Y₁₂ receptor defect and for evaluating P2Y₁₂ receptor agonists and antagonists. In the absence of suitable anti-P2Y₁₂ antibodies, radioligand binding assays are the only way to conduct such studies. While various radioligands were employed in the past for this purpose, none were found to be suitable for routine use. Described in this unit are protocols for quantitatively and qualitatively assessing P2Y₁₂ receptors with [³H]PSB-0413, a selective antagonist for this site. The saturation and competition assays described herein make possible the determination of P2Y₁₂ receptor density on cells, as well as the potencies and affinities of test agents at this site. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  6. Protein kinase C isoforms in bovine aortic endothelial cells: role in regulation of P2Y- and P2U-purinoceptor-stimulated prostacyclin release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, V; Brown, C; Boarder, M R

    1996-05-01

    1. Enhanced synthesis of prostacyclin (PGI2) and inositol polyphosphates in bovine aortic endothelial cells in response to ATP and ADP is mediated by co-existing P2Y- and P2U-purinoceptors. Here we examine the regulation of these responses by isoforms of protein kinase C (PKC). 2. Immunoblots with antisera specific for 8 different PKC isoforms revealed the presence of alpha, epsilon and zeta, while no immunoreactivity was found for beta, gamma, delta, eta and theta isoforms. PKC-alpha was largely cytosolic in unstimulated cells and almost all translocated to the membrane (Triton X-100 soluble) after a 1 min treatment with the PKC activating phorbol myristate acetate (PMA); PKC-epsilon was always in a Triton X-100 insoluble membrane fraction, while PKC-zeta was found in both soluble and membrane bound (Triton X-100 soluble) forms in the unstimulated cells and was unaffected by PMA. 3. Treatment with PMA for 6 h led to a 90% downregulation of PKC-alpha, while the immunoreactivity to the epsilon and zeta isoforms remained largely unchanged. 4. After either 10 min or 6 h exposure to PMA the PGI2 response to activation of both receptors was enhanced, while the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate response to P2Y-purinoceptor activation was substantially attenuated and the P2U-purinoceptor response was unchanged. Thus the PGI2 response to PMA under conditions when 90% of the PKC-alpha was lost resembles that seen on acute stimulation of PKC by PMA, and the PGI2 response does not correlate with phospholipase C response. 5. Inhibition of PKC with the isoform non-selective inhibitors, Ro 31-8220 and Go 6850 abolished the PGI2 response to both P2U- and P2Y-purinoceptor stimulation. However, Go 6976, which preferentially inhibits Ca2+ sensitive isoforms (such as PKC-alpha) and not Ca2+ insensitive isoforms (such as PKC-epsilon), had no effect on the PGI2 response. 6. The results show that there is a requirement for PKC in the stimulation of PGI2 production by endothelial P2Y- and P2U

  7. P2Y6 Receptor Activation Promotes Inflammation and Tissue Remodeling in Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Tobias; Fay, Susanne; Vieira, Rodolfo Paula; Karmouty-Quintana, Harry; Cicko, Sanja; Ayata, Cemil Korcan; Zissel, Gernot; Goldmann, Torsten; Lungarella, Giuseppe; Ferrari, Davide; Di Virgilio, Francesco; Robaye, Bernard; Boeynaems, Jean-Marie; Lazarowski, Eduardo R.; Blackburn, Michael R.; Idzko, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a disease with a poor prognosis and very few available treatment options. The involvement of the purinergic receptor subtypes P2Y2 and P2X7 in fibrotic lung disease has been demonstrated recently. In this study, we investigated the role of P2Y6 receptors in the pathogenesis of IPF in humans and in the animal model of bleomycin-induced lung injury. P2Y6R expression was upregulated in lung structural cells but not in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells derived from IPF patients as well as in animals following bleomycin administration. Furthermore, BAL fluid levels of the P2Y6R agonist uridine-5′-diphosphate were elevated in animals with bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Inflammation and fibrosis following bleomycin administration were reduced in P2Y6R-deficient compared to wild-type animals confirming the pathophysiological relevance of P2Y6R subtypes for fibrotic lung diseases. Experiments with bone marrow chimeras revealed the importance of P2Y6R expression on lung structural cells for pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis. Similar effects were obtained when animals were treated with the P2Y6R antagonist MRS2578. In vitro studies demonstrated that proliferation and secretion of the pro-inflammatory/pro-fibrotic cytokine IL-6 by lung fibroblasts are P2Y6R-mediated processes. In summary, our results clearly demonstrate the involvement of P2Y6R subtypes in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. Thus, blocking pulmonary P2Y6 receptors might be a new target for the treatment of IPF. PMID:28878780

  8. P2Y6 Receptor Activation Promotes Inflammation and Tissue Remodeling in Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Müller

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF is a disease with a poor prognosis and very few available treatment options. The involvement of the purinergic receptor subtypes P2Y2 and P2X7 in fibrotic lung disease has been demonstrated recently. In this study, we investigated the role of P2Y6 receptors in the pathogenesis of IPF in humans and in the animal model of bleomycin-induced lung injury. P2Y6R expression was upregulated in lung structural cells but not in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL cells derived from IPF patients as well as in animals following bleomycin administration. Furthermore, BAL fluid levels of the P2Y6R agonist uridine-5′-diphosphate were elevated in animals with bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Inflammation and fibrosis following bleomycin administration were reduced in P2Y6R-deficient compared to wild-type animals confirming the pathophysiological relevance of P2Y6R subtypes for fibrotic lung diseases. Experiments with bone marrow chimeras revealed the importance of P2Y6R expression on lung structural cells for pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis. Similar effects were obtained when animals were treated with the P2Y6R antagonist MRS2578. In vitro studies demonstrated that proliferation and secretion of the pro-inflammatory/pro-fibrotic cytokine IL-6 by lung fibroblasts are P2Y6R-mediated processes. In summary, our results clearly demonstrate the involvement of P2Y6R subtypes in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. Thus, blocking pulmonary P2Y6 receptors might be a new target for the treatment of IPF.

  9. Research of using mobile agents for information discovery in P2P networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lan Yan; Yao Qing

    2003-01-01

    The technology of P2P is a new network-computing model that has great value of commerce and technology. After analyzing the current information discovery technology in P2P network, a new solution that is based on mobile agent is proposed. The mobile agent solution can reduce the need of bandwidth, be adapt to the dynamic of P2P network, and be asynchronous and be very fault tolerant. (authors)

  10. Novel protective role of endogenous cardiac myocyte P2X4 receptors in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tiehong; Shen, Jian-bing; Yang, Ronghua; Redden, John; Dodge-Kafka, Kimberly; Grady, James; Jacobson, Kenneth A; Liang, Bruce T

    2014-05-01

    Heart failure (HF), despite continuing progress, remains a leading cause of mortality and morbidity. P2X4 receptors (P2X4R) have emerged as potentially important molecules in regulating cardiac function and as potential targets for HF therapy. Transgenic P2X4R overexpression can protect against HF, but this does not explain the role of native cardiac P2X4R. Our goal is to define the physiological role of endogenous cardiac myocyte P2X4R under basal conditions and during HF induced by myocardial infarction or pressure overload. Mice established with conditional cardiac-specific P2X4R knockout were subjected to left anterior descending coronary artery ligation-induced postinfarct or transverse aorta constriction-induced pressure overload HF. Knockout cardiac myocytes did not show P2X4R by immunoblotting or by any response to the P2X4R-specific allosteric enhancer ivermectin. Knockout hearts showed normal basal cardiac function but depressed contractile performance in postinfarct and pressure overload models of HF by in vivo echocardiography and ex vivo isolated working heart parameters. P2X4R coimmunoprecipitated and colocalized with nitric oxide synthase 3 (eNOS) in wild-type cardiac myocytes. Mice with cardiac-specific P2X4R overexpression had increased S-nitrosylation, cyclic GMP, NO formation, and were protected from postinfarct and pressure overload HF. Inhibitor of eNOS, L-N(5)-(1-iminoethyl)ornithine hydrochloride, blocked the salutary effect of cardiac P2X4R overexpression in postinfarct and pressure overload HF as did eNOS knockout. This study establishes a new protective role for endogenous cardiac myocyte P2X4R in HF and is the first to demonstrate a physical interaction between the myocyte receptor and eNOS, a mediator of HF protection. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. The roles of P2Y2 purinergic receptors in osteoblasts and mechanotransduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanghui Xing

    Full Text Available We previously demonstrated, using osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells, that P2Y2 purinergic receptors are involved in osteoblast mechanotransduction. In this study, our objective was to further investigate, using a knockout mouse model, the roles of P2Y2 receptors in bone mechanobiology. We first examined bone structure with micro-CT and measured bone mechanical properties with three point bending experiments in both wild type mice and P2Y2 knockout mice. We found that bones from P2Y2 knockout mice have significantly decreased bone volume, bone thickness, bone stiffness and bone ultimate breaking force at 17 week old age. In order to elucidate the mechanisms by which P2Y2 receptors contribute to bone biology, we examined differentiation and mineralization of bone marrow cells from wild type and P2Y2 knockout mice. We found that P2Y2 receptor deficiency reduces the differentiation and mineralization of bone marrow cells. Next, we compared the response of primary osteoblasts, from both wild type and P2Y2 knockout mice, to ATP and mechanical stimulation (oscillatory fluid flow, and found that osteoblasts from wild type mice have a stronger response, in terms of ERK1/2 phosphorylation, to both ATP and fluid flow, relative to P2Y2 knockout mice. However, we did not detect any difference in ATP release in response to fluid flow between wild type and P2Y2 knock out osteoblasts. Our findings suggest that P2Y2 receptors play important roles in bone marrow cell differentiation and mineralization as well as in bone cell mechanotransduction, leading to an osteopenic phenotype in P2Y2 knockout mice.

  12. Potential Involvement of P2 Receptors in the Pathological Processes of Hyperthyroidism: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wu; Li, Guodong; Nie, Yijun; Zou, Lifang; Zhang, Xi; Liu, Shuangmei; Li, Guilin; Xu, Hong; Zhang, Chun-Ping; Liang, Shangdong

    2016-05-01

    Symptoms of hyperthyroidism manifest mainly as changes in the nervous and metabolic systems. Whether P2X receptors (ionotropic ATP purinergic receptors, including P2X3 receptor and P2X7 receptor) are involved in the alterations of these disorders still remains unclear. Thus, this study aimed to assess the association of hyperthyroidism with the expression of P2X3 and P2X7 receptors and the concentrations of ATP in blood leukocytes and catecholamine. Twelve healthy subjects and twelve patients diagnosed with hyperthyroidism were recruited. Serum free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels had been detected by chemiluminescence method. Meanwhile, the catecholamine levels (including adrenaline, noradrenaline, and dopamine) in plasma, ATP level and P2X receptors (including P2X3 receptor and P2X7 receptor) in peripheral blood had been detected by high performance liquid chromatography, bioluminescence method, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Levels of epinephrine and norepinephrine were significantly higher in the hyperthyroidism group compared with the control group. The concentration of ATP in the hyperthyroidism group was significantly higher than its in the control group. The expression of P2X3 mRNA and P2X7 mRNA in hyperthyroidism group were significantly increased compared with those in control group. In a conclusion, there is a relationship between the elevated expression of P2X3 receptor and P2X7 receptor in peripheral blood leukocytes and high serum epinephrine and norepinephrine levels in hyperthyroidism patients. © 2016 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  13. Cleavage sites in the polypeptide precursors of poliovirus protein P2-X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selmer, B.L.; Hanecak, R.; Anderson, C.W.; Wimmer, E.

    1981-01-01

    Partial amino-terminal sequence analysis has been performed on the three major polypeptide products (P2-3b, P2-5b, and P2-X) from the central region (P2) of the poliovirus polyprotein, and this analysis precisely locates the amino termini of these products with respect to the nucleotide sequence of the poliovirus RNA genome. Like most of the products of the replicase region (P3), the amino termini of P2-5b and P2-X are generated by cleavage between glutamine and glycine residues. Thus, P2-5b and P2-X are probably both produced by the action of a singly (virus-encoded.) proteinase. The amino terminus of P2-3b, on the other hand, is produced by a cleavage between the carboxy-terminal tyrosine of VP1 and the glycine encoded by nucleotides 3381-3383. This result may suggest that more than one proteolytic activity is required for the complete processing of the poliovirus polyprotein

  14. Transformation of Astrocytes to a Neuroprotective Phenotype by Microglia via P2Y1 Receptor Downregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youichi Shinozaki

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Microglia and astrocytes become reactive following traumatic brain injury (TBI. However, the coordination of this reactivity and its relation to pathophysiology are unclear. Here, we show that microglia transform astrocytes into a neuroprotective phenotype via downregulation of the P2Y1 purinergic receptor. TBI initially caused microglial activation in the injury core, followed by reactive astrogliosis in the peri-injured region and formation of a neuroprotective astrocyte scar. Equivalent changes to astrocytes were observed in vitro after injury. This change in astrocyte phenotype resulted from P2Y1 receptor downregulation, mediated by microglia-derived cytokines. In mice, astrocyte-specific P2Y1 receptor overexpression (Astro-P2Y1OE counteracted scar formation, while astrocyte-specific P2Y1 receptor knockdown (Astro-P2Y1KD facilitated scar formation, suggesting critical roles of P2Y1 receptors in the transformation. Astro-P2Y1OE and Astro-P2Y1KD mice showed increased and reduced neuronal damage, respectively. Altogether, our findings indicate that microglia-astrocyte interaction, involving a purinergic signal, is essential for the formation of neuroprotective astrocytes.

  15. Tungsten phosphanylarylthiolato complexes [W{PhP(2-SC6H4)2-kappa3S,S',P} 2] and [W{P(2-SC6H4)3-kappa4S,S',S",P}2]: synthesis, structures and redox chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Alexandra; Lönnecke, Peter; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Luminita; Hey-Hawkins, Evamarie

    2008-09-14

    PhP(2-SHC6H4)2 (PS2H2) reacts with WCl6 with reduction of tungsten to give the air-sensitive tungsten(IV) complex [W{PhP(2-SC6H4)2-kappa(3)S,S',P}2] (1). 1 is oxidised in air to [WO{PhPO(2-SC6H4)2-kappa(3)S,S',O}{PhP(2-SC6H4)2-kappa(3)S,S',P}] (2). The attempted synthesis of 2 by reaction of 1 with iodosobenzene as oxidising agent was unsuccessful. [W{P(2-SC6H4)3-kappa(4)S,S',S",P}2] (3) was formed in the reaction of P(2-SHC6H4)3 (PS3H3) with WCl6. The W(VI) complex 3 contains two PS3(3-) ligands, each coordinated in a tetradentate fashion resulting in a tungsten coordination number of eight. The reaction of 3 with AgBF4 yields the dinuclear tungsten complex [W2{P(2-SC6H4)3-kappa(4)S,S',S",P}3]BF4 (4). Complexes 1-4 were characterised by spectral methods and X-ray structure determination.

  16. Blockade of human P2X7 receptor function with a monoclonal antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buell, G; Chessell, I P; Michel, A D; Collo, G; Salazzo, M; Herren, S; Gretener, D; Grahames, C; Kaur, R; Kosco-Vilbois, M H; Humphrey, P P

    1998-11-15

    A monoclonal antibody (MoAb) specific for the human P2X7 receptor was generated in mice. As assessed by flow cytometry, the MoAb labeled human blood-derived macrophage cells natively expressing P2X7 receptors and cells transfected with human P2X7 but not other P2X receptor types. The MoAb was used to immunoprecipitate the human P2X7 receptor protein, and in immunohistochemical studies on human lymphoid tissue, P2X7 receptor labeling was observed within discrete areas of the marginal zone of human tonsil sections. The antibody also acted as a selective antagonist of human P2X7 receptors in several functional studies. Thus, whole cell currents, elicited by the brief application of 2',3'-(4-benzoyl)-benzoyl-ATP in cells expressing human P2X7, were reduced in amplitude by the presence of the MoAb. Furthermore, preincubation of human monocytic THP-1 cells with the MoAb antagonized the ability of P2X7 agonists to induce the release of interleukin-1beta.

  17. Microglia P2Y6 receptor is related to Parkinson’s disease through neuroinflammatory process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Yang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microglia in the central nervous system (CNS were reported to play crucial role in neurodegeneration. Previous studies showed that P2Y6 receptor (P2Y6R mainly contributed to microglia activation and phagocytosis in CNS. However, the level of P2Y6R in Parkinson’s disease (PD patients is unclear. Therefore, we measured the level of P2Y6R in PD patients and speculated whether it could be a potential biomarker for PD. Given on the basis that P2Y6R was higher in PD patients, we further explored the mechanisms underlying P2Y6R in the pathogenesis of PD. Methods We tested the expression level of P2Y6R in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs among 145 PD patients, 170 healthy controls, and 30 multiple system atrophy (MSA patients. We also used a lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated microglial cell culture model to investigate (i the effects of LPS on P2Y6R expression with western blot and RT-PCR, (ii the effects of LPS on UDP expression using HPLC, (iii the effects of UDP/P2Y6R signaling on cytokine expression using western blot, RT-PCR, and ELISA, and (iv the signaling pathways activated by the P2Y6R involved in the neuroinflammation. Results Expression levels of P2Y6R in PD patients were higher than healthy controls and MSA patients. P2Y6R could be a good biomarker of PD. P2Y6R was also upregulated in LPS-treated BV-2 cells and involved in proinflammatory cytokine release through an autocrine loop based on LPS-triggered UDP secretion and accelerated neuroinflammatory responses through the ERK1/2 pathway. Importantly, blocking UDP/P2Y6R signaling could reverse these pathological processes. Conclusions P2Y6R may be a potential clinical biomarker of PD. Blocking P2Y6R may be a potential therapeutic approach to the treatment of PD patients through inhibition of microglia-activated neuroinflammation.

  18. Validation of antibodies for neuroanatomical localization of the P2Y receptor in macaque brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreisig, Karin; Degn, Matilda; Sund, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Focus on the purinergic receptor P2Y11 has increased following the finding of an association between the sleep disorder narcolepsy and a genetic variant in P2RY11 causing decreased gene expression. Narcolepsy is believed to arise from an autoimmune destruction of the hypothalamic neurons that pro......Focus on the purinergic receptor P2Y11 has increased following the finding of an association between the sleep disorder narcolepsy and a genetic variant in P2RY11 causing decreased gene expression. Narcolepsy is believed to arise from an autoimmune destruction of the hypothalamic neurons...

  19. Hand hygiene compliance in a universal gloving setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuruno, Noriko; Kasahara, Kei; Mikasa, Keiichi

    2017-08-01

    The use of gloves for every patient contact (ie, universal gloving) has been suggested as an infection prevention adjunct and alternative to contact precautions. However, gloves may carry organisms unless they are changed properly. In addition, hand hygiene is required before donning and after removing gloves, and there are scarce data regarding glove changing and hand hygiene in a universal gloving setting. This nonrandomized observational before-after study evaluated the effect of education and feedback regarding hand hygiene. Compliance with hand hygiene and glove use was directly observed in a universal gloving setting at a 10-bed intensive care unit in a Japanese tertiary care university teaching hospital. A total of 6,050 hand hygiene opportunities were identified. Overall, hand hygiene compliance steadily increased from study period 1 (16.1%) to period 5 (56.8%), although there were indication-specific differences in the baseline compliance, the degree of improvement, and the reasons for noncompliance. There were decreases in the compliance with universal gloving and the incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. It is difficult to properly perform glove use and hand hygiene in a universal gloving setting, given its complexity. Direct observation with specific feedback and education may be effective in improving compliance. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Poor adherence to P2Y12 antagonists increased cardiovascular risks in Chinese PCI-treated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yang; Li, Chenze; Zhang, Lina; Hu, Dong; Zhang, Xudong; Yu, Ting; Tao, Min; Wang, Dao Wen; Shen, Xiaoqing

    2017-03-01

    Low adherence to secondary prevention medications (ATM) of patients after acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is associated with poor clinical outcomes. However, literature provides limited data on assessment of ATM and risks associated with poor in Chinese patients with ACS. In the current work, ATM was assessed in consecutively recruited patients with ACS in Tongji Hospital from November 5, 2013 to December 31, 2014. A total of 2126 patients were classified under low adherence (proportion of days covered (PDC) C50%) groups based on their performance after discharge. All patients were followed up at the 1st, 6th, and 12th month of discharge while recording ATM and major adverse cardiac events (MACE). Bivariate logistic regression was used to identify the factors associated with ATM. Cox regression was used to analyze the association between ATM and MACE within one year after discharge. Results showed that coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) alone had significantly lower proportion of high adherence to P2Y12 antagonists (83.0% vs. 90.7%, P < 0.01) than patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) only. Moreover, in patients undergoing PCI, high adherence to P2Y12 antagonists decreased the risk of MACE (hazard ratio = 0.172, 95% confidence interval: 0.039-0.763; P = 0.021). In conclusion, PCI-treated patients are more prone to remaining adherent to medications than CABG-treated patients. High adherence to P2Y12 antagonists was associated with lower risk of MACE.

  1. [Compliance with antismoking laws in official institutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordovilla, R; Barrueco, M; González Ruiz, J M; Hernández, M A; de Castro, J; Gómez, F

    1997-01-01

    The prevention of nicotine addiction involves a wide range of measures, including writing laws to preserve public health by protecting nonsmokers from smoke and discouraging smokers from consumption. Also important are campaigns to educate both parties (smokers and nonsmokers) about the negative effects of tobacco. The main antismoking law in Spain is the Health and Consumer Ministry's Royal Decree 192/1988 limiting the sale and use of tobacco with the aim of protecting public health. Other regulations have since been enacted by public administrations to complement that law. Research finding published in recent years have been the basis for major legal changes leading in two directions; toward standardizing laws existing in different countries and toward increasing restrictions on the advertising and sale of tobacco. Various scientific and social groups have demanded that current laws be made stricter. Little has been done, however, to assess the degree of vigilance and compliance, and consequently the efficacy, of current legislation. The aim of this study was to determine the level of compliance with the law in governmental institutions in Salamanca. We visited 30 centers and saw that while notices prohibiting smoking were visible in 80%, the number of smokers was high: 43% among workers (none of whom was in educational or medical centers) and 37% among the public. No posters warning of the dangers of tobacco were seen in any of the centers visited. It appears necessary to further restrict the sale and use of tobacco in public places, to enforce compliance with existing regulations and to increase the amount of information on the toxic effects of tobacco in order to gain the cooperation of both smokers and nonsmokers toward achieving smoke-free environments.

  2. Immunocytochemical analysis of P2X2 in rat circumvallate taste buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ruibiao; Montoya, Alana; Bond, Amanda; Walton, Jenna; Kinnamon, John C

    2012-05-23

    Our laboratory has shown that classical synapses and synaptic proteins are associated with Type III cells. Yet it is generally accepted that Type II cells transduce bitter, sweet and umami stimuli. No classical synapses, however, have been found associated with Type II cells. Recent studies indicate that the ionotropic purinergic receptors P2X2/P2X3 are present in rodent taste buds. Taste nerve processes express the ionotropic purinergic receptors (P2X2/P2X3). P2X2/P2X3(Dbl-/-) mice are not responsive to sweet, umami and bitter stimuli, and it has been proposed that ATP acts as a neurotransmitter in taste buds. The goal of the present study is to learn more about the nature of purinergic contacts in rat circumvallate taste buds by examining immunoreactivity to antisera directed against the purinergic receptor P2X2. P2X2-like immunoreactivity is present in intragemmal nerve processes in rat circumvallate taste buds. Intense immunoreactivity can also be seen in the subgemmal nerve plexuses located below the basal lamina. The P2X2 immunoreactive nerve processes also display syntaxin-1-LIR. The immunoreactive nerves are in close contact with the IP(3)R3-LIR Type II cells and syntaxin-1-LIR and/or 5-HT-LIR Type III cells. Taste cell synapses are observed only from Type III taste cells onto P2X2-LIR nerve processes. Unusually large, "atypical" mitochondria in the Type II taste cells are found only at close appositions with P2X2-LIR nerve processes. P2X2 immunogold particles are concentrated at the membranes of nerve processes at close appositions with taste cells. Based on our immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopical studies we believe that both perigemmal and most all intragemmal nerve processes display P2X2-LIR. Moreover, colloidal gold immunoelectron microscopy indicates that P2X2-LIR in nerve processes is concentrated at sites of close apposition with Type II cells. This supports the hypothesis that ATP may be a key neurotransmitter in taste transduction

  3. Immunocytochemical analysis of P2X2 in rat circumvallate taste buds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Ruibiao

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our laboratory has shown that classical synapses and synaptic proteins are associated with Type III cells. Yet it is generally accepted that Type II cells transduce bitter, sweet and umami stimuli. No classical synapses, however, have been found associated with Type II cells. Recent studies indicate that the ionotropic purinergic receptors P2X2/P2X3 are present in rodent taste buds. Taste nerve processes express the ionotropic purinergic receptors (P2X2/P2X3. P2X2/P2X3Dbl−/− mice are not responsive to sweet, umami and bitter stimuli, and it has been proposed that ATP acts as a neurotransmitter in taste buds. The goal of the present study is to learn more about the nature of purinergic contacts in rat circumvallate taste buds by examining immunoreactivity to antisera directed against the purinergic receptor P2X2. Results P2X2-like immunoreactivity is present in intragemmal nerve processes in rat circumvallate taste buds. Intense immunoreactivity can also be seen in the subgemmal nerve plexuses located below the basal lamina. The P2X2 immunoreactive nerve processes also display syntaxin-1-LIR. The immunoreactive nerves are in close contact with the IP3R3-LIR Type II cells and syntaxin-1-LIR and/or 5-HT-LIR Type III cells. Taste cell synapses are observed only from Type III taste cells onto P2X2-LIR nerve processes. Unusually large, “atypical” mitochondria in the Type II taste cells are found only at close appositions with P2X2-LIR nerve processes. P2X2 immunogold particles are concentrated at the membranes of nerve processes at close appositions with taste cells. Conclusions Based on our immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopical studies we believe that both perigemmal and most all intragemmal nerve processes display P2X2-LIR. Moreover, colloidal gold immunoelectron microscopy indicates that P2X2-LIR in nerve processes is concentrated at sites of close apposition with Type II cells. This supports the hypothesis

  4. Non-nucleotide Agonists Triggering P2X7 Receptor Activation and Pore Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Di Virgilio

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The P2X7 receptor (P2X7R is a ligand-gated plasma membrane ion channel belonging to the P2X receptor subfamily activated by extracellular nucleotides. General consensus holds that the physiological (and maybe the only agonist is ATP. However, scattered evidence generated over the last several years suggests that ATP might not be the only agonist, especially at inflammatory sites. Solid data show that NAD+ covalently modifies the P2X7R of mouse T lymphocytes, thus lowering the ATP threshold for activation. Other structurally unrelated agents have been reported to activate the P2X7R via a poorly understood mechanism of action: (a the antibiotic polymyxin B, possibly a positive allosteric P2X7R modulator, (b the bactericidal peptide LL-37, (c the amyloidogenic β peptide, and (d serum amyloid A. Some agents, such as Alu-RNA, have been suggested to activate the P2X7R acting on the intracellular N- or C-terminal domains. Mode of P2X7R activation by these non-nucleotide ligands is as yet unknown; however, these observations raise the intriguing question of how these different non-nucleotide ligands may co-operate with ATP at inflammatory or tumor sites. New information obtained from the cloning and characterization of the P2X7R from exotic mammalian species (e.g., giant panda and data from recent patch-clamp studies are strongly accelerating our understanding of P2X7R mode of operation, and may provide hints to the mechanism of activation of P2X7R by non-nucleotide ligands.

  5. Purine receptor P2Y_6 mediates cellular response to γ-ray-induced DNA damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ide, Shunta; Nishimaki, Naoko; Tsukimoto, Mitsutoshi; Kojima, Shuji

    2014-01-01

    We previously showed that nucleotide P2 receptor agonists such as ATP and UTP amplify γ-ray-induced focus formation of phosphorylated histone H2A variant H2AX (γH2AX), which is considered to be an indicator of DNA damage so far, by activating purine P2Y_6 and P2Y_1_2 receptors. Therefore, we hypothesized that these P2 receptors play a role in inducing the repair response to γ-ray-induced DNA damage. In the present study, we tested this idea by using human lung cancer A549 cells. First, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) showed that P2Y_6 receptor is highly expressed in A549 cells, but P2Y_1_2 receptor is only weakly expressed. Next, colony formation assay revealed that P2Y_6 receptor antagonist MRS2578 markedly reduced the survival rate of γ-ray-exposed A549 cells. The survival rate was also significantly reduced in P2Y_6-knock-down cells, compared with scramble siRNA-transfected cells. Since it has reported that phosphorylation of ERK1/2 after activation of EGFR via P2Y_6 and P2Y_1_2 receptors is involved in the repair response to γ-ray-induced DNA damage, we next examined whether γ-ray-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 was also inhibited by MRS2578 in A549 cells. We found that it was. Taken together, these findings indicate that purinergic signaling through P2Y_6 receptor, followed by ERK1/2 activation, promotes the cellular repair response to γ-ray-induced DNA damage. (author)

  6. Knocking out P2X receptors reduces transmitter secretion in taste buds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yijen A.; Stone, Leslie M.; Pereira, Elizabeth; Yang, Ruibiao; Kinnamon, John C.; Dvoryanchikov, Gennady; Chaudhari, Nirupa; Finger, Thomas E.; Kinnamon, Sue C.; Roper, Stephen D.

    2011-01-01

    In response to gustatory stimulation, taste bud cells release a transmitter, ATP, that activates P2X2 and P2X3 receptors on gustatory afferent fibers. Taste behavior and gustatory neural responses are largely abolished in mice lacking P2X2 and P2X3 receptors (P2X2 and P2X3 double knockout, or “DKO” mice). The assumption has been that eliminating P2X2 and P2X3 receptors only removes postsynaptic targets but that transmitter secretion in mice is normal. Using functional imaging, ATP biosensor cells, and a cell-free assay for ATP, we tested this assumption. Surprisingly, although gustatory stimulation mobilizes Ca2+ in taste Receptor (Type II) cells from DKO mice, as from wild type (WT) mice, taste cells from DKO mice fail to release ATP when stimulated with tastants. ATP release could be elicited by depolarizing DKO Receptor cells with KCl, suggesting that ATP-release machinery remains functional in DKO taste buds. To explore the difference in ATP release across genotypes, we employed reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR, immunostaining, and histochemistry for key proteins underlying ATP secretion and degradation: Pannexin1, TRPM5, and NTPDase2 (ecto-ATPase) are indistinguishable between WT and DKO mice. The ultrastructure of contacts between taste cells and nerve fibers is also normal in the DKO mice. Finally, quantitative RT-PCR show that P2X4 and P2X7, potential modulators of ATP secretion, are similarly expressed in taste buds in WT and DKO taste buds. Importantly, we find that P2X2 is expressed in WT taste buds and appears to function as an autocrine, positive feedback signal to amplify taste-evoked ATP secretion. PMID:21940456

  7. P2X purinoceptors as a link between hyperexcitability and neuroinflammation in status epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henshall, David C; Engel, Tobias

    2015-08-01

    There remains a need for more efficacious treatments for status epilepticus. Prolonged seizures result in the release of ATP from cells which activates the P2 class of ionotropic and metabotropic purinoceptors. The P2X receptors gate depolarizing sodium and calcium entry and are expressed by both neurons and glia throughout the brain, and a number of subtypes are upregulated after status epilepticus. Recent studies have explored the in vivo effects of targeting ATP-gated P2X receptors in preclinical models of status epilepticus, with particular focus on the P2X7 receptor (P2X7R). The P2X7R mediates microglial activation and the release of the proepileptogenic inflammatory cytokine interleukin 1β. The receptor may also directly modulate neurotransmission and gliotransmission and promote the recruitment of immune cells into brain parenchyma. Data from our group and collaborators show that status epilepticus produced by intraamygdala microinjection of kainic acid increases P2X7R expression in the hippocampus and neocortex of mice. Antagonism of the P2X7R in the model reduced seizure severity, microglial activation and interleukin 1β release, and neuronal injury. Coadministration of a P2X7R antagonist with a benzodiazepine also provided seizure suppression in a model of drug-refractory status epilepticus when either treatment alone was minimally effective. More recently, we showed that status epilepticus in immature rats is also reduced by P2X7R antagonism. Together, these findings suggest that P2X receptors may be novel targets for seizure control and interruption of neuroinflammation after status epilepticus. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Status Epilepticus". Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Regulation of P2Y1 receptor traffic by sorting Nexin 1 is retromer independent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisar, Shaista; Kelly, Eamonn; Cullen, Pete J; Mundell, Stuart J

    2010-04-01

    The activity and traffic of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) is tightly controlled. Recent work from our laboratory has shown that P2Y(1) and P2Y(12) responsiveness is rapidly and reversibly modulated in human platelets and that the underlying mechanism requires receptor trafficking as an essential part of this process. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying P2Y receptor traffic. Sorting nexin 1 (SNX1) has been shown to regulate the endosomal sorting of cell surface receptors either to lysosomes where they are downregulated or back to the cell surface. These functions may in part be due to interactions of SNX1 with the mammalian retromer complex. In this study, we investigated the role of SNX1 in P2Y receptor trafficking. We show that P2Y(1) receptors recycle via a slow recycling pathway that is regulated by SNX1, whereas P2Y(12) receptors return to the cell surface via a rapid route that is SNX1 independent. SNX1 inhibition caused a dramatic increase in the rate of P2Y(1) receptor recycling, whereas inhibition of Vps26 and Vps35 known to be present in retromer had no effect, indicating that SNX1 regulation of P2Y(1) receptor recycling is retromer independent. In addition, inhibition of SNX4, 6 and 17 proteins did not affect P2Y(1) receptor recycling. SNX1 has also been implicated in GPCR degradation; however, we provide evidence that P2Y receptor degradation is SNX1 independent. These data describe a novel function of SNX1 in the regulation of P2Y(1) receptor recycling and suggest that SNX1 plays multiple roles in endocytic trafficking of GPCRs.

  9. Knocking out P2X receptors reduces transmitter secretion in taste buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yijen A; Stone, Leslie M; Pereira, Elizabeth; Yang, Ruibiao; Kinnamon, John C; Dvoryanchikov, Gennady; Chaudhari, Nirupa; Finger, Thomas E; Kinnamon, Sue C; Roper, Stephen D

    2011-09-21

    In response to gustatory stimulation, taste bud cells release a transmitter, ATP, that activates P2X2 and P2X3 receptors on gustatory afferent fibers. Taste behavior and gustatory neural responses are largely abolished in mice lacking P2X2 and P2X3 receptors [P2X2 and P2X3 double knock-out (DKO) mice]. The assumption has been that eliminating P2X2 and P2X3 receptors only removes postsynaptic targets but that transmitter secretion in mice is normal. Using functional imaging, ATP biosensor cells, and a cell-free assay for ATP, we tested this assumption. Surprisingly, although gustatory stimulation mobilizes Ca(2+) in taste Receptor (Type II) cells from DKO mice, as from wild-type (WT) mice, taste cells from DKO mice fail to release ATP when stimulated with tastants. ATP release could be elicited by depolarizing DKO Receptor cells with KCl, suggesting that ATP-release machinery remains functional in DKO taste buds. To explore the difference in ATP release across genotypes, we used reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR, immunostaining, and histochemistry for key proteins underlying ATP secretion and degradation: Pannexin1, TRPM5, and NTPDase2 (ecto-ATPase) are indistinguishable between WT and DKO mice. The ultrastructure of contacts between taste cells and nerve fibers is also normal in the DKO mice. Finally, quantitative RT-PCR show that P2X4 and P2X7, potential modulators of ATP secretion, are similarly expressed in taste buds in WT and DKO taste buds. Importantly, we find that P2X2 is expressed in WT taste buds and appears to function as an autocrine, positive feedback signal to amplify taste-evoked ATP secretion.

  10. ICF's Plant Compliance Assessment System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, S.M.

    1989-01-01

    Government and private industrial facilities must manage wastes that are both radioactive and (chemically) hazardous. Until recently, these mixed wastes have been managed under rules established under the Atomic Energy Act (AEA) and the Low-Level Waste Policy At, and rules that derive from environmental legislation have not been applied. Both sets of rules now apply to mixed wastes, creating situations in which significant changes to waste steams must be made in order to bring them into compliance with environmental regulations. The first step in bringing waste streams into compliance is to determine their status with respect to the newly-applicable regulations. This process of compliance assessment is difficult because requirements to minimize human exposure to radiation can conflict with requirements of environmental regulations, many regulations are potentially applicable, the regulations are changing rapidly, and because waste streams designed to operate under AEA rules frequently cannot be easily modified to incorporate the additional regulations. Modern personal computer (PC) tools are being developed to help regulatory analysts manage the large amounts of information required to asses the compliance status of complex process plants. This paper presents the Plant Compliance Assessment System (PCAS), which performs this function by relating a database containing references to regulatory requirements to databases created to describe relevant aspects of the facility to be assessed

  11. Tuberculosis in Canada: Detection, Intervention and Compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katya Richardson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of the current state of TB in Canada by referencing information presented at the workshop, “Tuberculosis: Detection, Prevention, and Compliance.” The workshop took place on November 14 and 15, 2012 in Ottawa. The workshop was organized by the Centre for Disease Modeling and the Public Health Agency of Canada as a two-day knowledge translation event that was comprised of scientific and policy focused presentations designed to address four key objectives: (1 Evaluate the success of current tuberculosis (TB health policies and control strategies in Canada and for specific Canadian sub-populations; (2 Determine the impact of detection, intervention, compliance, and education strategies in terms of TB incidence and prevalence; (3 Develop targets for future interventions by identifying key characteristics of TB epidemics that impact the success of TB health policies and control strategies; (4 Leverage our existing ties with public health decision makers, aboriginal health organizations, and organizations serving the homeless to develop a research community that is based on close collaboration, and will foster national TB control efforts. The workshop elicited robust discussions between experts from a variety of academic disciplines and government officials. A summary of the information presented, comments shared, and questions posed, will provide a comprehensive understanding of the status of TB in Canada and future directions to be taken for improved control of the disease.

  12. Evaluating Application-Layer Traffic Optimization Cost Metrics for P2P Multimedia Streaming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poderys, Justas; Soler, José

    2017-01-01

    To help users of P2P communication systems perform better-than-random selection of communication peers, Internet Engineering Task Force standardized the Application Layer Traffic Optimization (ALTO) protocol. The ALTO provided data-routing cost metric, can be used to rank peers in P2P communicati...

  13. P2P XQuery and the StreetTiVo application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Boncz (Peter); Y. Zhang (Ying)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn the AmbientDB project, we are building MonetDB/XQuery, an open-source XML DBMS (XDBMS) with support for distributed querying and P2P services. Our work is motivated by the hypothesis that P2P is a disruptive paradigm that should change the nature of database technology. Most of the

  14. Rare missense mutations in P2RY11 in narcolepsy with cataplexy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degn, Matilda; Dauvilliers, Yves; Dreisig, Karin

    2017-01-01

    these are single nucleotide polymorphisms in the P2RY11-EIF3G locus. It is unknown how these genetic variants affect narcolepsy pathogenesis and whether the effect is directly related to P2Y11 signalling or EIF3G function. Exome sequencing in 18 families with at least two affected narcolepsy with cataplexy...

  15. On the non-existence of orthogonal instanton bundles on P^{2n+1}

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łucja Farnik

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we prove that there do not exist orthogonal instanton bundles on P^{2n+1} . In order to demonstrate this fact, we propose a new way of representing the invariant, introduced by L. Costa and G. Ottaviani, related to a rank 2n instanton bundle on P^{2n+1}.

  16. P2X7 on mouse T cells: one channel, many functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn eRissiek

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The P2X7 receptor is an adenosine triphosphate (ATP-gated cation channel that is expressed by several cells of the immune system. P2X7 is best known for its proinflammatory role in promoting inflammasome formation and release of mature IL-1β by innate immune cells. Mounting evidence indicates that P2X7 is also an important regulatory receptor of murine and human T cell functions. Murine T cells express a sensitive splice variant of P2X7 that can be activated either by non-covalent binding of ATP or, in the presence of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+, by its covalent ADP-ribosylation catalyzed by the ecto-ADP-ribosyltransferase ARTC2.2. Prolonged activation of P2X7 by either one of these pathways triggers the induction of T cell death. Conversely, lower concentrations of ATP can activate P2X7 to enhance T cell proliferation and production of IL-2. In this review we will highlight the molecular and cellular consequences of P2X7 activation on mouse T cells and its versatile role in T cell homeostasis and activation. Further, we will discuss important differences in the function of P2X7 on human and murine T cells.

  17. Nociceptive transmission and modulation via P2X receptors in central pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Yung-Hui; Shyu, Bai-Chuang

    2016-05-26

    Painful sensations are some of the most frequent complaints of patients who are admitted to local medical clinics. Persistent pain varies according to its causes, often resulting from local tissue damage or inflammation. Central somatosensory pathway lesions that are not adequately relieved can consequently cause central pain syndrome or central neuropathic pain. Research on the molecular mechanisms that underlie this pathogenesis is important for treating such pain. To date, evidence suggests the involvement of ion channels, including adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-gated cation channel P2X receptors, in central nervous system pain transmission and persistent modulation upon and following the occurrence of neuropathic pain. Several P2X receptor subtypes, including P2X2, P2X3, P2X4, and P2X7, have been shown to play diverse roles in the pathogenesis of central pain including the mediation of fast transmission in the peripheral nervous system and modulation of neuronal activity in the central nervous system. This review article highlights the role of the P2X family of ATP receptors in the pathogenesis of central neuropathic pain and pain transmission. We discuss basic research that may be translated to clinical application, suggesting that P2X receptors may be treatment targets for central pain syndrome.

  18. Analytical Model for Mesh-based P2PVoD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Y.; Mol, J.D.D.; Kuipers, F.A.; Van Mieghem, P.

    Recently, there has been a growing interest in academic and commercial environments for Video-on-Demand (VoD) using Peer-to-Peer (P2P) technology. Unlike centralized solutions for VoD services, P2P technology lets the clients distribute video content among themselves. In this paper, we propose an

  19. Characterization of fatty acid binding by the P2 myelin protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudaitis, P.G.; Weise, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    In recent years, significant sequence homology has been found between the P2 protein of peripheral myelin and intracellular retinoid- and fatty acid-binding proteins. They have found that salt extracts of bovine intradural nerve roots contain the P2 basic protein in association with free fatty acid. Preliminary results from quantitative analyses showed a ratio of 0.4-1.1 fatty acid (mainly oleate and palmitate) per P2 molecule. P2/ligand interactions were partially characterized using ( 3 H)-oleate in gel permeation assays and binding studies using lipidex to separated bound and free fatty acid. Methyloleate was found to displace ( 3 H)-oleate from P2, indicating that ligand binding interactions are predominantly hydrophobic in nature. On the other hand, myristic acid and retinol did not inhibit the binding of oleate to the protein, results consistent with a decided affinity for long chain fatty acids but not for the retinoids. The binding between P2 and oleic acid showed an apparent Kd in the micromolar range, a value comparable to those found for other fatty acid-binding proteins. From these results they conclude that P2 shares not only structural homology with certain fatty acid binding proteins but also an ability to bind long chain fatty acids. Although the significance of these similarities is not yet clear, they may, by analogy, expect P2 to have a role in PNS lipid metabolism

  20. Bone turnover is altered in transgenic rats overexpressing the P2Y2 purinergic receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Maria; Agca, Cansu; Petersen, Solveig

    2017-01-01

    overexpression on bone status and bone cell function using a transgenic rat. Three-month-old female transgenic Sprague Dawley rats overexpressing P2Y2R (P2Y2R-Tg) showed higher bone strength of the femoral neck. Histomorphometry showed increase in resorptive surfaces and reduction in mineralizing surfaces. Both...

  1. Personalised Peer-Supported Learning: The Peer-to-Peer Learning Environment (P2PLE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corneli, Joseph; Mikroyannidis, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The Peer-to-Peer Learning Environment (P2PLE) is a proposed approach to helping learners co-construct their learning environment using recommendations about people, content, and tools. The work draws on current research on PLEs, and participant observation at the Peer-to-Peer University (P2PU). We are particularly interested in ways of eliciting…

  2. Purinergic P2Y12 Receptor Activation in Eosinophils and the Schistosomal Host Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniz, Valdirene S; Baptista-Dos-Reis, Renata; Benjamim, Claudia F; Mata-Santos, Hilton A; Pyrrho, Alexandre S; Strauch, Marcelo A; Melo, Paulo A; Vicentino, Amanda R R; Silva-Paiva, Juliana; Bandeira-Melo, Christianne; Weller, Peter F; Figueiredo, Rodrigo T; Neves, Josiane S

    2015-01-01

    Identifying new target molecules through which eosinophils secrete their stored proteins may reveal new therapeutic approaches for the control of eosinophilic disorders such as host immune responses to parasites. We have recently reported the expression of the purinergic P2Y12 receptor (P2Y12R) in human eosinophils; however, its functional role in this cell type and its involvement in eosinophilic inflammation remain unknown. Here, we investigated functional roles of P2Y12R in isolated human eosinophils and in a murine model of eosinophilic inflammation induced by Schistosoma mansoni (S. mansoni) infection. We found that adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP) induced human eosinophils to secrete eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) in a P2Y12R dependent manner. However, ADP did not interfere with human eosinophil apoptosis or chemotaxis in vitro. In vivo, C57Bl/6 mice were infected with cercariae of the Belo Horizonte strain of S. mansoni. Analyses performed 55 days post infection revealed that P2Y12R blockade reduced the granulomatous hepatic area and the eosinophilic infiltrate, collagen deposition and IL-13/IL-4 production in the liver without affecting the parasite oviposition. As found for humans, murine eosinophils also express the P2Y12R. P2Y12R inhibition increased blood eosinophilia, whereas it decreased the bone marrow eosinophil count. Our results suggest that P2Y12R has an important role in eosinophil EPO secretion and in establishing the inflammatory response in the course of a S. mansoni infection.

  3. Assignment of two new host range types to the P2 family of temperate coliphages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, A P; Dhillon, T S

    1986-04-01

    Six non-inducible coliphages which grow on Escherichia coli C but not on K12 (C-specific) were shown to be antigenically related to P2. All six were shown to be P4 helpers and some of them could also recombine with P2.

  4. Localization of P2X receptor subtypes 2, 3 and 7 in human urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svennersten, Karl; Hallén-Grufman, Katarina; de Verdier, Petra J; Wiklund, N Peter; Poljakovic, Mirjana

    2015-08-08

    Voiding dysfunctions are a common problem that has a severe negative impact on the quality of life. Today there is a need for new drug targets for these conditions. The role of ATP receptors in bladder physiology has been studied for some time, primarily in animal models. The aim of this work is to investigate the localization of the ATP receptors P2X2, P2X3 and P2X7 and their colocalization with vimentin and actin in the human urinary bladder. Immunohistochemical analysis was conducted on full-thickness bladder tissues from fundus and trigonum collected from 15 patients undergoing open radical cystectomy due to chronic cystitis, bladder cancer or locally advanced prostate cancer. Colocalization analyses were performed between the three different P2X subtypes and the structural proteins vimentin and actin. Specimens were examined using epifluorescence microscopy and correlation coefficients were calculated for each costaining as well as the mean distance from the laminin positive basal side of the urothelium to the vimentin positive cells located in the suburothelium. P2X2 was expressed in vimentin positive cells located in the suburothelium. Less distinct labelling of P2X2 was also observed in actin positive smooth muscle cells and in the urothelium. P2X3 was expressed in vimentin positive cells surrounding the smooth muscle, and in vimentin positive cells located in the suburothelium. Weaker P2X3 labelling was seen in the urothelium. P2X7 was expressed in the smooth muscle cells and the urothelium. In the suburothelium, cells double positive for P2X2 and vimentin where located closer to the urothelium while cells double positive for P2X3 and vimentin where located further from the urothelium. The results from this study demonstrate that there is a significant difference in the expression of the purinergic P2X2, P2X3 and P2X7 receptors in the different histological layers of the human urinary bladder.

  5. Excitation functions of the (pn) and (p,2n) reactions on Cd isotopes. [(pn) and (p,2n) reactions on the sup(110-114,116)Cd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skakun, E A; Klyucharev, A P; Rakivnenko, Yu N; Romanij, I A [AN Ukrainskoi SSR, Kiev. Fiziko-Tekhnicheskii Inst.

    1975-01-01

    Excitation functions of (pn)- and (p,2n)-reactions on /sup 110/-/sup 114/,/sup 116/Cd nuclei are measured in a range of incident proton energy up to 20 MeV. Experimental results are compared to calculated ones.

  6. Caregivers' compliance with referral advice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lal, Sham; Ndyomugenyi, Richard; Paintain, Lucy

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several malaria endemic countries have implemented community health worker (CHW) programmes to increase access to populations underserved by health care. There is considerable evidence on CHW adherence to case management guidelines, however, there is limited evidence on the compliance...... in the control arm were trained to treat malaria with ACTs based on fever symptoms. Caregivers' referral forms were linked with CHW treatment forms to determine whether caregivers complied with the referral advice. Factors associated with compliance were examined with logistic regression. RESULTS: CHW saw 18......,497 child visits in the moderate-to-high transmission setting and referred 15.2% (2815/18,497) of all visits; in the low-transmission setting, 35.0% (1135/3223) of all visits were referred. Compliance to referral was low, in both settings

  7. Compliance als Schutz vor Verbandsverantwortlichkeit?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Tipold

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Compliance bedeutet nicht nur Einhaltung und Beachtung von Vorschriften, sondern betrifft auch Maßnahmen, die die Einhaltung der Rechtsnormen absichern sollen und läuft somit auf eine Übererfüllung von Verpflichtungen hinaus. Wenn es keinen klaren Maßstab für Kontroll- und Überwachungspflichten gibt, besteht die Gefahr, dass Strafverfolgungsbehörden die Compliance-Maßnahmen als Maßstab heranziehen und so eine Verschärfung der Pflichten erzeugen. Nach den Regeln des Verbandsverantwortlichkeitsgesetzes schließt im Übrigen das beste Compliance-System nicht zwingend die Verbandsverantwortlichkeit aus, steht aber unter Umständen einem Verfahren gegen den Verband entgegen.

  8. Convergence of Internet and TV: The Commercial Viability of P2P Content Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boever, Jorn

    The popularity of (illegal) P2P (peer-to-peer) file sharing has a disruptive impact on Internet traffic and business models of content providers. In addition, several studies have found an increasing demand for bandwidth consuming content, such as video, on the Internet. Although P2P systems have been put forward as a scalable and inexpensive model to deliver such content, there has been relatively little economic analysis of the potentials and obstacles of P2P systems as a legal and commercial content distribution model. Many content providers encounter uncertainties regarding the adoption or rejection of P2P networks to spread content over the Internet. The recent launch of several commercial, legal P2P content distribution platforms increases the importance of an integrated analysis of the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT).

  9. Functional polymorphisms in the P2X7 receptor gene are associated with osteoporosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, L B; Harsløf, T; Stenkjær, L

    2013-01-01

    variant allele, which has been associated with increased receptor function in monocytes, was associated with increased total hip BMD in women. With the exception of His155Tyr for which we found conflicting results in men and women, our results are consistent with the phenotype of the knockout mouse......UNLABELLED: The P2X(7) receptor is an ATP-gated cation channel. We investigated the effect of both loss-of-function and gain-of-function polymorphisms in the P2X(7) receptor gene on BMD and risk of vertebral fractures and found that five polymorphisms and haplotypes containing three...... of these polymorphisms were associated with BMD and fracture risk. INTRODUCTION: The P2X(7) receptor is an ATP-gated cation channel. P2X(7) receptor knockout mice have reduced total bone mineral content, and because several functional polymorphisms have been identified in the human P2X(7) receptor gene, we wanted...

  10. Fuzzy-rule-based Adaptive Resource Control for Information Sharing in P2P Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhengping; Wu, Hao

    With more and more peer-to-peer (P2P) technologies available for online collaboration and information sharing, people can launch more and more collaborative work in online social networks with friends, colleagues, and even strangers. Without face-to-face interactions, the question of who can be trusted and then share information with becomes a big concern of a user in these online social networks. This paper introduces an adaptive control service using fuzzy logic in preference definition for P2P information sharing control, and designs a novel decision-making mechanism using formal fuzzy rules and reasoning mechanisms adjusting P2P information sharing status following individual users' preferences. Applications of this adaptive control service into different information sharing environments show that this service can provide a convenient and accurate P2P information sharing control for individual users in P2P networks.

  11. [Effect of compliance with an antibiotic prophylaxis protocol in surgical site infections in appendectomies. Prospective cohort study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Santana, Tomás; Del-Moral-Luque, Juan Antonio; Gil-Yonte, Pablo; Bañuelos-Andrío, Luis; Durán-Poveda, Manuel; Rodríguez-Caravaca, Gil

    Antibiotic prophylaxis is the most suitable tool for preventing surgical site infection. This study assessed compliance with antibiotic prophylaxis in surgery for acute appendicitis, and the effect of this compliance on surgical site infection. Prospective cohort study to evaluate compliance with antibiotic prophylaxis protocol in appendectomies. An assessment was made of the level of compliance with prophylaxis, as well as the causes of non-compliance. The incidence of surgical site infection was studied after a maximum incubation period of 30 days. The relative risk adjusted with a logistic regression model was used to assess the effect of non-compliance of prophylaxis on surgical site infection. The study included a total of 930 patients. Antibiotic prophylaxis was indicated in all patients, and administered in 71.3% of cases, with an overall protocol compliance of 86.1%. The principal cause of non-compliance was time of initiation. Cumulative incidence of surgical site infection was 4.6%. No relationship was found between inadequate prophylaxis compliance and infection (relative risk=0.5; 95% CI: 0.1-1.9) (P>.05). Compliance of antibiotic prophylaxis was high, but could be improved. No relationship was found between prophylaxis compliance and surgical site infection rate. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  12. Differential endosomal sorting of a novel P2Y12 purinoreceptor mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Margaret R; Nisar, Shaista P; Cooke, Alexandra E; Emery, Elizabeth D; Mundell, Stuart J

    2013-05-01

    P2Y12 receptor internalization and recycling play an essential role in ADP-induced platelet activation. Recently, we identified a patient with a mild bleeding disorder carrying a heterozygous mutation of P2Y12 (P341A) whose P2Y12 receptor recycling was significantly compromised. Using human cell line models, we identified key proteins regulating wild-type (WT) P2Y12 recycling and investigated P2Y12 -P341A receptor traffic. Treatment with ADP resulted in delayed Rab5-dependent internalization of P341A when compared with WT P2Y12 . While WT P2Y12 rapidly recycled back to the membrane via Rab4 and Rab11 recycling pathways, limited P341A recycling was observed, which relied upon Rab11 activity. Although minimal receptor degradation was evident, P341A was localized in Rab7-positive endosomes with considerable agonist-dependent accumulation in the trans-Golgi network (TGN). Rab7 activity is known to facilitate recruitment of retromer complex proteins to endosomes to transport cargo to the TGN. Here, we identified that P341A colocalized with Vps26; depletion of which blocked limited recycling and promoted receptor degradation. This study has identified key points of divergence in the endocytic traffic of P341A versus WT-P2Y12 . Given that these pathways are retained in human platelets, this research helps define the molecular mechanisms regulating P2Y12 receptor traffic and explain the compromised receptor function in the platelets of the P2Y12 -P341A-expressing patient. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. P2X receptors as targets for the treatment of status epilepticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henshall, David C.; Diaz-Hernandez, Miguel; Miras-Portugal, M. Teresa; Engel, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    Prolonged seizures are amongst the most common neurological emergencies. Status epilepticus is a state of continuous seizures that is life-threatening and prompt termination of status epilepticus is critical to protect the brain from permanent damage. Frontline treatment comprises parenteral administration of anticonvulsants such as lorazepam that facilitate γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) transmission. Because status epilepticus can become refractory to anticonvulsants in a significant proportion of patients, drugs which act on different neurotransmitter systems may represent potential adjunctive treatments. P2X receptors are a class of ligand-gated ion channel activated by ATP that contributes to neuro- and glio-transmission. P2X receptors are expressed by both neurons and glia in various brain regions, including the hippocampus. Electrophysiology, pharmacology and genetic studies suggest certain P2X receptors are activated during pathologic brain activity. Expression of several members of the family including P2X2, P2X4, and P2X7 receptors has been reported to be altered in the hippocampus following status epilepticus. Recent studies have shown that ligands of the P2X7 receptor can have potent effects on seizure severity during status epilepticus and mice lacking this receptor display altered seizures in response to chemoconvulsants. Antagonists of the P2X7 receptor also modulate neuronal death, microglial responses and neuroinflammatory signaling. Recent work also found altered neuronal injury and inflammation after status epilepticus in mice lacking the P2X4 receptor. In summary, members of the P2X receptor family may serve important roles in the pathophysiology of status epilepticus and represent novel targets for seizure control and neuroprotection. PMID:24324404

  14. Effective role of CaO/P2O5 ratio on SiO2-CaO-P2O5 glass system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kiran

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the effect of the CaO/P2O5 ratio on the composition of sol-gel synthesized 58SiO2-(19 − xP2O5–(23 + xCaO (x = 0, 5, 10 and 15 mol% glass samples was studied. Further, the effect of NBO/BO ratio on hydroxy carbonated apatite layer (HCA forming ability based on dissolution behavior in simulated body fluid (SBF solution was also investigated. CaO/P2O5 ratios of synthesized glass samples were 1.2, 2, 3.6, and 9.5, respectively. NBO/BO ratios were obtained using Raman spectroscopic analysis as 0.58, 1.20, 1.46, and 1.78, respectively. All samples were soaked in the SBF solution for 7 days. The calculated weight losses of these samples were 58%, 64%, 83%, and 89% for corresponding NBO/BO ratios. The increase in CaO/P2O5 ratio increases the NBO/BO ratios. However, the increase in NBO/BO ratio increases HCA forming ability of SBF treated samples. The HCA crystalline layer formation was confirmed through X-ray Diffraction (XRD, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, Raman and Infrared spectroscopic analysis. Higher CaO/P2O5 ratio favors the increase in HCA formation for SBF treated calcium phospho silicate glasses.

  15. Contemplating compliance: European compliance mechanisms in international perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koops, C.E.

    2014-01-01

    How can international organizations make their Member States comply with the rules of the organization? Which is the more effective method: to coax and entice, to argue and persuade, or to threaten and punish? On the basis of which criteria should a compliance mechanism be construed and applied,

  16. Tax Compliance Inventory: TAX-I Voluntary tax compliance, enforced tax compliance, tax avoidance, and tax evasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchler, Erich; Wahl, Ingrid

    2010-06-01

    Surveys on tax compliance and non-compliance often rely on ad hoc formulated items which lack standardization and empirical validation. We present an inventory to assess tax compliance and distinguish between different forms of compliance and non-compliance: voluntary versus enforced compliance, tax avoidance, and tax evasion. First, items to measure voluntary and enforced compliance, avoidance, and evasion were drawn up (collected from past research and newly developed), and tested empirically with the aim of producing four validated scales with a clear factorial structure. Second, findings from the first analyses were replicated and extended to validation on the basis of motivational postures. A standardized inventory is provided which can be used in surveys in order to collect data which are comparable across research focusing on self-reports. The inventory can be used in either of two ways: either in its entirety, or by applying the single scales independently, allowing an economical and fast assessment of different facets of tax compliance.

  17. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the P2X7 receptor gene are associated with post-menopausal bone loss and vertebral fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rye Jørgensen, Niklas; Husted, Lise Bjerre; Skarratt, Kristen K

    2012-01-01

    to bone mass and fracture incidence in post-menopausal women. A total of 1694 women (aged 45-58) participating in the Danish Osteoporosis Prevention Study were genotyped for 12 functional P2X7 receptor variants. Bone mineral density was determined at baseline and after 10 years. In addition, vertebral...... had increased bone loss. In contrast, the Gln460Arg polymorphism was associated with protection against bone loss. The Ala348Thr polymorphism was associated with a lower vertebral fracture incidence 10 years after menopause. Finally, we developed a risk model, which integrated P2RX7 genotypes. Using...

  18. The P2X7 ATP receptor modulates renal cyst development in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillman, Kate A.; Woolf, Adrian S.; Johnson, Tanya M.; Wade, Angela; Unwin, Robert J.; Winyard, Paul J.D.

    2004-01-01

    P2X 7 , a piercing receptor, is expressed in renal collecting ducts as they undergo fulminant cysto genesis in the cpk/cpk mouse model of autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD). Dissociated cpk/cpk kidneys generate cysts from cell aggregates within 24 h of suspension culture and we demonstrate that BzATP, a P2X 7 agonist, reduces cystogenesis. This effect is P2X 7 -specific, because: (i) equimolar concentrations of other purinergic agonists, ATP and UTP, had lesser effects and (ii) the P2X 7 inhibitor, oxidized ATP, abrogated the BzATP-mediated reduction in cystogenesis. BzATP did not significantly affect total cell number, proliferation, LDH release or caspase 3 activity, and zVAD-fmk, a caspase blocker, failed to modulate BzATP effects. In addition, this P2X 7 agonist did not significantly alter cyst size, probably excluding altered vectorial transport. In vivo, ATP was detected in cyst fluid from cpk/cpk kidneys; moreover, P2X 7 protein was also upregulated in human fetal ARPKD epithelia versus normal fetal collecting ducts. Thus, ATP may inhibit pathological renal cyst growth through P2X 7 signaling

  19. Important roles of P2Y receptors in the inflammation and cancer of digestive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Han-Xing; Hu, Jian-Hong; Xie, Rei; Yang, Shi-Ming; Dong, Hui

    2016-05-10

    Purinergic signaling is important for many biological processes in humans. Purinoceptors P2Y are widely distributed in human digestive system and different subtypes of P2Y receptors mediate different physiological functions from metabolism, proliferation, differentiation to apoptosis etc. The P2Y receptors are essential in many gastrointestinal functions and also involve in the occurrence of some digestive diseases. Since different subtypes of P2Y receptors are present on the same cell of digestive organs, varying subtypes of P2Y receptors may have opposite or synergetic functions on the same cell. Recently, growing lines of evidence strongly suggest the involvement of P2Y receptors in the pathogenesis of several digestive diseases. In this review, we will focus on their important roles in the development of digestive inflammation and cancer. We anticipate that as the special subtypes of P2Y receptors are studied in depth, specific modulators for them will have good potentials to become promising new drugs to treat human digestive diseases in the near future.

  20. Rab5 regulates internalisation of P2X4 receptors and potentiation by ivermectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Leanne

    2013-03-01

    The P2X4 receptor is an ATP-gated ion channel expressed in neurons, endothelia and immune cells. Plasma membrane expression of P2X4 is regulated by dynamin-dependent endocytosis, and this study identifies a Rab5-dependent pathway of receptor internalisation. Expression of Rab5 constructs altered the distribution of P2X4 in HEK-293 cells, and both constitutive internalisation and agonist-induced desensitisation of P2X4 were increased by co-expression of wild-type Rab5 or constitutively active Rab5 (Q79L). Expression of inactive dynamin K44A and Rab5 S34N constructs abolished agonist-induced desensitisation, suggesting internalisation as the underlying mechanism. Blocking P2X4 internalisation in this way also abolished potentiation of ATP-induced currents by the allosteric modulator ivermectin. This suggests that the dynamin-Rab5 internalisation pathway is essential for the ivermectin potentiation effect. In agreement with this hypothesis, the co-expression of wild-type dynamin, wild-type Rab5 or active Rab5 (Q79L) could increase the potentiation of the ATP-induced P2X4 response by ivermectin. These findings highlight Rab5 GTPase as a key regulator of P2X4 receptor cell surface expression and internalisation.

  1. Blockade of P2X7 receptors or pannexin-1 channels similarly attenuates postischemic damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisneros-Mejorado, Abraham; Gottlieb, Miroslav; Cavaliere, Fabio; Magnus, Tim; Koch-Nolte, Friederich; Scemes, Eliana; Pérez-Samartín, Alberto; Matute, Carlos

    2015-05-01

    The role of P2X7 receptors and pannexin-1 channels in ischemic damage remains controversial. Here, we analyzed their contribution to postanoxic depolarization after ischemia in cultured neurons and in brain slices. We observed that pharmacological blockade of P2X7 receptors or pannexin-1 channels delayed the onset of postanoxic currents and reduced their slope, and that simultaneous inhibition did not further enhance the effects of blocking either one. These results were confirmed in acute cortical slices from P2X7 and pannexin-1 knockout mice. Oxygen-glucose deprivation in cortical organotypic cultures caused neuronal death that was reduced with P2X7 and pannexin-1 blockers as well as in organotypic cultures derived from mice lacking P2X7 and pannexin 1. Subsequently, we used transient middle cerebral artery occlusion to monitor the neuroprotective effect of those drugs in vivo. We found that P2X7 and pannexin-1 antagonists, and their ablation in knockout mice, substantially attenuated the motor symptoms and reduced the infarct volume to ~50% of that in vehicle-treated or wild-type animals. These results show that P2X7 receptors and pannexin-1 channels are major mediators of postanoxic depolarization in neurons and of brain damage after ischemia, and that they operate in the same deleterious signaling cascade leading to neuronal and tissue demise.

  2. Bandwidth Reduction via Localized Peer-to-Peer (P2P Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Kerpez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents recent research into P2P distribution of video that can be highly localized, preferably sharing content among users on the same access network and Central Office (CO. Models of video demand and localized P2P serving areas are presented. Detailed simulations of passive optical networks (PON are run, and these generate statistics of P2P video localization. Next-Generation PON (NG-PON is shown to fully enable P2P video localization, but the lower rates of Gigabit-PON (GPON restrict performance. Results here show that nearly all of the traffic volume of unicast video could be delivered via localized P2P. Strong growth in video delivery via localized P2P could lower overall future aggregation and core network bandwidth of IP video traffic by 58.2%, and total consumer Internet traffic by 43.5%. This assumes aggressive adoption of technologies and business practices that enable highly localized P2P video.

  3. Orientation of Zn3P2 films via phosphidation of Zn precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsube, Ryoji; Nose, Yoshitaro

    2017-02-01

    Orientation of solar absorber is an important factor to achieve high efficiency of thin film solar cells. In the case of Zn3P2 which is a promising absorber of low-cost and high-efficiency solar cells, (110)/(001) orientation was only reported in previous studies. We have successfully prepared (101)-oriented Zn3P2 films by phosphidation of (0001)-oriented Zn films at 350 °C. The phosphidation mechanism of Zn is discussed through STEM observations on the partially-reacted sample and the consideration of the relationship between the crystal structures of Zn and Zn3P2 . We revealed that (0001)-oriented Zn led to nucleation of (101)-oriented Zn3P2 due to the similarity in atomic arrangement between Zn and Zn3P2 . The electrical resistivity of the (101)-oriented Zn3P2 film was lower than those of (110)/(001)-oriented films, which is an advantage of the phosphidation technique to the growth processes in previous works. The results in this study demonstrated that well-conductive Zn3P2 films could be obtained by controlling orientations of crystal grains, and provide a guiding principle for microstructure control in absorber materials.

  4. Impaired P2X signalling pathways in renal microvascular myocytes in genetic hypertension

    KAUST Repository

    Gordienko, Dmitri V.; Povstyan, Oleksandr V.; Sukhanova, Khrystyna Yu; Raphaë l, Maylis; Harhun, Maksym I.; Dyskina, Yulia; Lehen'Kyi, V'Yacheslav; Jama, Abdirahman Mahmoud; Lu, Zhiliang; Skryma, Roman N.; Prevarskaya, Natalia B.

    2014-01-01

    Aims P2X receptors (P2XRs) mediate sympathetic control and autoregulation of renal circulation triggering preglomerular vasoconstriction, which protects glomeruli from elevated pressures. Although previous studies established a casual link between glomerular susceptibility to hypertensive injury and decreased preglomerular vascular reactivity to P2XR activation, the mechanisms of attenuation of the P2XR signalling in hypertension remained unknown. We aimed to analyse molecular mechanisms of the impairment of P2XR signalling in renal vascular smooth muscle cells (RVSMCs) in genetic hypertension. Methods and results We compared the expression of pertinent genes and P2XR-linked Ca2+ entry and Ca2+ release mechanisms in RVSMCs of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and their normotensive controls, Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. We found that, in SHR RVSMCs, P2XR-linked Ca2+ entry and Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) are both significantly reduced. The former is due to down-regulation of the P2X1 subunit. The latter is caused by a decrease of the SR Ca2+ load. The SR Ca2+ load reduction is caused by attenuated Ca2+ uptake via down-regulated sarco-/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase 2b and elevated Ca2+ leak from the SR via ryanodine receptors (RyRs) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors. Spontaneous activity of these Ca2+-release channels is augmented due to up-regulation of RyR type 2 and elevated IP3 production by up-regulated phospholipase C-β1. Conclusions Our study unravels the cellular and molecular mechanisms of attenuation of P2XR-mediated preglomerular vasoconstriction that elevates glomerular susceptibility to harmful hypertensive pressures. This provides an important impetus towards understanding of the pathology of hypertensive renal injury.

  5. P2X7 Receptors Drive Spine Synapse Plasticity in the Learned Helplessness Model of Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otrokocsi, Lilla; Kittel, Ágnes; Sperlágh, Beáta

    2017-10-01

    Major depressive disorder is characterized by structural and functional abnormalities of cortical and limbic brain areas, including a decrease in spine synapse number in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Recent studies highlighted that both genetic and pharmacological invalidation of the purinergic P2X7 receptor (P2rx7) leads to antidepressant-like phenotype in animal experiments; however, the impact of P2rx7 on depression-related structural changes in the hippocampus is not clarified yet. Effects of genetic deletion of P2rx7s on depressive-like behavior and spine synapse density in the dentate gyrus were investigated using the learned helplessness mouse model of depression. We demonstrate that in wild-type animals, inescapable footshocks lead to learned helplessness behavior reflected in increased latency and number of escape failures to subsequent escapable footshocks. This behavior is accompanied with downregulation of mRNA encoding P2rx7 and decrease of spine synapse density in the dentate gyrus as determined by electron microscopic stereology. In addition, a decrease in synaptopodin but not in PSD95 and NR2B/GluN2B protein level was also observed under these conditions. Whereas the absence of P2rx7 was characterized by escape deficit, no learned helpless behavior is observed in these animals. Likewise, no decrease in spine synapse number and synaptopodin protein levels was detected in response to inescapable footshocks in P2rx7-deficient animals. Our findings suggest the endogenous activation of P2rx7s in the learned helplessness model of depression and decreased plasticity of spine synapses in P2rx7-deficient mice might explain the resistance of these animals to repeated stressful stimuli. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  6. Interaction of GABAA receptors with purinergic P2X2 receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrivastava, A.

    2010-01-01

    GABA A Rs in the spinal cord are evolving as an important target for drug development against pain. Purinergic P2X 2 Rs are also expressed in spinal cord neurons and are known to cross-talk with GABA A Rs. Here we investigated a possible 'dynamic' interaction between GABA A Rs and P2X 2 Rs using co-immunoprecipitation and FRET studies in HEK cells along with co-localization and single particle tracking studies in spinal cord neurons. Our results suggest that a significant proportion of P2X 2 Rs forms a transient complex with GABA A Rs inside the cell, thus stabilizing these receptors and using them for co-trafficking to the cell surface. P2X 2 Rs and GABA A Rs are then co-inserted into the cell membrane and are primarily located extra-synaptically. Furthermore, agonist induced activation of P2X 2 Rs results in disassembly of the receptor complex and destabilization of GABA A Rs whereas P2X 2 Rs are stabilized and form larger clusters. Antagonist-induced blocking of P2XRs results in co-stabilization of this receptor complex at the cell surface. These results suggest a novel mechanism where association of P2XRs with other receptors could be used for specific targeting to the neuronal membrane, thus providing an extrasynaptic receptor reserve that could regulate the excitability of neurons. We further conclude that blocking the excitatory activity of excessively released ATP under diseased state by P2XR antagonists could simultaneously enhance synaptic inhibition mediated by GABA A Rs.(author) (author) [de

  7. Impaired P2X signalling pathways in renal microvascular myocytes in genetic hypertension

    KAUST Repository

    Gordienko, Dmitri V.

    2014-12-16

    Aims P2X receptors (P2XRs) mediate sympathetic control and autoregulation of renal circulation triggering preglomerular vasoconstriction, which protects glomeruli from elevated pressures. Although previous studies established a casual link between glomerular susceptibility to hypertensive injury and decreased preglomerular vascular reactivity to P2XR activation, the mechanisms of attenuation of the P2XR signalling in hypertension remained unknown. We aimed to analyse molecular mechanisms of the impairment of P2XR signalling in renal vascular smooth muscle cells (RVSMCs) in genetic hypertension. Methods and results We compared the expression of pertinent genes and P2XR-linked Ca2+ entry and Ca2+ release mechanisms in RVSMCs of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and their normotensive controls, Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. We found that, in SHR RVSMCs, P2XR-linked Ca2+ entry and Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) are both significantly reduced. The former is due to down-regulation of the P2X1 subunit. The latter is caused by a decrease of the SR Ca2+ load. The SR Ca2+ load reduction is caused by attenuated Ca2+ uptake via down-regulated sarco-/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase 2b and elevated Ca2+ leak from the SR via ryanodine receptors (RyRs) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors. Spontaneous activity of these Ca2+-release channels is augmented due to up-regulation of RyR type 2 and elevated IP3 production by up-regulated phospholipase C-β1. Conclusions Our study unravels the cellular and molecular mechanisms of attenuation of P2XR-mediated preglomerular vasoconstriction that elevates glomerular susceptibility to harmful hypertensive pressures. This provides an important impetus towards understanding of the pathology of hypertensive renal injury.

  8. Determining Childhood Blood Lead Level Screening Compliance Among Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haboush-Deloye, Amanda; Marquez, Erika R; Gerstenberger, Shawn L

    2017-08-01

    Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Programs throughout the U.S. have addressed childhood lead poisoning by implementing primary and secondary prevention efforts. While many programs have helped increase screening rates, in some states children under the age of six still have not been tested for lead. This study aims to identify the barriers to childhood blood lead testing and develop a strategy to increase the number of children tested. Clark County physicians who work with children six and under were surveyed about blood lead level (BLL) testing practices, particularly, adherence to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines, and parental compliance with orders to have their children tested to determine their blood lead levels. In addition, select in-person interviews were conducted with physicians who reported high parental compliance to identify best practices and barriers. Of the 77 physicians that provided data, 48% indicated they did not follow CDC guideline compared to 52% who follow guidelines. 18 of the 30 (or 60%) physicians reported more than 80% of parents complied with doctor recommended BLL testing. Twelve physicians identified cost, lack of insurance, and absence of symptomology as persistent barriers to lead screening. This study identified barriers to childhood lead screening including inadequate parental adherence to physician-ordered screenings and physician non-compliance with screening recommendations are two primary contributors. Addressing these issues could increase screening in children and reduce the risk of lead poisoning.

  9. Presynaptic inhibition of spontaneous acetylcholine release mediated by P2Y receptors at the mouse neuromuscular junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lorenzo, S; Veggetti, M; Muchnik, S; Losavio, A

    2006-09-29

    At the neuromuscular junction, ATP is co-released with the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) and once in the synaptic space, it is degraded to the presynaptically active metabolite adenosine. Intracellular recordings were performed on diaphragm fibers of CF1 mice to determine the action of extracellular ATP (100 muM) and the slowly hydrolysable ATP analog 5'-adenylylimidodiphosphate lithium (betagamma-imido ATP) (30 muM) on miniature end-plate potential (MEPP) frequency. We found that application of ATP and betagamma-imido ATP decreased spontaneous secretion by 45.3% and 55.9% respectively. 8-Cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX), a selective A(1) adenosine receptor antagonist and alpha,beta-methylene ADP sodium salt (alphabeta-MeADP), which is an inhibitor of ecto-5'-nucleotidase, did not prevent the inhibitory effect of ATP, demonstrating that the nucleotide is able to modulate spontaneous ACh release through a mechanism independent of the action of adenosine. Blockade of Ca(2+) channels by both, Cd(2+) or the combined application of nitrendipine and omega-conotoxin GVIA (omega-CgTx) (L-type and N-type Ca(2+) channel antagonists, respectively) prevented the effect of betagamma-imido ATP, indicating that the nucleotide modulates Ca(2+) influx through the voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels related to spontaneous secretion. betagamma-Imido ATP-induced modulation was antagonized by the non-specific P2 receptor antagonist suramin and the P2Y receptor antagonist 1-amino-4-[[4-[[4-chloro-6-[[3(or4)-sulfophenyl] amino]-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl]amino]-3-sulfophenyl] amino]-9,10-dihydro-9,10-dioxo-2-anthracenesulfonic acid (reactive blue-2), but not by pyridoxal phosphate-6-azo(benzene-2,4-disulfonic acid) tetrasodium salt (PPADS), which has a preferential antagonist effect on P2X receptors. Pertussis toxin and N-ethylmaleimide (NEM), which are blockers of G(i/o) proteins, prevented the action of the nucleotide, suggesting that the effect is mediated by P2Y receptors

  10. Modulation of Central Synapses by Astrocyte-Released ATP and Postsynaptic P2X Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankratov, Yuriy

    2017-01-01

    Communication between neuronal and glial cells is important for neural plasticity. P2X receptors are ATP-gated cation channels widely expressed in the brain where they mediate action of extracellular ATP released by neurons and/or glia. Recent data show that postsynaptic P2X receptors underlie slow neuromodulatory actions rather than fast synaptic transmission at brain synapses. Here, we review these findings with a particular focus on the release of ATP by astrocytes and the diversity of postsynaptic P2X-mediated modulation of synaptic strength and plasticity in the CNS. PMID:28845311

  11. A Simple FSPN Model of P2P Live Video Streaming System

    OpenAIRE

    Kotevski, Zoran; Mitrevski, Pece

    2011-01-01

    Peer to Peer (P2P) live streaming is relatively new paradigm that aims at streaming live video to large number of clients at low cost. Many such applications already exist in the market, but, prior to creating such system it is necessary to analyze its performance via representative model that can provide good insight in the system’s behavior. Modeling and performance analysis of P2P live video streaming systems is challenging task which requires addressing many properties and issues of P2P s...

  12. Apical membrane P2Y4 purinergic receptor controls K+ secretion by strial marginal cell epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scofield Margaret A

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It was previously shown that K+ secretion by strial marginal cell epithelium is under the control of G-protein coupled receptors of the P2Y family in the apical membrane. Receptor activation by uracil nucleotides (P2Y2, P2Y4 or P2Y6 leads to a decrease in the electrogenic K+ secretion. The present study was conducted to determine the subtype of the functional purinergic receptor in gerbil stria vascularis, to test if receptor activation leads to elevation of intracellular [Ca2+] and to test if the response to these receptors undergoes desensitization. Results The transepithelial short circuit current (Isc represents electrogenic K+ secretion and was found to be decreased by uridine 5'-triphosphate (UTP, adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP and diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A but not uridine 5'-diphosphate (UDP at the apical membrane of marginal cells of the gerbil stria vascularis. The potencies of these agonists were consistent with rodent P2Y4 and P2Y2 but not P2Y6 receptors. Activation caused a biphasic increase in intracellular [Ca2+] that could be partially blocked by 2-aminoethoxy-diphenyl borate (2-APB, an inhibitor of the IP3 receptor and store-operated channels. Suramin (100 μM did not inhibit the effect of UTP (1 μM. The ineffectiveness of suramin at the concentration used was consistent with P2Y4 but not P2Y2. Transcripts for both P2Y2 and P2Y4 were found in the stria vascularis. Sustained exposure to ATP or UTP for 15 min caused a depression of Isc that appeared to have two components but with apparently no chronic desensitization. Conclusion The results support the conclusion that regulation of K+ secretion across strial marginal cell epithelium occurs by P2Y4 receptors at the apical membrane. The apparent lack of desensitization of the response is consistent with two processes: a rapid-onset phosphorylation of KCNE1 channel subunit and a slower-onset of regulation by depletion of plasma membrane PIP2.

  13. Modulation of Central Synapses by Astrocyte-Released ATP and Postsynaptic P2X Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Boué-Grabot

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Communication between neuronal and glial cells is important for neural plasticity. P2X receptors are ATP-gated cation channels widely expressed in the brain where they mediate action of extracellular ATP released by neurons and/or glia. Recent data show that postsynaptic P2X receptors underlie slow neuromodulatory actions rather than fast synaptic transmission at brain synapses. Here, we review these findings with a particular focus on the release of ATP by astrocytes and the diversity of postsynaptic P2X-mediated modulation of synaptic strength and plasticity in the CNS.

  14. Project Compliance with Enterprise Architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foorthuis, R.M.

    2012-01-01

    This research project set out to identify effective practices and models for working with projects that are required to comply with Enterprise Architecture (EA), and investigate the benefits and drawbacks brought about by compliance. Research methods used are canonical action research, a statistical

  15. ETHICS AND COMPLIANCE IN BUSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREESCU Nicoleta Alina

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have studied the evolution of the business ethics concept through the prism of definitions from some renowned authors in the field and through the approach model of the business ethics and by implementing it in the company level. We have found out that in the last 40 years this concept has evolved from a theoretical aspect, as well as a practical one. Companies are motivated to implement ethics and compliance programs in business so that they can manage the changes that come from society. If, until recently, all that mattered for a company was profit, in the last decades, the situation changed. In order to develop a durable business, it is essential to have a good reputation. Owning and implementing an ethics and compliance program in business has become an imperative for companies, regardless of their activity sector. The role of the compliance department becomes more pregnant in each company: the employees need safety, the existence of communication lines provides comfort. From the partners in business’ point of view, owning such a program is a necessity, a condition, and not conforming to the principles of business ethics can lead to the isolation of the company. The ethics and compliance programs in business are instruments that protect the company by implementing certain proactive identification mechanisms that ensure the development of an ethical organizational culture.

  16. Audit-based compliance control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cederquist, J.G.; Dimitrakos, T.; Corin, R.J.; Martinelli, F.; Ryan, P.Y.A.; Dekker, M.A.C.; Etalle, Sandro; Schneider, S.; den Hartog, Jeremy; Lenzini, Gabriele

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a new framework for controlling compliance to discretionary access control policies [Cederquist et al. in Proceedings of the International Workshop on Policies for Distributed Systems and Networks (POLICY), 2005; Corin et al. in Proceedings of the IFIP Workshop on Formal

  17. Context-aware compliance checking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werf, van der J.M.E.M.; Verbeek, H.M.W.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Barros, A.; Gal, A.; Kindler, E.

    2012-01-01

    Organizations face more and more the burden to show that their business is compliant with respect to many different boundaries. The activity of compliance checking is commonly referred to as auditing. As information systems supporting the organization’s business record their usage, process mining

  18. Central line-associated blood stream infections in pediatric ICUs: Longitudinal trends and compliance with bundle strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jeffrey D; Herzig, Carolyn TA; Liu, Hangsheng; Pogorzelska-Maziarz, Monika; Zachariah, Philip; Dick, Andrew W; Saiman, Lisa; Stone, Patricia W; Furuya, E Yoko

    2015-01-01

    Background Knowing the temporal trend central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) rates among U.S. pediatric intensive care units (PICU), the current extent of CL bundle compliance, and the impact of compliance on rates is necessary to understand what has been accomplished and can be improved in CLABSI prevention. Methods Longitudinal study of PICUs in National Healthcare Safety Network hospitals and a cross-sectional survey of directors/managers of infection prevention & control departments regarding PICU CLABSI prevention practices, including self-reported compliance with elements of central line bundles. Associations between 2011/12 PICU CLABSI rates and infection prevention practices were examined. Results Reported CLABSI rates decreased during the study period, from 5.8 per 1000 line days in 2006 to 1.4 in 2011/12 (Pprevention practices, only 35% of those with policies reported ≥95% compliance. PICUs with ≥95% compliance with central line infection prevention policies had lower reported CLABSI rates, but this association was statistically insignificant. Conclusions There was a non-significant trend in decreasing CLABSI rates as PICUs improved bundle policy compliance. Given that few PICUs reported full compliance with these policies, PICUs increasing their efforts to comply with these policies may help reduce CLABSI rates. PMID:25952048

  19. Clean Air Markets - Compliance Query Wizard

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Compliance Query Wizard is part of a suite of Clean Air Markets-related tools that are accessible at http://ampd.epa.gov/ampd/. The Compliance module provides...

  20. 300 area TEDF permit compliance monitoring plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BERNESKI, L.D.

    1998-01-01

    This document presents the permit compliance monitoring plan for the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF). It addresses the compliance with the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit and Department of Natural Resources Aquatic Lands Sewer Outfall Lease

  1. Mobile Source Emissions Regulatory Compliance Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Mobile Source Emissions Regulatory Compliance Data Inventory data asset contains measured summary compliance information on light-duty, heavy-duty, and non-road...

  2. 300 area TEDF permit compliance monitoring plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BERNESKI, L.D.

    1998-11-20

    This document presents the permit compliance monitoring plan for the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF). It addresses the compliance with the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit and Department of Natural Resources Aquatic Lands Sewer Outfall Lease.

  3. Mobile Source Emissions Regulatory Compliance Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Engine and Vehicle Compliance Certification and Fuel Economy Inventory contains measured emissions and fuel economy compliance information for all types of...

  4. Impact of ticagrelor on P2Y1 and P2Y12 localization and on cholesterol levels in platelet plasma membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabani, Vahideh; Montange, Damien; Meneveau, Nicolas; Davani, Siamak

    2017-10-11

    Ticagrelor is an antiplatelet agent that inhibits platelet activation via P2Y12 antagonism. There are several studies showing that P2Y12 needs lipid rafts to be activated, but there are few data about how ticagrelor impacts lipid raft organization. Therefore, we aimed to investigate how ticagrelor could impact the distribution of cholesterol and consequently alter the organization of lipid rafts on platelet plasma membranes. We identified cholesterol-enriched raft fractions in platelet membranes by quantification of their cholesterol levels. Modifications in cholesterol and protein profiles (Flotillin 1, Flotillin 2, CD36, P2Y1, and P2Y12) were studied in platelets stimulated by ADP, treated by ticagrelor, or both. In ADP-stimulated and ticagrelor-treated groups, we found a decreased level of cholesterol in raft fractions of platelet plasma membrane compared to the control group. In addition, the peak of cholesterol in different experimental groups changed its localization on membrane fractions. In the control group, it was situated on fraction 2, while in ADP-stimulated platelets, it was located in fractions 3 to 5, and in fraction 4 in ticagrelor-treated group. The proteins studied also showed changes in their level of expression and localization in fractions of plasma membrane. Cholesterol levels of plasma membranes have a direct role in the organization of platelet membranes and could be modified by stimulation or drug treatment. Since ticagrelor and ADP both changed lipid composition and protein profile, investigating the lipid and protein composition of platelet membranes is of considerable importance as a focus for further research in anti-platelet management.

  5. 14 CFR 26.49 - Compliance plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compliance plan. 26.49 Section 26.49... Data for Repairs and Alterations § 26.49 Compliance plan. (a) Compliance plan. Except for applicants... January 11, 2008, each person identified in §§ 26.43, 26.45, and 26.47, must submit a compliance plan...

  6. GENDER AND ETHNICITY DIFFERENCES IN TAX COMPLIANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Jeyapalan Kasipillai; Hijattulah Abdul Jabbar

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate whether gender and ethnicity differences occur in relation to tax compliance attitude and behavior. Prior studies on tax compliance have focused little on gender as a predictor of compliance. In Malaysia, ethnic background of a taxpayer could be a major determinant of tax compliance. A personal interview approach is used to obtain information from taxpayers in urban towns. A t-test suggests that males and females were found to have similar compliant...

  7. State regulatory issues in acid rain compliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, B.D.; Brick, S.

    1992-01-01

    This article discusses the results of a US EPA workshop for state regulators and commission staff on acid rain compliance concerns. The topics of the article include the results of market-based emissions control, how emissions trading is expected to reduce emissions, public utility commissions approval of compliance plans, the purposes of the workshop, market information, accounting issues, regulatory process and utility planning, multi-state compliance planning, and relationship to other compliance issues

  8. Hazardous Materials Pharmacies - A Vital Component of a Robust P2 Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarter, S.

    2006-01-01

    Integrating pollution prevention (P2) into the Department of Energy Integrated Safety Management (ISM) - Environmental Management System (EMS) approach, required by DOE Order 450.1, leads to an enhanced ISM program at large and complex installations and facilities. One of the building blocks to integrating P2 into a comprehensive environmental and safety program is the control and tracking of the amounts, types, and flow of hazardous materials used on a facility. Hazardous materials pharmacies (typically called HazMarts) provide a solid approach to resolving this issue through business practice changes that reduce use, avoid excess, and redistribute surplus. If understood from concept to implementation, the HazMart is a powerful tool for reducing pollution at the source, tracking inventory storage, controlling usage and flow, and summarizing data for reporting requirements. Pharmacy options can range from a strict, single control point for all hazardous materials to a virtual system, where the inventory is user controlled and reported over a common system. Designing and implementing HazMarts on large, diverse installations or facilities present a unique set of issues. This is especially true of research and development (R and D) facilities where the chemical use requirements are extensive and often classified. There are often multiple sources of supply; a wide variety of chemical requirements; a mix of containers ranging from small ampoules to large bulk storage tanks; and a wide range of tools used to track hazardous materials, ranging from simple purchase inventories to sophisticated tracking software. Computer systems are often not uniform in capacity, capability, or operating systems, making it difficult to use a server-based unified tracking system software. Each of these issues has a solution or set of solutions tied to fundamental business practices. Each requires an understanding of the problem at hand, which, in turn, requires good communication among all

  9. A Local Scalable Distributed EM Algorithm for Large P2P Networks

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — his paper describes a local and distributed expectation maximization algorithm for learning parameters of Gaussian mixture models (GMM) in large peer-to-peer (P2P)...

  10. The ILC P2 Marx and Application of the Marx Topology to Future Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, M.A.; Benwell, A.; Burkhart, C.; Hugyik, J.; Larsen, R.; Macken, K.; MacNair, D.; Nguyen, M.; Olsen, J.; /SLAC

    2011-08-19

    The SLAC P2 Marx is under development as the linac klystron modulator for the ILC. This modulator builds upon the success of the P1 Marx, which is currently undergoing lifetime evaluation. While the SLAC P2 Marx's (henceforth, 'P2 Marx') target application is the ILC, characteristics of the Marx topology make it equally well-suited for operation at different parameter ranges; for example, increased pulse repetition frequency, increased output current, longer pulse width, etc. Marx parameters such as the number of cells, cell capacitance, and component selection can be optimized for the application. This paper provides an overview of the P2 Marx development. In addition, the scalability of the Marx topology to other long-pulse parameter ranges is discussed.

  11. P2P-Based Data System for the EAST Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Yantai; Zhang, Liang; Zhao, Weifeng; Chen, Haiming; Luo, Jiarong

    2006-06-01

    A peer-to-peer (P2P)-based EAST Data System is being designed to provide data acquisition and analysis support for the EAST superconducting tokamak. Instead of transferring data to the servers, all collected data are stored in the data acquisition subsystems locally and the PC clients can access the raw data directly using the P2P architecture. Both online and offline systems are based on Napster-like P2P architecture. This allows the peer (PC) to act both as a client and as a server. A simulation-based method and a steady-state operational analysis technique are used for performance evaluation. These analyses show that the P2P technique can significantly reduce the completion time of raw data display and real-time processing on the online system, and raise the workload capacity and reduce the delay on the offline system.

  12. Role of P2X7 on steroid synthesis in murine luteal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunping Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP regulates different cellular functions through activating purinergic receptors as a signalling molecule or neurotransmitter. P2X7 is highly expressed in murine small luteal cells. In this study, murine luteal cells were cultured in vitro and treated with P2X7 agonists – ATP and 2′(3′-O-(4-benzoyl-benzoyl-adenosine 50-triphosphate (BzATP and with P2X7 antagonist – brilliant blue G (BBG. We found that ATP and BzATP increased the production of progesterone and had no influence on the production of estradiol. BBG reversed the effect of BzATP and ATP. Further studies demonstrated that ATP and BzATP promoted the expression of CYP11A. These results revealed that P2X7 receptor activation is involved in the steroid synthesis in corpus luteum.

  13. Expression, purification, crystallization and structure of human adipocyte lipid-binding protein (aP2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marr, Eric; Tardie, Mark; Carty, Maynard; Brown Phillips, Tracy; Wang, Ing-Kae; Soeller, Walt; Qiu, Xiayang; Karam, George

    2006-01-01

    The crystal structure of human adipocyte lipid-binding protein (aP2) with a bound palmitate is reported at 1.5 Å resolution. Human adipocyte lipid-binding protein (aP2) belongs to a family of intracellular lipid-binding proteins involved in the transport and storage of lipids. Here, the crystal structure of human aP2 with a bound palmitate is described at 1.5 Å resolution. Unlike the known crystal structure of murine aP2 in complex with palmitate, this structure shows that the fatty acid is in a folded conformation and that the loop containing Phe57 acts as a lid to regulate ligand binding by excluding solvent exposure to the central binding cavity

  14. Expression, tissue localization and serodiagnostic potential of Taenia multiceps acidic ribosomal protein P2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xing; Chen, Lin; Yang, Yingdong; Gu, Xiaobin; Wang, Yu; Lai, Weimin; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

    2015-12-01

    The larval stage of Taenia multiceps, also known as coenurus, is the causative agent of coenurosis, which results in severe health problems in sheep, goats, cattle and other animals that negatively impact on animal husbandry. There is no reliable method to identify coenurus infected goats in the early period of infection. We identified a full-length cDNA that encodes acidic ribosomal protein P2 from the transcriptome of T. multiceps (TmP2). Following cloning, sequencing and structural analyses were performed using bioinformatics tools. Recombinant TmP2 (rTmP2) was prokaryotically expressed and then used to test immunoreactivity and immunogenicity in immunoblotting assays. The native proteins in adult stage and coenurus were located via immunofluorescence assays, while the potential of rTmP2 for indirect ELISA-based serodiagnostics was assessed using native goat sera. In addition, 20 goats were randomly divided into a drug treatment group and a control group. Each goat was orally given mature, viable T. multiceps eggs. The drug treatment group was given 10% praziquantel by intramuscular injection 45 days post-infection (p.i), and all goats were screened for anti-TmP2 antibodies with the indirect ELISA method established here, once a week for 17 weeks p.i. The open reading frame (366 bp) of the target gene encodes a 12.62 kDa protein, which showed high homology to that from Taenia solium (93% identity) and lacked a signal peptide. Immunofluorescence staining showed that TmP2 was highly localized to the parenchymatous zone of both the adult parasite and the coenurus; besides, it was widely distributed in cystic wall of coenurus. Building on good immunogenic properties, rTmP2-based ELISA exhibited a sensitivity of 95.0% (19/20) and a specificity of 96.3% (26/27) in detecting anti-P2 antibodies in the sera of naturally infected goats and sheep. In goats experimentally infected with T. multiceps, anti-TmP2 antibody was detectable in the control group from 3 to 10 weeks

  15. Corneal epithelium expresses a variant of P2X(7 receptor in health and disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney Mankus

    Full Text Available Improper wound repair of the corneal epithelium can alter refraction of light resulting in impaired vision. We have shown that ATP is released after injury, activates purinergic receptor signaling pathways and plays a major role in wound closure. In many cells or tissues, ATP activates P2X(7 receptors leading to cation fluxes and cytotoxicity. The corneal epithelium is an excellent model to study the expression of both the full-length P2X(7 form (defined as the canonical receptor and its truncated forms. When Ca(2+ mobilization is induced by BzATP, a P2X(7 agonist, it is attenuated in the presence of extracellular Mg(2+ or Zn(2+, negligible in the absence of extracellular Ca(2+, and inhibited by the competitive P2X7 receptor inhibitor, A438079. BzATP enhanced phosphorylation of ERK. Together these responses indicate the presence of a canonical or full-length P2X(7 receptor. In addition BzATP enhanced epithelial cell migration, and transfection with siRNA to the P2X(7 receptor reduced cell migration. Furthermore, sustained activation did not induce dye uptake indicating the presence of truncated or variant forms that lack the ability to form large pores. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Northern blot analysis revealed a P2X(7 splice variant. Western blots identified a full-length and truncated form, and the expression pattern changed as cultures progressed from monolayer to stratified. Cross-linking gels demonstrated the presence of homo- and heterotrimers. We examined epithelium from age matched diabetic and non-diabetic corneas patients and detected a 4-fold increase in P2X(7 mRNA from diabetic corneal epithelium compared to non-diabetic controls and an increased trend in expression of P2X(7variant mRNA. Taken together, these data indicate that corneal epithelial cells express full-length and truncated forms of P2X(7, which ultimately allows P2X(7 to function as a multifaceted receptor that can mediate cell proliferation and

  16. 42 CFR 124.503 - Compliance level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compliance level. 124.503 Section 124.503 Public... Unable To Pay § 124.503 Compliance level. (a) Annual compliance level. Subject to the provisions of this... persons unable to pay if it provides for the fiscal year uncompensated services at a level not less than...

  17. 24 CFR 107.40 - Compliance meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Compliance meeting. 107.40 Section... NONDISCRIMINATION AND EQUAL OPPORTUNITY IN HOUSING UNDER EXECUTIVE ORDER 11063 § 107.40 Compliance meeting. (a... allegedly in violation (respondent) shall be sent a Notice of Compliance Meeting and requested to attend a...

  18. 24 CFR 108.25 - Compliance meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Compliance meeting. 108.25 Section... COMPLIANCE PROCEDURES FOR AFFIRMATIVE FAIR HOUSING MARKETING § 108.25 Compliance meeting. (a) Scheduling meeting. If an applicant fails to comply with requirements under § 108.15 or § 108.20 or it appears that...

  19. 22 CFR 209.6 - Compliance information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Compliance information. 209.6 Section 209.6... § 209.6 Compliance information. (a) Cooperation and assistance. The Administrator shall to the fullest... and accurate compliance reports at such times, and in such form and containing such information, as...

  20. Type B Package Radioactive Material Contents Compliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HENSEL, STEVE

    2006-01-01

    Implementation of packaging and transportation requirements can be subdivided into three categories; contents compliance, packaging closure, and transportation or logistical compliance. This paper addresses the area of contents compliance within the context of regulations, DOE Orders, and appropriate standards. Common practices and current pitfalls are also discussed

  1. DESENSITIZATION PROPERTIES OF P2X3 RECEPTORS SHAPING PAIN SIGNALLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid eGiniatullin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available ATP-gated P2X3 receptors are mostly expressed by nociceptive sensory neurons and participate in transduction of pain signals. P2X3 receptors show a combination of fast desensitization onset and slow recovery. Moreover, even low nanomolar agonist concentrations unable to evoke a response, can induce desensitization via a phenomenon called ‘high affinity desensitization’. We have also observed that recovery from desensitization is agonist-specific and can range from seconds to minutes. The recovery process displays unusually high temperature dependence. Likewise, recycling of P2X3 receptors in peri-membrane regions shows unexpectedly large temperature sensitivity. By applying kinetic modeling, we have previously shown that desensitization characteristics of P2X3 receptor are best explained with a cyclic model of receptor operation involving three agonist molecules binding a single receptor and that desensitization is primarily developing from the open receptor state. Mutagenesis experiments suggested that desensitization depends on a certain conformation of the ATP binding pocket and on the structure of the transmembrane domains forming the ion pore. Further molecular determinants of desensitization have been identified by mutating the intracellular N- and C-termini of P2X3 receptor. Unlike other P2X receptors, the P2X3 subtype is facilitated by extracellular calcium that acts via specific sites in the ectodomain neighboring the ATP binding pocket. Thus, substitution of serine275 in this region (called ‘left flipper’ converts the natural facilitation induced by extracellular calcium to receptor inhibition. Given such their strategic location in nociceptive neurons and unique desensitization properties, P2X3 receptors represent an attractive target for development of new analgesic drugs via promotion of desensitization aimed at suppressing chronic pain.

  2. Data transport and management in P2P Data Management in Mobile Wireless Sensor Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahar, S.; Shaikh, F.K.

    2013-01-01

    The rapid growth in wireless technologies has made wireless communication an important source for transporting data across different domains. In the same way, there are possibilities of many potential applications that can be deployed using WSNs (Wireless Sensor Networks). However, very limited applications are deployed in real life due to the uncertainty and dynamics of the environment and scare resources. This makes data management in WSN a challenging area to find an approach that suits its characteristics. Currently, the trend is to find efficient data management schemes using evolving technologies, i.e. P2P (Peer-to-Peer) systems. Many P2P approaches have been applied in WSNs to carry out the data management due to similarities between WSN and P2P. With the similarities, there are differences too that makes P2P protocols inefficient in WSNs. Furthermore, to increase the efficiency and to exploit the delay tolerant nature of WSNs, where ever possible, the mobile WSNs are gaining importance. Thus, creating a three dimensional problem space to consider, i.e. mobility, WSNs and P2P. In this paper, an efficient algorithm is proposed for data management using P2P techniques for mobile WSNs. The real world implementation and deployment of proposed algorithm is also presented. (author)

  3. Luminescence in Eu2+ and Ce3+ doped SrCaP2O7 phosphors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.N. Shinde

    Full Text Available Eu2+ and Ce3+ doped SrCaP2O7 has been achieved by modified solid state diffusion in reducing atmosphere. The prepared phosphor powders have been identified by their characteristic X-ray diffraction patterns. The mixed phases of α-Sr2P2O7 type with orthorhombic and α-Ca2P2O7 type with monoclinic form were investigated. Its excitation wavelength ranging from 250 to 430 nm fits well with the characteristic emission of UV light-emitting diode (LED. The excitation and emission spectra indicate that these phosphors can be effectively excited by the near-UV light, and emits blue (visible range due to 4f7 → 4f65d1 transition of Eu2+ particularly, SrCaP2O7: Eu2+ whereas, photoluminescence excitation spectrum measurements of Ce3+ activated SrCaP2O7 shows that the phosphor can be efficiently excited by UV–Vis light from 280 to 310 nm to realize emission in the near visible range due to the 5d–4f transition of Ce3+ ions which is applicable for scintillation purpose. The impacts of doping of divalent europium and trivalent cerium on photoluminescence properties on SrCaP2O7 pyrophosphate phosphors were investigated and I propose a feasible interpretation. Keywords: Phosphor, Luminescence, XRD, LED, FTIR

  4. Strategies for P2P connectivity in reconfigurable converged wired/wireless access networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puerto, Gustavo; Mora, José; Ortega, Beatriz; Capmany, José

    2010-12-06

    This paper presents different strategies to define the architecture of a Radio-Over-Fiber (RoF) Access networks enabling Peer-to-Peer (P2P) functionalities. The architectures fully exploit the flexibility of a wavelength router based on the feedback configuration of an Arrayed Waveguide Grating (AWG) and an optical switch to broadcast P2P services among diverse infrastructures featuring dynamic channel allocation and enabling an optical platform for 3G and beyond wireless backhaul requirements. The first architecture incorporates a tunable laser to generate a dedicated wavelength for P2P purposes and the second architecture takes advantage of reused wavelengths to enable the P2P connectivity among Optical Network Units (ONUs) or Base Stations (BS). While these two approaches allow the P2P connectivity in a one at a time basis (1:1), the third architecture enables the broadcasting of P2P sessions among different ONUs or BSs at the same time (1:M). Experimental assessment of the proposed architecture shows approximately 0.6% Error Vector Magnitude (EVM) degradation for wireless services and 1 dB penalty in average for 1 x 10(-12) Bit Error Rate (BER) for wired baseband services.

  5. P2X7 receptor-deficient mice are susceptible to bone cancer pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rikke Rie; Nielsen, Christian K.; Nasser, Arafat

    2011-01-01

    The purinergic P2X7 receptor is implicated in both neuropathic and inflammatory pain, and has been suggested as a possible target in pain treatment. However, the specific role of the P2X7 receptor in bone cancer pain is unknown. We demonstrated that BALB/cJ P2X7 receptor knockout (P2X7R KO) mice...... were susceptible to bone cancer pain and moreover had an earlier onset of pain-related behaviours compared with cancer-bearing, wild-type mice. Furthermore, acute treatment with the selective P2X7 receptor antagonist, A-438079, failed to alleviate pain-related behaviours in models of bone cancer pain...... with and without astrocyte activation (BALB/cJ or C3H mice inoculated with 4T1 mammary cancer cells or NCTC 2472 osteosarcoma cells, respectively), suggesting that astrocytic P2X7 receptors play a negligible role in bone cancer pain. The results support the hypothesis that bone cancer pain is a separate pain state...

  6. A distributed incentive compatible pricing mechanism for P2P networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Zheng; Xiong, Xiao; Shi, Qingwei

    2007-09-01

    Peer-to-Peer (P2P) systems are currently receiving considerable interest. However, as experience with P2P networks shows, the selfish behaviors of peers may lead to serious problems of P2P network, such as free-riding and white-washing. In order to solve these problems, there are increasing considerations on reputation system design in the study of P2P networks. Most of the existing works is concerning probabilistic estimation or social networks to evaluate the trustworthiness for a peer to others. However, these models can not be efficient all the time. In this paper, our aim is to provide a general mechanism that can maximize P2P networks social welfare in a way of Vickrey-Clarke-Groves family, while assuming every peer in P2P networks is rational and selfish, which means they only concern about their own outcome. This mechanism has some desirable properties using an O(n) algorithm: (1) incentive compatibility, every peer truly report its connection type; (2) individually rationality; and (3) fully decentralized, we design a multiple-principal multiple-agent model, concerning about the service provider and service requester individually.

  7. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) disrupts blood-brain barrier integrity through a mechanism involving P2X7 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Araiz, Ana; Perez-Hernandez, Mercedes; Urrutia, Andrés; Porcu, Francesca; Borcel, Erika; Gutierrez-Lopez, Maria Dolores; O'Shea, Esther; Colado, Maria Isabel

    2014-08-01

    The recreational drug 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; 'ecstasy') produces a neuro-inflammatory response in rats characterized by an increase in microglial activation and IL-1β levels. The integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is important in preserving the homeostasis of the brain and has been shown to be affected by neuro-inflammatory processes. We aimed to study the effect of a single dose of MDMA on the activity of metalloproteinases (MMPs), expression of extracellular matrix proteins, BBB leakage and the role of the ionotropic purinergic receptor P2X7 (P2X7R) in the changes induced by the drug. Adult male Dark Agouti rats were treated with MDMA (10 mg/kg, i.p.) and killed at several time-points in order to evaluate MMP-9 and MMP-3 activity in the hippocampus and laminin and collagen-IV expression and IgG extravasation in the dentate gyrus. Microglial activation, P2X7R expression and localization were also determined in the dentate gyrus. Separate groups were treated with MDMA and the P2X7R antagonists Brilliant Blue G (BBG; 50 mg/kg, i.p.) or A-438079 (30 mg/kg, i.p.). MDMA increased MMP-3 and MMP-9 activity, reduced laminin and collagen-IV expression and increased IgG immunoreactivity. In addition, MDMA increased microglial activation and P2X7R immunoreactivity in these cells. BBG suppressed the increase in MMP-9 and MMP-3 activity, prevented basal lamina degradation and IgG extravasation into the brain parenchyma. A-438079 also prevented the MDMA-induced reduction in laminin and collagen-IV immunoreactivity. These results indicate that MDMA alters BBB permeability through an early P2X7R-mediated event, which in turn leads to enhancement of MMP-9 and MMP-3 activity and degradation of extracellular matrix.

  8. Activation of P2X7-mediated apoptosis Inhibits DMBA/TPA-induced formation of skin papillomas and cancer in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Wen; Gorodeski, George I; McCormick, Tom; Qi, Xiaoping; Luo, Liping; Zhou, Lingyin; Li, Xin; Wang, Bing-Cheng; Gibbons, Heidi E; Abdul-Karim, Fadi W

    2009-01-01

    The study tested the hypothesis that apoptosis can prevent and control growth of neoplastic cells. Previous studies in-vitro have shown that the pro-apoptotic P2X 7 receptor regulates growth of epithelial cells. The specific objective of the present study was to understand to what degree the P2X 7 system controls development and growth of skin cancer in vivo, and what cellular and molecular mechanisms are involved in the P2X 7 action. Skin neoplasias in mice (papillomas, followed by squamous spindle-cell carcinomas) were induced by local application of DMBA/TPA. Experiments in-vitro utilized cultured epidermal keratinocytes generated from wild-type or from P2X 7 -null mice. Assays involved protein immunostaining and Western blots; mRNA real-time qPCR; and apoptosis (evaluated in situ by TUNEL and quantified in cultured keratinocytes as solubilized DNA or by ELISA). Changes in cytosolic calcium or in ethidium bromide influx (P2X 7 pore formation) were determined by confocal laser microscopy. (a) Co-application on the skin of the P2X 7 specific agonist BzATP inhibited formation of DMBA/TPA-induced skin papillomas and carcinomas. At the completion of study (week 28) the proportion of living animals with cancers in the DMBA/TPA group was 100% compared to 43% in the DMBA/TPA+BzATP group. (b) In the normal skin BzATP affected mainly P2X 7 -receptor – expressing proliferating keratinocytes, where it augmented apoptosis without evoking inflammatory changes. (c) In BzATP-treated mice the degree of apoptosis was lesser in cancer than in normal or papilloma keratinocytes. (d) Levels of P2X 7 receptor, protein and mRNA were 4–5 fold lower in cancer tissues than in normal mouse tissues. (e) In cultured mouse keratinocytes BzATP induced apoptosis, formation of pores in the plasma membrane, and facilitated prolonged calcium influx. (f) The BzATP-induced apoptosis, pore-formation and augmented calcium influx had similar dose-dependence for BzATP. (g) Pore formation and the

  9. Activation of P2X7-mediated apoptosis Inhibits DMBA/TPA-induced formation of skin papillomas and cancer in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Wen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study tested the hypothesis that apoptosis can prevent and control growth of neoplastic cells. Previous studies in-vitro have shown that the pro-apoptotic P2X7 receptor regulates growth of epithelial cells. The specific objective of the present study was to understand to what degree the P2X7 system controls development and growth of skin cancer in vivo, and what cellular and molecular mechanisms are involved in the P2X7 action. Methods Skin neoplasias in mice (papillomas, followed by squamous spindle-cell carcinomas were induced by local application of DMBA/TPA. Experiments in-vitro utilized cultured epidermal keratinocytes generated from wild-type or from P2X7-null mice. Assays involved protein immunostaining and Western blots; mRNA real-time qPCR; and apoptosis (evaluated in situ by TUNEL and quantified in cultured keratinocytes as solubilized DNA or by ELISA. Changes in cytosolic calcium or in ethidium bromide influx (P2X7 pore formation were determined by confocal laser microscopy. Results (a Co-application on the skin of the P2X7 specific agonist BzATP inhibited formation of DMBA/TPA-induced skin papillomas and carcinomas. At the completion of study (week 28 the proportion of living animals with cancers in the DMBA/TPA group was 100% compared to 43% in the DMBA/TPA+BzATP group. (b In the normal skin BzATP affected mainly P2X7-receptor – expressing proliferating keratinocytes, where it augmented apoptosis without evoking inflammatory changes. (c In BzATP-treated mice the degree of apoptosis was lesser in cancer than in normal or papilloma keratinocytes. (d Levels of P2X7 receptor, protein and mRNA were 4–5 fold lower in cancer tissues than in normal mouse tissues. (e In cultured mouse keratinocytes BzATP induced apoptosis, formation of pores in the plasma membrane, and facilitated prolonged calcium influx. (f The BzATP-induced apoptosis, pore-formation and augmented calcium influx had similar dose-dependence for

  10. P2P-based botnets: structural analysis, monitoring, and mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Guanhua [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Eidenbenz, Stephan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ha, Duc T [UNIV AT BUFFALO; Ngo, Hung Q [UNIV AT BUFFALO

    2008-01-01

    Botnets, which are networks of compromised machines that are controlled by one or a group of attackers, have emerged as one of the most serious security threats on the Internet. With an army of bots at the scale of tens of thousands of hosts or even as large as 1.5 million PCs, the computational power of botnets can be leveraged to launch large-scale DDoS (Distributed Denial of Service) attacks, sending spamming emails, stealing identities and financial information, etc. As detection and mitigation techniques against botnets have been stepped up in recent years, attackers are also constantly improving their strategies to operate these botnets. The first generation of botnets typically employ IRC (Internet Relay Chat) channels as their command and control (C&C) centers. Though simple and easy to deploy, the centralized C&C mechanism of such botnets has made them prone to being detected and disabled. Against this backdrop, peer-to-peer (P2P) based botnets have emerged as a new generation of botnets which can conceal their C&C communication. Recently, P2P networks have emerged as a covert communication platform for malicious programs known as bots. As popular distributed systems, they allow bots to communicate easily while protecting the botmaster from being discovered. Existing work on P2P-based hotnets mainly focuses on measurement of botnet sizes. In this work, through simulation, we study extensively the structure of P2P networks running Kademlia, one of a few widely used P2P protocols in practice. Our simulation testbed incorporates the actual code of a real Kademlia client software to achieve great realism, and distributed event-driven simulation techniques to achieve high scalability. Using this testbed, we analyze the scaling, reachability, clustering, and centrality properties of P2P-based botnets from a graph-theoretical perspective. We further demonstrate experimentally and theoretically that monitoring bot activities in a P2P network is difficult

  11. Motivation for Compliance with Environmental Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Søren; May, Peter J.

    2001-01-01

    A combination of calculated, normative, and social motivations as well as awareness of rules and capacity to comply are thought to foster compliance with regulations. Hypotheses about these factors were tested with data concerning Danish farmers’ compliance with agro-environmental regulations....... Three key findings emerge: that farmers’ awareness of rules plays a critical role; that normative and social motivations are as influential as calculated motivations in enhancing compliance; and that inspectors’ enforcement style affects compliance differently from that posited in much of the literature...... compliance with social and environmental regulations....

  12. [Insufficient medication compliance in Parkinson's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Marjolein B; van der Eijk, Martijn; Kramers, Kees; Bloem, Bastiaan R

    2011-01-01

    Medication compliance is generally suboptimal, particularly in patients with complex polypharmacy. This generic treatment problem is described here for Parkinson's disease (PD). We would expect patients with PD to have good medication compliance, since missed doses immediately result in worsening of symptoms. However, recent research has revealed that PD patients demonstrate poor medication compliance. Poor medication compliance is particularly undesirable for patients with PD because regular intake of medication is required for optimal treatment effect. Possible ways of improving medication compliance are pharmacotherapeutic measures and behavioural interventions. Modern methods of communication (text message reminders) and 'smart' pill dispensers may be beneficial, but the advantages of such interventions have not yet been scientifically studied.

  13. Berberine reduces fibronectin expression by suppressing the S1P-S1P2 receptor pathway in experimental diabetic nephropathy models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaipeng Huang

    Full Text Available The accumulation of glomerular extracellular matrix (ECM is one of the critical pathological characteristics of diabetic renal fibrosis. Fibronectin (FN is an important constituent of ECM. Our previous studies indicate that the activation of the sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1-sphingosine 1- phosphate (S1P signaling pathway plays a key regulatory role in FN production in glomerular mesangial cells (GMCs under diabetic condition. Among the five S1P receptors, the activation of S1P2 receptor is the most abundant. Berberine (BBR treatment also effectively inhibits SphK1 activity and S1P production in the kidneys of diabetic models, thus improving renal injury. Based on these data, we further explored whether BBR could prevent FN production in GMCs under diabetic condition via the S1P2 receptor. Here, we showed that BBR significantly down-regulated the expression of S1P2 receptor in diabetic rat kidneys and GMCs exposed to high glucose (HG and simultaneously inhibited S1P2 receptor-mediated FN overproduction. Further, BBR also obviously suppressed the activation of NF-κB induced by HG, which was accompanied by reduced S1P2 receptor and FN expression. Taken together, our findings suggest that BBR reduces FN expression by acting on the S1P2 receptor in the mesangium under diabetic condition. The role of BBR in S1P2 receptor expression regulation could closely associate with its inhibitory effect on NF-κB activation.

  14. Municipal water pollution prevention program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-03-01

    EPA believes that the most effective and equitable means of assuring viability of this infrastructure is through environmentally preferred pollution prevention approaches especially through application of Municipal Water Pollution Prevention (MWPP). These approaches may enhance worker safety, improve the usability of sludge, increase the ability for local community expansion, and reduce operation and compliance costs. State-based municipal pollution prevention programs focus attention on a series of actions to prevent pollution in advance rather than taking more expensive corrective actions. MWPP encourages resource conservation to reduce water and energy use, appropriate pricing, toxicity reductions at the source, BOD reductions, recycling, proper treatment of wastes, and beneficial uses of sludge

  15. Nonstructural protein 2 (nsP2) of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) enhances protective immunity mediated by a CHIKV envelope protein expressing DNA Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Huihui; Ramanathan, Aarti A; Kawalakar, Omkar; Sundaram, Senthil G; Tingey, Colleen; Bian, Charoran B; Muruganandam, Nagarajan; Vijayachari, Paluru; Sardesai, Niranjan Y; Weiner, David B; Ugen, Kenneth E; Muthumani, Karuppiah

    2013-02-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an important emerging mosquito-borne alphavirus, indigenous to tropical Africa and Asia. It can cause epidemic fever and acute illness characterized by fever and arthralgias. The epidemic cycle of this infection is similar to dengue and urban yellow fever viral infections. The generation of an efficient vaccine against CHIKV is necessary to prevent and/or control the disease manifestations of the infection. In this report, we studied immune response against a CHIKV-envelope DNA vaccine (pEnv) and the role of the CHIKV nonstructural gene 2 (nsP2) as an adjuvant for the induction of protective immune responses in a relevant mouse challenge model. When injected with the CHIKV pEnv alone, 70% of the immunized mice survived CHIKV challenge, whereas when co-injected with pEnv+pnsP2, 90% of the mice survived viral challenge. Mice also exhibited a delayed onset signs of illness, and a marked decrease in morbidity, suggesting a nsP2 mediated adjuvant effect. Co-injection of the pnsP2 adjuvant with pEnv also qualitatively and quantitatively increased antigen specific neutralizing antibody responses compared to vaccination with pEnv alone. In sum, these novel data imply that the addition of nsP2 to the pEnv vaccine enhances anti-CHIKV-Env immune responses and maybe useful to include in future CHIKV clinical vaccination strategies.

  16. DA-6034-induced mucin secretion via Ca2+-dependent pathways through P2Y receptor stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hun; Kim, Eung Kweon; Kim, Ji Yeon; Yang, Yu-Mi; Shin, Dong Min; Kang, Kyung Koo; Kim, Tae-im

    2014-09-11

    We evaluated whether DA-6034 is involved in mucin secretion via P2Y receptor activation and/or intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) change. Also, we investigated the effect of P2Y receptor inhibitors or Ca2+ chelators on the DA-6034-induced mucin secretion and [Ca2+]i increases. Effects of DA-6034 on mucin expression in primary, cultured, conjunctival epithelial cells was studied using RT-PCR, Western blot analysis, and periodic acid-schiff (PAS) staining. To evaluate thin film layer thickness generated by mucin and fluid secretion, cells were incubated in DA-6034 with/without P2Y antagonists or extracellular/intracellular Ca2+ chelators, and were imaged with confocal microscope using Texas Red-dextran dye. In addition, DA-6034-induced Ca2+-dependent Cl- channels opening was evaluated using perforated patch clamp. Fluo-4/AM was used to measure changes in [Ca2+]i induced by DA-6034 in Ca2+-free or Ca2+-containing buffered condition, as well as P2Y antagonists. DA-6034 induced the expression of mucin genes, production of mucin protein, and increase of number of mucin-secreting cells. P2Y antagonists inhibited DA-6034-induced mucin and fluid secretion, which was also affected by extracellular/intracellular Ca2+ chelators. DA-6034 stimulated Cl- channel opening and [Ca2+]i elevation. Further, [Ca2+]i increases induced by DA-6034 were lacking in either P2Y antagonists or Ca2+-free buffered condition, and diminished when endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ was depleted by cyclopiazonic acid in Ca2+-free buffered condition. This study demonstrated that DA-6034 has a potential to induce mucin secretion via Ca2+-dependent pathways through P2Y receptors in multilayer, cultured, human conjunctival epithelial cells. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  17. Antidepressants inhibit P2X4 receptor function: a possible involvement in neuropathic pain relief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tozaki-Saitoh Hidetoshi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuropathic pain is characterized by pain hypersensitivity to innocuous stimuli (tactile allodynia that is nearly always resistant to known treatments such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or even opioids. It has been reported that some antidepressants are effective for treating neuropathic pain. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well understood. We have recently demonstrated that blocking P2X4 receptors in the spinal cord reverses tactile allodynia after peripheral nerve injury in rats, implying that P2X4 receptors are a key molecule in neuropathic pain. We investigated a possible role of antidepressants as inhibitors of P2X4 receptors and analysed their analgesic mechanism using an animal model of neuropathic pain. Results Antidepressants strongly inhibited ATP-mediated Ca2+ responses in P2X4 receptor-expressing 1321N1 cells, which are known to have no endogenous ATP receptors. Paroxetine exhibited the most powerful inhibition of calcium influx via rat and human P2X4 receptors, with IC50 values of 2.45 μM and 1.87 μM, respectively. Intrathecal administration of paroxetine produced a striking antiallodynic effect in an animal model of neuropathic pain. Co-administration of WAY100635, ketanserin or ondansetron with paroxetine induced no significant change in the antiallodynic effect of paroxetine. Furthermore, the antiallodynic effect of paroxetine was observed even in rats that had received intrathecal pretreatment with 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine, which dramatically depletes spinal 5-hydroxytryptamine. Conclusion These results suggest that paroxetine acts as a potent analgesic in the spinal cord via a mechanism independent of its inhibitory effect on serotonin transporters. Powerful inhibition on P2X4 receptors may underlie the analgesic effect of paroxetine, and it is possible that some antidepressants clinically used in patients with neuropathic pain show antiallodynic effects, at least in part

  18. Interaction of medullary P2 and glutamate receptors mediates the vasodilation in the hindlimb of rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korim, Willian Seiji; Ferreira-Neto, Marcos L; Pedrino, Gustavo R; Pilowsky, Paul M; Cravo, Sergio L

    2012-12-01

    In the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) of rats, blockade of extracellular ATP breakdown to adenosine reduces arterial blood pressure (AP) increases that follow stimulation of the hypothalamic defense area (HDA). The effects of ATP on NTS P2 receptors, during stimulation of the HDA, are still unclear. The aim of this study was to determine whether activation of P2 receptors in the NTS mediates cardiovascular responses to HDA stimulation. Further investigation was taken to establish if changes in hindlimb vascular conductance (HVC) elicited by electrical stimulation of the HDA, or activation of P2 receptors in the NTS, are relayed in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM); and if those responses depend on glutamate release by ATP acting on presynaptic terminals. In anesthetized and paralyzed rats, electrical stimulation of the HDA increased AP and HVC. Blockade of P2 or glutamate receptors in the NTS, with bilateral microinjections of suramin (10 mM) or kynurenate (50 mM) reduced only the evoked increase in HVC by 75 % or more. Similar results were obtained with the blockade combining both antagonists. Blockade of P2 and glutamate receptors in the RVLM also reduced the increases in HVC to stimulation of the HDA by up to 75 %. Bilateral microinjections of kynurenate in the RVLM abolished changes in AP and HVC to injections of the P2 receptor agonist α,β-methylene ATP (20 mM) into the NTS. The findings suggest that HDA-NTS-RVLM pathways in control of HVC are mediated by activation of P2 and glutamate receptors in the brainstem in alerting-defense reactions.

  19. An Improved Method for P2X7R Antagonist Screening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rômulo José Soares-Bezerra

    Full Text Available ATP physiologically activates the P2X7 receptor (P2X7R, a member of the P2X ionotropic receptor family. When activated by high concentrations of ATP (i.e., at inflammation sites, this receptor is capable of forming a pore that allows molecules of up to 900 Da to pass through. This receptor is upregulated in several diseases, particularly leukemia, rheumatoid arthritis and Alzheimer's disease. A selective antagonist of this receptor could be useful in the treatment of P2X7R activation-related diseases. In the present study, we have evaluated several parameters using in vitro protocols to validate a high-throughput screening (HTS method to identify P2X7R antagonists. We generated dose-response curves to determine the EC50 value of the known agonist ATP and the ICs50 values for the known antagonists Brilliant Blue G (BBG and oxidized ATP (OATP. The values obtained were consistent with those found in the literature (0.7 ± 0.07 mM, 1.3-2.6 μM and 173-285 μM for ATP, BBG and OATP, respectively [corrected].The Z-factor, an important statistical tool that can be used to validate the robustness and suitability of an HTS assay, was 0.635 for PI uptake and 0.867 for LY uptake. No inter-operator variation was observed, and the results obtained using our improved method were reproducible. Our data indicate that our assay is suitable for the selective and reliable evaluation of P2X7 activity in multiwell plates using spectrophotometry-based methodology. This method might improve the high-throughput screening of conventional chemical or natural product libraries for possible candidate P2X7R antagonist or agonist.

  20. Platelets Express Activated P2Y12 Receptor in Patients With Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Liang; Chang, Lin; Zhang, Yan; Zhai, Lili; Zhang, Shenghui; Qi, Zhiyong; Yan, Hongmei; Yan, Yan; Luo, Xinping; Zhang, Si; Wang, Yiping; Kunapuli, Satya P; Ye, Hongying; Ding, Zhongren

    2017-08-29

    Platelets from patients with diabetes mellitus are hyperactive. Hyperactivated platelets may contribute to cardiovascular complications and inadequate responses to antiplatelet agents in the setting of diabetes mellitus. However, the underlying mechanism of hyperactivated platelets is not completely understood. We measured P2Y 12 expression on platelets from patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and on platelets from rats with diabetes mellitus. We also assayed platelet P2Y 12 activation by measuring cAMP and VASP phosphorylation. The antiplatelet and antithrombotic effects of AR-C78511 and cangrelor were compared in rats. Finally, we explored the role of the nuclear factor-κB pathway in regulating P2Y 12 receptor expression in megakaryocytes. Platelet P2Y 12 levels are 4-fold higher in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus compared with healthy subjects. P2Y 12 expression correlates with ADP-induced platelet aggregation (r=0.89, P diabetes mellitus is constitutively activated. Although both AR-C78511, a potent P2Y 12 inverse agonist, and cangrelor have similar antiplatelet efficacy on platelets from healthy subjects, AR-C78511 exhibits more powerful antiplatelet effects on diabetic platelets than cangrelor (aggregation ratio 36±3% versus 49±5%, respectively, P diabetes mellitus than cangrelor (thrombus weight 4.9±0.3 mg versus 8.3±0.4 mg, respectively, P diabetes mellitus. Platelet P2Y 12 receptor expression is significantly increased and the receptor is constitutively activated in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, which contributes to platelet hyperactivity and limits antiplatelet drug efficacy in type 2 diabetes mellitus. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. P2X receptor-mediated ATP purinergic signaling in health and disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang LH

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Lin-Hua JiangSchool of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds, United KingdomAbstract: Purinergic P2X receptors are plasma membrane proteins present in a wide range of mammalian cells where they act as a cellular sensor, enabling cells to detect and respond to extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP, an important signaling molecule. P2X receptors function as ligand-gated Ca2+-permeable cationic channels that open upon ATP binding to elevate intracellular Ca2+ concentrations and cause membrane depolarization. In response to sustained activation, P2X receptors induce formation of a pore permeable to large molecules. P2X receptors also interact with distinct functional proteins and membrane lipids to form specialized signaling complexes. Studies have provided compelling evidence to show that such P2X receptor-mediated ATP-signaling mechanisms determine and regulate a growing number and diversity of important physiological processes, including neurotransmission, muscle contraction, and cytokine release. There is accumulating evidence to support strong causative relationships of altered receptor expression and function with chronic pain, inflammatory diseases, cancers, and other pathologies or diseases. Numerous high throughput screening drug discovery programs and preclinical studies have thus far demonstrated the proof of concepts that the P2X receptors are druggable targets and selective receptor antagonism is a promising therapeutics approach. This review will discuss the recent progress in understanding the mammalian P2X receptors with respect to the ATP-signaling mechanisms, physiological and pathophysiological roles, and development and preclinical studies of receptor antagonists.Keywords: extracellular ATP, ion channel, large pore, signaling complex, chronic pain, inflammatory diseases

  2. P2Y12 Receptor Antagonist, Clopidogrel, Does Not Contribute to Risk of Osteoporotic Fractures in Stroke Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Niklas R; Schwarz, Peter; Iversen, Helle K

    2017-01-01

    Background: Stroke is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity. It is associated with excessive bone loss and risk of fracture in stroke patients is high. The P2Y12R antagonist and platelet inhibitor, clopidogrel, is widely used for secondary prevention after a stroke. However, recent studies...... have shown that clopidogrel has negative effects on bone and that long-term clopidogrel use is associated with increased fracture risk. The purpose of the current study was therefore to investigate the association of clopidogrel treatment with risk of fractures in stroke and TIA patients.......Methods:The study was a cohort study including all subjects who were prescribed clopidogrel between 1996 and 2008 in Denmark (n= 77,503). Age- and gender matched controls (n= 232,510) were randomly selected from the background population. The study end-points were occurrence of stroke or TIA and occurrence...

  3. Compliance to infection prevention and control guidelines among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These agents are transmitted directly or indirectly. ... health care wastes segregation, thereby causing indirect /direct community exposure to hazardous substances. ... Interventions of standard precautions, such as hand hygiene, provision of ...

  4. Narratives of empowerment and compliance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wentzer, Helle; Bygholm, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: New technologies enable new forms of patient participation in health care. Thearticle discusses whether communication in online patient support groups is a source ofindividual as well as collective empowerment or to be understood within the tradition ofcompliance. The discussion is based...... of empowerment and compliance in patient care. On a collective level, the site isempowering the individual users to comply with ‘doctor’s recommendations’ as a group....

  5. EFEKTIVITAS METODE P2R UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KECEPATAN EFEKTIF MEMBACA (KEM MAHASISWA CALON GURU BAHASA INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurmina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Reading is one of language skill which is not less important compared with others language skill such as scrutinizing, speaking, and writing. In this era which technology is flaring and developing rapidly, the students are prefer to play facebook, twitter, chatting, and many more than read a journal or articles. This phenomenon shows that the interest to read among students is needed to be increased. One of the way that can be taken is by having skills to read quickly or is known by scanning with P2R method. The P2R method itself is one of method or strategy that can be used to increase reading skill. The P2R method consists of stages pra-peninjauan, membaca, dan meninjau that commonly used by the most of quick reader / scanner and efficient. This research is done to obtain data about the effective reading speed of student as Indonesian language teacher candidate and the effort of its increasing through the P2R method. The population of this research is all students on program of study Indonesian language and literature education and also area of Almuslim University as much 149 students. The sample of this research is 30% of the total population or as much 45 strudents of Indonesia Language teacher candidate of Almuslim University who are taken randomly. The type of research is experimental research (true experimental and quantitative approach with the model of research is pretest-post test control group model. The result of research shows that the P2R method is effective to be implemented to increase the effective reading speed of students as Indonesian language teacher candidate. FKIP is obtained by researcher. The posttest result shows that there was an increasing of KEM learning outcomes meanwhile the observation result was seems that in the learning with P2R model, the students were very enthusiasm, more active, also more motivated in attending the learning. Besides that, the result of questionnaires also shows that the P2R method obtained

  6. Impaired P2X1 Receptor-Mediated Adhesion in Eosinophils from Asthmatic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Adam; Mahaut-Smith, Martyn; Symon, Fiona; Sylvius, Nicolas; Ran, Shaun; Bafadhel, Mona; Muessel, Michelle; Bradding, Peter; Wardlaw, Andrew; Vial, Catherine

    2016-06-15

    Eosinophils play an important role in the pathogenesis of asthma and can be activated by extracellular nucleotides released following cell damage or inflammation. For example, increased ATP concentrations were reported in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids of asthmatic patients. Although eosinophils are known to express several subtypes of P2 receptors for extracellular nucleotides, their function and contribution to asthma remain unclear. In this article, we show that transcripts for P2X1, P2X4, and P2X5 receptors were expressed in healthy and asthmatic eosinophils. The P2X receptor agonist α,β-methylene ATP (α,β-meATP; 10 μM) evoked rapidly activating and desensitizing inward currents (peak 18 ± 3 pA/pF at -60 mV) in healthy eosinophils, typical of P2X1 homomeric receptors, which were abolished by the selective P2X1 antagonist NF449 (1 μM) (3 ± 2 pA/pF). α,β-meATP-evoked currents were smaller in eosinophils from asthmatic patients (8 ± 2 versus 27 ± 5 pA/pF for healthy) but were enhanced following treatment with a high concentration of the nucleotidase apyrase (17 ± 5 pA/pF for 10 IU/ml and 11 ± 3 pA/pF for 0.32 IU/ml), indicating that the channels are partially desensitized by extracellular nucleotides. α,β-meATP (10 μM) increased the expression of CD11b activated form in eosinophils from healthy, but not asthmatic, donors (143 ± 21% and 108 ± 11% of control response, respectively). Furthermore, α,β-meATP increased healthy (18 ± 2% compared with control 10 ± 1%) but not asthmatic (13 ± 1% versus 10 ± 0% for control) eosinophil adhesion. Healthy human eosinophils express functional P2X1 receptors whose activation leads to eosinophil αMβ2 integrin-dependent adhesion. P2X1 responses are constitutively reduced in asthmatic compared with healthy eosinophils, probably as the result of an increase in extracellular nucleotide concentration. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  7. Equations for effective nuclear fields taking account of 2p2h configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamerdzhiev, S.P.

    1977-01-01

    Equations taking into account 1p1h and 2p2h configurations were obta+ned by means of effective fields in the nucleus. The consideration is restricted by the even-even Fermi system only with particle-hole interaction and by the first order with respect to an external field, which corresponds to the case of an even-even nucleus without pairing in a weak external field. The principal results of the investigation are as follows: a set of equations for effective fields V 2 and V 4 is obtained by the Green function method; the solutxon of the set makes it possible to consider 1p1h and 2p2h configurations consecutively and dispense with the Hartree-Fock self-consistence. The equations for V 2 and V 4 can be used to obtain quantum equations taking into account 2p2h configurations and their effect on 1p1h states. Allowance for integration regions far removed from the Fermi surface results in the appearance of the V 4 0 seed portion in the V 4 effective field. Taking into account 2p2h configurations at V 4 0 not equal to 0 changes the form of the seed multipole operator of a nucleus; a new term appears in the expression for transition probability. As a rule, the V 4 0 value was neglected in investigations dealing with the 2p2h configuration

  8. Improving Management Performance of P2PSIP for Mobile Sensing in Wireless Overlays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Pousada-Carballo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Future wireless communications are heading towards an all-Internet Protocol (all-IP design, and will rely on the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP to manage services, such as voice over IP (VoIP. The centralized architecture of traditional SIP has numerous disadvantages for mobile ad hoc services that may be possibly overcome by advanced peer-to-peer (P2P technologies initially developed for the Internet. In the context of mobile sensing, P2PSIP protocols facilitate decentralized and fast communications with sensor-enabled terminals. Nevertheless, in order to make P2PSIP protocols feasible in mobile sensing networks, it is necessary to minimize overhead transmissions for signaling purposes, which reduces the battery lifetime. In this paper, we present a solution to improve the management of wireless overlay networks by defining an adaptive algorithm for the calculation of refresh time. The main advantage of the proposed algorithm is that it takes into account new parameters, such as the delay between nodes, and provides satisfactory performance and reliability levels at a much lower management overhead than previous approaches. The proposed solution can be applied to many structured P2P overlays or P2PSIP protocols. We evaluate it with Kademlia-based distributed hash tables (DHT and dSIP.

  9. Improving management performance of P2PSIP for mobile sensing in wireless overlays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendín-Raña, Pablo; González-Castaño, Francisco Javier; Gómez-Cuba, Felipe; Asorey-Cacheda, Rafael; Pousada-Carballo, José María

    2013-11-08

    Future wireless communications are heading towards an all-Internet Protocol (all-IP) design, and will rely on the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) to manage services, such as voice over IP (VoIP). The centralized architecture of traditional SIP has numerous disadvantages for mobile ad hoc services that may be possibly overcome by advanced peer-to-peer (P2P) technologies initially developed for the Internet. In the context of mobile sensing, P2PSIP protocols facilitate decentralized and fast communications with sensor-enabled terminals. Nevertheless, in order to make P2PSIP protocols feasible in mobile sensing networks, it is necessary to minimize overhead transmissions for signaling purposes, which reduces the battery lifetime. In this paper, we present a solution to improve the management of wireless overlay networks by defining an adaptive algorithm for the calculation of refresh time. The main advantage of the proposed algorithm is that it takes into account new parameters, such as the delay between nodes, and provides satisfactory performance and reliability levels at a much lower management overhead than previous approaches. The proposed solution can be applied to many structured P2P overlays or P2PSIP protocols. We evaluate it with Kademlia-based distributed hash tables (DHT) and dSIP.

  10. Cross Layer Analysis of P2MP Hybrid FSO/RF Network

    KAUST Repository

    Rakia, Tamer

    2017-02-22

    This paper presents and analyzes a point-tomultipoint (P2MP) network that uses a number of freespace optical (FSO) links for data transmission from the central node to the different remote nodes of the network. A common backup radio frequency (RF) link can be used by the central node for data transmission to any remote node in case any one of the FSO links fails. Each remote node is assigned a transmit buffer at the central node. Considering the transmission link from the central node to a tagged remote node, we study various performance metrics. Specifically,we study the throughput from the central node to the tagged node, the average transmit buffer size, the symbol queuing delay in the transmit buffer, the efficiency of the queuing system, the symbol loss probability, and the RF link utilization. Numerical examples are presented to compare the performance of the proposed P2MP hybrid FSO/RF network with that of a P2MP FSO-only network and show that the P2MP hybrid FSO/RF network achieves considerable performance improvement over the P2MP FSO-only network.

  11. Results of FE65-P2 Pixel Readout Test Chip for High Luminosity LHC Upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)394193

    2016-01-01

    A pixel readout test chip called FE65-P2 has been fabricated on 65 nm CMOS technology. FE65-P2 contains a matrix of 64 x 64 pixels on 50 micron by 50 micron pitch, designed to read out a bump bonded sensor. The goals of FE65-P2 are to demonstrate excellent analog performance isolated from digital activity well enough to achieve 500 electron stable threshold, be radiation hard to at least 500 Mrad, and prove the novel concept of isolated analog front ends embedded in a flat digital design, dubbed “analog islands in a digital sea”. Experience from FE65-P2 and hybrid assemblies will be applied to the design for a large format readout chip, called RD53A, to be produced in a wafer run in early 2017 by the RD53 collaboration. We review the case for 65 nm technology and report on threshold stability test results for the FE65-P2.

  12. P2X7 Receptor Function in Bone-Related Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Adinolfi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Modulation of tumor microenvironment by different mediators is central in determining neoplastic formation and progression. Among these molecules extracellular ATP is emerging as a good candidate in promoting cell growth, neovascularization, tumor-host interactions, and metastatization. This paper summarizes recent findings on expression and function of P2X7 receptor for extracellular ATP in primary and metastatic bone cancers. Search of mRNA expression microchip databases and literature analysis demonstrate a high expression of P2X7 in primary bone tumors as well as in other malignancies such as multiple myeloma, neuroblastoma, breast, and prostate cancer. Evidence that P2X7 triggers NFATc1, PI3K/Akt, ROCK, and VEGF pathways in osteoblasts promoting either primary tumor development or osteoblastic lesions is also reported. Moreover, P2X7 receptor is involved in osteoclast differentiation, RANKL expression, matrix metalloproteases and cathepsin secretion thus promoting bone resorption and osteolytic lesions. Taken together these data point to a pivotal role for the P2X7 receptor in bone cancer biology.

  13. Arrestin scaffolds NHERF1 to the P2Y12 receptor to regulate receptor internalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisar, Shaista P; Cunningham, Margaret; Saxena, Kunal; Pope, Robert J; Kelly, Eamonn; Mundell, Stuart J

    2012-07-13

    We have recently shown in a patient with mild bleeding that the PDZ-binding motif of the platelet G protein-coupled P2Y(12) receptor (P2Y(12)R) is required for effective receptor traffic in human platelets. In this study we show for the first time that the PDZ motif-binding protein NHERF1 exerts a major role in potentiating G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) internalization. NHERF1 interacts with the C-tail of the P2Y(12)R and unlike many other GPCRs, NHERF1 interaction is required for effective P2Y(12)R internalization. In vitro and prior to agonist stimulation P2Y(12)R/NHERF1 interaction requires the intact PDZ binding motif of this receptor. Interestingly on receptor stimulation NHERF1 no longer interacts directly with the receptor but instead binds to the receptor via the endocytic scaffolding protein arrestin. These findings suggest a novel model by which arrestin can serve as an adaptor to promote NHERF1 interaction with a GPCR to facilitate effective NHERF1-dependent receptor internalization.

  14. THYDE-P2 code: RCS (reactor-coolant system) analysis code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asahi, Yoshiro; Hirano, Masashi; Sato, Kazuo

    1986-12-01

    THYDE-P2, being characterized by the new thermal-hydraulic network model, is applicable to analysis of RCS behaviors in response to various disturbances including LB (large break)-LOCA(loss-of-coolant accident). In LB-LOCA analysis, THYDE-P2 is capable of through calculation from its initiation to complete reflooding of the core without an artificial change in the methods and models. The first half of the report is the description of the methods and models for use in the THYDE-P2 code, i.e., (1) the thermal-hydraulic network model, (2) the various RCS components models, (3) the heat sources in fuel, (4) the heat transfer correlations, (5) the mechanical behavior of clad and fuel, and (6) the steady state adjustment. The second half of the report is the user's mannual for the THYDE-P2 code (version SV04L08A) containing items; (1) the program control (2) the input requirements, (3) the execution of THYDE-P2 job, (4) the output specifications and (5) the sample problem to demonstrate capability of the thermal-hydraulic network model, among other things. (author)

  15. P2P Network Lending, Loss Given Default and Credit Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangyou Zhou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Peer-to-peer (P2P network lending is a new mode of internet finance that still holds credit risk as its main risk. According to the internal rating method of the New Basel Accord, in addition to the probability of default, loss given default is also one of the important indicators of evaluation credit risks. Proceeding from the perspective of loss given default (LGD, this paper conducts an empirical study on the probability distribution of LGDs of P2P as well as its influencing factors with the transaction data of Lending Club. The results show that: (1 the LGDs of P2P loans presents an obvious unimodal distribution, the peak value is relatively high and tends to concentrate with the decrease of the borrower’s credit rating, indicating that the distribution of LGDs of P2P lending is similar to that of unsecured bonds; (2 The total asset of the borrower has no significant impact on LGD, the credit rating and the debt-to-income ratio exert a significant negative impact, while the term and amount of the loan produce a relatively strong positive impact. Therefore, when evaluating the borrower’s repayment ability, it is required to pay more attention to its assets structure rather than the size of its total assets. When carrying out risk control for the P2P platform, it is necessary to give priority to the control of default rate.

  16. Effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Relapse Prevention in opioid Dependence Treatment &Mental Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-11-01

    Findings: therapy compliance, retention in treatment, decrease in somatic symptoms, anxiety, social dysfunction and increase in health was significantly in both combination of psychological intervention method than the Naltroxan group. Mindfulness-based on relapse prevention was more effective than CBT relapse prevention in decreasing of, social dysfunction, relapse prevention, increase of therapy compliance, and health. Results: Mindfulness based relapse prevention was superior to CBT and Naltroxan and considerably increased effectiveness of opioid relapse prevention therapy.

  17. A New Caching Technique to Support Conjunctive Queries in P2P DHT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobatake, Koji; Tagashira, Shigeaki; Fujita, Satoshi

    P2P DHT (Peer-to-Peer Distributed Hash Table) is one of typical techniques for realizing an efficient management of shared resources distributed over a network and a keyword search over such networks in a fully distributed manner. In this paper, we propose a new method for supporting conjunctive queries in P2P DHT. The basic idea of the proposed technique is to share a global information on past trials by conducting a local caching of search results for conjunctive queries and by registering the fact to the global DHT. Such a result caching is expected to significantly reduce the amount of transmitted data compared with conventional schemes. The effect of the proposed method is experimentally evaluated by simulation. The result of experiments indicates that by using the proposed method, the amount of returned data is reduced by 60% compared with conventional P2P DHT which does not support conjunctive queries.

  18. 11th International Conference on P2P, Parallel, Grid, Cloud and Internet Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Barolli, Leonard; Amato, Flora

    2017-01-01

    P2P, Grid, Cloud and Internet computing technologies have been very fast established as breakthrough paradigms for solving complex problems by enabling aggregation and sharing of an increasing variety of distributed computational resources at large scale. The aim of this volume is to provide latest research findings, innovative research results, methods and development techniques from both theoretical and practical perspectives related to P2P, Grid, Cloud and Internet computing as well as to reveal synergies among such large scale computing paradigms. This proceedings volume presents the results of the 11th International Conference on P2P, Parallel, Grid, Cloud And Internet Computing (3PGCIC-2016), held November 5-7, 2016, at Soonchunhyang University, Asan, Korea.

  19. Neutron scattering studies on protein dynamics using the human myelin peripheral membrane protein P2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laulumaa Saara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Myelin is a multilayered proteolipid membrane structure surrounding selected axons in the vertebrate nervous system, which allows the rapid saltatory conduction of nerve impulses. Deficits in myelin formation and maintenance may lead to chronic neurological disease. P2 is an abundant myelin protein from peripheral nerves, binding between two apposing lipid bilayers. We studied the dynamics of the human myelin protein P2 and its mutated P38G variant in hydrated powders using elastic incoherent neutron scattering. The local harmonic vibrations at low temperatures were very similar for both samples, but the mutant protein had increased flexibility and softness close to physiological temperatures. The results indicate that a drastic mutation of proline to glycine at a functional site can affect protein dynamics, and in the case of P2, they may explain functional differences between the two proteins.

  20. PbS/Cd3P2 quantum heterojunction colloidal quantum dot solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Hefeng; Xu, Songman; Liu, Huan; Liu, Zeke; Zhu, Xiangxiang; Peng, Jun; Ma, Wanli; Hu, Long; Luo, Miao; Tang, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Here, we demonstrated the quantum heterojunction colloidal quantum dot (CQD) solar cells employing the PbS CQDs/Cd 3 P 2 CQDs architecture in which both the p-type PbS and n-type Cd 3 P 2 CQD layers are quantum-tunable and solution-processed light absorbers. We synthesized well-crystallized and nearly monodispersed tetragonal Cd 3 P 2 CQDs and then engineered their energy band alignment with the p-type PbS by tuning the dot size and hence the bandgap to achieve efficient light absorbing and charge separation. We further optimized the device through the Ag-doping strategy of PbS CQDs that may leverage an expanded depletion region in the n-layer, which greatly enhances the photocurrent. The resulting devices showed an efficiency of 1.5%. (paper)

  1. Neutron scattering studies on protein dynamics using the human myelin peripheral membrane protein P2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laulumaa, Saara; Kursula, Petri; Natali, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Myelin is a multilayered proteolipid membrane structure surrounding selected axons in the vertebrate nervous system, which allows the rapid saltatory conduction of nerve impulses. Deficits in myelin formation and maintenance may lead to chronic neurological disease. P2 is an abundant myelin protein from peripheral nerves, binding between two apposing lipid bilayers. We studied the dynamics of the human myelin protein P2 and its mutated P38G variant in hydrated powders using elastic incoherent neutron scattering. The local harmonic vibrations at low temperatures were very similar for both samples, but the mutant protein had increased flexibility and softness close to physiological temperatures. The results indicate that a drastic mutation of proline to glycine at a functional site can affect protein dynamics, and in the case of P2, they may explain functional differences between the two proteins.

  2. The effect of purinergic P2 receptor blockade on skeletal muscle exercise hyperemia in miniature swine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Stefan Peter; McAllister, R M; Yang, H T

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: ATP could play an important role in skeletal muscle blood flow regulation by inducing vasodilation via purinergic P2 receptors. This study investigated the role of P2 receptors in exercise hyperemia in miniature swine. METHODS: We measured regional blood flow with radiolabeled......-microsphere technique and systemic hemodynamics before and after arterial infusion of the P2 receptor antagonist reactive blue 2 during treadmill exercise (5.2 km/h, ~60 % VO2max) and arterial ATP infusion in female Yucatan miniature swine (~29 kg). RESULTS: Mean blood flow during exercise from the 16 sampled skeletal...... muscle tissues was 138 ± 18 mL/min/100 g (mean ± SEM), and it was reduced in 11 (~25 %) of the 16 sampled skeletal muscles after RB2 was infused. RB2 also lowered diaphragm blood flow and kidney blood flow, whereas lung tissue blood flow was increased (all P

  3. Peer-to-peer I/O (P2PIO) protocol specification Version 0.6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berket, Karlo; Essiari, Abdelilah; Gunter, Dan; Hoschek, Wolfgang

    2004-04-21

    Today's distributed systems require simple and powerful resource discovery queries in a dynamic environment consisting of a large number of resources spanning many autonomous administrative domains. The distributed search problem is hard due to the variety of query types, the number of resources and their autonomous, partitioned and dynamic nature. We propose a generalized resource discovery framework that is built around an application level messaging protocol called Peer-to-Peer I/O (P2PIO). P2PIO addresses a number of scalability problems in a general way. It provides flexible and uniform transport-independent resource discovery mechanisms to reduce both the client and network burden in multi-hop P2P systems.

  4. P2P Lending Risk Contagion Analysis Based on a Complex Network Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Wei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes two major channels of P2P lending risk contagion in China—direct risk contagion between platforms and indirect risk contagion with other financial organizations as the contagion medium. Based on this analysis, the current study constructs a complex network model of P2P lending risk contagion in China and performs dynamics analogue simulations in order to analyze general characteristics of direct risk contagion among China’s online P2P lending platforms. The assumed conditions are that other financial organizations act as the contagion medium, with variations in the risk contagion characteristics set under the condition of significant information asymmetry in Internet lending. It is indicated that, compared to direct risk contagion among platforms, both financial organizations acting as the contagion medium and information asymmetry magnify the effect of risk contagion. It is also found that the superposition of media effects and information asymmetry is more likely to magnify the risk contagion effect.

  5. Barriers to compliance with evidence-based care in trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayan, Nadine; Barnes, Sunni; Fleming, Neil; Kudyakov, Rustam; Ballard, David; Gentilello, Larry M; Shafi, Shahid

    2012-03-01

    We have preciously demonstrated that trauma patients receive less than two-thirds of the care recommended by evidence-based medicine. The purpose of this study was to identify patients least likely to receive optimal care. Records of a random sample of 774 patients admitted to a Level I trauma center (2006-2008) with moderate to severe injuries (Abbreviated Injury Scale score ≥3) were reviewed for compliance with 25 trauma-specific processes of care (T-POC) endorsed by Advanced Trauma Life Support, Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma, the Brain Trauma Foundation, Surgical Care Improvement Project, and the Glue Grant Consortium based on evidence or consensus. These encompassed all aspects of trauma care, including initial evaluation, resuscitation, operative care, critical care, rehabilitation, and injury prevention. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify patients likely to receive recommended care. Study patients were eligible for a total of 2,603 T-POC, of which only 1,515 (58%) were provided to the patient. Compliance was highest for T-POC involving resuscitation (83%) and was lowest for neurosurgical interventions (17%). Increasing severity of head injuries was associated with lower compliance, while intensive care unit stay was associated with higher compliance. There was no relationship between compliance and patient demographics, socioeconomic status, overall injury severity, or daily volume of trauma admissions. Little over half of recommended care was delivered to trauma patients with moderate to severe injuries. Patients with increasing severity of traumatic brain injuries were least likely to receive optimal care. However, differences among patient subgroups are small in relation to the overall gap between observed and recommended care. II.

  6. Purinergic control of inflammation and thrombosis: Role of P2X1 receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Oury

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation shifts the hemostatic mechanisms in favor of thrombosis. Upon tissue damage or infection, a sudden increase of extracellular ATP occurs, that might contribute to the crosstalk between inflammation and thrombosis. On platelets, P2X1 receptors act to amplify platelet activation and aggregation induced by other platelet agonists. These receptors critically contribute to thrombus stability in small arteries. Besides platelets, studies by our group indicate that these receptors are expressed by neutrophils. They promote neutrophil chemotaxis, both in vitro and in vivo. In a laser-induced injury mouse model of thrombosis, it appears that neutrophils are required to initiate thrombus formation and coagulation activation on inflamed arteriolar endothelia. In this model, by using P2X1−/− mice, we recently showed that P2X1 receptors, expressed on platelets and neutrophils, play a key role in thrombus growth and fibrin generation. Intriguingly, in a model of endotoxemia, P2X1−/− mice exhibited aggravated oxidative tissue damage, along with exacerbated thrombocytopenia and increased activation of coagulation, which translated into higher susceptibility to septic shock. Thus, besides its ability to recruit neutrophils and platelets on inflamed endothelia, the P2X1 receptor also contributes to limit the activation of circulating neutrophils under systemic inflammatory conditions. Taken together, these data suggest that P2X1 receptors are involved in the interplay between platelets, neutrophils and thrombosis. We propose that activation of these receptors by ATP on neutrophils and platelets represents a new mechanism that regulates thrombo-inflammation.

  7. LPS-induced systemic inflammation is more severe in P2Y12 null mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liverani, Elisabetta; Rico, Mario C; Yaratha, Laxmikausthubha; Tsygankov, Alexander Y; Kilpatrick, Laurie E; Kunapuli, Satya P

    2014-02-01

    Thienopyridines are a class of antiplatelet drugs that are metabolized in the liver to several metabolites, of which only one active metabolite can irreversibly antagonize the platelet P2Y12 receptor. Possible effects of these drugs and the role of activated platelets in inflammatory responses have also been investigated in a variety of animal models, demonstrating that thienopyridines could alter inflammation. However, it is not clear whether it is caused only by the P2Y12 antagonism or whether off-target effects of other metabolites also intervene. To address this question, we investigated P2Y12 KO mice during a LPS-induced model of systemic inflammation, and we treated these KO mice with a thienopyridine drug (clopidogrel). Contrary to the reported effects of clopidogrel, numbers of circulating WBCs and plasma levels of cytokines were increased in LPS-exposed KO mice compared with WT in this inflammation model. Moreover, both spleen and bone marrow show an increase in cell content, suggesting a role for P2Y12 in regulation of bone marrow and spleen cellular composition. Finally, the injury was more severe in the lungs of KO mice compared with WT. Interestingly, clopidogrel treatments also exerted protective effects in KO mice, suggesting off-target effects for this drug. In conclusion, the P2Y12 receptor plays an important role during LPS-induced inflammation, and this signaling pathway may be involved in regulating cell content in spleen and bone marrow during LPS systemic inflammation. Furthermore, clopidogrel may have effects that are independent of P2Y12 receptor blockade.

  8. Inhibitory Effect of Flavonolignans on the P2Y12 Pathway in Blood Platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijak, Michal; Szelenberger, Rafal; Dziedzic, Angela; Saluk-Bijak, Joanna

    2018-02-10

    Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) is the major platelet agonist, which is important in the shape changes, stability, and growth of the thrombus. Platelet activation by ADP is associated with the G protein-coupled receptors P2Y1 and P2Y12. The pharmacologic blockade of the P2Y12 receptor significantly reduces the risk of peripheral artery disease, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, and vascular death. Recent studies demonstrated the inhibition of ADP-induced blood platelet activation by three major compounds of the flavonolignans group: silybin, silychristin, and silydianin. For this reason, the aim of the current work was to verify the effects of silybin, silychristin, and silydianin on ADP-induced physiological platelets responses, as well as mechanisms of P2Y12-dependent intracellular signal transduction. We evaluated the effect of tested flavonolignans on ADP-induced blood platelets' aggregation in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) (using light transmission aggregometry), adhesion to fibrinogen (using the static method), and the secretion of PF-4 (using the ELISA method). Additionally, using the double labeled flow cytometry method, we estimated platelet vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) phosphorylation. We demonstrated a dose-dependent reduction of blood platelets' ability to perform ADP-induced aggregation, adhere to fibrinogen, and secrete PF-4 in samples treated with flavonolignans. Additionally, we observed that all of the tested flavonolignans were able to increase VASP phosphorylation in blood platelets samples, which is correlated with P2Y12 receptor inhibition. All of these analyses show that silychristin and silybin have the strongest inhibitory effect on blood platelet activation by ADP, while silydianin also inhibits the ADP pathway, but to a lesser extent. The results obtained in this study clearly demonstrate that silybin, silychristin, and silydianin have inhibitory properties against the P2Y12 receptor and block ADP-induced blood platelet

  9. The therapeutic promise of ATP antagonism at P2X3 receptors in respiratory & urological disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony eFord

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A sensory role for ATP was proposed long before general acceptance of its extracellular role. ATP activates & sensitizes signal transmission at multiple sites along the sensory axis, across multiple synapses. P2X & P2Y receptors mediate ATP modulation of sensory pathways & participate in dysregulation, where ATP action directly on primary afferent neurons (PANs, linking receptive field to CNS, has received much attention. Many PANs, especially C-fibers, are activated by ATP, via P2X3-containing trimers. P2X3 knock-out mice & knock-down in rats led to reduced nocifensive activity & visceral reflexes, suggesting that antagonism may offer benefit in sensory disorders. Recently, drug-like P2X3 antagonists, active in a many inflammatory & visceral pain models, have emerged. Significantly, these compounds have no overt CNS action & are inactive versus acute nociception. Selectively targeting ATP sensitization of PANs may lead to therapies that block inappropriate chronic signals at their source, decreasing drivers of peripheral & central wind-up, yet leaving defensive nociceptive and brain functions unperturbed. This article reviews this evidence, focusing on how ATP sensitization of PANs in visceral hollow organs primes them to chronic discomfort, irritation & pain (symptoms as well as exacerbated autonomic reflexes (signs, & how the use of isolated organ-nerve preparations has revealed this mechanism. Urinary & airways systems share many features: dependence on continuous afferent traffic to brainstem centers to coordinate efferent autonomic outflow; loss of descending inhibitory influence in functional & sensory disorders; dependence on ATP in mediating sensory responses to diverse mechanical and chemical stimuli; a mechanistically overlapping array of existing medicines for pathological conditions. These similarities may also play out in terms of future treatment of signs & symptoms, in the potential for benefit of P2X3 antagonists.

  10. Electronic structure and X-ray spectroscopic properties of YbNi_2P_2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shcherba, I.D.; Bekenov, L.V.; Antonov, V.N.; Noga, H.; Uskokovic, D.; Zhak, O.; Kovalska, M.V.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We present new experimental and theoretical data for YbNi_2P_2. • The presence of divalent and trivalent Yb ion found in YbNi_2P_2. • The calculation show good agreement with the experimental measurements. - Abstract: X-ray absorption spectrum at the Yb L_3 edge and X-ray emission spectra of Ni and P at the K and L_2_,_3 edges have been studied experimentally and theoretically in the mixed valent compound YbNi_2P_2 with ThCr_2Si_2 type crystal structure. The electronic structure of YbNi_2P_2 is investigated using the fully relativistic Dirac linear muffin-tin orbital (LMTO) band-structure method. The effect of the spin–orbit (SO) interaction and Coulomb repulsion U on the electronic structure of YbNi_2P_2 is examined in the frame of the LSDA + SO + U method. The core-hole effect in the final states as well as the effect of the electric quadrupole E_2 transitions have been investigated. A good agreement between the theory and the experiment was found. Both the trivalent and the divalent Yb ions in YbNi_2P_2 are reflected in the experimentally measured Yb L_3 X-ray absorption spectrum simultaneously. We found that the best agreement between the experimental spectrum and sum of the theoretically calculated Yb"2"+ and Yb"3"+ spectra is achieved with 73% ytterbium ions in 2+ state and 27% ions in 3+ state.

  11. Pemetaan Pusat Pelayanan Terpadu Pemberdayaan Perempuan dan Anak (P2TP2A Provinsi Sumatera Bar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hallen Abu Bakar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Center of Integrated Service for Women and Children Empowerment (P2TP2A is established by the government based community in order to eliminate the violence towards women and children. It also aims to empower the position of women and children. The purpose of the study is to describe comprehensively the existance of P2TP2A in sub-district, district, city, and province in West Sumatra. Descriptive qualitative research was used where the data taken from questionnaire and in-deepthinterview. The study found that the Center of Integrated Service for Women and Children Empowerment was established by following certain procedure, legality and personnel structure. It also found that the majority of P2TP2A in West Sumatra has insufficient infrastructures. Meanwhile, it is only P2TP2A Limpapeh Rumah Nan Gadang of West Sumatera, and P2TP2A Luhak Nan Tuo Batusangkar has sufficient infrastructures. Many of them were located at the corner of Community Empowerment and Women and Family Planning office (BPMPKB. Every P2TP2A in those district and city have made their programs, but they faced some difficulties in realize them doe to financial problems. The human resources were recruited from SKPD, academician, professional, society figures, LSM who concern on gender meanstreaming. They play the role more on providing the service than giving information and empowerment. The last finding of the study showed that the involvement of local government, Health offices, social services, police, ministry of religion, prosecutors and social services have been effective.

  12. Testing a Cloud Provider Network for Hybrid P2P and Cloud Streaming Architectures

    OpenAIRE

    Cerviño Arriba, Javier; Rodríguez, Pedro; Trajkovska, Irena; Mozo Velasco, Alberto; Salvachúa Rodríguez, Joaquín

    2011-01-01

    The number of online real-time streaming services deployed over network topologies like P2P or centralized ones has remarkably increased in the recent years. This has revealed the lack of networks that are well prepared to respond to this kind of traffic. A hybrid distribution network can be an efficient solution for real-time streaming services. This paper contains the experimental results of streaming distribution in a hybrid architecture that consist of mixed connections among P2P and Clou...

  13. Electronic structure and magnetism of titanium substituted Cd3P2: An ab-initio study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiganesh, G.; Jaya, S. Mathi

    2018-05-01

    Using the ab-initio computations that are based on the density functional theory, we have investigated the magnetism and electronic properties of one and two Ti atom substituted Cd3P2 compound. The magnetic stability of the substituted compounds was obtained by analyzing the minimum total energies in nonmagnetic, ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic phases. Our results indicated the formation of magnetic order in one and two Ti atom substituted Cd3P2 as well as metallic characteristics in these systems. A significant value of the magnetic moment of Ti atom is observed from our calculations. We further find that the neighboring Cd and P atoms too acquire a small magnetic moment.

  14. Compliance management and corporate governance; Compliance Management und Corporate Governance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Uwe [Stadt Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Alsheimer, Constantin; Kassebohm, Kristian; Reutler, Susanne [Mainova AG, Frankfurt (Germany)

    2009-08-15

    Starting in the year 2009, numerous changes in the financial system and accountancy a well as in the corporate law come into effect for enterprises. Thereby, the requirements substantially are intensified to their corporate governance. The actual well-known reproaches of bribery, corruption and injuries of data protection intensify the pressure on executive committees and supervisory boards in order to meet normative and ethical requirements. All the more is valid for power suppliers whose reputation can already carry damage out with the first suspicion. Already in 2008, Mainova AG (Frnkfurt/Main, Federal Republic of Germany) implemented a compliance management.

  15. The Relationship between Stroke Patients Characteristics and Family Support with Compliance Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Okta Wardhani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is a cerebrovascular disease, it is brain function disorders associated with the disease of the blood vessels that supply the brain. The impact of stroke is paralysis. Family support is things that are needed to be considered in the treatment of stroke patients. It is very involved in the compliance rehabilitation of patients to prevent the re-occurrence of stroke. Characteristics of stroke patients may also affect the compliance rehabilitation. The purpose of this research is to determine the relationship between stroke patients characteristics and family support to compliance rehabilitation at the Medical Rehabilitation Unit RSU Haji Surabaya. This research was an analytic observational research with cross sectional design. The subjects of this research are taken using total population technique. The independent variables in this research is family support. The dependent variable is compliance rehabilitation. The results of this research are presented in the form of frequency distributions and calculate the strength of the relationship with Phi coefficient. The result of this research shows that there is a strong relationship between family support and compliance rehabilitation (r=0.582. There are weak relationship between ages (r=-0,027, gender (r=0,092, level of education (r= -0,295, work (r=0,098, and marital status (r=0,319. The conclusion is family support may affect compliance rehabilitation of stroke patients. It is recommended for health workers to provide counseling to improve family support in curing stroke patients. Keywords: depression, family support, compliance rehabilitation

  16. Compliance with hygiene procedures among medical faculty students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kawalec

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many of the healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs are transmitted by healthcare workers’ hands, which actively contributes to transferring pathogens from patient to patient and within the healthcare environment. Hand hygiene is the easiest and cheapest method for preventing HCAIs. The article presents the compliance with hygiene procedures in a group of medical students of the Wroclaw Medical University. Material and Methods: The anonymous survey was conducted among 112 students. The survey included questions about the frequency of disinfection of hands and stethoscopes, changing clothes into clean ones, compliance with recommendations for healthcare workers, as well as subjective assessment of the availability of disinfectants in the hospital. Results: The results of the survey revealed that 35.7% of students did not disinfect their hands before each patient’s examination, 90% of them indicated limited access to disinfectants as the most important reason. The majority (93.8% of respondents were trained in hand hygiene. In 34.82% the availability of disinfectants in hospitals was assesed as good, 62.5% of respondents drew attention to the fact that the dispensers were often empty. Compliance with recommendations for healthcare workers: 66.9% posessed white coat with short sleeves, 52.68% wore wristwatch or jewelery on their hands, 50% of students laundered white coat less frequently than once a week, 9.82% did not disinfect their stethoscope at all, 15.18% did that before each patient’s examination. Conclusions: Students compliance with hand hygiene now and in their future work as doctors is the easiest method for preventing HCAIs. Providing easy access to disinfectants in the hospital environment and shaping hygiene habits during clinical activities play an essential role. Med Pr 2014;65(5:593–599

  17. Inherent dynamics of head domain correlates with ATP-recognition of P2X4 receptors: insights gained from molecular simulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Dong Huang

    Full Text Available P2X receptors are ATP-gated ion channels involved in many physiological functions, and determination of ATP-recognition (AR of P2X receptors will promote the development of new therapeutic agents for pain, inflammation, bladder dysfunction and osteoporosis. Recent crystal structures of the zebrafish P2X4 (zfP2X4 receptor reveal a large ATP-binding pocket (ABP located at the subunit interface of zfP2X4 receptors, which is occupied by a conspicuous cluster of basic residues to recognize triphosphate moiety of ATP. Using the engineered affinity labeling and molecular modeling, at least three sites (S1, S2 and S3 within ABP have been identified that are able to recognize the adenine ring of ATP, implying the existence of at least three distinct AR modes in ABP. The open crystal structure of zfP2X4 confirms one of three AR modes (named AR1, in which the adenine ring of ATP is buried into site S1 while the triphosphate moiety interacts with clustered basic residues. Why architecture of ABP favors AR1 not the other two AR modes still remains unexplored. Here, we examine the potential role of inherent dynamics of head domain, a domain involved in ABP formation, in AR determinant of P2X4 receptors. In silico docking and binding free energy calculation revealed comparable characters of three distinct AR modes. Inherent dynamics of head domain, especially the downward motion favors the preference of ABP for AR1 rather than AR2 and AR3. Along with the downward motion of head domain, the closing movement of loop139-146 and loop169-183, and structural rearrangements of K70, K72, R298 and R143 enabled ABP to discriminate AR1 from other AR modes. Our observations suggest the essential role of head domain dynamics in determining AR of P2X4 receptors, allowing evaluation of new strategies aimed at developing specific blockers/allosteric modulators by preventing the dynamics of head domain associated with both AR and channel activation of P2X4 receptors.

  18. Comparison of P2X and TRPV1 receptors in ganglia or primary culture of trigeminal neurons and their modulation by NGF or serotonin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giniatullin Rashid

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cultured sensory neurons are a common experimental model to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of pain transduction typically involving activation of ATP-sensitive P2X or capsaicin-sensitive TRPV1 receptors. This applies also to trigeminal ganglion neurons that convey pain inputs from head tissues. Little is, however, known about the plasticity of these receptors on trigeminal neurons in culture, grown without adding the neurotrophin NGF which per se is a powerful algogen. The characteristics of such receptors after short-term culture were compared with those of ganglia. Furthermore, their modulation by chronically-applied serotonin or NGF was investigated. Results Rat or mouse neurons in culture mainly belonged to small and medium diameter neurons as observed in sections of trigeminal ganglia. Real time RT-PCR, Western blot analysis and immunocytochemistry showed upregulation of P2X3 and TRPV1 receptors after 1–4 days in culture (together with their more frequent co-localization, while P2X2 ones were unchanged. TRPV1 immunoreactivity was, however, lower in mouse ganglia and cultures. Intracellular Ca2+ imaging and whole-cell patch clamping showed functional P2X and TRPV1 receptors. Neurons exhibited a range of responses to the P2X agonist α, β-methylene-adenosine-5'-triphosphate indicating the presence of homomeric P2X3 receptors (selectively antagonized by A-317491 and heteromeric P2X2/3 receptors. The latter were observed in 16 % mouse neurons only. Despite upregulation of receptors in culture, neurons retained the potential for further enhancement of P2X3 receptors by 24 h NGF treatment. At this time point TRPV1 receptors had lost the facilitation observed after acute NGF application. Conversely, chronically-applied serotonin selectively upregulated TRPV1 receptors rather than P2X3 receptors. Conclusion Comparing ganglia and cultures offered the advantage of understanding early adaptive changes of nociception

  19. Transition probabilities for the 3s2 3p(2P0)-3s3p2(4P) intersystem lines of Si II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calamai, Anthony G.; Smith, Peter L.; Bergeson, S. D.

    1993-01-01

    Intensity ratios of lines of the spin-changing 'intersystem' multiplet of S II (4P yields 2P0) at 234 nm have been used to determine electron densities and temperatures in a variety of astrophysical environments. However, the accuracy of these diagnostic calculations have been limited by uncertainties associated with the available atomic data. We report the first laboratory measurement, using an ion-trapping technique, of the radiative lifetimes of the three metastable levels of the 3s3p2 4P term of Si II. Our results are 104 +/- 16, 406 +/- 33, and 811 +/- 77 micro-s for lifetimes of the J = 1/2, 5/2, and 3/2 levels, respectively. A-values were derived from our lifetimes by use of measured branching fractions. Our A-values, which differ from calculated values by 30 percent or more, should give better agreement between modeled and observed Si II line ratios.

  20. Baseline evaluation of hand hygiene compliance in three major hospitals, Isfahan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataei, B; Zahraei, S M; Pezeshki, Z; Babak, A; Nokhodian, Z; Mobasherizadeh, S; Hoseini, S G

    2013-09-01

    Hand hygiene is the mainstay of nosocomial infection prevention. This study was a baseline survey to assess hand hygiene compliance of healthcare workers by direct observation in three major hospitals of Isfahan, Iran. The use of different hand hygiene products was also evaluated. In 3078 potential opportunities hand hygiene products were available on 2653 occasions (86.2%). Overall compliance was 6.4% (teaching hospital: 7.4%; public hospital: 6.2%; private hospital: 1.4%). Nurses (8.4%) had the highest rates of compliance. Poor hand hygiene compliance in Isfahan hospitals necessitates urgent interventions to improve both hospital infrastructure and staff knowledge. © 2013 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Electronic Structure and Optical Properties Of EuIn2P2

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Nirpendra

    2011-10-25

    The electronic structures and, optical and magneto‐optical properties of a newly found Zintl compound EuIn2P2 have been investigated within the density‐functional theory using the highly precise full‐potential linear‐augmented‐plane‐wave method. Results of detailed investigation of the electronic structure and related properties are reported.

  2. Integrating XQuery and P2P in MonetDB/XQuery*

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Zhang (Ying); P.A. Boncz (Peter); M. Arenas (Marcelo); J. Hidders

    2007-01-01

    textabstractMonetDB/XQuery* is a fully functional publicly available XML DBMS that has been extended with distributed and P2P data management functionality. Our (minimal) XQuery language extension XRPC adds the concept of RPC to XQuery, and exploits the set-at-a-time database processing model to

  3. Baryonic 3P2 superfluidity under charged-pion condensation with Δ isobar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takatsuka, T.; Tamagaki, R.

    1999-01-01

    We study the baryonic 3 P 2 superfluidity under charged-pion condensation with isobar (Δ) degrees of freedom. After a remark on motivations of the present study, the outline of theoretical framework is briefly described, typical results of the superfluid critical temperature are shown, and the possibility of coexistence of the superfluid with charged-pion condensation is discussed. (author)

  4. The "P2P" Educational Model Providing Innovative Learning by Linking Technology, Business and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Paul Gordon

    2017-01-01

    This paper evaluates the effect and potential of a new educational learning model called Peer to Peer (P2P). The study was focused on Laurea, Hyvinkaa's Finland campus and its response to bridging the gap between traditional educational methods and working reality, where modern technology plays an important role. The study describes and evaluates…

  5. Prostaglandin H synthase-mediated bioactivation of the amino acid pyrolysate product Trp P-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petry, T.W.; Krauss, R.S.; Eling, T.E.

    1986-08-01

    We report evidence that the mutagen and carcinogen 3-amino-1-methyl-5H pyrido(4,3b)indole (Trp P-2) is a substrate for co-oxidation by prostaglandin H synthase (PHS) in ram seminal vesicle (RSV) microsomes. Trp P-2 serves as a reducing cofactor for the hydroperoxidase activity of PHS as shown by the concentration-dependent inhibition of the hydroperoxidase catalyzed incorporation of molecular oxygen into phenylbutazone. Spectral data suggest that this metabolism results in disruption of the double bond conjugation within the nucleus of the molecule. A single metabolite peak which was dependent upon arachidonic acid and substrate concentration was separated from the parent compound by h.p.l.c. following incubation with RSV microsomes. Co-oxidation of Trp P-2 produced reactive intermediates which bound covalently to microsomal protein (9 nmol/mg) and to calf thymus DNA (475 pmol/mg). Binding was inhibited by indomethacin, and supported by substitution of hydrogen peroxide for arachidonic acid. These data suggest a possible role for PHS in the in situ activation of Trp P-2 to its ultimate carcinogenic form in tissues which contain PHS.

  6. Load Balancing Scheme on the Basis of Huffman Coding for P2P Information Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurasawa, Hisashi; Takasu, Atsuhiro; Adachi, Jun

    Although a distributed index on a distributed hash table (DHT) enables efficient document query processing in Peer-to-Peer information retrieval (P2P IR), the index costs a lot to construct and it tends to be an unfair management because of the unbalanced term frequency distribution. We devised a new distributed index, named Huffman-DHT, for P2P IR. The new index uses an algorithm similar to Huffman coding with a modification to the DHT structure based on the term distribution. In a Huffman-DHT, a frequent term is assigned to a short ID and allocated a large space in the node ID space in DHT. Throuth ID management, the Huffman-DHT balances the index registration accesses among peers and reduces load concentrations. Huffman-DHT is the first approach to adapt concepts of coding theory and term frequency distribution to load balancing. We evaluated this approach in experiments using a document collection and assessed its load balancing capabilities in P2P IR. The experimental results indicated that it is most effective when the P2P system consists of about 30, 000 nodes and contains many documents. Moreover, we proved that we can construct a Huffman-DHT easily by estimating the probability distribution of the term occurrence from a small number of sample documents.

  7. A study of a sector spectrophotometer and auroral O+(2P-2D) emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, G. R.

    1976-01-01

    The metastable O+(2P-2D) auroral emission was investigated. The neighboring OH contaminants and low intensity levels of the emission itself necessitated the evolution of an instrument capable of separating the emission from the contaminants and having a high sensitivity in the wavelength region of interest. A new type of scanning photometer was developed and its properties are discussed. The theoretical aspects of auroral electron interaction with atomic oxygen and the resultant O+(2P-2D) emissions were examined in conjunction with N2(+)1NEG emissions. Ground based measurements of O+(2P-2D) auroral emission intensities were made using the spatial scanning photometer (sector spectrophotometer). Simultaneous measurements of N2(+)1NEG sub 1,0 emission intensity were made in the same field of view using a tilting photometer. Time histories of the ratio of these two emissions made in the magnetic zenith during auroral breakup periods are given. Theories of I sub 7319/I sub 4278 of previous investigators were presented. A rocket measurement of N2(+)1NEG sub 0,0 and O+(2P-2D) emission in aurora was examined in detail and was found to agree with the ground based measurements. Theoretical examination resulted in the deduction of the electron impact efficiency generating O+(2P) and also suggests a large source of O+(2P) at low altitude. A possible source is charge exchange of N+(1S) with OI(3P).

  8. P2P systems in a regulated environment : challenges and opportunities for the operator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liotta, A.

    2008-01-01

    P2P networks, systems, and applications have been the subject of intensive studies in recent years. They have created new business opportunities, providing a low-cost mechanism for communication and for online content distribution. They have also sparked a spate of legal disputes with adverse

  9. Time dependency on the fabrication of H 4 TPPS 4 2- -SnTPyP 2+ ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    4-pyridyl)porphyrin dichloride (SnTPyP2+) porphyrin nanorods were prepared at room temperature by ionic self-assembly of these two oppositely charged porphyrins. The UV-VIS absorption spectra of the samples were measured hourly for the ...

  10. Comparing manually-developed and data-driven rules for P2P learning

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Loots, L

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Phoneme-to-phoneme (P2P) learning provides a mechanism for predicting the pronunciation of a word based on its pronunciation in a different accent, dialect or language. The authors evaluate the effectiveness of manually-developed as well...

  11. analysis of the probability of channel satisfactory state in p2p live

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    churn and bits flow was modelled as fluid flow. The applicability of the theory of probability was deduced from Kelly (1991). Section II of the paper provides the model of. P2P live streaming systems taking into account peer behaviour and expression was obtained for the computation of the probability of channel- satisfactory ...

  12. G-ROME : semantic-driven capacity sharing among P2P networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Exarchakos, G.; Antonopoulos, N.; Salter, J.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to propose a model for sharing network capacity on demand among different underloaded and overloaded P2P ROME-enabled networks. The paper aims to target networks of nodes with highly dynamic workload fluctuations that may experience a burst of traffic and/or

  13. E2E blocking probability of IPTV and P2PTV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Y.; Kuipers, F.; Janic, M.; Mieghem, P. van

    2008-01-01

    Increased Internet speeds together with new possibilities for tailor-made television services have spurred the interest in providing television via the Internet. Several television services are readily available and both IP-layer and application-layer (P2P) technologies are used. When disregarding

  14. Lack of a Functioning P2X7 Receptor Leads to Increased Susceptibility to Toxoplasmic Ileitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine M Miller

    Full Text Available Oral infection of C57BL/6J mice with the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii leads to a lethal inflammatory ileitis.Mice lacking the purinergic receptor P2X7R are acutely susceptible to toxoplasmic ileitis, losing significantly more weight than C57BL/6J mice and exhibiting much greater intestinal inflammatory pathology in response to infection with only 10 cysts of T. gondii. This susceptibility is not dependent on the ability of P2X7R-deficient mice to control the parasite, which they accomplish just as efficiently as C57BL/6J mice. Rather, susceptibility is associated with elevated ileal concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines, reactive nitrogen intermediates and altered regulation of elements of NFκB activation in P2X7R-deficient mice.Our data support the thesis that P2X7R, a well-documented activator of pro-inflammatory cytokine production, also plays an important role in the regulation of intestinal inflammation.

  15. Studies on the structural stability of Co2P2O7 under pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W. P.; Pang, H.; Jin, M. L.; Shen, X.; Yao, Y.; Wang, Y. G.; Li, Y. C.; Li, X. D.; Jin, C. Q.; Yu, R. C.

    2018-05-01

    The crystal structural evolution of Co2P2O7 was studied by using in situ high pressure angle dispersive x-ray diffraction with synchrotron radiation. The results demonstrate that the α phase of Co2P2O7 goes through a partially irreversible structural transformation to β phase under pressure. The pressure is conductive to reduce the longest Cosbnd O bond length of the α phase, and then more uniform Cosbnd O bonds and regular hexagonal arrangement of CoO6 octahedra of the β phase are favored. According to the Birch-Murnaghan equation, the fitted bulk modulus B0 is 158.1(±5.6) GPa for α phase and 276.5(±6.5) GPa for β phase. Furthermore, the first-principles calculations show that these two phases of Co2P2O7 have almost equal total energies, and also have similar band structures and spin-polarized density of states at their ground states. This may be the reason why these two phases of Co2P2O7 can coexist in the pressure released state. It is found that the band gap energies decrease with increasing pressure for both phases.

  16. LMFBR transducer performance in SLSF tests P1 and P2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    English, J.J.; Anderson, T.T.; Kuzay, T.M.; Wilson, R.E.; Pedersen, D.R.; Kaiser, W.C.; Klingler, W.B.

    1977-01-01

    The reliability and problem areas of sodium-immersed thermocouples, pressure transducers and flowmeters are presented for experiments P1 and P2 of the Sodium Loop Safety Facility (SLSF). The SLSF is a doubly-contained sodium loop situated in a core position of the Engineering Test Reactor at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

  17. Surface photovoltage study of InP and Zn3P2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurgate, S.M.; Lacuesta, T.D.; Huck, N.R.

    1989-01-01

    The surface photovoltage spectra of InP and Zn 3 P 2 were measured using a Kelvin probe to determine the contact potential difference between the sample and the probe as a function of the wavelength of illuminating light. The features in the resulting spectra were found to be sensitive to ion bombardment. The photovoltage spectra obtained from the InP differed from previously reported SPC spectra in that it showed clear evidence of surface states (or interfacial states) at 0.86 eV and 0.68 eV above VBM. It was found that the features in the spectrum of Zn 3 P 2 were reduced by ion bombardment, but not removed completely, whereas the features in the InP spectra were completely removed. Exposure of the ion bombarded urface to air restored the features of Zn 3 P 2 but only produced a small change in the spectrum of the InP. The loss of features in the InP spectra can be attributed to damage in the substrate caused by the ion bombardment even though the oxide layer was not removed before the damage occurred. Zn 3 P 2 was not as sensitive to ion damage as InP. (orig.)

  18. Enabling Co-located Learning over Mobile Ad Hoc P2P with LightPeers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bent Guldbjerg; Kristensen, Mads Darø; Hansen, Frank Allan

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents LightPeers – a new mobile P2P framework specifically tailored for use in a nomadic learning environment. A set of key requirements for the framework is identified based on nomadic learning, and these requirements are used as outset for designing and implementing the architectu...

  19. Dielectric relaxation and ionic conductivity studies of Na 2 ZnP 2 O 7

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Na2ZnP2O7 compound was obtained by the conventional solid-state reaction. The sample was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, infrared analysis and electrical impedance spectroscopy. The impedance plots show semicircle arcs at different temperatures and an electrical equivalent circuit has been proposed ...

  20. Electronic Structure and Optical Properties Of EuIn2P2

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Nirpendra; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo; Rhee, J. Y.

    2011-01-01

    The electronic structures and, optical and magneto‐optical properties of a newly found Zintl compound EuIn2P2 have been investigated within the density‐functional theory using the highly precise full‐potential linear‐augmented‐plane‐wave method

  1. Scaling laws for file dissemination in P2P networks with random contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nunez-Queija, R.; Prabhu, B.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we obtain the scaling law for the mean broadcast time of a file in a P2P network with an initial population of N nodes. In the model, at Poisson rate λ a node initiates a contact with another node chosen uniformly at random. This contact is said to be successful if the contacted node

  2. Scaling laws for file dissemination in P2P networks with random contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Núñez-Queija, R.; Prabhu, B.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we obtain the scaling law for the mean broadcast time of a file in a P2P network with an initial population of N nodes. In the model, at Poisson rate lambda a node initiates a contact with another node chosen uniformly at random. This contact is said to be successful if the contacted

  3. Analysis of the probability of channel satisfactory state in P2P live ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper a model based on user behaviour of P2P live streaming systems was developed in order to analyse one of the key QoS parameter of such systems, i.e. the probability of channel-satisfactory state, the impact of upload bandwidths and channels' popularity on the probability of channel-satisfactory state was also ...

  4. Cross Layer Analysis of P2MP Hybrid FSO/RF Network

    KAUST Repository

    Rakia, Tamer; Gebali, Fayez; Yang, Hong-Chuan; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents and analyzes a point-tomultipoint (P2MP) network that uses a number of freespace optical (FSO) links for data transmission from the central node to the different remote nodes of the network. A common backup radio frequency (RF

  5. The sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor S1P(2) triggers hepatic wound healing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serriere-Lanneau, Valerie; Teixeira-Clerc, Fatima; Li, Liying; Schippers, Marlies; de Wries, Willie; Julien, Boris; Tran-Van-Nhieu, Jeanne; Manin, Sylvie; Poelstra, Klaas; Chun, Jerold; Carpentier, Stephane; Levade, Thierry; Mallat, Ariane; Lotersztajn, Sophie

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid produced by sphingosine kinase (SphK1 and 2). We previously showed that S1P receptors (S1P(1), S1P(2), and S1P(3)) are expressed in hepatic myofibroblasts (hMF), a population of cells that triggers matrix remodeling during liver injury. Here

  6. Haemolysis induced by α-toxin from Staphylococcus aureus requires P2X receptor activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skals, Marianne Gerberg; Leipziger, Jens Georg; Prætorius, Helle

    2011-01-01

    Recently, it was documented that α-haemolysin (HlyA) from Escherichia coli uses erythrocyte P2 receptors cause lysis. This finding was surprising as it appeared firmly established that HlyA-dependent pore formation per se is sufficient for full cell lysis. We discovered that HlyA induced a sequen...

  7. Dual Gating Mechanism and Function of P2X7 Receptor Channels

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Khadra, A.; Tomic, M.; Yan, Z.; Zemková, Hana; Sherman, A.; Stojilkovic, S. S.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 104, č. 12 (2013), s. 2612-2621 ISSN 0006-3495 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : purinergic P2X7 receptors * ATP-gated channels * BzATP * dilation * Markov -state model Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.832, year: 2013

  8. Extending an Afrikaans pronunciation dictionary using Dutch resources and P2P/GP2P

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Loots, L

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available . This is compared to the more common approach of extending the Afrikaans dictionary by means of graphemeto-phoneme (G2P) conversion. The results indicate that the Afrikaans pronunciations obtained by P2P and GP2P from the Dutch dictionary are more accurate than...

  9. Characterization of the contractile P2Y14 receptor in mouse coronary and cerebral arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haanes, Kristian Agmund; Edvinsson, Lars

    2014-01-01

    values and immunohistochemistry illustrated the strongest P2Y14 receptor expression in the basilar artery. In the presence of pertussis toxin, UDP-glucose inhibited contraction in coronary arteries and in the basilar artery it surprisingly caused relaxation. After organ culture of the coronary artery...

  10. Planet-induced Stellar Pulsations in HAT-P-2's Eccentric System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wit, Julien de; Lewis, Nikole K.; Knutson, Heather A.; Batygin, Konstantin; Fuller, Jim; Antoci, Victoria; Fulton, Benjamin J.; Laughlin, Gregory; Deming, Drake; Shporer, Avi; Cowan, Nicolas B.; Agol, Eric; Burrows, Adam S.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Langton, Jonathan; Showman, Adam P.

    2017-01-01

    Extrasolar planets on eccentric short-period orbits provide a laboratory in which to study radiative and tidal interactions between a planet and its host star under extreme forcing conditions. Studying such systems probes how the planet’s atmosphere redistributes the time-varying heat flux from its host and how the host star responds to transient tidal distortion. Here, we report the insights into the planet–star interactions in HAT-P-2's eccentric planetary system gained from the analysis of ∼350 hr of 4.5 μ m observations with the Spitzer Space Telescope . The observations show no sign of orbit-to-orbit variability nor of orbital evolution of the eccentric planetary companion, HAT-P-2 b. The extensive coverage allows us to better differentiate instrumental systematics from the transient heating of HAT-P-2 b’s 4.5 μ m photosphere and yields the detection of stellar pulsations with an amplitude of approximately 40 ppm. These pulsation modes correspond to exact harmonics of the planet’s orbital frequency, indicative of a tidal origin. Transient tidal effects can excite pulsation modes in the envelope of a star, but, to date, such pulsations had only been detected in highly eccentric stellar binaries. Current stellar models are unable to reproduce HAT-P-2's pulsations, suggesting that our understanding of the interactions at play in this system is incomplete.

  11. Planet-induced Stellar Pulsations in HAT-P-2's Eccentric System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wit, Julien de [Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, MIT, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Lewis, Nikole K. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Knutson, Heather A.; Batygin, Konstantin [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Fuller, Jim [TAPIR, Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, Mailcode 350-17, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Antoci, Victoria [Stellar Astrophysics Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Fulton, Benjamin J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Laughlin, Gregory [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Deming, Drake [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland at College Park, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Shporer, Avi [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91009 (United States); Cowan, Nicolas B. [Department of Physics, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, McGill University, 3550 rue University, Montreal, QC H3A 2A7 (Canada); Agol, Eric [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Burrows, Adam S. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Fortney, Jonathan J. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Langton, Jonathan [Department of Physics, Principia College, Elsah, IL 62028 (United States); Showman, Adam P. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2017-02-20

    Extrasolar planets on eccentric short-period orbits provide a laboratory in which to study radiative and tidal interactions between a planet and its host star under extreme forcing conditions. Studying such systems probes how the planet’s atmosphere redistributes the time-varying heat flux from its host and how the host star responds to transient tidal distortion. Here, we report the insights into the planet–star interactions in HAT-P-2's eccentric planetary system gained from the analysis of ∼350 hr of 4.5 μ m observations with the Spitzer Space Telescope . The observations show no sign of orbit-to-orbit variability nor of orbital evolution of the eccentric planetary companion, HAT-P-2 b. The extensive coverage allows us to better differentiate instrumental systematics from the transient heating of HAT-P-2 b’s 4.5 μ m photosphere and yields the detection of stellar pulsations with an amplitude of approximately 40 ppm. These pulsation modes correspond to exact harmonics of the planet’s orbital frequency, indicative of a tidal origin. Transient tidal effects can excite pulsation modes in the envelope of a star, but, to date, such pulsations had only been detected in highly eccentric stellar binaries. Current stellar models are unable to reproduce HAT-P-2's pulsations, suggesting that our understanding of the interactions at play in this system is incomplete.

  12. Pannexin channels mediate the acquisition of myogenic commitment in C2C12 reserve cells promoted by P2 receptor activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riquelme, Manuel A.; Cea, Luis A.; Vega, José L.; Puebla, Carlos; Vargas, Aníbal A.; Shoji, Kenji F.; Subiabre, Mario; Sáez, Juan C.

    2015-01-01

    The acquisition of myoblast commitment to the myogenic linage requires rises in intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i). Putative cell membrane pathways involved in these [Ca2+]i increments are P2 receptors (P2Rs) as well as connexin (Cx) and/or pannexin (Panx) hemichannels and channels (Cx HChs and Panx Chs), respectively, which are known to permeate Ca2+. Reserve cells (RCs) are uncommitted myoblasts obtained from differentiated C2C12 cell cultures, which acquire commitment upon replating. Regarding these cells, we found that extracellular ATP increases the [Ca2+]i via P2Rs. Moreover, ATP increases the plasma membrane permeability to small molecules and a non-selective membrane current, both of which were inhibited by Cx HCh/Panx1Ch blockers. However, RCs exposed to divalent cation-free saline solution, which is known to activate Cx HChs (but not Panx Chs), did not enhance membrane permeability, thus ruling out the possible involvement of Cx HChs. Moreover, ATP-induced membrane permeability was inhibited with blockers of P2Rs that activate Panx Chs. In addition, exogenous ATP induced the expression of myogenic commitment and increased MyoD levels, which was prevented by the inhibition of P2Rs or knockdown of Panx1 Chs. Similarly, increases in MyoD levels induced by ATP released by RCs were inhibited by Panx Ch/Cx HCh blockers. Myogenic commitment acquisition thus requires a feed-forward mechanism mediated by extracellular ATP, P2Rs, and Panx Chs. PMID:26000275

  13. Electrochemical and safety characteristics of TiP2O7–graphene nanocomposite anode for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rai, Alok Kumar; Gim, Jihyeon; Song, Jinju; Mathew, Vinod; Anh, Ly Tuan; Kim, Jaekook

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports a co-precipitation synthesis of TiP 2 O 7 –graphene (10 wt%) nanocomposite and pure TiP 2 O 7 nanoparticles for the use as an advanced anode material for high performance lithium-ion batteries. The structure and morphology of the compounds are characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy and field-emission transmission electron microscopy techniques. The electrochemical performances were evaluated in coin type Li-ion test cells. This TiP 2 O 7 –graphene nanocomposite displayed superior Li-ion battery performance with a large reversible capacity, excellent cyclic performance and good rate capability at a current density of 0.1 mA cm −2 . At an elevated current density of 6.4 mA cm −2 , the nanocomposite anode delivered a capacity of 98.4 mAh g −1 , which is much higher than that of pure TiP 2 O 7 (0.56 mAh g −1 ). The impressive electrochemical performance of the nanocomposite was ascribed to the synergistic effect of the high surface area nanoparticles in conjunction with the good electronic conductivity of graphene. The graphene nanosheets not only provide an electronically conducting network, but also tend to prevent the aggregation of the high surface area TiP 2 O 7 nanoparticles. Further, the graphene nanosheets can act as buffer layers to accommodate the volume change during the Li-ion insertion/extraction processes in the TiP 2 O 7 nanoparticles.

  14. Differences in work environment for staff as an explanation for variation in central line bundle compliance in intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yuna S H; Stone, Patricia W; Pogorzelska-Maziarz, Monika; Nembhard, Ingrid M

    Central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) are a common and costly quality problem, and their prevention is a national priority. A decade ago, researchers identified an evidence-based bundle of practices that reduce CLABSIs. Compliance with this bundle remains low in many hospitals. The aim of this study was to assess whether differences in core aspects of work environments-workload, quality of relationships, and prioritization of quality-are associated with variation in maximal CLABSI bundle compliance, that is, compliance 95%-100% of the time in intensive care units (ICUs). A cross-sectional study of hospital medical-surgical ICUs in the United States was done. Data on work environment and bundle compliance were obtained from the Prevention of Nosocomial Infections and Cost-Effectiveness Refined Survey completed in 2011 by infection prevention directors, and data on ICU and hospital characteristics were obtained from the National Healthcare Safety Network. Factor and multilevel regression analyses were conducted. Reasonable workload and prioritization of quality were positively associated with maximal CLABSI bundle compliance. High-quality relationships, although a significant predictor when evaluated apart from workload and prioritization of quality, had no significant effect after accounting for these two factors. Aspects of the staff work environment are associated with maximal CLABSI bundle compliance in ICUs. Our results suggest that hospitals can foster improvement in ensuring maximal CLABSI bundle compliance-a crucial precursor to reducing CLABSI infection rates-by establishing reasonable workloads and prioritizing quality.

  15. P2X7 receptor mediates activation of microglial cells in prostate of chemically irritated rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Zhang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Evidence shows that adenosine triphosphate (ATP is involved in the transmission of multiple chronic pain via P2X7 receptor. This study was to investigate the P2X7 and microglial cells in the chronic prostatitis pain. Materials and Methods Rats were divided into control group and chronic prostatitis group (n = 24 per group. A chronic prostatitis animal model was established by injecting complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA to the prostate of rats, and the thermal withdrawal latency (TWL was detected on days 0, 4, 12 and 24 (n = 6 at each time point in each group. Animals were sacrificed and the pathological examination of the prostate, detection of mRNA expression of P2X7 and ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (IBA-1 and measurement of content of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin-1β (IL-1β in the dorsal horn of L5-S2 spinal cord were performed on days 0, 4, 12 and 24. In addition, the content of TNF-α and IL-1β in the dorsal horn of L5-S2 spinal cord was measured after intrathecal injection of inhibitors of microglial cells and/or P2X7 for 5 days. Results The chronic prostatitis was confirmed by pathological examination. The expression of P2X7 and IBA-1 and the content of TNF-α and IL-1β in rats with chronic prostatitis were significantly higher than those in the control group. On day 4, the expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines became to increase, reaching a maximal level on day 12 and started to reduce on day 24, but remained higher than that in the control group. Following suppression of microglial cells and P2X7 receptor, the secretion of TNF-α and IL-1β was markedly reduced. Conclusion In chronic prostatitis pain, the microglial cells and P2X7 receptor are activated resulting in the increased expression of TNF-α and IL-1β in the L5-S2 spinal cord, which might attribute to the maintenance and intensification of pain in chronic prostatitis.

  16. Is the auditory evoked P2 response a biomarker of learning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly eTremblay

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Even though auditory training exercises for humans have been shown to improve certain perceptual skills of individuals with and without hearing loss, there is a lack of knowledge pertaining to which aspects of training are responsible for the perceptual gains, and which aspects of perception are changed. To better define how auditory training impacts brain and behavior, electroencephalography and magnetoencephalography have been used to determine the time course and coincidence of cortical modulations associated with different types of training. Here we focus on P1-N1-P2 auditory evoked responses (AEP, as there are consistent reports of gains in P2 amplitude following various types of auditory training experiences; including music and speech-sound training. The purpose of this experiment was to determine if the auditory evoked P2 response is a biomarker of learning. To do this, we taught native English speakers to identify a new pre-voiced temporal cue that is not used phonemically in the English language so that coinciding changes in evoked neural activity could be characterized. To differentiate possible effects of repeated stimulus exposure and a button-pushing task from learning itself, we examined modulations in brain activity in a group of participants who learned to identify the pre-voicing contrast and compared it to participants, matched in time, and stimulus exposure, that did not. The main finding was that the amplitude of the P2 auditory evoked response increased across repeated EEG sessions for all groups, regardless of any change in perceptual performance. What’s more, these effects were retained for months. Changes in P2 amplitude were attributed to changes in neural activity associated with the acquisition process and not the learned outcome itself. A further finding was the expression of a late negativity (LN wave 600-900 ms post-stimulus onset, post-training, exclusively for the group that learned to identify the pre

  17. Deciphering the regulation of P2X4 receptor channel gating by ivermectin using Markov models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Mackay

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The P2X4 receptor (P2X4R is a member of a family of purinergic channels activated by extracellular ATP through three orthosteric binding sites and allosterically regulated by ivermectin (IVM, a broad-spectrum antiparasitic agent. Treatment with IVM increases the efficacy of ATP to activate P2X4R, slows both receptor desensitization during sustained ATP application and receptor deactivation after ATP washout, and makes the receptor pore permeable to NMDG+, a large organic cation. Previously, we developed a Markov model based on the presence of one IVM binding site, which described some effects of IVM on rat P2X4R. Here we present two novel models, both with three IVM binding sites. The simpler one-layer model can reproduce many of the observed time series of evoked currents, but does not capture well the short time scales of activation, desensitization, and deactivation. A more complex two-layer model can reproduce the transient changes in desensitization observed upon IVM application, the significant increase in ATP-induced current amplitudes at low IVM concentrations, and the modest increase in the unitary conductance. In addition, the two-layer model suggests that this receptor can exist in a deeply inactivated state, not responsive to ATP, and that its desensitization rate can be altered by each of the three IVM binding sites. In summary, this study provides a detailed analysis of P2X4R kinetics and elucidates the orthosteric and allosteric mechanisms regulating its channel gating.

  18. Successful prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia in an intensive care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Alexandre R; Cal, Ruy Guilherme Rodrigues; Silva, Cláudia Vallone; Caserta, Raquel Afonso; Paes, Angela Tavares; Moura, Denis Faria; dos Santos, Oscar Fernando Pavão; Edmond, Michael B; Durão, Marcelino Souza

    2009-10-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is one of the most common health care-associated infections (HAIs) in critical care settings. Our objective was to examine the effect of a series of interventions, implemented in 3 different periods to reduce the incidence of VAP in an intensive care unit (ICU). A quasiexperimental study was conducted in a medical-surgical ICU. Multiple interventions to optimize VAP prevention were performed during different phases. From March 2001 to December 2002 (phase 1: P1), some Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) evidence-based practices were implemented. From January 2003 to December 2006 (P2), we intervened in these processes at the same time that performance monitoring was occurring at the bedside, and, from January 2007 to September 2008 (P3), we continued P2 interventions and implemented the Institute for Healthcare Improvement's ventilator bundle plus oral decontamination with chlorhexidine and continuous aspiration of subglottic secretions. The incidence density of VAP in the ICU per 1000 patient-days was 16.4 in phase 1, 15.0 in phase 2, and 10.4 in phase 3, P=.05. Getting to zero VAP was possible only in P3 when compliance with all interventions exceeded 95%. These results suggest that reducing VAP rates to zero is a complex process that involves multiple performance measures and interventions.

  19. Tax compliance costs: a business administration perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Eichfelder, Sebastian; Schorn, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The paper analyses the relationship of tax compliance costs and business strategy. Due to instruments, like information technology, simplified cash accounting or outsourcing compliance activities to tax advisers, private businesses have a set of strategies to optimize their tax compliance cost burden. Under the assumption of rational choice a private business should choose a cost-optimal administration strategy. In spite of that we find empirical evidence for small German businesses using onl...

  20. The creep compliance, the relaxation modulus and the complex compliance of linear viscoelastic, homogeneous, isotropic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, P.K.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on a study to obtain the creep compliance, the relaxation modulus and the complex compliance derived from the concept of mechanical resistance for the constitutive equation of a class of linear viscoelastic, homogeneous, isotropic materials

  1. 12 CFR 1710.19 - Compliance and risk management programs; compliance with other laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... OVERSIGHT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SAFETY AND SOUNDNESS CORPORATE GOVERNANCE Corporate Practices and Procedures § 1710.19 Compliance and risk management programs; compliance with other laws. (a...

  2. Utilization of handheld computing to simplify compliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvin, G.; Rasmussen, J.; Haines, A.

    2008-01-01

    Monitoring job site performance and building a continually improving organization is an ongoing challenge for operators of process and power generation facilities. Stakeholders need to accurately capture records of quality and safety compliance, job progress, and operational experiences (OPEX). This paper explores the use of technology-enabled processes as a means for simplifying compliance to quality, safety, administrative, maintenance and operations activities. The discussion will explore a number of emerging technologies and their application to simplifying task execution and process compliance. This paper will further discuss methodologies to further refine processes through trending improvements in compliance and continually optimizing and simplifying through the use of technology. (author)

  3. EPA Enforcement and Compliance History Online

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Environmental Protection Agency's Enforcement and Compliance History Online (ECHO) website provides customizable and downloadable information about environmental...

  4. Interventions to improve hand hygiene compliance in patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Dinah J; Moralejo, Donna; Drey, Nicholas; Chudleigh, Jane H

    2010-09-08

    Health care-associated infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Hand hygiene is regarded as an effective preventive measure. To update the review done in 2007, to assess the short and longer-term success of strategies to improve hand hygiene compliance and to determine whether a sustained increase in hand hygiene compliance can reduce rates of health care-associated infection. We conducted electronic searches of: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials; the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group specialised register of trials; MEDLINE; PubMed; EMBASE; CINAHL; and the BNI. Originally searched to July 2006, for the update databases were searched from August 2006 until November 2009. Randomised controlled trials, controlled clinical trials, controlled before and after studies, and interrupted time series analyses meeting explicit entry and quality criteria used by the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group were eligible for inclusion. Studies reporting indicators of hand hygiene compliance and proxy indicators such as product use were considered. Self-reported data were not considered a valid measure of compliance. Studies to promote hand hygiene compliance as part of a care bundle approach were included, providing data relating specifically to hand hygiene were presented separately. Studies were excluded if hand hygiene was assessed in simulations, non-clinical settings or the operating theatre setting. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed data quality. Four studies met the criteria for the review: two from the original review and two from the update. Two studies evaluated simple education initiatives, one using a randomized clinical trial design and the other a controlled before and after design. Both measured hand hygiene compliance by direct observation. The other two studies were both interrupted times series studies. One study presented three separate interventions within the

  5. Statins and ATP regulate nuclear pAkt via the P2X7 purinergic receptor in epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mistafa, Oras; Hoegberg, Johan; Stenius, Ulla

    2008-01-01

    Many studies have documented P2X7 receptor functions in cells of mesenchymal origin. P2X7 is also expressed in epithelial cells and its role in these cells remains largely unknown. Our data indicate that P2X7 regulate nuclear pAkt in epithelial cells. We show that low concentration of atorvastatin, a drug inhibiting HMG-CoA reductase and cholesterol metabolism, or the natural agonist extracellular ATP rapidly decreased the level of insulin-induced phosphorylated Akt in the nucleus. This effect was seen within minutes and was inhibited by P2X7 inhibitors. Experiments employing P2X7 siRNA and HEK293 cells heterologously expressing P2X7 and in vivo experiments further supported an involvement of P2X7. These data indicate that extracellular ATP and statins via the P2X7 receptor modulate insulin-induced Akt signaling in epithelial cells

  6. Statins and ATP regulate nuclear pAkt via the P2X7 purinergic receptor in epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mistafa, Oras; Hoegberg, Johan [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, 17177 Stockholm (Sweden); Stenius, Ulla [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, 17177 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2008-01-04

    Many studies have documented P2X7 receptor functions in cells of mesenchymal origin. P2X7 is also expressed in epithelial cells and its role in these cells remains largely unknown. Our data indicate that P2X7 regulate nuclear pAkt in epithelial cells. We show that low concentration of atorvastatin, a drug inhibiting HMG-CoA reductase and cholesterol metabolism, or the natural agonist extracellular ATP rapidly decreased the level of insulin-induced phosphorylated Akt in the nucleus. This effect was seen within minutes and was inhibited by P2X7 inhibitors. Experiments employing P2X7 siRNA and HEK293 cells heterologously expressing P2X7 and in vivo experiments further supported an involvement of P2X7. These data indicate that extracellular ATP and statins via the P2X7 receptor modulate insulin-induced Akt signaling in epithelial cells.

  7. Optimization of the thermodynamic properties and phase diagrams of P2O5-containing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudon, Pierre; Jung, In-Ho

    2014-05-01

    P2O5 is an important oxide component in the late stage products of numerous igneous rocks such as granites and pegmatites. Typically, P2O5 combines with CaO and crystallizes in the form of apatite, while in volatile-free conditions, Ca-whitlockite is formed. In spite of their interest, the thermodynamic properties and phase diagrams of P2O5-containg systems are not well known yet. In the case of the pure P2O5 for example, no experimental thermodynamic data are available for the liquid and the O and O' solid phases. As a result, we re-evaluated all the thermodynamic and phase diagram data of the P2O5 unary system [1]. Optimization of the thermodynamic properties and phase diagrams of the binary P2O5 systems was then performed including the Li2O-, Na2O-, MgO-, CaO-, BaO-, MnO-, FeO-, Fe2O3-, ZnO-, Al2O3-, and SiO2-P2O5 [2] systems. All available thermodynamic and phase equilibrium data were simultaneously reproduced in order to obtain a set of model equations for the Gibbs energies of all phases as functions of temperature and composition. In particular, the Gibbs energy of the liquid solution was described using the Modified Quasichemical Model [3-5] implemented in the FactSage software [6]. Thermodynamic modeling of the Li2O-Na2O-K2O-MgO-CaO-FeO-Fe2O3-Al2O3-SiO2 system, which include many granite-forming minerals such as nepheline, leucite, pyroxene, melilite, feldspar and spinel is currently in progress. [1] Jung, I.-H., Hudon, P. (2012) Thermodynamic assessment of P2O5. J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 95 (11), 3665-3672. [2] Rahman, M., Hudon, P. and Jung, I.-H. (2013) A coupled experimental study and thermodynamic modeling of the SiO2-P2O5 system. Metall. Mater. Trans. B, 44 (4), 837-852. [3] Pelton, A.D. and Blander, M. (1984) Computer-assisted analysis of the thermodynamic properties and phase diagrams of slags. Proc. AIME Symp. Metall. Slags Fluxes, TMS-AIME, 281-294. [4] Pelton, A.D. and Blander, M. (1986) Thermodynamic analysis of ordered liquid solutions by a modified

  8. ENHANCING VOLUNTARY COMPLIANCE BY REDUCING COMPLIANCE COSTS: A TAXPAYER SERVICE APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Glenn Jenkins; EDWIN FORLEMU

    1993-01-01

    In this paper an overview is made of the determinants of voluntary tax compliance. Unlike previous treatments of this subject, the cost of taxpayer compliance is considered as an important determinant of overall level of voluntary compliance in a country. A number of ways that tax authorities reduce compliance are discussed, and the most common uses of information technology in providing taxpayer service is described. Finally, the paper considers some of the ways that such activities might be...

  9. GaN-Based High-k Praseodymium Oxide Gate MISFETs with P2S5/(NH42SX + UV Interface Treatment Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Wei Lin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the praseodymium-oxide- (Pr2O3- passivated AlGaN/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor high electron mobility transistors (MIS-HEMTs with high dielectric constant in which the AlGaN Schottky layers are treated with P2S5/(NH42SX + ultraviolet (UV illumination. An electron-beam evaporated Pr2O3 insulator is used instead of traditional plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (PECVD, in order to prevent plasma-induced damage to the AlGaN. In this work, the HEMTs are pretreated with P2S5/(NH42SX solution and UV illumination before the gate insulator (Pr2O3 is deposited. Since stable sulfur that is bound to the Ga species can be obtained easily and surface oxygen atoms are reduced by the P2S5/(NH42SX pretreatment, the lowest leakage current is observed in MIS-HEMT. Additionally, a low flicker noise and a low surface roughness (0.38 nm are also obtained using this novel process, which demonstrates its ability to reduce the surface states. Low gate leakage current Pr2O3 and high-k AlGaN/GaN MIS-HEMTs, with P2S5/(NH42SX + UV illumination treatment, are suited to low-noise applications, because of the electron-beam-evaporated insulator and the new chemical pretreatment.

  10. Effect of Icariin on Tibial Dyschondroplasia Incidence and Tibial Characteristics by Regulating P2RX7 in Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD is a disease of rapid growing chickens that occurs in many avian species; it is characterized by nonvascular and nonmineralized growth plates, along with tibia bone deformation and lameness. Icariin is widely used to treat bone diseases in humans, but no report is available regarding the effectiveness of icariin against avian TD. Therefore, this study was designed to determine its effect against TD. For this purpose, a total of 180 broiler chicks were distributed into three groups including control, TD, and icariin group. Control group was given a standard normal diet, while TD and icariin groups received normal standard diet containing 50 mg/kg thiram to induce TD from days 3 to 7 after hatch. After the induction of TD, the chicks of icariin group were fed with standard normal diet by adding 10 mg/kg icariin in water. Then morphological and production parameters analysis of tibial bone indicators, physiological index changes, and gene expression were examined. The results showed that icariin administration not only decreased the mortality but also mitigated the lameness and promoted the angiogenesis, which diminished the TD lesion and significantly increased the expression of P2RX7 (P<0.05 in TD affected thiram induced chicks. In conclusion, present findings suggest that icariin has a significant role in promoting the recovery of chicken growth plates affected by TD via regulating the P2RX7. Our findings reveal a new target for clinical treatment and prevention of TD in broiler chickens.

  11. Enforcement Alert: EPA Enforcement Efforts Focus on Prevention of Chemical Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Alert is intended to inform the industry that companies must take responsibility to prevent accidental releases of dangerous chemicals like anhydrous ammonia through compliance with CAA’s Chemical Accident Prevention Program.

  12. Perspectives on compliance: non-compliance with environmental licenses in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Snellenberg, A.H.L.M.; van de Peppel, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    Compliance with environmental law is not self-evident. In many instances enforcement of environmental regulations is a necessary means for achieving compliance. Assuming that an enforcement strategy, in order to be effective, has to fit the type of non-compliance, we integrate six different

  13. Going Upstream: Policy as Sexual Violence Prevention and Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Susan V.; Issadore, Michelle N.

    2018-01-01

    Policy can and should be used as a tool of sexual violence prevention and response. In this chapter, we explore the historical, social justice, compliance, and best practice rationales for approaching policy development and revision differently.

  14. Tax Compliance Inventory: TAX-I Voluntary tax compliance, enforced tax compliance, tax avoidance, and tax evasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchler, Erich; Wahl, Ingrid

    2010-01-01

    Surveys on tax compliance and non-compliance often rely on ad hoc formulated items which lack standardization and empirical validation. We present an inventory to assess tax compliance and distinguish between different forms of compliance and non-compliance: voluntary versus enforced compliance, tax avoidance, and tax evasion. First, items to measure voluntary and enforced compliance, avoidance, and evasion were drawn up (collected from past research and newly developed), and tested empirically with the aim of producing four validated scales with a clear factorial structure. Second, findings from the first analyses were replicated and extended to validation on the basis of motivational postures. A standardized inventory is provided which can be used in surveys in order to collect data which are comparable across research focusing on self-reports. The inventory can be used in either of two ways: either in its entirety, or by applying the single scales independently, allowing an economical and fast assessment of different facets of tax compliance. PMID:20502612

  15. Georgia Compliance Review Self-Study FY 01.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgia State Dept. of Education, Atlanta.

    Intended for evaluation of local compliance with special education federal and state legal requirements, this compliance review document includes both the compliance requirements and the criteria by which compliance is determined during the onsite compliance review of Georgia local school systems and state-operated programs. Each legal requirement…

  16. Alfalfa mosaic virus replicase proteins P1 and P2 interact and colocalize at the vacuolar membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, van der M.W.; Carette, J.E.; Reinhoud, P.J.; Haegi, A.; Bol, J.F.

    2001-01-01

    Replication of Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) RNAs depends on the virus-encoded proteins P1 and P2. P1 contains methyltransferase- and helicase-like domains, and P2 contains a polymerase-like domain. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments revealed an interaction between in vitro translated-P1 and P2 and

  17. Intercellular calcium signaling occurs between human osteoblasts and osteoclasts and requires activation of osteoclast P2X7 receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Niklas R; Henriksen, Zanne; Sørensen, Ole

    2002-01-01

    that human osteoclasts expressed functional P2Y1 receptors, but, unexpectedly, desensitization of P2Y1 did not block calcium signaling to osteoclasts. We also found that osteoclasts expressed functional P2X7 receptors and showed that pharmacological inhibition of these receptors blocked calcium signaling...

  18. Explaining G20 and BRICS Compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Larionova

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the internal and external factors influencing the compliance performance of the Group of 20 (G20 and the BRICS. The authors start with an overview of the G20 and BRICS compliance patterns using comparative data onthe number of commitments made by the two institutions, the level of institutional compliance, and distribution of commitments and compliance across issue areas. G20 compliance is traced since the leaders’ first 2008 summit in Washington. The BRICS compliance performance record includes data since the third stand alone summit in Sanya in 2011.The study then takes stock of compliance catalysts embedded in the summits’ discourse: priority placements, numerical targets, timelines, self-accountability pledges and mandates to implement and/or monitor implementation. The authors review trends in the use of catalysts in different years and issue areas and identify commonalities and differences.The analysis then turns to external causes of compliance and focuses on demand for collective actions and members’ collective power to respond and deliver on their pledges. Here the study explores whether the self-accountability mechanisms created by the institutions in response to the demand for effectiveness and legitimacy facilitate compliance.The article concludes by highlighting catalysts, causes of compliance and their combinations with the greatest power to encourage implementation, explaining trends in G20 and BRICS compliance performance. The data sets on G20 and BRICS differ in terms of scale. The G20 data set contains 1,511 commitments of which 114 have been monitored, and the BRICS data set contains 231 commitments of which 23 have been monitored.

  19. Improved chemical stability and cyclability in Li2S–P2S5–P2O5–ZnO composite electrolytes for all-solid-state rechargeable lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Akitoshi; Muramatsu, Hiromasa; Ohtomo, Takamasa; Hama, Sigenori; Tatsumisago, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Chemical stability in air of Li 2 S–P 2 S 5 –P 2 O 5 –ZnO composite electrolytes was examined. • A partial substitution of P 2 O 5 for P 2 S 5 decreased the rate of H 2 S generation. • The addition of ZnO to the glasses reduced the amount of H 2 S. • All-solid-state lithium cells using the developed composite electrolytes exhibited good cyclability. -- Abstract: Sulfide glasses with high Li + ion conductivity are promising solid electrolytes for all-solid-state rechargeable lithium batteries. This study specifically examined the chemical stability of Li 2 S–P 2 S 5 -based glass electrolytes in air. Partial substitution of P 2 O 5 for P 2 S 5 decreased the rate of H 2 S generation from glass exposed to air. The addition of ZnO to the Li 2 S–P 2 S 5 –P 2 O 5 glasses as a H 2 S absorbent reduced the H 2 S gas release. A composite electrolyte prepared from 90 mol% of 75Li 2 S⋅21P 2 S 5 ⋅4P 2 O 5 (mol%) glass and 10 mol% ZnO was applied to all-solid-state cells. The all-solid-state In/LiCoO 2 cell with the composite electrolyte showed good cyclability as a lithium secondary battery

  20. Spectral bounds for the PT-breaking Hamiltonian p2 + x4 + iax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handy, C R; Wang Xiaoqian

    2003-01-01

    The non-Hermitian Hamiltonian p 2 + x 4 + iax, which spontaneously breaks PT-symmetry, and the subject of a recent study by Bender et al (2001 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 34 L31), is amenable to a positivity representation, facilitating the generation of converging bounds to the complex-eigenenergies of the PT-breaking states. This system is much easier (i.e. fewer variational parameters) than the previously studied case of the Hamiltonian p 2 + ix 3 + iax (2001 Handy J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 34 5065, Handy et al 2001 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 34 5593), as first proposed by Delabaere and Trinh (2000 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 33 8771), enabling the generation of low order algebraic spectral bounds (i.e. Re(E) > 81/4 (Im(E)/a) 4 + O(a 2 )), in addition to high order, numerically generated, converging bounds to the discrete states. We examine both approaches here

  1. Photoionization from the 6p 2P3/2 state of neutral cesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haq, S. U.; Nadeem, Ali

    2010-01-01

    We report the photoionization studies of cesium from the 6p 2 P 3/2 excited state to measure the photoionization cross section at and above the first ionization threshold, oscillator strength of the highly excited transitions, and extension in the Rydberg series. The photoionization cross section at the first ionization threshold is measured as 25 (4) Mb and at excess energies 0.02, 0.04, 0.07, and 0.09 eV as 21, 19, 17, and 16 Mb, respectively. Oscillator strength of the 6p 2 P 3/2 → nd 2 D 5/2 (23 ≤ n ≤ 60) Rydberg transitions has been extracted utilizing the threshold value of photoionization cross section and the recorded nd 2 D 5/2 photoionization spectra.

  2. Using of P2P Networks for Acceleration of RTE Tasks Solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Iftene

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In the last years the computational Grids have become an important research area in large-scale scientific and engineering research. Our approach is based on Peer-to-peer (P2P networks, which are recognized as one of most used architectures in order to achieve scalability in key components of Grid systems. The main scope in using of a computational Grid was to improve the computational speed of systems that solve complex problems from Natural Language processing field. We will see how can be implemented a computational Grid using the P2P model, and how can be used SMB protocol for file transfer. After that we will see how we can use this computational Grid, in order to improve the computational speed of a system used in RTE competition [1], a new complex challenge from Natural Language processing field.

  3. Analysis of a microscopic model of taking into account 2p2h configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamerdzhiev, S.P.; Tkachev, V.N.

    1986-01-01

    The Green's-function method has been used to obtain a general equation for the effective field in a nucleus, taking into account both 1p1h and 2p2h configurations. This equation has been used as the starting point for derivation of a previously developed microscopic model of taking 1p1h+phonon configurations into account in magic nuclei. The equation for the density matrix is analyzed in this model. It is shown that the number of quasiparticles is conserved. An equation is obtained for the effective field in the coordinate representation, which provides a formulation of the problem in the 1p1h+2p2h+continuum approximation. The equation is derived and quantitatively analyzed in the space of one-phonon states

  4. High-pressure-assisted synthesis of high-volume ZnGeP2 polycrystalline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Changbao; Wu, Haixin; Xiao, Ruichun; Chen, Shijing; Ma, Jiaren

    2018-06-01

    The pnictide and chalcogenide semiconductors are promising materials for the applications in the field of photoelectric. High-purity and high-volume polycrystalline required in the real-world applications is hard to be synthesized due to the high vapor pressure of phosphorus and sulfur components at high temperature. A new high-pressure-resisted method was used to investigate the synthesis of the nonlinear-optical semiconductor ZnGeP2. The high-purity ZnGeP2 polycrystalline material of approximately 500 g was synthesized in one run, which enables the preparation of nominally stoichiometric material. Since increasing internal pressure resistance of quartz crucible and reducing the reaction space, the high-pressure-resisted method can be used to rapidly synthesize other pnictide and chalcogenide semiconductors and control the components ratio.

  5. End-to-End Key Exchange through Disjoint Paths in P2P Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daouda Ahmat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to their inherent features, P2P networks have proven to be effective in the exchange of data between autonomous peers. Unfortunately, these networks are subject to various security threats that cannot be addressed readily since traditional security infrastructures, which are centralized, cannot be applied to them. Furthermore, communication reliability across the Internet is threatened by various attacks, including usurpation of identity, eavesdropping or traffic modification. Thus, in order to overcome these security issues and allow peers to securely exchange data, we propose a new key management scheme over P2P networks. Our approach introduces a new method that enables a secret key exchange through disjoint paths in the absence of a trusted central coordination point which would be required in traditional centralized security systems.

  6. FoxP2 isoforms delineate spatiotemporal transcriptional networks for vocal learning in the zebra finch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Nancy F; Kimball, Todd Haswell; Aamodt, Caitlin M; Heston, Jonathan B; Hilliard, Austin T; Xiao, Xinshu; White, Stephanie A

    2018-01-01

    Human speech is one of the few examples of vocal learning among mammals yet ~half of avian species exhibit this ability. Its neurogenetic basis is largely unknown beyond a shared requirement for FoxP2 in both humans and zebra finches. We manipulated FoxP2 isoforms in Area X, a song-specific region of the avian striatopallidum analogous to human anterior striatum, during a critical period for song development. We delineate, for the first time, unique contributions of each isoform to vocal learning. Weighted gene coexpression network analysis of RNA-seq data revealed gene modules correlated to singing, learning, or vocal variability. Coexpression related to singing was found in juvenile and adult Area X whereas coexpression correlated to learning was unique to juveniles. The confluence of learning and singing coexpression in juvenile Area X may underscore molecular processes that drive vocal learning in young zebra finches and, by analogy, humans. PMID:29360038

  7. Ionic Salt Effect on the Phase Transition of PS-b-P2VP Copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bokyung; An, Hyungju; Ryu, Du Yeol; Kim, Jehan

    2009-03-01

    Solid-state electrolytes have long been considered as suitable candidates owing to the simple and easy processes for rechargeable battery manufactures, compared to conventional liquid electrolyte counterparts. Especially, polymer/salt systems involving PMMA and PVP complex forms have been studied since they provide stable electrochemical characteristics as well as mechanical properties. We studied the phase behavior of PS-b-P2VP upon the salt addition by small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) and depolarized light scattering. Transition temperatures of block copolymer were significantly influenced by the salt addition in addition to the changes of d-spacings, which is caused by the effective coordinative interaction between P2VP block and salt. This study suggests a simple approach to solid-state block copolymer electrolytes.

  8. An unusual presentation of ischaemic mitral regurgitation as P2 prolapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David S; Punjabi, Prakash P

    2017-11-01

    A 54-year-old gentleman presented with pulmonary oedema secondary to anterolateral papillary muscle (PPM) rupture and acute mitral regurgitation subsequent to myocardial ischaemia (MI). Angiography revealed complete occlusion of the first obtuse marginal (OM1) branch of the circumflex coronary artery and a 70% occlusion of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery. Operatively, unusual anatomy was noted; an accessory head was attached superiorly to the anterior lateral PPM. This gave rise to chordae that were subsequently attached to the posterior second (P2) scallop. Additionally, the P2 scallop was deficient in chordae from the posteromedial PPM, thus, loss of this accessory head led to severe mitral regurgitation. We review the PPM anatomy and pathological context of PPM rupture and ischaemic mitral regurgitation.

  9. P2-a new measurement of the weak charge of the proton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, D., E-mail: beckerd@kph.uni-mainz.de; Baunack, S.; Maas, F. E. [Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Institute of Nuclear Physics (Germany)

    2013-03-15

    After ten years of experience with parity-violating electron-proton-scattering, the preparatory work on a new high precision parity-violation experiment in Mainz has begun. Project P2 is bound to measure the weak charge of the proton to a relative uncertainty of 1.9%, which corresponds to a relative uncertainty of 0.15 % for sin{sup 2}{theta}{sub W}. This can be achieved by measuring the parity-violating asymmetry in elastic electron-proton-scattering to a relative precision of 1.7 % at E{sub beam}{approx}200 MeV and Q{sup 2}{approx}0.005 GeV{sup 2}. In this proceeding, we will discuss the achievable precision within project P2 as well as the experimental concept and present first results of studies involving Monte Carlo methods.

  10. Microscopic model accounting of 2p2p configurations in magic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamerdzhiev, S.P.

    1983-01-01

    A model for account of the 2p2h configurations in magic nuclei is described in the framework of the Green function formalism. The model is formulated in the lowest order in the phonon production amplitude, so that the series are expansions not over pure 2p2h configurations, but over con figurations of the type ''1p1h+phonon''. Equations are obtained for the vertex and the density matrix, as well as an expression for the transition probabilities, that are extensions of the corresponding results of the theory of finite Fermi systems, or of the random-phase approximation to the case where the ''1p1h+phonon'' configurations are taken into account. Corrections to the one-particle phenomenological basis which arise with account for complicated configurations are obtained. Comparison with other approaches, using phonons, has shown that they are particular cases of the described model

  11. n-p Short-Range Correlations from (p,2p+n) Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, A.; Watson, J. W.; Aclander, J.; Alster, J.; Asryan, G.; Averichev, Y.; Barton, D.; Baturin, V.; Bukhtoyarova, N.; Carroll, A.; Gushue, S.; Heppelmann, S.; Leksanov, A.; Makdisi, Y.; Malki, A.; Minina, E.; Navon, I.; Nicholson, H.; Ogawa, A.; Panebratsev, Yu.; Piasetzky, E.; Schetkovsky, A.; Shimanskiy, S.; Zhalov, D.

    2003-01-01

    We studied the 12C(p,2p+n) reaction at beam momenta of 5.9, 8.0, and 9.0 GeV/c. For quasielastic (p,2p) events pf, the momentum of the knocked-out proton before the reaction, was compared (event by event) with pn, the coincident neutron momentum. For |pn|>kF=0.220 GeV/c (the Fermi momentum) a strong back-to-back directional correlation between pf and pn was observed, indicative of short-range n-p correlations. From pn and pf we constructed the distributions of c.m. and relative motion in the longitudinal direction for correlated pairs. We also determined that 49±13% of events with |pf|>kF had directionally correlated neutrons with |pn|>kF.

  12. The microstructure of spontaneously ordered GaInP2 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, K.; Mascarenhas, A.; Alonso, R.G.; Horner, G.S.; Bertness, K.A.; Kurtz, S.R.; Olson, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    Polarized photoluminescence, photoluminescence excitation, piezomodulated reflectivity, and resonance Raman techniques have been employed to probe the electronic structure of GaInP 2 alloys exhibiting Cu--Pt ordering. The ordering induced band gap reduction and the crystal field splitting of the valence bands have been studied for samples exhibiting various degrees of ordering. Our studies provide evidence for a distribution of order parameters in spontaneously ordered GaInP 2 , in contrast to earlier works, which assume that uniformly ordered domains are embedded in a perfectly disordered matrix. Furthermore, the band gap reduction and the crystal field splitting obtained from our experiments are in good agreement with a theoretical model relating these quantities to the long range order parameter in the sample

  13. MULTIDISCIPLINARY APPROACH TO SUPPORTING TREATMENT COMPLIANCE IN TUBERCULOSIS PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Sherstneva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the algorithm for working with tuberculosis patients in TB hospital, providing implementation of multidisciplinary patient-centered activities for early diagnostics of psychiatric and social disorders, therapy and rehabilitation of concurrent psychiatric disorders and addictions. Multidisciplinary approach to activities within TB unit is aimed at improvement of treatment compliance of tuberculosis patients. The training programme has been developed in order to improve competency of medical personnel on the issue of treatment interruption prevention and motivating patients to undergo the continuous treatment.

  14. Exploring the Feasibility of Reputation Models for Improving P2P Routing under Churn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sànchez-Artigas, Marc; García-López, Pedro; Herrera, Blas

    Reputation mechanisms help peer-to-peer (P2P) networks to detect and avoid unreliable or uncooperative peers. Recently, it has been discussed that routing protocols can be improved by conditioning routing decisions to the past behavior of forwarding peers. However, churn — the continuous process of node arrival and departure — may severely hinder the applicability of rating mechanisms. In particular, short lifetimes mean that reputations are often generated from a small number of transactions.

  15. JXTA: A Technology Facilitating Mobile P2P Health Management System

    OpenAIRE

    Rajkumar, Rajasekaran; Iyengar, Nallani Chackravatula Sriman Naraya

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Mobile JXTA (Juxtapose) gaining momentum and has attracted the interest of doctors and patients through P2P service that transmits messages. Audio and video can also be transmitted through JXTA. The use of mobile streaming mechanism with the support of mobile hospital management and healthcare system would enable better interaction between doctors, nurses, and the hospital. Experimental results demonstrate good performance in comparison with conventional systems. This study evaluat...

  16. Synthesis and structural characterization of Na 2 MnP 2 O 7 crystal

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Na2MnP2O7 crystals were synthesized by hydrothermal technique. Crystals obtained are in the form of single crystals of rhombohedral morphology with lattice parameters as follows: triclinic, 1 ¯ , = 0.71069 Å, = 6.657(3) Å, = 6.714(6) Å, = 6.518(4) Å, = 112.31(6)°, = 92.14(4)°, = 83.89(5)°, = 268.0(3) Å3, ...

  17. The Sharing Economy and Collaborative Finance: the Case of P2p Lending in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Uyen, Tran Dinh; Ha, Hoang

    2017-01-01

    Peer-to-peer Online Lending (P2PO) has received increasing attention over the last years, not only because of its disruptive nature and its disintermediation of nearly all major banking functions, but also because of its rapid growth and expanding breadth of services. This model offers a new way of investing in addition to investing in traditional channels such as banking or financial company. The transaction process is done online, the personal information and terms of mobilization are compl...

  18. Emergence of Financial Intermediaries in Electronic Markets: The Case of Online P2P Lending

    OpenAIRE

    Sven C. Berger; Fabian Gleisner

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the role of intermediaries in electronic markets using detailed data of more than 14,000 originated loans on an electronic P2P (peer-to-peer) lending platform. In such an electronic credit market, lenders bid to supply a private loan. Screening of potential borrowers and the monitoring of loan repayment can be delegated to designated group leaders. We find that these market participants act as financial intermediaries and significantly improve borrowers' credit conditions by reduci...

  19. Generalized Models from Beta(p, 2) Densities with Strong Allee Effect: Dynamical Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Aleixo, Sandra M.; Rocha, J. Leonel

    2012-01-01

    A dynamical approach to study the behaviour of generalized populational growth models from Beta(p, 2) densities, with strong Allee effect, is presented. The dynamical analysis of the respective unimodal maps is performed using symbolic dynamics techniques. The complexity of the correspondent discrete dynamical systems is measured in terms of topological entropy. Different populational dynamics regimes are obtained when the intrinsic growth rates are modified: extinction, bistability, chaotic ...

  20. Personalized Trust Management for Open and Flat P2P Communities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZUO Min; LI Jian-hua

    2008-01-01

    A personalized trust management scheme is proposed to help peers build up trust between each other in open and flat P2P communities. This scheme totally abandons the attempt to achieve a global view. It evaluates trust from a subjective point of view and gives personalized decision support to each peer. Simulation experiments prove its three advantages: free of central control, stronger immunity to misleading recommendations, and limited traffic overload.

  1. Developing the P2/6 methodology [to assess the security capability of modern distributed generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, Ron; Strbac, Goran; Djapic, Predrag; Jarrett, Keith [Manchester Univ. Inst. of Science and Technology, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2004-04-29

    The main objective of the project was to use the methodology developed in the previous Methodology project (ETSU/FES Project K/EL/00287) to assess the security capability of modern distributed generation in order to review Table 2 and related text of Engineering Recommendation P2/5, and to propose information and results that could be used to create a new P2/6 that takes into account modern types of generating units; unit numbers; unit availabilities; and capacities. Technical issues raised in the previous study but held over until this project include: Treatment of single unit generation systems; Effect of shape of load duration curves; Persistence of intermittent generation, T{sub m}; Time resolution of intermittent generation output profiles; Ride-through capability; Risk to loss of supply. Three main ways of implementing the methodology were recommended: Look-up table(s), Graphical, and Computer program. The specification for the computer program was to produce a simple spreadsheet application package that an engineer with a reasonably knowledge of the approach could use. This prototype package has been developed in conjunction with Workstream 3. Its objective is to calculate the capability contribution to security of supply from distributed generation connected to a particular demand group. The application has been developed using Microsoft Excel and Visual Basic for Applications. New Tables for inclusion in P2/6 are included. (UK)

  2. A decision support model for investment on P2P lending platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiangxiang; Liu, Li; Leung, Stephen; Du, Jiangze; Wang, Xun; Li, Tao

    2017-01-01

    Peer-to-peer (P2P) lending, as a novel economic lending model, has triggered new challenges on making effective investment decisions. In a P2P lending platform, one lender can invest N loans and a loan may be accepted by M investors, thus forming a bipartite graph. Basing on the bipartite graph model, we built an iteration computation model to evaluate the unknown loans. To validate the proposed model, we perform extensive experiments on real-world data from the largest American P2P lending marketplace-Prosper. By comparing our experimental results with those obtained by Bayes and Logistic Regression, we show that our computation model can help borrowers select good loans and help lenders make good investment decisions. Experimental results also show that the Logistic classification model is a good complement to our iterative computation model, which motivates us to integrate the two classification models. The experimental results of the hybrid classification model demonstrate that the logistic classification model and our iteration computation model are complementary to each other. We conclude that the hybrid model (i.e., the integration of iterative computation model and Logistic classification model) is more efficient and stable than the individual model alone.

  3. A decision support model for investment on P2P lending platform.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangxiang Zeng

    Full Text Available Peer-to-peer (P2P lending, as a novel economic lending model, has triggered new challenges on making effective investment decisions. In a P2P lending platform, one lender can invest N loans and a loan may be accepted by M investors, thus forming a bipartite graph. Basing on the bipartite graph model, we built an iteration computation model to evaluate the unknown loans. To validate the proposed model, we perform extensive experiments on real-world data from the largest American P2P lending marketplace-Prosper. By comparing our experimental results with those obtained by Bayes and Logistic Regression, we show that our computation model can help borrowers select good loans and help lenders make good investment decisions. Experimental results also show that the Logistic classification model is a good complement to our iterative computation model, which motivates us to integrate the two classification models. The experimental results of the hybrid classification model demonstrate that the logistic classification model and our iteration computation model are complementary to each other. We conclude that the hybrid model (i.e., the integration of iterative computation model and Logistic classification model is more efficient and stable than the individual model alone.

  4. P2Y12R-Dependent Translocation Mechanisms Gate the Changing Microglial Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ukpong B. Eyo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Microglia are an exquisitely tiled and self-contained population in the CNS that do not receive contributions from circulating monocytes in the periphery. While microglia are long-lived cells, the extent to which their cell bodies are fixed and the molecular mechanisms by which the microglial landscape is regulated have not been determined. Using chronic in vivo two-photon imaging to follow the microglial population in young adult mice, we document a daily rearrangement of the microglial landscape. Furthermore, we show that the microglial landscape can be modulated by severe seizures, acute injury, and sensory deprivation. Finally, we demonstrate a critical role for microglial P2Y12Rs in regulating the microglial landscape through cellular translocation independent of proliferation. These findings suggest that microglial patrol the CNS through both process motility and soma translocation. : Using a chronic in vivo imaging approach, Eyo et al. show that the physical positions of brain microglia change daily and that these changes increase following certain experimental manipulations. The mechanism underlying these changes involves cell translocation controlled by microglial-specific P2Y12 receptors. Keywords: microglia, P2Y12, seizures, epilepsy, whisker trimming, microglial landscape, two photon chronic imaging

  5. Genomic and transcriptional landscape of P2RY8-CRLF2-positive childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesely, C; Frech, C; Eckert, C; Cario, G; Mecklenbräuker, A; zur Stadt, U; Nebral, K; Kraler, F; Fischer, S; Attarbaschi, A; Schuster, M; Bock, C; Cavé, H; von Stackelberg, A; Schrappe, M; Horstmann, M A; Mann, G; Haas, O A; Panzer-Grümayer, R

    2017-01-01

    Children with P2RY8-CRLF2-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia have an increased relapse risk. Their mutational and transcriptional landscape, as well as the respective patterns at relapse remain largely elusive. We, therefore, performed an integrated analysis of whole-exome and RNA sequencing in 41 major clone fusion-positive cases including 19 matched diagnosis/relapse pairs. We detected a variety of frequently subclonal and highly instable JAK/STAT but also RTK/Ras pathway-activating mutations in 76% of cases at diagnosis and virtually all relapses. Unlike P2RY8-CRLF2 that was lost in 32% of relapses, all other genomic alterations affecting lymphoid development (58%) and cell cycle (39%) remained stable. Only IKZF1 alterations predominated in relapsing cases (P=0.001) and increased from initially 36 to 58% in matched cases. IKZF1’s critical role is further corroborated by its specific transcriptional signature comprising stem cell features with signs of impaired lymphoid differentiation, enhanced focal adhesion, activated hypoxia pathway, deregulated cell cycle and increased drug resistance. Our findings support the notion that P2RY8-CRLF2 is dispensable for relapse development and instead highlight the prominent rank of IKZF1 for relapse development by mediating self-renewal and homing to the bone marrow niche. Consequently, reverting aberrant IKAROS signaling or its disparate programs emerges as an attractive potential treatment option in these leukemias. PMID:27899802

  6. KEAMANAN STEVIA HASIL BUDIDAYA B2P2TO2T DALAM ASPEK TERATOGENITAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Widowati

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Teratogenic test has been performed on sweet stevia as product of B2P2TO2T cultivation at  rats (Rattus novergicus pregnant female  Wistar. Stevia sweet was administered orally at a dose of 360, 120 and 40 mg/kg bw, volume 1 ml/100g bw per day during organogenesis period, on the day of pregnancy to the 6th until 15th. During the test, test animals were observed two times daily with the distance of six hours against the toxicity symptoms such as changes in skin, hair, eyes and mucous membranes, bleeding. Animals that experienced abortion, premature birth or death during the trial period were sacrificed and observed immediately with microscopic technic. At 20th day of pregnancy all of the pregnant rat dissected, and put out the fetuses  from the mother's and observated the health conditions in general and  the whole of mothers reproductive systems of fetuses, the outer fetal malformation and soft tissue system of fetal. The conclusion were  sweet stevia  of B2P2TO2T  no worse effect on the mother rats, fetal body weight and morphology of mother rats and the fetus, does not affect the process of development of fetal soft tissue, and does not affect the development of fetal skeleton. Generally the B2P2TO2T stevia sweet substances safe for used, does not cause teratogenic effects.

  7. Airlift bioreactor containing chitosan-immobilized Sphingobium sp. P2 for treatment of lubricants in wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khondee, Nichakorn; Tathong, Sitti; Pinyakong, Onruthai; Powtongsook, Sorawit; Chatchupong, Thawach; Ruangchainikom, Chalermchai; Luepromchai, Ekawan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Sphingobium sp. P2 effectively degraded various lubricant samples. ► Efficiency of Sphingobium sp. P2 increased after immobilization on chitosan. ► High removal efficiency was due to both sorption and degradation processes. ► The immobilized bacteria (4 g L −1 ) were applied in internal loop airlift bioreactor. ► The bioreactor continuously removed lubricant from emulsified wastewater. - Abstract: An internal loop airlift bioreactor containing chitosan-immobilized Sphingobium sp. P2 was applied for the removal of automotive lubricants from emulsified wastewater. The chitosan-immobilized bacteria had higher lubricant removal efficiency than free and killed-immobilized cells because they were able to sorp and degrade the lubricants simultaneously. In a semi-continuous batch experiment, the immobilized bacteria were able to remove 80–90% of the 200 mg L −1 total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) from both synthetic and carwash wastewater. The internal loop airlift bioreactor, containing 4 g L −1 immobilized bacteria, was later designed and operated at 2.0 h HRT (hydraulic retention time) for over 70 days. At a steady state, the reactor continuously removed 85 ± 5% TPH and 73 ± 11% chemical oxygen demand (COD) from the carwash wastewater with 25–200 mg L −1 amended lubricant. The internal loop airlift reactor's simple operation and high stability demonstrate its high potential for use in treating lubricants in emulsified wastewater from carwashes and other industries.

  8. A Mixed-Valent Molybdenum Monophosphate with a Layer Structure: KMo 3P 2O 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guesdon, A.; Borel, M. M.; Leclaire, A.; Grandin, A.; Raveau, B.

    1994-03-01

    A new mixed-valent molybdenum monophosphate with a layer structure KMo 3P 2O 14 has been isolated. It crystallizes in the space group P2 1/ m with a = 8.599(2) Å, b = 6.392(2) Å, c = 10.602(1) Å, and β = 111.65(2)°. The layers [Mo 3P 2O 14] ∞ are parallel to (100) and consist of [MoPO 8] ∞ chains running along limitb→ , in which one MoO 6 octahedron alternates with one PO 4 tetrahedron. In fact, four [MoPO 8] ∞ chains share the corners of their polyhedra and the edges of their octahedra, forming [Mo 4P 4O 24] ∞ columns which are linked through MoO 5 bipyramids along limitc→. The K + ions interleaved between these layers are surrounded by eight oxygens, forming bicapped trigonal prisms KO 8. Besides the unusual trigonal bipyramids MoO 5, this structure is also characterized by a tendency to the localization of the electrons, since one octahedral site is occupied by Mo(V), whereas the other octahedral site and the trigonal bipyramid are occupied by Mo(VI). The similarity of this structure with pure octahedral layer structures suggests the possibility of generating various derivatives, and of ion exchange properties.

  9. Effect of reactive monomer on PS-b-P2VP film with UV irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H. J.; Shin, D. M.

    2012-03-01

    Poly(styrene-b-2-vinyl pyridine) (PS-b-P2VP) lamellar film which is hydrophobic block hydrophilic polyelectrolyte block polymer of 52 kg/mol -b- 57 kg/mol and PS-b-P2VP film with reactive monomer (RM257) were prepared for photonic gel films. The lamellar stacks, which is alternating layer of hydrophilic and hydrophobic part of PS-b-P2VP. We reported about the influence of reactive monomer on those photonic gel films. Added reactive monomer photonic gel film had higher absorbance than pure photonic gel films. And band gaps of the lamellar films shifted by the time of UV light irradiation. That Photonic gel films were measured with the UV spectrophotometer. As a result the photonic gel film with reactive monomer had more clear color. The lamellar films were swollen by DI water, Ethyl alcohol (aq) and calcium carbonate solution. Since the domain spacing of dried photonic gel films were not showing any color in visible wavelength. The band gap of the lamellar films were drastically shifted to longer wavelength swollen by calcium carbonate solution (absorbance peak 565nm-->617nm). And the lamellar films were shifted to shorter wave length swollen by ethanol (absorbance peak 565nm-->497nm). So each Photonic gel film showed different color.

  10. Effect of reactive monomer on PS-b-P2VP film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H J; Shin, D M

    2014-08-01

    Poly(styrene-b-2-vinyl pyridine) (PS-b-P2VP) lamellar film which is hydrophobic block-hydrophilic polyelectrolyte block polymer of 52 kg/mol-b-57 kg/mol and PS-b-P2VP film with reactive monomer (RM257) were prepared for photonic gel films. The lamellar stacks, which is alternating layer of hydrophilic and hydrophobic moiety of PS-b-P2VP, were obtained by exposing the spin coated film under chloroform vapor. The lamellar films were quaternized with 5 wt% of iodomethane diluted by n-hexane. We reported about the influence of reactive monomer on those photonic gel films. Added reactive monomer photonic gel film had higher absorbance than pure photonic gel films. As a result the photonic gel film with RM had more clear color. The lamellar films were swollen by DI water, ethanol (aq) and calcium carbonate solution. The band gaps of the lamellar films were drastically shifted to longer wavelength swollen by calcium carbonate solution. And the lamellar films were shifted to shorter wave length swollen by ethanol. So each lamellar film showed different color.

  11. Reciprocal regulation of platelet responses to P2Y and thromboxane receptor activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, J F; Hardy, A R; Poole, A W; Mundell, S J

    2008-03-01

    Thromboxane A(2) and ADP are two major platelet agonists that stimulate two sets of G protein-coupled receptors to activate platelets. Although aggregation responses to ADP and thromboxane desensitize, there are no reports currently addressing whether activation by one agonist may heterologously desensitize responses to the other. To demonstrate whether responses to ADP or U46619 may be modulated by prior treatment of platelets with the alternate agonist, revealing a level of cross-desensitization between receptor systems. Here we show that pretreatment of platelets with either agonist substantially desensitizes aggregation responses to the other agonist. Calcium responses to thromboxane receptor activation are desensitized by preactivation of P2Y(1) but not P2Y(12) receptors. This heterologous desensitization is mediated by a protein kinase C (PKC)-independent mechanism. Reciprocally, calcium responses to ADP are desensitized by pretreatment of platelets with the thromboxane analogue, U46619, and P2Y(12)-mediated inhibition of adenylate cyclase is also desensitized by pretreatment with U46619. In this direction, desensitization is comprised of two components, a true heterologous component that is PKC-independent, and a homologous component that is mediated through stimulated release of dense granule ADP. This study reveals cross-desensitization between ADP and thromboxane receptor signaling in human platelets. Cross-desensitization is mediated by protein kinases, involving PKC-dependent and independent pathways, and indicates that alterations in the activation state of one receptor may have effects upon the sensitivity of the other receptor system.

  12. The two-dimensional thiophosphate CsCrP2S7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyounghee Kim

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The quaternary title compound, caesium chromium(III heptathiodiphosphate(V, CsCrP2S7, has been synthesized using the reactive halide flux method. It is isotypic with other AMP2S7 (A = alkali metal; M = Cr, V or In structures and consists of two-dimensional ∞2[CrP2S7]− layers extending parallel to (001 which are separated from each other by Cs+ ions (symmetry 2. The layer is built up from slightly distorted octahedral [CrS6] units (symmetry 2 and bent [P2S7] units consisting of two corner-sharing [PS4] tetrahedra. The [CrS6] octahedra share two edges and two corners with the [PS4] tetrahedra. There are only van der Waals interactions present between the layers. The Cs+ ions are located in this van der Waals gap and stabilize the structure through weak ionic interactions. The classical charge balance of the title compound can be expressed as [Cs+][Cr3+][P5+]2[S2−]7.

  13. Compliance with Private Food Safety Standards among ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... and the livelihood impact of compliance. In addition, the project aims to build the capacity of farmers and other locally based actors to enhance compliance and thereby contribute to increased welfare in the project area. Expected outputs include one PhD thesis, five master's theses, and various journal publications and ...

  14. 14 CFR 431.83 - Compliance monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compliance monitoring. 431.83 Section 431.83 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Requirements-Reusable Launch Vehicle Mission License Terms and Conditions § 431.83 Compliance monitoring. A...

  15. 14 CFR 417.23 - Compliance monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compliance monitoring. 417.23 Section 417... Compliance monitoring. (a) A launch operator must allow access by, and cooperate with, Federal officers or... launch operator must provide the FAA with a console for monitoring the progress of the countdown and...

  16. 14 CFR 437.93 - Compliance monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compliance monitoring. 437.93 Section 437.93 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT....93 Compliance monitoring. A permittee must allow access by, and cooperate with, federal officers or...

  17. 14 CFR 420.49 - Compliance monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compliance monitoring. 420.49 Section 420.49 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Compliance monitoring. A licensee shall allow access by and cooperate with federal officers or employees or...

  18. 49 CFR 21.9 - Compliance information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compliance information. 21.9 Section 21.9 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY-ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 21.9 Compliance information. (a) Cooperation and...

  19. 49 CFR 27.121 - Compliance information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compliance information. 27.121 Section 27.121 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Enforcement § 27.121 Compliance information. (a) Cooperation and assistance. The...

  20. 40 CFR 425.05 - Compliance dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance dates. 425.05 Section 425.05 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS LEATHER TANNING AND FINISHING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY General Provisions § 425.05 Compliance dates...