Ristić Jovan D.
Full Text Available The specific requirements that appear in addressable fire detection and alarm systems and the shortcomings of the existing addressing methods were discussed. A new method of addressing of detectors was proposed. The basic principles of addressing and responding of a called element are stated. Extinguishing module is specific subsystem in classic fire detection and alarm systems. Appearing of addressable fire detection and alarm systems didn't caused essential change in the concept of extinguishing module because of long calling period of such systems. Addressable fire security system based on counting addressing method reaches high calling rates and enables integrating of the extinguishing module in addressable system. Solutions for command addressable element and integrated extinguishing module are given in this paper. The counting addressing method was developed for specific requirements in fire detection and alarm systems, yet its speed and reliability justifies its use in the acquisition of data on slowly variable parameters under industrial conditions. .
Tsai, Jack; Trevisan, Louis; Huang, Minda; Pietrzak, Robert H
The U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is shifting its focus from ending veteran homelessness to preventing veteran suicides. With supporting data, this Open Forum argues that VA homelessness services also help address veteran suicides. Analysis of a nationally representative survey of U.S. veterans in 2015 shows that veterans with a history of homelessness attempted suicide in the previous two years at a rate >5.0 times higher compared with veterans without a history of homelessness (6.9% versus 1.2%), and their rates of two-week suicidal ideation were 2.5 times higher (19.8% versus 7.4%). Because the majority of veterans who die by suicide are not engaged in VA care, VA services for the homeless that include outreach efforts to engage new veterans may be reaching some of these veterans. Thus continued federal support for VA homelessness services not only may help address homelessness but also may help prevent suicide of veterans.
Yajnik, Chittaranjan S
The epidemiological characteristics of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCD) are fast changing. The prevalence has risen to unprecedented levels, and the young and the underprivileged are increasingly affected. The classic view of the etiology of NCD consists of a genetic susceptibility which is precipitated by aging and modern lifestyle. In a virtual absence of any methods to tackle genetic susceptibility, the preventive approach has so far been focused on the control of lifestyle factors in those at high risk (old, and those with positive family history and elevated risk factors). Such an approach might help high risk individuals, but is unlikely to curtail the burgeoning epidemic of obesity and diabetes. Recent research has suggested that susceptibility to NCD originates in early life through non-genetic mechanisms (fetal programming). Tackling these may offer an exciting opportunity to control the NCD epidemic by influencing the susceptibility in a more durable manner than only controlling the lifestyle factors in adult life. The imperative is to address the life cycle rather than concentrate on the end stages. Copyright (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Full Text Available After a brief discussion of the epistemological and phenomenological difficulties associated with the concept of lone wolf terrorism, a number of possible counter-terrorist approaches are discussed. Lone operator terrorist acts should be considered ‘black swan’ occurrences that are almost impossible to categorize or systematize, let alone forecast. Thus, not the profile of the perpetrator, but the modus operandi offer clues for a better response to this particular threat. Furthermore, almost all lone operators do display a degree of commitment to, and identification with, extremist movements – providing leads for preventing new rounds of radicalization within this potential group of sympathizers or followers. With the apparent increase of Islamist lone wolf terrorism and fears for right-wing extremists wanting to follow the example of the Norwegian mass murderer A.B. Breivik, new questions need to be posed, addressing the role of virtual communities with which lone operators identify themselves.
Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — Point features representing locations of all street addresses in Orange County, NC including Chapel Hill, NC. Data maintained by Orange County, the Town of Chapel...
Blue, Amy V.; Barnette, J. Jackson; Ferguson, Kristi J.; Garr, David R.
Discusses the importance of assessing medical students' competence in prevention knowledge, skills, and attitudes. Provides general guidance for programs interested in evaluating their prevention instructional efforts, and gives specific examples of possible methods for evaluating prevention education. Stresses the need to tailor assessment…
Tencati, Antonio; Pogutz, Stefano; Moda, Beatrice; Brambilla, Matteo; Cacia, Claudia
Packaging waste is a major issue in several countries. Representing in industrialized countries around 30-35% of municipal solid waste yearly generated, this waste stream has steadily grown over the years even if, especially in Europe, specific recycling and recovery targets have been fixed. Therefore, an increasing attention starts to be devoted to prevention measures and interventions. Filling a gap in the current literature, this explorative paper is a first attempt to map the increasingly important phenomenon of prevention policies in the packaging sector. Through a theoretical sampling, 11 countries/states (7 in and 4 outside Europe) have been selected and analyzed by gathering and studying primary and secondary data. Results show evidence of three specific trends in packaging waste prevention policies: fostering the adoption of measures directed at improving packaging design and production through an extensive use of the life cycle assessment; raising the awareness of final consumers by increasing the accountability of firms; promoting collaborative efforts along the packaging supply chains. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Harper, Jason C.; Polsky, Ronen; Dirk, Shawn M.; Wheeler, David R.; Arango, Dulce C.; Brozik, Susan M.
A method for preparing an electrochemical biosensor uses bias-assisted assembly of unreactive -onium molecules on an electrode array followed by post-assembly electro-addressable conversion of the unreactive group to a chemical or biological recognition group. Electro-addressable functionalization of electrode arrays enables the multi-target electrochemical sensing of biological and chemical analytes.
GRANDNER, MICHAEL A.
There is increasing awareness of the role of sleep disturbance as an important factor in health and disease. Although subclinical sleep disturbances (insufficient sleep duration or inadequate sleep quality) may be difficult to assess with conceptual and/or methodological clarity, this review attempts to summarize and synthesize these findings. First, the concept of sleep disturbance in a public health context is introduced, to provide context and rationale. Second, operational definitions of ‘cardiometabolic disease’ and ‘sleep disturbance’ are offered, to address many unclear operationalizations. Third, the extant literature is summarized regarding short or long sleep duration and/or insufficient sleep, insomnia and insomnia symptoms, general (non-specific sleep disturbances), circadian rhythm abnormalities that result in sleep disturbances, and, briefly, sleep-disordered breathing. Fourth, the review highlights the social/behavioural context of sleep, including discussions of sleep and race/ethnicity, socio-economic position, and other social/environmental factors, in order to place these findings in a social-environmental context relevant to public health. Fifth, the review highlights the issue of sleep as a domain of health behaviour and addresses issues regarding development of healthy sleep interventions. Finally, a research agenda of future directions is proposed. PMID:24892892
Leeman, Jennifer; Teal, Randall; Jernigan, Jan; Reed, Jenica Huddleston; Farris, Rosanne; Ammerman, Alice
Obesity has reached epidemic proportions. Public health practitioners are distinctly positioned to promote the environmental changes essential to addressing obesity. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and other entities provide evidence and technical assistance to support this work, yet little is known about how practitioners use evidence and support as they intervene to prevent obesity. The study's purpose was to describe how practitioners and CDC project officers characterized the obesity prevention task, where practitioners accessed support and evidence, and what approaches to support and evidence they found most useful. APPROACH OR DESIGN: Mixed-methods, cross-sectional interviews, and survey. State-level public health obesity prevention programs. Public health practitioners and CDC project officers. We conducted 10 in-depth interviews with public health practitioners (n = 7) and project officers (n = 3) followed by an online survey completed by 62 practitioners (50% response rate). We applied content analysis to interview data and descriptive statistics to survey data. Practitioners characterized obesity prevention as uncertain and complex, involving interdependence among actors, multiple levels of activity, an excess of information, and a paucity of evidence. Survey findings provide further detail on the types of evidence and support practitioners used and valued. We recommend approaches to tailoring evidence and support to the needs of practitioners working on obesity prevention and other complex health problems.
Schinke, S P; Gilchrist, L D; Schilling, R F; Snow, W H; Bobo, J K
School health educators have devoted much attention to cigarette smoking. Recent years have seen the testing of interventions to prevent smoking. To date, controlled studies have not evaluated the added value of skills methods for preventing smoking. This article describes such an evaluation with sixth-grade students from two schools. Subjects were pretested and randomly assigned to receive conventional health education methods or to receive skills intervention. Both conditions included films, peer testimonials, discussions, and homework. Health education condition subjects additionally participated in oral quizzes, games, and debates. Skills condition subjects additionally learned problem-solving, self-instruction, and interpersonal communication methods. At postintervention, skills condition subjects, more than health education condition subjects, had better scores on measures of smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and intentions. In addition, reported cigarette use, validated by biochemical data collection, was lower in the skills condition than in the health education condition at all postintervention measurements, including a 24-month follow-up. The article discusses the strengths, limits, and implications of the study for other smoking prevention efforts in schools.
Holt, C.; Singh, J. P.
The authors examine the parallelization issues in and architectural implications of the two dominant adaptive hierarchical N-body methods: the Barnes-Hut method and the Fast Multipole Method. They show that excellent parallel performance can be obtained on cache-coherent shared address space multiprocessors, by demonstrating performance on three cache-coherent machines: the Stanford DASH, the Kendall Square Research KSR-1, and the Silicon Graphics Challenge. Even on machines that have their main memory physically distributed among processing nodes and highly nonuniform memory access costs, the speedups are obtained without any attention to where memory is allocated on the machine. The authors show that the reason for good performance is the high degree of temporal locality afforded by the applications, and the fact that working sets are small (and scale slowly) so that caching shared data automatically in hardware exploits this locality very effectively. Even if data distribution in main memory is assumed to be free, it does not help very much. Finally, they address a potential bottleneck in scaling the parallelism to large machines, namely the fraction of time spent in building the tree used by hierarchical N-body methods.
Neighbors, Clayton; Walters, Scott T.; Lee, Christine M.; Vader, Amanda M.; Vehige, Tamara; Szigethy, Thomas; DeJong, William
The unique drinking patterns of college students call for Event-Specific Prevention (ESP) strategies that address college student drinking associated with peak times and events. Despite limited research evaluating ESP, many college campuses are currently implementing programming for specific events. The present paper provides a review of existing literature related to ESP and offers practical guidance for research and practice. The prevention typology proposed by DeJong and Langford (2002) pr...
Dorji, Gampo; Choki, Sonam; Jamphel, Kinga; Wangdi, Yeshi; Chogyel, Tandin; Dorji, Chencho; Nirola, Damber Kumar
Suicide and mental disorders are a growing public health issue in Bhutan, due in part to a rapidly transitioning society. The burden of suicide has been recognized by the Royal Government of Bhutan and, as a result, it introduced the country's first ever national suicide-prevention plan in 2015. The 3-year action plan takes a holistic approach to making suicide-prevention services a top social priority, through strengthening suicide-prevention policies, promoting socially protective measures, mitigating risk factors and reaching out to individuals who are at risk of suicide or affected by incidents of suicide. This article documents Bhutan's policy and governance for addressing depression and suicide within the context of its national suicide-prevention strategy, examines progress and highlights lessons for future directions in suicide prevention. Since the endorsement of the 3-year action plan by the prime minister's cabinet, the implementation of suicide-prevention measures has been accelerated through a high-level national steering committee. Activities include suicide-prevention actions by sectors such as health, education, monastic communities and police; building capacity of gatekeepers; and improving the suicide information system to inform policies and decision-making. Suicide-prevention activities have become the responsibility of local governments, paving the way for suicide prevention as an integral mandate across sectors and at grass-root levels in the Kingdom of Bhutan.
Smith, Kathleen S.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; McCafferty, Anne E.; Clark, Roger N.
IntroductionThis circular provides an overview of selected activities that were conducted within the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Integrated Methods Development Project, an interdisciplinary project designed to develop new tools and conduct innovative research requiring integration of geologic, geophysical, geochemical, and remote-sensing expertise. The project was supported by the USGS Mineral Resources Program, and its products and acquired capabilities have broad applications to missions throughout the USGS and beyond.In addressing challenges associated with understanding the location, quantity, and quality of mineral resources, and in investigating the potential environmental consequences of resource development, a number of field and laboratory capabilities and interpretative methodologies evolved from the project that have applications to traditional resource studies as well as to studies related to ecosystem health, human health, disaster and hazard assessment, and planetary science. New or improved tools and research findings developed within the project have been applied to other projects and activities. Specifically, geophysical equipment and techniques have been applied to a variety of traditional and nontraditional mineral- and energy-resource studies, military applications, environmental investigations, and applied research activities that involve climate change, mapping techniques, and monitoring capabilities. Diverse applied geochemistry activities provide a process-level understanding of the mobility, chemical speciation, and bioavailability of elements, particularly metals and metalloids, in a variety of environmental settings. Imaging spectroscopy capabilities maintained and developed within the project have been applied to traditional resource studies as well as to studies related to ecosystem health, human health, disaster assessment, and planetary science. Brief descriptions of capabilities and laboratory facilities and summaries of some
Neighbors, Clayton; Walters, Scott T; Lee, Christine M; Vader, Amanda M; Vehige, Tamara; Szigethy, Thomas; DeJong, William
The unique drinking patterns of college students call for Event-Specific Prevention (ESP) strategies that address college student drinking associated with peak times and events. Despite limited research evaluating ESP, many college campuses are currently implementing programming for specific events. The present paper provides a review of existing literature related to ESP and offers practical guidance for research and practice. The prevention typology proposed by DeJong and Langford [DeJong, W. & Langford, L. M. (2002). A typology for campus-based alcohol prevention: Moving toward environmental management strategies. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 140-147.] provides a framework for strategic planning, suggesting that programs and policies should address problems at the individual, group, institution, community, state, and society level, and that these interventions should focus on knowledge change, environmental change, health protection, and intervention and treatment services. From this typology, specific examples are provided for comprehensive program planning related to orientation/beginning of school year, homecoming, 21st birthday celebrations, spring break, and graduation. In addition, the University of Connecticut's efforts to address problems resulting from its annual Spring Weekend are described as an illustration of how advance planning by campus and community partners can produce a successful ESP effort.
Wolmer, Leo; Hamiel, Daniel; Pardo-Aviv, Lee; Laor, Nathaniel
The goal of this paper is to review the research literature regarding the needs of preschoolers in the context of disasters and terrorism with the aim of understanding the existing methods for assessment, prevention, and intervention to provide recommendations and point out required research and development. We differentiate between screening tools that provide initial evaluation and assessment tools for diagnosing preschooler children's pathology and review possible interventions that address the preschool child's needs before, during, and after the incident itself. We also emphasize the lack of dissemination and research of prevention programs and mass interventions for preschoolers. Programs for community mass prevention and intervention for preschoolers should be developed and evaluated and interventions should be adapted for individual and group delivery. Moreover, the increase in the number of children refugees requires cultural adaptations of assessment measures and interventions.
combat cyber threats, just as we have done to combat terrorism .  In IPv4, that intelligence included a fundamental understanding of how networks...countries abroad. Peru , Norway, Germany, China, Japan, Belgium, and Malaysia all show significant increases in IPv6 adoption, while several match or...accurate. 5.3 Concluding Remarks With the imminent exhaustion of the IPv4 address space, adoption of IPv6 is occurring at a rapid pace. As systems migrate
Full Text Available As points of interest (POIon the internet, exists widely incomplete addresses and inconsistent literal expressions, a fast standardization processing method of network POIs address information based on spatial constraints was proposed. Based on the model of the extensible address expression, first of all, address information of POI was segmented and extracted. Address elements are updated by means of matching with the address tree layer by layer. Then, by defining four types of positional relations, corresponding set are selected from standard POI library as candidate for enrichment and amendment of non-standard address. At last, the fast standardized processing of POI address information was achieved with the help of backtracking address elements with minimum granularity. Experiments in this paper proved that the standardization processing of an address can be realized by means of this method with higher accuracy in order to build the address database.
India carries nearly one-fifth of the global burden of diabetes cases, the majority of which are of type 2 diabetes. Recognising the need for controlling diabetes, the Government of India has initiated a national level programme for prevention and control of diabetes along with other non-communicable diseases in 2008. Despite being piloted and implemented, there is hardly any published literature about the national level situation of diabetes and its control efforts. The present article is written with the aim to fill this gap to some extent and to provide a situational analysis of the diabetes problem in India in a holistic way, addressing policy needs for the national programme. It focuses on three main areas, namely, awareness of diabetes, costs of drugs for its treatment and healthcare-system related issues. It argues that poor coverage and weak implementation of the national level programme are major forces that push patients to seek help in the weakly regulated private sector. Approaching the private sector is likely to increase the cost of care, which in turn can lead to an increased financial burden for patients and their families due to factors such as patients' lack of awareness about diabetes, poor drug price regulation and prescriptions including combinations and/or patented products of medicines used for treating diabetes by the private sector. This article addresses several needs such as strengthening the national programme and increasing its reach to unreached districts, exerting drug price regulation and implementing community-based participatory programmes for prevention and management of type 2 diabetes. It also underscores a need for piloting and implementing a robust national level electronic reporting system for diabetes programmes. © Royal Society for Public Health 2015.
Joan Earle Hahn
Full Text Available Access to oral health care is essential for promoting and maintaining overall health and well-being, yet oral health disparities exist among vulnerable and underserved populations. While nurses make up the largest portion of the health care work force, educational preparation to address oral health needs of elders and persons with disabilities is limited across nursing curricula. This descriptive study reports on the interdisciplinary development, implementation, and testing of an oral health module that was included and infused into a graduate nursing curriculum in a three-phase plan. Phase 1 includes evaluation of a lecture presented to eight gerontological nurse practitioner (GNP students. Phase 2 includes evaluation of GNP students’ perceptions of learning, skills, and confidence following a one-time 8-hour practicum infused into 80 required practicum hours. The evaluation data show promise in preparing nurse practitioner students to assess and address preventive oral health needs of persons aging with disabilities such that further infusion and inclusion in a course for nurse practitioners across five specialties will implemented and tested in Phase 3.
Hahn, Joan Earle; FitzGerald, Leah; Markham, Young Kee; Glassman, Paul; Guenther, Nancy
Access to oral health care is essential for promoting and maintaining overall health and well-being, yet oral health disparities exist among vulnerable and underserved populations. While nurses make up the largest portion of the health care work force, educational preparation to address oral health needs of elders and persons with disabilities is limited across nursing curricula. This descriptive study reports on the interdisciplinary development, implementation, and testing of an oral health module that was included and infused into a graduate nursing curriculum in a three-phase plan. Phase 1 includes evaluation of a lecture presented to eight gerontological nurse practitioner (GNP) students. Phase 2 includes evaluation of GNP students' perceptions of learning, skills, and confidence following a one-time 8-hour practicum infused into 80 required practicum hours. The evaluation data show promise in preparing nurse practitioner students to assess and address preventive oral health needs of persons aging with disabilities such that further infusion and inclusion in a course for nurse practitioners across five specialties will implemented and tested in Phase 3. PMID:22619708
a given operational conditions and predicts the resulting stability margins for the new steady state, while avoiding time consuming time domain simulations. The method has been validated on the Western Danish power system model, containing 464 buses. The case study of aperiodic small signal angular....... The predicted effect of the suggested countermeasure application is in a good agreement with the results obtained by RMS dynamic simulation. Developed method enables adaptive preventive control for near real-time stability maintenance. The achieved results are opening promising perspective for power system’s......In the scope of this work, a method capable of fast identification of the proper countermeasure, that prevents emerging instability, has been developed. The focus is placed on the prevention of aperiodic small signal angular instability by means of manipulations applied to load nodes (nodes...
Kis, Adam Daniel
Contrary to expectation when compared with other migrant mining zones of sub-Saharan Africa, the nation of Guinea has a comparatively low and stable HIV rate. In addition, the regions with the largest gold, diamond, and bauxite mining operations report the lowest HIV rates within the country. This research set out to explain practices and beliefs within gold mining communities near Siguiri, Guinea--the highest-producing gold mining zone in the country--that may contribute to this phenomenon, particularly as they relate to the Abstinence, Be faithful, use a Condom approach to AIDS prevention. Structured interviews on a randomly selected sample of 460 adults and regular visitation to 16 pharmacies and health clinics within the mining zone yielded data showing that abstinence and condom use are minimally practiced for AIDS prevention. Instead, faithfulness to partners was overwhelmingly reported as the method of choice for AIDS avoidance. In addition, this research explored ways in which local conceptions of fidelity differed from those generally understood in other contexts, including engagement in short-term marriages at the gold mining sites.
Ahmad Yunus Mohd Noor
Full Text Available This research is mainly concerned about the methods set by the Quran for preserving the human breeding, which is regarded the main pillar not only for the future survival of the humankind, but also for assuring its permanence and continuity. Taking this into consideration, the Quran has addressed this issue by setting solid preventive tools that ensure the continuity and prosperity of the human offspring in a normal manner. The objective of the research is to shed light on the importance of protecting the human offspring in the Quran, since neglecting its importance could lead to the corruption of the whole society and its members. The research attempts also to tackle the various preventive tools that the Quran has adopted for protecting the normal continuity and prosperity of the human offspring. The research proposes to study the Quranic verses that address the protection of the human offspring and the various preventive tools that should be adopted, along with the accredited analysis and statements of purpose of the Quranic verses, with reference to the approved sources of interpretation. Apart of the findings are that the Quran has set two main methods for protecting the human offspring that is; the preventive tools for protecting the amount of birth control, and the preventive tools for maintaining the quality of birth control. The preventive tools for protecting the amount of birth control include the forbidding of being monastic, the prohibiting of killing children for fear of poverty, and the forbidding of falling into immorality, either outwardly or inwardly. They also include the establishment of prayer, giving charity, reciting Dhikr (remembrance and asking of forgiveness. The preventive tools for maintaining the quality of birth control, however, include not approaching adultery, prohibiting adoption, and forbidding incest, the people of shirk and immorality and blasphemy.
Smith, Jennifer; Zheng, Xin; Lafreniere, Kevin; Pike, Ian
Social marketing is a tool used in the domain of public health for prevention and public education. Because injury prevention is a priority public health issue in British Columbia, Canada, a 3-year consultation was undertaken to understand public attitudes towards preventable injuries and mount a province-wide social marketing campaign aimed at adults aged 25-55 years. Public response to the campaign was assessed through an online survey administered to a regionally representative sample of adults within the target age group between 1 and 4 times per year on an ongoing basis since campaign launch. A linear regression model was applied to a subset of this data (n=5186 respondents) to test the association between exposure to the Preventable campaign and scores on perceived preventability of injuries as well as conscious forethought applied to injury-related behaviours. Campaign exposure was significant in both models (preventability: β=0.27, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.35; conscious thought: β=0.24, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.35), as was parental status (preventability: β=0.12, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.21; conscious thought: β=0.18, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.30). Exposure to the more recent campaign slogan was predictive of 0.47 higher score on conscious thought (95% CI 0.27 to 0.66). This study provides some evidence that the Preventable approach is having positive effect on attitudes and behaviours related to preventable injuries in the target population. Future work will seek to compare these data to other jurisdictions as the Preventable social marketing campaign expands to other parts of Canada. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Heilbron, Nicole; Goldston, David; Walrath, Christine; Rodi, Michael; McKeon, Richard
Several agencies have emphasized the importance of establishing clear protocols or procedures to address the needs of youths who are identified as suicidal through suicide prevention programs or in emergency department settings. What constitutes optimal guidelines for developing and implementing such protocols, however, is unclear. At the request…
Button, Katherine S; Bal, Liz; Clark, Anna; Shipley, Tim
The evidence that many of the findings in the published literature may be unreliable is compelling. There is an excess of positive results, often from studies with small sample sizes, or other methodological limitations, and the conspicuous absence of null findings from studies of a similar quality. This distorts the evidence base, leading to false conclusions and undermining scientific progress. Central to this problem is a peer-review system where the decisions of authors, reviewers, and editors are more influenced by impressive results than they are by the validity of the study design. To address this, BMC Psychology is launching a pilot to trial a new 'results-free' peer-review process, whereby editors and reviewers are blinded to the study's results, initially assessing manuscripts on the scientific merits of the rationale and methods alone. The aim is to improve the reliability and quality of published research, by focusing editorial decisions on the rigour of the methods, and preventing impressive ends justifying poor means.
Hyder, Adnan A; Alonge, Olakunle; He, Siran; Wadhwaniya, Shirin; Rahman, Fazlur; El Arifeen, Shams
Drowning is the commonest cause of injury-related deaths among under-five children worldwide, and 95% of deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) where there are implementation gaps in the drowning prevention interventions. This article reviews common interventions for drowning prevention, introduces a framework for effective implementation of such interventions, and describes the Saving of Lives from Drowning (SoLiD) Project in Bangladesh, which is based on this framework. A review of the systematic reviews on drowning interventions was conducted, and original research articles were pulled and summarized into broad prevention categories. The implementation framework builds upon two existing frameworks and categorizes the implementing process for drowning prevention interventions into four phases: planning, engaging, executing, and evaluating. Eleven key characteristics are mapped in these phases. The framework was applied to drowning prevention projects that have been undertaken in some LMICs to illustrate major challenges to implementation. The implementation process for the SoLiD Project in Bangladesh is used as an example to illustrate the practical utilization of the framework. Drowning interventions, such as pool fencing and covering of water hazards, are effective in high-income countries; however, most of these interventions have not been tested in LMICs. The critical components of the four phases of implementing drowning prevention interventions may include: (i) planning-global funding, political will, scale, sustainability, and capacity building; (ii) engaging-coordination, involvement of appropriate individuals; (iii) executing-focused action, multisectoral actions, quality of execution; and (iv) evaluating-rigorous monitoring and evaluation. Some of the challenges to implementing drowning prevention interventions in LMICs include insufficient funds, lack of technical capacity, and limited coordination among stakeholders and implementers
Ranebennur, Virupax; Gaikwad, Sanjeevsingh; Ramesh, Sowmya; Bhende, Amrita
Background It is important for targeted interventions to consider vulnerabilities of female sex workers (FSWs) such as poverty, work-related mobility, and literacy, for effective human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention. This paper describes and examines the association of the Aastha HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention project in Mumbai and Thane, India, on the relationship between vulnerability and behavioral outcomes. Materials and methods Data were drawn from the Behavioural Tracking Survey, a cross-sectional behavioral study conducted in 2010 with 2,431 FSWs recruited in Mumbai and Thane. The key independent measures used were program exposure and “vulnerability index”, a composite index of literacy, factors of dependence (alternative livelihood options, current debt, and children), and aspects of sex work (mobility and duration in sex work). Dependent measures included service uptake, self-confidence, self-identity, and individual agency. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the study objectives. Results Of the analytical sample of 2,431 FSWs, 1,295 (53.3%) were categorized as highly vulnerable. Highly vulnerable FSWs who were associated with the Aastha program for more than a year were more likely to have accessed crisis-response services in the past 6 months (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4–3.6; P<0.001), to have visited a clinic to get a checkup for STI symptoms (AOR 2.4, 95% CI 1.2–4.8; P<0.015), not to be ashamed to disclose identity as an FSW to health workers (AOR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2–3.5; P<0.008), and to be confident in supporting a fellow FSW in crisis (AOR 1.7, 95% CI 1.0–2.8, P<0.033) compared to those less vulnerable with similar exposure to the Aastha program. Conclusion It is critical for HIV/STI interventions to consider vulnerabilities of FSWs at project inception and address them with focused strategies, including a segmented service-delivery model and community
Smith, Kimberly V; Dye, Claire
To examine differences in primary care outcomes under the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) compared to private coverage and being uninsured in 10 states. We used data from a survey of parents of recent and established CHIP enrollees conducted from January 2012 through March 2013. We compared the primary care experiences of established CHIP enrollees to the preenrollment experiences of previously uninsured and privately insured recent CHIP enrollees to estimate differences in care outcomes. Parents of 4142 recent enrollees and 5518 established enrollees responded to the survey (response rates were 46% for recent enrollees and 51% for established enrollees). Compared to being uninsured, CHIP enrollees were more likely to have a well-child visit, receive a range of preventive care services, and have patient-centered care experiences. They were also more likely than uninsured children to have a regular source of care or provider, an easy time making appointments, and shorter wait times for those appointments. Relative to privately insured children, CHIP enrollees received preventive care services at similar rates and to be more likely to receive effective care coordination services. However, CHIP enrollees were less likely than privately insured children to have a regular source of care or provider and nighttime and weekend access to a usual source of care. CHIP continues to provide high levels of access to primary care, especially compared to uninsured children, and to provide benefits comparable to private insurance. Copyright © 2015 Academic Pediatric Association. All rights reserved.
Lin, Pei-Jung; Yang, Zhou; Fillit, Howard M; Cohen, Joshua T; Neumann, Peter J
Certain chronic conditions appear to be modifiable risk factors of Alzheimer's disease and related dementias. To understand the potential health and economic impacts of addressing those risk factors, we used data on a Medicare cohort to simulate four scenarios: a 10 percent reduction in the prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, respectively, and a 10 percent reduction in body mass index among beneficiaries who were overweight or obese. Our simulation demonstrated that reducing the prevalence of these conditions may yield "unintended benefits" by lowering the risk, delaying the onset, reducing the duration, and lowering the costs of dementia. More research is needed to clarify the exact relationship between various other chronic diseases and dementia. However, our findings highlight potential health gains and savings opportunities stemming from the better management of other conditions associated with dementia.
P. Vranckx (Pascal)
textabstractThe concern about how the effects of pharmacologic as well as device therapies are understood in clinical practice requires attention to the methods of randomized clinical trials, including the selection of meaningful clinical endpoints.
Frerichs, Leah; Hassmiller Lich, Kristen; Young, Tiffany L; Dave, Gaurav; Stith, Doris; Corbie-Smith, Giselle
Engaging youth from racial and ethnic minority communities as leaders for change is a potential strategy to mobilize support for addressing childhood obesity, but there are limited curricula designed to help youth understand the complex influences on obesity. Our aim was to develop and pilot test a systems science curriculum to elicit rural African American youth perspectives on childhood obesity and enhance their understanding of and support for obesity prevention solutions. The curriculum was designed so it could be integrated with existing positive youth development curricula that help youth advocate for and implement identified solutions. We conducted four workshop sessions with youth that engaged them in systems learning activities such as guided systems diagramming activities. The participants ( n = 21) completed validated surveys presession and postsession that assessed their causal attributions of obesity and support for obesity prevention policies. The youths' perception that environmental factors cause obesity increased ( p < .05), and perceptions that individual behavior and biology cause obesity did not change. Their support for policies that addressed food access and food pricing significantly increased ( p < .05). The youths' system diagrams elucidated links between multilevel factors such as personal attitudes, social influence, and the built environment, which provides important information for designing synergistic solutions. The changes we observed in youths' perceptions of obesity and support for policy changes have important implications for youths' interest and willingness to advocate for social and environmental changes in their community. The strategies have a promising role in supporting community mobilization to address childhood obesity.
method of platelet-rich plasma gel preparation. Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery , 58, 297-300. 7. Dallari D, Fini M, Stagni C, Torricelli P... Oral Maxillofacial Surgery , 62(11), 1403-1407. 9. Gimeno, F.L., Gatto, S., Ferro, J., Croxatto, J.O., & Gallo, J.E. (2006). Preparation of...completed the Hennepin County Medical Center Orthopaedic Surgery Research fellowship while on this project; Capt William S. Johnson – Universtity of
The study of technological prevention method of road accident related to driver and vehicle. ... road accident prevention method based on the factors studied. The study of this paper can provide forceful data analysis support for the road traffic safety related research. Keywords: road accident; accident prevention; road safety.
The development and implementation of theory-driven programs capable of addressing poverty-impacted children's health, mental health, and prevention needs: CHAMP and CHAMP+, evidence-informed, family-based interventions to address HIV risk and care.
McKernan McKay, Mary; Alicea, Stacey; Elwyn, Laura; McClain, Zachary R B; Parker, Gary; Small, Latoya A; Mellins, Claude Ann
This article describes a program of prevention and intervention research conducted by the CHAMP (Collaborative HIV prevention and Adolescent Mental health Project; McKay & Paikoff, 2007 ) investigative team. CHAMP refers to a set of theory-driven, evidence-informed, collaboratively designed, family-based approaches meant to address the prevention, health, and mental health needs of poverty-impacted African American and Latino urban youth who are either at risk for HIV exposure or perinatally infected and at high risk for reinfection and possible transmission. CHAMP approaches are informed by theoretical frameworks that incorporate an understanding of the critical influences of multilevel contextual factors on youth risk taking and engagement in protective health behaviors. Highly influential theories include the triadic theory of influence, social action theory, and ecological developmental perspectives. CHAMP program delivery strategies were developed via a highly collaborative process drawing upon community-based participatory research methods in order to enhance cultural and contextual sensitivity of program content and format. The development and preliminary outcomes associated with a family-based intervention for a new population, perinatally HIV-infected youth and their adult caregivers, referred to as CHAMP+, is described to illustrate the integration of theory, existing evidence, and intensive input from consumers and healthcare providers.
The development and implementation of theory-driven programs capable of addressing poverty-impacted children’s health, mental health and prevention needs: CHAMP and CHAMP+, evidence-informed, family-based interventions to address HIV risk and care
McKay, Mary McKernan; Alicea, Stacey; Elwyn, Laura; McClain, Zachary R.B.; Parker, Gary; Small, Latoya A; Ann Mellins, Claude
This article describes a program of prevention and intervention research conducted by the CHAMP (CHAMP – Collaborative HIV prevention and Adolescent Mental health Project; McKay & Paikoff, 2007) investigative team. CHAMP refers to a set of theory-driven, evidence-informed, collaboratively-designed, family-based approaches meant to address the prevention, health and mental health needs of poverty-impacted, African American and Latino urban youth who are either at risk for HIV exposure or who are perinatally-infected and at high risk for re-infection and possible transmission. CHAMP approaches are informed by theoretical frameworks that incorporate an understanding of the critical influences of multi-level contextual factors on youth risk taking and engagement in protective health behaviors. Highly influential theories include: the Triadic Theory of Influence (TTI) (Bell, Flay, & Paikoff, 2002), Social Action Theory (SAT) (Ewart, 1991) and Ecological Developmental Perspectives (Paikoff, Traube, & McKay, 2006). CHAMP program delivery strategies were developed via a highly collaborative process drawing upon community-based participatory research methods in order to enhance cultural and contextual sensitivity of program content and format. The development and preliminary outcomes associated with a family-based intervention for a new population, perinatally HIV-infected youth and their adult caregivers, referred to as CHAMP+, is described to illustrate the integration of theory, existing evidence and intensive input from consumers and healthcare providers. PMID:24787707
Waller, Rebecca; Gardner, Frances; Dishion, Thomas; Sitnick, Stephanie L.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Winter, Charlotte E.; Wilson, Melvin
A large literature provides strong empirical support for the influence of parenting on child outcomes. The current study addresses enduring research questions testing the importance of early parenting behavior to children’s adjustment. Specifically, we developed and tested a novel multi-method observational measure of parental positive behavior support at age 2. Next, we tested whether early parental positive behavior support was related to child adjustment at school age, within a multi-agent...
Incorporating Primary and Secondary Prevention Approaches To Address Childhood Obesity Prevention and Treatment in a Low-Income, Ethnically Diverse Population: Study Design and Demographic Data from the Texas Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (TX CORD) Study
Butte, Nancy F.; Barlow, Sarah; Vandewater, Elizabeth A.; Sharma, Shreela V.; Huang, Terry; Finkelstein, Eric; Pont, Stephen; Sacher, Paul; Byrd-Williams, Courtney; Oluyomi, Abiodun O.; Durand, Casey; Li, Linlin; Kelder, Steven H.
Abstract Background: There is consensus that development and evaluation of a systems-oriented approach for child obesity prevention and treatment that includes both primary and secondary prevention efforts is needed. This article describes the study design and baseline data from the Texas Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (TX CORD) project, which addresses child obesity among low-income, ethnically diverse overweight and obese children, ages 2–12 years; a two-tiered systems-oriented approach is hypothesized to reduce BMI z-scores, compared to primary prevention alone. Methods: Our study aims are to: (1) implement and evaluate a primary obesity prevention program; (2) implement and evaluate efficacy of a 12-month family-centered secondary obesity prevention program embedded within primary prevention; and (3) quantify the incremental cost-effectiveness of the secondary prevention program. Baseline demographic and behavioral data for the primary prevention community areas are presented. Results: Baseline data from preschool centers, elementary schools, and clinics indicate that most demographic variables are similar between intervention and comparison communities. Most families are low income (≤$25,000) and Hispanic/Latino (73.3–83.8%). The majority of parents were born outside of the United States. Child obesity rates exceed national values, ranging from 19.0% in preschool to 35.2% in fifth-grade children. Most parents report that their children consume sugary beverages, have a television in the bedroom, and do not consume adequate amounts of fruits and vegetables. Conclusions: Interventions to address childhood obesity are warranted in low-income, ethnically diverse communities. Integrating primary and secondary approaches is anticipated to provide sufficient exposure that will lead to significant decreases in childhood obesity. PMID:25555188
Forchuk, C; MacClure, S K; Van Beers, M; Smith, C; Csiernik, R; Hoch, J; Jensen, E
Shelter data in a recent study revealed discharges from psychiatric facilities to shelters or the street occurred at least 194 times in 2002 in London, Ontario, Canada. This problem must be addressed to reduce the disastrous effects of such discharge, including re-hospitalization and prolonged homelessness. An intervention was developed and tested to prevent homelessness associated with discharge directly to no fixed address. A total of 14 participants at-risk of being discharged without housing were enrolled, with half randomized into the intervention group. The intervention group was provided with immediate assistance in accessing housing and assistance in paying their first and last month's rent. The control group received usual care. Data was collected from participants prior to discharge, at 31 and 6-months post-discharge. All the individuals in the intervention group maintained housing after 3 and 6 months. All but one individual in the control group remained homeless after 3 and 6 months. The exception joined the sex trade to avoid homelessness. The results of this pilot were so dramatic that randomizing to the control group was discontinued. Discussions are underway to routinely implement the intervention. Systemic improvements can prevent homelessness for individuals being discharged from psychiatric wards.
Frerichs, Leah; Lich, Kristen Hassmiller; Funchess, Melanie; Burrell, Marcus; Cerulli, Catherine; Bedell, Precious; White, Ann Marie
Group model building (GMB) is an approach to building qualitative and quantitative models with stakeholders to learn about the interrelationships among multilevel factors causing complex public health problems over time. Scant literature exists on adapting this method to address public health issues that involve racial dynamics. This study's objectives are to (1) introduce GMB methods, (2) present a framework for adapting GMB to enhance cultural responsiveness, and (3) describe outcomes of adapting GMB to incorporate differences in racial socialization during a community project seeking to understand key determinants of community violence transmission. An academic-community partnership planned a 1-day session with diverse stakeholders to explore the issue of violence using GMB. We documented key questions inspired by critical race theory (CRT) and adaptations to established GMB "scripts" (i.e., published facilitation instructions). The theory's emphasis on experiential knowledge led to a narrative-based facilitation guide from which participants created causal loop diagrams. These early diagrams depict how violence is transmitted and how communities respond, based on participants' lived experiences and mental models of causation that grew to include factors associated with race. Participants found these methods useful for advancing difficult discussion. The resulting diagrams can be tested and expanded in future research, and will form the foundation for collaborative identification of solutions to build community resilience. GMB is a promising strategy that community partnerships should consider when addressing complex health issues; our experience adapting methods based on CRT is promising in its acceptability and early system insights.
The most used method was mosquito bednet, 82.5%. Some of the women 17.5% did not use any of the prevention methods. Conclusion: Use of malaria prevention methods in combination is not considered a priority by pregnant women. Sensitization campaigns by governments and NGOs should give that a priority position.
The main objective of this research is to investigate the applicability range on the Caltrans Seismic Design Criteria (SDC) to address the P-Delta effect. Caltrans SDC defines a maximum ratio for bending moment induced by P-Delta effects over the yielding moment capacity of the column. For columns satisfying this criterion predefined target ductility is used to design the columns. Columns with higher P-Delta induced bending moments should be subjected to nonlinear time history analysis to verify their performance. Typically, designers to prevent performing time consuming, nonlinear time history analyses resize the column to remain in the safe margin. This study through rigorous push over analyses identifies the applicability range for the Caltrans-SDC method.
Baillot, Helen; Murray, Nina; Connelly, Elaine; Howard, Natasha
Public and policy attention to female genital mutilation (FGM) in diaspora communities has increased in Europe, but research remains limited and misinformation abounds. As a first step to addressing these issues, this study explored FGM prevention and response interventions in Europe, using a scoping literature review and key informant interviews. A scoping study design was selected, using Arksey and O'Malley's six-stage scoping framework to review identified sources. Key informant interviews were used to inform and add depth to literature findings. Findings were summarised thematically, guided by the Scottish Government's '4Ps' framework for tackling violence against women (i.e. participation, prevention, protection, providing services). Seventy literature sources, of 1095 screened, plus 16 individual and 3 group interview sources were included. Several countries have developed promising interventions supporting FGM resistance and recovery. However, gaps remain including community participation, professional knowledge and linkages, and evaluation of approaches. This scoping review is an initial attempt to describe available primary evidence on European initiatives responding to FGM. Further research is required to determine whether interventions are effective, while policy and practice development must be shaped and driven by the experiences, needs, and views of affected communities.
Treadwell, Henrie; Holden, Kisha; Hubbard, Richard; Harper, Forest; Wright, Fred; Ferrer, Michael; Blanks, Starla Hairston; Villani, Gina; Thomas, Aaron; Washington, Florence; Kim, Edward K
The Save Our Sons study is a community-based, culturally responsive, and gender-specific intervention aimed at reducing obesity and diabetes among a small sample (n = 42) of African American men. The goals of the study were to: (1) test the feasibility of implementing a group health education and intervention model to reduce the incidence of diabetes and obesity among African American men; (2) improve regular access to and utilization of health care services and community supportive resources to promote healthy lifestyles among African American men; and (3) build community networks and capacity for advocacy and addressing some of the health needs of African American men residing in Lorain County, Ohio. Trained community health workers facilitated activities to achieve program aims. Following the 6-week intervention, results indicated that participant's had greater knowledge about strategies for prevention and management of obesity and diabetes; increased engagement in exercise and fitness activities; decreased blood pressure, weight, and body mass index levels; and visited a primary care doctor more frequently. Also, local residents elevated African American men's health and identified it as a priority in their community. This model of prevention appears to be a substantial, robust, and replicable approach for improving the health and wellbeing of African American men.
Smith, J.H.; Ricco, A.J.
A method for preventing micromechanical structures from adhering to another object includes the step of immersing a micromechanical structure and its associated substrate in a chemical species that does not stick to itself. The method can be employed during the manufacture of micromechanical structures to prevent micromechanical parts from sticking or adhering to one another and their associated substrate surface. 3 figs.
Bisong, Calvin Ebai; Dongmo, Clemence Meli
Introduction Malaria prevention methods are diverse. Their availability sometimes does not guarantee effective usage and the use of each method in isolation may not provide the necessary results for the fight against malaria. Pregnant women are relatively more vulnerable and so it is recommended that they should be protected against malaria. Proper protection will require malaria prevention methods in combination. This study seeks to find out what methods pregnant women use and how many of th...
Protection issues are problems related to the presence of neutron and gamma radiations: biological dose, material heating, Wigner effect, gas ionization. The objective is then to determine the biological doses which are predictable in some reactor areas, and to assess the effects of irradiation on materials during the reactor lifetime. For these purposes, problems of particle propagation are addressed, and the effects of radiations related to one phenomenon or another are studied with respect to radiation energy. The author first describes methods used to compute general propagation. These are mainly codes using Monte Carlo or multi-group scattering methods. These methods are experimentally controlled on a sub-critical graphite-natural uranium set. In a second part, the author presents the different radiation sources which are to be taken into account in calculations. Then he indicates the nuclear constants to be used in the different codes, as well as the response functions to be used to calculate a specific phenomenon (steel, graphite Wigner effect, so on) from the particle spectrum. In the fourth part, the author describes the different methods which can be used to solve problems which are specific to graphite reactors. In the last part, obtained calculated results are compared with experimental measurements performed on power reactors [fr
Dmitrova, Evgenia; Wittrock, Martin Lindholm; Jóhannsson, Hjörtur
are then determined, using a grid transformation coefficient (GTC) and a numerical, iterative solution to an equation system. The stability criteriacan then be assessed to evaluate the sufficiency of a suggested counter measure. The method is demonstrated on a synthetic 8-bus network and a 464-bus model...... of the Western Denm ark transmission grid. The method successfully demonstrates its ability to efficiently identify and evaluate counter measures for a large, practical system....
Anke van Gorp; Stijn Hoorens
Abstract Chapter 4: Basing ourselves on a literature review and expert interviews we create an overview of methods and tools to identify and respond to ethical questions used in healthcare, social work, police and the military. We identify six main types of methods or tools that can support
Inoue, Kumiyo; Barratt, Alexandra; Richters, Juliet
To examine the clinical and epidemiological literature addressing contraceptive method change or discontinuation and to assess whether the documented reasons reflected women's experiences. Major databases including Medline and PsycINFO were searched using keywords related to contraception and discontinuation, adherence and satisfaction, for articles published between January 2003 and February 2013. Studies in developed countries that focused on women of reproductive age and reasons for method change or discontinuation were included. Reasons reported were categorised and examined. A total of 123 papers were reviewed in detail. Medical terminology was generally used to describe reasons for method discontinuation. The top two reported reasons were bleeding and pregnancy, but there was a lack of consensus about the categorisation of reasons. Broad categories that were not self-explanatory were included in more than half of the papers, often without further explanation. Only 12 studies expanded on categories containing 'other', 'non-medical' or 'personal' reasons. Eight papers included categories that attributed discontinuation to the participant, such as 'dissatisfied with method'. Studies of reasons for discontinuation of contraceptives do not well describe women's specific reasons. Studies rely heavily on medical terms and often fail to document women's subjective experiences. Future studies should create an opportunity for women to articulate their non-medical reasons in their own words, including those related to their sexual lives. Furthermore, researchers should distinguish, if possible, between reasons for discontinuation of a method and reasons for ceasing participation in a research study. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Li, Peiqiang; Li, Qiyuan; Li, Canbing
. The principle of this method is avoided choosing the row which the value of the element in the b vector is zero as the row of the pivot element to make the matrix in linear programming density and ensure that most subsequent steps will improve the value of the objective function. One step following......When the simplex algorithm is used to calculate a linear programming problem, if the matrix is a sparse matrix, it will be possible to lead to many zero-length calculation steps, and even iterative cycle will appear. To deal with the problem, a new pivoting method is proposed in this paper...... this principle is inserted to reselect the pivot element in the existing linear programming algorithm. Both the conditions for inserting this step and the maximum number of allowed insertion steps are determined. In the case study, taking several numbers of linear programming problems as examples, the results...
MacKinnon, David P.; Lockwood, Chondra M.
The paper describes advances in statistical methods for prevention research with a particular focus on substance abuse prevention. Standard analysis methods are extended to the typical research designs and characteristics of the data collected in prevention research. Prevention research often includes longitudinal measurement, clustering of data in units such as schools or clinics, missing data, and categorical as well as continuous outcome variables. Statistical methods to handle these features of prevention data are outlined. Developments in mediation, moderation, and implementation analysis allow for the extraction of more detailed information from a prevention study. Advancements in the interpretation of prevention research results include more widespread calculation of effect size and statistical power, the use of confidence intervals as well as hypothesis testing, detailed causal analysis of research findings, and meta-analysis. The increased availability of statistical software has contributed greatly to the use of new methods in prevention research. It is likely that the Internet will continue to stimulate the development and application of new methods. PMID:12940467
Lhermie, Guillaume; Gröhn, Yrjö T; Raboisson, Didier
The growing concern regarding emergence of bacteria resistant to antimicrobials and their potential for transmission to humans via animal production has led various authorities worldwide to implement measures to decrease antimicrobial use (AMU) in livestock production. These measures are influenced by those implemented in human medicine, and emphasize the importance of antimicrobial stewardship, surveillance, infection prevention and control and research. In food producing animals, unlike human medicine, antimicrobials are used to control diseases which cause economic losses. This major difference may explain the failure of the public policies implemented to control antimicrobial usage. Here we first review the specific factors influencing AMU across the farm animal sector and highlighting the farmers' decision-making process of AMU. We then discuss the efficiency of existing regulations implemented by policy makers, and assess the need for alternative strategies, such as substitution between antimicrobials and other measures for infectious disease control. We also discuss the interests of regulating antimicrobial prices. Finally, we emphasize the value of optimizing antimicrobial regimens, and developing veterinary precision medicine to achieve clinical efficacy in animals while limiting negative impacts on public health. The fight against antimicrobial resistance requires both a reduction and an optimization of antimicrobial consumption. The set of actions currently implemented by policy makers does not adequately address the economic interests of farmers' use of antimicrobials.
Full Text Available Wildfires impact the outcomes of forest management plans. Addressing that impact is thus critical for effective forest ecosystem management planning. This paper presents research on the use of multiple criteria decision making (MCDM methods that integrate wildfire risk in planning contexts characterized by multiple objectives. Specifically, an a posteriori preference modeling approach is developed that adds wildfire criteria to a set of objectives representing ecosystem services supply values. Wildfire risk criteria are derived from stand-level wildfire occurrence and damage models as well as from the characteristics of neighboring stands that may impact wildfire probability and spread. A forested landscape classified into 1976 stands is used for testing purposes. The management planning criteria include the carbon stock, harvest volumes for three forest species, the volume of the ending inventory, and resistance to wildfire risk indicators. Results show the potential of multiple criteria decision making methods to provide information about trade-offs between wildfire risk and the supply of provisioning (timber as well as regulatory (carbon ecosystem services. This information may contribute to the effectiveness of forest ecosystem management planning.
Daniels, Vicki-Smith; Sandler, Irwin; Wolchik, Sharlene
This paper applies concepts and methods developed in management to translate efficacious prevention programs into effective prevention services. The paper describes Quality Function Deployment (QFD) as a method for structured planning and development that connects the needs and wants of the consumer with the design of the product or service. The paper describes basic tools used in quality management, and discusses how they might be applied to prepare a prevention program for implementation by community agencies. Prevention programs are conceptualized as having multiple consumers (i.e., stakeholders), including the participants who receive the service, the service providers, the organizations that deliver the program, and the researchers who evaluate the programs. As an illustration of one step in the application of QFD to translate efficacious prevention programs into effective prevention services, analysis of the needs and preferences of Family Courts for the implementation of an the New Beginnings Program is presented.
Therefore, there is need to concentrate on health education of these women on the hazards associated with the crude methods as well as importance of intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) during pregnancy so as to achieve effective control of malaria among pregnant women. Key words: Malaria prevention, Malaria ...
Валентина Володимирівна Шевченко
Full Text Available The paper shows that the determination of a failure probability due to the design, technological and operational drawbacks, as well as due to the turbogenerators working time exceeding from statistics data is inaccurate. Machine park of turbogenerators being rather limited in number, the classification and the distribution of generators into groups is random. It can not be used in practice to identify the pre-emergency state of turbogenerators and their timely stop. Analysis and classification of most frequent defects of turbogenerators has been performed. Methods for assessing such defects and reduction of their development have been offered. The article notes that expenses should be taken into account when setting up a monitoring system to assess the state and to identify defects. Reduction of expenditures on both operating and new turbogenerators must be justified. Rapid return of investments must be ensured. The list of additional tests has been proposed: measurement of infrared radiation outside the body of the turbogenerator for the estimation of the thermal field distribution and the defects of gas coolers identification; vibroacoustic inspection of the stator core and casing to find out the defects in the suspension of the core in the stator casing; analysis of the impurities in the cooling gas and in the dry remains of the drainage products to detect the products of the steel core and the winding insulation wear; value measurement and establishment of the partial discharges formation position; research of vibrations to reveal the cracks in the shaft, circuiting in the rotor windings and defects in the bearings. The paper notes that at upgrading as power grows overall and mounting dimensions must be preserved so that the existing foundation could be used as well as the existing security systems. Therefore, when designing or upgrading turbogenerators with an increase in power it is necessary to introduce new design decisions
Tramontin,A. P.; Moreno Junior,A. L.; Oliveira,C. R
Cracks that form at the interfaces between masonry structures are common uncontrolled occurrences in buildings. Numerous methods have been proposed by the construction industry to address this problem. Cracks continuously form in the joints between concrete columns and masonry infill walls. In this study, the most common methods for preventing these types of cracks were evaluated in laboratory experiments. Column masonry models were constructed using different types of joints between concrete...
Wang, Shirley V; Abdurrob, Abdurrahman; Spoendlin, Julia; Lewis, Edwin; Newcomer, Sophia R; Fireman, Bruce; Daley, Matthew F; Glanz, Jason M; Duffy, Jonathan; Weintraub, Eric S; Kulldorff, Martin
The need to develop methods for studying the safety of childhood immunization schedules has been recognized by the Institute of Medicine and Department of Health and Human Services. The recommended childhood immunization schedule includes multiple vaccines in a visit. A key concern is safety of concomitant (same day) versus separate day vaccination. This paper addresses a methodological challenge for observational studies using a self-controlled design to investigate the safety of concomitant vaccination. We propose a process for distinguishing which of several concomitantly administered vaccines is responsible for increased risk of an adverse event while adjusting for confounding due to relationships between effect modifying risk factors and concomitant vaccine combinations. We illustrate the approach by re-examining the known increase in risk of seizure 7 to 10 days after measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination and evaluating potential independent or modifying effects of other vaccines. Initial analyses suggested that DTaP had both an independent and potentiating effect on seizure. After accounting for the relationship between age at vaccination and vaccine combination, there was little evidence for increased risk of seizure with same day administration of DTaP and MMR; incidence rate ratio, 95% confidence interval 1.2 (0.9-1.6), P value = θ.226. We have shown that when using a self-controlled design to investigate safety of concomitant vaccination, it can be critically important to adjust for time-invariant effect modifying risk factors, such as age at time of vaccination, which are structurally related to vaccination patterns due to recommended immunization schedules. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Wu, Kevin Chien-Chang; Chen, Ying-Yeh; Yip, Paul S. F.
As the largest continent in the World, Asia accounts for about 60% of World suicides. Preventing suicide by restricting access to suicide methods is one of the few evidence-based suicide prevention strategies. However, there has been a lack of systematic exploration of suicide methods in Asian countries. To amend this shortage, the current review examines the leading suicide methods in different Asian countries, their trend, their age- and sex- specific characteristics, and their implications for suicide prevention. In total, 42 articles with leading suicide methods data in 17 Asian countries/regions were retrieved. The epidemiologic characteristics and recent trends of common suicide methods reflect specific socio-cultural, economic, and religious situations in the region. Common suicide methods shift with the introduction of technologies and constructions, and have specific age- or sex-characteristics that may render the restriction of suicide methods not equally effective for all sex and age sub-groups. Charcoal burning, pesticide poisoning, native plant poisoning, self-immolation, and jumping are all prominent examples. In the information society, suicide prevention that focuses on suicide methods must monitor and control the innovation and spread of knowledge and practices of suicide “technologies”. It may be more cost-effective to design safety into technologies as a way of suicide prevention while there is no rash of suicides yet by the new technologies. Further research on suicide methods is important for public health approaches to suicide prevention with sensitivity to socio-cultural, economic, and religious factors in different countries. PMID:22690187
Paul S. F. Yip
Full Text Available As the largest continent in the World, Asia accounts for about 60% of World suicides. Preventing suicide by restricting access to suicide methods is one of the few evidence-based suicide prevention strategies. However, there has been a lack of systematic exploration of suicide methods in Asian countries. To amend this shortage, the current review examines the leading suicide methods in different Asian countries, their trend, their age- and sex- specific characteristics, and their implications for suicide prevention. In total, 42 articles with leading suicide methods data in 17 Asian countries/regions were retrieved. The epidemiologic characteristics and recent trends of common suicide methods reflect specific socio-cultural, economic, and religious situations in the region. Common suicide methods shift with the introduction of technologies and constructions, and have specific age- or sex-characteristics that may render the restriction of suicide methods not equally effective for all sex and age sub-groups. Charcoal burning, pesticide poisoning, native plant poisoning, self-immolation, and jumping are all prominent examples. In the information society, suicide prevention that focuses on suicide methods must monitor and control the innovation and spread of knowledge and practices of suicide “technologies”. It may be more cost-effective to design safety into technologies as a way of suicide prevention while there is no rash of suicides yet by the new technologies. Further research on suicide methods is important for public health approaches to suicide prevention with sensitivity to socio-cultural, economic, and religious factors in different countries.
Juan, S P
There is a compelling need to apply preventive programs in both private and community practice of dentistry. This is to maintain improvements in oral health in developed and industrialized countries, and to stem increases in oral diseases in underserved and developing ones. At the outset, the terms prevention and control must be understood. The former is considered to mean a procedure or course of action that prevents the onset of disease, whereas the latter, implies reversing or stabilizing disease conditions. To be more precise, prevention will refer to the pre-pathologic or pre-clinical stage encompassing the promotive and specific protection levels--primary prevention stage. On the other hand, control will encompass early diagnosis and prompt treatment, disability limitation and rehabilitation levels-termed also collectively, as pathologic, clinical and final stages, or secondary and tertiary prevention. Community-based programs are usually structured to compliment therapeutic interventions of oral diseases, as well as prevention. In this era, and towards the next millennium, preventive and control programs are given high priorities in order to minimize the need for curative, restorative and therapeutic management of oral diseases. This review of the literature will give emphasis on established methods and programs for the prevention and control of the two most common oral diseases, dental caries and periodontal disease. The problems, background, and oral health objectives for the year 2000 as proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Federation Dentaire Internationale (FDI), as well as the recent advances in oral health relative to these diseases will be discussed. Finally, to better improve the efficacy of existing prevention and control methods, research needs and areas of concern relative to these diseases will be given consideration.
Mack, Chris A.
In both optical and electron beam raster scan imaging for mask making or direct write on wafer, graybeam techniques are used to create a small virtual address grid while maintaining a large physical address grid. Using simple simulations of aerial image formation as the summation of Gaussian spots, several important conclusions about the use of graybeam are made. Graybeam results in a non-linear variation in edge position with gray level, with the non- linearity increasing with larger physical address grid size. While this edge position deviation form non-linearity can be calibrated out of the writing tool, the calibration curve is process dependent. One problem with the use of graybeam is the reduction of image quality as expressed by the image log-slope. For the case of a physical address grid equal to half of the spot size, the worst case graybeam level has an image log-slope at the edge that is 20 percent less than the best case.
Stokking, H.M.; Hartog, F.T.H. den; Walraven, F.A.
The dynamic provisioning of SIP addresses is a challenge when many devices and services are dynamically attached to an IMS network. Manual provisioning is too labor intensive for a telecommunications operator, and it is difficult to do it in a way that allows those devices and services access to all
Sharp, Veronica; Giorgi, Sara; Wilson, David C
This paper presents one strand of the findings from a comprehensive synthesis review of the policy-relevant evidence on household waste prevention. The focus herein is on how to measure waste prevention: it is always difficult to measure what is not there. Yet reliable and robust monitoring and evaluation of household waste prevention interventions is essential, to enable policy makers, local authorities and practitioners to: (a) collect robust and high quality data; (b) ensure robust decisions are made about where to prioritize resources; and (c) ensure that waste prevention initiatives are being effective and delivering behaviour change. The evidence reveals a range of methods for monitoring and evaluation, including self-weighing; pre- and post-intervention surveys, focusing on attitudes and behaviours and/or on participation rates; tracking waste arisings via collection data and/or compositional analysis; and estimation/modelling. There appears to be an emerging consensus that no single approach is sufficient on its own, rather a 'hybrid' method using a suite of monitoring approaches - usually including surveys, waste tonnage data and monitoring of campaigns - is recommended. The evidence concurs that there is no benefit in trying to further collate evidence from past waste prevention projects, other than to establish, in a few selected cases, if waste prevention behaviour has been sustained beyond cessation of the active intervention campaign. A more promising way forward is to ensure that new intervention campaigns are properly evaluated and that the evidence is captured and collated into a common resource.
Lwin, May O; Vijaykumar, Santosh; Rathnayake, Vajira Sampath; Lim, Gentatsu; Panchapakesan, Chitra; Foo, Schubert; Wijayamuni, Ruwan; Wimalaratne, Prasad; Fernando, Owen Noel Newton
Sri Lanka has witnessed a series of dengue epidemics over the past five years, with the western province, home to the political capital of Colombo, bearing more than half of the dengue burden. Existing dengue monitoring prevention programs are exhausted as public health inspectors (PHIs) cope with increasing workloads and paper-based modes of surveillance and education, characterizing a reactive system unable to cope with the enormity of the problem. On the other hand, the unprecedented proliferation and affordability of mobile phones since 2009 and a supportive political climate have thus far remained unexploited for the use of mobile-based interventions for dengue management. To conduct a needs assessment of PHIs in Colombo with respect to their dengue-related tasks and develop a new mobile-based system to address these needs while strengthening existing systems. One-on-one in-depth interviews were conducted with 29 PHIs to a) gain a nuanced, in-depth understanding of the current state of surveillance practices, b) understand the logistical, technological and social challenges they confront, and c) identify opportunities for mobile-based interventions. Quantitative analysis included simple descriptive statistics while qualitative analysis comprised textual analysis of 209 pages of transcripts (or nearly 600 minutes of conversations) using grounded theory approaches. Current paper-based data collection practices for dengue surveillance involved a circuitous, time consuming process that could take between 7-10 days to officially report and record a single case. PHIs confronted challenges in terms of unreliable, standalone GIS devices, delays in registering mosquito breeding sites and lack of engagement from communities while delivering dengue education. These findings, in concert with a high motivation to use mobile-based systems, informed the development of Mo-Buzz, a mobile-based system that integrates three components - digitized surveillance, dynamic disease
Flowers, P.A.; Irwin, E.F.; Poligone, S.E.
The purpose of the Pollution Prevention Awareness Program (PPAP), which is required by DOE Order 5400.1, is to foster the philosophy that prevention is superior to remediation. The goal of the program is to incorporate pollution prevention into the decision-making process at every level throughout the organization. The objectives are to instill awareness, disseminate information, provide training and rewards for identifying the true source or cause of wastes, and encourage employee participation in solving environmental issues and preventing pollution. PPAP at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was created several years ago and continues to grow. We believe that we have implemented several unique methods of communicating environmental awareness to promote a more active work force in identifying ways of reducing pollution.
Spector, Anya Y; Pinto, Rogerio M
Integrating HIV prevention into substance abuse counselling is recommended to ameliorate the health outcomes of men who have sex with men. However, culture-based countertransferences (CBCs) may hamper this effort. Using a case illustration, this paper will explain the manifestation of CBCs held among substance abuse counsellors and how they hinder counsellors' work with men who have sex with men. The following CBCs will be explored: distancing, topic avoidance, heteronormativity, assumptions and denying client strengths. These CBCs allow counsellors to avoid discussions about sexual practices and curtail HIV prevention counselling, while undermining the counsellor-client relationship. Based on the empirical literature on HIV and substance abuse prevention with men who have sex with men, we provide recommendations to help counsellors overcome CBCs and integrate HIV prevention consistently with men who are in treatment for substance abuse.
Spector, Anya Y.; Pinto, Rogério M.
Integrating HIV prevention into substance abuse counselling is recommended to ameliorate the health outcomes of men who have sex with men. However, culture-based countertransferences (CBCs) may hamper this effort. Using a case illustration, this paper will explain the manifestation of CBCs held among substance abuse counsellors and how they hinder counsellors’ work with men who have sex with men. The following CBCs will be explored: distancing, topic avoidance, heteronormativity, assumptions and denying client strengths. These CBCs allow counsellors to avoid discussions about sexual practices and curtail HIV prevention counselling, while undermining the counsellor-client relationship. Based on the empirical literature on HIV and substance abuse prevention with men who have sex with men, we provide recommendations to help counsellors overcome CBCs and integrate HIV prevention consistently with men who are in treatment for substance abuse. PMID:21308577
There is consensus that development and evaluation of a systems-oriented approach for child obesity prevention and treatment that includes both primary and secondary prevention efforts is needed. This article describes the study design and baseline data from the Texas Childhood Obesity Research Demo...
Background: Malaria remains a major public health problem in Nigeria and is the most common cause of hospital attendance in all age groups, of which children and pregnant women are the major risk groups; therefore this study was designed to explore various methods of prevention and treatment of malaria among ...
Alverdy, John C.
Materials and methods for preventing and treating anastomotic leaks are disclosed. Data establishes that pathogenic microbes interfere with establishing epithelial cell barriers in anastomoses and, more generally, with the reconnection of any two portions of like or different tissues comprising epithelia. Suitable prophylactic and therapeutic composition comprise, e.g., a phosphorylated high molecular weight polyethylene glycol compound.
Ward-Begnoche, Wendy L.; Gance-Cleveland, Bonnie; Harris, Margaret M.; Dean, Janice
This article describes the design and implementation of a school-based obesity prevention program, the successes associated with its implementation, and challenges with development and application of the program's curriculum base. The program is described, including purpose and goals, content and structure of the curriculum, type and training of…
Hancock, Helen C; Mason, James M; Murphy, Jerry J
Abstract Background Heart failure is not a clear-cut diagnosis but a complex clinical syndrome with consequent diagnostic uncertainty. Judgment analysis is a method to help clinical teams to understand how they make complex decisions. The method of judgment analysis was used to determine the factors that influence clinicians' diagnostic decisions about heart failure. Methods Three consultants, three middle grade doctors, and two junior doctors each evaluated 45 patient scenarios. The main out...
Luo Shaodong; Deng Yuequan; Dong Faqin; Qu Ruixue; Xie Zhonglei
Background: It's difficult to evaluate the radon prevention effect because of the short operating time of measuring instrument under the circumstances of high humidity in underground construction. Purpose: A new rapid method to evaluate the radon prevention efficiency of underground construction was introduced. Methods: The radon concentrations before and after shielding operation were determined, and according to the regularity of radon decay, the shielding rate can be calculated. Results: The results showed that radon shielding rate in underground construction remains generally stable with variation of time, and the actual relatively standard deviation was 3.95%. So the rapid determination and evaluation of radon preventing effect under special conditions in underground construction can be realized by taking shielding rate in a short time for the final shielding rate. Compared with those by the local static method in ground lab, the results were similar. Conclusion: This paper provided a prompt, accurate and practicable way for the evaluation of radon prevention in underground construction, having a certain reference value. (authors)
Incorporating Primary and Secondary Prevention Approaches To Address Childhood Obesity Prevention and Treatment in a Low-Income, Ethnically Diverse Population: Study Design and Demographic Data from the Texas Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (TX CORD) Study
Hoelscher, Deanna M.; Butte, Nancy F.; Barlow, Sarah; Vandewater, Elizabeth A.; Sharma, Shreela V.; Huang, Terry; Finkelstein, Eric; Pont, Stephen; Sacher, Paul; Byrd-Williams, Courtney; Oluyomi, Abiodun O.; Durand, Casey; Li, Linlin; Kelder, Steven H.
Background: There is consensus that development and evaluation of a systems-oriented approach for child obesity prevention and treatment that includes both primary and secondary prevention efforts is needed. This article describes the study design and baseline data from the Texas Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (TX CORD) project, which addresses child obesity among low-income, ethnically diverse overweight and obese children, ages 2–12 years; a two-tiered systems-oriented approach is...
Bouzari, Hamed; Engholm, Mathias; Stuart, Matthias Bo
A row–column-addressed (RCA) 2-D array can be interpreted as two orthogonal 1-D arrays. By transmitting with row elements and receiving the echoes through column elements or vice versa, a rectilinear volume in front of the array can be beamformed. Since the transmit and receive 1-D arrays...... are orthogonal to each other, only one-way focusing is possible in each transmit or receive plane. For applications, where the scatterers are sparse, e.g., in micro-bubble tracking, this study suggests to multiply the envelope data received by the row elements when transmitting with columns as well as the data...... received by the column elements when transmitting with rows, to improve the focusing. In this way, at each point a two-way focused profile in both transmit and receive directions can be produced. This paper investigates the performance of the new focusing scheme based on simulations and phantom...
Pellien, Tamara; Rothenburger, Lisa
The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) will define science education for the foreseeable future, yet many educators struggle to see the bridge between current practice and future practices. The inquiry-based methods used by Extension professionals (Kress, 2006) can serve as a guide for classroom educators. Described herein is a method of…
Moghadam, Marjan; Jahangiri, Leila
An electronic quality assurance (eQA) program was developed to replace a paper-based system and to address standards introduced by the Commission on Dental Accreditation (CODA) and to improve educational outcomes. This eQA program provides feedback to predoctoral dental students on prosthodontic laboratory steps at New York University College of Dentistry. The purpose of this study was to compare the eQA program of performing laboratory quality assurance with the former paper-based format. Fourth-year predoctoral dental students (n=334) who experienced both the paper-based and the electronic version of the quality assurance program were surveyed about their experiences. Additionally, data extracted from the eQA program were analyzed to identify areas of weakness in the curriculum. The study findings revealed that 73.8% of the students preferred the eQA program to the paper-based version. The average number of treatments that did not pass quality assurance standards was 119.5 per month. This indicated a 6.34% laboratory failure rate. Further analysis of these data revealed that 62.1% of the errors were related to fixed prosthodontic treatment, 27.9% to partial removable dental prostheses, and 10% to complete removable dental prostheses in the first 18 months of program implementation. The eQA program was favored by dental students who have experienced both electronic and paper-based versions of the system. Error type analysis can yield the ability to create customized faculty standardization sessions and refine the didactic and clinical teaching of the predoctoral students. This program was also able to link patient care activity with the student's laboratory activities, thus addressing the latest requirements of the CODA regarding the competence of graduates in evaluating laboratory work related to their patient care. Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Petrova, T. V.; Strekalov, S. V.; Novichikhin, A. V.
The article is devoted to the analysis of possible application of the total cost of ownership method for the purchase of resources at a mining enterprise. The description of the total cost of ownership method and experience of using this method in other spheres is provided. The article identifies the essential components needed to calculate the total cost of ownership of a resource. Particular attention is paid to the ratio of the price of the purchased resource and the total cost of ownership. To justify the relevance of application of this method at a mining enterprise for resources purchase, the technical and economic conditions of mining enterprises have been analyzed, which are quite specific and force to introduce certain adjustments to the application of the considered method and opens up new possibilities for its use. Specific spheres for application of this method at a mining enterprise are determined. The main result of the study is the proposed practical recommendations for the introduction and extension of the practice of using the method when a mining enterprise purchases resources.
Coutarel, Fabien; Dugué, Bernard; Daniellou, François
International audience; Research has highlighted the multifactorial origin of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSD), and the weight of psychosocial factors. Less research work has been devoted to the design of ergonomic interventions aiming at WMSD prevention. Yet, analysing and assessing such interventions may yield two types of results : * ergonomic interventions put to the test the models of the pathology that are produced by researchers, and the successes and failures of the forme...
Full Text Available Despite the fact that HIV epidemic is mainly driven by injection drug use in Iran, partners of People Who Inject Drugs (PWID have been seriously neglected in terms of effective preventive interventions. Currently, sexual partners of PWID might have access to some harm reduction services at Voluntary Counselling and Testing (VCT centers; however, their needs have not been effectively targeted and met. Unfortunately, the current programs implemented by the Ministry of Health have overlooked the importance of this population in the course of the HIV epidemic throughout the country. In this policy brief, we are trying to draw the health policy-makers’ attention to this overlooked population and while reviewing the advantages and disadvantages of some of the readily available options on the table, come up with a recommended action to tackle this problem. Our recommended action that seems to have had promising results elsewhere in Asia would try to implement preventive interventions targeting this particular population through peer prevention programs.
Introductory remarks deal with the 'fouling factor' and its influence on the overall heat transfer coefficient of msf evaporators. The composition of the matter dissolved in sea water and the thermal and chemical properties lead to formation of alkaline scale or even hard, sulphate scale on the heat exchanger tube walls and can hamper plant operation and economics seriously. Among the scale prevention methods are 1) pH control by acid dosing (decarbonation), 2) 'threshold treatment' by dosing of inhibitors of different kind, 3) mechanical cleaning by sponge rubber balls guided through the heat exchanger tubes, in general combined with methods no. 1 or 2, and 4) application of a scale crystals germ slurry (seeding). Mention is made of several other scale prevention proposals. The problems encountered with marine life (suspension, deposit, growth) in desalination plants are touched. (orig.) [de
Crawford, Charles G.; Martin, Jeffrey D.
In October 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began measuring the concentration of the pesticide fipronil and three of its degradates (desulfinylfipronil, fipronil sulfide, and fipronil sulfone) by a new laboratory method using direct aqueous-injection liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (DAI LC–MS/MS). This method replaced the previous method—in use since 2002—that used gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The performance of the two methods is not comparable for fipronil and the three degradates. Concentrations of these four chemical compounds determined by the DAI LC–MS/MS method are substantially lower than the GC/MS method. A method was developed to correct for the difference in concentrations obtained by the two laboratory methods based on a methods comparison field study done in 2012. Environmental and field matrix spike samples to be analyzed by both methods from 48 stream sites from across the United States were sampled approximately three times each for this study. These data were used to develop a relation between the two laboratory methods for each compound using regression analysis. The relations were used to calibrate data obtained by the older method to the new method in order to remove any biases attributable to differences in the methods. The coefficients of the equations obtained from the regressions were used to calibrate over 16,600 observations of fipronil, as well as the three degradates determined by the GC/MS method retrieved from the USGS National Water Information System. The calibrated values were then compared to over 7,800 observations of fipronil and to the three degradates determined by the DAI LC–MS/MS method also retrieved from the National Water Information System. The original and calibrated values from the GC/MS method, along with measures of uncertainty in the calibrated values and the original values from the DAI LC–MS/MS method, are provided in an accompanying data release.
Muir, William M; Cheng, Heng-Wei; Croney, Candace
As consumers and society in general become more aware of ethical and moral dilemmas associated with intensive rearing systems, pressure is put on the animal and poultry industries to adopt alternative forms of housing. This presents challenges especially regarding managing competitive social interactions between animals. However, selective breeding programs are rapidly advancing, enhanced by both genomics and new quantitative genetic theory that offer potential solutions by improving adaptation of the bird to existing and proposed production environments. The outcomes of adaptation could lead to improvement of animal welfare by increasing fitness of the animal for the given environments, which might lead to increased contentment and decreased distress of birds in those systems. Genomic selection, based on dense genetic markers, will allow for more rapid improvement of traits that are expensive or difficult to measure, or have a low heritability, such as pecking, cannibalism, robustness, mortality, leg score, bone strength, disease resistance, and thus has the potential to address many poultry welfare concerns. Recently selection programs to include social effects, known as associative or indirect genetic effects (IGEs), have received much attention. Group, kin, multi-level, and multi-trait selection including IGEs have all been shown to be highly effective in reducing mortality while increasing productivity of poultry layers and reduce or eliminate the need for beak trimming. Multi-level selection was shown to increases robustness as indicated by the greater ability of birds to cope with stressors. Kin selection has been shown to be easy to implement and improve both productivity and animal well-being. Management practices and rearing conditions employed for domestic animal production will continue to change based on ethical and scientific results. However, the animal breeding tools necessary to provide an animal that is best adapted to these changing conditions
Full Text Available As consumers and society in general become more aware of ethical and moral dilemmas associated with confined rearing systems, pressure is put on the animal and poultry industries to adopt alternative forms of housing. This presents challenges especially regarding managing competitive social interactions between animals. However, selective breeding programs are rapidly advancing, enhanced by both genomics and new quantitative genetic theory and offer potential solutions by improving adaptation of the bird to existing and proposed production environments. The outcomes of adaptation could lead to improvement of animal welfare by increasing fitness of the animal for the given environments, which might lead to increased contentment and decreased distress in those systems. Genomic selection, based on dense genetic markers, will allow for more rapid improvement of traits that are expensive or difficult to measure, or have a low heritability, such as pecking, cannibalism, robustness, mortality, leg score, bone strength, disease resistance, and thus has the potential to address many poultry welfare concerns. Recently selection programs to include social effects, known as associative or indirect genetic effects (IGE, have received much attention. Group, kin, multi-level and multi-trait selection have all been shown to be highly effective in reducing mortality while increasing productivity of poultry layers and reduce or eliminate the need for beak trimming. Also, multi-level selection was shown to increases robustness as indicated by l greater ability of birds to cope with stressors. Kin selection has been shown to be easy to implement and improve both productivity and animal well-being . Because social effects are improved with such programs, it might be possible to increase stocking density, increase light levels, and use larger groups in floor pens. However, such changes raise ethical concerns that may constrain making these choices.
The guidelines for the prevention of accidents require plant design-specific and radioecological calculations to be made in order to show that maximum acceptable expsoure values will not be exceeded in case of an accident. For this purpose, main parameters affecting the accident scenario have to be determined by probabilistic methods. This offers the advantage that parameters can be quantified on the basis of unambigious and realistic criteria, and final results can be defined in terms of conservativity. (DG) [de
Mizukami, N.; Clark, M. P.; Gutmann, E. D.; Mendoza, P. A.; Brekke, L. D.; Arnold, J.; Raff, D. A.
Many hydrologic assessments, such as evaluations of climate change impacts on water resources, require downscaled climate model outputs to force hydrologic simulations at a spatial resolution finer than the climate models' native scale. Statistical downscaling is an attractive alternative to dynamical downscaling methods for continental scale hydrologic applications because of its lower computational cost. The goal of this study is to illustrate and compare how the errors in precipitation and temperature produced by different statistical downscaling methods propagate into hydrologic simulations. Multi-decadal hydrologic simulations were performed with three process-based hydrologic models (CLM, VIC, and PRMS) forced by multiple climate datasets over the contiguous United States. The forcing datasets include climate data derived from gauge observations (M02) as well as climate data downscaled from the NCEP-NCAR reanalysis using 4 statistical downscaling methods for a domain with 12-km grid spacing: two forms of Bias Corrected Spatially Disaggregated methods (BCSD-monthly and BCSD-daily), Bias Corrected Constructed Analogue (BCCA), and Asynchronous Regression (AR). Our results show that both BCCA and BCSD-daily underestimate extreme precipitation events while AR produces these correctly at the scale at which the simulations were run but does not scale them up appropriately to larger basin scales like HUC-4 and HUC-2. These artifacts lead to a poor representation of flooding events when hydrologic models are forced by these methods over a range of spatial scales. We also illustrate that errors in precipitation depths dominate impacts on runoff depth estimations, and that errors in wet day frequency have a larger effect on shortwave radiation estimations than do the errors in temperatures; this error subsequently affects the partitioning of precipitation into evaporation and runoff as we show over mountainous areas of the upper Colorado River. Finally we show the inter
Reer, B.; Mertens, J.
Actions and errors by the operating personnel, which are of significance for the safety of a technical system, are classified according to various criteria. Each type of action thus identified is roughly discussed with respect to its quantifiability by state-of-the-art human reliability analysis (HRA) within a probabilistic safety assessment (PSA). Thereby, the principal limit of quantifying human actions are discussed with special emphasis on data quality and cognitive error modelling. In this connection, the basic procedure for a HRA is briefly described under realistic conditions. With respect to the quantitative part of a HRA - the determination of error probabilities - an evaluating description of the standard method THERP (Technique of Human Error Rate Prediction) is given using eight evaluation criteria. Furthermore, six new developments (EdF'sPHRA, HCR, HCR/ORE, SLIM, HEART, INTENT) are briefly described and roughly evaluated. The report concludes with a catalogue of requirements for HRA methods. (orig.) [de
Munoz-Plaza, Corrine E; Parry, Carla; Hahn, Erin E; Tang, Tania; Nguyen, Huong Q; Gould, Michael K; Kanter, Michael H; Sharp, Adam L
Despite reports advocating for integration of research into healthcare delivery, scant literature exists describing how this can be accomplished. Examples highlighting application of qualitative research methods embedded into a healthcare system are particularly needed. This article describes the process and value of embedding qualitative research as the second phase of an explanatory, sequential, mixed methods study to improve antibiotic stewardship for acute sinusitis. Purposive sampling of providers for in-depth interviews improved understanding of unwarranted antibiotic prescribing and elicited stakeholder recommendations for improvement. Qualitative data collection, transcription and constant comparative analyses occurred iteratively. Emerging themes and sub-themes identified primary drivers of unwarranted antibiotic prescribing patterns and recommendations for improving practice. These findings informed the design of a health system intervention to improve antibiotic stewardship for acute sinusitis. Core components of the intervention are also described. Qualitative research can be effectively applied in learning healthcare systems to elucidate quantitative results and inform improvement efforts.
Castillo, Enrique; Conejo, Antonio J.; Minguez, Roberto; Castillo, Carmen
The paper introduces a method for solving the failure probability-safety factor problem for designing engineering works proposed by Castillo et al. that optimizes an objective function subject to the standard geometric and code constraints, and two more sets of constraints that simultaneously guarantee given safety factors and failure probability bounds associated with a given set of failure modes. The method uses the dual variables and is especially convenient to perform a sensitivity analysis, because sensitivities of the objective function and the reliability indices can be obtained with respect to all data values. To this end, the optimization problems are transformed into other equivalent ones, in which the data parameters are converted into artificial variables, and locked to their actual values. In this way, some variables of the associated dual problems become the desired sensitivities. In addition, using the proposed methodology, calibration of codes based on partial safety factors can be done. The method is illustrated by its application to the design of a simple rubble mound breakwater and a bridge crane
Lönnroth, Knut; Roglic, Gojka; Harries, Anthony D
Diabetes triples the risk of tuberculosis and is also a risk factor for adverse tuberculosis treatment outcomes, including death. Prevalence of diabetes is increasing globally, but most rapidly in low-income and middle-income countries where tuberculosis is a grave public health problem. Growth in this double disease burden creates additional obstacles for tuberculosis care and prevention. We review how the evolution of evidence on the link between tuberculosis and diabetes has informed global policy on collaborative activities, and how practice is starting to change as a consequence. We conclude that coordinated planning and service delivery across communicable and non-communicable disease programmes is necessary, feasible, and creates synergies that will help to reduce the burden of both tuberculosis and diabetes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kyle Elizabeth Miller
Full Text Available Photography serves as an important tool for researchers to learn about the contextualized lives of individuals. This article explores the process of integrating photo elicitation interviews (PEI into research involving children and families. Much literature is dedicated to the general debate surrounding the ethics of visual methods in research, with little attention directed at the actual process of gaining study approval and publishing one's findings. There are two main critiques that researchers must face in order to conduct and disseminate studies involving visual images—ethics committees and peer reviewers. In this article, I identify and discuss some of the challenges that emerged across gaining protocol approval from an ethics committee in the United States. Ethical concerns and restrictions related to the use of photography can delay data collection and create barriers to research designs. Similarly, I describe the process of responding to reviewers' concerns as part of the publication process. Peer reviewers' lack of familiarity with the use of photography as a research tool may lead to misunderstandings and inappropriate requests for manuscript changes. While many concerns are sound, the range of benefits stemming from the use of visual data help to justify the time and energy required to defend this type of research. Implications are discussed for researchers using visual methods in their work. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1503274
MacFarlane, Elizabeth K; Shakya, Renu; Berry, Helen L; Kohrt, Brandon A
'Photovoice', a community-based participatory research methodology, uses images as a tool to deconstruct problems by posing meaningful questions in a community to find actionable solutions. This community-enhancing technique was used to elicit experiences of climate change among women in rural Nepal. The current analysis employs mixed methods to explore the subjective mental health experience of participating in a 4- to 5-day photovoice process focused on climate change. A secondary objective of this work was to explore whether or not photovoice training, as a one-time 4- to 5-day intensive intervention, can mobilise people to be more aware of environmental changes related to climate change and to be more resilient to these changes, while providing positive mental health outcomes.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Low socio-economic status combined with other risk factors affects a person's physical and psychosocial health from childhood to adulthood. The societal impact of these problems is huge, and the consequences carry on into the next generation(s. Although several studies show these consequences, only a few actually intervene on these issues. In the United States, the Nurse Family Partnership focuses on high risk pregnant women and their children. The main goal of this program is primary prevention of child abuse. The Netherlands is the first country outside the United States allowed to translate and culturally adapt the Nurse Family Partnership into VoorZorg. The aim of the present study is to assess whether VoorZorg is as effective in the Netherland as in the United States. Methods The study consists of three partly overlapping phases. Phase 1 was the translation and cultural adaptation of Nurse Family Partnership and the design of a two-stage selection procedure. Phase 2 was a pilot study to examine the conditions for implementation. Phase 3 is the randomized controlled trial of VoorZorg compared to the care as usual. Primary outcome measures were smoking cessation during pregnancy and after birth, birth outcomes, child development, child abuse and domestic violence. The secondary outcome measure was the number of risk factors present. Discussion This study shows that the Nurse Family Partnership was successfully translated and culturally adapted into the Dutch health care system and that this program fulfills the needs of high-risk pregnant women. We hypothesize that this program will be effective in addressing risk factors that operate during pregnancy and childhood and compromise fetal and child development. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN16131117
Full Text Available Objective: The marked increase in the prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD among university students gives rise to questions about how best to diagnose in this setting. The aim of the present study was to calculate ADHD prevalence in a large non-clinical sample of medical students using a stepwise design and to determine whether ADHD diagnosis varies if interviewees use additional probing procedures to obtain examples of positive DSM items. Methods: A total of 726 students were screened with the Adult Self-Report Scale (ASRS and invited for an interview with the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (K-SADS adapted for adults. Results: The ASRS was positive for 247 students (37%, although only 83 (7.9% received an ADHD diagnosis. ASRS sensitivity and specificity rates were 0.97 and 0.40, respectively. Probing procedures were used with a subgroup of 226 students, which decreased the number of ADHD diagnoses to 12 (4.5%. Conclusion: Probing for an individual’s real-life examples during the K-SADS interview almost halved ADHD prevalence rate based on the ASRS and K-SADS, which rendered the rate consistent with that typically reported for young adults. In reclassified cases, although examples of inattention did not match the corresponding DSM item, they often referred to another DSM inattention item.
Blanco, Fernando; Moris, Joaquín
Most associative models typically assume that learning can be understood as a gradual change in associative strength that captures the situation into one single parameter, or representational state. We will call this view single-state learning. However, there is ample evidence showing that under many circumstances different relationships that share features can be learned independently, and animals can quickly switch between expressing one or another. We will call this multiple-state learning. Theoretically, it is understudied because it needs a different data analysis approach from those usually employed. In this paper, we present a Bayesian model of the Partial Reinforcement Extinction Effect (PREE) that can test the predictions of the multiple-state view. This implies estimating the moment of change in the responses (from the acquisition to the extinction performance), both at the individual and at the group levels. We used this model to analyze data from a PREE experiment with three levels of reinforcement during acquisition (100%, 75% and 50%). We found differences in the estimated moment of switch between states during extinction, so that it was delayed after leaner partial reinforcement schedules. The finding is compatible with the multiple-state view. It is the first time, to our knowledge, that the predictions from the multiple-state view are tested directly. The paper also aims to show the benefits that Bayesian methods can bring to the associative learning field.
Gabriela Abigail Villanueva
Full Text Available Objective. Parents mentoring other parents as a behavioral intervention for child obesity is novel with limited data describing the experience and dynamics of this approach. This study aimed to describe the experiences of parent mentors and the self-efficacy and attitudes of their mentees in the context of a clinical trial for childhood obesity. Methods. The context for this study was a randomized clinical trial using either parent mentors or a community health worker engaging parents of obese children in behavioral change over six months. Parent mentors were interviewed at the mid-point of the intervention using a semistructured questionnaire to elicit their perceptions and experiences during the process of mentoring. Parent mentees completed a survey assessing their self-efficacy, perception of the parent mentor, and attitudes and beliefs related to their child’s weight. Results. The qualitative analysis of parent mentor interviews indicated high commitment despite their nonprofessional status, facing challenges of engagement with fellow parents and attitudes of persistence and being nonjudgmental. The parent mentee ratings of parent mentors were overall very high and similar to the ratings of a community health worker (paraprofessional. Conclusion. The data suggest that a parent mentor model of intervention for child obesity is an acceptable mode of approaching behavior change in the Hispanic population around childhood obesity with potential for scalability if proven effective.
Full Text Available Prolonged hypotensive effect in the postoperative period is one of the main tasks of modern glaucoma surgery. In connection with this, the aim of our study is to develop a surgical method of prevention of scarring during the classical sinustrabeculectomy. Material and Methods. The operation was performed in 13 patients (13 eyes with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG ll-lll (B-C in steps aged 50-70 years. The duration of observation up of 2 year. Results. After 9-12 months of hypotensive efficacy was 100% (13 eyes in 20-24 months — 98% (12 of 13 eyes. The result was confirmed using standard methods of examination (visometry, tonometry, computerized perimetry, tonography et al., in the early postoperative period was performed optical coherence tomography of the anterior segment, then — ultrasound biomicroscopy. Conclusions. Developed a new version of the surgical treatment of glaucoma a long-acting hypotensive effect.
Kass, Andrea E; Jones, Megan; Kolko, Rachel P; Altman, Myra; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E; Eichen, Dawn M; Balantekin, Katherine N; Trockel, Mickey; Taylor, C Barr; Wilfley, Denise E
Given shared risk and maintaining factors between eating disorders and obesity, it may be important to include both eating disorder intervention and healthy weight management within a universal eating disorder care delivery program. This study evaluated differential eating disorder screening responses by initial weight status among university students, to assess eating disorder risk and pathology among individuals with overweight/obesity versus normal weight or underweight. 1529 individuals were screened and analyzed. Screening was conducted via pilot implementation of the Internet-based Healthy Body Image program on two university campuses. Fifteen percent of the sample had overweight/obesity. Over half (58%) of individuals with overweight/obesity screened as high risk for an eating disorder or warranting clinical referral, and 58% of individuals with overweight/obesity endorsed a ≥10-pound weight change over the past year. Compared to individuals with normal weight or underweight, individuals with overweight/obesity were more likely to identify as Black, endorse objective binge eating and fasting, endorse that eating disorder-related concerns impaired their relationships/social life and made them feel badly, and endorse higher weight/shape concerns. Results suggest rates of eating disorder pathology and clinical impairment are highest among students with overweight/obesity, and targeted intervention across weight categories and diverse races/ethnicities is warranted within universal eating disorder intervention efforts. Integrating eating disorder intervention and healthy weight management into universal prevention programs could reduce the incidence and prevalence of eating disorders, unhealthy weight control practices, and obesity among university students. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Incorporating primary and secondary prevention approaches to address childhood obesity prevention and treatment in a low-income, ethnically diverse population: study design and demographic data from the Texas Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (TX CORD) study.
Hoelscher, Deanna M; Butte, Nancy F; Barlow, Sarah; Vandewater, Elizabeth A; Sharma, Shreela V; Huang, Terry; Finkelstein, Eric; Pont, Stephen; Sacher, Paul; Byrd-Williams, Courtney; Oluyomi, Abiodun O; Durand, Casey; Li, Linlin; Kelder, Steven H
There is consensus that development and evaluation of a systems-oriented approach for child obesity prevention and treatment that includes both primary and secondary prevention efforts is needed. This article describes the study design and baseline data from the Texas Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (TX CORD) project, which addresses child obesity among low-income, ethnically diverse overweight and obese children, ages 2-12 years; a two-tiered systems-oriented approach is hypothesized to reduce BMI z-scores, compared to primary prevention alone. Our study aims are to: (1) implement and evaluate a primary obesity prevention program; (2) implement and evaluate efficacy of a 12-month family-centered secondary obesity prevention program embedded within primary prevention; and (3) quantify the incremental cost-effectiveness of the secondary prevention program. Baseline demographic and behavioral data for the primary prevention community areas are presented. Baseline data from preschool centers, elementary schools, and clinics indicate that most demographic variables are similar between intervention and comparison communities. Most families are low income (≤$25,000) and Hispanic/Latino (73.3-83.8%). The majority of parents were born outside of the United States. Child obesity rates exceed national values, ranging from 19.0% in preschool to 35.2% in fifth-grade children. Most parents report that their children consume sugary beverages, have a television in the bedroom, and do not consume adequate amounts of fruits and vegetables. Interventions to address childhood obesity are warranted in low-income, ethnically diverse communities. Integrating primary and secondary approaches is anticipated to provide sufficient exposure that will lead to significant decreases in childhood obesity.
Uchida, Shunsuke; Sato, Chikara; Kitamura, Masao.
Object: To provide a method for preventing an underwater radioactive material from being released in a simple and highly reliable manner, which can decrease an amount of radioactive materials discharged into open air from reactor water containing a large amount of radioactive materials such as a reactor core pool. Structure: Pure warm water higher in temperature than that of reactor water is poured from the top of a water surface of a water tank which stores reactor water containing radioactive materials such as radioactive iodine, and water is drawn through an outlet located downwardly of the pure warm water inlet to form a layer of pure warm water at the upper part of the water tank while preventing diffusion of the reactor water into the pure warm water by the difference in density between the reactor water and the pure warm water and downward movement of the pure warm water, thereby preventing contact of the reactor water with the atmosphere and diffusion of the radioactive material into the atmosphere. (Kamimura, M.)
Full Text Available Metallic foams are commonly produced using titanium hydride as a foaming agent. Carbonates produce aluminum foam with a fine and homogenous cell structure. However, foams produced using carbonates show marked shrinkage, which is clearly different from those produced using titanium hydride. It is essential for practical applications to clarify foam shrinkage and establish a method of preventing it. In this research, cell structures were observed to study the shrinkage of aluminum foam produced using carbonates. The cells of foam produced using dolomite as a foaming agent connected to each other with maximum expansion. It was estimated that foaming gas was released through connected cells to the outside. It was assumed that cell formation at different sites is effective in preventing shrinkage induced by cell connection. The multiple additions of dolomite and magnesium carbonate, which have different decomposition temperatures, were applied. The foam in the case with multiple additions maintained a density of 0.66 up to 973 K, at which the foam produced using dolomite shrank. It was verified that the multiple additions of carbonates are effective in preventing shrinkage.
Oonaka, Noriyuki; Shoji, Saburo; Kikuchi, Eiji; Tanno, Kazuo.
Purpose: In a case where, at the time of the transient operation of the reactor, the pH in reactor water and the concentration of oxidants are monitored, and the monitoring signals depart from the reference values or the welding heat affected portions of the pipeline are monitored by a non-destructive detector, and stress corrosion cracks are detected, these portions are protected from corrosion by a cathode current, and the generation and development of cracks are prevented. Method: The concentrations of dissolved oxygen and hydrogen peroxide in reactor water are monitored by a sensitized SUS 304 stainless steel electrode and a silver/silver chloride electrode. When monitoring signals depart from the reference values at temperatures with respect to the natural potential of stainless steel, memorized in the control system, a cathod current is caused to flow to the welding heat affected portions thereby to protect the same from corroding. Furthermore, the welding heat affected portions are monitored by the non-destructive detector, and even when stress corrosion cracks have been detected, the welding heat affected portions are prevented from corroding by a cathode current, thereby to prevent the development of stress corrosion cracks of the primary pipeline system. (Sekiya, K.)
Mazur, L J; Yetman, R J; Risser, W L
The use of weights is an increasingly popular conditioning technique, competitive sport and recreational activity among children, adolescents and young adults. Weight-training can cause significant musculoskeletal injuries such as fractures, dislocations, spondylolysis, spondylolisthesis, intervertebral disk herniation, and meniscal injuries of the knee. Although injuries can occur during the use of weight machines, most apparently happen during the aggressive use of free weights. Prepubescent and older athletes who are well trained and supervised appear to have low injury rates in strength training programmes. Good coaching and proper weightlifting techniques and other injury prevention methods are likely to minimise the number of musculoskeletal problems caused by weight-training.
Henry, David; Dymnicki, Allison B.; Mohatt, Nathaniel; Allen, James; Kelly, James G.
Qualitative methods potentially add depth to prevention research, but can produce large amounts of complex data even with small samples. Studies conducted with culturally distinct samples often produce voluminous qualitative data, but may lack sufficient sample sizes for sophisticated quantitative analysis. Currently lacking in mixed methods research are methods allowing for more fully integrating qualitative and quantitative analysis techniques. Cluster analysis can be applied to coded qualitative data to clarify the findings of prevention studies by aiding efforts to reveal such things as the motives of participants for their actions and the reasons behind counterintuitive findings. By clustering groups of participants with similar profiles of codes in a quantitative analysis, cluster analysis can serve as a key component in mixed methods research. This article reports two studies. In the first study, we conduct simulations to test the accuracy of cluster assignment using three different clustering methods with binary data as produced when coding qualitative interviews. Results indicated that hierarchical clustering, K-Means clustering, and latent class analysis produced similar levels of accuracy with binary data, and that the accuracy of these methods did not decrease with samples as small as 50. Whereas the first study explores the feasibility of using common clustering methods with binary data, the second study provides a “real-world” example using data from a qualitative study of community leadership connected with a drug abuse prevention project. We discuss the implications of this approach for conducting prevention research, especially with small samples and culturally distinct communities. PMID:25946969
Henry, David; Dymnicki, Allison B; Mohatt, Nathaniel; Allen, James; Kelly, James G
Qualitative methods potentially add depth to prevention research but can produce large amounts of complex data even with small samples. Studies conducted with culturally distinct samples often produce voluminous qualitative data but may lack sufficient sample sizes for sophisticated quantitative analysis. Currently lacking in mixed-methods research are methods allowing for more fully integrating qualitative and quantitative analysis techniques. Cluster analysis can be applied to coded qualitative data to clarify the findings of prevention studies by aiding efforts to reveal such things as the motives of participants for their actions and the reasons behind counterintuitive findings. By clustering groups of participants with similar profiles of codes in a quantitative analysis, cluster analysis can serve as a key component in mixed-methods research. This article reports two studies. In the first study, we conduct simulations to test the accuracy of cluster assignment using three different clustering methods with binary data as produced when coding qualitative interviews. Results indicated that hierarchical clustering, K-means clustering, and latent class analysis produced similar levels of accuracy with binary data and that the accuracy of these methods did not decrease with samples as small as 50. Whereas the first study explores the feasibility of using common clustering methods with binary data, the second study provides a "real-world" example using data from a qualitative study of community leadership connected with a drug abuse prevention project. We discuss the implications of this approach for conducting prevention research, especially with small samples and culturally distinct communities.
Sung Pil Park
Full Text Available As open access model of journal publication increases, predatory journals, which deceive scholars to publish journals in fake database websites and exploit them for publishing fee, is also increasing. There are two types of predatory journals. First, journal hijacking and cybersquatting generally create fake database website by mimicking authentic database website, thereby defrauding scholars for publication fee. Second, journal phishing use scam emails to steal scholars’ personal information. If scholars suffered damage from predatory journals, scholars can take either arbitral or judicial actions. Arbitral action follows arbitrational resolution process termed Uniform Domain-Name Dispute-Resolution Policy. Scholars can join Uniform Domain-Name Dispute-Resolution Policy proceeding with legal entity that has right to authentic database website, which will result in cancellation or transfer of fake database website. In contrast, scholars can take judicial action under Anticybersquatting Consumer Protection Act, which may help scholars to recover an actual monetary damage from predatory journals. Nonetheless, taking precaution to avoid predatory journals is the best course of action, rather than going through arduous cure procedures. Scholars may prevent predatory journals by carefully examining fake database website names or email addresses, or observing unreasonable number of published article issues in predatory journal websites.
with liquid nitrogen. Therefore, it is difficult to use in customs offices. Alternative detector options, which do not require liquid nitrogen cooling should be explored. c) Verification of legal shipments is presently only done is Russia, to extent it worldwide an international data base containing design information of all shipment containers would be required; this is also important for the receiving country to verify arriving shipments. The data base must allow integration into available measurement and verification software. d) Presently no procedures for test, validation and certification of methods to verify legal shipments are available, therefore in Russia such measurements can only be used in court if combined with an additional investigation, requiring opening of the container. This is expensive and there is a strong desire to use measurement results directly to initiate a court order. e) Even if verification measurements are made, they can be faked when the thickness of the container is altered. Presently no generic methods are implemented which allow the verification of the container design Actuality of these problems can be confirmed by the real cases of smuggling disclosure, some of which I am going to adduce. In view of the above it would be desirable that the International organizations, such as IAEA, WCO and others, would provide assistance to National Customs Services. The State Customs Committee of the Russian Federation is willing to cooperate with any International organizations and National Customs Services in this area. (author)
Fikree, Fariyal Fatma; Lane, Catharine; Simon, Callie; Hainsworth, Gwyn; MacDonald, Patricia
Investments in the nearly two billion young people, aged 10-24 years, in the world today are necessary to meet global development commitments, specifically the Sustainable Development Goals and Ending Preventable Child and Maternal Deaths. More than 12 million married and unmarried adolescents (aged 15-19) will give birth in 2016. Complications of pregnancy and childbirth are the second leading cause of death among 15-19 year-old women and early childbearing can significantly curtail social and economic prospects for young women. Facilitating the ability of sexually active young people to choose and effectively use a satisfactory contraceptive method will ensure they can exercise their right to prevent, delay or space pregnancy. The Global Consensus Statement, "Expanding Contraceptive Choice for Adolescents and Youth to Include Long Acting and Reversible Contraception" provides evidence on the safety and effectiveness of LARCs for young people. Three inter-dependent actions linking advocacy and policy (advocating for policy and guideline revisions); supply (improving quality and accessibility of an expanded method choice) and an enabling environment (social norms and comprehensive reproductive health information) are suggested as vital to achieving full access and full choice for all sexually active young people. Identified approaches include national advocacy addressing policy guidelines and standard operating procedures that guide providers in the provision of age and developmentally appropriate contraceptive services; pre-service and in-service training for health care providers to be able to effectively communicate and counsel young people, including dispelling myths and misconceptions around LARCs; and partnering with young people to design appropriate, contextually-relevant, and effective strategies to increase their self-efficacy and, at the community level, address broader social norms to dispel stigma and discrimination. An immediate call to action for
Stressed in this address is the crucial stage of the population boom, peeculiar to developing countries. The phenomenal rise in India's population, over the last 10 years, is particularly emphasized as it may thwart attempts for socioeconnomic development. Population and development are congruent concerns which need to be pursued simultaneously, and family planning must be accorded the highest priority in national efforts. In its attempts to curb its population explosion, India has witnessed significant progress in health and family welfare work in its march towards the goal of health for all. Recently, the focus has been on primary health care with its emphasis on prevention against risk of disease. The key element of the goal of health for all is the provision of primary health care to all, especially those who are poor. The new 20-Point Programme of India pinpoints areas of special thrust which show immediate tangible results in health and family welfare and the increase of primary health care facilities. Family planning is discussed as a people's movement in which the government's role is that of educator in contraceptive methodds so the people can be motivated to choose, on their own, anyone of them. Trained government personnel, service facilities and contraceptive supplies are being promoted for that goal. The energies of all social, political, religious and cultural organizations have to be channelled and utilized in the process of educating the people and making them adopt the small family norm. Graduates are urged to utilize their knowledge in the service of their country.
Sisnowski, Jana; Handsley, Elizabeth; Street, Jackie M
High prevalence of overweight and obesity remains a significant international public health problem. Law has been identified as a tool for obesity prevention and selected high-profile measures have been reported. However, the nature and extent of enacted legislation internationally are unclear. This research provides an overview of regulatory approaches enacted in the United States, the European Union, and EU Member States since 2004. To this end, relevant databases of primary and secondary legislation were systematically searched to identify and explore laws addressing dietary risk factors for obesity. Across jurisdictions, current regulatory approaches to obesity prevention are limited in reach and scope. Target groups are rarely the general population, but instead sub-populations in government-supported settings. Consumer information provision is preferred over taxation and marketing restrictions other than the regulation of health and nutrition claims. In the EU in particular, product reformulation with industry consent has also emerged as a popular small-scale measure. While consistent and widespread use of law is lacking, governments have employed a range of regulatory measures in the name of obesity prevention, indicating that there is, in principle, political will. Results from this study may serve as a starting point for future research and policy development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Purpose: To prevent the contamination on the floor surface of working places by laying polyvinyl butyral sheets over the floor surface, replacing when the sheets are contaminated, followed by burning. Method: Polyvinyl butyral sheets comprising 50 - 70 mol% of butyral component are laid in a radioactive material handling facility, radioactive materials are handled on the polyvinyl butyral sheets and the sheets are replaced when contaminated. The polyvinyl butyral sheets used contain 62 - 68 mol% of butyral component and has 0.03 - 0.2 mm thickness. The contaminated sheets are subjected to burning processing. This can surely collect radioactive materials and the sheets have favorable burnability, releasing no corrosive or deleterious gases. In addition, they are inexpensive and give no hindrance to the workers walking. (Takahashi, M.)
Full Text Available This article re-examines the division between 'optimists' and 'pessimists' within the literature on the Open Method of Coordination’s (OMC effectiveness. Each of those 'camps' tends to focus on a different question. 'Optimists' are more concerned with the question of whether the OMC exerts an influence on the national level and through which mechanisms, whilst 'pessimists' concentrate on the question of whether the OMC can 'strengthen' EU social policy and therefore European welfare states. This article combines these two perspectives and argues that the OMC is indeed capable of influencing national policies through the dissemination of ideas and 'learning' as the 'optimists' stress. However, policy 'learning' at the member state level is shaped and constrained by a variety of internal and external pressures. Against the hopes of most of the OMC 'optimists', this makes the OMC largely ineffective in preventing welfare state retrenchment.
Austin, S Bryn; Sonneville, Kendrin R
Expansion of our societies' capacity to prevent eating disorders will require strategic integration of the topic into the curricula of professional training programs. An ideal way to integrate new content into educational programs is through the case-method approach, a teaching method that is more effective than traditional teaching techniques. The Strategic Training Initiative for the Prevention of Eating Disorders has begun developing cases designed to be used in classroom settings to engage students in topical, high-impact issues in public health approaches to eating disorders prevention and screening. Dissemination of these cases will provide an opportunity for students in public health training programs to learn material in a meaningful context by actively applying skills as they are learning them, helping to bridge the "know-do" gap. The new curriculum is an important step toward realizing the goal that public health practitioners be fully equipped to address the challenge of eating disorders prevention. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Najafpour, Zhila; Hasoumi, Mojtaba; Behzadi, Faranak; Mohamadi, Efat; Jafary, Mohamadreza; Saeedi, Morteza
Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) is a method used to assess the risk of failures and harms to patients during the medical process and to identify the associated clinical issues. The aim of this study was to conduct an assessment of blood transfusion process in a teaching general hospital, using FMEA as the method. A structured FMEA was recruited in our study performed in 2014, and corrective actions were implemented and re-evaluated after 6 months. Sixteen 2-h sessions were held to perform FMEA in the blood transfusion process, including five steps: establishing the context, selecting team members, analysis of the processes, hazard analysis, and developing a risk reduction protocol for blood transfusion. Failure modes with the highest risk priority numbers (RPNs) were identified. The overall RPN scores ranged from 5 to 100 among which, four failure modes were associated with RPNs over 75. The data analysis indicated that failures with the highest RPNs were: labelling (RPN: 100), transfusion of blood or the component (RPN: 100), patient identification (RPN: 80) and sampling (RPN: 75). The results demonstrated that mis-transfusion of blood or blood component is the most important error, which can lead to serious morbidity or mortality. Provision of training to the personnel on blood transfusion, knowledge raising on hazards and appropriate preventative measures, as well as developing standard safety guidelines are essential, and must be implemented during all steps of blood and blood component transfusion.
Sara L. Warber
Full Text Available Background and Objectives. Rapid urbanization raises concern about chronic human health issues along with less frequent interaction with the natural world. “Nature-deficit disorder,” a nonclinical term, describes this potential impact on the well-being of youth. We conducted a mixed methods pilot study of young adults attending a four-week wilderness camp to investigate whether nature-based camp experiences would increase connection to nature and promote multiple dimensions of well-being. Methods. Participants completed precamp (n = 46 and postcamp (n = 36 online questionnaires including nature-related and holistic well-being measures. Differences were investigated using paired t-tests. Interviews (n = 16 explored camp experiences and social relations. Results. All nature-related measures—exposure, knowledge, skills, willingness to lead, perceived safety, sense of place, and nature connection—significantly increased. Well-being outcomes also significantly improved, including perceived stress, relaxation, positive and negative emotions, sense of wholeness, and transcendence. Physical activity and psychological measures showed no change. Interviews described how the wilderness environment facilitated social connections. Conclusion. Findings illustrate the change in nature relations and well-being that wilderness camp experiences can provide. Results can guide future research agendas and suggest that nature immersion experiences could address the risk of “nature-deficit disorder,” improve health, and prepare future environmental leaders.
Green, Norman W.
To prevent plugging in a pyrolysis operation where an agglomerative coal in a nondeleteriously reactive carrier gas is injected as a turbulent jet from an opening into an elongate pyrolysis reactor, the coal is comminuted to a size where the particles under operating conditions will detackify prior to contact with internal reactor surfaces while a secondary flow of fluid is introduced along the peripheral inner surface of the reactor to prevent backflow of the coal particles. The pyrolysis operation is depicted by two equations which enable preselection of conditions which insure prevention of reactor plugging.
Full Text Available The process of population ageing is observed not only in Poland but also in other European countries. Physiological processes of ageing reduces the functional capacity. In particular, associated diseases, progressive weakness and failure of the motor system increases the risk of collapse in seniors. Dangerous consequences of falls, inter alia, injuries, can often cause death, what justifies its classification as a so-called geriatric giant. Health and psychosocial consequences of falls should be noted. Therefore, there is a great need for induction of preventive measures. Many results of studies constantly show, that an effective intervention in preventing falls in seniors should include, first and foremost, multidirectional rehabilitation, which aims to improve balance and increase postural strength muscle. In addition, prevention should include: patient education, pharmacotherapy prescribed by a medical specialist, eyesight improvement, elimination of potential risks surrounding the patient. The introduction of multi-directional prevention of falls can reduce the risk of their occurrence up to 50%.
Siqueira, José R; Maki, Rafael M; Paulovich, Fernando V; Werner, Carl F; Poghossian, Arshak; de Oliveira, Maria C F; Zucolotto, Valtencir; Oliveira, Osvaldo N; Schöning, Michael J
The integration of nanostructured films containing biomolecules and silicon-based technologies is a promising direction for reaching miniaturized biosensors that exhibit high sensitivity and selectivity. A challenge, however, is to avoid cross talk among sensing units in an array with multiple sensors located on a small area. In this letter, we describe an array of 16 sensing units of a light-addressable potentiometric sensor (LAPS), which was made with layer-by-layer (LbL) films of a poly(amidomine) dendrimer (PAMAM) and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), coated with a layer of the enzyme penicillinase. A visual inspection of the data from constant-current measurements with liquid samples containing distinct concentrations of penicillin, glucose, or a buffer indicated a possible cross talk between units that contained penicillinase and those that did not. With the use of multidimensional data projection techniques, normally employed in information visualization methods, we managed to distinguish the results from the modified LAPS, even in cases where the units were adjacent to each other. Furthermore, the plots generated with the interactive document map (IDMAP) projection technique enabled the distinction of the different concentrations of penicillin, from 5 mmol L(-1) down to 0.5 mmol L(-1). Data visualization also confirmed the enhanced performance of the sensing units containing carbon nanotubes, consistent with the analysis of results for LAPS sensors. The use of visual analytics, as with projection methods, may be essential to handle a large amount of data generated in multiple sensor arrays to achieve high performance in miniaturized systems.
Whitlock, Evelyn P; Eder, Michelle; Thompson, Jamie H; Jonas, Daniel E; Evans, Corinne V; Guirguis-Blake, Janelle M; Lin, Jennifer S
Guideline developers and other users of systematic reviews need information about whether a medical or preventive intervention is likely to benefit or harm some patients more (or less) than the average in order to make clinical practice recommendations tailored to these populations. However, guidance is lacking on how to include patient subpopulation considerations into the systematic reviews upon which guidelines are often based. In this article, we describe methods developed to consistently consider the evidence for relevant subpopulations in systematic reviews conducted to support primary care clinical preventive service recommendations made by the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF). Our approach is grounded in our experience conducting systematic reviews for the USPSTF and informed by a review of existing guidance on subgroup analysis and subpopulation issues. We developed and refined our approach based on feedback from the Subpopulation Workgroup of the USPSTF and pilot testing on reviews being conducted for the USPSTF. This paper provides processes and tools for incorporating evidence-based identification of important sources of potential heterogeneity of intervention effects into all phases of systematic reviews. Key components of our proposed approach include targeted literature searches and key informant interviews to identify the most important subpopulations a priori during topic scoping, a framework for assessing the credibility of subgroup analyses reported in studies, and structured investigation of sources of heterogeneity of intervention effects. Further testing and evaluation are necessary to refine this proposed approach and demonstrate its utility to the producers and users of systematic reviews beyond the context of the USPSTF. Gaps in the evidence on important subpopulations identified by routinely applying this process in systematic reviews will also inform future research needs.
Nieuwdorp, M.; Vos, de W.M.
The present invention describes use of Eubacterium hallii et rel. and/or Alcaligenes faecalis et rel., as well as pharmaceutical, food, or feed compositions comprising these bacteria, as a medicament, in particular for preventing and/or treating insulin resistance and/or insulin resistance-related
Bakhtiyari, Kaveh; Salehi, Hadi; Embi, Mohamed Amin; Shakiba, Masoud; Zavvari, Azam; Shahbazi-Moghadam, Masoomeh; Ebrahim, Nader Ale; Mohammadjafari, Marjan
This paper discusses plagiarism origins, and the ethical solutions to prevent it. It also reviews some unethical approaches, which may be used to decrease the plagiarism rate in academic writings. We propose eight ethical techniques to avoid unconscious and accidental plagiarism in manuscripts without using online systems such as Turnitin and/or…
Reza-Paul, Sushena; Lorway, Rob; O'Brien, Nadia; Lazarus, Lisa; Jain, Jinendra; Bhagya, M; Fathima Mary, P; Venukumar, K T; Raviprakash, K N; Baer, James; Steen, Richard
Structural interventions have the capacity to improve the outcomes of HIV/AIDS interventions by changing the social, economic, political or environmental factors that determine risk and vulnerability. Marginalized groups face disproportionate barriers to health, and sex workers are among those at highest risk of HIV in India. Evidence in India and globally has shown that sex workers face violence in many forms ranging from verbal, psychological and emotional abuse to economic extortion, physical and sexual violence and this is directly linked to lower levels of condom use and higher levels of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), the most critical determinants of HIV risk. We present here a case study of an intervention that mobilized sex workers to lead an HIV prevention response that addresses violence in their daily lives. This study draws on ethnographic research and project monitoring data from a community-led structural intervention in Mysore, India, implemented by Ashodaya Samithi. Qualitative and quantitative data were used to characterize baseline conditions, community responses and subsequent outcomes related to violence. In 2004, the incidence of reported violence by sex workers was extremely high (> 8 incidents per sex worker, per year) but decreased by 84 per cent over 5 years. Violence by police and anti-social elements, initially most common, decreased substantially after a safe space was established for sex workers to meet and crisis management and advocacy were initiated with different stakeholders. Violence by clients, decreased after working with lodge owners to improve safety. However, initial increases in intimate partner violence were reported, and may be explained by two factors: (i) increased willingness to report such incidents; and (ii) increased violence as a reaction to sex workers' growing empowerment. Trafficking was addressed through the establishment of a self-regulatory board (SRB). The community's progressive response to violence
Nowadays, computer worms, viruses and Trojan horse become popular, and they are collectively called malware. Those malware just spoiled computers by deleting or rewriting important files a decade ago. However, recent malware seems to be born to earn money. Some of malware work for collecting personal information so that malicious people can find secret information such as password for online banking, evidence for a scandal or contact address which relates with the target....
Qinshan Phase III is located at the estuary area of Qiantang River, where contains much slit and sand in the seawater. Since the units were put into operation, tube bundles in the condenser have been scratched, damaged or blocked by hard foreign materials, and outside wall thickness reduced and broken due to various reasons. Many tube bundles are discarded. In order to effectively prevent the re-occurrence of such problem and eliminate the existing defects, equipment management personnels of Qinshan Phase III work together with experts both from home and abroad, and perfom root-analysis for various cause of defects. After the problem root is identified, a serious of specific and effective measures are taken to prevent and eliminate the problem and reached a good effect. This paper herein is written for comments and reference. (authors)
Garbers, C. F.
Ladies and gentlemen, it is indeed a great privilege and pleasure for me to present the opening address at this, the 17th International Congress on High Speed Photograpy and Photonics. Before turning to the business of the Congress, I would like to briefly introduce you to South Africa: its scientific past and its research challenges for the future.
Your Excellency. Honoured Guests. Members of the Association. It is my duty and pleasure to thank H.E. Lij. Endalkatchew Makonnen for the fine address with which he has opened this First National Conference of the EAEA. He has pointedly reminded us that though. Engineers and Architects play a key role, develop-.
A. P. Tramontin
Full Text Available Cracks that form at the interfaces between masonry structures are common uncontrolled occurrences in buildings. Numerous methods have been proposed by the construction industry to address this problem. Cracks continuously form in the joints between concrete columns and masonry infill walls. In this study, the most common methods for preventing these types of cracks were evaluated in laboratory experiments. Column masonry models were constructed using different types of joints between concrete columns and masonry infill walls, such as steel bars and steel mesh. The efficiency of each type of joint method was evaluated by performing direct tensile tests (pullout tests on the models and monitoring the evolution of the crack opening in the joint between the column and wall, as a function of load applied to the model. The results from this study indicate that the model composed of "electrowelded wire mesh without steel angles" is the best model for controlling cracking in the joints between concrete columns and masonry infill walls.
Pigeot, I; Baranowski, T; De Henauw, S
One of the major research dimensions of the Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health EFfects In Children and infantS (IDEFICS) study involved the development, implementation and evaluation of a setting-based community-oriented intervention programme for primary prevention of childhood obesity. In this supplement of Obesity Reviews, a compilation of key results of the IDEFICS intervention is packaged in a series of complementary papers. This paper describes the overall design and methods of the IDEFICS intervention in order to facilitate a comprehensive reading of the supplement. In addition, some 'best practice' examples are described. The IDEFICS intervention trial was conducted to assess whether the IDEFICS intervention prevented obesity in young children aged 2 to 9.9 years. The study was a non-randomized, quasi-experimental trial with one intervention matched to one control region in each of eight participating countries. The intervention was designed following the intervention mapping framework, using a socio-ecological theoretical approach. The intervention was designed to address several key obesity-related behaviours in children, parents, schools and community actors; the primary outcome was the prevalence of overweight/obesity according to the IOTF criteria based on body mass index. The aim was to achieve a reduction of overweight/obesity prevalence in the intervention regions. The intervention was delivered in school and community settings over a 2-year period. Data were collected in the intervention and control cohort regions at baseline and 2 years later. This paper offers an introductory framework for a comprehensive reading of this supplement on IDEFICS intervention key results. © 2015 World Obesity.
This short talk was the opening remarks to the attendees at this conference, presented by the Scientific Secretary, IWG-LMNPP, of the IAEA. This meeting is an effort to aid research on problems related to the general area of nuclear plant aging and life management. In particular it addresses fracture properties of reactor materials and components, both as installed, and at end of service condition. A major concern is relating measurements made on laboratory samples to properties displayed by actual reactor components
... Error processing SSI file About Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Heart disease and stroke are an epidemic in ... secondhand smoke. Barriers to Effective Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Many people with key risk factors for heart ...
By means of this graduation address at the International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS) in Bombay, the Chancellor of Urdu University voiced his concerns about overpopulation in India. During the speaker's tenure as Health Minister of Maharashtra, he implemented a sterilization incentive program that resulted in the state's having the best family planning (FP) statistics in India for almost 10 years. The incentive program, however, was misused by overenthusiastic officials in other states, with the result that the FP program was renamed the Family Welfare Programme. Population is growing in India because of improvements in health care, but the population education necessary to change fertility will require more time than the seriousness of the population problem allows. In the longterm, poverty and illiteracy must be addressed to control population. In the meanwhile, the graduate program at the IIPS should be expanded to include an undergraduate program, marriage age laws should be enforced, and misconceptions about religious objections to FP must be addressed. India can not afford to use the measures forwarded by developed countries to control population growth. India must integrate population control efforts with the provision of health care because if population continues to grow in the face of reduced infant mortality and longer life expectancy, future generations will be forced to live in a state of poverty and economic degradation.
Sadretdinova T.L.; Vasilenko L.V.; Zryachkin N.I.
Purpose: to study efficiency of various methods of prevention of perinatal complications in mother and child. Material and methods. In three risk groups preventive treatment of intrauterine infected fetus (IUIF), gestosis, noncarrying of pregnancy and fetoplacental insufficiency has been carried out. In group I consisted of 71 pregnant women preventive treatment has included medication with application of antioxidants; stimulators of processes of carboxylation in cycle Krebs; endogenic synthe...
PWR steam generators have suffered from a variety of degradation phenomena. This paper identifies the corrosion-related defects and their probable causes and suggests approaches to correct and prevent corrosive activity. In the attempt to solve the degradation problems, research programs have concentrated on modifying materials, stresses, and the chemical environment in both new and operating steam generators. The following corrosion-related defects have been studied: tube wastage, denting, primary side (ID) intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC), OD-initiated intergranular attack (IGA), pitting, and corrosion fatigue. Plants affected by wastage have greatly reduced their problem by adopting an all volatile treatment (AVT). In the case of denting, a less aggressive chemical environment is recommended. Primary side IGSCC responds to temperature reduction, stress relief, and material improvements, while flushing and boric acid addition minimizes OD-initiated IGA. It has further been shown that pitting can be minimized by sludge lancing and by reducing impurity ingress. (author)
Schuster, Roseanne C; de Sousa, Octávio; Rivera, Jacqueline; Olson, Rebecca; Pinault, Delphine; Young, Sera L
Performance-based incentives (PBIs) have garnered global attention as a promising strategy to improve healthcare delivery to vulnerable populations. However, literature gaps in the context in which an intervention is implemented and how the PBIs were developed exist. Therefore, we (1) characterized the barriers and promoters to prevention of vertical transmission of HIV (PVT) service delivery in rural Mozambique, where the vertical transmission rate is 12 %, and (2) assessed the appropriateness for a PBI's intervention and application to PVT. We conducted 24 semi-structured interviews with nurses, volunteers, community health workers, and traditional birth attendants about the barriers and promoters they experienced delivering PVT services. We then explored emergent themes in subsequent focus group discussions (n = 7, total participants N = 92) and elicited participant perspectives on PBIs. The ecological motivation-opportunity-ability framework guided our iterative data collection and thematic analysis processes. The interviews revealed that while all health worker cadres were motivated intrinsically and by social recognition, they were dissatisfied with low and late remuneration. Facility-based staff were challenged by factors across the rest of the ecological levels, primarily in the opportunity domain, including the following: poor referral and record systems (work mandate), high workload, stock-outs, poor infrastructure (facility environment), and delays in obtaining patient results and donor payment discrepancies (administrative). Community-based cadres' opportunity challenges included lack of supplies, distance (work environment), lack of incorporation into the health system (administration), and ability challenges of incorrect knowledge (health worker). PBIs based on social recognition and that enable action on intrinsic motivation through training, supervision, and collaboration were thought to have the most potential for targeting improvements
Gold, E Richard; Caulfield, Timothy A
Patents granted for biotechnological innovations continue to cause social and ethical dilemmas. For example, much controversy surrounds the patenting of genes that predispose to breast-cancer, and in the USA the debate continues about whether or not stem-cell technology should be accessible to all. In this report, we argue that some of these concerns can be addressed within national patent systems. In particular, we examine the "order public or morality" clause that exists in most national patent procedures. Furthermore, we propose that patents for inventions that present social and ethical questions should be subject to suspension by an independent, transparent, and responsible tribunal made up of specialists in ethics, research, and economics. This suspension should be reversible so that, when the social or ethical concerns have been addressed in an appropriate manner, the suspension can be lifted. Although controversial, such a flexible mechanism would assist governments and industry in enhancing public support for patents in the biotechnology area.
Full Text Available Duplicate address detection (DAD is an important component of the address resolution protocol (ARP and the neighbor discovery protocol (NDP. DAD determines whether an IP address is in conflict with other nodes. In traditional DAD, the target address to be detected is broadcast through the network, which provides convenience for malicious nodes to attack. A malicious node can send a spoofing reply to prevent the address configuration of a normal node, and thus, a denial-of-service attack is launched. This study proposes a hash method to hide the target address in DAD, which prevents an attack node from launching destination attacks. If the address of a normal node is identical to the detection address, then its hash value should be the same as the "Hash_64" field in the neighboring solicitation message. Consequently, DAD can be successfully completed. This process is called DAD-h. Simulation results indicate that address configuration using DAD-h has a considerably higher success rate when under attack compared with traditional DAD. Comparative analysis shows that DAD-h does not require third-party devices and considerable computing resources; it also provides a lightweight security resolution.
Joshi, P. S.
From jets to cosmos to cosmic censorship P S Joshi Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005, India E-mail: email@example.com 1. Introduction At the outset, I should like to acknowledge that part of the title above, which tries to capture the main flavour of this meeting, and has been borrowed from one of the plenary talks at the conference. When we set out to make the programme for the conference, we thought of beginning with observations on the Universe, but then we certainly wanted to go further and address deeper questions, which were at the very foundations of our inquiry, and understanding on the nature and structure of the Universe. I believe, we succeeded to a good extent, and it is all here for you in the form of these Conference Proceedings, which have been aptly titled as 'Vishwa Mimansa', which could be possibly translated as 'Analysis of the Universe'! It is my great pleasure and privilege to welcome you all to the ICGC-2011 meeting at Goa. The International Conference on Gravitation and Cosmology (ICGC) series of meetings are being organized by the Indian Association for General Relativity and Gravitation (IAGRG), and the first such meeting was planned and conducted in Goa in 1987, with subsequent meetings taking place at a duration of about four years at various locations in India. So, it was thought appropriate to return to Goa to celebrate the 25 years of the ICGC meetings. The recollections from that first meeting have been recorded elsewhere here in these Proceedings. The research and teaching on gravitation and cosmology was initiated quite early in India, by V V Narlikar at the Banares Hindu University, and by N R Sen in Kolkata in the 1930s. In course of time, this activity grew and gained momentum, and in early 1969, at the felicitation held for the 60 years of V V Narlikar at a conference in Ahmedabad, P C Vaidya proposed the formation of the IAGRG society, with V V Narlikar being the first President. This
Mi, Xiaojuan; Hammill, Bradley G; Curtis, Lesley H; Lai, Edward Chia-Cheng; Setoguchi, Soko
Observational comparative effectiveness and safety studies are often subject to immortal person-time, a period of follow-up during which outcomes cannot occur because of the treatment definition. Common approaches, like excluding immortal time from the analysis or naïvely including immortal time in the analysis, are known to result in biased estimates of treatment effect. Other approaches, such as the Mantel-Byar and landmark methods, have been proposed to handle immortal time. Little is known about the performance of the landmark method in different scenarios. We conducted extensive Monte Carlo simulations to assess the performance of the landmark method compared with other methods in settings that reflect realistic scenarios. We considered four landmark times for the landmark method. We found that the Mantel-Byar method provided unbiased estimates in all scenarios, whereas the exclusion and naïve methods resulted in substantial bias when the hazard of the event was constant or decreased over time. The landmark method performed well in correcting immortal person-time bias in all scenarios when the treatment effect was small, and provided unbiased estimates when there was no treatment effect. The bias associated with the landmark method tended to be small when the treatment rate was higher in the early follow-up period than it was later. These findings were confirmed in a case study of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Steimke, John L; Steeper, Timothy J; Herman, David T
A method of operating a hybrid sulfur electrolyzer to generate hydrogen is provided that includes the steps of providing an anolyte with a concentration of sulfur dioxide, and applying a current. During steady state generation of hydrogen a plot of applied current density versus concentration of sulfur dioxide is below a boundary line. The boundary line may be linear and extend through the origin of the graph with a slope of 0.001 in which the current density is measured in mA/cm2 and the concentration of sulfur dioxide is measured in moles of sulfur dioxide per liter of anolyte.
Marino, Elizabeth; Wolsko, Christopher; Keys, Susan; Wilcox, Holly
Reducing access to firearms as a suicide prevention strategy is limited in the US today because of divergent cultural attitudes and political contentiousness surrounding gun restrictions. This research examined the effects of culturally-specific suicide prevention messages on the likelihood of restricting firearm access during periods of suicide risk. Focus groups and key informant interviews were conducted with rural gun owners in order to develop a suicide prevention message that highlighted the importance of restricting access to firearms during periods of risk without threatening second amendment concerns. The effectiveness of this gun culture message, relative to standard suicide prevention messaging and a control condition, was then tested with a national sample of gun owners. Relative to all other conditions, respondents who received our culturally-specific message in conjunction with standard suicide prevention content reported the greatest likelihood of taking steps to restrict access to firearms. This tendency was enhanced for individuals who were more politically conservative, lived in more rural areas, and supported gun rights to a stronger degree. Findings underscore the importance of attending to cultural factors in public health messaging. Messaging that respects the values of gun owners could hold promise in promoting firearm restriction for suicide prevention.
Ghatowar, P S
The Union Deputy Minister of Health and Family Welfare in India addressed the 35th convocation of the International Institute for Population Sciences in Bombay in 1993. Officials in developing countries have been concerned about population growth for more than 30 years and have instituted policies to reduce population growth. In the 1960s, population growth in developing countries was around 2.5%, but today it is about 2%. Despite this decline, the world will have 1 billion more individuals by the year 2001. 95% of these new people will be born in developing countries. India's population size is so great that India does not have the time to wait for development to reduce population growth. Population needs to be viewed as an integrated part of overall development, since it is linked to poverty, illiteracy, environmental damage, gender issues, and reproductive health. Despite a large population size, India has made some important advancements in health and family planning. For example, India has reduced population growth (to 2.14% annually between 1981-1991), infant mortality, and its birth rate. It has increased the contraceptive use rate and life expectancy. Its southern states have been more successful at achieving demographic goals than have the northern states. India needs to implement efforts to improve living conditions, to change attitudes and perceptions about small families and contraception, and to promote family planning acceptance earlier among young couples. Improvement of living conditions is especially important in India, since almost 33% of the people live in poverty. India needs to invest in nutrition, health, and education. The mass media and nongovernmental organizations need to create population awareness and demand for family planning services. Improvement in women's status accelerates fertility decline, as has happened in Kerala State. The government needs to facilitate generation of jobs. Community participation is needed for India to achieve
DOE biomass R ampersand D programs have the potential to provide America with both plentiful, clean-burning domestic transportation fuels and cost-competitive industrial and utility fuels, benefiting energy security in the United States. Biofuels developed under our programs will also help improve air quality, reduce greenhouse gases, reduce the large daily quantities of waste we produce, and revitalize rural America. These research motivations have been documented in the National Energy Strategy. DOE looks forward to expanding its biofuels research program and to forging a partnership with private sector for cost-shared commercialization of new fuels and vehicle technologies. Many alternative fuels (e.g., ethanol, methanol, compressed natural gas, propane, or electricity) are candidates for gaining market share. Indeed, there may be significant regional variation in the future fuel mix. Alcohol fuels from biomass, particularly ethanol, have the potential to make a major contribution. Currently, ethanol in the United States is almost entirely made from corn; and the limitations of that process are well known (e.g., costly feedstock, end product requiring subsidy to be competitive, use of fossil fuels in renewable feedstock production and processing, and potential adverse impact of corn ethanol production on the price of food). To address these concerns, the DOE biofuels program is pursuing an ambitious research program to develop the technologies needed to convert these crops into alternative transportation fuels, primarily cellulose-based ethanol and methanol. Program R ampersand D has reduced the estimated cost per gallon of cellulose-based ethanol from $3.60 in 1980 to the current $1.35, with a program goal of $0.60 by the year 2000. DOE is also investigating the thermochemical conversion of biomass to methanol. The program goal is to achieve commercial production of methanol (like ethanol) at the gasoline equivalent of $0.90 per gallon by the year 2000. 4 figs
Adolescent girls and young women who are at risk for unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection (STI), including HIV, are frequently counseled to use a hormonal contraceptive to protect against the former and condoms to protect against the latter, for example, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, 2011. The present paper reviews the literature on multiple risk messages, compliance with this dual-use recommendation, predictors of dual use, and interventions developed to encourage dual use. Data indicate that simultaneous use of these two methods is not common, and that efforts to encourage dual use have not yielded promising results. An alternative is to recommend condom use alone, since condoms protect very well against STI and HIV, and quite well against pregnancy when used consistently and correctly. The availability of emergency contraception is relevant here. Research utilizing a randomized controlled trial is recommended.
Full Text Available Adolescent girls and young women who are at risk for unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection (STI, including HIV, are frequently counseled to use a hormonal contraceptive to protect against the former and condoms to protect against the latter, for exampe, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, 2011. The present paper reviews the literature on multiple risk messages, compliance with this dual-use recommendation, predictors of dual use, and interventions developed to encourage dual use. Data indicate that simultaneous use of these two methods is not common, and that efforts to encourage dual use have not yielded promising results. An alternative is to recommend condom use alone, since condoms protect very well against STI and HIV, and quite well against pregnancy when used consistently and correctly. The availability of emergency contraception is relevant here. Research utilizing a randomized controlled trial is recommended.
Arch, Joanna J.; Craske, Michelle G.
Nadler (this issue), in his commentary of our article, "Addressing Relapse in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Panic Disorder: Methods for Optimizing Long-Term Treatment Outcomes" (Arch & Craske, 2011), argues that we misrepresent the role of panic attacks within learning theory and overlook cognitive treatment targets. He presents several case…
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Ladies and Gentlemen, It is an honor for me to present my welcome address in the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3), as the president of Kanto Gakuin University. Particularly to those from abroad more than 17 countries, I am very grateful for your participation after long long trips from your home to Yokohama. On the behalf of the Kanto Gakuin University, we certainly welcome your visit to our university and stay in Yokohama. First I would like to introduce Kanto Gakuin University briefly. Kanto Gakuin University, which is called KGU, traces its roots back to the Yokohama Baptist Seminary founded in 1884 in Yamate, Yokohama. The seminary's founder was Albert Arnold Bennett, alumnus of Brown University, who came to Japan from the United States to establish a theological seminary for cultivating and training Japanese missionaries. Now KGU is a major member of the Kanto Gakuin School Corporation, which is composed of two kindergartens, two primary schools, two junior high schools, two senior high schools as well as KGU. In this university, we have eight faculties with graduate school including Humanities, Economics, Law, Sciences and Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Design, Human and Environmental Studies, Nursing, and Law School. Over eleven thousands students are currently learning in our university. By the way, my major is the geotechnical engineering, and I belong to the faculty of Sciences and Engineering in my university. Prof. T. Yamada, here, is my colleague in the same faculty. I know that the nuclear physics is one of the most active academic fields in the world. In fact, about half of the participants, namely, more than 50 scientists, come from abroad in this conference. Moreover, I know that the nuclear physics is related to not only the other fundamental physics such as the elementary particle physics and astrophysics but also chemistry, medical sciences, medical cares, and radiation metrology
patients may remain in good health and full mental activity for many years under treatment. Research made from this standpoint may be of much value in the prevention and treatment of functional nervous disorder. PMID:19986761
Hurren, Emily; Stewart, Anna; Dennison, Susan
Administrative data are crucial to the “big data” revolution of social science and have played an important role in the development of child maltreatment research. These data are also of value to administrators, policy makers, and clinicians. The focus of this paper is the use of administrative data to produce and replicate longitudinal studies of child maltreatment. Child protection administrative data have several advantages. They are often population-based, and allow longitudinal examination of child maltreatment and complex multi-level analyses. They also allow comparison across subgroups and minority groups, remove burden from individuals to disclose traumatic experiences, and can be less biased than retrospective recall. Finally, they can be linked to data from other agencies to explore comorbidity and outcomes, and are comparatively cost and time effective. The benefits and challenges associated with the use of administrative data for longitudinal child maltreatment research become magnified when these data are used to produce replications. Techniques to address challenges and support future replication efforts include developing a biographical understanding of the systems from which the data are drawn, using multiple data sources to contextualize the data and research results, recognizing and adopting various approaches to replication, and documenting all data coding and manipulation processes. These techniques are illustrated in this paper via a case study of previous replication work. PMID:28914775
Doddy Kastanya; Paul Turinsky
A Newton-BICGSTAB solver has been developed to reduce the CPU execution time of BWR core simulators. The new solver treats the strong non-linearities in the problem explicitly using the Newton's method, replacing the traditionally used nested iterative approach. The Newton's method provides the solver with a higher-than-linear convergence rate, assuming that a good initial estimate of the unknowns is provided. Within each Newton iteration, an appropriately preconditioned BICGSTAB method is utilized for solving the linearized system of equations. Taking advantage of the higher convergence rate provided by the Newton's method and utilizing an efficient preconditioned BICGSTAB solver, we have developed a computationally efficient Newton-BICGSTAB solver to evaluate the three-dimensional, two-group neutron diffusion equations coupled with a two-phase flow model within a BWR core simulator. The robustness of the solver has been tested against numerous BWR core configurations and consistent results have been observed each time. The Newton-BICGSTAB solver provides an overall speedup of around 1.7 to the core simulator, with reference to the traditional approach. Isolating the solver portion of the core simulator, one can see that the new algorithm actually provides a speedup of around 1.9, of which 48% can be attributed to the BICGSTAB solver and the remaining 52% to Newton's method
Houghton, J P; Roddy, S; Carroll, S; McCluggage, W G
Aims: Uteri are among the most common surgical pathology specimens. Assessment of the endometrium is often difficult because of pronounced tissue autolysis. This study describes a simple method to prevent endometrial autolysis and aid in interpretation of the endometrium.
Yu, Menggang; Xie, Dawei; Wang, Xingmei; Weiner, Mark G; Tannen, Richard L
The purpose of this study was to evaluate a statistical method, prior event rate ratio (PERR) adjustment, and an alternative, PERR-ALT, both of which have the potential to overcome "unmeasured confounding," both analytically and via simulation. Formulae were derived for the target estimates of both PERR methods, which were compared with results from simulations to ensure their validity. In addition to the theoretical insights gained, relative biases of both PERR methods for estimating exposure effects were also investigated via simulation studies and compared empirically with electronic medical record database study results. Theoretical derivations closely matched simulated results. In simulation studies, both PERR methods significantly reduce bias from unmeasured confounding compared with the standard Cox model. When there is no interaction between unmeasured confounders and time intervals, the estimate from PERR-ALT is unbiased, whereas the estimate from PERR has well-controlled relative bias. When interactions exist, relative biases tend to increase but not greatly, especially when the exposure effect is relatively large in comparison with the interaction effects. When the event rate is low and the sample size is limited, PERR is more computationally stable than PERR-ALT. In empiric study comparisons with randomized controlled trials, both PERR methods show potential to reduce bias from the standard Cox model similarly when unmeasured confounding is present. Extensive simulation studies and theoretical derivation show that PERR-based methods may reduce bias from unmeasured confounders when the exposure effect is relatively large in comparison with confounder-exposure interaction. The rare study event situation warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full text: It is an honour for me to make this opening address on behalf of the European Commission which has cooperated with the International Atomic Energy Agency in organizing this Conference, and in particular on behalf of Hans Forsstroem from the Directorate-General, Research, who will arrive only later this week. Protection of the environment is, and will continue to be, an important consideration in the development and application of soundly based radiation protection standards. Current standards rest largely on the premise that, in protecting man, the environment is afforded an adequate level of protection. While this premise is broadly accepted by the radiation protection profession, it has come under increasing challenge in recent years. This challenge has not arisen because of any observable damage to the environment while operating within current standards. Rather, it has different origins including: - The robustness of the premise that protection of man affords protection of the environment, in particular the extent to which it is based on value judgements as opposed to rigorous scientific argument; - The more explicit inclusion of protection of the environment into national legislation on radiation protection and the need to demonstrate compliance; - A desire to achieve greater comparability between radiation and other pollutants. These trends were recognized by the Commission in the late 1990s and, as a result, the topic of protection of the environment was included as an important element of the European Union's 5th Research Framework Programme. Community support has been given to the FASSET project about which we will hear much during this Conference. This multinational project is providing much of the scientific basis underpinning and informing ongoing discussions on the development of a system of protection for the environment. Much, however, remains to be done to establish a well conceived and practicable system for protection of the environment
Shunglu, V K
Rapid and substantial population growth in India is hampering development. Family welfare programs in the country during the last four years have not met population reduction goals. The decentralization of political and administrative power in relevant programs, however, will help the country attain its goal of replacement fertility. To that end, the 73rd and 74th amendments to the constitution have recently been enacted to help decentralize power to people at the village, intermediate, and district levels. The participation of the people is essential for success. State ministers of health must begin assigning management of the rural health care systems to the Panchayats. Population policy has changed so that family planning is now provided within the broader context of maternal and child health care, emphasizing voluntarism and informed choice among contraceptive methods and popular participation. The speaker laments the decline of male participation in family planning and calls for high priority to be given to developing fertility regulation methods for men as well as identifying factors which prohibit male participation. The country's unbalanced female to male sex ratio and interstate and inter-district variations in social parameters which have a bearing upon population growth rates also merit attention. Investing in human resources is crucial to the success of population programs. Financing has therefore increased for poverty alleviation programs and other social sector programs.
Nketiah-Amponsah, Edward; Afful-Mensah, Gloria
This paper reviews HIV/AIDS awareness, knowledge and preventive methods in Ghana over the past two decades drawing heavily on the 2003 and 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys (GDHS). The review reveals that there is almost a universal awareness of HIV/AIDS in Ghana although there are still some deficiencies in comprehensive knowledge of the epidemic. Nevertheless, there seem to be some gender differences in the level of awareness since men have more knowledge on HIV/AIDS including its prevention than women. Besides, it is revealed that knowledge of preventive measures lagged behind awareness of the epidemic. In addition, male respondents between 15 and 24 years are more aware of the preventive measures than their female counterparts. Against the backdrop that women are more affected by the epidemic than men, there is the need to intensify the knowledge and preventive methods of HIV/AIDS especially among the women in their reproductive age.
Jacobs, Nathan T; Cortes, Daniel H; Vresilovic, Edward J; Elliott, Dawn M
Planar biaxial tension remains a critical loading modality for fibrous soft tissue and is widely used to characterize tissue mechanical response, evaluate treatments, develop constitutive formulas, and obtain material properties for use in finite element studies. Although the application of tension on all edges of the test specimen represents the in situ environment, there remains a need to address the interpretation of experimental results. Unlike uniaxial tension, in biaxial tension the applied forces at the loading clamps do not transmit fully to the region of interest (ROI), which may lead to improper material characterization if not accounted for. In this study, we reviewed the tensile biaxial literature over the last ten years, noting experimental and analysis challenges. In response to these challenges, we used finite element simulations to quantify load transmission from the clamps to the ROI in biaxial tension and to formulate a correction factor that can be used to determine ROI stresses. Additionally, the impact of sample geometry, material anisotropy, and tissue orientation on the correction factor were determined. Large stress concentrations were evident in both square and cruciform geometries and for all levels of anisotropy. In general, stress concentrations were greater for the square geometry than the cruciform geometry. For both square and cruciform geometries, materials with fibers aligned parallel to the loading axes reduced stress concentrations compared to the isotropic tissue, resulting in more of the applied load being transferred to the ROI. In contrast, fiber-reinforced specimens oriented such that the fibers aligned at an angle to the loading axes produced very large stress concentrations across the clamps and shielding in the ROI. A correction factor technique was introduced that can be used to calculate the stresses in the ROI from the measured experimental loads at the clamps. Application of a correction factor to experimental biaxial
Halken, S; Høst, A
, breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....
Janak, Jud C; Sosnov, Jonathan A; Bares, Joan M; Stockinger, Zsolt T; Montgomery, Harold R; Kotwal, Russ S; Butler, Frank K; Shackelford, Stacy A; Gurney, Jennifer M; Spott, Mary Ann; Finelli, Louis N; Mazuchowski, Edward L; Smith, David J
Military and civilian trauma experts initiated a collaborative effort to develop an integrated learning trauma system to reduce preventable morbidity and mortality. Because the Department of Defense does not currently have recommended guidelines and standard operating procedures to perform military preventable death reviews in a consistent manner, these performance improvement processes must be developed. To compare military and civilian preventable death determination methods to understand the existing best practices for evaluating preventable death. This systematic review followed the PRISMA reporting guidelines. English-language articles were searched from inception to February 15, 2017, using the following databases: MEDLINE (Ovid), Evidence-Based Medicine Reviews (Ovid), PubMed, CINAHL, and Google Scholar. Articles were initially screened for eligibility and excluded based on predetermined criteria. Articles reviewing only prehospital deaths, only inhospital deaths, or both were eligible for inclusion. Information on study characteristics was independently abstracted by 2 investigators. Reported are methodological factors affecting the reliability of preventable death studies and the preventable death rate, defined as the number of potentially preventable deaths divided by the total number of deaths within a specific patient population. Fifty studies (8 military and 42 civilian) met the inclusion criteria. In total, 1598 of 6500 military deaths reviewed and 3346 of 19 108 civilian deaths reviewed were classified as potentially preventable. Among military studies, the preventable death rate ranged from 3.1% to 51.4%. Among civilian studies, the preventable death rate ranged from 2.5% to 85.3%. The high level of methodological heterogeneity regarding factors, such as preventable death definitions, review process, and determination criteria, hinders a meaningful quantitative comparison of preventable death rates. The reliability of military and civilian
Raymond, J; Guillemin, F; Proust, F; Molyneux, A J; Fox, A J; Claiborne, J S; Meder, J F; Rouleau, I
The preventive treatment of unruptured aneurysms has been performed for decades despite the lack of evidence of a clinical benefit. Reports of observational studies such as the International Study of Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms (ISUIA) suggest that preventive treatments are rarely justified. Are these reports compelling enough to guide clinical practice? The ISUIA methods and data are reviewed and analysed in a more conventional manner. The design of the appropriate clinical research program is approached by steps, reviewing potential problems, from the formulation of the precise research question to the interpretation of subgroup analyses, including sample size, representativity, duration of observation period, blinding, definition of outcome events, analysis of cross-overs, losses to follow-up, and data reporting. Unruptured intracranial aneurysms observed in ISUIA ruptured at a minimal annual rate of 0.8% (0.5-1%), despite multiple methodological difficulties biased in favour of a benign natural history. Available registries do not have the power or the design capable of providing normative guidelines for clinical decisions. The appropriate method to solve the clinical dilemma is a multicentric trial comparing the incidence of a hard clinical outcome events in approximately 2000 patients randomly allocated to a treatment group and a deferred treatment group, all followed for ten years or more. Observational studies have failed to provide reliable evidence in favour or against the preventive treatment of unruptured aneurysms. A randomized trial is in order to clarify what is the role of prevention in this common clinical problem.
Mantell Joanne E
Full Text Available Abstract Background The promise of microbicides as an HIV prevention method will not be realized if not supported by health care providers. They are the primary source of sexual health information for potential users, in both the public and private health sectors. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine perceptions of vaginal microbicides as a potential HIV prevention method among health care providers in Durban and Hlabisa, South Africa, using a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods. Results During 2004, semi structured interviews with 149 health care providers were conducted. Fifty seven percent of hospital managers, 40% of pharmacists and 35% of nurses possessed some basic knowledge of microbicides, such as the product being used intra-vaginally before sex to prevent HIV infection. The majority of them were positive about microbicides and were willing to counsel users regarding potential use. Providers from both public and private sectors felt that an effective microbicide should be available to all people, regardless of HIV status. Providers felt that the product should be accessed over-the-counter in pharmacies and in retail stores. They also felt a need for potential microbicides to be available free of charge, and packaged with clear instructions. The media was seen by health care providers as being an effective strategy for promoting microbicides. Conclusion Overall, health care providers were very positive about the possible introduction of an effective microbicide for HIV prevention. The findings generated by this study illustrated the need for training health care providers prior to making the product accessible, as well as the importance of addressing the potential barriers to use of the product by women. These are important concerns in the health care community, and this study also served to educate them for the day when research becomes reality.
Gollub, Erica L.
Women drug users are at extremely high risk of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) from sexual transmission, but remain seriously neglected in intervention research promoting women-initiated methods of HIV/STI prevention. Sparse available data indicate a high interest and enthusiasm for women-initiated methods among these women.…
Kerbusch, A.E.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Mulder, J.; Sanden, W.J.M. van der
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to survey methods that Dutch orthodontists use to prevent development or progression of enamel decalcifications during orthodontic treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A pre-tested questionnaire was sent by post to all orthodontists in the Netherlands with a
Fluttert, F.A.J.; Meijel, B.K.G. van; Nijman, H.L.I.; Björkly, S.; Grypdonck, M.H.F.
Objective. The Early Recognition Method aims at improving collaboration between nurses and patients to prevent aggression in forensic psychiatric care. To achieve this goal, Early Recognition Method strongly focuses on early signs of aggression. In the current study, we investigated whether
Pediatricians can be a door opener to early prevention for families at risk. The German well-child program is well-established, but there is a gap between the structural possibilities and the observed placements. The aim of this review is to show how pediatricians and parents talk about psychosocial risks under the very structured conditions of well-child visits. The challenges and traps of the framed interactions will be described and options for early prevention will be shown. The review is primarily based on the work of conversational and ethnomethodological studies reconstructing the pediatrician's discussion with parents about psychosocial issues in the family. Well-child visits are a highly routinized practice. Talking about family issues for both partners is a difficult task. Discussions about psychosocial issues are seldom and vague . Predominantly, they work cooperatively on reciprocal normalization of the child's development. Based on this shared orientation, pediatricians make an early, mostly general, prescription of parental tasks, supporting the child in the next developmental step. This kind of routine anticipatory counselling puts some pressure on the parents. Parents under unknown stress could be overburdened with this advice. In the script of well-child visits, there are no slots that indicate to pediatricians and parents when, which, how and for what purpose psychosocial issues can be discussed and negotiated. For implementing such slots in well-child visits, three steps are necessary: a structured and regular assessment of psychosocial issues, a trained pediatrician in motivational interviewing and a social worker guiding the family in the network of early prevention.
Källestål, C; Wang, N J; Petersen, P E; Arnadottir, I B
Denmark, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden have all had a similar decline in dental caries during the last 20 years, although the decline has come later in Iceland. The purpose of this study was to compare the caries-preventive methods used for children and adolescents in these four countries. Questionnaires were sent to random samples of dentists, dental hygienists, and dental nurses working with children during 1995 and 1996. The results showed that the use of preventive methods was generally consistent between the countries. Nevertheless there were differences between the countries concerning the choice of preventive strategy for risk patients and also in how prevention was implemented. Danish dental care providers chose oral hygiene education as the priority, which they put into practice. Apart from fluoride varnish for some patients, most of them did not use or recommend fluoride except fluoride toothpaste. The Norwegian and Icelandic dental care providers chose both oral hygiene education and the use of fluoride as priorities, while most Swedish dental care providers preferred to provide dietary advice and oral hygiene education, and additional fluoride for risk patients. The differences could not be explained by other variables than nationality, implying that there are differences between the dental cultures in the four countries. The informational basis of decisions on preventive strategies varied between the different dental professionals in each country as well as between the countries, indicating that national professional cultures are being shaped differently. Despite the differences in choice of preventive methods, the dental health of children varies little across the frontiers. This raises the question of the significance of the choice of preventive methods to the decline of dental caries and points towards an urgent need to develop evidence-based preventive strategies.
... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir This photograph ... medications to treat a dengue infection. This makes prevention the most important step, and prevention means avoiding ...
Demirjian, Louise; LaGuardia, Teri; Thompson-Repas, Karen; Conway, Carol; Michaud, Paula
PURPOSE. We explored the meaning and outcomes of a 6-mo building capacity process designed to promote knowledge translation of a public health approach to mental health among pediatric occupational therapy practitioners participating in a Community of Practice. METHOD. A one-group (N = 117) mixed-methods design using a pretest–posttest survey and qualitative analysis of written reflections was used to explore the meaning and outcomes of the building capacity process. RESULTS. Statistically significant improvements (p occupational therapy’s role in addressing children’s mental health. PMID:26565099
Patnode, Carrie D; Eder, Michelle L; Walsh, Emily S; Viswanathan, Meera; Lin, Jennifer S
Rapid review products are intended to synthesize available evidence in a timely fashion while still meeting the needs of healthcare decision makers. Various methods and products have been applied for rapid evidence syntheses, but no single approach has been uniformly adopted. Methods to gain efficiency and compress the review time period include focusing on a narrow clinical topic and key questions; limiting the literature search; performing single (versus dual) screening of abstracts and full-text articles for relevance; and limiting the analysis and synthesis. In order to maintain the scientific integrity, including transparency, of rapid evidence syntheses, it is imperative that procedures used to streamline standard systematic review methods are prespecified, based on sound review principles and empiric evidence when possible, and provide the end user with an accurate and comprehensive synthesis. The collection of clinical preventive service recommendations maintained by the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, along with its commitment to rigorous methods development, provide a unique opportunity to refine, implement, and evaluate rapid evidence synthesis methods and add to an emerging evidence base on rapid review methods. This paper summarizes the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force's use of rapid review methodology, its criteria for selecting topics for rapid evidence syntheses, and proposed methods to streamline the review process. Copyright © 2018 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.
Saul, Janet; Moore, Janet; Murphy, Sheila T; Miller, Lynn C
This study examined the association of relationship violence and preference for three HIV prevention methods among 104 African American and Hispanic women who were at some risk for heterosexual transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Women completed a brief questionnaire on sexual behaviors and history of relationship violence. All women then watched a video describing three HIV/STD prevention methods (male condoms, female condoms, and vaginal spermicide) that included a discussion of method effectiveness, how to use each method, and their benefits and limitations. Participants then completed a questionnaire assessing their reactions to each of the three HIV prevention methods discussed in the video. Women in violent relationships indicated less likelihood of using male condoms and greater likelihood of using female-controlled methods, particularly vaginal spermicide, than women in nonviolent relationships. In addition, a higher percentage of women in violent compared to nonviolent relationships expected their partners to prefer the vaginal spermicide and a lower percentage expected partners to prefer male condoms. These data suggest that the current focus on finding alternative HIV prevention methods for women in violent relationships is warranted and that a vaginal microbicidal product may be the preferred alternative for this group of women and their male partners.
Z. K. Malieva
Full Text Available A moral alienation is a complex integrative phenomenon characterized by individual’s rejection of universal spiritual and moral values of society. The last opportunity to find a purposeful competent solution of the problem of individual’s moral alienation lies in the space of professional education.The subject of study of this article is to identify methods for prevention and correction of moral alienation of students that can be used by teachers both in the process of extracurricular activities, and in conducting classes in humanitarian disciplines.The purpose of the work is to study methods and techniques that enhance the effectiveness of the prevention and correction of moral alienation of students, identify their characteristics and application in the educational activities of teachers.The paper concretizes a definition of methods to prevent and correct the moral alienation of students who represent a system of interrelated actions of educator and students aimed at: redefining of negative values, rules and norms of behavior; overcoming the negative mental states, negative attitudes, interests and aptitudes of aducatees.The article distinguishes and characterizes the most effective methods for prevention and correction of moral alienation of students: the conviction, the method of "Socrates"; understanding; semiotic analysis; suggestion, method of "explosion." It also presents the rules and necessary conditions for the application of these methods in the educational process.It is ascertained that the choice of effective preventive and corrective methods and techniques is determined by the content of intrapersonal, psychological sources of moral alienation associated with the following: negative attitude due to previous experience; orientation to these or those negative values; inadequate self-esteem, having a negative impact on the development and functioning of the individual’s psyche and behavior; mental states.The conclusions of the
Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the effectiveness of various methods of iron deficiency prevention in infants. Materials and Methods. Within 30-cluster regional epidemiological study on the prevalence of iodine and iron deficiency in children, we have analyzed the results of screening for anemia in 948 children, carried out questioning of mothers, determined the concentration of iron in breast milk. The effectiveness of preventive measures was assessed by indicators of iron supplementation of the body in 96 children depending on the existing method of iron prophylaxis. Results of the Study. It was found that the use by mother during lactation of iron-containing vitamin-mineral complexes had no effect on the iron content in breast milk. It is proved that administration of iron (III hydroxide polymaltose complex 1 mg/kg/day for 2 months is the most effective way to prevent iron deficiency in children who are exclusively breastfed.
Nishiyama, Noriko; Mori, Hirohito; Kobara, Hideki; Rafiq, Kazi; Fujihara, Shintaro; Matsunaga, Tae; Ayaki, Maki; Yachida, Tatsuo; Oryu, Makoto; Masaki, Tsutomu
Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) of large gastric lesions often leads to severe gastric strictures, especially in cases of large ESD in the antrum of the stomach. It has recently been reported that balloon dilation, mucosal incision, and local steroid injections can successfully treat gastric strictures. However, there are some complications with existing methods and decreasing the quality of life. We have developed a novel method to prevent severe gastric strictures that does not involve balloon dilation, mucosal incision, or steroid injections after circumferential ESD. Our original method involves the submucosal injection of a mixed solution composed of triamcinolone acetonide and a general solution of glycerol, hyaluronic acid, and a small amount of indigo carmine and epinephrine during the ESD procedure; this mixture is called a mixed solution of triamcinolone (MST). According to standard ESD procedures, several milliliters of MST are injected into the submucosal layer for the purpose of elevating the submucosa during ESD resulting in prevention of severe strictures. Our method using MST take several advantages such as MST method suppress inflammation in ulcer from initial phase, prevention of stricture without obstructive symptoms, and does not require several ballooning. Therefore, MST method is safe and gentle, shorten the hospitalization duration. Here, we described two cases in which we prevented severe strictures of the gastric antrum after completing a circumferential ESD using MST without any complications.
Full Text Available Purpose: to study efficiency of various methods of prevention of perinatal complications in mother and child. Material and methods. In three risk groups preventive treatment of intrauterine infected fetus (IUIF, gestosis, noncarrying of pregnancy and fetoplacental insufficiency has been carried out. In group I consisted of 71 pregnant women preventive treatment has included medication with application of antioxidants; stimulators of processes of carboxylation in cycle Krebs; endogenic synthesis prostaglandins, prostacyclin; drugs improving processes of microcirculation, stabilizing function of endothelium ofvessels, an exchange of homocysteine. In group II consisted of 67 pregnant women prevention of IUIF and complications has been carried out by means of physical exercises in combination with aqua aerobics. In group III consisted of 100 women prevention of IUIF has been standard. In the control group IV consisted of 70 women pregnancy has not been complicated. Parameters of oxidant and antioxidant systems, central hemodynamics, determined in this group have been determined as normal for comparison. Results. In relation to group III medicamen-tous treatment in group I, regular aqua aerobics in group II have allowed to lower frequency of IUIF, perinatal mother complications, perinatal diseases, death rates in newborns and morbidity in children of early age. Conclusion. For the prevention of IUIF, mother and child perinatal complications, morbidity in children of early age it has been proposed to use medication and regular aqua aerobics which provides nonmedicamentous pregnancy course
Isora Ramos Valle
Full Text Available The development of a strong national response involving multiple sectors—including civil society—is an essential aspect of the social management of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The goals of this response are to control the epidemic and improve the quality of life for people living with HIV/AIDS; this includes combating stigma and discrimination, as well as ensuring due compliance with the law. Cuba has a national program to prevent and control HIV/AIDS. Since 2003 Cuba’s national program has received material and financial support from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. Program evaluation is carried out by an independent team at ENSAP (National School of Public Health. This paper reports on results of one part of that evaluation: an assessment of the agencies and sectors who made up the organized social and national response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The evaluation primarily used qualitative analyses of the activities and tasks proposed by sectors in their 2006-2008 work plans. Visits were made to the provinces of Ciudad de la Habana, Matanzas, and Holguín. Qualitative techniques included in-depth interviews, semi-structured interviews, observation, and review of documentary evidence of all kinds (videos, reports, minutes, protocols, results of social research, and radio broadcast messages and varied depending on the particular features of each sector. We noted improvements in multi-sector participation in the prevention and response to the national HIV/AIDS epidemic. Conscious of their role, sectors generally carried out their programmed activities and had improved their organization, planning, and systematization; integration among the sectors was also better. These local initiatives provided evidence of a multi-sector response characterized by autonomy, emotional involvement, and an identification with the goals of the project; this went beyond simply meeting targets. Cross-sector work showed a marked increase and a
Borys, J-M; Le Bodo, Y; Jebb, S A; Seidell, J C; Summerbell, C; Richard, D; De Henauw, S; Moreno, L A; Romon, M; Visscher, T L S; Raffin, S; Swinburn, B
Childhood obesity is a complex issue and needs multi-stakeholder involvement at all levels to foster healthier lifestyles in a sustainable way. 'Ensemble Prévenons l'Obésité Des Enfants' (EPODE, Together Let's Prevent Childhood Obesity) is a large-scale, coordinated, capacity-building approach for communities to implement effective and sustainable strategies to prevent childhood obesity. This paper describes EPODE methodology and its objective of preventing childhood obesity. At a central level, a coordination team, using social marketing and organizational techniques, trains and coaches a local project manager nominated in each EPODE community by the local authorities. The local project manager is also provided with tools to mobilize local stakeholders through a local steering committee and local networks. The added value of the methodology is to mobilize stakeholders at all levels across the public and the private sectors. Its critical components include political commitment, sustainable resources, support services and a strong scientific input--drawing on the evidence-base--together with evaluation of the programme. Since 2004, EPODE methodology has been implemented in more than 500 communities in six countries. Community-based interventions are integral to childhood obesity prevention. EPODE provides a valuable model to address this challenge. © 2011 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2011 International Association for the Study of Obesity.
Kim, Ki-Hwan; Kim, Jong Hwan; Song, Hoon; Kim, Hyung-Tae; Lee, Jung-Won; Lee, Chan-Bock
In order to develop innovative fabrication method of metal fuel slugs for preventing the evaporation of volatile elements such as Am, modified casting under inert atmosphere has been applied for metal fuel slugs for SFR. Alternative fabrication method of fuel slugs has been introduced to develop an improved fabrication process of metal fuel for preventing the evaporation of volatile elements. In this study, U-10wt.%Zr-Mn fuel slugs for SFR have been fabricated by modified casting method and characterized to evaluate the feasibility of the alternative fabrication method. Alternative casting such as modified casting has been applied to develop fabrication method of fuel slugs for preventing the evaporation of volatile elements such as Am. U-10wt.%Zr-Mn containing a volatile surrogate Mn fuel slug was soundly fabricated under inert atmosphere with dimensions of L250mm. Mass fraction of fuel loss was so low, upto 0.2%. Mn element was most recovered with prevention in evaporation of Mn. It was seen that the losses of volatile Am can be effectively controlled to below detectable levels using modest pressure
Full Text Available The article presents a new teaching method designed to improve road safety among young road users. Developed under “European Road Safety Tunes”, this international project was cofunded by EU DG MOVE. Its main aim is to improve road safety and minimize the number of road accidents, injuries and fatalities among road users who are 15-24 years old. The Safety Tunes method contains a series of workshops addressed to young vocational school students: cyclists, moped and motor riders and car drivers. The workshops incorporate peer and emotive education, and delivery of road safety related messages through different types of artistic forms. The topics tackled during class address awareness of possible risks and risk-behaviour, prevention of distraction and reduction in young fatalities and serious injuries on the road. All actions within the project are evaluated, both in terms of the impact of the workshops on students’ attitudes towards road safety problems and in terms of process assessment.
Manca, Donna Patricia; Aubrey-Bassler, Kris; Kandola, Kami; Aguilar, Carolina; Campbell-Scherer, Denise; Sopcak, Nicolette; O'Brien, Mary Ann; Meaney, Christopher; Faria, Vee; Baxter, Julia; Moineddin, Rahim; Salvalaggio, Ginetta; Green, Lee; Cave, Andrew; Grunfeld, Eva
The objectives of this paper are to describe the planned implementation and evaluation of the Building on Existing Tools to Improve Chronic Disease Prevention and Screening in Primary Care (BETTER 2) program which originated from the BETTER trial. The pragmatic trial, informed by the Chronic Care Model, demonstrated the effectiveness of an approach to Chronic Disease Prevention and Screening (CDPS) involving the use of a new role, the prevention practitioner. The desired goals of the program are improved clinical outcomes, reduction in the burden of chronic disease, and improved sustainability of the health-care system through improved CDPS in primary care. The BETTER 2 program aims to expand the implementation of the intervention used in the original BETTER trial into communities across Canada (Alberta, Ontario, Newfoundland and Labrador, the Northwest Territories and Nova Scotia). This proactive approach provides at-risk patients with an intervention from the prevention practitioner, a health-care professional. Using the BETTER toolkit, the prevention practitioner determines which CDPS actions the patient is eligible to receive, and through shared decision-making and motivational interviewing, develops a unique and individualized 'prevention prescription' with the patient. This intervention is 1) personalized; 2) addressing multiple conditions; 3) integrated through linkages to local, regional, or national resources; and 4) longitudinal by assessing patients over time. The BETTER 2 program brings together primary care providers, policy/decision makers and researchers to work towards improving CDPS in primary care. The target patient population is adults aged 40-65. The reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, maintain (RE-AIM) framework will inform the evaluation of the program through qualitative and quantitative methods. A composite index will be used to quantitatively assess the effectiveness of the prevention practitioner intervention. The CDPS actions
Mul, M.F.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.
Preventing the establishment of ectoparasitic poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) populations is key in ensuring welfare and egg production of laying hens and absence of allergic reactions of workers in poultry facilities. Using the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point method, a panel of
Bruzzese, Jean-Marie; Gallagher, Richard; McCann-Doyle, Sharon; Reiss, Philip T.; Wijetunga, Neil A.
Background: Poor recruitment and high attrition may invalidate results of research studies. This paper describes successful recruitment and retention strategies in a school-based substance use prevention trial and explores factors associated with intervention attendance and retention. Methods: A total of 384 parent-child dyads from 15 schools in…
This research details a methodology designed for creating content in support of various phishing prevention tasks including live exercises and detection algorithm research. Our system uses probabilistic context-free grammars (PCFG) and variable interpolation as part of a multi-pass method to create diverse and consistent phishing email content on…
Manap, N.; Tan, K. Y.; Syahrom, N.
Pile foundation is widely used in construction and building marine structures. This is because pile foundation is an important structure and should have long-term durability. However, in waterfront development, a lot of issues from the seawater should be considered distinctively because it consists of many problems that can affect the building structure especially the foundation of the building. Thus, a research should be conducted to identify issues of pile foundation at waterfront development and determine its prevention methods. The research was carried out through interviews with the developers and contractors from the projects of Lexis Hibiscus at Port Dickson, Negeri Sembilan and Redevelopment for Deep-Water Facilities at Quay 6 in Pasir Gudang, Johor, Malaysia. The objectives of this research are to identify issues of pile foundation and to determine the prevention methods of pile foundation issues at waterfront development. All respondents agreed that the main issues of pile foundations at waterfront development are the wave and tide condition. The prevention methods of the issue faced at waterfront development that are most frequently used for the pile foundation are coating system and concrete cover. This research is beneficial to all developers and contractors to ensure pile foundations at waterfront development can be protected by using the prevention methods.
There is a great need for empirical evidence to inform clinical prevention and management of overweight and obesity. Application of virtual reality (VR) methods to this research agenda could present considerable advantages. Use of VR methods in basic and applied obesity prevention and treatment research is currently extremely limited. However, VR has been employed for social and behavioral research in many other domains where it has demonstrated validity and utility. Advantages of VR technologies as research tools include the ability to situate hypothetical research scenarios in realistic settings, tight experimental control inherent in virtual environments, the ability to manipulate and control any and all scenario elements, and enhanced behavioral measurement opportunities. The means by which each of these features could enhance obesity prevention and management research is discussed and illustrated in the context of an example research study. Challenges associated with the application of VR methods, such as technological limitations and cost, are also considered. By employing experimental VR methods to interrogate clinical encounters and other health-related situations, researchers may be able to elucidate causal relationships, strengthen theoretical models, and identify potential targets for intervention. In so doing, researchers stand to make important contributions to evidence-based practice innovation in weight management and obesity prevention. © 2011 Diabetes Technology Society.
Menendez Garcia, J.C.; Delgado Macias, M.T.
In view of the prevalence of ectopic bone development after hip surgery, a review has been done on the reports appearing in the literature dealing with the use of irradiation, at different doses and postoperative intervals, as a method to prevent this complication. The results demonstrate the efficacy of radiotherapy in preventing ectopic bone formation, the need to begin its application within the first four days of surgical treatment and the fact that satisfactory results can be obtained with relatively low and, thus, theoretically innocuous doses. 17 refs
Longbottom, C; Ekstrand, K; Zero, D
conventional operative care, and since controlling the caries process prior to first restoration is the key to breaking the repair cycle and improving care for patients, future research should address the shortcomings in the current level of supporting evidence for the various traditional preventive treatment......Preventive treatment options can be divided into primary, secondary and tertiary prevention techniques, which can involve patient- or professionally applied methods. These include: oral hygiene (instruction), pit and fissure sealants ('temporary' or 'permanent'), fluoride applications (patient...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Accidental hypothermia increases mortality and morbidity in trauma patients. Various methods for insulating and wrapping hypothermic patients are used worldwide. The aim of this study was to compare the thermal insulating effects and comfort of bubble wrap, ambulance blankets / quilts, and Hibler's method, a low-cost method combining a plastic outer layer with an insulating layer. Methods Eight volunteers were dressed in moistened clothing, exposed to a cold and windy environment then wrapped using one of the three different insulation methods in random order on three different days. They were rested quietly on their back for 60 minutes in a cold climatic chamber. Skin temperature, rectal temperature, oxygen consumption were measured, and metabolic heat production was calculated. A questionnaire was used for a subjective evaluation of comfort, thermal sensation, and shivering. Results Skin temperature was significantly higher 15 minutes after wrapping using Hibler's method compared with wrapping with ambulance blankets / quilts or bubble wrap. There were no differences in core temperature between the three insulating methods. The subjects reported more shivering, they felt colder, were more uncomfortable, and had an increased heat production when using bubble wrap compared with the other two methods. Hibler's method was the volunteers preferred method for preventing hypothermia. Bubble wrap was the least effective insulating method, and seemed to require significantly higher heat production to compensate for increased heat loss. Conclusions This study demonstrated that a combination of vapour tight layer and an additional dry insulating layer (Hibler's method is the most efficient wrapping method to prevent heat loss, as shown by increased skin temperatures, lower metabolic rate and better thermal comfort. This should then be the method of choice when wrapping a wet patient at risk of developing hypothermia in prehospital
Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum
Mycoplasma bovis introduction to and spread within cattle herds is difficult to predict, and no vaccines provide efficient prevention today despite the fact that this infection severely affects animal welfare and leads to economic losses in cattle farms worldwide. The most common transmission...... from infected bulls and perhaps long-distance airborne pathogens being spread between outbreaks and susceptible farms. Prevention and control methods have to focus on management and biosecurity measures that maximise resilience of the farm system and the animals’ resistance against the disease in case...... the herd becomes exposed to M. bovis - or new strains of M. bovis. Luckily this also has great benefits on the general health and production in cattle farms. The general prevention measures can to some extent be supported by diagnostic testing prior to movement of cattle, even though it is not possible...
Orne-Gliemann, Joanna; Larmarange, Joseph; Boyer, Sylvie; Iwuji, Collins; McGrath, Nuala; Bärnighausen, Till; Zuma, Thembelile; Dray-Spira, Rosemary; Spire, Bruno; Rochat, Tamsen; Lert, France; Imrie, John
The Universal HIV Test and Treat (UTT) strategy represents a challenge for science, but is also a challenge for individuals and societies. Are repeated offers of provider-initiated HIV testing and immediate antiretroviral therapy (ART) socially-acceptable and can these become normalized over time? Can UTT be implemented without potentially adding to individual and community stigma, or threatening individual rights? What are the social, cultural and economic implications of UTT for households and communities? And can UTT be implemented within capacity constraints and other threats to the overall provision of HIV services? The answers to these research questions will be critical for routine implementation of UTT strategies. A social science research programme is nested within the ANRS 12249 Treatment-as-Prevention (TasP) cluster-randomised trial in rural South Africa. The programme aims to inform understanding of the (i) social, economic and environmental factors affecting uptake of services at each step of the continuum of HIV prevention, treatment and care and (ii) the causal impacts of the TasP intervention package on social and economic factors at the individual, household, community and health system level. We describe a multidisciplinary, multi-level, mixed-method research protocol that includes individual, household, community and clinic surveys, and combines quantitative and qualitative methods. The UTT strategy is changing the overall approach to HIV prevention, treatment and care, and substantial social consequences may be anticipated, such as changes in social representations of HIV transmission, prevention, HIV testing and ART use, as well as changes in individual perceptions and behaviours in terms of uptake and frequency of HIV testing and ART initiation at high CD4. Triangulation of social science studies within the ANRS 12249 TasP trial will provide comprehensive insights into the acceptability and feasibility of the TasP intervention package at
Elena Doina Mircioagă
Full Text Available Key words: sportsmen, musculo-skeletal traumas, calf, prevention, rehabilitation The study starts from the premise that the high trauma incidence among competitive sportsmen is caused by factors that can be controlled at least partially through primary prevention methods.Obiective: The objective of the study is to reduce the number of traumas in the studied sportsmen through the identification of risk factors and the introduction of prevention exercises and stretching techniques exercises in the training programme, both during warm-up and in post-effort rehabilitation, in order to prevent injuries and increase performance. Material and methods: The study was performed on a batch of 155 sportsmen, who practised athletics, basketball, handball, volleyball. The sportsmen were between 13 and 42 years old and have been practising sports for 4-20 years. The sportsmen were closely monitored during the study that covered three years of competitions: August 2006 – July 2009.The comparison of the trauma percentages affecting the segments, calf, between the two studied periods – August 2006 - July 2008 and August 2008 – July 2009, has revealed the following significant results: There are significantly less traumas calf, in the second period. Period 1- 30 sportsmen (19.35% suffered 1 calf trauma in Aug. 2006 – July 2008.Period 2 - 15 sportsmen (9.68% suffered 1 calf trauma in Aug. 2008 – July 2009. The number of sportsmen with calf traumas decreased to half (9.67% in the second period.
NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This dataset contains Address Points in Allegheny County. The Address Points were created by GDR for the Allegheny County CAD project, October 2008. Data is updated...
Montgomery, Tiffany M; Folken, Lori; Seitz, Melody A
Adolescent pregnancy is a concern among many women's health practitioners. While it is practical and appropriate to work to prevent adolescent pregnancy by educating adolescents in health care clinics, schools and adolescent-friendly community-based organizations, suggesting and supporting legislative efforts to reduce adolescent pregnancy can help address the issue on an even larger scale. This article aims to help nurses better understand current legislation that addresses adolescent pregnancy, and to encourage support of future adolescent pregnancy prevention legislation. © 2014 AWHONN.
Kennen, Jonathan G.; Riskin, Melissa L.; Reilly, Pamela A.; Colarullo, Susan J.
, and timing of flows were significantly correlated with ecological response. Multiple linear regression (MLR) models were developed to provide a more holistic evaluation of the combined effects of hydrologic alteration and to identify models with two or three hydrologic variables that account for a significant proportion of the variability in invertebrate-assemblage condition as represented by assemblage metric scores. MLR models, derived on the basis of hydrologic attributes, accounted for 35 to 75 percent of the variability in assemblage condition. The hydro-TMDL method developed herein for non- to moderately impaired Raritan River Basin streams utilizes a “surrogate” approach in place of the traditional “pollutant of concern” approach commonly used for TMDL development. Managers can use the results obtained by using the hydro-TMDL method to offset the effects of impervious-surface runoff and altered streamflow and to implement measures designed to achieve the necessary load reductions for the “pollutant of concern” (that is, percentage deviations of stream-class-specific flow-index values outside the established 25th-to-75th-percentile range). In this case, such deviations could represent all or a subset of the altered flow indices that prevent the stream from meeting designated aquatic-life criteria. This hydro-TMDL uses a reference, or attainment stream approach for developing the TMDL endpoint. That is, either observed or simulated baseline hydrographs were selected as appropriate reference conditions on the basis of results of QR analysis and watershed modeling procedures, respectively. For any stream in the Raritan River Basin evaluated as part of this study, the hydro-TMDL can be expressed as the greatest amount of deviation in flow a stream can exhibit without violating the stream’s designated aquatic-life criteria. Use of this surrogate approach is appropriate because flows that fall outside the established percentile ranges are ultimately a
Background Many unhealthy dietary and physical activity habits that foster the development of obesity are established by the age of five. Presently, approximately 70 percent of children in the United States are currently enrolled in early childcare facilities, making this an ideal setting to implement and evaluate childhood obesity prevention efforts. We describe here the methods for conducting an obesity prevention randomized trial in the child care setting. Methods/design A randomized, controlled obesity prevention trial is currently being conducted over a three year period (2010-present). The sample consists of 28 low-income, ethnically diverse child care centers with 1105 children (sample is 60% Hispanic, 15% Haitian, 12% Black, 2% non-Hispanic White and 71% of caregivers were born outside of the US). The purpose is to test the efficacy of a parent and teacher role-modelpan>ing intervention on children’s nutrition and physical activity behaviors. . The Healthy Caregivers-Healthy Children (HC2) intervention arm schools received a combination of (1) implementing a daily curricula for teachers/parents (the nutritional gatekeepers); (2) implementing a daily curricula for children; (3) technical assistance with meal and snack menu modifications such as including more fresh and less canned produce; and (4) creation of a center policy for dietary requirements for meals and snacks, physical activity and screen time. Control arm schools received an attention control safety curriculum. Major outcome measures include pre-post changes in child body mass index percentile and z score, fruit and vegetable and other nutritious food intake, amount of physical activity, and parental nutrition and physical activity knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs, defined by intentions and behaviors. All measures were administered at the beginning and end of the school year for year one and year two of the study for a total of 4 longitudinal time points for assessment. Discussion Although few
Full Text Available Abstract Background Many unhealthy dietary and physical activity habits that foster the development of obesity are established by the age of five. Presently, approximately 70 percent of children in the United States are currently enrolled in early childcare facilities, making this an ideal setting to implement and evaluate childhood obesity prevention efforts. We describe here the methods for conducting an obesity prevention randomized trial in the child care setting. Methods/design A randomized, controlled obesity prevention trial is currently being conducted over a three year period (2010-present. The sample consists of 28 low-income, ethnically diverse child care centers with 1105 children (sample is 60% Hispanic, 15% Haitian, 12% Black, 2% non-Hispanic White and 71% of caregivers were born outside of the US. The purpose is to test the efficacy of a parent and teacher role-modeling intervention on children’s nutrition and physical activity behaviors. . The Healthy Caregivers-Healthy Children (HC2 intervention arm schools received a combination of (1 implementing a daily curricula for teachers/parents (the nutritional gatekeepers; (2 implementing a daily curricula for children; (3 technical assistance with meal and snack menu modifications such as including more fresh and less canned produce; and (4 creation of a center policy for dietary requirements for meals and snacks, physical activity and screen time. Control arm schools received an attention control safety curriculum. Major outcome measures include pre-post changes in child body mass index percentile and z score, fruit and vegetable and other nutritious food intake, amount of physical activity, and parental nutrition and physical activity knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs, defined by intentions and behaviors. All measures were administered at the beginning and end of the school year for year one and year two of the study for a total of 4 longitudinal time points for assessment
Goloshchapov, D L; Kashkarov, V M; Seredin, P V; Ippolitov, Y A; Plotnikova, Y A; Bambery, K
The efficiency carious preventive methods was detected with the use of equipment for IR-spectromicroscopy and high-intensive synchrotron radiation. The results of the experiment are indicative of the use of exogenous caries prevention alone (use of a toothpaste) being inadequate in saturating hard dental tissues by mineral groups and, thus, keeping teeth healthy, as this method is only short-lived. The use of endogenous methods (mineral tablets based on calcium glycerophosphate) in combination with exogenous prevention enhances prevention as part of remineralisation of dental tissues. (paper)
Döring, Nora; Mayer, Susanne; Rasmussen, Finn; Sonntag, Diana
Despite methodological advances in the field of economic evaluations of interventions, economic evaluations of obesity prevention programmes in early childhood are seldom conducted. The aim of the present study was to explore existing methods and applications of economic evaluations, examining their limitations and making recommendations for future cost-effectiveness assessments. A systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed, Cochrane Library, the British National Health Service Economic Evaluation Databases and EconLit. Eligible studies included trial-based or simulation-based cost-effectiveness analyses of obesity prevention programmes targeting preschool children and/or their parents. The quality of included studies was assessed. Of the six studies included, five were intervention studies and one was based on a simulation approach conducted on secondary data. We identified three main conceptual and methodological limitations of their economic evaluations: Insufficient conceptual approach considering the complexity of childhood obesity, inadequate measurement of effects of interventions, and lack of valid instruments to measure child-related quality of life and costs. Despite the need for economic evaluations of obesity prevention programmes in early childhood, only a few studies of varying quality have been conducted. Moreover, due to methodological and conceptual weaknesses, they offer only limited information for policy makers and intervention providers. We elaborate reasons for the limitations of these studies and offer guidance for designing better economic evaluations of early obesity prevention.
Pilgrim, L.G. Jr.; Jackson, L.F.
Apparatus and method for preventing the rotation of one or more elongated rods used in nuclear fuel assemblies include an end plug secured to one longitudinal end of such an elongated rod and having an out-of-cavity, non-round structure affixed thereto and configured to mate with a complementary shaped structure in a lower tie plate of a nuclear fuel assembly in such a manner as to prevent the rotation of the rod about its longitudinal axis. In one embodiment, the end plug includes a pair of flats formed on a portion of the end plug and configured to abut against a pair of flats formed on the outer surface of a cylindrical boss or sleeve of the lower tie plate, thereby to prevent the rotation of the rod. In another embodiment, four grooves, disposed 90 0 apart about the periphery of an end plug of a rod form a spline. The grooves are configured to receive four, radially inwardly protruding, key members disposed 90 0 apart about the periphery of a sleeve secured to the lower tie plate, thereby to prevent the rotation of the rod. In a further embodiment, a sleeve is secured to an end plug of a rod and includes four elongated slots disposed 90 0 apart about the periphery of the sleeve and configured in width, depth and spacing to receive and mate with four web portions of the lower tie plate of the nuclear fuel assembly, thereby to secure the rod against rotation about its longitudinal axis
Full Text Available Introduction: From maturity to menopause, women are worried about pregnancy. Abstinence from sex or use of pregnancy prevention methods are choices for them. As abstinence is impossible, the only remaining choice is use of pregnancy prevention methods. Effective control of pregnancy is really essential for the health of mother and infant and also control of unplanned increase in population. Regarding the importance of continuance rate of pregnancy prevention methods (OCP, IUD, Condom &DMPA & the reasons for their disruption, this study was carried out with the aim of determining the continuance rate and reasons for discontinuance of pregnancy prevention methods in Yazd women. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. Six urban health care centers of Yazd were selected as study clusters and information of 15-49 year old women using the pregnancy prevention methods (OCP, IUD, Condom& injection was collected via a questionnaire. The data collected was analyzed by Coplan- Mayer statistic method and variance analysis test. Results: Pregnancy prevention methods were most prevalent in the 25-34 years old age group (57%. Mean duration of pregnancy prevention method usage was 27.98 months using Caplan-mayer method with a median of 24 months. 86.3% for 6 months, 72.8% for 12 months, 62.5% for 18 months, 47.9% for 24 months, 39.9% for 30 months and 37% for 37 months had used four certain methods of pregnancy prevention (OCP, IUD, Condom and Injection. The reasons of discontinuance were disease (15.6% for OCPS, bleeding (27% for IUD, unwanted pregnancy (21% for Condoms and also disease (75% for Injection method. Discussion: According to the results, not only education programs regarding family planning before starting each pregnancy prevention method to women is recommended, but a complete incentive consultation about these methods is essential. This educational & consultation programs should be implemented initially for women using OCP method.
Ndabarora, Eléazar; Mchunu, Gugu
Various studies have reported that university students, who are mostly young people, rarely use existing HIV/AIDS preventive methods. Although studies have shown that young university students have a high degree of knowledge about HIV/AIDS and HIV modes of transmission, they are still not utilising the existing HIV prevention methods and still engage in risky sexual practices favourable to HIV. Some variables, such as awareness of existing HIV/AIDS prevention methods, have been associated with utilisation of such methods. The study aimed to explore factors that influence use of existing HIV/AIDS prevention methods among university students residing in a selected campus, using the Health Belief Model (HBM) as a theoretical framework. A quantitative research approach and an exploratory-descriptive design were used to describe perceived factors that influence utilisation by university students of HIV/AIDS prevention methods. A total of 335 students completed online and manual questionnaires. Study findings showed that the factors which influenced utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods were mainly determined by awareness of the existing university-based HIV/AIDS prevention strategies. Most utilised prevention methods were voluntary counselling and testing services and free condoms. Perceived susceptibility and perceived threat of HIV/AIDS score was also found to correlate with HIV risk index score. Perceived susceptibility and perceived threat of HIV/AIDS showed correlation with self-efficacy on condoms and their utilisation. Most HBM variables were not predictors of utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods among students. Intervention aiming to improve the utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods among students at the selected university should focus on removing identified barriers, promoting HIV/AIDS prevention services and providing appropriate resources to implement such programmes.
Karhu, A. [VTT Energy (Finland)
The purpose of this literature review is to gather available information of the methods to prevent a source term of methyl iodide during a core melt accident. The most widely studied methods for nuclear power plants include the impregnated carbon filters and alkaline additives and sprays. It is indicated that some deficiencies of these methods may emerge. More reactive impregnants and additives could make a great improvement. As a new method in the field of nuclear applications, the potential of transition metals to decompose methyl iodide, is introduced in this review. This area would require an additional research, which could elucidate the remaining questions of the reactions. The ionization of the gaseous methyl iodide by corona-discharge reactors is also shortly described. (au)
Jan J. Hycnar
Full Text Available The article presents an overview of ways of solving the problem of dusting of raw materials and fine-grained waste collected on landfills. The specific physicochemical properties of loose materials and unfavorable atmospheric conditions are responsible of heavy pollution of the environment by dust, posing a threat to human health. The types of materials that are potential sources of dust pollution are presented. The methods of eliminating and limiting dusty of loose powders, often used in industry, engineering, communal and emergency situations, are discussed. Examples of domestic and foreign solutions to prevent dusting and to protect the waste deposit from erosion are shown. In conclusion, existing safety techniques have been found to be effective in preventing dusting of raw materials and waste.
Natale, Ruby; Scott, Stephanie Hapeman; Messiah, Sarah E; Schrack, Maria Mesa; Uhlhorn, Susan B; Delamater, Alan
Many unhealthy dietary and physical activity habits that foster the development of obesity are established by the age of five. Presently, approximately 70 percent of children in the United States are currently enrolled in early childcare facilities, making this an ideal setting to implement and evaluate childhood obesity prevention efforts. We describe here the methods for conducting an obesity prevention randomized trial in the child care setting. A randomized, controlled obesity prevention trial is currently being conducted over a three year period (2010-present). The sample consists of 28 low-income, ethnically diverse child care centers with 1105 children (sample is 60% Hispanic, 15% Haitian, 12% Black, 2% non-Hispanic White and 71% of caregivers were born outside of the US). The purpose is to test the efficacy of a parent and teacher role-modeling intervention on children's nutrition and physical activity behaviors. . The Healthy Caregivers-Healthy Children (HC2) intervention arm schools received a combination of (1) implementing a daily curricula for teachers/parents (the nutritional gatekeepers); (2) implementing a daily curricula for children; (3) technical assistance with meal and snack menu modifications such as including more fresh and less canned produce; and (4) creation of a center policy for dietary requirements for meals and snacks, physical activity and screen time. Control arm schools received an attention control safety curriculum. Major outcome measures include pre-post changes in child body mass index percentile and z score, fruit and vegetable and other nutritious food intake, amount of physical activity, and parental nutrition and physical activity knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs, defined by intentions and behaviors. All measures were administered at the beginning and end of the school year for year one and year two of the study for a total of 4 longitudinal time points for assessment. Although few attempts have been made to prevent obesity
Li, Juan, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [College of Water Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Yang, Yang [College of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Huan, Huan; Li, Mingxiao [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Xi, Beidou, E-mail: email@example.com [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Lanzhou Jiaotong University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Lv, Ningqing [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Wu, Yi [Guizhou Academy of Environmental Science and Designing, Guizhou 550000 (China); Xie, Yiwen, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Dongguan University of Technology, Dongguan, 523808 (China); Li, Xiang; Yang, Jinjin [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China)
This paper presents a system for determining the evaluation and gradation indices of groundwater pollution intensity (GPI). Considering the characteristics of the vadose zone and pollution sources, the system decides which anti-seepage measures should be implemented at the contaminated site. The pollution sources hazards (PSH) and groundwater intrinsic vulnerability (GIV) are graded by the revised Nemerow Pollution Index and an improved DRTAS model, respectively. GPI is evaluated and graded by a double-sided multi-factor coupling model, which is constructed by the matrix method. The contaminated sites are categorized as prior, ordinary, or common sites. From the GPI results, we develop guiding principles for preventing and removing pollution sources, procedural interruption and remediation, and end treatment and monitoring. Thus, we can select appropriate prevention and control technologies (PCT). To screen the technological schemes and optimize the traditional analytical hierarchy process (AHP), we adopt the technique for order preference by the similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) method. Our GPI approach and PCT screening are applied to three types of pollution sites: the refuse dump of a rare earth mine development project (a potential pollution source), a chromium slag dump, and a landfill (existing pollution sources). These three sites are identified as ordinary, prior, and ordinary sites, respectively. The anti-seepage materials at the refuse dump should perform as effectively as a 1.5-m-thick clay bed. The chromium slag dump should be preferentially treated by soil flushing and in situ chemical remediation. The landfill should be treated by natural attenuation technology. The proposed PCT screening approach was compared with conventional screening methods results at the three sites and proved feasible and effective. The proposed method can provide technical support for the monitoring and management of groundwater pollution in China. - Highlights: • An
Nov 28, 2016 ... Method: The curriculum called 'Listen Up' addresses issues such as supporting peers, sexual decision- making, healthy ... Keywords: high school, evaluation, high-risk behaviour, HIV prevention, peer education, South Africa ... sex part- ners, teenage pregnancy, infrequent condom use and substance.
Brennan, David J; Bauer, Greta R; Bradley, Kaitlin; Tran, Oth Vilaythong
Research on sexual minority men (gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men) was examined with regard to the measures of sexual orientation used, the methods of research, and the main health outcomes under study. A systematic review of English-language quantitative studies was conducted focused on the health of sexual minority men published in 2010 (n = 250). The results provide a snapshot of the literature and revealed that research on sexual minority men overwhelmingly focused on HIV, STIs, and sexual health for which sexual orientation was most commonly defined behaviorally. For topics of mental health or body/fitness outcomes, sexual orientation was most commonly defined by identity. Most study samples were venue-based, and only 8.8% of published papers drew data from population-based samples. The findings suggest that there exists a need for research on sexual minority men's health beyond STIs and HIV that will examine mental and physical health outcomes beyond sexual risk, uses probability-based samples, and addresses intersectional concerns related to race/ethnicity and age.
Xu Bin; Shi Huaizhang; Xu Shancai; Ji Zhiyong; Wu Pei; Chu Ming
Objective: To summarize the reasons of bleeding complications and the prevention methods in stenting for intracranial arterial stenosis. Methods: The clinical data of 366 patients underwent stent-assistant angioplasty of intracranial artery stenosis from July 2006 to December 2011 were analyzed retrospectively. Among them, 14 patients with bleeding complications were found. The initial 100 patients were categorized as early stage group and the rest as mature stage group. The reasons of bleeding and the methods for preventing this complication were summarized. Results: The overall incidence of bleeding complication was 3.8% (14/366). In the early stage group and mature stage group,the rates was 10%(10/100) and 1.5% (4/266). Six cases were related to the operational manipulation and 8 cases secondary to hyperperfusion injury. Death was found in 6 patients,severe disability in 3, mild paralysis in 2, and no neurological deficits in 3. Conclusions: The bleeding complications in stent-assisted angioplasty of intracranial artery stenosis have a high disability and mortality. The improvement of operative techniques and the more strict indications decrease the bleeding complications rate effectively. (authors)
Technical Committee Meeting on Experimental Tests and Qualification of Analytical Methods to Address Thermohydraulic Phenomena in Advanced Water Cooled Reactors was convened to review the current status and the remaining needs in this field
Kuge, Yohko; Kanda, Ayato; Hara, Setsuko
Although conjugated oils are paid much attentions to their interesting physiological properties such as anticancer, anti-arteriosclerosis, anti-hypertension activities, loss in body fat etc, there is few information on their oxidation behavior. In the present work, their oxidation behavior and oxidation prevention method were evaluated to utilize as functional foods or drugs. As results, an oxidation behavior of conjugated oils was different from that of corresponding non-conjugated oils, and conjugated oils were supposed to form not only hydroperoxides but also kinds of cyclic peroxides as primary oxidation products in the autoxidation. In a thermal oxidation, polymerization reaction might be prior to decomposition reaction owing to form a large quantity of more polymerized products in conjugated oils. Solidification of conjugated oils by thermal oxidation was prevented for long time by addition of tocopherol, and optimal addition amounts of tocopherol into conjugated oils were 1,000 ppm either in autoxidation or thermal oxidation. Equi-molar of phosphatidyl ethanolamine showed synergistic effect slightly on 1,000 ppm tocopherol for preventing thermal oxidation of conjugated oil.
Guthrie, Kate M; Rosen, Rochelle K; Vargas, Sara E; Guillen, Melissa; Steger, Arielle L; Getz, Melissa L; Smith, Kelley A; Ramirez, Jaime J; Kojic, Erna M
The development of HIV-preventive topical vaginal microbicides has been challenged by a lack of sufficient adherence in later stage clinical trials to confidently evaluate effectiveness. This dilemma has highlighted the need to integrate translational research earlier in the drug development process, essentially applying behavioral science to facilitate the advances of basic science with respect to the uptake and use of biomedical prevention technologies. In the last several years, there has been an increasing recognition that the user experience, specifically the sensory experience, as well as the role of meaning-making elicited by those sensations, may play a more substantive role than previously thought. Importantly, the role of the user-their sensory perceptions, their judgements of those experiences, and their willingness to use a product-is critical in product uptake and consistent use post-marketing, ultimately realizing gains in global public health. Specifically, a successful prevention product requires an efficacious drug, an efficient drug delivery system, and an effective user. We present an integrated iterative drug development and user experience evaluation method to illustrate how user-centered formulation design can be iterated from the early stages of preclinical development to leverage the user experience. Integrating the user and their product experiences into the formulation design process may help optimize both the efficiency of drug delivery and the effectiveness of the user.
Schomburg, C.; Dotts, R. L.; Tillian, D. J.
The Space Shuttle Orbiter's silica tile Thermal Protection System (TPS) is beset by the moisture absorption problems inherently associated with low density, highly porous insulation systems. Attention is presently given to the comparative success of methods for the minimization and/or prevention of water ingestion by the TPS tiles, covering the development of water-repellent agents and their tile application techniques, flight test program results, and materials improvements. The use of external films for rewaterproofing of the TPS tiles after each mission have demonstrated marginal to unacceptable performance. By contrast, a tile interior waterproofing agent has shown promise.
Full Text Available Objective of the study: Prevention of acute pancreatitis after diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP. Material and Methods. Analysis of the results of diagnostic and therapeutic ERCP, of the patients treated at Saratov Regional clinical hospital f during the period from 2006 to 2010. Results, lincrease in pancreatic amylase levels in blood above 50 U/l till ERCP is a risk factor for development of acute pancreatitis after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP. Conclusion. The above-stated follows to the background of increased pancreatic amylase levels in blood, performance of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography led to the development of acute pancreatitis.
Hashemi Toghroljerdi, Seyedmostafa; Østergaard, Jacob
to handle a high share of PV power. This paper provides an in-depth review of methods and strategies proposed to prevent overvoltage in LV grids with PV, and discusses the effectiveness, advantages, and disadvantages of them in detail. Based on the mathematical framework presented in the paper......, the overvoltage caused by high PV penetration is described, solutions to facilitate higher PV penetration are classified, and their effectiveness, advantages, and disadvantages are illustrated. The investigated solutions include the grid reinforcement, electrical energy storage application, reactive power...
Ying, Jiangbo; Yap, Philip; Gandhi, Mihir; Liew, Tau Ming
Dementia caregiving is often stressful and depression in family caregivers is not uncommon. As caregiver depression can have significant effects, there is a need for preventive efforts which are consistent with the extensive literature. We sought to consolidate the wide range of evidence (using a multi-method approach) into a simple framework that can guide the prevention of caregiver depression. Using multiple logistic regression, we derived the predictors of caregiver depression from an empirical dataset containing key information and depression scores (based on the Center-for-Epidemiological-Studies-Depression-Scale) of 394 family caregivers. We then chose an underpinning theory as the foundation of the framework, and conducted an umbrella systematic review to find possible links between the derived predictors and the theory. Last, we compared the iterated framework with known interventions for caregiver depression in recent literature to assess whether the framework could map meaningfully with the known interventions. Significant predictors of caregiver depression included primary caregiver (odds ratio, OR = 1.53), severe dementia (OR = 1.40), and behavioral problems (OR = 3.23), lower education (OR = 1.77), and spousal caregivers (OR = 1.98). The integrated framework derived focuses on four strategic areas: physical-care demands of persons with dementia (PWD), behavioral problems of PWD, caregiving competency, and loss and grief of caregivers. This framework is supported by known interventions for caregiver depression in recent literature. By consolidating a broad range of evidence, we iterated a framework to aid the understanding and prevention of caregiver depression in dementia. The framework offers an approach to prevention which is simple, systematic, and reflective of the extensive literature.
Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains address points which represent physical address locations assigned by the Allegheny County addressing authority. Data is updated by County...
Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains address points which represent physical address locations assigned by the Allegheny County addressing authority. Data is updated by County...
Nielen, M.M.J.; Assendelft, W.J.J.; Drenthen, A.J.M.; Hombergh, P. van den; Dis, I. van; Schellevis, F.G.
BACKGROUND: To study the attitudes and working methods of general practitioners (GPs) in primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney diseases. METHODS: A questionnaire with questions about attitude and working methods in the primary prevention of
Yamada, Takayuki; Gohshi, Seiichi; Echizen, Isao
A method is described to prevent video images and videos displayed on screens from being re-shot by digital cameras and camcorders. Conventional methods using digital watermarking for re-shooting prevention embed content IDs into images and videos, and they help to identify the place and time where the actual content was shot. However, these methods do not actually prevent digital content from being re-shot by camcorders. We developed countermeasures to stop re-shooting by exploiting the differences between the sensory characteristics of humans and devices. The countermeasures require no additional functions to use-side devices. It uses infrared light (IR) to corrupt the content recorded by CCD or CMOS devices. In this way, re-shot content will be unusable. To validate the method, we developed a prototype system and implemented it on a 100-inch cinema screen. Experimental evaluations showed that the method effectively prevents re-shooting.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of nongovernmental organizations working on AIDS has grown. There is great diversity in the type of activities and population groups that have been targeted. The purposes of this study are: to describe and analyze the objectives and HIV-AIDS preventive activities that are carried out by the AIDS-NGOs that work with AIDS in Catalonia and that receive subsidies from the Department of Health; and to develop a comprehensive proposal for measurable and agreed upon core quality evaluation indicators to monitor and assess those objectives and activities that can have an impact on the fight against inequalities and stigmatization, and incorporate the perspectives of the service providers and users. Methods A mixed method study has been carried out with professionals from the 36 NGOs that work with HIV/AIDS in Catalonia, as well as their users. This study achieved the completeness model using the following phases: 1. A systematic review of AIDS-NGOs annual reports and preparation of a catalogue of activities grouped by objectives, level of prevention and AIDS-NGOs target population; 2. A transversal study through an ad-hoc questionnaire administered to the AIDS-NGOs representatives; 3. A qualitative study with a phenomenological approach through focus groups, individual interviews and observations; 4. Consensus meetings between AIDS-NGOs professionals and the research team using Haddon matrices in order to establish a proposal of evaluation indicators. Results The information was classified according to level of prevention and level of intervention. A total of 248 objectives and 258 prevention activities were identified. 1564 evaluation indicators, addressed to 7 target population groups, were produced. Thirty core activities were selected. The evaluation indicators proposed for these activities were: 76 indicators for 15 primary prevention activities, 43 for 5 secondary prevention activities and 68 for 10 tertiary
Full Text Available Abstract Background Streetcar or train tracks in urban areas are difficult for bicyclists to negotiate and are a cause of crashes and injuries. This study used mixed methods to identify measures to prevent such crashes, by examining track-related crashes that resulted in injuries to cyclists, and obtaining information from the local transit agency and bike shops. Methods We compared personal, trip, and route infrastructure characteristics of 87 crashes directly involving streetcar or train tracks to 189 crashes in other circumstances in Toronto, Canada. We complemented this with engineering information about the rail systems, interviews of personnel at seven bike shops about advice they provide to customers, and width measurements of tires on commonly sold bikes. Results In our study, 32 % of injured cyclists had crashes that directly involved tracks. The vast majority resulted from the bike tire being caught in the rail flangeway (gap in the road surface alongside rails, often when cyclists made unplanned maneuvers to avoid a collision. Track crashes were more common on major city streets with parked cars and no bike infrastructure, with left turns at intersections, with hybrid, racing and city bikes, among less experienced and less frequent bicyclists, and among women. Commonly sold bikes typically had tire widths narrower than the smallest track flangeways. There were no track crashes in route sections where streetcars and trains had dedicated rights of way. Conclusions Given our results, prevention efforts might be directed at individual knowledge, bicycle tires, or route design, but their potential for success is likely to differ. Although it may be possible to reach a broader audience with continued advice about how to avoid track crashes, the persistence and frequency of these crashes and their unpredictable circumstances indicates that other solutions are needed. Using tires wider than streetcar or train flangeways could prevent some
Full Text Available Background Osteoporosis is the most common metabolic bone disease that decreases bone mass, causes destruction and eventually friability. This disease is preventable, and because adolescent females are the high-risk population, teaching this age group is of the utmost importance. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of the two educational methods (Lecture and Pamphlet on osteoporosis preventive behaviors among female students. Materials and Methods: This was a randomized clinical trial (RCT. To collect data, demographic questionnaire, food frequency questionnaire (FFQ, and physical activity questionnaire were used. Subjects were 205 seventh-grade girls who were selected by multistage random method and allocated in two experimental (Lecture = 68, Pamphlet = 67 and 70 for control group. In the Lecture group, there were 5 sessions of training, each of which lasted 60 minutes. In the Pamphlet group, only educational pamphlets were given, and no interventions were performed in the control group. Data were analyzed through statistical software SPSS version 21.0. Descriptive statistics, chi-square tests, t-test and ANOVA were applied to analyze the data. Results: The mean age of the students was 13 + 0.856 years old and there was no difference in terms of demographic variables between intervention and control groups. The results identified the mean scores of physical activity behaviors significantly improved two mounts after the intervention in the lecture group (P=0.001.While, the men scores of the pamphlet group had no significant changes after two months, but the differences of the both group compared to the control group were significant. Considering the significant decreased in the control group (P= 001. The mean scores of calcium intake in the two lecture and pamphlet groups significantly increased (P
Full Text Available Background/aim: In the prevention of periarticular heterotopic ossification (HO, a common complication after total hip arthroplasty (THA, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAID and irradiation are used. Some theories presume that local hypoxia of the soft tissue causes HO. The aim of this study was to investigate if the early use of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF could prevent this ossification since it accelerates the circulation and oxigenation of soft tissue. Methods. The study included three groups of the patients with primary THA. The group C consisted of 66 patients/79 hips who had only kinesitherapy in postoperative rehabilitation. The group B consisted of 117 patients/ 131 hips who had PEMF and interferential current (IC which, on average, started on the 14th day after the surgery combined with the standard kinesitherapy. The group A consisted of 117 patients/131 hips who had PEMF from the third postoperative day and IC from, on average, the 14th postoperative day with the standard kinesitherapy. The classification of HO was done on a standard AP roentgenograms of the hips, taken at least one year after the surgery. Results. The overall HO was seen in 50.63% of the group C patients, in 43.51% of the B group and in 16.67% of the group A. Severe HO (III and IV class according to Brooker was seen in 26.58% of the group C patients and in 6.10% of the group B, but none in the group A. Conclusion. According to the obtained results an early treatment with PEMF could prevent severe HO and reduce the overall HO.
Daniels, J.; Jones, E.; Lmont, A.; Ladmn, T.; Watz, J.
This study reviews the structure of two main risk prioritization budget allocation methods developed by the DOE Risk-Based Priority Mode (RPM) and Management Evaluation Matrix (MEM). It identifies potential augmentations to the process that will address both risk reduction and cost-effective investments of finite resources for future Environmental Management activities. The evaluation was performed in accordance with the EM ten-year vision and principles for site cleanup. The evaluation and recommendations in this report strive to reflect four key principles, namely to eliminate the most urgent risks, reduce mortgage and support costs to make funds available for further risk reduction, protect worker health and safety, and reduce the generation of wastes
Hashiguchi, Koh; Hara, Johji; Nei, Hiromichi; Daiku, Motoichi; Wagatsuma, Kenji
The shield plug, which is located at the upper part of a reactor vessel of a sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor, is composed of a rotating and a stationary plug. Fuel exchange is performed easily by the rotation of the rotating plug. The vapor or mist of sodium evaporated from liquid sodium deposits on the gap surfaces of the rotating and stationary plugs and is solidified or changed into a solid reactant. If such condition continues for a long period, harmful effects are exerted on the fuel exchange operation. In order to develop methods of preventing the sodium deposition, investigation was made on the phenomenon of sodium deposition. By the use of the testing equipment simulating the shield plug, deposition tests and specimen measurements were made for different gap width test section size and condition. On the basis of the effects of these parameters clarified by experiments, the effectiveness of three kinds of mechanism for preventing sodium deposition were investigated experimentally. In addition, by using a thermo-siphon analogical model, analysis was performed to deduce experimental equations for sodium deposition. (author)
Muhammad, Noor Azimah; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Sulaiman, Zaharah; Amin, Rahmah Mohd; Omar, Khairani
One of the popular approaches of preventing youth sexual activity in Malaysia is using religion to promote premarital sexual abstinence. Despite this intervention, youth continue to practise premarital sex. Thus, the purpose of this exploratory mixed methods study was to understand the role of religion on sexual activity among college students in Klang Valley, Malaysia. A self-administered questionnaire survey to determine the relationship between religiosity and youth sexual activity was carried out on 1026 students recruited from 12 randomly selected colleges. Concurrently, face-to-face interviews were conducted on 15 students to explore how religiosity had influenced their decision on sexual activity. The survey data were analysed using logistic regression, while the qualitative data from the interviews were examined using thematic analysis with separate analysis for each gender. Both quantitative and qualitative results were then compared and integrated. Religious activity significantly reduced the risk of continuing sexual activity among female students (AOR = 0.67, CI = 0.47, 0.95, p = 0.02) but not male students. There was no significant relationship of religious affiliation and intrinsic religiosity (inner faith) to sexual activity by gender. Having faith in religion and strong sexual desire were the main themes that explained participants' sexual behaviour. Engaging in religious activity might be effective at preventing female students from being sexually active. However, when sexual urges and desires are beyond control, religiosity might not be effective.
Samuelson, Julia; Hargreave, Timothy; Ridzon, Renee; Farley, Tim
World Health Organization recommends that countries with hyperendemic and generalized HIV epidemics implement voluntary medical male circumcision programs for HIV prevention. Innovative methods of male circumcision including devices have the potential to simplify the procedure, reduce time and cost, increase client acceptability, enhance safety, and expand the numbers of providers who may perform circumcision. We describe work led by World Health Organization and supported by global partners to define a pathway for the evaluation of efficacy and safety of male circumcision devices, to set priority criteria, and to establish a process to guide the use of devices in publicly funded voluntary medical male circumcision programs for HIV prevention. A device classification scheme, an expert Technical Advisory Group on Innovations in Male Circumcision, and a formal prequalification program have also guided considerations on safe use of devices. A rigorous approach was deemed appropriate given the intervention is for use among healthy men for public health purposes. The pathway and processes led to coordinated research, better standardization in research outcomes, and guidance that informed the research, introduction and implementation phases. The lessons learnt from this case study can inform evaluation and use of future public health innovations.
Barnaba, Francesca; Bolignano, Andrea; Di Liberto, Luca; Morelli, Matteo; Lucarelli, Franco; Nava, Silvia; Perrino, Cinzia; Canepari, Silvia; Basart, Sara; Costabile, Francesca; Dionisi, Davide; Ciampichetti, Spartaco; Sozzi, Roberto; Gobbi, Gian Paolo
In 2011 the European Commission (EC) released specific 'Guidelines' describing the methods to quantify and subtract the contribution of natural sources from the PM10 values regulated by the European Air Quality Directive (2008/50/EC). This work investigates the applicability to Italy of the EC-Methodology suggested for desert-dust, describes main limitations encountered and proposes specific modifications embedded within a 'revised-Methodology' to extend/improve its use. The revised-Methodology capabilities are evaluated using original, chemically-resolved mineral-dust mass concentration measurements, showing better performances in predicting timing and absolute values of the desert-dust contribution to the daily-PM10 with respect to the current EC-approach. The revised-Methodology is then translated into an automatic (user-independent) tool tailored to the expected final-users. This tool is applied over Central Italy across a 3-year long period (2012-2014), and over the whole Italian country for a calendar year (2012). The derived results confirm and extend to Italian regions never addressed before some previously observed features of the desert-dust impact over the country, such as a clear latitudinal dependence of the desert-dust impact on the yearly average PM10 (from more than 5 μg/m3 to less than 0.5 μg/m3, going from south to north Italy). The modifications introduced within the revised-Methodology also suggest a non-negligible role of desert-dust resuspension in areas characterized by both high traffic levels and soil sealing (urban areas and along the major Italian routes). In the Rome area, such an effect is found to add a contribution of about 2 μg/m3 (i.e., of 20%) to the mean desert-dust load per dust day (about 10 μg/m3). At the national level, this effect contributes increasing the total number of desert-dust-driven exceedances of the PM10 daily limit value even in the northern regions, where the desert-dust impact on the PM10 yearly average is
Teschke, Kay; Dennis, Jessica; Reynolds, Conor C O; Winters, Meghan; Harris, M Anne
Streetcar or train tracks in urban areas are difficult for bicyclists to negotiate and are a cause of crashes and injuries. This study used mixed methods to identify measures to prevent such crashes, by examining track-related crashes that resulted in injuries to cyclists, and obtaining information from the local transit agency and bike shops. We compared personal, trip, and route infrastructure characteristics of 87 crashes directly involving streetcar or train tracks to 189 crashes in other circumstances in Toronto, Canada. We complemented this with engineering information about the rail systems, interviews of personnel at seven bike shops about advice they provide to customers, and width measurements of tires on commonly sold bikes. In our study, 32 % of injured cyclists had crashes that directly involved tracks. The vast majority resulted from the bike tire being caught in the rail flangeway (gap in the road surface alongside rails), often when cyclists made unplanned maneuvers to avoid a collision. Track crashes were more common on major city streets with parked cars and no bike infrastructure, with left turns at intersections, with hybrid, racing and city bikes, among less experienced and less frequent bicyclists, and among women. Commonly sold bikes typically had tire widths narrower than the smallest track flangeways. There were no track crashes in route sections where streetcars and trains had dedicated rights of way. Given our results, prevention efforts might be directed at individual knowledge, bicycle tires, or route design, but their potential for success is likely to differ. Although it may be possible to reach a broader audience with continued advice about how to avoid track crashes, the persistence and frequency of these crashes and their unpredictable circumstances indicates that other solutions are needed. Using tires wider than streetcar or train flangeways could prevent some crashes, though there are other considerations that lead many
Kertesz, Vilmos [Knoxville, TN; Van Berkel, Gary [Clinton, TN
An electrospray ion source and method of operation includes the application of pulsed voltage to prevent electrolysis of analytes with a low electrochemical potential. The electrospray ion source can include an emitter, a counter electrode, and a power supply. The emitter can include a liquid conduit, a primary working electrode having a liquid contacting surface, and a spray tip, where the liquid conduit and the working electrode are in liquid communication. The counter electrode can be proximate to, but separated from, the spray tip. The power system can supply voltage to the working electrode in the form of a pulse wave, where the pulse wave oscillates between at least an energized voltage and a relaxation voltage. The relaxation duration of the relaxation voltage can range from 1 millisecond to 35 milliseconds. The pulse duration of the energized voltage can be less than 1 millisecond and the frequency of the pulse wave can range from 30 to 800 Hz.
Cowings, Patricia S.
Space motion sickness is a disorder which produces symptoms similar to those of motion sickness on Earth. This syndrome has affected approximately 50 percent of all astronauts and cosmonauts exposed to microgravity in space, but it differs from what is commonly known as motion sickness in a number of critical ways. There is currently no ground-based method for predicting susceptibility to motion sickness in space. Antimotion sickness drugs have had limited success in preventing or counteracting symptoms in space, and frequently caused debilitating side effects. The objectives were: (1) to evaluate the effectiveness of Autogenic-Feedback Training as a countermeasure for space motion sickness; (2) to compare physiological data and in-flight symptom reports to ground-based motion sickness data; and (3) to predict susceptibility to space motion sickness based on pre-flight data of each treatment group crew member.
Fedyai, S. G.; Prochonchukov, Alexander A.; Zhizhina, Nina A.; Metelnikov, Michael A.
We report results of clinical application of the new computer-laser system. The system includes hardware and software means, which are applied for new efficient methods of prevention and treatment of main dental diseases. The hardware includes a laser physiotherapeutic device (LPD) `Optodan' and a fiberoptic laser delivery system with special endodontic rigging. The semiconductor AG-AL-AG laser diode with wavelengths in the spectral range of 850 - 950 nm (produced by Scientific-Industrial Concern `Reflector') is used as a basic unit. The LPD `Optodan' and methods of treatment are covered by Russian patent No 2014107 and certified by the Russian Ministry of Health. The automated computer system allows us to examine patients quickly and to input differential diagnosis, to determine indications (and contraindications), parameters and regimen of laser therapy, to control treatment efficacy (for carious -- through clinical indexes of enamel solubles, velocity of demineralization and other tests; for periodontal diseases trough complex of the periodontal indexes with automated registry and calculation). We present last results of application of the new technique and methods in treatment of dental diseases in Russian clinics.
Full Text Available Haptoglobin, the product of the gene, is a glycoprotein involved in the scavenging of free hemoglobin. Haptoglobin levels increase or decrease in response to various acquired conditions, and they are also influenced by genetic predisposition. There were 2 major alleles, and , and 1 minor allele, . Many researchers have attempted to study the haptoglobin types and their association with disease; however, no definitive conclusions have been reached yet. It is reported that patients who are genetically deficient in haptoglobin are at risk of anaphylaxis against blood components containing haptoglobin. Haptoglobin genotypes also affect the reference intervals of haptoglobin levels. Many studies have attempted to establish simple and accurate typing methods. In this paper, we have broadly reviewed several methods for haptoglobin typing—phenotyping, Southern blotting, conventional PCR, real-time PCR, and loop-mediated isothermal amplification. We discuss their characteristics, clinical applications, and limitations. The phenotyping methods are time consuming and labor intensive and not designed to detect patients harboring . The rapid and robust haptoglobin genotyping may help in preventing fatal anaphylactic reactions and in establishing the relationships between the haptoglobin phenotypes and diseases.
Armanini, Aronne; Cardoso, Antonio H.; Di Baldassarre, Giuliano; Bellin, Alberto; Breinl, Korbinian; Canelas, Ricardo B.; Larcher, Michele; Majone, Bruno; Matos, Jorges; Meninno, Sabrina; Nucci, Elena; Rigon, Riccardo; Rosatti, Giorgio; Zardi, Dino
The STEEP STREAMS (Solid Transport Evaluation and Efficiency in Prevention: Sustainable Techniques of Rational Engineering and Advanced MethodS) project consists of a collaboration among the Universities of Trento, Uppsala and Lisbon, who joined in a consortium within the ERANET Water JPI call WaterWorks2014. The aim of the project is to produce new rational criteria for the design of protection works against debris flows, a phenomenon consisting in hyper-concentrated flows of water and sediments, classified as catastrophic events typical of small mountainous basins (area climate change. In this context, one of the key challenges of this project is the use of comparatively coarse RCM projections to the small catchments examined in STEEP STREAMS. Given these changes, conventional protection works and their design criteria may not suffice to provide adequate levels of protection to human life and urban settlements. These structures create a storage area upstream the alluvial fans and the settlements, thereby reducing the need of channelization in areas often constrained by urban regulations. To optimize the lamination, and in particular to reduce the peak of solid mass flux, it is necessary that the deposition basin is controlled by a slit check dam, capable of inducing a controlled sedimentation of the solid mas flux. In order to achieve that, reliable design tools are needed. Driftwood represents another important factor increasing the risk, as clogging induced by the vegetal material represents a major problem for the operational reliability of slit check dams. Current procedures in compiling hazardous maps do not account for such effects. The STEEPS STREAMS project aims at developing structural innovative solutions and design criteria reliable to mitigate the impacts of flash floods and debris flows especially in presence of intense woody material transport, typical of mountain catchments.
Kim, T.; Kim, Y. S.
The frequency analysis of hydrometeorological data is one of the most important factors in response to natural disaster damage, and design standards for a disaster prevention facilities. In case of frequency analysis of hydrometeorological data, it assumes that observation data have statistical stationarity, and a parametric method considering the parameter of probability distribution is applied. For a parametric method, it is necessary to sufficiently collect reliable data; however, snowfall observations are needed to compensate for insufficient data in Korea, because of reducing the number of days for snowfall observations and mean maximum daily snowfall depth due to climate change. In this study, we conducted the frequency analysis for snowfall using the Bootstrap method and SIR algorithm which are the resampling methods that can overcome the problems of insufficient data. For the 58 meteorological stations distributed evenly in Korea, the probability of snowfall depth was estimated by non-parametric frequency analysis using the maximum daily snowfall depth data. The results show that probabilistic daily snowfall depth by frequency analysis is decreased at most stations, and most stations representing the rate of change were found to be consistent in both parametric and non-parametric frequency analysis. This study shows that the resampling methods can do the frequency analysis of the snowfall depth that has insufficient observed samples, which can be applied to interpretation of other natural disasters such as summer typhoons with seasonal characteristics. Acknowledgment.This research was supported by a grant(MPSS-NH-2015-79) from Disaster Prediction and Mitigation Technology Development Program funded by Korean Ministry of Public Safety and Security(MPSS).
Campodonico, Joanna; Sevilla-Martir, Javier; Arrizabalaga, Gustavo; Kochhar, Komal
Malaria in Honduras is endemic and accounts for 40% of the total cases in Central America. Our goal was to assess knowledge of preventive methods and current treatment of malaria among the affected community of Trujillo, Honduras. A cross-sectional survey was administered to 71 individuals. Most respondents had a good understanding about common malaria symptoms but not about the complications associated with severe cases. More important, we found that less than 20% of the respondents recognized indoor residual sprays and insecticide-treated nets as effective preventive measures, which are the most efficient preventive methods. Our study highlights the perceptions the people of Trujillo have about malaria. From our observations, we put forward recommendations to implement a comprehensive campaign to educate the Trujillo population about malaria preventive methods and to recruit local and international efforts to distribute insecticide-treated nets.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Reach Address Database (RAD) stores the reach address of each Water Program feature that has been linked to the underlying surface water features (streams,...
Physical activity prescription: a critical opportunity to address a modifiable risk factor for the prevention and management of chronic disease: a position statement by the Canadian Academy of Sport and Exercise Medicine.
Thornton, Jane S; Frémont, Pierre; Khan, Karim; Poirier, Paul; Fowles, Jonathon; Wells, Greg D; Frankovich, Renata J
Non-communicable disease is a leading threat to global health. Physical inactivity is a large contributor to this problem; in fact, the WHO ranks it as the fourth leading risk factor for overall morbidity and mortality worldwide. In Canada, at least 4 of 5 adults do not meet the Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines of 150 min of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity per week. Physicians play an important role in the dissemination of physical activity (PA) recommendations to a broad segment of the population, as over 80% of Canadians visit their doctors every year and prefer to get health information directly from them. Unfortunately, most physicians do not regularly assess or prescribe PA as part of routine care, and even when discussed, few provide specific recommendations. PA prescription has the potential to be an important therapeutic agent for all ages in primary, secondary and tertiary prevention of chronic disease. Sport and exercise medicine (SEM) physicians are particularly well suited for this role and should collaborate with their primary care colleagues for optimal patient care. The purpose of this Canadian Academy and Sport and Exercise Medicine position statement is to provide an evidence-based, best practices summary to better equip SEM and primary care physicians to prescribe PA and exercise, specifically for the prevention and management of non-communicable disease. This will be achieved by addressing common questions and perceived barriers in the field.Author note This position statement has been endorsed by the following nine sport medicine societies: Australasian College of Sports and Exercise Physicians (ACSEP), American Medical Society for Sports Medicine (AMSSM), British Association of Sports and Exercise Medicine (BASEM), European College of Sport & Exercise Physicians (ECOSEP), Norsk forening for idrettsmedisin og fysisk aktivite (NIMF), South African Sports Medicine Association (SASMA), Schweizerische Gesellschaft für Sportmedizin
Dhamodharan, Udaya Suriya Raj Kumar; Vayanaperumal, Rajamani
Wireless sensor networks are highly indispensable for securing network protection. Highly critical attacks of various kinds have been documented in wireless sensor network till now by many researchers. The Sybil attack is a massive destructive attack against the sensor network where numerous genuine identities with forged identities are used for getting an illegal entry into a network. Discerning the Sybil attack, sinkhole, and wormhole attack while multicasting is a tremendous job in wireless sensor network. Basically a Sybil attack means a node which pretends its identity to other nodes. Communication to an illegal node results in data loss and becomes dangerous in the network. The existing method Random Password Comparison has only a scheme which just verifies the node identities by analyzing the neighbors. A survey was done on a Sybil attack with the objective of resolving this problem. The survey has proposed a combined CAM-PVM (compare and match-position verification method) with MAP (message authentication and passing) for detecting, eliminating, and eventually preventing the entry of Sybil nodes in the network. We propose a scheme of assuring security for wireless sensor network, to deal with attacks of these kinds in unicasting and multicasting.
Ariane Mendonça Pacheco
Full Text Available The impact of automatic and manual shelling methods during manual/visual sorting of different batches of Brazil nuts from the 2010 and 2011 harvests was evaluated in order to investigate aflatoxin prevention.The samples were tested as follows: in-shell, shell, shelled, and pieces in order to evaluate the moisture content (mc, water activity (Aw, and total aflatoxin (LOD = 0.3 µg/kg and LOQ 0.85 µg/kg at the Brazil nut processing plant. The results of aflatoxins obtained for the manually shelled nut samples ranged from 3.0 to 60.3 µg/g and from 2.0 to 31.0 µg/g for the automatically shelled samples. All samples showed levels of mc below the limit of 15%; on the other hand, shelled samples from both harvests showed levels of Aw above the limit. There were no significant differences concerning the manual or automatic shelling results during the sorting stages. On the other hand, the visual sorting was effective in decreasing the aflatoxin contamination in both methods.
Gallo, Carlos; Pantin, Hilda; Villamar, Juan; Prado, Guillermo; Tapia, Maria; Ogihara, Mitsunori; Cruden, Gracelyn; Brown, C Hendricks
Careful fidelity monitoring and feedback are critical to implementing effective interventions. A wide range of procedures exist to assess fidelity; most are derived from observational assessments (Schoenwald and Garland, Psycholog Assess 25:146-156, 2013). However, these fidelity measures are resource intensive for research teams in efficacy/effectiveness trials, and are often unattainable or unmanageable for the host organization to rate when the program is implemented on a large scale. We present a first step towards automated processing of linguistic patterns in fidelity monitoring of a behavioral intervention using an innovative mixed methods approach to fidelity assessment that uses rule-based, computational linguistics to overcome major resource burdens. Data come from an effectiveness trial of the Familias Unidas intervention, an evidence-based, family-centered preventive intervention found to be efficacious in reducing conduct problems, substance use and HIV sexual risk behaviors among Hispanic youth. This computational approach focuses on "joining," which measures the quality of the working alliance of the facilitator with the family. Quantitative assessments of reliability are provided. Kappa scores between a human rater and a machine rater for the new method for measuring joining reached 0.83. Early findings suggest that this approach can reduce the high cost of fidelity measurement and the time delay between fidelity assessment and feedback to facilitators; it also has the potential for improving the quality of intervention fidelity ratings.
Udaya Suriya Raj Kumar Dhamodharan
Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks are highly indispensable for securing network protection. Highly critical attacks of various kinds have been documented in wireless sensor network till now by many researchers. The Sybil attack is a massive destructive attack against the sensor network where numerous genuine identities with forged identities are used for getting an illegal entry into a network. Discerning the Sybil attack, sinkhole, and wormhole attack while multicasting is a tremendous job in wireless sensor network. Basically a Sybil attack means a node which pretends its identity to other nodes. Communication to an illegal node results in data loss and becomes dangerous in the network. The existing method Random Password Comparison has only a scheme which just verifies the node identities by analyzing the neighbors. A survey was done on a Sybil attack with the objective of resolving this problem. The survey has proposed a combined CAM-PVM (compare and match-position verification method with MAP (message authentication and passing for detecting, eliminating, and eventually preventing the entry of Sybil nodes in the network. We propose a scheme of assuring security for wireless sensor network, to deal with attacks of these kinds in unicasting and multicasting.
Lee, Myoungjin; Kim, Heejin; Seo, Jiae; Kang, Minji; Kang, Sunah; Jang, Joomyung; Lee, Yan; Seo, Ji-Hun
In this study, we conducted surface zwitterionization of hydroxyapatite (HA) surfaces by immersing them in the zwitterionic polymer solutions to provide anti-bacterial properties to the HA surface. Three different monomers containing various zwitterionic groups, i.e., phosphorylcholine (PC), sulfobetaine (SB), and carboxybetaine (CB), were copolymerized with the methacrylic monomer containing a Ca2+-binding moiety, using the free radical polymerization method. As a control, functionalization of the copolymer containing the Ca2+-binding moiety was synthesized using a hydroxy group. The stable immobilization of the zwitterionic functional groups was confirmed by water contact angle analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurement conducted after the sonication process. The zwitterionized HA surface showed significantly decreased protein adsorption, whereas the hydroxyl group-coated HA surface showed limited efficacy. The anti-bacterial adhesion property was confirmed by conducting Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) adhesion tests for 6 h and 24 h. When furanone C-30, a representative anti-quorum sensing molecule for S. mutans, was used, only a small amount of bacteria adhered after 6 h and the population did not increase after 24 h. In contrast, zwitterionized HA surfaces showed almost no bacterial adhesion after 6 h and the effect was retained for 24 h, resulting in the lowest level of oral bacterial adhesion. These results confirm that surface zwitterionization is a promising method to effectively prevent oral bacterial adhesion on HA-based materials.
Full Text Available Background. The aim of our study was to assess the level of awareness and knowledge on environmental and occupational risk of cancer and its prevention among Polish students. We were interested also in their sources of knowledge. Methods. Survey, using the questionnaire, was conducted among 1080 respondents, who are or probably will be in their future work, exposed to harmful agents, due to study profile. Results. Students rated their knowledge on environmental and occupational cancer agents and cancer prevention mostly as limited (over 77%. Participation in “Safety Work and Environment” courses did not differentiate their level of cancer risk awareness. 901 students (84% responded to question about specific substances, which may cause cancer. Almost 2% of students indicated none from 10 given agents as carcinogenic. About 34% of respondents pointed all given agents, 39% pointed on 8–9 of them, 5–7 agents 13.2% of surveyed and 9% of them indicated on 1–4 agents. Students were aware of carcinogenic features of radiation, asbestos, cigarettes smoking (93.2–93.8%, benzene, benzo[?]pirene and pesticides (79,2 –83,6%. Less of them declared carcinogenic features of PAHs (75.4%, heavy metals (73.9%, electromagnetic field (64.8% and infections (60.8%. Only 48% of respondents specified possible lowering of the cancer by risk intervention practices. Medical and engineering profile, as well as attendance in courses covering the issues of health safety at work or environment (SWE significantly decreased percentage of respondents who didn’t specified any procedure (but it was still high: 48–62%. Conclusion. Our results demonstrate that most students, only to some extent, are aware of the most well known cancer-causing substances occurrence. Their knowledge is mostly limited and they do not know prevention procedures and ways to lower or eliminate the risk. Therefore the modernization of educational programs and development of more efficient
Faucett, Scott C; Genuario, James W; Tosteson, Anna N A; Koval, Kenneth J
: A previous hip fracture more than doubles the risk of a contralateral hip fracture. Pharmacologic and environmental interventions to prevent hip fracture have documented poor compliance. The purpose of this study was to examine the cost-effectiveness of prophylactic fixation of the uninjured hip to prevent contralateral hip fracture. : A Markov state-transition model was used to evaluate the cost and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) for unilateral fixation of hip fracture alone (including internal fixation or arthroplasty) compared with unilateral fixation and contralateral prophylactic hip fixation performed at the time of hip fracture or unilateral fixation and bilateral hip pad protection. Prophylactic fixation involved placement of a cephalomedullary nail in the uninjured hip and was initially assumed to have a relative risk of a contralateral fracture of 1%. Health states included good health, surgery-related complications requiring a second operation (infection, osteonecrosis, nonunion, and malunion), fracture of the uninjured hip, and death. The primary outcome measure was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio estimated as cost per QALY gained in 2006 US dollars with incremental cost-effectiveness ratios below $50,000 per QALY gained considered cost-effective. Sensitivity analyses evaluated the impact of patient age, annual mortality and complication rates, intervention effectiveness, utilities, and costs on the value of prophylactic fixation. : In the baseline analysis, in a 79-year-old woman, prophylactic fixation was not found to be cost-effective (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio = $142,795/QALY). However, prophylactic fixation was found to be a cost-effective method to prevent contralateral hip fracture in: 1) women 71 to 75 years old who had 30% greater relative risk for a contralateral fracture; and 2) women younger than age 70 years. Cost-effectiveness was greater when the additional costs of prophylaxis were less than $6000. However, for
Kashiwabara, Toshiya; Goto, Takaharu; Sato, Yutaka; Tomotake, Yoritoki; Nagao, Kan; Ichikawa, Tetsuo
This paper demonstrates a simple method using sacrificial protection for preventing the corrosion of dental metals. Dental metals are directly connected or/and wound with a pure commercial aluminum/zinc wire/plate with high ionization tendency, before their immersion into oxidizing functional water. Dental materials such as Co-Cr alloy wires, stainless steel, and Au-Ag-Pd alloys did not corrode when this method was used. Thus, this method is very simple and effective for preventing corrosion of dental metals during disinfection using functional water. Copyright 2010 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Burgermaster, Marissa; Koroly, Jenna; Contento, Isobel; Koch, Pamela; Gray, Heewon L.
Background: Schools are frequent settings for childhood obesity prevention; however, intervention results are mixed. Classroom context may hold important clues to improving these interventions. Methods: We used mixed methods to examine classroom context during a curriculum intervention taught by trained instructors in fifth grade classrooms. We…
Hartmann, Miriam; Montgomery, Elizabeth; Stadler, Jonathan; Laborde, Nicole; Magazi, Busisiwe; Mathebula, Florence; van der Straten, Ariane
Female-initiated methods of HIV prevention are needed to address barriers to HIV prevention rooted in gender inequalities. Understanding the socio-cultural context of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) trials, including gender-based violence, is thus critical. MTN-003C (VOICE-C), a qualitative sub-study of the larger MTN-003 (VOICE) trial, examined socio-cultural barriers and facilitators to PrEP amongst women in Johannesburg. We conducted focus group discussions, in-depth interviews, and ethnographic interviews with 102 trial participants, 22 male partners, 17 community advisory board members, and 23 community stakeholders. We analysed how discussions of rape are emblematic of the gendered context in which HIV risk occurs. Rape emerged spontaneously in half of discussions with community advisory board members, two-thirds with stakeholders and among one-fifth of interviews/discussions with trial participants. Rape was used to reframe HIV risk as external to women’s or partner’s behaviour and to justify the importance of PrEP. Our research illustrates how women, in contexts of high levels of sexual violence, may use existing gender inequalities to negotiate PrEP use. This suggests that future interventions should simultaneously address harmful gender attitudes, as well as equip women with alternative means to negotiate product use, in order to more effectively empower women to protect themselves from HIV. PMID:26551920
Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Pupils have efficient potential to increase community awareness and promoting community health through participating in the health education programs. Child to family health education program is one of the communicative strategies that was applied in this field trial study. Because of high prevalence of Brucellosis in Hamadan province, Iran, the aim of this study was promoting families’ knowledge and preventive behaviors about Brucellosis in the rural areas by using child to family health education method.Materials & Methods: In this nonequivalent control group design study three rural schools were chosen (one as intervention and two others as control. At first knowledge and behavior of families about Brucellosis were determined using a designed questionnaire. Then the families were educated through “child to family” procedure. At this stage the students gained information. Then they were instructed to teach their parents what they had learned. After 3 months following the last session of education, the level of knowledge and behavior changes of the families about Brucellosis were determined and analyzed by paired t-test.Results: The results showed significant improvement in the knowledge of the mothers. The knowledge of the mothers about the signs of Brucellosis disease in human increased from 1.81 to 3.79 ( t:-21.64 , sig:0.000 , and also the knowledge on the signs of Brucellosis in animals increased from 1.48 to 2.82 ( t:-10.60 , sig:0.000. Conclusion: Child to family health education program is one of the effective and available methods, which would be useful and effective in most communities, and also Students potential would be effective for applying in the health promotion programs.
Chen, Shueh-Fen; Huang, Su-Fei; Lu, Li-Ting; Wang, Mei-Chuen; Liao, Jung-Yu; Guo, Jong-Long
Falling has high incidence and reoccurrence rates and is an essential factor contributing to accidental injury or death for older adults. Enhancing the participation of community-dwelling older adults in fall-prevention programs is crucial. Understanding fall-prevention beliefs will be beneficial for developing a community-based fall-prevention program. The aim of the present study was to identify the distinct types of subjective views on the fall-prevention beliefs of community-dwelling older adults aged 80 years and older by applying the Q method. The Q method was adopted to investigate the pattern of perception on fall-prevention beliefs. Forty-two older adults aged 80 - 92 years from a community care center in Northern Taiwan were recruited and requested to complete a Q-sorting. A series of Q-sorts was performed by the participants to rank 30 statements into a normal distribution Q-sort grid. The Q-sorts were subjected to principal component analysis by using PQMethod software Version 2.35. Four statistically independent perspectives were derived from the analysis and reflected distinct viewpoints on beliefs related to fall prevention. Participants in the Considerate perspective believed that health problems caused by falling were serious and fall prevention could decrease the burden they place on their family. Participants in the Promising perspective believed that existing health problems could cause a fall and that fall prevention contributed to their well-being. Participants in the Adaptable perspective perceived low barriers to execute fall prevention and displayed self-confidence and independence in preventing falls. Participants in the Ignorance perspective believed that they could not prevent falls and perceived barriers to fall prevention. By combining theoretical constructs and the Q methodology approach, this study identified four distinct perspectives on fall prevention among community-dwelling older adults. Critical reflection on older adult
Ratnaditya, Akurati; Ravuri, Srinivas; Tadi, Durga Prasad; Kandregula, Chaitanya Ram; Kopuri, Rajkumar Chowdary; Pentakota, Venkata Girish
Objectives: To prevent accidental ingestion of implant hex dive. Materials and Methods: Dental floss which is used to stabilize the hex drive is tied to the operator's finger ring to overcome sudden aspiration of fallen instrument. Results: It showed excellent grip of the instrument during stage two uncover time and also saved operators time. Conclusions: Accidental aspiration or swallowing of the dental instruments during routine implant surgeries can be prevented by tying the implant instru...
Houghton, J P; Roddy, S; Carroll, S; McCluggage, W G
Uteri are among the most common surgical pathology specimens. Assessment of the endometrium is often difficult because of pronounced tissue autolysis. This study describes a simple method to prevent endometrial autolysis and aid in interpretation of the endometrium. Sixty uteri were injected with formalin using a needle and syringe directed alongside a probe, which was inserted through the external cervical os into the endometrial cavity. Injection was performed on the same day as removal of the uterus. As controls, 60 uteri that were not injected with formalin were examined. The degree of endometrial autolysis was assessed on a four point scale (0-3), with a score of 0 representing no or minimal autolysis and a score of 3 representing extensive autolysis, such that histological interpretation of the endometrium was impossible. In the injected group, the number of cases with scores of 0, 1, 2, and 3 was 42, 13, four, and one, respectively. The corresponding values for the control group were 17, 23, eight, and 12, respectively. This was highly significant (p autolysis in uteri injected with formalin. The use of this simple procedure should be encouraged in hysterectomy specimens.
There is a worldwide epidemic of obesity with far-reaching consequences for the health of our nation. Prevention of obesity, especially in children, has been deemed by public health policy makers to be one of the most important objectives for our country. This prevention project, called Louisiana (L...
Hayashi, Eisaku; Kurosawa, Koichi; Furukawa, Hideyasu; Morinaka, Ren; Enomoto, Kunio; Otaka, Masahiro; Yoshikubo, Fujio; Chiba, Noboru; Sato, Kazunori.
In a preventive protection device for improving stresses in reactor structural components by jetting highly pressurized water with cavitation bubbles from a jetting nozzle toward structural components in a reactor pressure vessel, a fixed structure to a CRD housing is provided with a rotational body attached to the structure, a multi joint arm and a jetting nozzle supported to the multi joint arm. The jetting nozzle is disposed at a position where the center of the jetting deviates from the center of the CRD housing. In addition, a monitoring camera is disposed for displaying the target for preventive protection. The state of stresses on a plurality of targets for preventive protection can be improved by the preventive protection device at a fixed position in the bottom of a reactor pressure vessel where housings stand densely, thereby enabling to attain the preventive protection operation easily and rapidly. (N.H.)
Pomeranz, Jennifer L; Teret, Stephen P; Sugarman, Stephen D; Rutkow, Lainie; Brownell, Kelly D
Context: The law is a powerful public health tool with considerable potential to address the obesity issue. Scientific advances, gaps in the current regulatory environment, and new ways of conceptualizing rights and responsibilities offer a foundation for legal innovation. Methods: This article connects developments in public health and nutrition with legal advances to define promising avenues for preventing obesity through the application of the law. Findings: Two sets of approaches are defined: (1) direct application of the law to factors known to contribute to obesity and (2) original and innovative legal solutions that address the weak regulatory stance of government and the ineffectiveness of existing policies used to control obesity. Specific legal strategies are discussed for limiting children's food marketing, confronting the potential addictive properties of food, compelling industry speech, increasing government speech, regulating conduct, using tort litigation, applying nuisance law as a litigation strategy, and considering performance-based regulation as an alternative to typical regulatory actions. Finally, preemption is an overriding issue and can play both a facilitative and a hindering role in obesity policy. Conclusions: Legal solutions are immediately available to the government to address obesity and should be considered at the federal, state, and local levels. New and innovative legal solutions represent opportunities to take the law in creative directions and to link legal, nutrition, and public health communities in constructive ways. PMID:19298420
In this thesis a study of the HVDC related phenomenon core saturation instability and methods to prevent this phenomenon is performed. It is reason to believe that this phenomenon caused disconnection of the Skagerrak HVDC link 10 August 1993. Internationally, core saturation instability has been reported at several HVDC schemes and thorough complex studies of the phenomenon has been performed. This thesis gives a detailed description of the phenomenon and suggest some interesting methods to prevent the development of it. Core saturation instability and its consequences can be described in a simplified way as follows: It is now assumed that a fundamental harmonic component is present in the DC side current. Due to the coupling between the AC side and the DC side of the HVDC converter, a subsequent second harmonic positive-sequence current and DC currents will be generated on the AC side. The DC currents will cause saturation in the converter transformers. This will cause the magnetizing current to also have a second harmonic positive-sequence component. If a high second harmonic impedance is seen from the commutation bus, a high positive-sequence second harmonic component will be present in the commutation voltages. This will result in a relatively high fundamental frequency component in the DC side voltage. If the fundamental frequency impedance at the DC side is relatively low the fundamental component in the DC side current may become larger than it originally was. In addition the HVDC control system may contribute to the fundamental frequency component in the DC side voltage, and in this way cause a system even more sensitive to core saturation instability. The large magnetizing currents that eventually will flow on the AC side cause large zero-sequence currents in the neutral conductors of the AC transmission lines connected to the HVDC link. This may result in disconnection of the lines. Alternatively, the harmonics in the large magnetizing currents may cause
Bartholomäus, Sebastian; Hense, Hans Werner; Heidinger, Oliver
Evaluating cancer prevention programs requires collecting and linking data on a case specific level from multiple sources of the healthcare system. Therefore, one has to comply with data protection regulations which are restrictive in Germany and will likely become stricter in Europe in general. To facilitate the mortality evaluation of the German mammography screening program, with more than 10 Million eligible women, we developed a method that does not require written individual consent and is compliant to existing privacy regulations. Our setup is composed of different data owners, a data collection center (DCC) and an evaluation center (EC). Each data owner uses a dedicated software that preprocesses plain-text personal identifiers (IDAT) and plaintext evaluation data (EDAT) in such a way that only irreversibly encrypted record assignment numbers (RAN) and pre-aggregated, reversibly encrypted EDAT are transmitted to the DCC. The DCC uses the RANs to perform a probabilistic record linkage which is based on an established and evaluated algorithm. For potentially identifying attributes within the EDAT ('quasi-identifiers'), we developed a novel process, named 'blinded anonymization'. It allows selecting a specific generalization from the pre-processed and encrypted attribute aggregations, to create a new data set with assured k-anonymity, without using any plain-text information. The anonymized data is transferred to the EC where the EDAT is decrypted and used for evaluation. Our concept was approved by German data protection authorities. We implemented a prototype and tested it with more than 1.5 Million simulated records, containing realistically distributed IDAT. The core processes worked well with regard to performance parameters. We created different generalizations and calculated the respective suppression rates. We discuss modalities, implications and limitations for large data sets in the cancer registry domain, as well as approaches for further
Weissenberger, S. (Editor)
A systems engineering approach is reported for the problem of reducing the number and severity of California's wildlife fires. Prevention methodologies are reviewed and cost benefit models are developed for making preignition decisions.
The Virginia Department of Transportation (VDOT) is obligated by House Joint Resolution 453 passed in 1995 by Virginia's General Assembly to develop and implement a pollution prevention (P2) program. The primary purpose of this study was to develop a...
It is important to take security measures to protect your computer information, reduce identify theft, and prevent from malicious cyber-attacks. With cyber-attacks on the continuous rise, people need to understand and learn ways to prevent from these attacks. Cyber-attack is an important factor to be considered if one is to be able to protect oneself from malicious attacks. Without proper security measures, most computer technology would hinder home users more than such t...
Full Text Available The curse of dimensionality resulted from insufficient training samples and redundancy is considered as an important problem in the supervised classification of hyperspectral data. This problem can be handled by Feature Subset Selection (FSS methods and Support Vector Machine (SVM. The FSS methods can manage the redundancy by removing redundant spectral bands. Moreover, kernel based methods, especially SVM have a high ability to classify limited-sample data sets. This paper mainly aims to assess the capability of a FSS method and the SVM in curse of dimensional circumstances and to compare results with the Artificial Neural Network (ANN, when they are used to classify alteration zones of the Hyperion hyperspectral image acquired from the greatest Iranian porphyry copper complex. The results demonstrated that by decreasing training samples, the accuracy of SVM was just decreased 1.8% while the accuracy of ANN was highly reduced i.e. 14.01%. In addition, a hybrid FSS was applied to reduce the dimension of Hyperion. Accordingly, among the 165 useable spectral bands of Hyperion, 18 bands were only selected as the most important and informative bands. Although this dimensionality reduction could not intensively improve the performance of SVM, ANN revealed a significant improvement in the computational time and a slightly enhancement in the average accuracy. Therefore, SVM as a low-sensitive method respect to the size of training data set and feature space can be applied to classify the curse of dimensional problems. Also, the FSS methods can improve the performance of non-kernel based classifiers by eliminating redundant features. Keywords: Curse of dimensionality, Feature Subset Selection, Hydrothermal alteration, Hyperspectral, SVM
Sattler, Sebastian; Wiegel, Constantin; van Veen, Floris
This study examines the use frequency by German faculty of 10 different methods for preventing and detecting cheating on exams, plagiarism, and falsification and/or fabrication of data. It also investigates the factors influencing their use. In total, 3,655 faculty members from 55 randomly chosen disciplines at 4 German universities were contacted…
Nevin, Miles J.
This document analysis synthesized student learning outcomes (SLOs) and assessment methods from a sample of 36 student government associations in the California Community College system. Student learning outcomes were grouped according to "governance, ethical and civic behavior", and "experiential learning functions." Using…
Access information on EPA's efforts to address ozone layer depletion through regulations, collaborations with stakeholders, international treaties, partnerships with the private sector, and enforcement actions under Title VI of the Clean Air Act.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The EURIKA study aims to assess the status of primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD across Europe. Specifically, it will determine the degree of control of cardiovascular risk factors in current clinical practice in relation to the European guidelines on cardiovascular prevention. It will also assess physicians' knowledge and attitudes about CVD prevention as well as the barriers impeding effective risk factor management in clinical practice. Methods/Design Cross-sectional study conducted simultaneously in 12 countries across Europe. The study has two components: firstly at the physician level, assessing eight hundred and nine primary care and specialist physicians with a daily practice in CVD prevention. A physician specific questionnaire captures information regarding physician demographics, practice settings, cardiovascular prevention beliefs and management. Secondly at the patient level, including 7641 patients aged 50 years or older, free of clinical CVD and with at least one classical risk factor, enrolled by the participating physicians. A patient-specific questionnaire captures information from clinical records and patient interview regarding sociodemographic data, CVD risk factors, and current medications. Finally, each patient provides a fasting blood sample, which is sent to a central laboratory for measuring serum lipids, apolipoproteins, hemoglobin-A1c, and inflammatory biomarkers. Discussion Primary prevention of CVD is an extremely important clinical issue, with preventable circulatory diseases remaining the leading cause of major disease burden. The EURIKA study will provide key information to assess effectiveness of and attitudes toward primary prevention of CVD in Europe. A transnational study creates opportunities for benchmarking good clinical practice across countries and improving outcomes. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00882336.
Ashraf Shady's paper provides a first-hand reflection on how a foreign teacher used cogens as culturally adaptive pedagogy to address cultural misalignments with students. In this paper, Shady drew on several cogen sessions to showcase his journey of using different forms of cogens with his students. To improve the quality of cogens, one strategy he used was to adjust the number of participants in cogens. As a result, some cogens worked and others did not. During the course of reading his paper, I was impressed by his creative and flexible use of cogens and at the same time was intrigued by the question of why some cogens work and not others. In searching for an answer, I found that Mikhail Bakhtin's dialogism, especially the concept of addressivity, provides a comprehensive framework to address this question. In this commentary, I reanalyze the cogen episodes described in Shady's paper in the light of dialogism. My analysis suggests that addressivity plays an important role in mediating the success of cogens. Cogens with high addressivity function as internally persuasive discourse that allows diverse consciousnesses to coexist and so likely affords productive dialogues. The implications of addressivity in teaching and learning are further discussed.
Full Text Available Introduction: There are risk of fire accidents in Operating rooms during surgery. Experts estimate annually around 100 fire accidents occur in the operating rooms of United States’s hospitals. 10 to 20 of these accidents lead to severe injuries and about 1 to 2 lead to death. Despite such accidents rarely happen, but they can lead to serious injury or death of patients. .Material and Method: This Cross-sectional questionnaire based survey was conducted among several hospitals belonged to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. In this study, all personnel of operating rooms were investigated. Questionnaire were used to collect information and the chi-square test was applied to examine the relationship between the Knowledge of operating room personels on fire prevention and control methods, jobs and work experience. For statistical analysis SPSS14 were used. .Result: In this study from 220 participants, about 19.72% had full awareness, 19.62% had partial knowledge, 19.37% had low awareness and 40.97% had no knowledge on fire prevention methods, concerning fire control methods. However, 76% of the participate had full awareness and 24% had no knowledge. Test result Statistically showed that the relationship between the awareness of operating room personnel to fire control methods and work experience were significant (P-value <0.05. But, the relationship between the knowledge of operating room to fire control methods and the type of jobs were not significant. Also no significant relationship were found between the level of awareness in operating room personnel to fire prevention methods, work experience and job title. .Conclusion: The results indicated that the operating room staff awareness of fire prevention and control methods are low. The results also showed that awareness of fires prevention are lower than the awareness of fire control among the studied personel. Regarding to the potential risk of fire in the operating room, it is suggested
[Objective: To present the process and challenges of developing an online competency-based course on public health policy using a collaborative international approach.Methods: Five public health experts, supported by an expert in educational technology, adopted a rigorous approach to the development of the course: a needs analysis, identification of objectives and competencies, development of a pedagogical scenario for each module and target, choice of teaching methods and learning activities, material to be identified or developed, and the responsibilities and tasks involved.Results: The 2-credit (90-hour) graduate course consists of six modules including an integration module. The modules start with a variety of case studies: tobacco law (neutral packaging), supervised injection sites, housing, integrated services for the frail elderly, a prevention programme for mothers from disadvantaged backgrounds, and the obligatory use of bicycle helmets. In modules 1, 3, 4 and 5, students learn about different stages of the public policy development process: emergence, formulation and adoption, implementation and evaluation. Module 2 focuses on the importance of values and ideologies in public policy. The integration module allows the students to apply the knowledge learned and addresses the role of experts in public policy and ethical considerations.Conclusion].
Hébert, Réjean; Coppieters, Yves; Pradier, Christian; Williams-Jones, Bryn; Brahimi, Cora; Farley, Céline
To present the process and challenges of developing an online competency-based course on public health policy using a collaborative international approach. Five public health experts, supported by an expert in educational technology, adopted a rigorous approach to the development of the course: a needs analysis, identification of objectives and competencies, development of a pedagogical scenario for each module and target, choice of teaching methods and learning activities, material to be identified or developed, and the responsibilities and tasks involved. The 2-credit (90-hour) graduate course consists of six modules including an integration module. The modules start with a variety of case studies: tobacco law (neutral packaging), supervised injection sites, housing, integrated services for the frail elderly, a prevention programme for mothers from disadvantaged backgrounds, and the obligatory use of bicycle helmets. In modules 1, 3, 4 and 5, students learn about different stages of the public policy development process: emergence, formulation and adoption, implementation and evaluation. Module 2 focuses on the importance of values and ideologies in public policy. The integration module allows the students to apply the knowledge learned and addresses the role of experts in public policy and ethical considerations. The course has been integrated into the graduate programmes of the participating universities and allows students to follow, at a distance, an innovative training programme.
Sinfield, Paul; Baker, Richard; Pollard, Lorraine; Tang, Mei Yee
A tailored approach to implementation can facilitate the routine use of best evidence, and so improve the quality of care delivered. Tailored implementation involves investigating the context and barriers to change before selecting appropriate interventions. However, there is little evidence on the methods of tailoring. This study investigated the tailoring undertaken by two implementation groups as part of a study to improve adherence to NICE guidelines on adult obesity in primary care. Data were collected from interviews with healthcare professionals and patients on barriers and enablers to implementing NICE guidelines on adult obesity along with practice performance data on body mass index (BMI) recording and use of interventions for obesity. Findings were presented to medical practitioners, university and NHS staff (n = 12) who formed two implementation groups to independently identify the most important barriers and enablers, and to suggest interventions to facilitate the implementation of the NICE guidelines. Each group had a facilitator and were observed by researchers whose notes were used to understand the group processes and assess the usefulness of this method. Within the time available both implementation groups reached consensus on the most important barriers and enablers and, led by those who had personal experience of managing patients with weight problems, made practical proposals for interventions to improve the implementation of the NICE guidelines. The role of the facilitator was crucial in ensuring barriers, enablers and interventions were all discussed and agreed upon in the time available. The facilitated implementation groups method succeeded in identifying appropriate and similar barriers, enablers and implementation interventions, which suggests some justification for this approach to tailoring. However, further research into methods of tailoring is required. Improvements to the implementation group approach may be realised by careful
"Unproven" is a euphemism for questionable. The definition of a questionable method is that it has not successfully answered the two basic consumer protection questions of efficacy and safety, to wit: Has it been responsibly, objectively, reproducibly, and reliably demonstrated in humans in the responsible (peer-reviewed) literature accepted for the shelves of the National Library of Medicine in Bethesda, Maryland, to be: More effective than suggestion or doing nothing? and in addition, either As safe as doing nothing? or, in the alternative, If there is any question with respect to safety, to have a reasonably and objectively clear potential for benefit which exceeds its potential for harm? Any proposed cancer prevention or treatment modality which has not successfully answered the above efficacy question plus one of the two safety questions is by definition questionable. It is experimental if it is new, and very probably quackery if it is old. Experimental therapy may be either ethical and responsible or unethical and irresponsible. It is unethical and irresponsible to not tell the patient experiments are being conducted on him, to charge the patient to perform research on him, or to ask the patient to sign an informed consent aimed at exculpating the doctor rather than protecting the patient. Ethical and responsible informed consents clearly delineate that what is being done is experimental, and that efficacy and safety have not been determined. Products promoted for profit to the public without passing peer process are almost without exception ineffective, often harmful, and sometimes lethal. This includes Laetrile, immunoaugmentative therapy, chelation therapy, macrobiotic diets, and other alternative therapies. Anecdotal and testimonial claims of cure, on investigation, almost invariably prove due to coincidence, suggestibility, and/or the natural history of the disorder, and fall into one of the five categories of "cures that are not": The patient never had
Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental caries is unevenly distributed within populations with a higher burden in low socio-economy groups. Several attempts have been made to allocate resources to those that need them the most; there is a need for convenient approaches to population-based monitoring of caries risk over time. The aim of this study was to develop the geo-map concept, addressing time trends in caries risk, and demonstrate the novel approach by analyzing epidemiological data from preschool residents in the region of Halland, Sweden. Methods The study population consisted of 9,973 (2006 and 10,927 (2010 children between 3 to 6years of age (~77% of the eligible population from whom caries data were obtained. Reported dmfs>0 for a child was considered as the primary caries outcome. Each study individual was geo-coded with respect to his/her residence parish (66 parishes in the region. Smoothed caries risk geo-maps, along with corresponding statistical certainty geo-maps, were produced by using the free software Rapid Inquiry Facility and the ESRI ArcGIS system. Parish-level socioeconomic data were available. Results The overall proportion of caries-free (dmfs=0 children improved from 84.0% in 2006 to 88.6% in 2010. The ratio of maximum and minimum (parish-level smoothed relative risks (SmRRs increased from 1.76/0.44=4.0 in 2006 to 2.37/0.33=7.2 in 2010, which indicated an increased geographical polarization of early childhood caries in the population. Eight parishes showed evidential, positional changes in caries risk between 2006 and 2010; their corresponding SmRRs and statistical certainty ranks changed markedly. No considerable parallel changes in parish-level socioeconomic characteristics were seen during the same time period. Conclusion Geo-maps based on caries risk can be used to monitor changes in caries risk over time. Thus, geo-mapping offers a convenient tool for evaluating the effectiveness of tailored health promotion and preventive
Modeling framework for representing long-term effectiveness of best management practices in addressing hydrology and water quality problems: Framework development and demonstration using a Bayesian method
Liu, Yaoze; Engel, Bernard A.; Flanagan, Dennis C.; Gitau, Margaret W.; McMillan, Sara K.; Chaubey, Indrajeet; Singh, Shweta
Best management practices (BMPs) are popular approaches used to improve hydrology and water quality. Uncertainties in BMP effectiveness over time may result in overestimating long-term efficiency in watershed planning strategies. To represent varying long-term BMP effectiveness in hydrologic/water quality models, a high level and forward-looking modeling framework was developed. The components in the framework consist of establishment period efficiency, starting efficiency, efficiency for each storm event, efficiency between maintenance, and efficiency over the life cycle. Combined, they represent long-term efficiency for a specific type of practice and specific environmental concern (runoff/pollutant). An approach for possible implementation of the framework was discussed. The long-term impacts of grass buffer strips (agricultural BMP) and bioretention systems (urban BMP) in reducing total phosphorus were simulated to demonstrate the framework. Data gaps were captured in estimating the long-term performance of the BMPs. A Bayesian method was used to match the simulated distribution of long-term BMP efficiencies with the observed distribution with the assumption that the observed data represented long-term BMP efficiencies. The simulated distribution matched the observed distribution well with only small total predictive uncertainties. With additional data, the same method can be used to further improve the simulation results. The modeling framework and results of this study, which can be adopted in hydrologic/water quality models to better represent long-term BMP effectiveness, can help improve decision support systems for creating long-term stormwater management strategies for watershed management projects.
Aggarwal, Bhagwan D
High incidences of silicosis are continuing to be reported among the agate workers of small-scale household agate processing units in the Khambhat region of Gujarat (India). The objective of this study was to investigate reasons behind the high prevalence of silicosis, and factors affecting the noncompliance with preventive methods among agate workers. The study was conducted using a questionnaire-based structured interview method among 82 agate workers in Khambhat to assess their awareness level about silicosis and preventive methods, existing morbidity, worker's attitude toward health, and the prevalence of actual use of preventive methods to avoid silica exposure. The majority of the workers (55%) were aware of silicosis and the harmful effects of silica dust exposure (72%) and knew about simple preventive methods to avoid silica dust exposure (80%), but only a minority of the workers (22%) were actually using the simple and available dust-preventive methods. Only 9% of the uneducated workers were using the preventive methods, while usage was higher among educated workers (28%), who had five or more years of schooling, and these workers had fewer health conditions or less morbidity. Gender and job duration had no effect on the usage of dust-preventive methods. The data suggest that noncompliance with use of dust-preventive methods could be the reason behind the higher prevalence of silicosis and health morbidity in agate workers, and that years of schooling plays a significant role in the increased usage and self-compliance with dust-preventive methods among agate workers.
Omega-3 oils have gained much attention recently due to their beneficial health effects. However, their polyunsaturated fats (PUFAs) are so prone to oxidation in the presence of oxygen, heat, light, and metal ions that a strong antioxidant is needed to prevent oxidation during manufacturing processe...
Anne Benjaminse; Bert Otten; A. Gokeler; Wouter Welling
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention programs have been successful in the short term. Motor learning strategies with an internal focus (IF) to body movements have traditionally been utilized, but may be less suitable than an external focus (EF) for the acquisition and control of
Benjaminse, Anne; Welling, Wouter; Otten, Egbert; Gokeler, Alli
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention programs have been successful in the short term. Motor learning strategies with an internal focus (IF) to body movements have traditionally been utilized, but may be less suitable than an external focus (EF) for the acquisition and control of
Conclusion: According to the results, agriculture workers based on their age distribution, education, body mass index, health knowledge, drug use and incidence of chronic diseases, are very vulnerable to heat-related disorders. Therefore, training on recognizing the early signs and doing control measures as essential element in heat stress prevention should be seriously considered.
Borys, J.M.; Le Bodo, Y.; Jebb, S.A.; Seidell, J C; Summerbell, C.; Richard, D.; De Henauw, S.; Moreno, L.A.; Romon, M.; Visscher, T L S; Raffin, S.; Swinburn, B.
Childhood obesity is a complex issue and needs multi-stakeholder involvement at all levels to foster healthier lifestyles in a sustainable way. 'Ensemble Prévenons l'Obésité Des Enfants' (EPODE, Together Let's Prevent Childhood Obesity) is a large-scale, coordinated, capacity-building approach for
Yuliya Borisovna Kinyasheva
Full Text Available The article considers the drug problem in modern society, which is the most complicated one and dangerous for youth, as the most receptive social group. It is defined, that drug prevention is an important instrument in the reduction of non-medical drug and psychotropic substances consumption. The results of anti-drug policy are affected by a combination of preventing and operational measures together with the total development of the interdepartmental cooperation. The article represents the original summary’s research, written on the basis of studying and theoretical analysis of sources, documents on the research issue, and also data from the report “About the Drug Situation in Tula Region”. The authors reveal root causes and dynamics of drug abuse among young people; show the domination of social and psychological environment in drug addiction among citizens. Studies of the preventive work show a number of important issues in this field (beadledom, institutions acting disunity, underfunding, etc., overcoming them is possible due to systematic approach. The outcome of this work shows the variation of universal technologies using for preventing psychotropic substances addiction. The results of the research study can be applied in social psychology, education and advocacy, and also in the law enforcement agencies.
Shoveller, Jean A.; Johnson, Joy L.; Savoy, Daphne M.; Pietersma, W. A. Wia
Most primary prevention research has attempted to explain sexual health outcomes, such as sexually transmitted infections, by focusing on individual characteristics (e.g. age), qualities (e.g. knowledge levels), and risk behaviour (e.g. unprotected intercourse). Emerging evidence indicates that population-level health outcomes are unlikely to be…
Hoang, Nam S; Lau, James N
Competency-based medical education (CBME) has been the subject of heated debate since its inception in medical education. Despite the many challenges and pitfalls of CBME that have been recognized by the medical education community, CBME is now seeing widespread implementation. However, the biggest problems with CBME still have not been solved. Two of these problems, reductionism and loss of authenticity, present major challenges when developing curricula and assessment tools.The authors address these problems by making a call for flexibility in competency definitions and for the use of mixed methods in CBME. First, they present the issue of reductionism and a similar concept from the field of data science, overfitting. Then they outline several solutions, both conceptual and concrete, to prevent undue reductionist tendencies in both competency definitions and in tools of assessment. Finally, they propose the re-introduction of qualitative methods to balance the historically quantitative emphasis of assessment in medical education.The authors maintain that mixed-methods assessment with multiple assessors in differing contexts can yield a more accurate representation of a medical trainee's skills and abilities, deter the loss of authenticity, and increase the willingness of medical educators to adopt a feasible form of CBME. Finally, they propose the deployment of dedicated faculty assessors and physician coaches (which will reduce training requirements for other faculty), as well as the use of formal qualitative tools of assessment alongside established quantitative tools, to encourage a truly mixed-method approach to assessment.
Rowe Heather J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevention of postnatal mental disorders in women is an important component of comprehensive health service delivery because of the substantial potential benefits for population health. However, diverse approaches to prevention of postnatal depression have had limited success, possibly because anxiety and adjustment disorders are also problematic, mental health problems are multifactorially determined, and because relationships amongst psychosocial risk factors are complex and difficult to modify. The aim of this paper is to describe the development of a novel psycho-educational intervention to prevent postnatal mental disorders in mothers of firstborn infants. Methods Data from a variety of sources were synthesised: a literature review summarised epidemiological evidence about neglected modifiable risk factors; clinical research evidence identified successful psychosocial treatments for postnatal mental health problems; consultations with clinicians, health professionals, policy makers and consumers informed the proposed program and psychological and health promotion theories underpinned the proposed mechanisms of effect. The intervention was pilot-tested with small groups of mothers and fathers and their first newborn infants. Results What Were We Thinking! is a psycho-educational intervention, designed for universal implementation, that addresses heightened learning needs of parents of first newborns. It re-conceptualises mental health problems in mothers of infants as reflecting unmet needs for adaptations in the intimate partner relationship after the birth of a baby, and skills to promote settled infant behaviour. It addresses these two risk factors in half-day seminars, facilitated by trained maternal and child health nurses using non-psychiatric language, in groups of up to five couples and their four-week old infants in primary care. It is designed to promote confidence and reduce mental disorders by providing skills
Festini, Filippo; Bregnballe, Vibeke
Procedural pain is an additional burden for children with CE If not adequately prevented and treated procedural pain may result in anxiety and fear bound to the visits at the CF Centre (CFC) and it may affect patients' future compliance to treatments. Aim: To collect data on what CFCs in the world...... do to prevent pain and fear in CF children. A 14-item questionnaire in 5 languages was sent to 441 CFCs' email addresses worldwide and posted on the INSG-CF web site. It regarded the methods used by CF Centres to control pain and fear during invasive procedures (e.g.: blood drawing, vein cannulation.......g., distractiozl, relaxation) 83.3 92.8 (always or often) Parents' presence during procedure 80.5 100 Pain measurement with scales (always or often) 8.3 64.3 Although much is done, a number of effective, safe, simple measures to control pain and fear are still not used in many CFCs. Our study shows a wider use...
Festini, Filippo; Bregnballe, Vibeke
Procedural pain is an additional burden for children with CE If not adequately prevented and treated procedural pain may result in anxiety and fear bound to the visits at the CF Centre (CFC) and it may affect patients' future compliance to treatments. Aim: To collect data on what CFCs in the world...... do to prevent pain and fear in CF children. A 14-item questionnaire in 5 languages was sent to 441 CFCs' email addresses worldwide and posted on the INSG-CF web site. It regarded the methods used by CF Centres to control pain and fear during invasive procedures (e.g.: blood drawing, vein cannulation....... The table shows the percentage of CFCs which use specific pain and fear control measures. European CFCs Non European CFCs (%) (%) Anaesthetic creams (always or often) 61.1 64.2 Nitrous oxide (often or sometimes) 8.3 14.3 Oral sucrose (often or sometimes) 41.6 35.7 Non-pharmacological teclmiques (e...
Neuderth, S; Lukasczik, M; Musekamp, G; Gerlich, C; Saupe-Heide, M; Löbmann, R; Vogel, H
There so far is no standardized program for external quality assurance in inpatient parent-child prevention and rehabilitation in Germany. Therefore, instruments and methods of external quality assurance were developed and evaluated on behalf of the federal-level health insurance institutions. On the level of structure quality, a modular questionnaire for assessing structural features of rehabilitation/prevention centers, basic and allocation criteria as well as a checklist for visitations were developed. Structural data were collected in a nationwide survey of parent-child prevention and rehabilitation centers. Process and outcome quality data were collected in n=38 centers. Process quality was assessed using multiple methods (process-related structural features, case-related routine documentation, and incident-related patient questionnaires). Outcome quality was measured via patient questionnaires (n=1 799 patients). We used a multi-level modelling approach by adjusting relevant confounders on institutional and patient levels. The methods, instruments and analyzing procedures developed for measuring quality on the level of structure, processes and outcomes were adjusted in cooperation with all relevant stakeholders. Results are exemplarily presented for all quality assurance tools. For most of the risk-adjusted outcome parameters, we found no significant differences between institutions. For the first time, a comprehensive, standardized and generally applicable set of methods and instruments for routine use in comparative quality measurement of inpatient parent-child prevention and rehabilitation is available. However, it should be considered that the very heterogeneous field of family-oriented measures can not be covered entirely by an external quality assurance program. Therefore, methods and instruments have to be adapted continuously to the specifics of this area of health care and to new developments. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Santmyire, B R
The impact of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa on future mortality rates of infants, children, and mothers, life expectancy, and economic growth is profound. Vertical transmission of HIV, transmission from mother to child, is a major factor in the increasing rates of HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa. Vertical transmission of HIV occurs in utero, intrapartum during labor and delivery, and postpartum during breast-feeding. Because of the large numbers of HIV-infected mothers in developing countries, the majority trials regarding prevention of vertical transmission of HIV have been conducted in sub-Saharan Africa. Thus, sub-Saharan Africa has become a human laboratory, which demonstrates both the successes and failures of preventative methods to reduce vertical transmission of HIV. This review summarizes the body of research dedicated to understanding the pathophysiology of vertical transmission of HIV and pharmacology of inhibition of vertical transmission of HIV. While many debate the ethics of conducting trials in developing countries where effective prevention modalities have been slow to be implemented for economic, social and political reasons, studies continue and researchers continue to discover therapies and preventative methods, which may reduce the future devastation of HIV both in sub-Saharan Africa and throughout the world.
Cui, Rongxue; Kwak, Jin Il; An, Youn-Joo
Some water fleas such as Daphnia galeata and Bosmina longirostris are difficult to culture and use in ecotoxicity testing since they can easily become entrapped at the surface film. Cetyl alcohol was the most prevalent chemical used to prevent the entrapment of water fleas in previous studies. However, cetyl alcohol possesses a number of disadvantages including its toxicity and water insolubility. This study presents a novel method for preventing surface film entrapment of the water flea D. galeata and B. longirostris acute testing. We examined the applicability of saponin extracts from Quillaja saponaria, natural surfactants commonly extracted from plants. Its application of saponin extracts was tested by ecotoxicity testing of heavy metals. Based on the acute test results for heavy metals, a concentration of 1.0 mg/L of saponins was determined as suitable for preventing surface film entrapment of D. galeata and B. longirostris with negligible adverse effects. This study proposes a novel method for preventing surface film entrapment of D. galeata and B. longirostris through the application saponins and could be valuable to make them suitable test species in ecotoxicity testing.
Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.
This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…
Maintains that advertising can help people become more aware of social responsibilities. Describes a successful nationwide newspaper advertising competition for college students in which ads address social issues such as literacy, drugs, teen suicide, and teen pregnancy. Notes how the ads have helped grassroots programs throughout the United…
Akindele, Dele Femi
Full Text Available Address forms constitute an integral part of Basotho sociolinguistic etiquette. They are regarded as a kind of emotional capital that may be invested in putting others at ease. They are indicators of deference, politeness and markers of social distance. (Fasold 1990, Akindele 1990, 1991, 1993 This paper examines the address forms used by the Basotho people. It analyzes and discusses the various types and the factors determining their use. The discussion of address forms in Sesotho focuses on First Name, Title plus First Name, Title plus Last Name, Nickname, Multiple Names, and Teknonym. Drawing data from semi-literate and literate urban and rural population of Maseru district of Lesotho, it was found that the commonest form of address used by the Basotho people is title plus first name. e.g. ntate Thabo (father Thabo, 'm'e Puleng (mother Puleng, ausi Maneo (sister Maneo, abuti Mahao (brother Mahao. It is used by close relations, associates, and familiar people in both formal and informal situations.
Ashraf Shady's paper provides a first-hand reflection on how a foreign teacher used cogens as culturally adaptive pedagogy to address cultural misalignments with students. In this paper, Shady drew on several cogen sessions to showcase his journey of using different forms of cogens with his students. To improve the quality of cogens, one…
Filippov, Yu. О.; Tyutyunnik, V. M.
Stomach cancer is a leader in the structure of cancer pathology in Ukraine and in the world. This paper summarizes own results and literature data on diagnosis, treatment and prevention of stomach cancer. Authors analyzed the experience and specific features of long-term treatment and diagnostic approach to patients with stomach cancer involving esophagus. Conducting pre-and postoperative cytostatic herbal therapy and cryosurgical operations during surgical treatment in patients with spread o...
Schafer, Alexandro G. [Universidade Federal do Pampa (UNIPAMPA), Bage, RS (Brazil)
There are several methods for the risk assessment and risk management applied to pipelines, among them the Muhlbauer's Method. Muhlbauer is an internationally recognized authority on pipeline risk management. The purpose of this model is to evaluate the public exposure to the risk and identify ways for management that risk in fact. The assessment is made by the attribution of quantitative values to the several items that influences in the pipeline risk. Because the ultimate goal of the risk assessment is to provide a means of risk management, it is sometimes useful to make a distinction between two types of risk variables. The risk evaluator can categorize each index risk variable as either an attribute or a prevention. This paper approaches the subject of the definition of attributes and preventions in the Muhlbauer basic model of risk assessment and also presents a classification of the variables that influence the risk in agreement with those two categories. (author)
Nawasrah, Amal; AlNimr, Amani; Ali, Aiman A.
Denture stomatitis is a very common disease affecting the oral mucosa of denture wearers. The aim of this study was to measure the antifungal effect of henna against Candida albicans adhered to acrylic resin as a possible method for prevention of denture stomatitis. One-hundred-eighty acrylic plates were prepared of heat-cured acrylic denture resin. The specimens were divided into six groups of 30 samples each. The first group was only polymer and monomer following the conventional manufactur...
Hutchins, Shaun D; Wickens, Christopher D; Carolan, Thomas F; Cumming, John M
The objective was to conduct research synthesis for the U.S.Army on the effectiveness of two error prevention training strategies (training wheels and scaffolding) on the transfer of training. Motivated as part of an ongoing program of research on training effectiveness, the current work presents some of the program's research into the effects on transfer of error prevention strategies during training from a cognitive load perspective. Based on cognitive load theory, two training strategies were hypothesized to reduce intrinsic load by supporting learners early in acquisition during schema development. A transfer ratio and Hedges' g were used in the two meta-analyses conducted on transfer studies employing the two training strategies. Moderators relevant to cognitive load theory and specific to the implemented strategies were examined.The transfer ratio was the ratio of treatment transfer performance to control transfer. Hedges' g was used in comparing treatment and control group standardized mean differences. Both effect sizes were analyzed with versions of sample weighted fixed effect models. Analysis of the training wheels strategy suggests a transfer benefit. The observed benefit was strongest when the training wheels were a worked example coupled with a principle-based prompt. Analysis of the scaffolding data also suggests a transfer benefit for the strategy. Both training wheels and scaffolding demonstrated positive transfer as training strategies.As error prevention techniques, both support the intrinsic load--reducing implications of cognitive load theory. The findings are applicable to the development of instructional design guidelines in professional skill-based organizations such as the military.
Balbale, Salva N; Hill, Jennifer N; Guihan, Marylou; Hogan, Timothy P; Cameron, Kenzie A; Goldstein, Barry; Evans, Charlesnika T
To prevent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Spinal Cord Injury and Disorder (SCI/D) Centers, the "Guidelines for Implementation of MRSA Prevention Initiative in the Spinal Cord Injury Centers" were released in July 2008 in the Veterans Affairs (VA) Health Care System. The purpose of this study was to use the Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Systems (PARiHS) framework to evaluate the experiences of implementation of SCI/D MRSA prevention guidelines in VA SCI/D Centers approximately 2-3 years after the guidelines were released. Mixed methods were used across two phases in this study. The first phase included an anonymous, web-based cross-sectional survey administered to providers at all 24 VA SCI/D Centers. The second phase included semi-structured telephone interviews with providers at 9 SCI/D Centers. The PARiHS framework was used as the foundation of both the survey questions and semi-structured interview guide. The survey was completed by 295 SCI/D providers (43.8 % response rate) from 22 of the 24 SCI/D Centers (91.7 % participation rate). Respondents included nurses (57.3 %), therapists (24.4 %), physicians (11.1 %), physician assistants (3.4 %), and other health care professionals (3.8 %). Approximately 36 % of the SCI/D providers surveyed had not seen, did not remember seeing, or had never heard of the MRSA SCI/D guidelines, whereas 42.3 % of providers reported that the MRSA SCI/D guidelines were fully implemented in their SCI/D Center. Data revealed numerous barriers and facilitators to guideline implementation. Facilitators included enhanced leadership support and provider education, focused guideline dissemination to reach SCI/D providers, and strong perceived evidence supporting the guidelines. Barriers included lack of awareness of the guidelines among physical therapists and physician assistants and challenges in cohorting/isolating MRSA-positive patients and following contact precautions. Successful
N. G. Badalov
Full Text Available The review represents the results of investigations into the role of nondrug methods in the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis (OA. The data available in the literature suggest that a number of non-drug technologies, first of all exercise therapy, aquatic therapy, reflexotherapy, electrical stimulation, and electromagnetic therapy, have proven efficiency and a certain potential for reducing the risk of osteoporosis and its complications and for improving bone metabolism. Expanding the range of these methods and increasing their validity for clinical introduction are very promising.
McPhedran, Samara; Baker, Jeanine
Given the finite resources allocated to suicide prevention, it is necessary to direct resources into interventions that are most likely to have an impact. This article tests for possible impacts on youth suicides of a cost-intensive Australian policy change (increased firearms restriction) that limited access to a means of suicide. Suicide rates by different age groups and methods were examined for structural breaks, using Zivot-Andrews and Quandt tests. No breakpoint was found in firearm suicide among Australian youth around the time of the 1996 legislative changes. Method restriction in the form of firearms legislation could not be tied to a corresponding impact on youth suicide.
Full Text Available Introduction: The passage from childhood to adulthood is the period when health habits and sexual behaviors start to form. Thus, the topics of sexual health and reproductive health should be approached with priority during this period. The objective of the study is to evaluate the knowledge and behavior of students of the medical faculty with respect to sexually transmitted diseases and prevention methods.Methods: The questionnaire that contains 23 headings created by the researchers after relevant literature reviews was administered to the third-semester students of the Izmir Katip Celebi University Medical Faculty in face-to-face interviews after obtaining their verbal consent. The study data was analyzed using the SPSS 20.0 demo software bundle. Conditions in which the p-value was under 0.05 were regarded as statistically significant.Results: The mean age of the students that participated in the study (n=104 was 21.88 ± 1.9 years of age, 51% (n=53 of the students were female, and 49.0% (n=51 were male. Among the students, 93% stated that they had received education about preventing pregnancy. Two of the most well-known prevention methods by the participants were condoms in 99.0% (n=103 and oral contraceptives in 95.2% (n=99. The rate of correct answers given about all of the risk factors for sexually transmitted diseases (sex workers, polygamy, homosexuality, being sexually active, substance addiction was 22.1% (n=23.Conclusion: Identifying the level of knowledge in the youth about STDs in early periods, determining the services they require, cooperating with related institutions to review the adequacy of information online, and educating youth about STDs are important in preventing these diseases and also in the treatment of existing diseases before they lead to more problems.
As a service delivery option for students with disabilities, coteaching continues to gain popularity. Successful coteaching largely rests upon the compatibility of coteachers. Sometimes conflict may occur when two teachers with different backgrounds and views work closely together. This article focuses on why conflict is inevitable in cotaught…
Full Text Available Background: The Obesity Prevention and Lifestyle (OPAL intervention program targets families and communities to improve children’s eating and physical activity patterns. We outline the quantitative evaluation design and recruitment results for baseline data collection. Methods: A longitudinal quasi-experimental design, with baseline data collection and five-year follow-up. Participants targeted are children, parents, and school principals/directors from primary, secondary/R-12 schools, pre-schools, childcare and out-of-school-hours-care (OSHC centers in 20 selected communities across South Australia (SA, and one in the Northern Territory (NT. A total of 277 (262 SA, 15 NT schools participated; 4860 9-11 year olds and 1164 12-16 year olds completed a questionnaire. Anthropometric measures were taken from 5531 students; 6552 parents, 276 pre/school/childcare directors, 139 OSHC directors and 237 principals completed questionnaires. Data include measurements of child participants’ weight/height/waist circumference; paper-based/online surveys of informants in early childhood, primary/secondary school and community settings; and secondary growth check data for 4-5 year old children. Serial cross-sectional analyses will compare intervention to matched comparison communities. Results: Overall school response rate was 50%. Student response rates were 20-22% and 11-13% (questionnaires and measurements respectively; 14-21% of parents, 49-55% of directors, and 26-44% of principals completed and returned questionnaires. Changes to child weight status; eating practices; sleep, physical activity/sedentary behaviors; physical environments; community capacity; and economic evaluation (Quality Adjusted Life year gain will examine program effectiveness. Conclusions: As the most significant program of its kind in Australia, OPAL will contribute to obesity prevention efforts on an international scale.
Kosky, R J; Dundas, P
The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with deaths by hanging among young people in Queensland, Australia. An examination of coroner's reports for all deaths by hanging of people under 25 years of age that occurred in Queensland in the years 1995 and 1996. All cases were recorded as suicides. Most were males and a quarter were indigenous persons. Half the deaths occurred in regional or rural areas. Unemployment, the experience of personal loss, psychiatric illness and alcohol use were possible precipitating agents. Early warning signs were the onset of uncharacteristic behaviours and threats of suicide. The private nature of hanging means that there are rarely opportunities to prevent it in the period immediately before the fatal event. Earlier interventions will have to be considered. To prevent hanging as a means of suicide, we need to understand more about the difficulties experienced by some young men who are living in rural areas. We need more information about the cultural problems experienced by indigenous youths in their teenage years. Young people in the justice system may need personal support. There is a pressing need to determine if young people, especially in rural areas, have adequate access to the professional expertise needed to diagnose and treat mental disorders.
Paltrinieri, Nicola; Øien, Knut; Cozzani, Valerio
Some severe major accidents occurred in Europe in recent years (e.g. the Vapour Cloud Explosion at Buncefield in 2005), which were not foreseen by their site “Seveso-II” safety reports. Detailed analyses of such “atypical” scenarios demonstrated that they are the result of a number of failures at different technical and organizational levels. Thus, their prevention is a major challenge and must be coordinated through different kinds of approaches, among which improved early detection plays an important role. Proactive methodologies for the development of early warning indicators can unveil early deviations in the causal chain. Two examples are the Resilience-based Early Warning Indicator (REWI) method and the so-called “Dual Assurance” method. The aim of this study was to analyse the possible integration of early warning indicators in the hazard identification process. A Buncefield-like site was analysed to obtain indicators that were compared with the actual causes that led to the accident at Buncefield (and to similar accident scenarios). The results show that indicators from both methods could have prevented the accidents from happening. However, one main difference is related to the issue of hazard identification, which is fundamental for the prevention of atypical accident scenarios. The REWI method is not dependent on the outcome of the hazard identification process. Instead it provides complementarities to the first prevention approach (improved identification of atypical scenarios), demonstrating that a mutual activity would be an effective strategy in which human, organizational, cultural and technical factors are treated in an integrated manner. - Highlights: ► Early warning indicators were created through 2 methods for the Buncefield oil depot. ► A general capacity to cover causes of atypical events was demonstrated. ► The Dual Assurance method showed to mainly cover operability failures. ► The REWI method showed to promote acts
Correction to: The MINDMAP project: mental well-being in urban environments : Design and first results of a survey on healthcare planning policies, strategies and programmes that address mental health promotion and mental disorder prevention for older people in Europe.
Neumann, L; Dapp, U; Jacobsen, W; van Lenthe, F; von Renteln-Kruse, W
Correction to: Z Gerontol Geriat 2017 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00391-017-1290-7 The article "The MINDMAP project: mental well-being in urban environments. Design and first results of a survey on healthcare planning policies, strategies and programmes that address mental health promotion and mental disorder prevention for older people in …The original article was corrected.
Liu, Zan; Wang, Weiwei; Chen, Hao; Liu, Jianping; Zhang, Wenli
Actually, reflecting drug release from polymer-coated pellets remains a challenge. In this study, sticking of pellets caused by Eudragit®L30D-55 was observed during the release process, leading to change in drug release. Talcum powder (talc) was used in esomeprazole magnesium pellets to prevent sticking and modify release of pellets. Three methods including talc incorporated in enteric layer, physically mixed and coating resulted pellets were employed to prevent the sticking. The release of pellets was modified by addition talc into subcoat. The dispersion coefficient (Fd) and release profiles were determined in phosphate buffer solution (pH 6.8 and 6.0) and distilled water. It was found that the first manner made Fd increase to about 0.75, but the latter two methods could completely prevent sticking. Also, the second manner was more simple and readily scaled up. In addition, talc in subcoat significantly slowed the drug release in water, but the slowing release effect is less pronounced at pH 6.0 and 6.8. These different effects of talc were attributed to a different release mechanism in three media. The release profiles in water were fitted to Nuttanan model, and the K designated as "diffusive resistance constant" was linearly increased with talc levels in subcoat (R(2)=0.9874).
Full Text Available Tinea pedis is a preventable skin disease common in elderly or diabetic patients. Daily foot washing is effective for prevention, but can be difficult for many patients. Additionally, conventional methods cannot eliminate fungi within the stratum corneum, a common site for fungal invasion. This study investigates the antifungal effects, cytotoxicity, permeability, and efficacy of non-woven textiles containing polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB mixed with sophorolipid. Permeability of PHMB with varying concentrations of sophorolipid was assessed via a cultured skin model. Stratum corneum PHMB concentration was quantified by polyvinylsulphuric acid potassium salt titration and cytotoxicity was assayed via 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide. Antifungal effects were evaluated via a new cultured skin/Trichophyton mentagrophytes model, with varying PHMB exposure duration. Clinically-isolated Trichophyton were applied to the feet of four healthy volunteers and then immediately treated with the following methods: washing with soap, a non-woven textile with PHMB, the textile without PHMB, or without washing. Fungal colony forming units (CFUs were evaluated after one of these treatments were performed. Sophorolipid with various concentrations significantly facilitated PHMB permeation into the stratum corneum, which was not in a dose-dependent manner. Significant PHMB antifungal effects were achieved at 30 min, with low cytotoxicity. Textiles containing PHMB significantly reduced CFU of fungi in healthy volunteers to levels comparable to soap washing. Our results indicate the utility of this product for tinea pedis prevention in clinical settings.
Sanada, Hiromi; Nakagami, Gojiro; Takehara, Kimie; Goto, Taichi; Ishii, Nanase; Yoshida, Satoshi; Ryu, Mizuyuki; Tsunemi, Yuichiro
Tinea pedis is a preventable skin disease common in elderly or diabetic patients. Daily foot washing is effective for prevention, but can be difficult for many patients. Additionally, conventional methods cannot eliminate fungi within the stratum corneum, a common site for fungal invasion. This study investigates the antifungal effects, cytotoxicity, permeability, and efficacy of non-woven textiles containing polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) mixed with sophorolipid. Permeability of PHMB with varying concentrations of sophorolipid was assessed via a cultured skin model. Stratum corneum PHMB concentration was quantified by polyvinylsulphuric acid potassium salt titration and cytotoxicity was assayed via 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide. Antifungal effects were evaluated via a new cultured skin/Trichophyton mentagrophytes model, with varying PHMB exposure duration. Clinically-isolated Trichophyton were applied to the feet of four healthy volunteers and then immediately treated with the following methods: washing with soap, a non-woven textile with PHMB, the textile without PHMB, or without washing. Fungal colony forming units (CFUs) were evaluated after one of these treatments were performed. Sophorolipid with various concentrations significantly facilitated PHMB permeation into the stratum corneum, which was not in a dose-dependent manner. Significant PHMB antifungal effects were achieved at 30 min, with low cytotoxicity. Textiles containing PHMB significantly reduced CFU of fungi in healthy volunteers to levels comparable to soap washing. Our results indicate the utility of this product for tinea pedis prevention in clinical settings.
Feruglio, G A
In this symposium an extensive review of the basic role of health education for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, has been made. Principles and methods have been analysed in the light of recent advances in primary and secondary prevention of rheumatic heart disease, ischemic heart disease and hypertension. The cardiologist's role in health education of individual subjects and of high-risk target groups or of the whole community, has been stressed. Recent trials have shown that it is possible to achieve behavioural changes and a reduction in the levels of risk factors in a good proportion of participants. It should be possible to bring up children virtually free from risk factors. Cardiologists on their own are unlikely to succeed in a program of prevention. They need the help of many others including public health workers, sociologists, nurses and above all, general practitioners. Cardiologists however have responsibility for leadership and for providing background knowledge. Cardiologists need to be educated and motivated. Health education should be founded on a scientific basis and should be organized in an efficient and planned fashion. Medical and post-graduated schools, hospital institutions and cardiological associations must be specifically involved in preparing the cardiologists for this specific task. On the other hand, dedicated teams or sections in the cardiological departments must be activated to promote, coordinate and carry out specific programs of health education for preventing cardiovascular diseases. The attention of governmental authorities should be drawn to the theoretical and practical importance of health education in preventive cardiology, especially in connection with the planning, organization and direction of health education at the regional and national level.
Wagner, Jordan; Clodfelter, Sharon
From 2005 to 2008, Washoe County, Nevada, child care centers experienced an increase in illnesses from communicable disease outbreaks. The number of ill children and caregivers from these outbreaks went from 26 in 2005 to 266 in 2008, an increase of 923%. A clear need to reverse this trend existed. Therefore, in 2009 Washoe County strengthened its regulations for child care facilities by adding numerous communicable disease prevention standards. In addition, in 2009 a two-year education, evaluation, and inspection program was implemented at Washoe County child care centers. Following the implementation of this program, a decline occurred in the number of illnesses. The number of ill children and caregivers from outbreaks went from 266 in 2008 to 13 in 2011, a decrease of 95%.
Elhaddad Elnori E.
Full Text Available Wax formation and deposition is one of the most common problems in oil producing wells. This problem occurs as a result of the reduction of the produced fluid temperature below the wax appearance temperature (range between 46°C and 50°C and the pour point temperature (range between 42°C and 44°C. In this study, two new methods for preventing wax formation were implemented on three oil wells in Libya, where the surface temperature is, normally, 29°C. In the first method, the gas was injected at a pressure of 83.3 bar and a temperature of 65°C (greater than the pour point temperature during the gas-lift operation. In the second method, wax inhibitors (Trichloroethylene-xylene (TEX, Ethylene copolymers, and Comb polymers were injected down the casings together with the gas. Field observations confirmed that by applying these techniques, the production string was kept clean and no wax was formed. The obtained results show that the wax formation could be prevented by both methods.
van Lenthe, Frank J; de Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Klepp, Knut-Inge; Lien, Nanna; Moore, Laurence; Faggiano, Fabrizio; Kunst, Anton E; Mackenbach, Johan P
Background Higher prevalence rates of unhealthy behaviours among lower socioeconomic groups contribute substantially to socioeconomic inequalities in health in adults. Preventing the development of these inequalities in unhealthy behaviours early in life is an important strategy to tackle socioeconomic inequalities in health. Little is known however, about health promotion strategies particularly effective in lower socioeconomic groups in youth. It is the purpose of project TEENAGE to improve knowledge on the prevention of socioeconomic inequalities in physical activity, diet, smoking and alcohol consumption among adolescents in Europe. This paper describes the background, design and methods to be used in the project. Methods/design Through a systematic literature search, existing interventions aimed at promoting physical activity, a healthy diet, preventing the uptake of smoking or alcohol, and evaluated in the general adolescent population in Europe will be identified. Studies in which indicators of socioeconomic position are included will be reanalysed by socioeconomic position. Results of such stratified analyses will be summarised by type of behaviour, across behaviours by type of intervention (health education, environmental interventions and policies) and by setting (individual, household, school, and neighbourhood). In addition, the degree to which effective interventions can be transferred to other European countries will be assessed. Discussion Although it is sometimes assumed that some health promotion strategies may be particularly effective in higher socioeconomic groups, thereby increasing socioeconomic inequalities in health-related behaviour, there is little knowledge about differential effects of health promotion across socioeconomic groups. Synthesizing stratified analyses of a number of interventions conducted in the general adolescent population may offer an efficient guidance for the development of strategies and interventions to prevent
Manap, N.; Jeyaramah, N.; Syahrom, N.
Landslide is known as one of the powerful geological events that happens unpredictably due to natural or human factors. A study was carried out at FELCRA Semungkis, Hulu Langat which is known as one of the areas that has been affected by landslide that involving 16 causalities. The purpose of this study is to identify the main factor that causes the landslide at FELCRA Semungkis, Hulu Langat and to identify the protection method. Data was collected from three respondents working under government bodies through interview sessions. The data collected were analysed by using the content analysis method. From the results, it can be concluded that the main factors that caused the landslide to happened are the human factor and nature factor. The protection method that can be applied to stabilize the FELCRA Semungkis, Hulu Langat is by using the soil nailing method with the support of soil create system.
.... We consider inference as correct classification and approach it with decision tree methods. As in our previous work, sensitive data are viewed as classes of those test data and non-sensitive data are the rest attribute values...
Promoting Community Conversations About Research to End Suicide: learning and behavioural outcomes of a training-of-trainers model to facilitate grassroots community health education to address Indigenous youth suicide prevention.
Wexler, Lisa; Trout, Lucas; Rataj, Suzanne; Kirk, Tanya; Moto, Roberta; McEachern, Diane
Alaska Native (AN) youth suicide remains a substantial and recalcitrant health disparity, especially in rural/remote communities. Promoting Community Conversations About Research to End Suicide (PC CARES) is a community health intervention that responds to the need for culturally responsive and evidence-supported prevention practice, using a grassroots approach to spark multilevel and community-based efforts for suicide prevention. This paper describes theoretical and practical considerations of the approach, and assesses the feasibility and preliminary learning and behavioural outcomes of the training-of-trainers model. It details the training of a first cohort of intervention facilitators in Northwest Alaska (NWA). Thirty-two people from 11 NWA village communities completed the PC CARES facilitator training, preparing them to implement the intervention in their home communities. Facilitator pre-post surveys focused on readiness to facilitate, a group quiz assessed participants' understanding of relevant research evidence, and practice facilitation exercises demonstrated competency. Curriculum fidelity and accuracy scores were calculated using audio recordings from learning circles conducted by facilitators in their home communities. Facilitator reflections describe the successes of the model and identify several areas for improvement. As of March 2017, 20 of the 32 trained facilitators in 10 of the 11 participating villages have hosted 54 LCs, with a total of 309 unique community members. Coding of these LCs by 2 independent raters indicate acceptable levels of fidelity and accurate dissemination of research evidence by facilitators. Facilitator reflections were positive overall, suggesting PC CARES is feasible, acceptable and potentially impactful as a way to translate research to practice in under-resourced, rural AN communities. PC CARES represents a practical community education and mobilisation approach to Indigenous youth suicide prevention that displays
In this podcast, CDCâs Dr. Lynda Anderson highlights the important roles that states and communities can play in addressing cognitive health as part of overall health. Created: 6/9/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). Date Released: 6/9/2014.
Pilot Project to Integrate Community and Clinical Level Systems to Address Health Disparities in the Prevention and Treatment of Obesity among Ethnic Minority Inner-City Middle School Students: Lessons Learned
Full Text Available Effective obesity prevention and treatment interventions are lacking in the United States, especially for impoverished minority youths at risk for health disparities, and especially in accessible community-based settings. We describe the launch and pilot implementation evaluation of the first year of the B’N Fit POWER initiative as a middle school-based comprehensive wellness program that integrates weight management programming into existing onsite preventive and clinical services. Consistent with the existing implementation science literature, we focused on both the organizational structures that facilitate communication and the development of trust among stakeholders, students, and families and the development of realistic and timely goals to implement and integrate all aspects of the program. New implementation and programming strategies were developed and tested to increase the proportion of students screened, support the linkage of students to care, and streamline the integration of program clinical and afterschool components into routine services already offered at the school. We report on our initial implementation activities using the Standards for Reporting Implementation Studies (StaRI framework using hybrid outcomes combining the Reach element from the RE-AIM framework with a newly conceptualized Wellness Cascade.
Lauro Soares de Freitas
Full Text Available Despite of the significant contribution of QFD for the construction of the theoretical framework for managing the development of new products and services, there is an embryonic implementation in the public sector. The purpose of this article is to analyze the application of the method in the context of public safety, and the study was delimited to the School Patrol in the Military Police of Minas Gerais. Action research was the research strategy chosen and qualitative and quantitative methods were used to collect and analyze data. The QFD method proved to be effective for: systematize a large set of internal and external corporate information, facilitating the subsequent planning of policing; promote a dynamic oriented and structured in encounters between police and the community; identify the needs of public school and prioritize activities policing which better fulfill these desires; and to understand the ability of service of a School Patrol Unit. Moreover, the police service has a unique set of characteristics that partially hindered planning service by QFD. This service does not have a specific market niche, being a service of law and not by purchase. Also relies on legal aspects and regulates behaviors, generating rejection. Although this particular nature, two factors favored the application of the method: the institutionalization of the philosophy of community policing in the organization and to familiarizing officers with management concepts and quality. The final conclusion is that the QFD method was presented as a promising tool for improving the quality of Brazilian public services.
V. F. Sivokobylenko
Full Text Available The article analyzes the methods affecting autonomous operation regimes of the powergrid sections with distributed electric-power sources (distributed generation whose connection to the electric-power grid is realized by means of special distributed generation inverters. The authors evidentiate the reasons for which autonomous operation is undesirable; examine consequences of the autonomous asynchronous operation of the grid-sections during islanding. These problems are innate for the modern Smart Grid networks. Islanding detection methods include passive and active ones. The passive methods rely only on observation of the voltage and/or frequency at the point of common coupling (PCC disconnecting the inverter if the measured values are outside the specified limits. Despite their simplicity, passive methods cannot assure reliable islanding detection, especially in the cases when distributed generation power equals the power of loads in the potential grid-island. The active methods assume the inverter affecting the grid with the view of detecting deviation from the standard regime parameters in the PCC. Although these methods have much better islanding detection ability, their utilization reduces the power-grid operation quality.The paper holds that the grid-sections autonomous regime detection without virtually no failure-to-detect zone is only possible with employment of effective anti-islanding schemes such as connecting capacitor batteries to the disconnected power-grid sector. If appropriate providing enhanced survivability and continuity of power supply, the authors recommend providing islanding detection lock option in the inverters of the distributed generation sources.
Brady, Linda Jeannine [Gainesville, FL; Seifert, Kyle N [Harrisonburg, VA; Adderson, Elisabeth E [Memphis, TN; Bohnsack, John F [Salt Lake City, UT
The present invention provides a group B streptococcal (GBS) surface antigen, designated epsilon antigen, that is co-expressed with the delta antigen on a subset of serotype III GBS. Epsilon is expressed on more pathogenic Restriction Digest Pattern (RDP) III-3 GBS, but not on RDP types 1, 2, or 4. Accordingly, the present invention provides compositions and methods for detecting a group B streptococcus serotype III, RDP III-3 strain. Vaccines and methods of identifying agents which inhibit adhesion of a group B streptococcal cell to a host cell are also provided.
Full Text Available In the article, the authors justify the necessity to apply non medicamentous treatment methods to the children with bronchial asthma. The scientists familiarize us with a new me dication, whose effect is based on the noninvasive impact of the electromagnetic radiation of the knowingly non thermal intensity. It is for normalization of the disturbed function of the respiratory system. The researchers showed the efficiency of the above said innovative medication, while treating bronchial asthma among children with no side effects whatsoever.Key words: bronchial asthma, nonmedicamentous treatment methods, children.
Clark, Michael; Young, Trudie; Fallon, Maureen
Successful prevention of pressure ulcers is the end product of a complex series of care processes including, but not limited to, the assessment of vulnerability to pressure damage; skin assessment and care; nutritional support; repositioning; and the use of beds, mattresses, and cushions to manage mechanical loads on the skin and soft tissues. The purpose of this review was to examine where and how Statistical Process Control (SPC) measures have been used to assess the success of quality improvement initiatives intended to improve pressure ulcer prevention. A search of 7 electronic bibliographic databases was performed on May 17th, 2017, for studies that met the inclusion criteria. SPC methods have been reported in 9 publications since 2010 to interpret changes in the incidence of pressure ulcers over time. While these methods offer rapid interpretation of changes in incidence than is gained from a comparison of 2 arbitrarily selected time points pre- and post-implementation of change, more work is required to ensure that the clinical and scientific communities adopt the most appropriate SPC methods. © 2018 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The standardisation of the assessment methodology and case definition represents a major precondition for the comparison of study results and the conduction of meta-analyses. International guidelines provide recommendations for the standardisation of falls methodology; however, injurious falls have not been targeted. The aim of the present article was to review systematically the range of case definitions and methods used to measure and report on injurious falls in randomised controlled trials (RCTs on fall prevention. Methods An electronic literature search of selected comprehensive databases was performed to identify injurious falls definitions in published trials. Inclusion criteria were: RCTs on falls prevention published in English, study population ≥ 65 years, definition of injurious falls as a study endpoint by using the terms "injuries" and "falls". Results The search yielded 2089 articles, 2048 were excluded according to defined inclusion criteria. Forty-one articles were included. The systematic analysis of the methodology applied in RCTs disclosed substantial variations in the definition and methods used to measure and document injurious falls. The limited standardisation hampered comparability of study results. Our results also highlight that studies which used a similar, standardised definition of injurious falls showed comparable outcomes. Conclusions No standard for defining, measuring, and documenting injurious falls could be identified among published RCTs. A standardised injurious falls definition enhances the comparability of study results as demonstrated by a subgroup of RCTs used a similar definition. Recommendations for standardising the methodology are given in the present review.
Tobacco smoking is one of the greatest causes of mortality in the world, responsible for over 5 million deaths per annum. The prevalence of smoking is over 1 billion people, with the majority coming from low or middle income countries. Yet, the incidence of smoking varies vastly between many countries. Some countries have been able to decline the smoking and tobacco related morbidity and mortality through the introduction of health promotion initiatives and effective policies in order to combat tobacco usage. However, on the other hand, in some countries, the incidence of smoking is increasing still further. With the growing body of evidence of detriment of tobacco to health, many control policies have been implemented as health promotion actions. Such methods include taxation of smoking, mass advertising campaigns in the media, peer education programs, community mobilization, motivational interviewing, health warnings on tobacco products, marketing restrictions, and banning smoking in public places. However, the review of the effectiveness of various health promotion methods used for smoking prevention and cessation is lacking. Therefore, the aim of this review is to identify and critically review the effectiveness of health promotion methods used for smoking prevention and cessation. All available studies and reports published were considered. Searches were conducted using PubMed, MEDLINE, Ovid, Karger, ProQuest, Sage Journals, Science Direct, Springer, Taylor and Francis, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Cochrane and Wiley Online Library. Various relevant search terms and keywords were used. After considering the inclusion and exclusion criteria, we selected 23 articles for the present review.
Roca Biosca, A; Anguera Saperas, L; García Grau, N; Rubio Rico, L; Velasco Guillén, M C
Oral hygiene (OH) forms a part of the patient's safety in the prevention of mechanical ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). The dental plaque index (DP) is considered as a quality marker for OH. The association of electric toothbrush and conventional OH in intubated patients decreases the DP and incidence of VAP. To verify the reduction of DP in patients receiving OH and electric toothbrush and its association with to the decrease of VAP incidence. A 3-year long randomized, single blind and prospective study conducted in a 14-bed polyvalent intensive care unit. Patients were included when there was more than 48hours of mechanical ventilation and no expected respiratory infection. Patients were randomized into two groups: Standard (OH with chlorhexidine) (GS) and Raspall (Standard OH with electric dental brush) (GR). The VAP was identified following clinical, medical and microbiological criteria. The DP and halitosis were observed daily. Oral and pharyngeal swabs were collected during the first 5 days. 147 patients were included. Mean age was 53.9±17.5. No significant differences were found in the VAP incidence between the two groups (OR=0.78; 95% IC, 0.36-1.68; p=0.56). The relation between halitosis and DP was p=0.7. The dental plaque index on the 5th day was 1.98 (n=60) in GR and 2.04 (n=57) in GS (p=0.3). The dental plaque index on the 10th day was 1.68 (n=29) in GR and 1.91 (n=32) in GS (p=0.7). There is a tendency towards a decrease in the DP which is clearing in the GR group and no relation between VAP and greater DP or halitosis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEEIUC. All rights reserved.
Lessing, Paul A [Idaho Falls, ID
An electrochemically active hydrogen diffusion barrier which comprises an anode layer, a cathode layer, and an intermediate electrolyte layer, which is conductive to protons and substantially impermeable to hydrogen. A catalytic metal present in or adjacent to the anode layer catalyzes an electrochemical reaction that converts any hydrogen that diffuses through the electrolyte layer to protons and electrons. The protons and electrons are transported to the cathode layer and reacted to form hydrogen. The hydrogen diffusion barrier is applied to a polymeric substrate used in a storage tank to store hydrogen under high pressure. A storage tank equipped with the electrochemically active hydrogen diffusion barrier, a method of fabricating the storage tank, and a method of preventing hydrogen from diffusing out of a storage tank are also disclosed.
Lessing, Paul A.
An electrochemically active hydrogen diffusion barrier which comprises an anode layer, a cathode layer, and an intermediate electrolyte layer, which is conductive to protons and substantially impermeable to hydrogen. A catalytic metal present in or adjacent to the anode layer catalyzes an electrochemical reaction that converts any hydrogen that diffuses through the electrolyte layer to protons and electrons. The protons and electrons are transported to the cathode layer and reacted to form hydrogen. The hydrogen diffusion barrier is applied to a polymeric substrate used in a storage tank to store hydrogen under high pressure. A storage tank equipped with the electrochemically active hydrogen diffusion barrier, a method of fabricating the storage tank, and a method of preventing hydrogen from diffusing out of a storage tank are also disclosed.
is likely to be an important mechanism for preventing cardiotoxicity.
Saxena, Anita; Sharma, R K; Gupta, Amit; John, Manns Manohar
Intradialytic hypotension (IDH) is a life-threatening condition. We evaluated the feasibility of blood volume monitoring (BVM) and blood temperature monitoring (BTM) in preventing IDH in patients prone to the same. Fourteen hemodynamically unstable end-stage renal disease patients who were prone to IDH and unable to achieve dry weight were given BVM treatment twice weekly for two weeks. Forty patients who were not on BVM treatment served as controls. Patients were anemic, had low serum albumin (3.4 ± 0.43 g/dL) and fluid overload and were edematous. Of the 40 patients in the control group, 18 patients experienced IDH and dialysis had to be terminated. The incidence of IDH was 5% in the control group. In the BVM group, the total volume of fluid removed during hemodialysis was between 2.0 and 4.5 L (mean 3.2 L). By the end of dialysis, the hemo-concentration increased by 34.8%. With use of BVM and BTM, the blood pressure did not drop below 120/80 mm Hg, the dialysis sessions were uneventful and none of the patients suffered symptoms of hypotension. There was a difference of 3 kg between weight achieved and dry weight of the patient, although there was a 14.2% reduction in extracellular water (ECW), 14.5% in plasma fluid and 14.5% decrease in interstitial fluid. Blood volume significantly correlated with post-dialysis intracellular water (ICW) (r = 0.722, P = 0.008) and ECW/ICW ratio (r = 0.698, P = 0.012). There was a significant correlation between systolic blood pressure and ECW (r = 0.615, P = 0.033). Diastolic blood pressure significantly correlated with post-dialysis ECW (r = 0.690, P = 0.008), plasma fluid post-dialysis (r = 0.632, P = 0.027) and interstitial fluid (r = 0.604, P = 0.038). The ECW/ICW ratio was high (1.13 ± 0.48; control 0.74), implying overhydration and expanded extracellular fluid. BVM should be included in the dialysis protocol where patient compliance to maintenance hemodialysis is poor and patients are constantly in volume overload.
Peddie, David; Small, Serena S; Badke, Katherin; Wickham, Maeve E; Bailey, Chantelle; Chruscicki, Adam; Ackerley, Christine; Balka, Ellen; Hohl, Corinne M
Adverse drug events (ADEs) are unintended and harmful events related to medication use. Up to 30% of serious ADEs recur within six months because culprit drugs are unintentionally represcribed and redispensed. Improving the electronic communication of ADE information between care providers, and across care settings, has the potential to reduce recurrent ADEs. We aim to describe the methods used to design Action ADE, a novel electronic ADE reporting system that can be leveraged to prevent unintentional reexposures to harmful drugs in British Columbia, Canada. To develop the new system, our team will use action research and participatory design, approaches that employ social scientific research methods and practitioner participation to generate insights into work settings and problem resolution. We will develop a systematic search strategy to review existing ADE reporting systems identified in academic and grey literature, and analyze the content of these systems to identify core data fields used to communicate ADE information. We will observe care providers in the emergency departments and on the wards of two urban tertiary hospitals and one urban community hospital, in one rural ambulatory care center, and in three community pharmacies in British Columbia, Canada. We will also conduct participatory workshops with providers to understand their needs and priorities related to communicating ADEs and preventing erroneous represcribing or redispensing of culprit medications. These methods will inform the iterative development of a preliminary paper-based reporting form, which we will then pilot test with providers in a real-world setting. This is an ongoing project with results being published as analyses are completed. The systematic review has been completed; field observations, focus groups, and pilot testing of a preliminary paper-based design are ongoing. Results will inform the development of software that will enable clinically useful user-friendly documentation
Hakim, Renée M; Roginski, Aileen; Walker, Jason
The purpose of this study was to determine which of 2 primary prevention education programs was more effective in increasing knowledge and prompting behavior change to reduce fall risks among community-dwelling older adults who attended Senior Centers. A convenience sample (N=69) was recruited at 4 local senior centers to compare 2 fall risk education methods. Subjects were divided randomly by location into a class and pamphlet (CP) group (n = 35) that received a one-hour class plus written information and a pamphlet only (PO) group (n = 34) that received only written information. Pretesting for level of knowledge was conducted at baseline and at 2 weeks following the intervention and data were also collected on risk factor reduction behaviors. There was no significant difference (p=0.34) between groups for knowledge posttests. The CP group reported 121 changes to reduce fall risk while the PO group reported 120 changes. Subjects who had been injured by past falls (n=22) were significantly (p=0.04) more likely to report changes than those who had not fallen or were not injured by a fall. Both methods prompted fall risk reduction behaviors. This study provides an example of community-based, primary prevention programs designed to reduce fall risk factors among older adults.
Park, Byung Kwan; Kim, Chan Kyo [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, The Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea)
Radiofrequency (RF) ablation is an alternative treatment for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in patients unable to undergo surgery. Although RF ablation has a low complication rate because of its minimally invasive nature, unintended heat may be conducted by several critical organs during ablation procedures, leading to a variety of complications. Major complications that usually require treatment include bowel injury, ureteral injury, massive bleeding and residual or recurrent tumour. Minor complications that may require only observation include pain, haematoma, haematuria, neuromuscular injury, pneumothorax, infarction and inflammatory tract mass. The most common cause of complications is the tumour's proximity to neighbouring organs. In addition, careless electrode manipulation and the patient's comorbidities may also lead to complications. To avoid many of these complications, the distance between the tumour and neighbouring organs should be widened using methods such as changing the patient's position, using the RF electrode as a lever and hydrodissection. Furthermore, carefully manipulating the RF electrode and assessing the patient's general condition help to prevent complications. In this review, we discuss the complications resulting from RF ablation of RCC with an emphasis on causes, imaging features and prevention methods. (orig.)
Foo, Schubert; Hui, Siu Cheung; Yip, See Wai; He, Yulan
A problem with dynamic Internet protocol (IP) addressing arises when the Internet connection is through an Internet provider since the IP address is allocated only at connection time. This article examines a number of online and offline methods for resolving the problem. Suggests dynamic domain name system (DNS) and directory service look-up are…
Tobian, Aaron A R; Kacker, Seema; Quinn, Thomas C
Randomized trials have demonstrated that male circumcision (MC) reduces heterosexual acquisition of HIV, herpes simplex virus type 2, human papillomavirus (HPV), and genital ulcer disease among men, and it reduces HPV, genital ulcer disease, bacterial vaginosis, and trichomoniasis among female partners. The pathophysiology behind these effects is multifactorial, relying on anatomic and cellular changes. MC is cost effective and potentially cost saving in both the United States and Africa. The World Health Organization and Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS proposed reaching 80% MC coverage in HIV endemic countries, but current rates fall far behind targets. Barriers to scale-up include supply-side and demand-side challenges. In the United States, neonatal MC rates are decreasing, but the American Academy of Pediatrics now recognizes the medical benefits of MC and supports insurance coverage. Although MC is a globally valuable tool to prevent HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, it is underutilized. Further research is needed to address barriers to MC uptake.
Raju, T B V G; Garapati, Satish; Agrawal, Rupika; Reddy, Sridhara; Razdan, Ankur; Kumar, S Kishore
Aim of the study was to compare 4 different methods of sterilizing endodontic files in dental practice. The present study was performed on 100 K-files, 21 mm long and of size 25. Of these, 20 files were taken as control group, and the remaining 80 files were divided into 4 groups of 20 files each and they were tested for the efficacy of sterilization with different methods: Autoclave, glass bead, glutaraldehyde and CO2 laser. The study showed that the files sterilized by autoclave and lasers were completely sterile. Those sterilized by glass bead were 90% sterile and those with glutaraldehyde were 80% sterile. The study concluded that autoclave or laser could be used as a method of sterilization in clinical practice and in advanced clinics; laser can be used also as a chair side method of sterilization. How to cite this article: Raju TB, Garapati S, Agrawal R, Reddy S, Razdan A, Kumar SK. Sterilizing Endodontic Files by four different sterilization methods to prevent cross-infection - An In-vitro Study. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(6):108-12 .
Roberts, Shelley; McInnes, Elizabeth; Bucknall, Tracey; Wallis, Marianne; Banks, Merrilyn; Chaboyer, Wendy
As pressure ulcers contribute to significant patient burden and increased health care costs, their prevention is a clinical priority. Our team developed and tested a complex intervention, a pressure ulcer prevention care bundle promoting patient participation in care, in a cluster-randomised trial. The UK Medical Research Council recommends process evaluation of complex interventions to provide insight into why they work or fail and how they might be improved. This study aimed to evaluate processes underpinning implementation of the intervention and explore end-users' perceptions of it, in order to give a deeper understanding of its effects. A pre-specified, mixed-methods process evaluation was conducted as an adjunct to the main trial, guided by a framework for process evaluation of cluster-randomised trials. Data was collected across eight Australian hospitals but mainly focused on the four intervention hospitals. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected across the evaluation domains: recruitment, reach, intervention delivery and response to intervention, at both cluster and individual patient level. Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Qualitative data were analysed using thematic analysis. In the context of the main trial, which found a 42% reduction in risk of pressure ulcer with the intervention that was not significant after adjusting for clustering and covariates, this process evaluation provides important insights. Recruitment and reach among clusters and individuals was high, indicating that patients, nurses and hospitals are willing to engage with a pressure ulcer prevention care bundle. Of 799 intervention patients in the trial, 96.7% received the intervention, which took under 10 min to deliver. Patients and nurses accepted the care bundle, recognising benefits to it and describing how it enabled participation in pressure ulcer prevention (PUP) care. This process evaluation found no major failures
Mackay, Bethany A.; Shochet, Ian M.; Orr, Jayne A.
Despite increased depression in adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), effective prevention approaches for this population are limited. A mixed methods pilot randomised controlled trial (N = 29) of the evidence-based Resourceful Adolescent Program-Autism Spectrum Disorder (RAP-A-ASD) designed to prevent depression was conducted in…
Mustofa Fifi Herni
Full Text Available PT Lucas Djaja is a company engaged in the pharmaceutical industry which produce sterile drugs and non-sterile. Filling machine has a high failure rate and expensive corrective maintenance cost. PT Lucas Djaja has a policy to perform engine maintenance by way of corrective maintenance. The study focused on the critical components, namely bearing R2, bearing 625 and bearing 626. When the replacement of the failure done by the company is currently using the formula mean time to failure with the result of bearing R2 at point 165 days, bearing 625 at a point 205 days, and bearing 626 at a point 182 days. Solutions generated by using age replacement method with minimization of total maintenance cost given on the bearing R2 at a point 60 days, bearing 625 at the point of 80 days and bearing 626 at a point 40 days.
Full Text Available Introduction. Results of the epidemiologic studies conducted over recent years indicate vitamin D deficiency, especially among children and young people. The following factors affecting occurrence of vitamin D deficiency growth should be mentioned: improper lifestyle, using UV filters and inadequate vitamin D intake. The aim of the research was an attempt to evaluate action carried out as part of preschoolers' vitamin d deficiency prophylaxis taken by their parents. Material and the methods. The research was conducted in 2014. The group contained 118 parents of children aged 4–6. The method of the diagnostic survey was utilized in the research with poll used as a technique and author's survey questionnaire provided as a tool. The obtained results of the research underwent statistical analysis. In order to define the existence of the differences or correlations between analyzed immeasurable parameters, chi–square test was used. Results. Most of the interviewed parents supply their children with fish; 14.4% (n=17 do this 2–3 a week;8.5% (n=10 would never serve their children fish. Whole milk, cheese and eggs were most frequently chosen among products containing vitamin D. Children of 93.2% (n=110 of the interviewed parents spend at least two hours a day outdoors from April to September. However, less than 89.8% (n=106 of the parents state that that children’s skin is protected with UV sunscreen at the time. 14.4% (n=17 of the interviewed parents provide their kids with vitamin D on a daily basis, all year around. Cod liver oil is the most common preparation chosen by parents who declared vitamin D supplementation. Conclusions. On-going education of parents concerning nutrition principles of children seems necessary as they are responsible for cultivating good eating habits among the young.
Azarinezhad, R.; Chapoy, A.; Anderson, R.; Tohidi, B. [Heriot-Watt Univ., Edinburgh (United Kingdom). Inst. for Petroleum Engineering, Centre for Gas hydrate Research
This paper presented a new method to prevent hydrate plugs which are particularly problematic for offshore production and flow lines. The current methods of avoiding hydrate blockages are based on preventing solid formation by injecting thermodynamic or kinetic inhibitors outside the hydrate stability zone. However, these techniques are neither economical nor practical. The newly patented HYDRAFLOW cold flow assurance technology is based on allowing hydrates to form, but preventing their agglomeration and pipeline blockage. It is based on the concept of converting most or all of the gas phase into hydrates in the presence of excess water, and then transferring them in the form of hydrate slurry in the pipeline. In HYDRAFLOW, anti-agglomerants prevent hydrate crystals from agglomerating, thus eliminating the need for expensive thermal or chemical inhibition strategies. The technology involves a loop concept whereby the liquid phase plays a role of carrier fluid, collecting produced fluids from various wells and delivering them to the production unit prior to being recycled. This study addressed the issue of recycling the anti-agglomerants in the context of the loop concept. The distribution of anti-agglomerant components between different phases were measured. The performance of the residual anti-agglomerants in the free water phase and of its components absorbed in the oil or hydrate phase were also evaluated. 9 refs., 4 tabs., 7 figs.
The MINDMAP project: mental well-being in urban environments : Design and first results of a survey on healthcare planning policies, strategies and programmes that address mental health promotion and mental disorder prevention for older people in Europe.
Neumann, L; Dapp, U; Jacobsen, W; van Lenthe, F; von Renteln-Kruse, W
The MINDMAP consortium (2016-2019) aims to identify opportunities provided by the urban environment for the promotion of mental well-being and functioning of older people in Europe by bringing together European cities with urban longitudinal ageing studies: GLOBE, HAPIEE, HUNT, LASA, LUCAS, RECORD, Rotterdam Study, Turin Study. A survey on mental healthcare planning policies and programmes dedicated to older persons covering the range from health promotion to need of nursing care was performed for profound data interpretation in Amsterdam, Eindhoven, Hamburg, Helsinki, Kaunas, Krakow, London, Nord-Trøndelag, Paris, Prague, Rotterdam and Turin. To collect detailed information on healthcare planning policies and programmes across these European cities to evaluate variations and to delineate recommendations for sciences, policies and planners using experience from evidence-based practice feedback from the MINDMAP cities. The MINDMAP partners identified experts in the 12 cities with the best background knowledge of the mental health sector. After pretesting, semi-structured telephone interviews (1-2 h) were performed always by the same person. A structured evaluation matrix based on the geriatric functioning continuum and the World Health Organization (WHO) Public Health Framework for Healthy Ageing was applied. A complete survey (12 out of 12) was performed reporting on 41 policies and 280 programmes on the city level. It appeared from extensive analyses that the focus on older citizens, specific target groups, and multidimensional programmes could be intensified. There is a broad variety to cope with the challenges of ageing in health, and to address both physical and mental capacities in older individuals and their dynamic interactions in urban environments.
Addressing a Critical Gap in U.S. National Teen Pregnancy Prevention Programs: The Acceptability and Feasibility of Father-Based Sexual and Reproductive Health Interventions for Latino Adolescent Males.
Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Bowman, Alex S; Santa Maria, Diane; Kabemba, Francesca; Geronimo, Yoyce
The purpose of the research was to examine the feasibility and acceptability of a father-based sexual and reproductive health intervention designed to reduce sexual and reproductive (SRH) disparities and increase correct and consistent condom use among Latino adolescent males. The current study conducted in-depth semi-structured interviews with Latino father-son dyads (N=30) designed to elicit perspectives on communication regarding sex and condom use. In addition, the interview protocol included father-son preferences regarding paternal involvement in condom instruction and perceived obstacles and advantages of father direct involvement in education efforts designed to increase correct and consistent condom use among their adolescent sons. Three independent coders conducted both vertical and horizontal analyses of the data to identify emergent themes and reach theoretical saturation. The main findings from this study suggest that Latino fathers can be impactful in shaping Latino adolescent male sexual decision-making and correct and consistent condom use. However, our data highlight that while both feasible and acceptable, Latino fathers identify needing additional support in how best to communicate and seek opportunities to master their own knowledge and skills regarding condom use and effective communication with their adolescent sons about sex. Latino father-based interventions represent an acceptable and feasible option for building upon the recent success of U.S. national efforts to reduce teen pregnancy rates and STI disparities among Latino youth. However, there exists a need for father-based programs that will support Latino fathers in best educating their sons about condom use and better addressing their SRH. Ongoing national efforts to reduce Latino teen SRH disparities warrant the consideration of father-son interventions for Latino adolescent males in the United States. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Mayo, A. W.
Water, sanitation, housing and hygienic behavior plays dominant role in the transmission and intensification of diseases. To effectively utilize limited financial resources, it is important to prioritize disease intervention methods in order to minimize mortality and morbidity cases. Realization of the environmental health components that respond to the practical effects of their contribution to transmission of diseases has greater chances of effectively enhancing health. Data of frequency of diseases and mortality rate were collected from four municipal hospitals from districts of Ilala, Kinondoni, Temeke and Kibaha in Dar es Salaam and Coast Regions. The populations at risk were sub-categorized in relation to age; below five years and above five years. The age parameter assists on envisaging the major causes to be either in-house or in public domain. Data were analyzed to assess the role of water quality, water quantity, excreta disposal, waste disposal and hygiene education on spreading the diseases in order to come up with scientifically evaluated information. Scores were given to each intervention method depending on its importance in controlling a particular disease. The results indicate that incidences of malaria, skin and eye infections, pneumonia and diarrhea are frequent in these districts. Children under 5 years are particularly affected by pneumonia and diarrhea more than adults. Malaria, tuberculosis and pneumonia are the major causes of mortality rates in these districts. Fatality cases are caused largely by malaria, pneumonia and diarrhea for children less than 5 years, but malaria, tuberculosis and pneumonia are responsible for mortality rates in adults and children over 5 years. Statistical analysis revealed that in all districts, hygiene education is the major factor responsible for transmission of diseases accounting for 32-39%. Other factors, which are the major contributors to the incidences of diseases, are inadequacy of water (15.6-22.5%) and
Unilateral Measures addressing Non-Trade Concerns. A Study on WTO Consistency, Relevance of other International Agreements, Economic Effectiveness and Impact on Developing Countries of Measures concerning Non-Product-Related Processes and Production Methods
Van den Bossche, P.; Schrijver, N.; Faber, G.
Over the last two years, the debate in the Netherlands on trade measures addressing non-trade concerns has focused on two important and politically sensitive issues, namely: (1) the sustainability of the large-scale production of biomass as an alternative source of energy; and (2) the production of livestock products in a manner that is consistent with animal welfare requirements. In February 2007 a report was issued on the 'Toetsingskader voor Duurzame Biomassa', the so-called Cramer Report. This report discusses the risks associated with large-scale biomass production and establishes a list of criteria for the sustainable production of biomass. These criteria reflect a broad range of non-trade concerns, including environmental protection, global warming, food security, biodiversity, economic prosperity and social welfare. The report recognizes that the implementation of the criteria (including the establishment of a certification system) will require careful consideration of the obligations of the Netherlands under EU and WTO law. Governments called upon to address non-trade concerns may do so by using different types of measures. Prominent among these are measures concerning processes and production methods of products. In the present study, these issues are examined primarily with regard to existing, proposed or still purely hypothetical measures for implementing the Cramer criteria for the sustainable production of biomass. Several other, non-energy-related issues are discussed in this report
Full Text Available Bacteria living constantly in the oral cavity are in the form of a biofilm. The biofilm formed on a solid base such as the enamel of the teeth, fillings, restorations, orthodontic appliances or obturators is dental plaque. Disturbance of homeostasis of biofilm, excessive growth or increase in the number of acid-forming bacteria leads to the development of the most common diseases of the oral cavity, i.e. dental caries and periodontal disease. The presence of bacterial biofilm on the walls of the root canal or at the top of the root on an outer wall leads to complications and failure in endodontic treatment. The aim of the study was to present the latest information on the occurrence, development and the role of biofilm in the etiopathogenesis of oral diseases and its control. Based on the literature analyzed, it can be concluded that the biofilm, due to its complex structure and numerous mechanisms of bacteria adaptation, is an effective barrier against the traditional agents with antibacterial properties. There are now great hopes for nanotechnology as an innovative method for obtaining new structures of nanometric size and different properties than source materials. The use of antibacterial properties of nano-silver used in dentistry significantly reduces the metabolic activity and the number of colony forming bacteria and lactic acid production in the biofilm.
Yagi, Yuji; Tokoroyama, Takayuki; Kousaka, Hiroyuki; Umehara, Noritsugu; Fuwa, Yoshio; Manabe, Kazuyoshi
It has been reported that the carbon nitride (CNx) coating was the super-low friction in which friction coefficient was less than 0.01, and it attracts attention as a high wear resistance and low friction material. When synthesizing a CNx coating with Ion Beam Assisted Deposition (IBAD) method, it was clear that the small asperities called droplets was generated onto the CNx coating surface with increasing thickness, and these droplets generated high friction. Therefore, it is necessary to clarify droplets generation mechanism to reduce droplets. To establish optimal coating conditions for controlling droplets were clarified by paying attention to the energy of an electron beam and the shape of a carbon target. First of all, 300 nm thickness CNx coatings were synthesized with five different filament current densities to clarify the relationship between the filament current density and droplet heights. Secondly, the effect of carbon target shape on droplets generation was confirmed with normal and processed carbon target. Finally, friction coefficient of these surfaces was measured by friction tests under PAO lubrication. (author)
Chałas, Renata; Wójcik-Chęcińska, Ilona; Woźniak, Michał J; Grzonka, Justyna; Święszkowski, Wojciech; Kurzydłowski, Krzysztof J
Bacteria living constantly in the oral cavity are in the form of a biofilm. The biofilm formed on a solid base such as the enamel of the teeth, fillings, restorations, orthodontic appliances or obturators is dental plaque. Disturbance of homeostasis of biofilm, excessive growth or increase in the number of acid-forming bacteria leads to the development of the most common diseases of the oral cavity, i.e. dental caries and periodontal disease. The presence of bacterial biofilm on the walls of the root canal or at the top of the root on an outer wall leads to complications and failure in endodontic treatment. The aim of the study was to present the latest information on the occurrence, development and the role of biofilm in the etiopathogenesis of oral diseases and its control. Based on the literature analyzed, it can be concluded that the biofilm, due to its complex structure and numerous mechanisms of bacteria adaptation, is an effective barrier against the traditional agents with antibacterial properties. There are now great hopes for nanotechnology as an innovative method for obtaining new structures of nanometric size and different properties than source materials. The use of antibacterial properties of nano-silver used in dentistry significantly reduces the metabolic activity and the number of colony forming bacteria and lactic acid production in the biofilm.
Binder, Andrea; Zirkelbach, Daniel; Künzel, Hartwig
Applying an interior insulation often is the only option for a thermal retrofit, especially when heritage buildings are concerned. In doing so, the original construction becomes colder in winter and interstitial condensation may occur. The common way to avoid harmful condensation beneath the interior insulation of the external wall is the installation of a vapor barrier. Since such a barrier works both ways, it may adversely affect the drying potential of the wall during the warmer seasons. One way to avoid the problems described is the installation of an interior insulation system without a vapor barrier to the inside. Here, the effect of capillary transport in porous hydrophilic media is used to conduct condensing moisture away from the wall/insulation interface back to the surface in contact with the indoor air. Following an increasing demand, several water wicking insulation materials (e.g. Calcium-silicate, Autoclave Aerated Concrete based mineral foam, hydrophilic Glass fiber, Cellulose fiber) have appeared on the market. In the past, different methods have been developed to measure and describe the liquid transport properties of hydrophilic porous media. However, the evaluation of the moisture transport mechanisms and their efficiency in this special field of implementation is very complex because of the interacting vapor- and liquid moisture transfer processes. Therefore, there is no consensus yet on its determination and quantification.
The aim of the book is to present for non-specialist researchers as well as for experts a comprehensive overview of the background, key ideas, basic methods, implementation details and a selection of solutions offered by a novel technology for the optimisation of the location of dangerous offshore activities in terms of environmental criteria, as developed in the course of the BalticWay project. The book consists of two parts. The first part introduces the basic principles of ocean modeling and depicts the long way from the generic principles to the practical modeling of oil spills and of the propagation of other adverse impacts. The second part focuses on the techniques for solving the inverse problem of the quantification of offshore areas with respect to their potential to serve as a source of environmental danger to vulnerable regions (such as spawning, nursing or also tourist areas). The chapters are written in a tutorial style; they are mostly self-contained and understandable for non-specialist r...
In their efforts to enhance the safety and security of citizens, governments and law enforcement agencies look to scientists and engineers to produce modern methods for preventing, detecting, and prosecuting criminal activities. Whole body scanners, lie detection technologies, biometrics, etc., are all being developed for incorporation into the criminal justice apparatus. Yet despite their purported security benefits these technologies often evoke social resistance. Concerns over privacy, ethics, and function-creep appear repeatedly in analyses of these technologies. It is argued here that scientists and engineers continue to pay insufficient attention to this resistance; acknowledging the presence of these social concerns yet failing to meaningfully address them. In so doing they place at risk the very technologies and techniques they are seeking to develop, for socially controversial security technologies face restrictions and in some cases outright banning. By identifying sources of potential social resistance early in the research and design process, scientists can both engage with the public in meaningful debate and modify their security technologies before deployment so as to minimize social resistance and enhance uptake.
Li, Bin; Liu, Jiping; Shi, Lihong; Wang, Zhenfeng
A kind of formal system, which can express clearly a certain entity or information, is needed to express geographical concept. Besides, some rules explaining the interrelationship and action between different components are also required. Therefore, the conception of geo-object ontology is introduced. It is a shared formalization and display specification of conceptual knowledge system in the field of concrete application of spatial information science. It can constitute hierarchy structure, which derives from the concept classification system in the geographical area. Its concepts can be described by the property. Property sets can form a vector space with multi-dimensional characteristics. Geographic space is composed of different types of geographic entities. And its concept is formed by a series of geographic entities with the same properties and actions. Moreover, each of the geographic entities can be mapped to an object, and each object has its spatial property, time information and topology, semantic relationships associated with other objects. The biggest difference between ecumenical information ontology and geo-ontology is that the latter has the spatial characteristics. During the construction process of geo-object ontology, some important components, such as geographic type, spatial relation, spatial entity type and coordinates, time, should be included to make further research. Here, taking disaster as an example, by using Protégé and OWL, combined methods used by constructing the geo-object ontology in the form of being manual made by domanial experts and semi-automatic are investigated oriented to disaster to serve ultimately geographic information retrieval service driven by ontology.
Dontu, A. I.; Maftei, A.; Barsanescu, P. D.; Sachelarie, A.; Budeanu, B.
In 1970’ when the university campus was built the road infrastructure was designed for a very small number of cars. Over time technology has advanced and the number of vehicles has risen. According to the Directorate of Vehicle Registration from Iasi in 2015 there were 173.619 registered vehicles, about 11,000 vehicles in addition to 2014. This rise in vehicle numbers has lead to a particular problem in which, vehicle drivers prefer in some cases the use of back alleys and back roads to get to the destination. The ”Tudor Vladimirescu” University Campus is not a main road of transit, is a residential area that does not support a high number of vehicles and especially does not support heavy vehicles. In our case study we observed the tendency of drivers to use the campus roads as a method of bypassing rush hour traffic in their route, especially in the case of taxi vehicles as well as light trucks and vans that use the campus roads as access to the commercial stores and restaurants that are situated in the front of the campus. In the study of ”Tudor Vladimirescu” University Campus traffic, on terrain vehicle number collection has been conducted, this was done one week, day by day, and this has revealed that: • the number of cars which enter in the campus area is high. • a lot of cars only transit the campus on route to the commercial area. • 25% from that cars are taxis • trucks and light trucks have been present. In this paper we present a solution that resolves these problems which have been identified in the analysis of the current campus status. In terrain measurements mathematical calculations accompanied with PTV Vissim software simulations using real world data have been used to confirm the proposed solution is viable.
Wu, Sheng; Crespi, Catherine M; Wong, Weng Kee
The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) is a fundamental parameter of interest in cluster randomized trials as it can greatly affect statistical power. We compare common methods of estimating the ICC in cluster randomized trials with binary outcomes, with a specific focus on their application to community-based cancer prevention trials with primary outcome of self-reported cancer screening. Using three real data sets from cancer screening intervention trials with different numbers and types of clusters and cluster sizes, we obtained point estimates and 95% confidence intervals for the ICC using five methods: the analysis of variance estimator, the Fleiss-Cuzick estimator, the Pearson estimator, an estimator based on generalized estimating equations and an estimator from a random intercept logistic regression model. We compared estimates of the ICC for the overall sample and by study condition. Our results show that ICC estimates from different methods can be quite different, although confidence intervals generally overlap. The ICC varied substantially by study condition in two studies, suggesting that the common practice of assuming a common ICC across all clusters in the trial is questionable. A simulation study confirmed pitfalls of erroneously assuming a common ICC. Investigators should consider using sample size and analysis methods that allow the ICC to vary by study condition. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Wiemken, Timothy L; Furmanek, Stephen P; Mattingly, William A; Wright, Marc-Oliver; Persaud, Annuradha K; Guinn, Brian E; Carrico, Ruth M; Arnold, Forest W; Ramirez, Julio A
Although not all health care-associated infections (HAIs) are preventable, reducing HAIs through targeted intervention is key to a successful infection prevention program. To identify areas in need of targeted intervention, robust statistical methods must be used when analyzing surveillance data. The objective of this study was to compare and contrast statistical process control (SPC) charts with Twitter's anomaly and breakout detection algorithms. SPC and anomaly/breakout detection (ABD) charts were created for vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, Acinetobacter baumannii, catheter-associated urinary tract infection, and central line-associated bloodstream infection data. Both SPC and ABD charts detected similar data points as anomalous/out of control on most charts. The vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus ABD chart detected an extra anomalous point that appeared to be higher than the same time period in prior years. Using a small subset of the central line-associated bloodstream infection data, the ABD chart was able to detect anomalies where the SPC chart was not. SPC charts and ABD charts both performed well, although ABD charts appeared to work better in the context of seasonal variation and autocorrelation. Because they account for common statistical issues in HAI data, ABD charts may be useful for practitioners for analysis of HAI surveillance data. Copyright © 2018 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rovner, Barry W; Casten, Robin J; Hegel, Mark T; Leiby, Benjamin E
Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) affects 25% of older African Americans and predicts progression to Alzheimer's disease. An extensive epidemiologic literature suggests that cognitive, physical, and/or social activities may prevent cognitive decline. We describe the methods of a randomized clinical trial to test the efficacy of Behavior Activation to prevent cognitive decline in older African Americans with the amnestic multiple domain subtype of MCI. Community Health Workers deliver 6 initial in-home treatment sessions over 2-3 months and then 6 subsequent in-home booster sessions using language, materials, and concepts that are culturally relevant to older African Americans during this 24 month clinical trial. We are randomizing 200 subjects who are recruited from churches, senior centers, and medical clinics to Behavior Activation or Supportive Therapy, which controls for attention. The primary outcome is episodic memory as measured by the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised at baseline and at months 3, 12, 18, and 24. The secondary outcomes are general and domain-specific neuropsychological function, activities of daily living, depression, and quality-of-life. The negative results of recent clinical trials of drug treatments for MCI and Alzheimer's disease suggest that behavioral interventions may provide an alternative treatment approach to preserve cognition in an aging society. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chan, Derwin K; Ivarsson, Andreas; Stenling, Andreas; Yang, Sophie X; Chatzisarantis, Nikos L; Hagger, Martin S
Consistency tendency is characterized by the propensity for participants responding to subsequent items in a survey consistent with their responses to previous items. This method effect might contaminate the results of sport psychology surveys using cross-sectional design. We present a randomized controlled crossover study examining the effect of consistency tendency on the motivational pathway (i.e., autonomy support → autonomous motivation → intention) of self-determination theory in the context of sport injury prevention. Athletes from Sweden (N = 341) responded to the survey printed in either low interitem distance (IID; consistency tendency likely) or high IID (consistency tendency suppressed) on two separate occasions, with a one-week interim period. Participants were randomly allocated into two groups, and they received the survey of different IID at each occasion. Bayesian structural equation modeling showed that low IID condition had stronger parameter estimates than high IID condition, but the differences were not statistically significant.
Cowings, Patricia S.; Toscano, William B.
Finding an effective treatment for the motion sickness-like symptoms that occur in space has become a high priority for NASA. The background research is reviewed and the experimental design of a formal life sciences shuttle flight experiment designed to prevent space motion sickness in shuttle crew members is presented. This experiment utilizes a behavioral medicine approach to solving this problem. This method, Autogenic-Feedback Training (AFT), involves training subjects to voluntarily control several of their own physiological responses to environmental stressors. AFT has been used reliably to increase tolerance to motion sickness during ground-based tests in over 200 men and women under a variety of conditions that induce motion sickness, and preliminary evidence from space suggests that AFT may be an effective treatment for space motion sickness as well. Proposed changes to this experiment for future manifests are included.
Demirok, Erhan; Gonzalez, Pablo Casado; Frederiksen, Kenn H. B.
voltage (LV) grids by means of solar inverters with reactive power control capability. This paper underlines weak points of standard reactive power strategies which are already imposed by certain grid codes, and then, the study introduces a new reactive power control method that is based...... on sensitivity analysis. The sensitivity analysis shows that the same amount of reactive power becomes more effective for grid voltage support if the solar inverter is located at the end of a feeder. Based on this fundamental knowledge, a location-dependent power factor set value can be assigned to each inverter......, and the grid voltage support can be achieved with less total reactive power consumption. In order to prevent unnecessary reactive power absorption from the grid during admissible voltage range or to increase reactive power contribution from the inverters that are closest to the transformer during grid...
Full Text Available ABSTRACTA spectrum of diverse prevention methods that offer high protection against HIV has posed the following challenge: how can national AIDS policies with high coverage for prevention and treatment make the best use of new methods so as to reverse the current high, and even rising, incidence rates among specific social groups? We conducted a narrative review of the literature to examine the prevention methods and the structural interventions that can have a higher impact on incidence rates in the context of socially and geographically concentrated epidemics. Evidence on the protective effect of the methods against sexual exposure to HIV, as well as their limits and potential, is discussed. The availability and effectiveness of prevention methods have been hindered by structural and psychosocial barriers such as obstacles to adherence, inconsistent use over time, or only when individuals perceive themselves at higher risk. The most affected individuals and social groups have presented limited or absence of use of methods as this is moderated by values, prevention needs, and life circumstances. As a result, a substantial impact on the epidemic cannot be achieved by one method alone. Programs based on the complementarity of methods, the psychosocial aspects affecting their use and the mitigation of structural barriers may have the highest impact on incidence rates, especially if participation and community mobilization are part of their planning and implementation.
Valente, Thomas W; Unger, Jennifer B; Ritt-Olson, Anamara; Cen, Steven Y; Anderson Johnson, C
Studies have shown that the effectiveness of programs or curricula may depend in part on who delivers the material. In adolescent health education programs, peer leaders are often recruited to implement programs because they are more persuasive to other adolescents than adults. Teachers also systematically vary how groups are constructed in school-based health education programs. This study compared the effects of three leader and group selection methods within the context of two tobacco prevention programs. Eight schools received a social influences program (Chips) and eight received a program with a multicultural emphasis (Flavor). Within these 16 schools 84 classrooms consisting of 1486 students were randomly assigned to one of three leader and group creation conditions: (i) leaders defined as those who received the most nominations by students and groups created randomly (random group), (ii) same as (i) but groups created by assigning students to the leaders they nominated (network), and (iii) leaders and groups created by teachers (teacher). One year follow-up data showed that main effects of the curriculum and network assignments were non-significant on smoking initiation when entered alone. Interaction terms of curriculum and assignment methods, however, were significant such that the network and teacher conditions were less effective than the random group condition with Chips, and more effective than random group condition with Flavor. These data show that school-based prevention programs should be evaluated in light of who implements the program. Even a peer-led program will be differentially effective based on how leaders are selected and how groups are formed, and this effect may be curriculum dependent.
Kimani, Stephen M; Watt, Melissa H; Merli, M Giovanna; Skinner, Donald; Myers, Bronwyn; Pieterse, Desiree; MacFarlane, Jessica C; Meade, Christina S
South Africa, in the midst of the world's largest HIV epidemic, has a growing methamphetamine problem. Respondent driven sampling (RDS) is a useful tool for recruiting hard-to-reach populations in HIV prevention research, but its use with methamphetamine smokers in South Africa has not been described. This study examined the effectiveness of RDS as a method for engaging methamphetamine users in a Cape Town township into HIV behavioral research. Standard RDS procedures were used to recruit active methamphetamine smokers from a racially diverse peri-urban township in Cape Town. Effectiveness of RDS was determined by examining social network characteristics (network size, homophily, and equilibrium) of recruited participants. Beginning with eight seeds, 345 methamphetamine users were enrolled over 6 months, with a coupon return rate of 67%. The sample included 197 men and 148 women who were racially diverse (73% Coloured, 27% Black African) and had a mean age of 28.8 years (SD=7.2). Social networks were adequate (mean network size >5) and mainly comprised of close social ties. Equilibrium on race was reached after 11 waves of recruitment, and after ≤3 waves for all other variables of interest. There was little to moderate preference for either in- or out-group recruiting in all subgroups. Results suggest that RDS is an effective method for engaging methamphetamine users into HIV prevention research in South Africa. Additionally, RDS may be a useful strategy for seeking high-risk methamphetamine users for HIV testing and linkage to HIV care in this and other low resource settings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sembiring, N.; Panjaitan, N.; Angelita, S.
PT. XYZ is a company owned by non-governmental organizations engaged in the field of production of rubber processing becoming crumb rubber. Part of the production is supported by some of machines and interacting equipment to achieve optimal productivity. Types of the machine that are used in the production process are Conveyor Breaker, Breaker, Rolling Pin, Hammer Mill, Mill Roll, Conveyor, Shredder Crumb, and Dryer. Maintenance system in PT. XYZ is corrective maintenance i.e. repairing or replacing the engine components after the crash on the machine. Replacement of engine components on corrective maintenance causes the machine to stop operating during the production process is in progress. The result is in the loss of production time due to the operator must replace the damaged engine components. The loss of production time can impact on the production targets which were not reached and lead to high loss costs. The cost for all components is Rp. 4.088.514.505. This cost is really high just for maintaining a Mill Roll Machine. Therefore PT. XYZ is needed to do preventive maintenance i.e. scheduling engine components and improving maintenance efficiency. The used methods are Reliability Engineering and Maintenance Value Stream Mapping (MVSM). The needed data in this research are the interval of time damage to engine components, opportunity cost, labor cost, component cost, corrective repair time, preventive repair time, Mean Time To Opportunity (MTTO), Mean Time To Repair (MTTR), and Mean Time To Yield (MTTY). In this research, the critical components of Mill Roll machine are Spier, Bushing, Bearing, Coupling and Roll. Determination of damage distribution, reliability, MTTF, cost of failure, cost of preventive, current state map, and future state map are done so that the replacement time for each critical component with the lowest maintenance cost and preparation of Standard Operation Procedure (SOP) are developed. For the critical component that has been
Salgueiro, J; Leonardi, N; Segal, M; Shapira, N; Shafran, N; Carasso, Y; Zubillaga, M; Goldman, C; Barrado, A; Janjetic, M; Boccio, J
In this research, we measure the iron bioavailability of micronized ferric orthophosphate when it is used to fortify low-fat fluid milk enriched with calcium and petit suisse cheese using the prophylactic-preventive method in rats. Four groups of male weaned rats received a basal diet (control diet; 6.5 ppm Fe), a reference standard diet (SO4Fe; 18.2 ppm Fe), a basal diet using iron-fortified fluid milk as the iron source (milk diet; Fe ppm 17.9), and a basal diet using iron-fortified petit suisse cheese as the iron source (cheese diet; 18.0 ppm Fe) for 22 d. The iron bioavailability of the different sources was calculated as the ratio between the mass of iron incorporated into hemoglobin during the experiment and the total iron intake per animal. The relative biological values with regard to the reference standard (RBV%) were 61% and 69% for the milk and cheese diet, respectively. These results show that according to this method, the iron bioavailability in both fortified foods can be considered as medium bioavailability rates.
Full Text Available Abstract Background A pilot project cardiovascular prevention was implemented in Sandwell (West Midlands, UK. This used electronic primary care records to identify untreated patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease then invited these high risk patients for assessment by a nurse in their own general practice. Those found to be eligible for treatment were offered treatment. During the pilot a higher proportion of high risk patients were started on treatment in the intervention practices than in control practices. Following the apparent success of the prevention project, it was intended to extend the service to all practices across the Sandwell area. However the pilot project was not a robust evaluation. There was a need for an efficient evaluation that would not disrupt the planned rollout of the project. Methods/design Project nurses will sequentially implement targeted cardiovascular case finding in a phased way across all general practices, with the sequence of general practices determined randomly. This is a stepped wedge randomised controlled trial design. The target population is patients aged 35 to 74, without diabetes or cardiovascular disease whose ten-year cardiovascular risk, (determined from data in their electronic records is ≥20%. The primary outcome is the number of high risk patients started on treatment, because these data could be efficiently obtained from electronic primary care records. From this we can determine the effects of the case finding programme on the proportion of high risk patients started on treatment in practices before and after implementation of targeted case finding. Cost-effectiveness will be modelled from the predicted effects of treatments on cardiovascular events and associated health service costs. Alongside the implementation it is intended to interview clinical staff and patients who participated in the programme in order to determine acceptability to patients and clinicians. Practical
Full Text Available Health and social inequality are tightly linked and still pose an important public health problem. However, vulnerable and disadvantaged populations are difficult to reach for health-related interventions. Given the long-lasting effects of an adverse, particular nutrition-related, intrauterine and neonatal environment on health development (perinatal programming, an early and easy access is essential for sustainable interventions. The goal of this explorative study was therefore to elucidate whether an existing access of family midwives (FMs to families in need of support could be an option to implement effective public health and nutrition interventions. To that end three research objectives were formulated: (1 to determine whether a discernible impact of home visits by FMs can be described; (2 to identify subgroups among these families in need of more specific interventions; (3 to determine how relevant nutrition-related topics are for both FMs and the supported families. For addressing these objectives a mixed methods design was used: Routine documentation data from 295 families visited by a family midwife (FM were analyzed (secondary analysis, and structured expert interviews with FMs were conducted and analyzed. Study reporting followed the STROBE (STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology statement. Based on the FMs reports, a significant improvement (p < 0.001 regarding psycho-social variables could be determined after the home visits. Single mothers, however, seemed to benefit less from the FMs service compared to their counterparts (p = 0.015. Nutritional counseling was demanded by 89% of the families during the home visits. In addition, nutrition-related topics were reported in the interviews to be of high interest to both families and the FMs. Based on the obtained results it is concluded that FMs home visits offer a promising access to vulnerable and disadvantaged families for implementing nutrition
Ali Hadi Abdulwahid
Full Text Available This paper addresses the energy challenges related to the weak protection of renewable energy from reverse energy flow and expanding access to high-quality energy at the same time. Furthermore, this paper focuses on participation in the global transition to clean and low-carbon energy systems. Moreover, the increased demand for renewable energy seems to likely depend on whether it will be possible to greatly accelerate rates of progress toward increased efficiency, de-carbonization, greater generating diversity and lower pollutant emissions. This paper focuses on the protection of renewable energy technologies because they can be particularly attractive in dispersed areas and therefore, represent an important option for rural areas that lack electrical energy and distribution infrastructure. This paper proposes an improved protection device for a reverse power protection system using a new intelligent decision support system (IDSS. The IDSS is a support system for decision making, which makes extensive use of artificial intelligence (AI techniques. The new method integrates the powerful specification for neural networks and fuzzy inference systems. The main advantage of this method is that it causes a decrease in the steady state oscillation for the reverse power relay. In addition, the proposed method has the ability to monitor extreme environmental conditions. The generator can be converted into a motor when the steam supply to a turbine is interrupted while the generator is still connected to a grid (or operates in parallel with another generator. As a result, the generator will become a synchronous motor and will actually cause significant mechanical damage. The reverse energy protection device should be included in the generator protection scheme. Smart grids use communication networks with sophisticated algorithms to ensure coordination between protection systems. ZigBee is a newly developed technology that can be used in wireless sensor
Les carnets du LabEx ITEM; The effectiveness of sport accidents prevention is often considered in terms of communication strategies, in relation with the good enunciation, the correct reception, and ideally, the appropriation of prevention messages and safe methods by participants. The accuracy of these strategies depends on thorough knowledge of accident frequencies, of typical circumstances and risk factors, and of the origins of accident sequences (Bahr & Krosshaug, 2005; Rasmussen & Svedu...
Hassani, Sahar; Kelly, Erin H; Smith, Jennifer; Thorpe, Sara; Sozzer, Fatima H; Atchley, Paul; Sullivan, Elroy; Larson, Dean; Vogel, Lawrence C
Based on the National Highway Traffic Safety Association's (NHTSA) Report, fatalities due to distracted driving are on the rise and the highest proportion of fatalities by age group is the 20-29 year old category. To date little has been done to educate college students about the dangers of distracted driving and engage these students in promoting a safe driving culture. Intervening among college students has the potential for making real-time behavior change, can foster a lifetime of safe driving habits among these students, and can help contribute to a culture of safe driving that can be created and sustained through positive messages from peers. The goals of this study were to develop, implement and evaluate a distracted driving presentation for college students to change knowledge, attitude and behavior on distracted driving. A 30-min, multi-media presentation on distracted driving was presented to 19 colleges and universities, totaling 444 college students (mean age 23.7±7.0 years of age, 61% females, 39% males). Students completed three surveys: prior to the workshop (interview 1), immediately after the workshop (interview 2), and 3 months following the workshop (interview 3). We assessed changes between interview 1 and interview 2 and found 15 of the 15 attitude-knowledge based questions significantly improved after the course. In addition, we assessed changes from interviews 1 and 3, and found 11 of the 15 attitude-knowledge based questions maintained their significance. Responses to behavior related questions at three months were also compared to baseline, and significant improvements were found for 12 of the 14 questions. While this study was successful in improving the short-term attitude-knowledge and behaviors on distracted driving, work is needed to sustain (and evaluate) long-term effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Burkhart, Gregor; Gyarmathy, V. Anna; Bo, Alessandra
Following the 2003 publication of the European Union (EU) Council Recommendations and the 2005-2008 and 2009-2012 EU Drugs Action Plans, increasing attention has been given in EU member states' drug policies to populations that are vulnerable to problem drug use (PDU). Monitoring data reported to the EMCDDA by designated agencies from 30 countries…
Strömberg, Ulf; Holmn, Anders; Magnusson, Kerstin; Twetman, Svante
Dental caries is unevenly distributed within populations with a higher burden in low socio-economy groups. Several attempts have been made to allocate resources to those that need them the most; there is a need for convenient approaches to population-based monitoring of caries risk over time. The aim of this study was to develop the geo-map concept, addressing time trends in caries risk, and demonstrate the novel approach by analyzing epidemiological data from preschool residents in the region of Halland, Sweden. The study population consisted of 9,973 (2006) and 10,927 (2010) children between 3 to 6 years of age (~77% of the eligible population) from whom caries data were obtained. Reported dmfs>0 for a child was considered as the primary caries outcome. Each study individual was geo-coded with respect to his/her residence parish (66 parishes in the region). Smoothed caries risk geo-maps, along with corresponding statistical certainty geo-maps, were produced by using the free software Rapid Inquiry Facility and the ESRI® ArcGIS system. Parish-level socioeconomic data were available. The overall proportion of caries-free (dmfs=0) children improved from 84.0% in 2006 to 88.6% in 2010. The ratio of maximum and minimum (parish-level) smoothed relative risks (SmRRs) increased from 1.76/0.44=4.0 in 2006 to 2.37/0.33=7.2 in 2010, which indicated an increased geographical polarization of early childhood caries in the population. Eight parishes showed evidential, positional changes in caries risk between 2006 and 2010; their corresponding SmRRs and statistical certainty ranks changed markedly. No considerable parallel changes in parish-level socioeconomic characteristics were seen during the same time period. Geo-maps based on caries risk can be used to monitor changes in caries risk over time. Thus, geo-mapping offers a convenient tool for evaluating the effectiveness of tailored health promotion and preventive care in child populations.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Social grants have been found to have an impact on health and wellbeing in multiple settings. Who receives the grant, however, has been the subject of discussion with regards to how the money is spent and who benefits from the grant. Methods Using survey data from 1214 young women who were in the intervention arm and completed at least one annual visit in the HPTN 068 trial, and qualitative interview data from a subset of 38 participants, we examined spending of a cash transfer provided to young women conditioned on school attendance. Results We found that spending was largely determined and controlled by young women themselves and that the cash transfer was predominately spent on toiletries, clothing and school supplies. In interview data, young women discussed the significant role of cash transfers for adolescent identity, specifically with regard to independence from family and status within the peer network. There were almost no negative consequences from receiving the cash transfer. Conclusions We established that providing adolescents access to cash was not reported to be associated with social harms or negative consequences. Rather, spending of the cash facilitated appropriate adolescent developmental behaviours. The findings are encouraging at a time in which there is global interest in addressing the structural drivers of HIV risk, such as poverty, for young women. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01233531 (1 Nov 2010. First participant enrolled 5 March 2011.
Fleming, Paul J; Barrington, Clare; Pearce, Lisa D; Lerebours, Leonel; Donastorg, Yeycy; Brito, Maximo O
Ethnographic studies from numerous societies have documented the central role of male circumcision in conferring masculinity and preparing boys for adult male sexuality. Despite this link between masculinity, sexuality, and circumcision, there has been little research on these dynamics among men who have been circumcised for HIV prevention. We employed a mixed methods approach with data collected from recently circumcised men in the Dominican Republic (DR) to explore this link. We analyzed survey data collected six to 12 months post-circumcision (N = 293) as well as in-depth interviews conducted with a subsample of those men (n = 30). We found that 42% of men felt more masculine post-circumcision. In multivariate analysis, feeling more masculine was associated with greater concern about being perceived as masculine (OR = 1.70, 95% CI: 1.25-2.32), feeling more potent erections post-circumcision (OR = 2.25, 95% CI: 1.26-4.03), and reporting increased ability to satisfy their partners post-circumcision (OR = 2.30, 95% CI: 1.11-4.77). In qualitative interviews, these factors were all related to masculine norms of sexually satisfying one's partner, and men's experiences of circumcision were shaped by social norms of masculinity. This study highlights that circumcision is not simply a biomedical intervention and that circumcision programs need to incorporate considerations of masculine norms and male sexuality into their programming.
Bolanos, L.; Arista, E.; Osorio Deliz, J.F.
Instruments for nuclear signal measurements based on add-on card for a personal computer (PC) are designed often. Then one faces the problem of the addressing of data input/output devices which show an integration level or intelligence that makes the use of several port address indispensable, and these are limited in the PC. The virtual addressing offers the advantage of the occupation of few addresses to accede to many of these devices. The principles of this technique and the appliances of a solution in radiometric in a radiometric card based on programmed logic are discussed in this paper
As many people might know, the number of IPv4 addresses is limited and almost all have been allocated (see here and here for more information). Although CERN has been allocated some 340,000 addresses, the way these are allocated across the site is not as efficient as we would like. As we face an increasing demand for IPv4 addresses with the growth in virtual machines, the IT Department’s Communication Systems Group will be reorganising address allocation during 2016 to make more efficient use of the IPv4 address ranges that have been allocated to CERN. We aim, wherever possible, to avoid giving out fixed IP addresses, and have all devices connected to the campus network obtain an address dynamically each time they connect. As a first stage, starting in February, IP addresses that have not been used for more than 9 months will be reclaimed. No information about the devices concerned will be deleted from LANDB, but a new IP address will have to be requested if they are ever reconnected to t...
Full Text Available Background: The condition of non-specific back pain is characterized by high prevalence, non satisfactory therapeutic options and severe socioeconomic consequences. Therefore prevention seems an attractive option to downsize the problem. However, the construction of effective preventive measures is complicated by the obscure aetiology of the condition, the multidimensionality of risk and prognostic factors (bio psychosocial model! and the variability of its natural as well as clinical course. This led to the development of a wide variety of preventive measures: e. g. exercise programs, educational measures (including back school, ergonomic modification of the work environment, mechanical supports (e. g. back belts as well as multidisciplinary interventions. For two reasons the workplace seems to be a suitable setting for prevention. First, because a number of strong risk factors are associated with working conditions and second, because it allows addressing a large proportion of the adult population. Against this background the assessment at hand sets out to answer the following questions: What is the amount and methodological quality of the available scientific literature on the effectiveness of back pain prevention in the workplace environment? What are effective measures for the prevention of back pain and its consequences in the workplace environment and how effective are they? Is back pain prevention in the workplace environment cost-effective? Is there a need for more research? As primary outcomes for effectiveness the assessment will focus on time lost from work and the frequency and duration of episodes with back pain. The preventive measures assessed belong to the following categories: exercise programs, educational and information measures, multidimensional interventions, back belts, lifting teams and ergonomic interventions. Methods: The assessment is based on a systematic review of the published literature according to the
Mehta, Bharti; Chawla, Sumit; Kumar, Vijay; Jindal, Harashish; Bhatt, Bhumika
Vaccination is recommended throughout life to prevent vaccine-preventable diseases and their sequel. The primary focus of vaccination programs has historically been directed to childhood immunizations. For adults, chronic diseases have been the primary focus of preventive and medical health care, though there has been increased emphasis on preventing infectious diseases. Adult vaccination coverage, however, remains low for most of the routinely recommended vaccines. Though adults are less susceptible to fall prey to traditional infectious agents, the probability of exposure to infectious agents has increased manifold owing to globalization and increasing travel opportunities both within and across the countries. Thus, there is an urgent need to address the problem of adult immunization. The adult immunization enterprise is more complex, encompassing a wide variety of vaccines and a very diverse target population. There is no coordinated public health infrastructure to support an adult immunization program as there is for children. Moreover, there is little coordination among adult healthcare providers in terms of vaccine provision. Substantial improvement in adult vaccination is needed to reduce the health consequences of vaccine-preventable diseases among adults. Routine assessment of adult patient vaccination needs, recommendation, and offer of needed vaccines for adults should be incorporated into routine clinical care of adults.
van de Glind, Esther M M; Willems, Hanna C; Eslami, Saeid; Abu-Hanna, Ameen; Lems, Willem F; Hooft, Lotty; de Rooij, Sophia E; Black, Dennis M; van Munster, Barbara C
For physicians dealing with patients with a limited life expectancy, knowing the time to benefit (TTB) of preventive medication is essential to support treatment decisions. The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of statistical process control (SPC) for determining the TTB in relation to fracture risk with alendronate versus placebo in postmenopausal women. We performed a post hoc analysis of the Fracture Intervention Trial (FIT), a randomized, controlled trial that investigated the effect of alendronate versus placebo on fracture risk in postmenopausal women. We used SPC, a statistical method used for monitoring processes for quality control, to determine if and when the intervention group benefited significantly more than the control group. SPC discriminated between the normal variations over time in the numbers of fractures in both groups and the variations that were attributable to alendronate. The TTB was defined as the time point from which the cumulative difference in the number of clinical fractures remained greater than the upper control limit on the SPC chart. For the total group, the TTB was defined as 11 months. For patients aged ≥70 years, the TTB was 8 months [absolute risk reduction (ARR) = 1.4%]; for patients aged <70 years, it was 19 months (ARR = 0.7%). SPC is a clear and understandable graphical method to determine the TTB. Its main advantage is that there is no need to define a prespecified time point, as is the case in traditional survival analyses. Prescribing alendronate to patients who are aged ≥70 years is useful because the TTB shows that they will benefit after 8 months. Investigators should report the TTB to simplify clinical decision making.
Full Text Available Denture stomatitis is a very common disease affecting the oral mucosa of denture wearers. The aim of this study was to measure the antifungal effect of henna against Candida albicans adhered to acrylic resin as a possible method for prevention of denture stomatitis. One-hundred-eighty acrylic plates were prepared of heat-cured acrylic denture resin. The specimens were divided into six groups of 30 samples each. The first group was only polymer and monomer following the conventional manufacturer instruction for processing complete dentures. The other five groups were processed by adding different concentration of Yamani henna powder (Harazi to the polymer in a concentration of henna: polymer 1%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and 10%, respectively. Samples were incubated in artificial saliva rich with Candida albicans at 37 °C, and the effect of henna on Candida albicans was evaluated in two different methods: semi-quantitative slide count and a culture-based quantitative assay (quantitative. Variation in the number of live Candida was observed with the increase in the concentration of Yamani henna powder. It was observed that the variation in live Candida, between control group and group B (concentration of Yamani henna powder was 1%, was statistically significant with a p-value of 0.0001. Similarly, variations in live Candida were significant, when the concentration of powder was 7.5% or 10% in contrast with control group and p-values were 0.0001 and 0.001 respectively. Adding henna to acrylic resin denture could be effective in controlling Candida albicans proliferation on the denture surface; however, its effects on the physical properties of acrylic resin denture need further studies.
Nawasrah, Amal; AlNimr, Amani; Ali, Aiman A
Denture stomatitis is a very common disease affecting the oral mucosa of denture wearers. The aim of this study was to measure the antifungal effect of henna against Candida albicans adhered to acrylic resin as a possible method for prevention of denture stomatitis. One-hundred-eighty acrylic plates were prepared of heat-cured acrylic denture resin. The specimens were divided into six groups of 30 samples each. The first group was only polymer and monomer following the conventional manufacturer instruction for processing complete dentures. The other five groups were processed by adding different concentration of Yamani henna powder (Harazi) to the polymer in a concentration of henna: polymer 1%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and 10%, respectively. Samples were incubated in artificial saliva rich with Candida albicans at 37 °C, and the effect of henna on Candida albicans was evaluated in two different methods: semi-quantitative slide count and a culture-based quantitative assay (quantitative). Variation in the number of live Candida was observed with the increase in the concentration of Yamani henna powder. It was observed that the variation in live Candida, between control group and group B (concentration of Yamani henna powder was 1%), was statistically significant with a p-value of 0.0001. Similarly, variations in live Candida were significant, when the concentration of powder was 7.5% or 10% in contrast with control group and p-values were 0.0001 and 0.001 respectively. Adding henna to acrylic resin denture could be effective in controlling Candida albicans proliferation on the denture surface; however, its effects on the physical properties of acrylic resin denture need further studies.
Nawasrah, Amal; AlNimr, Amani; Ali, Aiman A.
Denture stomatitis is a very common disease affecting the oral mucosa of denture wearers. The aim of this study was to measure the antifungal effect of henna against Candida albicans adhered to acrylic resin as a possible method for prevention of denture stomatitis. One-hundred-eighty acrylic plates were prepared of heat-cured acrylic denture resin. The specimens were divided into six groups of 30 samples each. The first group was only polymer and monomer following the conventional manufacturer instruction for processing complete dentures. The other five groups were processed by adding different concentration of Yamani henna powder (Harazi) to the polymer in a concentration of henna: polymer 1%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and 10%, respectively. Samples were incubated in artificial saliva rich with Candida albicans at 37 °C, and the effect of henna on Candida albicans was evaluated in two different methods: semi-quantitative slide count and a culture-based quantitative assay (quantitative). Variation in the number of live Candida was observed with the increase in the concentration of Yamani henna powder. It was observed that the variation in live Candida, between control group and group B (concentration of Yamani henna powder was 1%), was statistically significant with a p-value of 0.0001. Similarly, variations in live Candida were significant, when the concentration of powder was 7.5% or 10% in contrast with control group and p-values were 0.0001 and 0.001 respectively. Adding henna to acrylic resin denture could be effective in controlling Candida albicans proliferation on the denture surface; however, its effects on the physical properties of acrylic resin denture need further studies. PMID:27223294
Bergstrand, Fredrik; Twetman, Svante
The aim of this paper was to update the evidence for primary and secondary prevention (treatment) of white spot lesions (WSL) adjacent to fixed orthodontic appliances.......The aim of this paper was to update the evidence for primary and secondary prevention (treatment) of white spot lesions (WSL) adjacent to fixed orthodontic appliances....
Meads, C. A.; Cnossen, J. S.; Meher, S.; Juarez-Garcia, A.; ter Riet, G.; Duley, L.; Roberts, T. E.; Mol, B. W.; van der Post, J. A.; Leeflang, M. M.; Barton, P. M.; Hyde, C. J.; Gupta, J. K.; Khan, K. S.
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the accuracy of predictive tests for pre-eclampsia and the effectiveness of preventative interventions for pre-eclampsia. Also to assess the cost-effectiveness of strategies (test-intervention combinations) to predict and prevent pre-eclampsia. DATA SOURCES: Major
Yamada, Masayuki; Okada, Tatsuhiko; Katada, Kazuhiro; Anno, Hirofumi
The purpose of this study is to examine an antialiasing method in the breath-hold coronal imaging of the thorax or abdomen. This paper reports a new method of preventing the aliasing artifacts of arms using ''Hertz II'' as a electromagnetic-wave shield fabric (ESF), which is a very thin and flexible special synthetic fabric. In this study, the ESF method was compared with various conventional preventive measures. Temperature changed around the ESF was also measured by using a fiber optic temperature measurement system during the MR scanning procedure. In addition, the ESF method was tried to use for scanning with some volunteers and some patients in clinical examinations. The results of this study showed that the ESF method could efficiently prevent the aliasing of arms in the MR images. Furthermore, safety of the subjects was hardly affected by the ESF method during MR imaging. Therefore, we concluded that the ESF method was an effectual antialiasing method in the imaging of the thorax or abdomen by using the fast breath-hold scanning. (author)
Many individuals together in semi-confined settings increase the risk of outbreaks of infectious diseases. A single case of varicella on a cruise ship can thus result in rapid spread and elevated costs for the cruise provider in terms of repatriation, ship diversion, law suits, and loss in current and potential future revenue. Control of varicella involves attention to good personal hygiene, safe food and water handling, and use of vaccine. To test crewmembers during their pre-employment medical examination to determine who might be susceptible to contract varicella if exposed, to vaccinate those at risk, and to see whether the benefits of testing and vaccination outweigh the costs. Tests were conducted on 121 Indian seafarers for varicella IgG and IgM antibodies during their pre-employment medical examination in Mumbai and Goa from December 1st to December 23rd 2008. Cases without IgG antibodies to varicella (IgG negative) were administered vaccine. Twenty (16.5%) seafarers who tested IgG negative and one who tested equivocally were administered the vaccine. One hundred (82.7%) tested positive for IgG antibodies and were therefore not vaccinated. None tested positive for IgM antibodies, indicating no active infection. One in six Indian seafarers tested IgG negative and was thus at risk to contract varicella if exposed. Testing for varicella IgG and IgM antibodies, followed by vaccination when necessary, is a costeffective method to prevent an expensive outbreak in the semi-confined setting of a cruise ship and is recommended as a mandatory part of the pre-employment medical examination for Indian seafarers.
Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Clement, Jesper; Kornum, Niels
Global food demand is driven by population and economic growth, and urbanization. One important instrument to meet this increasing demand and to decrease the pressure on food production is to minimize food losses and food waste. Food waste and loss is a major societal, economic, nutritional...... and environmental challenge. Using the case of Denmark, this paper analyses causes of food waste, and discusses how different stakeholders address the prevention and reuse of the €1.18. billion of annual edible food waste. Currently, the majority of food waste is still incinerated with energy recovery. However......, improvements in technology have made it more efficient to utilize food waste for biogas and compost, which improves nutrient cycling through the food system. Major efforts to address food waste in Denmark have mainly been promoted through civil society groups with governmental support, as well as by industry...
Card, Josefina J.; Kuhn, Tamara; Solomon, Julie; Benner, Tabitha A.; Wingood, Gina M.; DiClemente, Ralph J.
We describe development of SAHARA (SiSTAS Accessing HIV/AIDS Resources At-a-click), an innovative HIV prevention program that uses a computer to deliver an updated version of SiSTA, a widely used, effective group-level HIV prevention intervention for African American women ages 18-29. Fidelity to SiSTA's core components was achieved using: (1)…
Duijzer, G.; Haveman-Nies, A.; Jansen, S.C.; Beek, ter J.; Hiddink, G.J.; Feskens, E.J.M.
Background - Implementation of interventions in real-life settings requires a comprehensive evaluation approach. The aim of this article is to describe the evaluation design of the SLIMMER diabetes prevention intervention in a Dutch real-life setting. Methods/Design - The SLIMMER study is a
Jones, Alun R.
This report has been prepare in response to a request for information from an aircraft company. A typical example was selected for the presentation of an approximate method of calculation of the relative humidity required to prevent frosting on the inside of a plastic window in a pressure type cabin on a high speed airplane. The results of the study are reviewed.
Crone, M.R.; Vogels, A.G.C.; Hoekstra, F.; Treffers, P.D.A.; Reijneveld, S.A.
Background: Validated questionnaires can support the identification of psychosocial problems by the Preventive Child Health Care (PCH) system. This study assesses the validity and added value of four scoring methods used with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) for the identification
Crone, Mathilde R.; Vogels, Anton G. C.; Hoekstra, Femke; Treffers, Philip D. A.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.
Background: Validated questionnaires can support the identification of psychosocial problems by the Preventive Child Health Care (PCH) system. This study assesses the validity and added value of four scoring methods used with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) for the identification
Lai, Ching-Yi; Wu, Wei-Wen; Tsai, Shao-Yu; Cheng, Su-Fen; Lin, Kuan-Chia; Liang, Shu-Yuan
Background: Lack of education is a known barrier to vaccination, but data on the design and effectiveness of interventions remain limited. Objective: This study aims to identify the effectiveness of a Facebook-assisted teaching method on female adolescents' knowledge and attitudes about cervical cancer prevention and on their human papillomavirus…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although various HIV prevention programs targeting men who have sex with men (MSM are operating in China, whether and how these programs are being utilized is unclear. This study explores participation of HIV prevention programs and influencing factors among MSM in two cities in China. Methods This is a mixed-method study conducted in Beijing and Chongqing. A qualitative study consisting of in-depth interviews with 54 MSM, 11 key informants, and 8 focus group discussions, a cross-sectional survey using respondent-driven sampling among 998 MSM were conducted in 2009 and 2010 respectively to elicit information on MSM’s perception and utilization of HIV prevention programs. Qualitative findings were integrated with quantitative multivariate factors to explain the quantitative findings. Results Fifty-six percent of MSM in Chongqing and 75.1% in Beijing ever participated in at least one type of HIV prevention program (P=0.001. Factors related to participation in HIV prevention programs included age, ethnicity, income, HIV risk perception, living with boyfriend, living in urban area, size of MSM social network, having talked about HIV status with partners, and knowing someone who is HIV positive. Reasons why MSM did not participate in HIV prevention programs included logistical concerns like limited time for participation and distance to services; program content and delivery issues such as perceived low quality services and distrust of providers; and, cultural issues like HIV-related stigma and low risk perception. Conclusions The study shows that there is much room for improvement in reaching MSM in China. HIV prevention programs targeting MSM in China may need to be more comprehensive and incorporate the cultural, logistic and HIV-related needs of the population in order to effectively reach and affect this population’s risk for HIV.
Background Although various HIV prevention programs targeting men who have sex with men (MSM) are operating in China, whether and how these programs are being utilized is unclear. This study explores participation of HIV prevention programs and influencing factors among MSM in two cities in China. Methods This is a mixed-method study conducted in Beijing and Chongqing. A qualitative study consisting of in-depth interviews with 54 MSM, 11 key informants, and 8 focus group discussions, a cross-sectional survey using respondent-driven sampling among 998 MSM were conducted in 2009 and 2010 respectively to elicit information on MSM’s perception and utilization of HIV prevention programs. Qualitative findings were integrated with quantitative multivariate factors to explain the quantitative findings. Results Fifty-six percent of MSM in Chongqing and 75.1% in Beijing ever participated in at least one type of HIV prevention program (P=0.001). Factors related to participation in HIV prevention programs included age, ethnicity, income, HIV risk perception, living with boyfriend, living in urban area, size of MSM social network, having talked about HIV status with partners, and knowing someone who is HIV positive. Reasons why MSM did not participate in HIV prevention programs included logistical concerns like limited time for participation and distance to services; program content and delivery issues such as perceived low quality services and distrust of providers; and, cultural issues like HIV-related stigma and low risk perception. Conclusions The study shows that there is much room for improvement in reaching MSM in China. HIV prevention programs targeting MSM in China may need to be more comprehensive and incorporate the cultural, logistic and HIV-related needs of the population in order to effectively reach and affect this population’s risk for HIV. PMID:23039880
Watson, Ryan J; Fish, Jessica N; Allen, Aerielle; Eaton, Lisa
Black men who have sex with men (BMSM) are disproportionately affected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic, yet we know little about how HIV-negative BMSM of different sexual orientations access HIV prevention strategies. Identity development, minority stress, and disclosure theories suggest that for people of different sexual orientations, disclosure of sexual identity may be related to health behaviors. We performed a latent class analysis on a sample of 650 BMSM (M age = 33.78, SD = 11.44) from Atlanta, Georgia, to explore whether sexual orientation, disclosure of sexual identity, and relationship status were related to HIV prevention strategies, including awareness of PrEP (pre-exposure prophylaxis) and PEP (post-exposure prophylaxis) and frequency of HIV testing. We found three distinct BMSM classes referred to as (1) closeted bisexuals, (2) sexual identity managers, and (3) gay, out, and open; all classes primarily engaged in casual sex. Classes differed in their awareness and access to HIV prevention strategies. The closeted bisexual class was least aware of and least likely to access HIV prevention. Findings have important implications for future research, namely the consideration of sexual identity and disclosure among BMSM. With this knowledge, we may be able to engage BMSM in HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention services.
Storer, Heather L.; Casey, Erin A.; Carlson, Juliana; Edleson, Jeffrey L.; Tolman, Richard M.
Engaging men in addressing violence against women (VAW) has become a strategy in the global prevention of gender-based violence. Concurrently, Western public health frameworks have been utilized to guide prevention agendas worldwide. Using qualitative methods, this study describes how global anti-violence organizations that partner with men conceptualize primary prevention in their work. Findings suggest that ‘primary prevention’ is not a fixed term in the context of VAW and that front-line prevention work challenges rigidly delineated distinctions between levels of prevention. Much can be learned from global organizations’ unique and contextualized approaches to the prevention of VAW. PMID:26333283
McFarlane, Judith; Karmaliani, Rozina; Maqbool Ahmed Khuwaja, Hussain; Gulzar, Saleema; Somani, Rozina; Saeed Ali, Tazeen; Somani, Yasmeen H; Shehzad Bhamani, Shireen; Krone, Ryan D; Paulson, Rene M; Muhammad, Atta; Jewkes, Rachel
Violence against and among children is a global public health problem that annually affects 50% of youth worldwide with major impacts on child development, education, and health including increased probability of major causes of morbidity and mortality in adulthood. It is also associated with the experience of and perpetration of later violence against women. The aim of this article is to describe the intervention, study design, methods, and baseline findings of a cluster randomized controlled trial underway in Pakistan to evaluate a school-based play intervention aiming to reduce peer violence and enhance mental health. A cluster randomized controlled design is being conducted with boys and girls in grade 6 in 40 schools in Hyderabad, Pakistan, over a period of 2 years. The Multidimensional Peer-Victimization and Peer Perpetration Scales and the Children's Depression Inventory 2 (CDI 2) are being used to measure the primary outcomes while investigator-derived scales are being used to assess domestic violence within the family. Specifics of the intervention, field logistics, ethical, and fidelity management issues employed to test the program's impact on school age youth in a volatile and politically unstable country form this report. A total of 1,752 school-age youth were enrolled and interviewed at baseline. Over the preceding 4 weeks, 94% of the boys and 85% of the girls reported 1 or more occurrences of victimization, and 85% of the boys and 66% of the girls reported 1 or more acts of perpetration. Boys reported more depression compared with girls, as well as higher negative mood and self-esteem scores and more interpersonal and emotional problems. Globally, prevalence of youth violence perpetration and victimization is high and associated with poor physical and emotional health. Applying a randomized controlled design to evaluate a peer violence prevention program built on a firm infrastructure and that is ready for scale-up and sustainability will make an
Ruckmongathan, Temkar N
Unique reference source that can be used from the beginning to end of a design project to aid choosing an appropriate LCD addressing technique for a given application This book will be aimed at design engineers who are likely to embed LCD drivers and controllers in many systems including systems on chip. Such designers face the challenge of making the right choice of an addressing technique that will serve them with best performance at minimal cost and complexity. Readers will be able to learn about various methods available for driving matrix LCDs and the comparisons at the end of each chap
Nahar, Nazmun; Mondal, Utpal Kumar; Sultana, Rebeca; Hossain, M Jahangir; Khan, M Salah Uddin; Gurley, Emily S; Oliveras, Elizabeth; Luby, Stephen P
People in Bangladesh frequently drink fresh date palm sap. Fruit bats (Pteropus giganteus) also drink raw sap and may contaminate the sap by shedding Nipah virus through saliva and urine. In a previous study we identified two indigenous methods to prevent bats accessing the sap, bamboo skirts and lime (calcium carbonate). We conducted a pilot study to assess the acceptability of these two methods among sap harvesters. We used interactive community meetings and group discussions to encourage all the sap harvesters (n = 12) from a village to use either bamboo skirts or lime smear that some of them (n = 4) prepared and applied. We measured the preparation and application time and calculated the cost of bamboo skirts. We conducted interviews after the use of each method. The sap harvesters found skirts effective in preventing bats from accessing sap. They were sceptical that lime would be effective as the lime was washed away by the sap flow. Preparation of the skirt took ∼105 min. The application of each method took ∼1 min. The cost of the bamboo skirt is minimal because bamboo is widely available and they made the skirts with pieces of used bamboo. The bamboo skirt method appeared practical and affordable to the sap harvesters. Further studies should explore its ability to prevent bats from accessing date palm sap and assess if its use produces more or better quality sap, which would provide further incentives to make it more acceptable for its regular use.
Systems, apparatuses, and methods for managing a unified shared virtual address space. A host may execute system software and manage a plurality of nodes coupled to the host. The host may send work tasks to the nodes, and for each node, the host may externally manage the node's view of the system's virtual address space. Each node may have a central processing unit (CPU) style memory management unit (MMU) with an internal translation lookaside buffer (TLB). In one embodiment, the host may be coupled to a given node via an input/output memory management unit (IOMMU) interface, where the IOMMU frontend interface shares the TLB with the given node's MMU. In another embodiment, the host may control the given node's view of virtual address space via memory-mapped control registers.
Systems, apparatuses, and methods for managing a unified shared virtual address space. A host may execute system software and manage a plurality of nodes coupled to the host. The host may send work tasks to the nodes, and for each node, the host may externally manage the node's view of the system's virtual address space. Each node may have a central processing unit (CPU) style memory management unit (MMU) with an internal translation lookaside buffer (TLB). In one embodiment, the host may be coupled to a given node via an input/output memory management unit (IOMMU) interface, where the IOMMU frontend interface shares the TLB with the given node's MMU. In another embodiment, the host may control the given node's view of virtual address space via memory-mapped control registers.
van de Glind, Esther M. M.; Willems, Hanna C.; Eslami, Saeid; Abu-Hanna, Ameen; Lems, Willem F.; Hooft, Lotty; de Rooij, Sophia E.; Black, Dennis M.; van Munster, Barbara C.
For physicians dealing with patients with a limited life expectancy, knowing the time to benefit (TTB) of preventive medication is essential to support treatment decisions. The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of statistical process control (SPC) for determining the TTB in
Kullgren, Jeffrey T; Knaus, Megan; Jenkins, Kristi Rahrig; Heisler, Michele
Many employers use screenings to identify and recommend modification of employees' risk factors for type 2 diabetes, yet little is known about how often employees then engage in recommended behaviors and what factors influence engagement. We examined the frequency of, facilitators of, and barriers to engagement in recommended behaviors among employees found to have pre-diabetes during a workplace screening. We surveyed 82 University of Michigan employees who were found to have pre-diabetes during a 2014 workplace screening and compared the characteristics of employees who 3 months later were and were not engaged in recommended behaviors. We interviewed 40 of these employees to identify the facilitators of and barriers to engagement in recommended behaviors. 3 months after screening, 54% of employees with pre-diabetes reported attempting to lose weight and getting recommended levels of physical activity, had asked their primary care provider about metformin for diabetes prevention, or had attended a Diabetes Prevention Program. These employees had higher median levels of motivation to prevent type 2 diabetes (9/10 vs 7/10, pmotivation and social and external supports. Key barriers were lack of motivation and resources, and competing demands. Most employees found to have pre-diabetes through a workplace screening were engaged in a recommended preventive behavior 3 months after the screening. This engagement could be enhanced by optimizing motivation and risk perception as well as leveraging social networks and external supports.
The focus of the milestone project is to focus on bridging the gap of bullying and classroom instruction methods. There has to be a defined expectations and level of accountability that has to be defined when supporting and implementing a plan linked to bullying prevention. All individuals involved in the student's learning have to be aware of…
"The book begins with a basic overview of IP networking, followed by chapters describing each of the three core IPAM technologies: IPv4 and IPv6 addressing, DHCP, and DNS. The next three chapters describe IPAM management techniques and practice, followed by chapters on IPv4-IPv6 co-existence, security and the IPAM business case"--
Grangeiro, Alexandre; Couto, Márcia Thereza; Peres, Maria Fernanda; Luiz, Olinda; Zucchi, Eliana Miura; de Castilho, Euclides Ayres; Estevam, Denize Lotufo; Alencar, Rosa; Wolffenbüttel, Karina; Escuder, Maria Mercedes; Calazans, Gabriela; Ferraz, Dulce; Arruda, Érico; Corrêa, Maria da Gloria; Amaral, Fabiana Rezende; Santos, Juliane Cardoso Villela; Alvarez, Vivian Salles; Kietzmann, Tiago
Few results from programmes based on combination prevention methods are available. We propose to analyse the degree of protection provided by postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) for consensual sexual activity at healthcare clinics, its compensatory effects on sexual behaviour; and the effectiveness of combination prevention methods and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), compared with exclusively using traditional methods. A total of 3200 individuals aged 16 years or older presenting for PEP at 5 sexually transmitted disease (STD)/HIV clinics in 3 regions of Brazil will be allocated to one of two groups: the PEP group-individuals who come to the clinic within 72 h after a sexual exposure and start PEP; and the non-PEP group-individuals who come after 72 h but within 30 days of exposure and do not start PEP. Clinical follow-up will be conducted initially for 6 months and comprise educational interventions based on information and counselling for using prevention methods, including PrEP. In the second study phase, individuals who remain HIV negative will be regrouped according to the reported use of prevention methods and observed for 18 months: only traditional methods; combined methods; and PrEP. Effectiveness will be analysed according to the incidence of HIV, syphilis and hepatitis B and C and protected sexual behaviour. A structured questionnaire will be administered to participants at baseline and every 6 months thereafter. Qualitative methods will be employed to provide a comprehensive understanding of PEP-seeking behaviour, preventive choices and exposure to HIV. This study will be conducted in accordance with the resolution of the School of Medicine Research Ethics Commission of Universidade de São Paulo (protocol no. 251/14). The databases will be available for specific studies, after management committee approval. Findings will be presented to researchers, health managers and civil society members by means of newspapers, electronic media and scientific journals
Feldstein, Leora R; Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali; Staples, J Erin; Halloran, M Elizabeth; Ellis, Esther M
Recent large-scale chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Zika virus epidemics in the Americas pose a growing public health threat. Given that mosquito bite prevention and vector control are the main prevention methods available to reduce transmission of these viruses, we assessed adherence to these methods in the United States Virgin Islands (USVI). We interviewed 334 USVI residents between December 2014 and February 2015 to measure differences in mosquito prevention practices by gender, income, presence of CHIKV symptoms, and age. Only 27% (91/334) of participants reported having an air conditioner, and of the 91 with air-conditioners, 18 (20%) reported never using it. Annual household income > $50,000 was associated with owning and using an air conditioner (41%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 28-53% compared with annual household income ≤ $50,000: 17%; 95% CI: 12-22%). The majority of participants reported the presence of vegetation in their yard or near their home (79%; 265) and a cistern on their property (78%; 259). Only 52 (16%) participants reported wearing mosquito repellent more than once per week. Although the majority (80%; 268) of participants reported having screens on all of their windows and doors, most (82%; 273) of those interviewed still reported seeing mosquitoes in their homes. Given the uniformly low adherence to individual- and household-level mosquito bite prevention measures in the USVI, these findings emphasize the need for improved public health messaging and investment in therapeutic and vaccine research to mitigate vector-borne disease outbreaks.
Perry, C L; Kelder, S H
The social influence models do provide some optimism for primary prevention efforts. Prevention programs appear most effective when 1) the target behavior of the intervention has received increasing societal disapproval (such as cigarette smoking), 2) multiple years of behavioral health education are planned, and 3) community-wide involvement or mass media complement a school-based peer-led program (45,46). Short-term programs and those involving alcohol use have had less favorable outcomes. Future research in primary prevention should address concerns of high-risk groups and high-risk countries, such as lower income populations in the United States or countries that have large adolescent homeless populations. The utilization of adolescent leaders for program dissemination might be particularly critical in these settings. A second major and global concern should focus upon alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. In many communities adolescent alcohol use is normative and even adult supported. Thus, young people are getting quite inconsistent messages on alcohol from their schools, from TV, from peers, and from parents. This inconsistency may translate into many tragic and avoidable deaths for young people. Clearly, in the area of alcohol-related problems, community-wide involvement may be necessary. A third direction for prevention research should involve issues of norms, access, and enforcement including policy interventions, such as involve the availability of cigarette vending machines or the ease of under-age buying or levels of taxation. These methods affect adolescents more acutely since their financial resources, for the most part, are more limited. These policy level methods also signify to adolescents what adults consider appropriate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Hardy, Scott B.; Marr, James E. [Tuboscope Pipeline Services, Houston, TX (United States); Willmot, Martyn [Jotun Group (Norway); Norman, David [David Norman Corrosion Control, Cornwall (United Kingdom); Khera, Ashish [Allied Engineering, Portland, ME (United States)
Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is now recognized by operators worldwide as a significant threat to the safe operation of their pipeline systems. Gas, oil, and refined products lines have all been susceptible to this form of environmentally assisted cracking. As a result, operators and regulators have been incorporating data related to the development and prevalence of SCC into their risk management systems in order that they may effectively address this time-dependant threat. The National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE) published the first structured methodology for stress corrosion cracking direct assessment (SCCDA) in 2004 (RP0204-2004). Operators are now beginning to apply the methods outlined in the standard to assess their systems. Research and industry experience have shown that various pipeline coating systems can be more or less effective in preventing the formation and growth of SCC. Newer pipeline coatings, such as multi layer epoxy/extruded polyolefin systems have been widely regarded as effective coating systems to address the threat posed by SCC when they are properly applied. New field studies performed on a pipeline coated with a three layer epoxy/polyethylene system have raised the possibility that operators utilizing these types of coatings may need to reassess how they manage the SCC threat. (author)
Merrill, J. True; Doret, S. Charles; Vittorini, Grahame; Addison, J. P.; Brown, Kenneth R.
Selective laser addressing of a single atom or atomic ion qubit can be improved using narrow-band composite pulse sequences. We describe a Lie-algebraic technique to generalize known narrow-band sequences and introduce sequences related by dilation and rotation of sequence generators. Our method improves known narrow-band sequences by decreasing both the pulse time and the residual error. Finally, we experimentally demonstrate these composite sequences using 40Ca+ ions trapped in a surface-electrode ion trap.
Batra, Suruchi; Yee, Caitlin; Diez, Bernadette; Nguyen, Nicholas; Sheridan, Michael J; Tufano, Mark; Sikka, Natalie; Townsend, Stacie; Hourigan, Suchitra
Objectives: To assess how often obesity is acknowledged at pediatric gastroenterology outpatient visits. Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed to identify obese children seen at a gastroenterology subspecialty clinic over a 1-year period of time; 132 children were identified. Demographics, obesity comorbidities, reasons for referral, diagnosis of obesity, and a plan to address obesity were abstracted. Chi-square or Fisher?s exact tests were used to examine statistical associatio...
Leo, Harvey L; Clark, Noreen M
The prevalence of food allergies in the pediatric population has risen significantly in the past decade. School districts and advocacy groups have made progress in developing systematic approaches to address pediatric food allergies; however, the widespread variance in child care settings, organization, and staff training still presents unique challenges. Addressing these obstacles requires multiple approaches to policy and guideline formulation and dissemination. This review discusses current issues in food allergy prevention and education in child care settings and offers potential solutions.
Langer, Thorsten; Martinez, William; Browning, David M; Varrin, Pamela; Sarnoff Lee, Barbara; Bell, Sigall K
Despite growing interest in engaging patients and families (P/F) in patient safety education, little is known about how P/F can best contribute. We assessed the feasibility and acceptability of a patient-teacher medical error disclosure and prevention training model. We developed an educational intervention bringing together interprofessional clinicians with P/F from hospital advisory councils to discuss error disclosure and prevention. Patient focus groups and orientation sessions informed curriculum and assessment design. A pre-post survey with qualitative and quantitative questions was used to assess P/F and clinician experiences and attitudes about collaborative safety education including participant hopes, fears, perceived value of learning experience and challenges. Responses to open-ended questions were coded according to principles of content analysis. P/F and clinicians hoped to learn about each other's perspectives, communication skills and patient empowerment strategies. Before the intervention, both groups worried about power dynamics dampening effective interaction. Clinicians worried that P/F would learn about their fallibility, while P/F were concerned about clinicians' jargon and defensive posturing. Following workshops, clinicians valued patients' direct feedback, communication strategies for error disclosure and a 'real' learning experience. P/F appreciated clinicians' accountability, and insights into how medical errors affect clinicians. Half of participants found nothing challenging, the remainder clinicians cited emotions and enormity of 'culture change', while P/F commented on medical jargon and desire for more time. Patients and clinicians found the experience valuable. Recommendations about how to develop a patient-teacher programme in patient safety are provided. An educational paradigm that includes patients as teachers and collaborative learners with clinicians in patient safety is feasible, valued by clinicians and P/F and promising for
Cho, Young; Fridman, Alexander
The overall objective of the present work was to develop a new scale-prevention technology by continuously precipitating and removing dissolved mineral ions (such as calcium and magnesium) in cooling water while the COC could be doubled from the present standard value of 3.5. The hypothesis of the present study was that if we could successfully precipitate and remove the excess calcium ions in cooling water, we could prevent condenser-tube fouling and at the same time double the COC. The approach in the study was to utilize pulse spark discharges directly in water to precipitate dissolved mineral ions in recirculating cooling water into relatively large suspended particles, which could be removed by a self-cleaning filter. The present study began with a basic scientific research to better understand the mechanism of pulse spark discharges in water and conducted a series of validation experiments using hard water in a laboratory cooling tower. Task 1 of the present work was to demonstrate if the spark discharge could precipitate the mineral ions in water. Task 2 was to demonstrate if the selfcleaning filter could continuously remove these precipitated calcium particles such that the blowdown could be eliminated or significantly reduced. Task 3 was to demonstrate if the scale could be prevented or minimized at condenser tubes with a COC of 8 or (almost) zero blowdown. In Task 1, we successfully completed the validation study that confirmed the precipitation of dissolved calcium ions in cooling water with the supporting data of calcium hardness over time as measured by a calcium ion probe. In Task 2, we confirmed through experimental tests that the self-cleaning filter could continuously remove precipitated calcium particles in a simulated laboratory cooling tower such that the blowdown could be eliminated or significantly reduced. In addition, chemical water analysis data were obtained which were used to confirm the COC calculation. In Task 3, we conducted a series
Kordi, R; Wallace, W A
Athletes are at risk of blood borne infections through bleeding injuries or injection of drugs with contaminated syringes. Prevention should focus on reducing non-sport associated risky behaviour, as well as dealing appropriately with bleeding injuries. The risk of transmission of hepatitis B virus is particularly high in athletes in contact and collision sports, those who live in or travel to endemic regions, injecting drug abusers, and those who practice first aid when there is no healthcare practitioner available. It is recommended that such athletes, and also adolescent athletes, should be vaccinated against the virus as a routine.
Kobets, G.P.; Perederii, G.S.; Tkachenko, L.N.; Ivanov, V.V.; Kiva, A.I. (Institut Gigieny Truda i Profzabolevanii, Donetsk (USSR))
Describes the procedures used to identify and treat borderline states in coal miners working in deep mines in the Donbass. Timely preventive treatment helps to maintain the condition of the miners and reduce time lost through sickness. Diagnosis is performed on the basis of a number of physical indices coupled with a subjective assessment marked on a points scale. The types of treatment available at sanatoria are outlined: they include physiotherapy, mud and carbon dioxide baths, various types of massage, etc. Courses last 2-3 weeks and are followed by 3-8 days of rehabilitation at work, depending on occupation and working conditions. 6 refs.
Richards, Zoe; Kostadinov, Iordan; Jones, Michelle; Richard, Lucie; Cargo, Margaret
Little research has assessed the fidelity, adaptation or integrity of activities implemented within community-based obesity prevention initiatives. To address this gap, a mixed-method process evaluation was undertaken in the context of the South Australian Obesity Prevention and Lifestyle (OPAL) initiative. An ecological coding procedure assessed…
Flynn, Brian S.; Worden, John K.; Bunn, Janice Yanushka; Connolly, Scott W.; Dorwaldt, Anne L.
Progress in reducing youth smoking may depend on developing improved methods to communicate with higher risk youth. This study explored the potential of smoking prevention messages based on the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) to address these needs. Structured evaluations of 12 smoking prevention messages based on three strategies derived from…
Longbottom, C; Ekstrand, K; Zero, D
Preventive treatment options can be divided into primary, secondary and tertiary prevention techniques, which can involve patient- or professionally applied methods. These include: oral hygiene (instruction), pit and fissure sealants ('temporary' or 'permanent'), fluoride applications (patient...... options....
Taveras, Elsie M; McDonald, Julia; O'Brien, Ashley; Haines, Jess; Sherry, Bettylou; Bottino, Clement J; Troncoso, Karen; Schmidt, Marie Evans; Koziol, Renata
To develop a home-based intervention for parents of 2-5 year old children to promote household routines to prevent overweight/obesity. We recruited 121 children from health centers in Boston between 2011 and 2012 and randomized 62 to intervention and 59 to the control condition. The 6-month intervention included 1) motivational coaching at home and by phone with a health educator, 2) mailed educational materials, and 3) weekly text messages. The intervention promoted three household routines: eating meals as a family, obtaining adequate sleep, and limiting screen time. Of the 121 children, mean (SD) age was 4.0 (1.1) years; 52% were Hispanic, 34% Black, and 14% White/Other. Nearly 60% of the sample had annual household incomes ≤ $20,000. Approximately 64% of families reported eating together ≥ 7 times per week, however, many meals were eaten in front of a TV. Over half of the children slept less than the recommended 11h/night and 78% viewed ≥ 2 h/day of screen time. Household routines that increase obesity risk were prevalent among low-income families in this study. If proven to be effective, promotion of household routines related to family meals, sleep, and screen time may prevent young children from becoming overweight/obese. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cai Lian eTam
Full Text Available In recent years, there have been increasing accounts of illegal substance abuse among university students and professional groups in Malaysia. This study looks at university students’ perceptions about this phenomenon. Students from Malaysian universities were asked for their impressions about drug availability and abuse, as well as factors contributing to drug abuse and relapse. The questionnaire also inquired into their knowledge and views regarding government versus private rehabilitation centres, as well as their exposure to, and views about, school-based drug-prevention education. Participants were 460 university students from five Malaysian states: Penang, Selangor, Kuala Lumpur, Sabah, and Sarawak. Results showed gender differences in perceptions of relapse prevention strategies, as well as factors leading to drug abuse and relapse. Students also believed that drug education would be more effective if initiated between the ages of 11 to 12 years, which is slightly older than the common age of first exposure, and provided suggestions for improving existing programs. Implications of student perceptions for the improvement of current interventions and educational programs are discussed.
Leonard Bond; Kevin Kostelnik; Richard Holman
A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need.
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aziz allah agha babaei
Full Text Available Introduction: This study was aimed to compare the efficacy of four drug substance abuse preventive methods: cognitive–behavioral social traioning, life skills training, poster presentation and short message system on attitude change and enhancement self-esteem in students supported by Emdad Committee. Method:This was a quasi experimental study. 150 students were selected and randomly assigned to the four experimental and control groups. The groups were completed attitude of drug substance abuse and self-esteem inventories. Experimental groups received: group 1 received 10 sessions of group cognitive-behavioral social training 120 minutes each, group 2, 10 sessions of life skills training, 120 minutes each, group 3 for 10 weeks into presented of 40 posters and group 4 short message service for 10 weeks. Findings: The results revealed that preventive techniques were effected on attitude and self–esteem. Also results of post-hoc (LSD test revealed that preventive techniques with difference effectiveness were effected on change attitude of substance abuse. Also cognitive–behavioral social training and life skills training techniques were effected on self esteem. Conclusion: The results of the study revealed that all the four techniques were effective in the generation negative attitude into drug abuse, otherwise only cognitive–behavioral social training and life skills training enhancement on self esteem.
Shore, Sabrina; Henderson, Jordana M; Lebedev, Alexandre; Salcedo, Michelle P; Zon, Gerald; McCaffrey, Anton P; Paul, Natasha; Hogrefe, Richard I
For most sample types, the automation of RNA and DNA sample preparation workflows enables high throughput next-generation sequencing (NGS) library preparation. Greater adoption of small RNA (sRNA) sequencing has been hindered by high sample input requirements and inherent ligation side products formed during library preparation. These side products, known as adapter dimer, are very similar in size to the tagged library. Most sRNA library preparation strategies thus employ a gel purification step to isolate tagged library from adapter dimer contaminants. At very low sample inputs, adapter dimer side products dominate the reaction and limit the sensitivity of this technique. Here we address the need for improved specificity of sRNA library preparation workflows with a novel library preparation approach that uses modified adapters to suppress adapter dimer formation. This workflow allows for lower sample inputs and elimination of the gel purification step, which in turn allows for an automatable sRNA library preparation protocol.
Lagoe Ronald J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased interest in health care cost containment is focusing attention on reduction of hospital readmissions. Major payors have already developed financial penalties for providers that generate excess readmissions. This subject has benefitted from the development of resources such as the Potentially Preventable Readmissions software. This process has encouraged hospitals to renew efforts to improve these outcomes. The aim of this study was to describe quantitative tools such as definitions, risk estimation, and tracking of patients for reducing hospital readmissions. Findings This study employed the Potentially Preventable Readmissions software to develop quantitative tools for addressing hospital readmissions. These tools included two definitions of readmissions that support identification and management of patients. They also included analytical approaches for estimation of the risk of readmission for individual patients by age, discharge status of the initial admission, and severity of illness. They also included patient specific spreadsheets for tracking of target populations and for evaluation of the impact of interventions. Conclusions The study demonstrated that quantitative tools including the development of definitions of readmissions, estimation of the risk of readmission, and patient specific spreadsheets could contribute to the improvement of patient outcomes in hospitals.
Mitchell, Diane C; Castro, Javier; Armitage, Tracey L; Vega-Arroyo, Alondra J; Moyce, Sally C; Tancredi, Daniel J; Bennett, Deborah H; Jones, James H; Kjellstrom, Tord; Schenker, Marc B
The California heat illness prevention study (CHIPS) devised methodology and collected physiological data to assess heat related illness (HRI) risk in Latino farmworkers. Bilingual researchers monitored HRI across a workshift, recording core temperature, work rate (metabolic equivalents [METs]), and heart rate at minute intervals. Hydration status was assessed by changes in weight and blood osmolality. Personal data loggers and a weather station measured exposure to heat. Interviewer administered questionnaires were used to collect demographic and occupational information. California farmworkers (n = 588) were assessed. Acceptable quality data was obtained from 80% of participants (core temperature) to 100% of participants (weight change). Workers (8.3%) experienced a core body temperature more than or equal to 38.5 °C and 11.8% experienced dehydration (lost more than 1.5% of body weight). Methodology is presented for the first comprehensive physiological assessment of HRI risk in California farmworkers.
Full Text Available Drug use is one of the major challenges that todays society faces; its effects are felt at the level of various social, professional and age categories. Over 50 non-profit organizations are involved in the development of anti-drug social programs in Romania. Their role is to improve the degree of awareness of the target population concerning the risks associated with drug use, but also to steer consumers towards healthy areas, beneficial to their future. This paper aims to detail the issue of drug use in Romania, by making predictions based on the evolution of this phenomenon during the next five years. The obtained results have revealed the necessity to increase the number of programs preventing drug use, aswell as the need to continue social programs that have proved effective in previous years.
Nelson, Kimberly M; Ramirez, Jaime J; Carey, Michael P
Adolescent males interested in sex with males (AMSM) are an important audience for HIV prevention interventions, but they are difficult to reach due to their age and social stigma. We aim to identify efficient methods to recruit and retain AMSM in online research. Interviews with 14-to-18-year-old AMSM (N=16) were conducted at 2017 Pride events in Boston, MA and Providence, RI. Participants reported that (1) social media platforms are viable recruitment venues; (2) recruitment advertisements should describe the study using colorful/bright pictures, familiar words, and information about compensation; (3) surveys should be study activities to increase retention. Soliciting input from AMSM provides critical guidance regarding recruitment and retention procedures to increase the efficiency of HIV prevention research for this at-risk group. ©Kimberly M Nelson, Jaime J Ramirez, Michael P Carey. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 21.12.2017.
Mackay, Bethany A; Shochet, Ian M; Orr, Jayne A
Despite increased depression in adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), effective prevention approaches for this population are limited. A mixed methods pilot randomised controlled trial (N = 29) of the evidence-based Resourceful Adolescent Program-Autism Spectrum Disorder (RAP-A-ASD) designed to prevent depression was conducted in schools with adolescents with ASD in years 6 and 7. Quantitative results showed significant intervention effects on parent reports of adolescent coping self-efficacy (maintained at 6 month follow-up) but no effect on depressive symptoms or mental health. Qualitative outcomes reflected perceived improvements from the intervention for adolescents' coping self-efficacy, self-confidence, social skills, and affect regulation. Converging results remain encouraging given this population's difficulties coping with adversity, managing emotions and interacting socially which strongly influence developmental outcomes.
Bogdanowicz Katarzyna M.
Full Text Available Children with developmental dyslexia and at its risk have difficulties in the acquisition of foreign languages, especially non-transparent English. The problems of such pupils concern various aspects of the language system but in particular relate to the ability to read and spell. The research literature dedicated to effective preventative methods and dyslexia treatment suggests that both children with dyslexia and at its risk need phonological awareness training and multi-sensory learning. It is also known that prevention and early treatment is more effective than therapeutic intervention used in older students. Experts in foreign language acquisition recommend that children have contact with longer oral texts and live language (e.g., poems and songs. A recently-published report on the methods of English language teaching in Polish primary schools shows that the lessons conducted there do not realise the majority of the aforementioned recommendations. As a consequence, they do not serve any pupils including those with dyslexia and at its risk. A method which meets most of the demands mentioned above is “The Good Start Method for English”. It is a new program of teaching the English language designed for five to seven-year-olds, which at the same time ensures support for the psychomotor development of children, leading to acceleration in learning progress.
Templeton, Anna Rose; Young, Linda; Bish, Alison; Gnich, Wendy; Cassie, Heather; Treweek, Shaun; Bonetti, Debbie; Stirling, Douglas; Macpherson, Lorna; McCann, Sharon; Clarkson, Jan; Ramsay, Craig
Dental caries is the most common chronic disease of adult and childhood, a largely preventable yet widespread, costly public health problem. This study identified patient-, organization-, and system-level factors influencing routine delivery of recommended care for prevention and management of caries in primary dental care. A convergent mixed-methods design assessed six guidance-recommended behaviours to prevent and manage caries (recording risk, risk-based recall intervals, applying fluoride varnish, placing preventive fissure sealants, demonstrating oral health maintenance, taking dental x-rays). A diagnostic questionnaire assessing current practice, beliefs, and practice characteristics was sent to a random sample of 651 dentists in National Health Service (NHS) Scotland. Eight in-depth case studies comprising observation of routine dental visits and dental team member interviews were conducted. Patient feedback was collected from adult patients with recent checkups at case study practices. Key informant interviews were conducted with decision makers in policy, funding, education, and regulation. The Theoretical Domains Framework within the Behaviour Change Wheel was used to identify and describe patient-, organization-, and system-level barriers and facilitators to care. Findings were merged into a matrix describing theoretical domains salient to each behaviour. The matrix and Behaviour Change Wheel were used to prioritize behaviours for change and plan relevant intervention strategies. Theoretical domains associated with best practice were identified from the questionnaire (N-196), case studies (N = 8 practices, 29 interviews), and patient feedback (N = 19). Using the study matrix, key stakeholders identified priority behaviours (use of preventive fissure sealants among 6-12-year-olds) and strategies (audit and feedback, patient informational campaign) to improve guidance implementation. Proposed strategies were assessed as appropriate for immediate
Full Text Available Coal and gas outbursts are one of risk factors accompanying the mining of coal in low seams in the Ostrava-Karviná Coalfield.At the use of the method of longwall mining, all coal reserves have not been mined out owing to tectonic faults. For mining outthe residual reserves, the application of a new mining method - drilling of a coal pillar was proposed.The method of mining of a coal seam utilizing long large diameter boreholes is verified in the Paskov Mine (company OKD, JSC –Czech Republic under conditions of rock mass with hazard of rock and gas outbursts in localities of residual pillars left in seams afterfinishing the mining operations performed with using the classical method of longwall working along the strike. Forecast and preventive measures applied to the verification of the new method were based on previous experience withthe mining of seams with hazard of coal and gas outbursts. They accepted fully valid legislation, i.e. Ordinance of Ostrava RegionalMining Authority No. 3895/2002 and supplementary materials (Instructions and Guidelines. The proposed measures respectedthe character of the method being verified. For all areas being mined, projects containing also chapters specifying the problems of ensuring the safety of mining worksand operation under conditions of hazard of coal and gas outbursts were prepared.In the contributions, basic proposals for the principles of coal and gas outburst forecast and prevention when applying the newmining method – drilling of a coal pillar are presented
In this podcast, CDCâs Dr. Lynda Anderson highlights the important roles that states and communities can play in addressing cognitive health as part of overall health. Created: 6/9/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). Date Released: 6/9/2014.
Hu, Xueyun; Tanaka, Ayumi; Tanaka, Ryouichi
When conducting plant research, the measurement of photosynthetic pigments can provide basic information on the physiological status of a plant. High-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) is becoming widely used for this purpose because it provides an accurate determination of a variety of photosynthetic pigments simultaneously. This technique has a drawback compared with conventional spectroscopic techniques, however, in that it is more prone to structural modification of pigments during extraction, thus potentially generating erroneous results. During pigment extraction procedures with acetone or alcohol, the phytol side chain of chlorophyll is sometimes removed, forming chlorophyllide, which affects chlorophyll measurement using HPLC. We evaluated the artifactual chlorophyllide production during chlorophyll extraction by comparing different extraction methods with wild-type and mutant Arabidopsis leaves that lack the major isoform of chlorophyllase. Several extraction methods were compared to provide alternatives to researchers who utilize HPLC for the analysis of chlorophyll levels. As a result, the following three methods are recommended. In the first method, leaves are briefly boiled prior to extraction. In the second method, grinding and homogenization of leaves are performed at sub-zero temperatures. In the third method, N, N'-dimethylformamide (DMF) is used for the extraction of pigments. When compared, the first two methods eliminated almost all chlorophyllide-forming activity in Arabidopsis thaliana, Glebionis coronaria, Pisum sativum L. and Prunus sargentii Rehd. However, DMF effectively suppressed the activity of chlorophyllase only in Arabidopsis leaves. Chlorophyllide production in leaf extracts is predominantly an artifact. All three methods evaluated in this study reduce the artifactual production of chlorophyllide and are thus suitable for pigment extraction for HPLC analysis. The boiling method would be a practical choice when leaves are not too
Batson, C Daniel; Thompson, Elizabeth R; Chen, Hubert
Two studies addressed alternative explanations for 3 pieces of evidence supporting the existence of moral hypocrisy. In Study 1, no support was found for the idea that low salience of social standards accounts for falsifying the result of a coin flip to assign oneself a more desirable task. In Study 2, no support was found for the idea that responses of those who honestly win the flip account for the higher ratings of morality of their action by participants who assign themselves the more desirable task after flipping the coin. Also, no support was found for the idea that responses of those who honestly win the flip account for the inability of personal moral responsibility measures to predict moral action. Instead, results of both studies provided additional evidence of moral hypocrisy.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to emphasize the therapeutic value of mechanical vibrations. It is known that the Health Service, after studying their effect on the health of operators, incriminates the effect of vibrations and imposes a series of rules regarding the limitation of their pathogen effect on people’s health and also on the environment. In these cases the mechanical vibrations are considered to be noxae because of long-term exposure. From the studies on people exposed to vibrations also results that these have also benefic effects, depending on the control of their parameters: frequency, amplitude, time and the particular way of applying them on the human body.There are well known vibration-producing appliances on the market which are addressed to the muscle tonifiation or relaxation, in body-building or even in medical treatment as bronchial drainage, osteoporosis etc. The use of mechanical vibrations for the optimization of the intervertebral disc’s functions in the pathology of the degenerative diseases of the spine is a new idea and has become a wide research field on the different mobile areas of the spine. In order to do so we have tested the input of low and medium frequency mechanical vibrations for pain management in dorsal rheumatic affections as compared to the kinetic treatment in order to quantify the separate role of each form of treatment to find out their exact input.
Renfro, Tiffaney; Johnson, Erin; Lambert, Danielle N; Wingood, Gina; DiClemente, Ralph J
As human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) continues to disproportionately affect African American women, practitioners remain committed to developing innovative strategies to reduce HIV prevalence. These strategies include training community organizations, such as churches, and utilizing digital media to make intervention dissemination more sustainable. This article describes one such effort to train lay community members within predominantly Black churches in Atlanta, GA, to implement an HIV prevention intervention. Lay educators were trained by translating a face-to-face Training of Facilitators (TOF) to a digital platform using the MEDIA (Motivate-Engage-Digitize-Implement-Assess) model. Formative evaluations, consultation with experts in the digital platform of choice, and the experience of two P4 for Women Master Trainers informed our translation. The model guided the translation process as our research team worked alongside topical experts and a production company to develop storyboards for core curriculum activities, which were later scripted and filmed with mock participants. A user guide, toolkit, and program website were also developed as supplemental materials to accompany the video training. Lessons learned from this study indicate future attempts at digitizing TOFs should keep in mind that digitization can be a time-consuming process, pilot testing in the new format is necessary even for a previously tested intervention, and the structure provided by facilitators in face-to-face training must be embedded into the format of digitized trainings.
Trevidy, Frédérique; Wolfrom, Jacques; Sebbane, Georges; Brugidou, Guillaume; Bonnetin, Denis; Gagnayre, Rémi
In a social environment in which prevention of falls in older people has become a public health issue, adaptation of housing for older people is particularly important. Based on the home-identity concept, the objective of this research was to design an educational model specifically adapted to the context of a Social Housing Company (SHC), focussing on elderly tenants who have experienced a fall in order to allow them to adapt their lodgings and avoid subsequent falls. This article describes design-based research (DBR), which enabled the research committee (composed of professionals, tenants, and researchers) to construct the educational intervention based on analysis of the SHC context. The creation of a common approach within the research committee and the production of design-linked intentions enabled the creation of a formal intervention composed of four educational sessions, involving a private occupational therapist, an SHC social worker and a caretaker. The use of DBR can be justified by the research goal, i.e. validation of an educational model (based on the theoretical home-identity model) that can be transposed to a SHC. As this research is still underway, its quality criteria will only be partially described and will be completed by field experimentation. This exploratory study could eventually result in interventional research designed to assess this model in a multifactorial therapeutic patient education programme for older people at high risk of falls (e.g.: Personnes Âgées En Risque de Perte d'Autonomie device).
Grocott, Hilary P; Mathew, Joseph P; Carver, Elizabeth H; Phillips-Bute, Barbara; Landolfo, Kevin P; Newman, Mark F
In this trial we compared the hypothermia avoidance abilities of the Arctic Sun Temperature Management System (a servo-regulated system that circulates temperature-controlled water through unique energy transfer pads adherent to the patient's body) with conventional temperature control methods. Patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) surgery were randomized to either the Arctic Sun System alone (AS group) or conventional methods (control group; increased room temperature, heated IV fluids, convective forced air warming system) for the prevention of hypothermia (defined by a temperature temperature servo-regulated to a target of 36.8 degrees C. Temperature was recorded throughout the operative period and comparisons were made between groups for both the time and area under the curve (AUC) for a temperature control group = 15) were studied. The AS group had significantly less hypothermia than the control group, both for duration of time control group; P = 0.0008) as well as for AUCcontrol group; P = 0.002). The Arctic Sun Temperature Management System significantly reduced intraoperative hypothermia during OPCAB surgery. Importantly, this was achieved in the absence of any other temperature modulating techniques, including the use of IV fluid warming or increases in the ambient operating room temperature. The Arctic Sun Temperature Management System was more effective than conventional methods in preventing hypothermia during off-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery.
Zhang, Chuanqing; Feng, Xiating; Zhou, Hui; Qiu, Shili; Wu, Wenping
The headrace tunnels at the Jinping II Hydropower Station cross the Jinping Mountain with a maximum overburden depth of 2,525 m, where 80% of the strata along the tunnels consist of marble. A number of extremely intense rockbursts occurred during the excavation of the auxiliary tunnels and the drainage tunnel. In particular, a tunnel boring machine (TBM) was destroyed by an extremely intense rockburst in a 7.2-m-diameter drainage tunnel. Two of the four subsequent 12.4-m-diameter headrace tunnels will be excavated with larger size TBMs, where a high risk of extremely intense rockbursts exists. Herein, a top pilot tunnel preconditioning method is proposed to minimize this risk, in which a drilling and blasting method is first recommended for the top pilot tunnel excavation and support, and then the TBM excavation of the main tunnel is conducted. In order to evaluate the mechanical effectiveness of this method, numerical simulation analyses using the failure approaching index, energy release rate, and excess shear stress indices are carried out. Its construction feasibility is discussed as well. Moreover, a microseismic monitoring technique is used in the experimental tunnel section for the real-time monitoring of the microseismic activities of the rock mass in TBM excavation and for assessing the effect of the top pilot tunnel excavation in reducing the risk of rockbursts. This method is applied to two tunnel sections prone to extremely intense rockbursts and leads to a reduction in the risk of rockbursts in TBM excavation.
Conclusions: Among the three studied methods, administration of ephedrine plus bandage of the lower extremities was the most effective one in reducing the incidence of post-spinal hypotension. The groups were not clinically different concerning the effect of treatment on newborn health.
Manineng, Clement Morris; MacLaren, David; Baigry, Maggie; Trowalle, Emil; Muller, Reinhold; Vallely, Andrew; Gesch, Patrick; Hombhanje, Francis; McBride, William John
Efforts to stem the spread of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in Papua New Guinea (PNG) are hampered by multiple interrelated factors including limited health services, extreme diversities in culture and language and highly prevalent gender inequity, domestic violence and poverty. In the rural district of Yangoru-Saussia, a revival of previously ceased male initiation ceremonies (MICs) is being considered for a comprehensive approach to HIV prevention. In this study, we explore the local acceptability of this undertaking including replacing traditional penile cutting practices with medical male circumcision (MMC). A multi-method study comprising three phases. Phase one, focus group discussions with male elders to explore locally appropriate approaches to HIV prevention; Phase two, interviews and a cross-sectional survey with community men and women to assess views on MICs that include MMC for HIV prevention; Phase three, interviews with cultural leaders and a cross sectional survey to assess the acceptability of replacing traditional penile bleeding with MMC. Cultural leaders expressed that re-establishing MICs was locally appropriate for HIV prevention given the focus on character building and cultural preservation. Most surveyed participants (81.5%) supported re-establishing MICs and 92.2% supported adapting MICs with MMC. Changes to penile bleeding emerged as a contentious and contested issue given its cultural significance in symbolizing initiates' transition from childhood to adulthood. Participants were concerned about potential clash with modern education, introduced religious beliefs and limited government support in leadership and funding. Most people in this study in Yangoru-Saussia support re-establishing MICs and replacing traditional penile bleeding with MMC. This culturally-sensitive alignment of MMC (and HIV prevention) with revived MICs responds to a national health priority in PNG and acts as an example of providing culturally-sensitive male
Clement Morris Manineng
Full Text Available Efforts to stem the spread of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV in Papua New Guinea (PNG are hampered by multiple interrelated factors including limited health services, extreme diversities in culture and language and highly prevalent gender inequity, domestic violence and poverty. In the rural district of Yangoru-Saussia, a revival of previously ceased male initiation ceremonies (MICs is being considered for a comprehensive approach to HIV prevention. In this study, we explore the local acceptability of this undertaking including replacing traditional penile cutting practices with medical male circumcision (MMC.A multi-method study comprising three phases. Phase one, focus group discussions with male elders to explore locally appropriate approaches to HIV prevention; Phase two, interviews and a cross-sectional survey with community men and women to assess views on MICs that include MMC for HIV prevention; Phase three, interviews with cultural leaders and a cross sectional survey to assess the acceptability of replacing traditional penile bleeding with MMC.Cultural leaders expressed that re-establishing MICs was locally appropriate for HIV prevention given the focus on character building and cultural preservation. Most surveyed participants (81.5% supported re-establishing MICs and 92.2% supported adapting MICs with MMC. Changes to penile bleeding emerged as a contentious and contested issue given its cultural significance in symbolizing initiates' transition from childhood to adulthood. Participants were concerned about potential clash with modern education, introduced religious beliefs and limited government support in leadership and funding.Most people in this study in Yangoru-Saussia support re-establishing MICs and replacing traditional penile bleeding with MMC. This culturally-sensitive alignment of MMC (and HIV prevention with revived MICs responds to a national health priority in PNG and acts as an example of providing culturally
Sakai, Takaaki; Yamaguchi, Akira; Morisita, Masaki; Iwata, Koji
The incident of sodium leakage from a main pipe of the secondary heat transport system of Monju fast breeder reactor was caused by the failure of a thermometer well. 'Flow-induced vibration design guide for thermometer wells' (express as 'design guide') was proposed by PNC Working Group to prevent the same cause of the sodium leak incident in future. On this report, applicability of the 'design guide' was estimated to plant conditions in high Reynolds-number(approximately 3x10 5 ∼ 3x10 6 ) involving the supercritical region, by measured data on a vortex synchronized vibration and a turbulence induced vibration. Experiments were performed for cylindrical and taper shaped types of test pieces. As results, reduced velocity (Vr) at onsets of the inline synchronized vibration were evaluated to be grater than 1.0 in the range of experimental conditions. Fluctuating drag and lift coefficients, which were evaluated from power spectrum of turbulence for Vr < 1.0 condition, were 0.01 ∼ 0.05 for drag direction and 0.04 ∼ 0.13 for lift direction. The fluctuating drag and lift coefficients used in the 'design guide' were estimated to be conservative by comparison with these data. Correlation lengths for a cylinder and a taper shaped one in the high Reynolds-number region were estimated to be 1.6 times of the diameter(D) in the maximum case. The measured value of correlation length is enough smaller than the 'design guide' value of 3.0D. Displacement amplitudes of test pieces for Vr < 1.0 conditions were enough smaller (fives times) than calculated values based on the 'design guide'. Consequently, the applicability of the design guide' was confirmed in the range of experiments involving the super critical Reynolds-number region. (author)
Passarge, Michelle; Fix, Michael K; Manser, Peter; Stampanoni, Marco F M; Siebers, Jeffrey V
To develop a robust and efficient process that detects relevant dose errors (dose errors of ≥5%) in external beam radiation therapy and directly indicates the origin of the error. The process is illustrated in the context of electronic portal imaging device (EPID)-based angle-resolved volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) quality assurance (QA), particularly as would be implemented in a real-time monitoring program. A Swiss cheese error detection (SCED) method was created as a paradigm for a cine EPID-based during-treatment QA. For VMAT, the method compares a treatment plan-based reference set of EPID images with images acquired over each 2° gantry angle interval. The process utilizes a sequence of independent consecutively executed error detection tests: an aperture check that verifies in-field radiation delivery and ensures no out-of-field radiation; output normalization checks at two different stages; global image alignment check to examine if rotation, scaling, and translation are within tolerances; pixel intensity check containing the standard gamma evaluation (3%, 3 mm) and pixel intensity deviation checks including and excluding high dose gradient regions. Tolerances for each check were determined. To test the SCED method, 12 different types of errors were selected to modify the original plan. A series of angle-resolved predicted EPID images were artificially generated for each test case, resulting in a sequence of precalculated frames for each modified treatment plan. The SCED method was applied multiple times for each test case to assess the ability to detect introduced plan variations. To compare the performance of the SCED process with that of a standard gamma analysis, both error detection methods were applied to the generated test cases with realistic noise variations. Averaged over ten test runs, 95.1% of all plan variations that resulted in relevant patient dose errors were detected within 2° and 100% within 14° (error, determination of error
Feinstein, Karen Wolk; Grunden, Naida; Harrison, Edward I
The Pittsburgh Regional Healthcare Initiative (PRHI) is a coalition of 35 hospitals, 4 major insurers, more than 30 major and small-business health care purchasers, dozens of corporate and civic leaders, organized labor, and partnerships with state and federal government all working together to deliver perfect patient care throughout Southwestern Pennsylvania. PRHI believes that in pursuing perfection, many of the challenges facing today's health care delivery system (eg, waste and error in the delivery of care, rising costs, frustration and shortage among clinicians and workers, financial distress, overcapacity, and lack of access to care) will be addressed. PRHI has identified patient safety (nosocomial infections and medication errors) and 5 clinical areas (obstetrics, orthopedic surgery, cardiac surgery, depression, and diabetes) as ideal starting points. In each of these areas of work, PRHI partners have assembled multifacility/multidisciplinary groups charged with defining perfection, establishing region-wide reporting systems, and devising and implementing recommended improvement strategies and interventions. Many design and conceptual elements of the PRHI strategy are adapted from the Toyota Production System and its Pittsburgh derivative, the Alcoa Business System. PRHI is in the proof-of-concept phase of development.
Salvatore F. Pileggi
Full Text Available The progressive consolidation of information technologies on a large scale has been facilitating and progressively increasing the production, collection, and diffusion of geographic data, as well as facilitating the integration of a large amount of external information into geographic information systems (GIS. Traditional GIS is transforming into a consolidated information infrastructure. This consolidated infrastructure is affecting more and more aspects of internet computing and services. Most popular systems (such as social networks, GPS, and decision support systems involve complex GIS and significant amounts of information. As a web service, GIS is affected by exactly the same problems that affect the web as a whole. Therefore, next generation GIS solutions have to address further methodological and data engineering challenges in order to accommodate new applications’ extended requirements (in terms of scale, interoperability, and complexity. The conceptual and semantic modeling of GIS, as well as the integration of semantics into current GIS, provide highly expressive environments that are capable of meeting the needs and requirements of a wide range of applications.
Tsatsos, M; MacGregor, C; Gousia, D; Moschos, M; Detorakis, E
A solar eclipse is an impressive natural phenomenon that was last experienced in Europe in 2006. Last year, on March 20th 2015, a solar eclipse was visible in much of Europe. Solar retinopathy is a recognised potentially sight threatening condition that has been associated with direct or unprotected sun gazing. Public education has been shown to improve behaviour and attitudes that could influence the development of solar retinopathy during an eclipse. We have performed a study through newspapers prior to the 2015 solar eclipse in different European countries, in order to determine the level of public health awareness and attitudes to protection. Methods: 31 online editions of national newspapers were reviewed from six countries where the eclipse was most visible. Solar retinopathy, potential warnings, safe methods of viewing an eclipse and assessment of use and dangers of modern technologies were assessed. Results: All 25 newspapers examined mentioned the solar eclipse and risk to eyesight. Safe methods for viewing the eclipse were discussed in all newspapers. Eclipse eyeglasses were mentioned in 29 of the 31 newspapers reviewed. Children were identified as a high-risk group but advice for children viewing the eclipse varied between countries. Conclusion: Since the solar eclipse of 2006, there has been an increase in the level of education available in the media. Although the safe methods for viewing an eclipse have not changed in recent years, emerging technologies, such as camera phones and the "selfie" trend, have potentially increased the risk of eclipse-associated retinopathy. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Tsuyuki, Kiyomi; Gipson, Jessica D; Barbosa, Regina Maria; Urada, Lianne A; Morisky, Donald E
Syndemic Zika virus, HIV and unintended pregnancy call for an urgent understanding of dual method (condoms with another modern non-barrier contraceptive) and consistent condom use. Multinomial and logistic regression analysis using data from the Pesquisa Nacional de Demografia e Saúde da Criança e da Mulher (PNDS), a nationally representative household survey of reproductive-aged women in Brazil, identified the socio-demographic, fertility and relationship context correlates of exclusive non-barrier contraception, dual method use and condom use consistency. Among women in marital and civil unions, half reported dual protection (30% condoms, 20% dual methods). In adjusted models, condom use was associated with older age and living in the northern region of Brazil or in urban areas, whereas dual method use (versus condom use) was associated with younger age, living in the southern region of Brazil, living in non-urban areas and relationship age homogamy. Among condom users, consistent condom use was associated with reporting Afro-religion or other religion, not wanting (more) children and using condoms only (versus dual methods). Findings highlight that integrated STI prevention and family planning services should target young married/in union women, couples not wanting (more) children and heterogamous relationships to increase dual method use and consistent condom use.
Full Text Available Suicide is a major public health problem in India, probably even bigger than in the West. Suicidal behavior is the best conceptualized as a multifaceted complex problem involving social factors and mental illnesses. Broadly, there are two approaches to suicide prevention; population preventive strategies and high-risk preventive strategies. Population preventive strategies include reducing availability of means for suicide, education of primary care physicians, influencing media portrayal of suicidal behavior, education of the public, telephone helplines, and addressing economic issues associated with suicidal behavior. High-risk preventive strategy includes identifying individuals with high risk of committing suicide, intensively treating mental illness if present, and providing psychosocial support. Thus, prevention requires a multipronged effort with collaboration from various sectors including mental health professionals, social justice department, and macroeconomic policy makers.
The United States believes it is critically important for Member States to support the Secretariat's efforts to continually improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the IAEA safeguards system. We should continue to work with the Agency to provide resources, technology, expertise, and training to strengthen the Secretariat's capabilities to implement safeguards agreements effectively and efficiently. The Secretariat went to extraordinary lengths over the last year to explain how safeguards implementation has evolved, particularly at the level of the state as a whole. The United States, like other member states, found the Secretariat's thorough technical briefings and the Director General's Supplementary Document to be extremely valuable. Now, after discussion of the issue at the September meetings of the Board of Governors and the General Conference, it really is time to let the Secretariat get on with its work. Our task now, especially for the assembled experts here at this Symposium, is to identify options for helping the IAEA as appropriate to find the best possible technologies, procedures, and practices for safeguards implementation. And like all of you, we look forward to further updates from the Secretariat on future lessons learned in implementing strengthened safeguards. I urge you to work together at this Symposium to make real progress on promoting peaceful uses of nuclear energy, strengthening safeguards, and preventing proliferation
Culwell, Kelly R; Hurwitz, Manuelle
The latest World Health Organization data estimate that the total number of unsafe abortions globally has increased to 21.6 million in 2008. There is increasing recognition by the international community of the importance of the contribution of unsafe abortion to maternal mortality. However, the barriers to delivery of safe abortion services are many. In 68 countries, home to 26% of the world's population, abortion is prohibited altogether or only permitted to save a woman's life. Even in countries with more liberal abortion legal frameworks, additional social, economic, and health systems barriers and the stigma surrounding abortion prevent adequate access to safe abortion services and postabortion care. While much has been achieved to reduce the barriers to comprehensive abortion care, much remains to be done. Only through the concerted action of public, private, and civil society partners can we ensure that women have access to services that are safe, affordable, confidential, and stigma free. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Munteanu, A; Florescu, IP; Nitescu, C
Burn wounds are a global public health problem, which affects all countries, no matter the development stage and occurs in all age groups, from toddlers to elderly. In spite of burns being the cause of numerous household and work accidents, there are still no clear stated unanimous rules for their treatment. Every day new products appear on the market, each of them trying to prove more effective. Since ancient times, silver has been known for its antimicrobial properties, so it has been used for a long time in the treatment of burns and other types of wounds. One of the relatively modern methods of treatment is applying silver sheets on the scald lesions. In this paper, which was part of a larger study (research for a PhD thesis), concerning prevention and treatment of the post-burn pathological scars, the cases of some patients with burns, who were treated by using the above mentioned method were presented and analyzed. The results obtained by applying silver sheets were then commented and interpreted, pointing out the advantages and disadvantages compared to silver sulfadiazine creams and ointments, which have already been used at a large scale. The prevention and treatment of post-burn pathological (hypertrophic and keloid) scars is a field in which still little is known and in which there are also no clearly set therapy plans. We hope that through this research and the following ones we will manage to establish some major guidelines concerning the prevention of pathological scars, which are not only disabling, but also a major aesthetic issue for any patient, in order to obtain better outcomes. PMID:27974941
Munteanu, A; Florescu, I P; Nitescu, C
Burn wounds are a global public health problem, which affects all countries, no matter the development stage and occurs in all age groups, from toddlers to elderly. In spite of burns being the cause of numerous household and work accidents, there are still no clear stated unanimous rules for their treatment. Every day new products appear on the market, each of them trying to prove more effective. Since ancient times, silver has been known for its antimicrobial properties, so it has been used for a long time in the treatment of burns and other types of wounds. One of the relatively modern methods of treatment is applying silver sheets on the scald lesions. In this paper, which was part of a larger study (research for a PhD thesis), concerning prevention and treatment of the post-burn pathological scars, the cases of some patients with burns, who were treated by using the above mentioned method were presented and analyzed. The results obtained by applying silver sheets were then commented and interpreted, pointing out the advantages and disadvantages compared to silver sulfadiazine creams and ointments, which have already been used at a large scale. The prevention and treatment of post-burn pathological (hypertrophic and keloid) scars is a field in which still little is known and in which there are also no clearly set therapy plans. We hope that through this research and the following ones we will manage to establish some major guidelines concerning the prevention of pathological scars, which are not only disabling, but also a major aesthetic issue for any patient, in order to obtain better outcomes.
Adolescents, especially those who are gifted, may be susceptible to existential dread. It is suggested here that a team approach be used to implement the following solutions: (a) nourish students socially, (b) work toward acceptance of giftedness and teach methods of enhancing emotional development, (c) provide philosophical nurturance.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Substance use disorders and perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV are interrelated, major public health problems. Methods We surveyed directors of a sample of substance use disorder treatment programs (SUDPs; N=241 and batterer intervention programs (BIPs; N=235 in California (70% response rate to examine the extent to which SUDPs address IPV, and BIPs address substance abuse. Results Generally, SUDPs were not addressing co-occurring IPV perpetration in a formal and comprehensive way. Few had a policy requiring assessment of potential clients, or monitoring of admitted clients, for violence perpetration; almost one-quarter did not admit potential clients who had perpetrated IPV, and only 20% had a component or track to address violence. About one-third suspended or terminated clients engaging in violence. The most common barriers to SUDPs providing IPV services were that violence prevention was not part of the program’s mission, staff lacked training in violence, and the lack of reimbursement mechanisms for such services. In contrast, BIPs tended to address substance abuse in a more formal and comprehensive way; e.g., one-half had a policy requiring potential clients to be assessed, two-thirds required monitoring of substance abuse among admitted clients, and almost one-half had a component or track to address substance abuse. SUDPs had clients with fewer resources (marriage, employment, income, housing, and more severe problems (both alcohol and drug use disorders, dual substance use and other mental health disorders, HIV + status. We found little evidence that services are centralized for individuals with both substance abuse and violence problems, even though most SUDP and BIP directors agreed that help for both problems should be obtained simultaneously in separate programs. Conclusions SUDPs may have difficulty addressing violence because they have a clientele with relatively few resources and more complex
Sakti Arief Daulay, Raja; Michrandi Nasution, Surya; Paryasto, Marisa W.
The implementation research and analyze address blockchain on this bitcoin will have the results that refers to making address bitcoin a safe and boost security of address the bitcoin. The working mechanism of blockchain in making address bitcoin which is already in the blockchain system.
Full Text Available Abstract Background We describe an outbreak of Bullous Impetigo (BI, caused by a (methicillin susceptible, fusidic acid resistant Staphylococcus aureus (SA strain, spa-type t408, at the neonatal and gynaecology ward of the Jeroen Bosch hospital in the Netherlands, from March-November 2011. Methods We performed an outbreak investigation with revision of the hygienic protocols, MSSA colonization surveillance and environmental sampling for MSSA including detailed typing of SA isolates. Spa typing was performed to discriminate between the SA isolates. In addition, Raman-typing was performed on all t408 isolates. Results Nineteen cases of BI were confirmed by SA positive cultures. A cluster of nine neonates and three health care workers (HCW with SA t408 was detected. These strains were MecA-, PVL-, Exfoliative Toxin (ETA-, ETB+, ETAD-, fusidic acid-resistant and methicillin susceptible. Eight out of nine neonates and two out of three HCW t408 strains yielded a similar Raman type. Positive t408 HCW were treated and infection control procedures were reinforced. These measures stopped the outbreak. Conclusions We conclude that treatment of patients and HCW carrying a predominant SA t408, and re-implementing and emphasising hygienic measures were effective to control the outbreak of SA t408 among neonates.
Surányi, Péter; Shinjo, Yasushi; Kato, Kazuhiko
IPv4 private addresses are commonly used in local area networks (LANs). With the increasing popularity of virtual private networks (VPNs), it has become common that a user connects to multiple LANs at the same time. However, private address ranges for LANs frequently overlap. In such cases, existing systems do not allow the user to access the resources on all LANs at the same time. In this paper, we propose name-based address mapping for VPNs, a novel method that allows connecting to hosts through multiple VPNs at the same time, even when the address ranges of the VPNs overlap. In name-based address mapping, rather than using the IP addresses used on the LANs (the real addresses), we assign a unique virtual address to each remote host based on its domain name. The local host uses the virtual addresses to communicate with remote hosts. We have implemented name-based address mapping for layer 3 OpenVPN connections on Linux and measured its performance. The communication overhead of our system is less than 1.5% for throughput and less than 0.2ms for each name resolution.
Havreland, Andreas Spandet; Ommen, Martin Lind; Silvestre, Chantal
This paper presents an inexpensive, low temperature and rapid fabrication method for capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUT). The fabrication utilizes the bonding and dielectric properties of the photosensitive polymer Benzocyclobutene (BCB). A BCB based row-column addressed CMUT...
Date rape - prevention; Sexual assault - prevention ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Sexual assault and abuse and STDs. In: 2015 sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines 2015. www.cdc.gov/std/tg2015/sexual- ...
Mackey, Eleanor R; Olson, Alexandra; DiFazio, Marc; Cassidy, Omni
Obesity is widespread, associated with several physical and psychosocial comorbidities, and is difficult to treat. Prevention of obesity across the lifespan is critical to improving the health of individuals and society. Screening and prevention efforts in primary care are an important step in addressing the obesity epidemic. Each period of human development is associated with unique risks, challenges, and opportunities for prevention and intervention. Screening tools for overweight/obesity, although imperfect, are quick and easy to administer. Screening should be conducted at every primary care visit and tracked longitudinally. Screening tools and cutoffs for overweight and obesity vary by age group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... Healthcare Professionals Clinicians Public Health Officials Veterinarians Prevention History of Plague Resources FAQ Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Reduce rodent habitat around your ...
Clark-Price, Stuart C; Dossin, Olivier; Jones, Katherine R; Otto, Angela N; Weng, Hsin-Yi
To compare a towel under, a warm water pad under or a forced warm air blanket over dogs as techniques to reduce heat loss during a standardized anesthetic. Prospective, randomized, crossover study. Eight, healthy, mixed breed dogs weighing 16.3-19.6 kg. Dogs were anesthetized four times for 90 minutes. Dogs were placed on a steel table (treatment TA), with a cotton towel (treatment TO) or a circulating warm water pad (treatment WP) between the dog and the table, or with, a towel under the dog and covered with a forced warm air blanket (treatment WAB). Rectal temperature (RT) was recorded at 5 minute intervals. Changes in temperature (ΔRT) were calculated as the RT at a given point subtracted from the RT before anesthesia (baseline) and compared over time. After 90 minutes of anesthesia, the ΔRT was 3.42 °C ± 0.29 for TA, 2.78 °C ± 0.43 for TO, 1.98 °C ± 0.29 for WP, and 0.91 °C ± 0.27 for WAB. Significant differences in ΔRT occurred between TA and WAB at 20 minutes (0.94 °C ± 0.42, p = 0.0206), between TO and WAB at 30 minutes (1.16 °C ± 0.62, p = 0.0063), between WP and WAB at 50 minutes (0.96 °C ± 0.98, p = 0.0249), between TA and WP at 35 minutes (1.19 °C ± 0.54, p = 0.0091), between TO and WP at 70 minutes (1.12 °C ± 0.56, p = 0.0248), and between TA and TO at 75 minutes (0.96 °C ± 0.62, p = 0.0313). These differences in ΔRT between each treatment persisted from the times indicated until the end of the anesthesia. During anesthesia, forced warm air blankets were superior to other methods tested for limiting heat loss. An efficient heat loss technique should be used for anesthesia longer than 20 minutes duration in medium sized dogs. © 2013 The Authors. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia © 2013 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.
In his famous historical account about the origins of molecular biology Gunther Stent introduced a three phase sequence that turns out to be characteristic for many newly emerging paradigms within science. New ideas, according to Stent, follow a sequence of romantic, dogmatic, and academic phases. One can easily see that complex systems science followed this path. The question now is whether we are in an extended academic phase of gradually expanding both theoretical and practical knowledge, or whether we are entering a new transformation of complex systems science that might well bring about a new romantic phase. I would argue that complexity science, indeed, is at the dawn of a new period - let's call it complexity 3.0. The last academic phase has seen the application of complex systems ideas and methods in a variety of different domains. It has been to a large extent business as usual...
Trabant, C. M.; Ahern, T.; Weertman, B.; Benson, R. B.; Van Fossen, M.; Weekly, R. T.; Casey, R. E.; Suleiman, Y. Y.; Stults, M.
The development of web services at the IRIS Data Management Center (DMC) over the last 6 years represents the most significant enhancement of data access ever introduced at the DMC. These web services have allowed the us to focus our internal operations around a single, consistent data access layer while facilitating development of a new generation of tools and methods for researchers to conduct their work. This effort led the DMC to propose standardized web service interfaces within the International Federation of Digital Seismograph Networks (FDSN), enabling other seismological data centers to offer data using compatible interfaces. With this new foundation, we now turn our attention to more advanced data access challenges. In particular, we will present the status of two developments intending to address 1) access to data of consistent quality for science and 2) discovery and access of data from multiple data centers. To address the challenge of requesting high or consistent quality data we will introduce our Research-Ready Data Sets (RRDS) initiative. The purpose of the RRDS project is to reduce the time a researcher spends culling and otherwise identifying data appropriate for given study. RRDS will provide users with additional criteria related to data quality that can be specified when requesting data. Leveraging the data quality measurements provided by our MUSTANG system, these criteria will include ambient noise, completeness, dead channel identification and more. To address the challenge of seismological data discovery and access, we have built and continue to improve the IRIS Federator. The Federator takes advantage of the FDSN-standard web services at various data centers to help a user locate specific channels, wherever they may be offered globally. The search interface provides results that are pre-formatted requests, ready for submission to each data center that serves that data. These two developments are aimed squarely at reducing the time
Lavin, Claudia; Cox, Joanne E
Teen pregnancy has been subject of public concern for many years. In the United States, despite nearly 2 decades of declining teen pregnancy and birth rates, the problem persists, with significant disparities present across racial groups and in state-specific rates. This review examines recent trends, pregnancy prevention initiatives and family planning policies that address the special needs of vulnerable youth. Unintended teen pregnancies impose potentially serious social and health burdens on teen parents and their children, as well as costs to society. Trends in teen pregnancy and birth rates show continued decline, but state and racial disparities have widened. Demographic factors and policy changes have contributed to these disparities. Research supports comprehensive pregnancy prevention initiatives that are multifaceted and promote consistent and correct use of effective methods of contraception for youth at risk of becoming pregnant. There is strong consensus that effective teen pregnancy prevention strategies should be multifaceted, focusing on delay of sexual activity especially in younger teens while promoting consistent and correct use of effective methods of contraception for those youth who are or plan to be sexually active. There is a need for further research to identify effective interventions for vulnerable populations.
Evaluation ofEnterococcus faecalisadhesion, penetration, and method to prevent the penetration ofEnterococcus faecalisinto root cementum: Confocal laser scanning microscope and scanning electron microscope analysis.
Halkai, Rahul S; Hegde, Mithra N; Halkai, Kiran R
To ascertain the role of Enterococcus faecalis in persistent infection and a possible method to prevent the penetration of E. faecalis into root cementum. One hundred and twenty human single-rooted extracted teeth divided into five groups. Group I (control): intact teeth, Group II: no apical treatment done, Group III divided into two subgroups. In Groups IIIa and IIIb, root apex treated with lactic acid of acidic and neutral pH, respectively. Group IV: apical root cementum exposed to lactic acid and roughened to mimic the apical resorption. Group V: apical treatment done same as Group IV and root-end filling done using mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). Apical one-third of all samples immersed in E. faecalis broth for 8 weeks followed by bone morphogenetic protein and obturation and again immersed into broth for 8 weeks. Teeth split into two halves and observed under confocal laser scanning microscope and scanning electron microscope, organism identified by culture and polymerase chain reaction techniques. Adhesion and penetration was observed in Group IIIa and Group IV. Only adhesion in Group II and IIIB and no adhesion and penetration in Group I and V. Adhesion and penetration of E. faecalis into root cementum providing a long-term nidus for subsequent infection are the possible reason for persistent infection and root-end filling with MTA prevents the adhesion and penetration.
The 1995 Fourth World Conference on Women aims to motivate men and women at policymaking and grassroots levels end sex discrimination and to advocate new partnerships between men and women in the next century. The World Health Organization (WHO) Global Programme on AIDS (GPA) hosted a meeting of policymakers in the areas of women and AIDS to make recommendations for the conference's Platform for Action. The participants identified the following agendas for inclusion in the Platform for Action: defend women's rights and ethics, enforce legislation to improve women's status, provide opportunities to develop and distribute female-controlled methods to prevent HIV infection, target and encourage men to care for for HIV-positive women and children, both personally and economically, expand integrated services and other resources, improve women's economic independence, and increase educational opportunities for girls and young women. Working to improve the status of women must be done in conjunction with looking for ways to reduce women's vulnerability to AIDS: empower women to prevent HIV infection and support them to cope with AIDS. Men must share responsibility for AIDS care and preventing HIV transmission. WHO will help organize a Women's AIDS Day at the Nongovernmental Organization Forum in Beijing. 5.5 million women of reproductive age in Africa and 1.3 million in South and South East Asia have HIV infection. Females are being infected with HIV at a younger age than males. The sexual and economic inequities women face fuels the HIV/AIDS pandemic. For example, in some cultures, women must be faithful to one sexual partner while men can have many sexual partners. GPA, together with two other organizations, published a resource packet on women and AIDS called Facing the Challenges of HIV/AIDS/STDs: A Gender-Based Response. GPA has updated its Women and AIDS: Agenda for Action booklet, which is now published in six languages.
Thomas, Christine M; Cameron, Sharon
To calculate the cost of an unintended pregnancy in 2011 and use this cost in a cost-effectiveness model comparing ulipristal acetate (UPA) with levonorgestrel (LNG) for emergency hormonal contraception (EHC). Retrospective analysis of published data sources and published cost-effectiveness model. Women presenting in primary care in England for EHC within 24 or 72 h of unprotected sexual intercourse (UPSI). EHC of either LNG (1.5 mg) or UPA (30 mg). The primary outcome measure is the number and direct and indirect costs of an unintended pregnancy. The secondary outcome measure is the consequence of unintended pregnancy: miscarriage, abortion, ectopic pregnancy, stillbirth or live birth. From the comparative clinical studies of EHC we observe that if 125 women receive either LNG or UPA within 72 h of UPSI, there will be one less pregnancy due to method failure in the UPA group than in the LNG group. We calculate the cost of an unintended pregnancy to be £1663 in direct healthcare costs rising to £2922 with the inclusion of social costs. Using these costs in the comparative cost-effectiveness model shows that it costs £194 less in direct health costs alone to prevent one more pregnancy with UPA than with LNG. The inclusion of social costs of pregnancy increases this cost-saving potential to £1453 for each extra pregnancy avoided with UPA compared with LNG. Clinical trials have demonstrated the superior efficacy of UPA compared with LNG as a method of EHC. Given that it costs less overall in health and social costs of pregnancy while preventing more pregnancies, UPA is said to be the dominant treatment, and primary care services should shift to offering UPA as the preferred oral option to women presenting within 24 and 72 h of UPSI.
The purpose of this plan is to document the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program. The plan specifies those activities and methods that are or will be employed to reduce the quantity and toxicity of wastes generated at the site. The intent of this plan is to respond to and comply with (DOE's) policy and guidelines concerning the need for pollution prevention. The Plan is composed of a LLNL Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan and, as attachments, Program- and Department-specific waste minimization plans. This format reflects the fact that waste minimization is considered a line management responsibility and is to be addressed by each of the Programs and Departments. 14 refs
The purpose of this plan is to document the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program. The plan specifies those activities and methods that are or will be employed to reduce the quantity and toxicity of wastes generated at the site. The intent of this plan is to respond to and comply with (DOE's) policy and guidelines concerning the need for pollution prevention. The Plan is composed of a LLNL Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan and, as attachments, Program- and Department-specific waste minimization plans. This format reflects the fact that waste minimization is considered a line management responsibility and is to be addressed by each of the Programs and Departments. 14 refs.
Talbot Thomas O
Full Text Available Abstract Background Public health applications using geographic information system (GIS technology are steadily increasing. Many of these rely on the ability to locate where people live with respect to areas of exposure from environmental contaminants. Automated geocoding is a method used to assign geographic coordinates to an individual based on their street address. This method often relies on street centerline files as a geographic reference. Such a process introduces positional error in the geocoded point. Our study evaluated the positional error caused during automated geocoding of residential addresses and how this error varies between population densities. We also evaluated an alternative method of geocoding using residential property parcel data. Results Positional error was determined for 3,000 residential addresses using the distance between each geocoded point and its true location as determined with aerial imagery. Error was found to increase as population density decreased. In rural areas of an upstate New York study area, 95 percent of the addresses geocoded to within 2,872 m of their true location. Suburban areas revealed less error where 95 percent of the addresses geocoded to within 421 m. Urban areas demonstrated the least error where 95 percent of the addresses geocoded to within 152 m of their true location. As an alternative to using street centerline files for geocoding, we used residential property parcel points to locate the addresses. In the rural areas, 95 percent of the parcel points were within 195 m of the true location. In suburban areas, this distance was 39 m while in urban areas 95 percent of the parcel points were within 21 m of the true location. Conclusion Researchers need to determine if the level of error caused by a chosen method of geocoding may affect the results of their project. As an alternative method, property data can be used for geocoding addresses if the error caused by traditional methods is
Preacher, Kristopher J.; Rucker, Derek D.; Hayes, Andrew F.
This article provides researchers with a guide to properly construe and conduct analyses of conditional indirect effects, commonly known as moderated mediation effects. We disentangle conflicting definitions of moderated mediation and describe approaches for estimating and testing a variety of hypotheses involving conditional indirect effects. We…
the active matrix pixel, effectively to "lock" the variable impe- dance (shown in Figure 1.4) at a fixed level between refreshes. An ability to write a...drive requirements. Phenomenologically , the effect is characterized by a rapid (< 1 sec) dimming of a large number of lit elements as the phosphor...of substituting of nickel for gold is probably best summarized by commenting on its impact on a phenomenological basis. The transistor current
Development Environment RFC Request for Comment RIR Regional Internet Registries xiii RSI Recursive Subnet Inference RTT Round Trip Time SCP Subnet...and defined in Request for Comment ( RFC ) 2460. While IPv6 has been standardized for the past 15 years, it has not seen appreciable deployment until the...Internet protocol, version 6 (ipv6) specification,” In- ternet Requests for Comments , RFC Editor, RFC 2460, December 1998, [Online]. Available: http
Patel, Kiran C R; Spilsbury, Peter; Shukla, Rashmi
The drive to address social determinants of health is gaining momentum. Appreciating that health outcomes are only partly affected by healthcare, clinicians and clinical communities can play a significant role in this crusade by action at local, regional, national and global levels. A concerted and systematic focus on integrating and industrialising upstream interventions at every healthcare encounter is essential to prevent future illness, thus enabling a paradigm shift in the healthcare service from being one of illness management to health preservation. The evidence base demonstrates the cost efficacy of upstream interventions. The challenge is how this evidence is utilised to implement these interventions in everyday healthcare. Today, with a global economic crisis and challenged public sector funding, the need to address prevention has never been more pressing. Clinical engagement at all levels, from the front line to the boardroom is vital. Clinicians must address access, communication, strategy and commissioning to fulfil a professional responsibility to become and remain the corporate memory of a health service focused on preventing illness while simultaneously delivering cost-effective healthcare.
Herbst, Jeffrey H.; Glassman, Marlene; Carey, James W.; Painter, Thomas M.; Gelaude, Deborah J.; Fasula, Amy M.; Raiford, Jerris L.; Freeman, Arin E.; Harshbarger, Camilla; Viall, Abigail H.; Purcell, David W.
The HIV/AIDS epidemic in the United States continues despite several recent noteworthy advances in HIV prevention. Contemporary approaches to HIV prevention involve implementing combinations of biomedical, behavioral, and structural interventions in novel ways to achieve high levels of impact on the epidemic. Methods are needed to develop optimal combinations of approaches for improving efficiency, effectiveness, and scalability. This article argues that operational research offers promise as a valuable tool for addressing these issues. We define operational research relative to domestic HIV prevention, identify and illustrate how operational research can improve HIV prevention, and pose a series of questions to guide future operational research. Operational research can help achieve national HIV prevention goals of reducing new infections, improving access to care and optimization of health outcomes of people living with HIV, and reducing HIV-related health disparities. PMID:22217681
Haney, Elizabeth; Smith, M E Beth; McDonagh, Marian; Pappas, Miranda; Daeges, Monica; Wasson, Ngoc; Nelson, Heidi D
The diagnosis of myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME)/chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is based on clinical criteria, yet there has been no consensus regarding which set of criteria best identifies patients with the condition. The Institute of Medicine has recently proposed a new case definition and diagnostic algorithm. To review methods to diagnose ME/CFS in adults and identify research gaps and needs for future research. MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Cochrane databases (January 1988 to September 2014); clinical trial registries; and reference lists. English-language studies describing methods of diagnosis of ME/CFS and their accuracy. Data on participants, study design, analysis, follow-up, and results were extracted and confirmed. Study quality was dual-rated by using prespecified criteria, and discrepancies were resolved through consensus. Forty-four studies met inclusion criteria. Eight case definitions have been used to define ME/CFS; a ninth, recently proposed by the Institute of Medicine, includes principal elements of previous definitions. Patients meeting criteria for ME represent a more symptomatic subset of the broader ME/CFS population. Scales rating self-reported symptoms differentiate patients with ME/CFS from healthy controls under study conditions but have not been evaluated in clinically undiagnosed patients to determine validity and generalizability. Studies were heterogeneous and were limited by size, number, applicability, and methodological quality. Most methods were tested in highly selected patient populations. Nine sets of clinical criteria are available to define ME/CFS, yet none of the current diagnostic methods have been adequately tested to identify patients with ME/CFS when diagnostic uncertainty exists. More definitive studies in broader populations are needed to address these research gaps.
Peter K. Smith
Full Text Available Following some background studies on the nature of school bullying, its prevalence, and the negative consequences it can have, this article reviews the history of anti-bullying interventions over the last 30 years. It considers several major programmes in detail, such as the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, KiVa, Steps to Respect, and Friendly Schools. The nature and evaluation of the interventions is discussed, followed by a review of meta-analyses of the programmes effectiveness. Issues considered are the effect at different ages; components of interventions; work with peers; disciplinary methods, non-punitive and restorative approaches; challenges regarding cyberbullying; the role of parents; the role of teachers and teacher training; set menu versus à la carte approaches; sustainability of interventions and societal context. Conclusions show that interventions have had some success, with traditional bullying. However, further progress is needed in strengthening theoretical underpinnings to interventions, and in tackling cyberbullying.
... Commission Address Change AGENCY: Federal Mine Safety and Health Review Commission (FMSHRC). ACTION: Final... office and is amending its regulations to inform the public of the address change. DATES: This final rule... dealing with only a change in address. The Commission is an independent regulatory agency and, as such, is...
... FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OFFSHORE OIL POLLUTION COMPENSATION FUND General § 135.9 Fund address. The address to which correspondence relating to the Coast Guard's administration of the Fund... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fund address. 135.9 Section 135.9...
Fencl, Jennifer L
A surgical item unintentionally retained in a patient after an operative or other invasive procedure is a serious, preventable medical error with the potential to cause the patient great harm. Perioperative RNs play a key role in preventing retained surgical items (RSIs). The updated AORN "Guideline for prevention of retained surgical items" provides guidance for implementing a consistent, multidisciplinary approach to RSI prevention; accounting for surgical items; preventing retention of device fragments; reconciling count discrepancies; and using adjunct technologies to supplement manual count procedures. This article focuses on key points of the guideline to help perioperative personnel provide optimal care during a procedure. Key points addressed include taking responsibility for RSI prevention as a team; minimizing distractions, noise, and interruptions during counts; using consistent counting methods; reconciling discrepancies; and participating in performance-improvement activities. Perioperative RNs should review the complete guideline for additional information and for guidance in writing and updating policies and procedures. Copyright © 2016 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The development of innovative products meeting the customer's needs is getting increasingly complex. The production cost and the time to market must be reduced constantly. Modern methods of preventive quality management like QFD, FMEA and Target Costing offer help but they tend to be complex and costly. The author attempted a modularisation of the methods, with the possibility of linking modules as desired using a commercially available software. [German] Die Entwicklung innovativer, den Kundenbeduerfnissen entsprechender Produkte wird zunehmend komplexer. Die Unternehmen sind gezwungen, die Kosten der Produkterstellung stetig zu reduzieren und den Time-to-Market zu verkuerzen. Moderne Methoden des praeventiven Qualitaetsmanagements wie das QFD, die FMEA und das Target Costing bieten Unterstuetzungsmoeglichkeiten zur Loesung der damit zusammenhaengenden Probleme. Doch ist der Einsatz der oft komplizierten Methoden sehr aufwendig. Gruende hierfuer sind die oft starren Anwendungsschemata, die einem situationsspezifischen Einsatz der Methoden entgegenstehen, und die fehlende Verknuepfung der Methoden. Ergebnis der Arbeit ist eine Modularisierung der Methoden und eine Verknuepfung der einzelnen Methodenmodule. Hierdurch koennen die Methoden an die jeweilige Problemsituation angepasst eingesetzt und dadurch der gesamte Produktentwicklungsprozess durchgaengig unterstuetzt werden. Die Anwendung der Methoden wird mittels einer auf dem Markt erhaeltlichen Software unterstuetzt. (orig.)
Background Effective use of a patient decision aid (PtDA) can be affected by the user’s health literacy and the PtDA’s characteristics. Systematic reviews of the relevant literature can guide PtDA developers to attend to the health literacy needs of patients. The reviews reported here aimed to assess: 1. a) the effects of health literacy / numeracy on selected decision-making outcomes, and b) the effects of interventions designed to mitigate the influence of lower health literacy on decision-making outcomes, and 2. the extent to which existing PtDAs a) account for health literacy, and b) are tested in lower health literacy populations. Methods We reviewed literature for evidence relevant to these two aims. When high-quality systematic reviews existed, we summarized their evidence. When reviews were unavailable, we conducted our own systematic reviews. Results Aim 1: In an existing systematic review of PtDA trials, lower health literacy was associated with lower patient health knowledge (14 of 16 eligible studies). Fourteen studies reported practical design strategies to improve knowledge for lower health literacy patients. In our own systematic review, no studies reported on values clarity per se, but in 2 lower health literacy was related to higher decisional uncertainty and regret. Lower health literacy was associated with less desire for involvement in 3 studies, less question-asking in 2, and less patient-centered communication in 4 studies; its effects on other measures of patient involvement were mixed. Only one study assessed the effects of a health literacy intervention on outcomes; it showed that using video to improve the salience of health states reduced decisional uncertainty. Aim 2: In our review of 97 trials, only 3 PtDAs overtly addressed the needs of lower health literacy users. In 90% of trials, user health literacy and readability of the PtDA were not reported. However, increases in knowledge and informed choice were reported in those studies
Ling Fiona W.M.
Full Text Available Rapid prototyping of microchannel gain lots of attention from researchers along with the rapid development of microfluidic technology. The conventional methods carried few disadvantages such as high cost, time consuming, required high operating pressure and temperature and involve expertise in operating the equipment. In this work, new method adapting xurography method is introduced to replace the conventional method of fabrication of microchannels. The novelty in this study is replacing the adhesion film with clear plastic film which was used to cut the design of the microchannel as the material is more suitable for fabricating more complex microchannel design. The microchannel was then mold using polymethyldisiloxane (PDMS and bonded with a clean glass to produce a close microchannel. The microchannel produced had a clean edge indicating good master mold was produced using the cutting plotter and the bonding between the PDMS and glass was good where no leakage was observed. The materials used in this method is cheap and the total time consumed is less than 5 hours where this method is suitable for rapid prototyping of microchannel.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Kilimanjaro region the mother-in-law has traditionally had an important role in matters related to reproduction and childcare. The aim of this study was to explore the role of the mothers-in-law in prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT service utilization and adherence to infant feeding guidelines. Methods The study was conducted during 2007-2008 in rural and urban areas of Moshi district in the Kilimanjaro region of Tanzania. Mixed methods were used and included focus group discussions with mothers-in-law, mothers and fathers; in-depth interviews with mothers-in-law, mothers, fathers and HIV-infected mothers, and a survey of 446 mothers bringing their four-week-old infants for immunisation at five reproductive and child health clinics. Results The study demonstrated that the mother-in-law saw herself as responsible for family health issues in general and child care in particular. However she received limited trust, and couples, in particular couples living in urban areas, tended to exclude her from decisions related to childbearing and infant feeding. Mothers-in-law expected their daughters-in-law to breastfeed in a customary manner and were generally negative towards the infant feeding methods recommended for HIV-infected mothers; exclusive replacement feeding and exclusive breastfeeding. Conclusions Decreasing influence of the mother-in-law and increasing prominence of the conjugal couples in issues related to reproduction and child care, reinforce the importance of continued efforts to include male partners in the PMTCT programme. The potential for involving mothers-in-law in the infant feeding component, where she still has influence in some areas, should be further explored.
The effectiveness of prevention to enhance human functioning and reduce psychological distress has been demonstrated. From infancy through adulthood, access to preventive services and interventions is important to improve the quality of life and human functioning and reduce illness and premature death. The importance of prevention is consistent with the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010. Even with the increased focus on prevention, psychology training programs rarely require specific courses on prevention. In particular, conceptualizations about best practices in prevention, particularly at the environmental level, are lacking. Therefore, psychologists engaged in prevention can benefit from a set of guidelines that address and inform prevention practices. Accordingly, the Guidelines for Prevention in Psychology are intended to "inform psychologists, the public, and other interested parties regarding desirable professional practices" in prevention. The Prevention Guidelines are recommended based on their potential benefits to the public and the professional practice of psychology. They support prevention as an important area of practice, research, and training for psychologists. The Guidelines give increased attention to prevention within APA, encouraging psychologists to become involved with preventive activities relevant to their area of practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
Moore, Susan Fordney
The purpose of this paper is to provide the beginning counselor with an overview of prevention concepts. Prevention is a relatively new emphasis in community efforts to stem the rising costs of substance abuse and other high-risk behaviors. The paper discusses agent, host, and environmental prevention models and how they relate to causal theories…
L. M. Kimball
Full Text Available This paper presents an interior point algorithm to solve the multiperiod hydrothermal economic dispatch (HTED. The multiperiod HTED is a large scale nonlinear programming problem. Various optimization methods have been applied to the multiperiod HTED, but most neglect important network characteristics or require decomposition into thermal and hydro subproblems. The algorithm described here exploits the special bordered block diagonal structure and sparsity of the Newton system for the first order necessary conditions to result in a fast efficient algorithm that can account for all network aspects. Applying this new algorithm challenges a conventional method for the use of available hydro resources known as the peak shaving heuristic.
José Antonio Maluf de Carvalho
Full Text Available The great majority of chronic diseases can be prevented byreducing risks, understood as factors that increase the probabilityof a specific disease or condition, such as hypertension,hypercholesterolemia, inadequate diet, smoking habit, obesity andsedentarism. These aspects are evaluated in this article as wellas prevention and screening methods.
Alexander A. Barkalov; Roman M. Babakov; Larysa A. Titarenko
The using of operational addressing unit as the block of control unit is proposed. The new structure model of Moore finite-state machine with reduced hardware amount is developed. The generalized structure of operational addressing unit is suggested. An example of synthesis process for Moore finite-state machine with operational addressing unit is given. The analytical researches of proposed structure of control unit are executed.
This book will be the first covering the subject of IP address management (IPAM). The practice of IPAM includes the application of network management disciplines to IP address space and associated network services, namely DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) and DNS (Domain Name System). The consequence of inaccurately configuring DHCP is that end users may not be able to obtain IP addresses to access the network. Without proper DNS configuration, usability of the network will greatly suffer as the name-to-address lookup process may fail. Imagine having to navigate to a website or send a
In 1987 the national AIDS prevention campaign "Gib AIDS keine Chance" (Don't give AIDS a chance) was started in Germany. After a very difficult and controversial political debate about a probably successful response to AIDS, in the end a political decision was made in favour of the implementation of a long term "social learning strategy". Thus, since then the Bundeszentrale für gesundheitliche Aufklärung (Federal Centre for Health Education, BZgA) has been running the campaign on behalf of the Federal Ministry of Health. The result of this prevention program is a low rate of infections. In Germany there were 2600 newly diagnosed infections in 2005: 59 % in homosexual men, 16 % by heterosexual contacts, 17 % in people from high prevalence countries and 7 % in i.v. drug users. In comparison to the international situation Germany has a relatively low HIV-prevalence even nowadays. However, Germany has also been confronted with an increasing number of newly diagnosed infections in the last few years. When the prevention program was started it was very important to build new structures for a successful implementation of the campaign. That meant for instance to build up an effective infrastructure for cooperation between the governmental and the nongovernmental sector, including organising the coordinated action among the partners at the federal, regional and local levels. Likewise, international networking was of great importance. A key element, relevant for the success of the campaign was the close cooperation at the federal level between the BZgA and the Deutsche AIDS Hilfe (German AIDS Help, DAH), to combine the highreach intervention in low-prevalence populations with intensive interventions for high prevalence groups. An effective national AIDS prevention campaign must reach the whole population; inform the public about the main risks of infection, about methods of protection and about what is not infectious. Moreover groups with a higher level of risk of
Fleming, Paul J.; Barrington, Clare; Pearce, Lisa D.; Lerebours, Leonel; Donastorg, Yeycy; Brito, Maximo O.
Ethnographic studies from numerous societies have documented the central role of male circumcision in conferring masculinity and preparing boys for adult male sexuality. Despite this link between masculinity, sexuality, and circumcision, there has been no research on these dynamics among men who have received a circumcision for HIV prevention. We employed a mixed methods approach with data collected from recently circumcised men in the Dominican Republic (DR) to explore this link. We analyzed survey data collected 6-12 months post-circumcision (N = 293) and in-depth interviews with a sub-sample of those men (n = 30). We found that 42% of men felt more masculine post-circumcision. In multivariate analysis, feeling more masculine was associated with greater concern about being perceived as masculine (OR = 1.70, 95% CI: 1.25-2.32), feeling more potent erections post-circumcision (OR = 2.25, 95% CI: 1.26-4.03), and reporting increased ability to satisfy their partner post-circumcision (OR = 2.30, 95% CI: 1.11-4.77). In qualitative interviews, these factors were all related to masculine norms of sexually satisfying one's partner and men's experiences of circumcision were shaped by social norms of masculinity. This study highlights that circumcision is not simply a biomedical intervention and that circumcision programs need to incorporate considerations of masculine norms and male sexuality into their programming. PMID:26942550
L. L. Galamandjuk
Full Text Available Purpose: to determine effectiveness of simulated system of motor functioning’s preventive development of pre-school children for improvement of their physical (motor qualities at physical culture classes. Material: In research 5 years old children participated. In control groups they were 75 girls and 75 boys (25 with ambidexterity, 25 withright and 25 with left manual asymmetry. Experimental groups consisted of 60 girls and 60 boys (20 with every variant of manual motor asymmetry. Results: we registered positive influence of symmetric approach to training of children to main movements. It implies realization of all form of physical exercises’ practicing in certain day of working week through creation of motor environment with aerobic mode of children’s motor functioning. It is recommended to use breathing exercises with accent on relaxation and activation of functioning for regulation of mental state in required direction. Conclusions: for achievement of positive results it is important to take measures, oriented on home physical exercises. Interaction with parents for formation of children’s conscious attitude and further practical realization of offered by us means and methods ensure more effective solution of this problem.
Reid, Kaydian S; Sekhobo, Jackson P; Gantner, Leigh A; Holbrook, MaryEllen K; Allsopp, Marie; Whalen, Linda B; Koren-Roth, Amy
This study used a mixed-method, comparative case study approach to assess the level of capacity built for childhood obesity prevention among seven New York State Eat Well Play Hard-Community Projects (EWPH-CP). Data were collected through a self-reported survey in 2007, semi-structured interviews in 2009, and EWPH-CP program documentation throughout the 2006-2010 funding cycle. Quantitative and qualitative analyses were used along with an integrative framework for assessing local capacity building to characterize the capacity built by the study coalitions. Four coalitions rated membership characteristics as a challenge at the beginning of the funding cycle. Towards the end of the funding cycle, all seven coalitions reported activities that were initially focused on building their membership (i.e., member capacity) or positive working relationships (i.e. relational capacity), before eventually pursuing support and resources (i.e., organizational capacity) for implementing their chosen community-oriented programmatic goals (i.e., programmatic capacity). Five coalitions reported environmental changes aimed at increasing physical activity or fruit and vegetable intake. Technical assistance provided to coalitions was credited with contributing to the achievement of programmatic goals. These results suggest that the coalitions succeeded in building local capacity for increasing age-appropriate physical activity or fruit and vegetables intake in the target communities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available A new non-pillar mining technology, gob-side entry retaining by roof cutting (GERRC, different from the conventional gob-side entry retaining formed by a roadside filling support, is introduced in this study. In the new technology, roof cutting is conducted so that the roof plate forms a short cantilever beam structure within a certain range above the retained entry, thus changing the stress boundary condition of the roof structure. To explore the deformation characteristics of the roof under this special condition, a short cantilever beam mechanical model was established and solved using energy theory and displacement variational methods. Meanwhile, a theoretical and analytical control solution for roof deformation was obtained and verified via field-measured results. Based on the aforementioned calculation, the relationship between the roof deformation and main influence parameters was explored. It was concluded that the rotation of the upper main roof and width of the retained entry had the most significant impacts on roof deformation. Bolt and cable support and temporary support in the entry had a non-obvious influence on the roof deformation and could not prevent the given deformation that was caused by the rotation of the upper main roof. Based on comprehensive theoretical analysis and calculation results, ideas and countermeasures to control short cantilever roof deformation—that is, designing a reasonable height of roof cutting and a controlled width of retaining entry—were proposed and tested. Field monitoring shows that the entry control effects were satisfactory.
Burkart, W.; Chhem, R.
days. The core of the IAEA's programme in dosimetry has two components. One is the dissemination of radiation measurement standards through the IAEA-WHO network of SSDLs. The other involves verification of the accuracy of the dosimetry standards at the user's level in hospitals via the IAEA-WHO postal thermoluminescent dosimeter service. In the first component, the IAEA enables its Member States to measure radiation dose and in the second component, the IAEA helps its Member States to provide independent evidence of the correctness of their dosimetry measurements. Ideally, all radiation beams used to treat cancer patients would be checked by an independent national or international body on a periodic basis, and whenever new machines are installed and commissioned. At present, the IAEA-WHO postal thermoluminescent dosimeter service checks only about 600 photon beams and none of the electron beams used to treat cancer patients. It is estimated that the reference dose in approximately half of the clinical beams and in most of the electron beams used worldwide to treat patients is not checked at all. Furthermore, only a handful of radiation beams are checked outside the conditions for reference dosimetry by specialized auditing institutions. The IAEA is fully aware of the needs in the field an