WorldWideScience

Sample records for prevention methods addresses

  1. Addressing implementation challenges during guideline development - a case study of Swedish national guidelines for methods of preventing disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter-Sundberg, Linda; Kardakis, Therese; Weinehall, Lars; Garvare, Rickard; Nyström, Monica E

    2015-01-22

    Many of the world's life threatening diseases (e.g. cancer, heart disease, stroke) could be prevented by eliminating life-style habits such as tobacco use, unhealthy diet, physical inactivity and excessive alcohol use. Incorporating evidence-based research on methods to change unhealthy lifestyle habits in clinical practice would be equally valuable. However gaps between guideline development and implementation are well documented, with implications for health care quality, safety and effectiveness. The development phase of guidelines has been shown to be important both for the quality in guideline content and for the success of implementation. There are, however, indications that guidelines related to general disease prevention methods encounter specific barriers compared to guidelines that are diagnosis-specific. In 2011 the Swedish National board for Health and Welfare launched guidelines with a preventive scope. The aim of this study was to investigate how implementation challenges were addressed during the development process of these disease preventive guidelines. Seven semi-structured interviews were conducted with members of the guideline development management group. Archival data detailing the guideline development process were also collected and used in the analysis. Qualitative data were analysed using content analysis as the analytical framework. The study identified several strategies and approaches that were used to address implementation challenges during guideline development. Four themes emerged from the analysis: broad agreements and consensus about scope and purpose; a formalized and structured development procedure; systematic and active involvement of stakeholders; and openness and transparency in the specific guideline development procedure. Additional factors concerning the scope of prevention and the work environment of guideline developers were perceived to influence the possibilities to address implementation issues. This case study

  2. Counting addressing method: Command addressable element and extinguishing module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Jovan D.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The specific requirements that appear in addressable fire detection and alarm systems and the shortcomings of the existing addressing methods were discussed. A new method of addressing of detectors was proposed. The basic principles of addressing and responding of a called element are stated. Extinguishing module is specific subsystem in classic fire detection and alarm systems. Appearing of addressable fire detection and alarm systems didn't caused essential change in the concept of extinguishing module because of long calling period of such systems. Addressable fire security system based on counting addressing method reaches high calling rates and enables integrating of the extinguishing module in addressable system. Solutions for command addressable element and integrated extinguishing module are given in this paper. The counting addressing method was developed for specific requirements in fire detection and alarm systems, yet its speed and reliability justifies its use in the acquisition of data on slowly variable parameters under industrial conditions. .

  3. DDT and Malaria Prevention: Addressing the Paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwman, Hindrik; van den Berg, Henk; Kylin, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Background The debate regarding dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in malaria prevention and human health is polarized and can be classified into three positions: anti-DDT, centrist-DDT, pro-DDT. Objective We attempted to arrive at a synthesis by matching a series of questions on the use of DDT for indoor residual spraying (IRS) with literature and insights, and to identify options and opportunities. Discussion Overall, community health is significantly improved through all available malaria control measures, which include IRS with DDT. Is DDT “good”? Yes, because it has saved many lives. Is DDT safe as used in IRS? Recent publications have increasingly raised concerns about the health implications of DDT. Therefore, an unqualified statement that DDT used in IRS is safe is untenable. Are inhabitants and applicators exposed? Yes, and to high levels. Should DDT be used? The fact that DDT is “good” because it saves lives, and “not safe” because it has health and environmental consequences, raises ethical issues. The evidence of adverse human health effects due to DDT is mounting. However, under certain circumstances, malaria control using DDT cannot yet be halted. Therefore, the continued use of DDT poses a paradox recognized by a centrist-DDT position. At the very least, it is now time to invoke precaution. Precautionary actions could include use and exposure reduction. Conclusions There are situations where DDT will provide the best achievable health benefit, but maintaining that DDT is safe ignores the cumulative indications of many studies. In such situations, addressing the paradox from a centrist-DDT position and invoking precaution will help design choices for healthier lives. PMID:21245017

  4. DDT and Malaria Prevention: Addressing the Paradox

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, H.; Berg, van den H.; Kylin, H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The debate regarding dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in malaria prevention and human health is polarized and can be classified into three positions: anti-DDT, centrist-DDT, pro-DDT. Objective: We attempted to arrive at a synthesis by matching a series of questions on the use of DDT

  5. Interventions addressing general parenting to prevent or treat childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerards, Sanne M P L; Sleddens, Ester F C; Dagnelie, Pieter C; de Vries, Nanne K; Kremers, Stef P J

    2011-06-01

    Observational studies increasingly emphasize the impact of general parenting on the development of childhood overweight and obesity. The aim of the current literature review was to provide an overview of interventions addressing general parenting in order to prevent or treat childhood obesity. Electronic literature databases were systematically searched for relevant studies. Seven studies were eligible for inclusion. The studies described four different general parenting programs, which were supplemented with lifestyle components (i.e., physical activity and nutrition). All studies showed significant small to moderate intervention effects on at least one weight-related outcome measure. The current review shows that despite the emerging observational evidence for the role of parenting in children's weight-related outcomes, few interventions have been developed that address general parenting in the prevention of childhood obesity. These interventions provide evidence that the promotion of authoritative parenting is an effective strategy for the prevention and management of childhood obesity.

  6. Imperative of preventive measures addressing the life-cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajnik, Chittaranjan S

    2009-01-01

    The epidemiological characteristics of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCD) are fast changing. The prevalence has risen to unprecedented levels, and the young and the underprivileged are increasingly affected. The classic view of the etiology of NCD consists of a genetic susceptibility which is precipitated by aging and modern lifestyle. In a virtual absence of any methods to tackle genetic susceptibility, the preventive approach has so far been focused on the control of lifestyle factors in those at high risk (old, and those with positive family history and elevated risk factors). Such an approach might help high risk individuals, but is unlikely to curtail the burgeoning epidemic of obesity and diabetes. Recent research has suggested that susceptibility to NCD originates in early life through non-genetic mechanisms (fetal programming). Tackling these may offer an exciting opportunity to control the NCD epidemic by influencing the susceptibility in a more durable manner than only controlling the lifestyle factors in adult life. The imperative is to address the life cycle rather than concentrate on the end stages. Copyright (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. A New Method of Chinese Address Extraction Based on Address Tree Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KANG Mengjun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Address is a spatial location encoding method of individual geographical area. In China, address planning is relatively backward due to the rapid development of the city, resulting in the presence of large number of non-standard address. The space constrain relationship of standard address model is analyzed in this paper and a new method of standard address extraction based on the tree model is proposed, which regards topological relationship as consistent criteria of space constraints. With this method, standard address can be extracted and errors can be excluded from non-standard address. Results indicate that higher math rate can be obtained with this method.

  8. Preventing Lone Wolf Terrorism: some CT Approaches Addressed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Bakker

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available After a brief discussion of the epistemological and phenomenological difficulties associated with the concept of lone wolf terrorism, a number of possible counter-terrorist approaches are discussed. Lone operator terrorist acts should be considered ‘black swan’ occurrences that are almost impossible to categorize or systematize, let alone forecast. Thus, not the profile of the perpetrator, but the modus operandi offer clues for a better response to this particular threat. Furthermore, almost all lone operators do display a degree of commitment to, and identification with, extremist movements – providing leads for preventing new rounds of radicalization within this potential group of sympathizers or followers. With the apparent increase of Islamist lone wolf terrorism and fears for right-wing extremists wanting to follow the example of the Norwegian mass murderer A.B. Breivik, new questions need to be posed, addressing the role of virtual communities with which lone operators identify themselves. 

  9. Addresses

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — Point features representing locations of all street addresses in Orange County, NC including Chapel Hill, NC. Data maintained by Orange County, the Town of Chapel...

  10. Evaluation Methods for Prevention Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blue, Amy V.; Barnette, J. Jackson; Ferguson, Kristi J.; Garr, David R.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the importance of assessing medical students' competence in prevention knowledge, skills, and attitudes. Provides general guidance for programs interested in evaluating their prevention instructional efforts, and gives specific examples of possible methods for evaluating prevention education. Stresses the need to tailor assessment…

  11. Preventing and Addressing Challenging Behavior: Common Questions and Practical Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.; Corso, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to offer preschool teachers strategies for preventing challenging behavior and supporting the development of social skills and emotional competencies. This article is framed in a question and answer format using questions from teachers who the authors have worked with in the past. These questions and strategies are…

  12. Discovery of IPV6 Router Interface Addresses via Heuristic Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS DISCOVERY OF IPV6 ROUTER INTERFACE ADDRESSES VIA HEURISTIC METHODS by Matthew D. Gray September...AND SUBTITLE DISCOVERY OF IPV6 ROUTER INTERFACE ADDRESSES VIA HEURISTIC METHODS 5. FUNDING NUMBERS CNS-1111445 6. AUTHOR(S) Matthew D. Gray 7...Internet Assigned Numbers Authority, there is continued pressure for widespread IPv6 adoption. Because the IPv6 address space is orders of magnitude

  13. Prevention policies addressing packaging and packaging waste: Some emerging trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tencati, Antonio; Pogutz, Stefano; Moda, Beatrice; Brambilla, Matteo; Cacia, Claudia

    2016-10-01

    Packaging waste is a major issue in several countries. Representing in industrialized countries around 30-35% of municipal solid waste yearly generated, this waste stream has steadily grown over the years even if, especially in Europe, specific recycling and recovery targets have been fixed. Therefore, an increasing attention starts to be devoted to prevention measures and interventions. Filling a gap in the current literature, this explorative paper is a first attempt to map the increasingly important phenomenon of prevention policies in the packaging sector. Through a theoretical sampling, 11 countries/states (7 in and 4 outside Europe) have been selected and analyzed by gathering and studying primary and secondary data. Results show evidence of three specific trends in packaging waste prevention policies: fostering the adoption of measures directed at improving packaging design and production through an extensive use of the life cycle assessment; raising the awareness of final consumers by increasing the accountability of firms; promoting collaborative efforts along the packaging supply chains. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. What evidence and support do state-level public health practitioners need to address obesity prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeman, Jennifer; Teal, Randall; Jernigan, Jan; Reed, Jenica Huddleston; Farris, Rosanne; Ammerman, Alice

    2014-01-01

    Obesity has reached epidemic proportions. Public health practitioners are distinctly positioned to promote the environmental changes essential to addressing obesity. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and other entities provide evidence and technical assistance to support this work, yet little is known about how practitioners use evidence and support as they intervene to prevent obesity. The study's purpose was to describe how practitioners and CDC project officers characterized the obesity prevention task, where practitioners accessed support and evidence, and what approaches to support and evidence they found most useful. APPROACH OR DESIGN: Mixed-methods, cross-sectional interviews, and survey. State-level public health obesity prevention programs. Public health practitioners and CDC project officers. We conducted 10 in-depth interviews with public health practitioners (n = 7) and project officers (n = 3) followed by an online survey completed by 62 practitioners (50% response rate). We applied content analysis to interview data and descriptive statistics to survey data. Practitioners characterized obesity prevention as uncertain and complex, involving interdependence among actors, multiple levels of activity, an excess of information, and a paucity of evidence. Survey findings provide further detail on the types of evidence and support practitioners used and valued. We recommend approaches to tailoring evidence and support to the needs of practitioners working on obesity prevention and other complex health problems.

  15. Skills Methods to Prevent Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinke, Steven Paul; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Describes an evaluation of the added value of skills methods for preventing smoking with sixth-grade students from two schools. Skills conditions subjects learned problem-solving, self-instruction, and interpersonal communication methods. The article discusses the strengths, limits, and implications of the study for other smoking prevention…

  16. Skills methods to prevent smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinke, S P; Gilchrist, L D; Schilling, R F; Snow, W H; Bobo, J K

    1986-01-01

    School health educators have devoted much attention to cigarette smoking. Recent years have seen the testing of interventions to prevent smoking. To date, controlled studies have not evaluated the added value of skills methods for preventing smoking. This article describes such an evaluation with sixth-grade students from two schools. Subjects were pretested and randomly assigned to receive conventional health education methods or to receive skills intervention. Both conditions included films, peer testimonials, discussions, and homework. Health education condition subjects additionally participated in oral quizzes, games, and debates. Skills condition subjects additionally learned problem-solving, self-instruction, and interpersonal communication methods. At postintervention, skills condition subjects, more than health education condition subjects, had better scores on measures of smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and intentions. In addition, reported cigarette use, validated by biochemical data collection, was lower in the skills condition than in the health education condition at all postintervention measurements, including a 24-month follow-up. The article discusses the strengths, limits, and implications of the study for other smoking prevention efforts in schools.

  17. Lessons Learned From a Community–Academic Partnership Addressing Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention in Filipino American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javier, Joyce R.; Chamberlain, Lisa J.; Rivera, Kahealani K.; Gonzalez, Sarah E.; Mendoza, Fernando S.; Huffman, Lynne C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Filipino Americans have more adolescent pregnancies than other Asian-Pacific Islanders (APIs). Few community–academic collaborations have addressed adolescent pregnancy prevention in this community. Objectives We sought to describe the lessons learned from and impact of a community-based teen pregnancy prevention program for Filipino Americans implemented by a Filipina pediatrics resident. Methods We formed a community–academic partnership between the Filipino Youth Coalition, a community-based organization (CBO) in San Jose, California, and the Stanford School of Medicine’s Pediatric Advocacy Program. We developed a culturally tailored parent–teen conference addressing adolescent pregnancy prevention in Filipino Americans. We qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated this intervention by collecting both pre- and post-conference data using a convenience sample design. Lessons Learned Engaging particular aspects of Filipino culture (i.e., religion and intergenerational differences) helped to make this community–academic partnership successful. For physicians-in-training who are conducting community-based participatory research (CBPR), project challenges may include difficulties in building and maintaining academic–community relationships, struggles to promote sustainability, and conflicting goals of “community insiders” and “academic outsiders.” Authors offer insights and implications for residents interested in practicing CBPR. Conclusion CBPR is a key tool for exploring health issues in understudied populations. CBPR experiences can provide meaningful educational opportunities for physicians-in-training and can build sustained capacity in CBOs. They can also help residents to develop analytic skills, directly affect the health of the communities they serve, and, for minority physicians, give back to the communities they call home. PMID:21169708

  18. Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention in South Africa: Addressing HIV and Gender Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer-Nielsen, Sara; Møller, Sabrah

    2011-01-01

    The thesis scrutinizes how gender relations and women’s and men’s control of sexual health are influenced by the intervention of male circumcision for HIV prevention in South Africa. The analytical framework combines the theory of therapeutic citizenship, post-development theory and gender theory. We argue that the individual man’s choice to circumcise is being challenged by international HIV prevention methods emphasizing men’s responsibility in HIV prevention. In South Africa, current chang...

  19. Scoping review of health promotion and disease prevention interventions addressed to elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duplaga, Mariusz; Grysztar, Marcin; Rodzinka, Marcin; Kopec, Agnieszka

    2016-09-05

    The ageing of modern societies remains one of the greatest challenges for health and social systems. To respond to this challenge, we need effective strategies assuring healthy active life for elderly people. Health promotion and related activities are perceived as a key intervention, which can improve wellbeing in later life. The main aim of this study is the identification and classification of such interventions addressed to older adults and elderly. Therefore, the strategy based on the scoping review as a feasible tool for exploring this domain, summarizing research findings and identifying gaps of evidence, was applied. The scoping review relies on the analysis of previous reviews of interventions aimed at older adults (55-64 years old) and elderly persons (65 years and above) assessed for their effectiveness in the framework of a systematic review and/or meta-analysis. The search strategy was based on the identification of interventions reported as health promotion, primary disease prevention, screening or social support. In the analysis, the reviews published from January 2000 to April 2015 were included. The search strategy yielded 334 systematic reviews and/or meta-analyses addressed to target groups of interest, 182 of them assessed interventions belonging to health promotion, 219 to primary prevention, 34 to screening and 35 to social support. The studies focused on elderly (65 years and above) made up 40.4 % of all retrieved reviews and those addressing population of 55 years and above accounted for 24.0 %. Interventions focused on health maintenance and improvement in elderly and older adults represent frequently combined health promotion and disease prevention actions. Many interventions of this type are not addressed exclusively to elderly populations and/or older adults but are designed for the general population. The most common types of interventions addressed to elderly and older adults in the area of health promotion include health

  20. The Yo me cuido® Program: Addressing Breast Cancer Screening and Prevention Among Hispanic Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jenna L; Ramos, Roberto; Rivera-Colón, Venessa; Escobar, Myriam; Palencia, Jeannette; Grant, Cathy G; Green, B Lee

    2015-09-01

    Breast cancer is less likely to be diagnosed at the earliest stage in Hispanic/Latino (Hispanic) women compared to non-Hispanic White women, even after accounting for differences in age, socioeconomic status, and method of detection. Moffitt Cancer Center created a comprehensive health education program called Yo me cuido (®) (YMC) to address and reduce breast cancer disparities among Spanish- and English-speaking Hispanic women by providing breast cancer and healthy lifestyles awareness and education, and promoting breast cancer screenings, reminders, and referrals for women 40 years and older. The purpose of this paper is to showcase the innovative approaches and methods to cancer prevention and early detection of the YMC program, and to promote it as an effective tool for improving outcomes in community health education, outreach, and engagement activities with Hispanic populations. Key components of the program include educational workshops, mammogram referrals, and a multimedia campaign. The YMC program is unique because of its approaches in reaching the Hispanic population, such as delivering the program with compassionate services to empower participants to live a healthier lifestyle. Additionally, direct follow-up for mammography screenings is provided by program staff. From 2011 to 2013, YMC has educated 2,226 women and 165 men through 93 workshops. About 684 (52 %) women ages 40 and older have had a screening mammogram within their first year of participating in the program. The YMC program is an innovative cancer education and outreach program that has demonstrated a positive impact on the lives of the Hispanic community in the Tampa Bay region.

  1. Developing integrated methods to address complex resource and environmental issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kathleen S.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; McCafferty, Anne E.; Clark, Roger N.

    2016-02-08

    IntroductionThis circular provides an overview of selected activities that were conducted within the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Integrated Methods Development Project, an interdisciplinary project designed to develop new tools and conduct innovative research requiring integration of geologic, geophysical, geochemical, and remote-sensing expertise. The project was supported by the USGS Mineral Resources Program, and its products and acquired capabilities have broad applications to missions throughout the USGS and beyond.In addressing challenges associated with understanding the location, quantity, and quality of mineral resources, and in investigating the potential environmental consequences of resource development, a number of field and laboratory capabilities and interpretative methodologies evolved from the project that have applications to traditional resource studies as well as to studies related to ecosystem health, human health, disaster and hazard assessment, and planetary science. New or improved tools and research findings developed within the project have been applied to other projects and activities. Specifically, geophysical equipment and techniques have been applied to a variety of traditional and nontraditional mineral- and energy-resource studies, military applications, environmental investigations, and applied research activities that involve climate change, mapping techniques, and monitoring capabilities. Diverse applied geochemistry activities provide a process-level understanding of the mobility, chemical speciation, and bioavailability of elements, particularly metals and metalloids, in a variety of environmental settings. Imaging spectroscopy capabilities maintained and developed within the project have been applied to traditional resource studies as well as to studies related to ecosystem health, human health, disaster assessment, and planetary science. Brief descriptions of capabilities and laboratory facilities and summaries of some

  2. Addressing the Needs of Preschool Children in the Context of Disasters and Terrorism: Assessment, Prevention, and Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolmer, Leo; Hamiel, Daniel; Pardo-Aviv, Lee; Laor, Nathaniel

    2017-07-01

    The goal of this paper is to review the research literature regarding the needs of preschoolers in the context of disasters and terrorism with the aim of understanding the existing methods for assessment, prevention, and intervention to provide recommendations and point out required research and development. We differentiate between screening tools that provide initial evaluation and assessment tools for diagnosing preschooler children's pathology and review possible interventions that address the preschool child's needs before, during, and after the incident itself. We also emphasize the lack of dissemination and research of prevention programs and mass interventions for preschoolers. Programs for community mass prevention and intervention for preschoolers should be developed and evaluated and interventions should be adapted for individual and group delivery. Moreover, the increase in the number of children refugees requires cultural adaptations of assessment measures and interventions.

  3. Social marketing to address attitudes and behaviours related to preventable injuries in British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jennifer; Zheng, Xin; Lafreniere, Kevin; Pike, Ian

    2018-01-01

    Background Social marketing is a tool used in the domain of public health for prevention and public education. Because injury prevention is a priority public health issue in British Columbia, Canada, a 3-year consultation was undertaken to understand public attitudes towards preventable injuries and mount a province-wide social marketing campaign aimed at adults aged 25–55 years. Methods Public response to the campaign was assessed through an online survey administered to a regionally representative sample of adults within the target age group between 1 and 4 times per year on an ongoing basis since campaign launch. A linear regression model was applied to a subset of this data (n=5186 respondents) to test the association between exposure to the Preventable campaign and scores on perceived preventability of injuries as well as conscious forethought applied to injury-related behaviours. Results Campaign exposure was significant in both models (preventability: β=0.27, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.35; conscious thought: β=0.24, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.35), as was parental status (preventability: β=0.12, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.21; conscious thought: β=0.18, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.30). Exposure to the more recent campaign slogan was predictive of 0.47 higher score on conscious thought (95% CI 0.27 to 0.66). Discussion This study provides some evidence that the Preventable approach is having positive effect on attitudes and behaviours related to preventable injuries in the target population. Future work will seek to compare these data to other jurisdictions as the Preventable social marketing campaign expands to other parts of Canada. PMID:29549106

  4. ADDRESSING RESEARCH DESIGN PROBLEM IN MIXED METHODS RESEARCH

    OpenAIRE

    Hamed ALAVI; Patrycja HĄBEK

    2016-01-01

    Alongside other disciplines in social sciences, management researchers use mixed methods research more and more in conduct of their scientific investigations. Mixed methods approach can also be used in the field of production engineering. In comparison with traditional quantitative and qualitative research methods, reasons behind increasing popularity of mixed research method in management science can be traced in different factors. First of all, any particular discipline in management can be...

  5. Radiochemistry methods in DOE Methods for Evaluating Environmental and Waste Management Samples: Addressing new challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadeff, S.K.; Goheen, S.C.; Riley, R.G.

    1994-01-01

    Radiochemistry methods in Department of Energy Methods for Evaluating Environmental and Waste Management Samples (DOE Methods) add to the repertoire of other standard methods in support of U.S. Department of Energy environmental restoration and waste management (DOE/EM) radiochemical characterization activities. Current standard sources of radiochemistry methods are not always applicable for evaluating DOE/EM samples. Examples of current sources include those provided by the US Environmental Protection Agency, the American Society for Testing and Materials, Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, and Environmental Measurements Laboratory Procedures Manual (HASL-300). The applicability of these methods is generally limited to specific matrices (usually water), low-level radioactive samples, and a limited number of analytes. DOE Methods complements these current standard methods by addressing the complexities of EM characterization needs. The process for determining DOE/EM radiochemistry characterization needs is discussed. In this context of DOE/EM needs, the applicability of other sources of standard radiochemistry methods is defined, and gaps in methodology are identified. Current methods in DOE Methods and the EM characterization needs they address are discussed. Sources of new methods and the methods incorporation process are discussed. The means for individuals to participate in (1) identification of DOE/EM needs, (2) the methods incorporation process, and (3) submission of new methods are identified

  6. Methods for Intelligent Mapping of the IPV6 Address Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    the " Internet of Things " ( IoT ). (2013, Jan. 7). Forbes. [Online]. Available: http://www.forbes.com/sites/quora/2013/01/07/ how-many- things -are...currently-connected-to-the- internet -of- things - iot / 57 [13] G. Huston, “IPv4 address report,” Mar 2015. [Online]. Available: http://www.potaroo.net/tools/ipv4...distribution is unlimited 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) Due to the rapid growth of the Internet , the available pool of unique

  7. Addressing Research Design Problem in Mixed Methods Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Hamed; Hąbek, Patrycja

    2016-03-01

    Alongside other disciplines in social sciences, management researchers use mixed methods research more and more in conduct of their scientific investigations. Mixed methods approach can also be used in the field of production engineering. In comparison with traditional quantitative and qualitative research methods, reasons behind increasing popularity of mixed research method in management science can be traced in different factors. First of all, any particular discipline in management can be theoretically related to it. Second is that concurrent approach of mixed research method to inductive and deductive research logic provides researchers with opportunity to generate theory and test hypothesis in one study simultaneously. In addition, it provides a better justification for chosen method of investigation and higher validity for obtained answers to research questions. Despite increasing popularity of mixed research methods among management scholars, there is still need for a comprehensive approach to research design typology and process in mixed research method from the perspective of management science. The authors in this paper try to explain fundamental principles of mixed research method, its typology and different steps in its design process.

  8. Getting sports injury prevention on to public health agendas - addressing the shortfalls in current information sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Caroline F

    2012-01-01

    Public health policy is a successful population-level strategy for injury prevention but it is yet to be widely applied to the sports sector. Such policy is generally coordinated by government health departments concerned with the allocation of limited resources to health service delivery and preventive programs for addressing large community health issues. Prioritisation of sports injury prevention (SIP) requires high-quality evidence about the size of the problem and its public health burden; identification of at-risk vulnerable groups; confirmed effective prevention solutions; evidence of intervention cost-effectiveness; and quantification of both financial and policy implications of inaction. This paper argues that the major reason for a lack of sports injury policy by government departments for health or sport to date is a lack of relevant information available for policy makers to make their decisions. Key information gaps evident in Australia are used to highlight this problem. SIP policy does not yet rank highly because, relative to other health/injury issues, there is very little hard evidence to support: claims for its priority ranking, the existence of solutions that can be implemented and which will work, and potential cost-savings to government agencies. Moreover, policy action needs to be integrated across government portfolios, including sport, health and others. Until sports medicine research generates high-quality population-level information of direct relevance and importance to policy makers, especially intervention costing and implementation cost-benefit estimates, and fully engage in policy-informing partnerships, SIP will continue to be left off the public health agenda.

  9. The Standardization Method of Address Information for POIs from Internet Based on Positional Relation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Yong

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available As points of interest (POIon the internet, exists widely incomplete addresses and inconsistent literal expressions, a fast standardization processing method of network POIs address information based on spatial constraints was proposed. Based on the model of the extensible address expression, first of all, address information of POI was segmented and extracted. Address elements are updated by means of matching with the address tree layer by layer. Then, by defining four types of positional relations, corresponding set are selected from standard POI library as candidate for enrichment and amendment of non-standard address. At last, the fast standardized processing of POI address information was achieved with the help of backtracking address elements with minimum granularity. Experiments in this paper proved that the standardization processing of an address can be realized by means of this method with higher accuracy in order to build the address database.

  10. Infusing Oral Health Care into Nursing Curriculum: Addressing Preventive Health in Aging and Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Earle Hahn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Access to oral health care is essential for promoting and maintaining overall health and well-being, yet oral health disparities exist among vulnerable and underserved populations. While nurses make up the largest portion of the health care work force, educational preparation to address oral health needs of elders and persons with disabilities is limited across nursing curricula. This descriptive study reports on the interdisciplinary development, implementation, and testing of an oral health module that was included and infused into a graduate nursing curriculum in a three-phase plan. Phase 1 includes evaluation of a lecture presented to eight gerontological nurse practitioner (GNP students. Phase 2 includes evaluation of GNP students’ perceptions of learning, skills, and confidence following a one-time 8-hour practicum infused into 80 required practicum hours. The evaluation data show promise in preparing nurse practitioner students to assess and address preventive oral health needs of persons aging with disabilities such that further infusion and inclusion in a course for nurse practitioners across five specialties will implemented and tested in Phase 3.

  11. Infusing Oral Health Care into Nursing Curriculum: Addressing Preventive Health in Aging and Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Joan Earle; FitzGerald, Leah; Markham, Young Kee; Glassman, Paul; Guenther, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Access to oral health care is essential for promoting and maintaining overall health and well-being, yet oral health disparities exist among vulnerable and underserved populations. While nurses make up the largest portion of the health care work force, educational preparation to address oral health needs of elders and persons with disabilities is limited across nursing curricula. This descriptive study reports on the interdisciplinary development, implementation, and testing of an oral health module that was included and infused into a graduate nursing curriculum in a three-phase plan. Phase 1 includes evaluation of a lecture presented to eight gerontological nurse practitioner (GNP) students. Phase 2 includes evaluation of GNP students' perceptions of learning, skills, and confidence following a one-time 8-hour practicum infused into 80 required practicum hours. The evaluation data show promise in preparing nurse practitioner students to assess and address preventive oral health needs of persons aging with disabilities such that further infusion and inclusion in a course for nurse practitioners across five specialties will implemented and tested in Phase 3. PMID:22619708

  12. Early Prevention Method for Power Systems Instability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dmitrova, Evgenia

    containing no voltage sources). The main functionality of the early prevention method is to deliver control solution allowing escape from instability on the basis of data obtained by PMU measurements. The developed algorithm performs identification of the optimal node for countermeasure application...... instability was created. Utilizing synthetic PMU data, the early prevention method proposed a location and an amount of the countermeasure which will prevent instability; the prediction of the resulting stability margins corresponding to application of the suggested countermeasure was carried out....... The predicted effect of the suggested countermeasure application is in a good agreement with the results obtained by RMS dynamic simulation. Developed method enables adaptive preventive control for near real-time stability maintenance. The achieved results are opening promising perspective for power system...

  13. Health Belief Model and Labelling Theory in the Analysis of Preventive Behaviors to Address Biopsychosocial Impacts of Sexual Violence Among Street Children in YOGYAKARTA

    OpenAIRE

    Intan Noor Khalifah; Argyo Demartoto; Harsono Salimo

    2017-01-01

    Background: Street children are at high risk of sexual violence. Necessary measures should be undertaken to address deleterious biopsychosocial impacts of sexual violence. This study aimed to analyze the preventive behaviors to address biopsychosocial impacts of sexual violence among street children in Yogyakarta using Health Belief Model and Labelling Theory.Subjects and Method: This study was qualitative descriptive with phenomenology approach. The key informants for this study included Hea...

  14. ABC for AIDS prevention in Guinea: migrant gold mining communities address their risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kis, Adam Daniel

    2010-04-01

    Contrary to expectation when compared with other migrant mining zones of sub-Saharan Africa, the nation of Guinea has a comparatively low and stable HIV rate. In addition, the regions with the largest gold, diamond, and bauxite mining operations report the lowest HIV rates within the country. This research set out to explain practices and beliefs within gold mining communities near Siguiri, Guinea--the highest-producing gold mining zone in the country--that may contribute to this phenomenon, particularly as they relate to the Abstinence, Be faithful, use a Condom approach to AIDS prevention. Structured interviews on a randomly selected sample of 460 adults and regular visitation to 16 pharmacies and health clinics within the mining zone yielded data showing that abstinence and condom use are minimally practiced for AIDS prevention. Instead, faithfulness to partners was overwhelmingly reported as the method of choice for AIDS avoidance. In addition, this research explored ways in which local conceptions of fidelity differed from those generally understood in other contexts, including engagement in short-term marriages at the gold mining sites.

  15. Early Parental Positive Behavior Support and Childhood Adjustment: Addressing Enduring Questions with New Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Rebecca; Gardner, Frances; Dishion, Thomas; Sitnick, Stephanie L; Shaw, Daniel S; Winter, Charlotte E; Wilson, Melvin

    2015-05-01

    A large literature provides strong empirical support for the influence of parenting on child outcomes. The current study addresses enduring research questions testing the importance of early parenting behavior to children's adjustment. Specifically, we developed and tested a novel multi-method observational measure of parental positive behavior support at age 2. Next, we tested whether early parental positive behavior support was related to child adjustment at school age, within a multi-agent and multi-method measurement approach and design. Observational and parent-reported data from mother-child dyads (N = 731; 49 percent female) were collected from a high-risk sample at age 2. Follow-up data were collected via teacher report and child assessment at age 7.5. The results supported combining three different observational methods to assess positive behavior support at age 2 within a latent factor. Further, parents' observed positive behavior support at age 2 predicted multiple types of teacher-reported and child-assessed problem behavior and competencies at 7.5 years old. Results supported the validity and predictive capability of a multi-method observational measure of parenting and the importance of a continued focus on the early years within preventive interventions.

  16. Community Engagement in Youth Violence Prevention: Crafting Methods to Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrel-Samuels, Susan; Bacallao, Martica; Brown, Shelli; Bower, Meredith; Zimmerman, Marc

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the Youth Violence Prevention Centers (YVPC) Program at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is to reduce youth violence in defined high-risk communities through the implementation and evaluation of comprehensive, evidence based prevention strategies. Within this common framework, each YVPC varies in its structure and methods, however all engage communities in multiple ways. We explore aspects of community engagement employed by three centers that operate in very different contexts: a rural county in North Carolina; a suburban area of Denver, Colorado; and an urban setting in Flint, Michigan. While previous research has addressed theories supporting community involvement in youth violence prevention, there has been less attention to the implementation challenges of achieving and sustaining participation. In three case examples, we describe the foci and methods for community engagement in diverse YVPC sites and detail the barriers and facilitating factors that have influenced implementation. Just as intervention programs may need to be adapted in order to meet the needs of specific populations, methods of community engagement must be tailored to the context in which they occur. We discuss case examples of community engagement in areas with varying geographies, histories, and racial and ethnic compositions. Each setting presents distinct challenges and opportunities for conducting collaborative violence prevention initiatives and for adapting engagement methods to diverse communities. Although approaches may vary depending upon local contexts, there are certain principles that appear to be common across cultures and geography: trust, transparency, communication, commitment. We also discuss the importance of flexibility in community engagement efforts.

  17. Methods of Preventives to keep Birth Control in the Quran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Yunus Mohd Noor

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This research is mainly concerned about the methods set by the Quran for preserving the human breeding, which is regarded the main pillar not only for the future survival of the humankind, but also for assuring its permanence and continuity. Taking this into consideration, the Quran has addressed this issue by setting solid preventive tools that ensure the continuity and prosperity of the human offspring in a normal manner. The objective of the research is to shed light on the importance of protecting the human offspring in the Quran, since neglecting its importance could lead to the corruption of the whole society and its members. The research attempts also to tackle the various preventive tools that the Quran has adopted for protecting the normal continuity and prosperity of the human offspring. The research proposes to study the Quranic verses that address the protection of the human offspring and the various preventive tools that should be adopted, along with the accredited analysis and statements of purpose of the Quranic verses, with reference to the approved sources of interpretation. Apart of the findings are that the Quran has set two main methods for protecting the human offspring that is; the preventive tools for protecting the amount of birth control, and the preventive tools for maintaining the quality of birth control. The preventive tools for protecting the amount of birth control include the forbidding of being monastic, the prohibiting of killing children for fear of poverty, and the forbidding of falling into immorality, either outwardly or inwardly. They also include the establishment of prayer, giving charity, reciting Dhikr (remembrance and asking of forgiveness. The preventive tools for maintaining the quality of birth control, however, include not approaching adultery, prohibiting adoption, and forbidding incest, the people of shirk and immorality and blasphemy.

  18. Social marketing to address attitudes and behaviours related to preventable injuries in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jennifer; Zheng, Xin; Lafreniere, Kevin; Pike, Ian

    2018-06-01

    Social marketing is a tool used in the domain of public health for prevention and public education. Because injury prevention is a priority public health issue in British Columbia, Canada, a 3-year consultation was undertaken to understand public attitudes towards preventable injuries and mount a province-wide social marketing campaign aimed at adults aged 25-55 years. Public response to the campaign was assessed through an online survey administered to a regionally representative sample of adults within the target age group between 1 and 4 times per year on an ongoing basis since campaign launch. A linear regression model was applied to a subset of this data (n=5186 respondents) to test the association between exposure to the Preventable campaign and scores on perceived preventability of injuries as well as conscious forethought applied to injury-related behaviours. Campaign exposure was significant in both models (preventability: β=0.27, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.35; conscious thought: β=0.24, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.35), as was parental status (preventability: β=0.12, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.21; conscious thought: β=0.18, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.30). Exposure to the more recent campaign slogan was predictive of 0.47 higher score on conscious thought (95% CI 0.27 to 0.66). This study provides some evidence that the Preventable approach is having positive effect on attitudes and behaviours related to preventable injuries in the target population. Future work will seek to compare these data to other jurisdictions as the Preventable social marketing campaign expands to other parts of Canada. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Suicide Risk Protocols: Addressing the Needs of High Risk Youths Identified through Suicide Prevention Efforts and in Clinical Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilbron, Nicole; Goldston, David; Walrath, Christine; Rodi, Michael; McKeon, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Several agencies have emphasized the importance of establishing clear protocols or procedures to address the needs of youths who are identified as suicidal through suicide prevention programs or in emergency department settings. What constitutes optimal guidelines for developing and implementing such protocols, however, is unclear. At the request…

  20. Addressing Adolescent Substance Abuse: An Evaluation of Washington's Prevention and Intervention Services Program. 2001-03 Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deck, Dennis D.

    2004-01-01

    To directly address the state of Washington's concerns regarding student alcohol and other drug use, in 1989 the state Legislature passed the Omnibus Alcohol and Controlled Substances Act (ESSHB 1793). One part of this act called for the creation of a school-based alcohol and other dug abuse prevention and early intervention program. The Office of…

  1. Prevention of parent to child transmission of HIV: Urgent need to be addressed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhrubajyoti J Debnath

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: An estimated 430,000 children were newly infected with HIV in 2008, over 90% of them through mother-to-child transmission (MTCT. Without intervention, the risk of MTCT ranges from 20% to 45% as per the World Health Organization (WHO. Aim: To find the uptake of Prevention of Parent to Child Transmission of HIV/AIDS (PPTCT services during pregnancy. Setting and Design: Cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: Ethical approval and informed consent was taken. Uptake of PPTCT services by the mother was obtained in 222 pregnancies. This was compared with the HIV status of children born to them. Statistical Analysis Used: Percentages. Results: In 25.7% pregnancies, the mothers were tested for HIV. One child was born was to a mother who had tested HIV negative in pregnancy. In 50% of the mother-child pairs, both mother and child received PPTCT. Where both the mother and child received PPTCT, only 13.3% children born were HIV positive as against 40% children who were HIV positive where neither mother nor the child had received PPTCT. Conclusion: Uptake of PPTCT services was low. In countries like India where the chances of parent to child transmission of HIV are likely to be more than in developed countries due to breastfeeding practices, the uptake of PPTCT services should be maximized to decrease the burden of pediatric HIV because even a single pediatric HIV infection counts. All the pregnant women need to be voluntarily tested twice for HIV in pregnancy, in which the second test for HIV may be in late pregnancy.

  2. Geocoding rural addresses in a community contaminated by PFOA: a comparison of methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallagher Lisa G

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Location is often an important component of exposure assessment, and positional errors in geocoding may result in exposure misclassification. In rural areas, successful geocoding to a street address is limited by rural route boxes. Communities have assigned physical street addresses to rural route boxes as part of E911 readdressing projects for improved emergency response. Our study compared automated and E911 methods for recovering and geocoding valid street addresses and assessed the impact of positional errors on exposure classification. Methods The current study is a secondary analysis of existing data that included 135 addresses self-reported by participants of a rural community study who were exposed via public drinking water to perfluorooctanoate (PFOA released from a DuPont facility in Parkersburg, West Virginia. We converted pre-E911 to post-E911 addresses using two methods: automated ZP4 address-correction software with the U.S. Postal Service LACS database and E911 data provided by Wood County, West Virginia. Addresses were geocoded using TeleAtlas, an online commercial service, and ArcView with StreetMap Premium North America NAVTEQ 2008 enhanced street dataset. We calculated positional errors using GPS measurements collected at each address and assessed exposure based on geocoded location in relation to public water pipes. Results The county E911 data converted 89% of the eligible addresses compared to 35% by ZP4 LACS. ArcView/NAVTEQ geocoded more addresses (n = 130 and with smaller median distance between geocodes and GPS coordinates (39 meters than TeleAtlas (n = 85, 188 meters. Without E911 address conversion, 25% of the geocodes would have been more than 1000 meters from the true location. Positional errors in TeleAtlas geocoding resulted in exposure misclassification of seven addresses whereas ArcView/NAVTEQ methods did not misclassify any addresses. Conclusions Although the study was limited by small

  3. Geocoding rural addresses in a community contaminated by PFOA: a comparison of methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Verónica M; Howard, Gregory J; Gallagher, Lisa G; Fletcher, Tony

    2010-04-21

    Location is often an important component of exposure assessment, and positional errors in geocoding may result in exposure misclassification. In rural areas, successful geocoding to a street address is limited by rural route boxes. Communities have assigned physical street addresses to rural route boxes as part of E911 readdressing projects for improved emergency response. Our study compared automated and E911 methods for recovering and geocoding valid street addresses and assessed the impact of positional errors on exposure classification. The current study is a secondary analysis of existing data that included 135 addresses self-reported by participants of a rural community study who were exposed via public drinking water to perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) released from a DuPont facility in Parkersburg, West Virginia. We converted pre-E911 to post-E911 addresses using two methods: automated ZP4 address-correction software with the U.S. Postal Service LACS database and E911 data provided by Wood County, West Virginia. Addresses were geocoded using TeleAtlas, an online commercial service, and ArcView with StreetMap Premium North America NAVTEQ 2008 enhanced street dataset. We calculated positional errors using GPS measurements collected at each address and assessed exposure based on geocoded location in relation to public water pipes. The county E911 data converted 89% of the eligible addresses compared to 35% by ZP4 LACS. ArcView/NAVTEQ geocoded more addresses (n = 130) and with smaller median distance between geocodes and GPS coordinates (39 meters) than TeleAtlas (n = 85, 188 meters). Without E911 address conversion, 25% of the geocodes would have been more than 1000 meters from the true location. Positional errors in TeleAtlas geocoding resulted in exposure misclassification of seven addresses whereas ArcView/NAVTEQ methods did not misclassify any addresses. Although the study was limited by small numbers, our results suggest that the use of county E911 data in rural

  4. [Binocular fusion method for prevention of myopia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, G D

    1989-03-01

    When looking at a far object with two eyes, relaxation of convergence and accommodation occurred and accompanied by binocular fusion. Using this phenomenon a method of binocular fusion of targets was designed, that is the distance between two targets are just the same as the distance between two visual lines, while looking at a far object. During the images of the targets are fused, the accommodation and convergence are relaxed concomitantly; thus a result of correction of pseudomyopia and prevention of myopia is achieved. By means of binocular fusion, the eye muscle exercises were conducted and resulted in not only the far point further but also the near point closer. The skiascopic examination carried out at the same time of binocular fusion showed that the degrees of relaxed accommodation was 97.9% that of looking at an object in far distance. The above results indicated that the binocular fusion method had excellent effect on the prevention of myopia. This method is simple and feasible, conforms to the visual physiology, and thus can be widely adopted.

  5. Addressing vulnerabilities of female sex workers in an HIV prevention intervention in Mumbai and Thane: experiences from the Aastha project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranebennur, Virupax; Gaikwad, Sanjeevsingh; Ramesh, Sowmya; Bhende, Amrita

    2014-01-01

    Background It is important for targeted interventions to consider vulnerabilities of female sex workers (FSWs) such as poverty, work-related mobility, and literacy, for effective human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention. This paper describes and examines the association of the Aastha HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention project in Mumbai and Thane, India, on the relationship between vulnerability and behavioral outcomes. Materials and methods Data were drawn from the Behavioural Tracking Survey, a cross-sectional behavioral study conducted in 2010 with 2,431 FSWs recruited in Mumbai and Thane. The key independent measures used were program exposure and “vulnerability index”, a composite index of literacy, factors of dependence (alternative livelihood options, current debt, and children), and aspects of sex work (mobility and duration in sex work). Dependent measures included service uptake, self-confidence, self-identity, and individual agency. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the study objectives. Results Of the analytical sample of 2,431 FSWs, 1,295 (53.3%) were categorized as highly vulnerable. Highly vulnerable FSWs who were associated with the Aastha program for more than a year were more likely to have accessed crisis-response services in the past 6 months (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4–3.6; P<0.001), to have visited a clinic to get a checkup for STI symptoms (AOR 2.4, 95% CI 1.2–4.8; P<0.015), not to be ashamed to disclose identity as an FSW to health workers (AOR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2–3.5; P<0.008), and to be confident in supporting a fellow FSW in crisis (AOR 1.7, 95% CI 1.0–2.8, P<0.033) compared to those less vulnerable with similar exposure to the Aastha program. Conclusion It is critical for HIV/STI interventions to consider vulnerabilities of FSWs at project inception and address them with focused strategies, including a segmented service-delivery model and community

  6. ADDRESSING POLLUTION PREVENTION ISSUES IN THE DESIGN OF A NEW NUCLEAR RESEARCH FACILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cournoyer, Michael E.; Corpion, Juan; Nelson, Timothy O.

    2003-01-01

    The Chemistry and Metallurgical Research (CMR) Facility was designed in 1949 and built in 1952 at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to support analytical chemistry, metallurgical studies, and actinide research and development on samples of plutonium and other nuclear materials for the Atomic Energy Commission's nuclear weapons program. These primary programmatic uses of the CMR Facility have not changed significantly since it was constructed. In 1998, a seismic fault was found to the west of the CMR Facility and projected to extend beneath two wings of the building. As part of the overall Risk Management Strategy for the CMR Facility, the Department of Energy (DOE) proposed to replace it by 2010 with what is called the CMR Facility Replacement (CMRR). In an effort to make this proposed new nuclear research facility environmentally sustainable, several pollution prevention/waste minimization initiatives are being reviewed for potential incorporation during the design phase. A two-phase approach is being adopted; the facility is being designed in a manner that integrates pollution prevention efforts, and programmatic activities are being tailored to minimize waste. Processes and procedures that reduce waste generation compared to current, prevalent processes and procedures are identified. Some of these ''best practices'' include the following: (1) recycling opportunities for spent materials; (2) replacing lithium batteries with alternate current adaptors; (3) using launderable contamination barriers in Radiological Control Areas (RCAs); (4) substituting mercury thermometers and manometers in RCAs with mercury-free devices; (5) puncturing and recycling aerosol cans; (6) using non-hazardous low-mercury fluorescent bulbs where available; (7) characterizing low-level waste as it is being generated; and (8) utilizing lead alternatives for radiological shielding. Each of these pollution prevention initiatives are being assessed for their technical validity, relevancy

  7. Prevention and Care Programs Addressing the Growing Prevalence of Diabetes in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Junmei; Kong, Alice P S; Chan, Juliana C N

    2016-12-01

    According to a 2010 national survey, 11 % of adults in China have diabetes, affecting 109.6 million individuals. The high prevalence of diabetes has been attributed to the aging of the population, the rapid adoption of energy-dense foods, and a reduction in physical activity. Collectively, these secular changes have created an obesogenic environment that can unmask diabetes in subjects with a genetic predisposition. The growing prevalence of maternal obesity, gestational diabetes, childhood obesity, and early-onset disease can lead to premature morbidity and mortality. Rising to meet these public health challenges, researchers in China have conducted randomized studies to demonstrate the benefits of lifestyle modification in preventing diabetes (the Da Qing Study), as well as that of team-based integrated care, using multiple strategies including peer support and information technology, in order to reduce hospitalizations, cardiovascular-renal complications, and premature deaths. With growing evidence supporting the benefits of these diabetes prevention and management programs, the next challenge is to use policies and systems to scale up the implementation of these programs through raising awareness, building capacity, and providing resources to reduce the human and socioeconomic burden of diabetes.

  8. Unintended benefits: the potential economic impact of addressing risk factors to prevent Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pei-Jung; Yang, Zhou; Fillit, Howard M; Cohen, Joshua T; Neumann, Peter J

    2014-04-01

    Certain chronic conditions appear to be modifiable risk factors of Alzheimer's disease and related dementias. To understand the potential health and economic impacts of addressing those risk factors, we used data on a Medicare cohort to simulate four scenarios: a 10 percent reduction in the prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, respectively, and a 10 percent reduction in body mass index among beneficiaries who were overweight or obese. Our simulation demonstrated that reducing the prevalence of these conditions may yield "unintended benefits" by lowering the risk, delaying the onset, reducing the duration, and lowering the costs of dementia. More research is needed to clarify the exact relationship between various other chronic diseases and dementia. However, our findings highlight potential health gains and savings opportunities stemming from the better management of other conditions associated with dementia.

  9. Contemporary coronary intervention trialconduct : addressing the 4P's: Patency, Perfusion, Performance and Prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Vranckx (Pascal)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe concern about how the effects of pharmacologic as well as device therapies are understood in clinical practice requires attention to the methods of randomized clinical trials, including the selection of meaningful clinical endpoints.

  10. Time to address continued poor vegetable intake in Australia for prevention of chronic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Kathryn; Havill, Michelle; Watson, Wendy L; Wellard, Lyndal; Hughes, Clare; Bauman, Adrian; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2016-12-01

    Australian and most international Dietary Guidelines recommend people consume more fruits and vegetables (F&V) to maintain a healthy weight and reduce chronic disease risk. Previous Australian and international surveys have shown sub-optimal consumption of F&V. This study aimed to assess adults' F&V consumption, knowledge of recommended servings, readiness to change, barriers/enabling factors, so that this knowledge might be used for campaigns that support improved consumption. An online survey of a representative sample of adults living in New South Wales, Australia (n = 2474) measuring self-reported F&V consumption; attitudes towards F&V consumption; stage of change for increasing F&V; barriers to consumption; and knowledge of cancer-health benefits. F&V consumption was below recommendations, with vegetable consumption notably low. Only 10% of participants ate at least five servings of vegetables/day (median intake was two daily servings), and 57% consumed two servings fruit/day. There was poor recognition that intake of vegetables was inadequate and this was a barrier to improving vegetable consumption; with preferences for other foods, habit and cost also important barriers. Key barriers to increasing fruit intake were habit, preferences for other foods, perishability, and cost. For vegetable consumption, 49% of participants were in the pre-contemplation stage of change, whereas for fruits 56% were in the action/maintenance stage. Sixty-four percent of respondents believed that eating F&V would protect against cancer, with 56% reporting they thought not eating enough F&V would cause cancer. Understanding what motivates and prevents people from consuming F&V is important for developing effective health promotion programs. Similar to previous surveys, there has been little shift in F&V consumption. Social marketing campaigns have been shown to improve health-related behaviours, and this study may assist in identifying audience segmentation for better targeted

  11. The development and implementation of theory-driven programs capable of addressing poverty-impacted children's health, mental health, and prevention needs: CHAMP and CHAMP+, evidence-informed, family-based interventions to address HIV risk and care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKernan McKay, Mary; Alicea, Stacey; Elwyn, Laura; McClain, Zachary R B; Parker, Gary; Small, Latoya A; Mellins, Claude Ann

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a program of prevention and intervention research conducted by the CHAMP (Collaborative HIV prevention and Adolescent Mental health Project; McKay & Paikoff, 2007 ) investigative team. CHAMP refers to a set of theory-driven, evidence-informed, collaboratively designed, family-based approaches meant to address the prevention, health, and mental health needs of poverty-impacted African American and Latino urban youth who are either at risk for HIV exposure or perinatally infected and at high risk for reinfection and possible transmission. CHAMP approaches are informed by theoretical frameworks that incorporate an understanding of the critical influences of multilevel contextual factors on youth risk taking and engagement in protective health behaviors. Highly influential theories include the triadic theory of influence, social action theory, and ecological developmental perspectives. CHAMP program delivery strategies were developed via a highly collaborative process drawing upon community-based participatory research methods in order to enhance cultural and contextual sensitivity of program content and format. The development and preliminary outcomes associated with a family-based intervention for a new population, perinatally HIV-infected youth and their adult caregivers, referred to as CHAMP+, is described to illustrate the integration of theory, existing evidence, and intensive input from consumers and healthcare providers.

  12. Incorporating Primary and Secondary Prevention Approaches To Address Childhood Obesity Prevention and Treatment in a Low-Income, Ethnically Diverse Population: Study Design and Demographic Data from the Texas Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (TX CORD) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butte, Nancy F.; Barlow, Sarah; Vandewater, Elizabeth A.; Sharma, Shreela V.; Huang, Terry; Finkelstein, Eric; Pont, Stephen; Sacher, Paul; Byrd-Williams, Courtney; Oluyomi, Abiodun O.; Durand, Casey; Li, Linlin; Kelder, Steven H.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: There is consensus that development and evaluation of a systems-oriented approach for child obesity prevention and treatment that includes both primary and secondary prevention efforts is needed. This article describes the study design and baseline data from the Texas Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (TX CORD) project, which addresses child obesity among low-income, ethnically diverse overweight and obese children, ages 2–12 years; a two-tiered systems-oriented approach is hypothesized to reduce BMI z-scores, compared to primary prevention alone. Methods: Our study aims are to: (1) implement and evaluate a primary obesity prevention program; (2) implement and evaluate efficacy of a 12-month family-centered secondary obesity prevention program embedded within primary prevention; and (3) quantify the incremental cost-effectiveness of the secondary prevention program. Baseline demographic and behavioral data for the primary prevention community areas are presented. Results: Baseline data from preschool centers, elementary schools, and clinics indicate that most demographic variables are similar between intervention and comparison communities. Most families are low income (≤$25,000) and Hispanic/Latino (73.3–83.8%). The majority of parents were born outside of the United States. Child obesity rates exceed national values, ranging from 19.0% in preschool to 35.2% in fifth-grade children. Most parents report that their children consume sugary beverages, have a television in the bedroom, and do not consume adequate amounts of fruits and vegetables. Conclusions: Interventions to address childhood obesity are warranted in low-income, ethnically diverse communities. Integrating primary and secondary approaches is anticipated to provide sufficient exposure that will lead to significant decreases in childhood obesity. PMID:25555188

  13. The study of technological prevention method of road accident ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study of technological prevention method of road accident related to driver and vehicle. ... road accident prevention method based on the factors studied. The study of this paper can provide forceful data analysis support for the road traffic safety related research. Keywords: road accident; accident prevention; road safety.

  14. Developing and testing an intervention to prevent homelessness among individuals discharged from psychiatric wards to shelters and 'No Fixed Address'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forchuk, C; MacClure, S K; Van Beers, M; Smith, C; Csiernik, R; Hoch, J; Jensen, E

    2008-09-01

    Shelter data in a recent study revealed discharges from psychiatric facilities to shelters or the street occurred at least 194 times in 2002 in London, Ontario, Canada. This problem must be addressed to reduce the disastrous effects of such discharge, including re-hospitalization and prolonged homelessness. An intervention was developed and tested to prevent homelessness associated with discharge directly to no fixed address. A total of 14 participants at-risk of being discharged without housing were enrolled, with half randomized into the intervention group. The intervention group was provided with immediate assistance in accessing housing and assistance in paying their first and last month's rent. The control group received usual care. Data was collected from participants prior to discharge, at 31 and 6-months post-discharge. All the individuals in the intervention group maintained housing after 3 and 6 months. All but one individual in the control group remained homeless after 3 and 6 months. The exception joined the sex trade to avoid homelessness. The results of this pilot were so dramatic that randomizing to the control group was discontinued. Discussions are underway to routinely implement the intervention. Systemic improvements can prevent homelessness for individuals being discharged from psychiatric wards.

  15. Applying Critical Race Theory to Group Model Building Methods to Address Community Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frerichs, Leah; Lich, Kristen Hassmiller; Funchess, Melanie; Burrell, Marcus; Cerulli, Catherine; Bedell, Precious; White, Ann Marie

    2016-01-01

    Group model building (GMB) is an approach to building qualitative and quantitative models with stakeholders to learn about the interrelationships among multilevel factors causing complex public health problems over time. Scant literature exists on adapting this method to address public health issues that involve racial dynamics. This study's objectives are to (1) introduce GMB methods, (2) present a framework for adapting GMB to enhance cultural responsiveness, and (3) describe outcomes of adapting GMB to incorporate differences in racial socialization during a community project seeking to understand key determinants of community violence transmission. An academic-community partnership planned a 1-day session with diverse stakeholders to explore the issue of violence using GMB. We documented key questions inspired by critical race theory (CRT) and adaptations to established GMB "scripts" (i.e., published facilitation instructions). The theory's emphasis on experiential knowledge led to a narrative-based facilitation guide from which participants created causal loop diagrams. These early diagrams depict how violence is transmitted and how communities respond, based on participants' lived experiences and mental models of causation that grew to include factors associated with race. Participants found these methods useful for advancing difficult discussion. The resulting diagrams can be tested and expanded in future research, and will form the foundation for collaborative identification of solutions to build community resilience. GMB is a promising strategy that community partnerships should consider when addressing complex health issues; our experience adapting methods based on CRT is promising in its acceptability and early system insights.

  16. Preventive Methods for ATM Mode Control

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Baronak; Robert Trska

    2004-01-01

    Broadband transfer mode ATM represent one of alternative solutions for growing requirements on transfer capabilities. Its advantage is an effort for provisions of guaranteed quality of transport services with preservations of high transfer rate. This property is covered by several mechanisms, which role is to control not only the traffic of existing connections, but also the admission of new ones and prevent the violation of requirements on transport quality of existing and new connections.

  17. Addressing female genital mutilation in Europe: a scoping review of approaches to participation, prevention, protection, and provision of services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillot, Helen; Murray, Nina; Connelly, Elaine; Howard, Natasha

    2018-02-08

    Public and policy attention to female genital mutilation (FGM) in diaspora communities has increased in Europe, but research remains limited and misinformation abounds. As a first step to addressing these issues, this study explored FGM prevention and response interventions in Europe, using a scoping literature review and key informant interviews. A scoping study design was selected, using Arksey and O'Malley's six-stage scoping framework to review identified sources. Key informant interviews were used to inform and add depth to literature findings. Findings were summarised thematically, guided by the Scottish Government's '4Ps' framework for tackling violence against women (i.e. participation, prevention, protection, providing services). Seventy literature sources, of 1095 screened, plus 16 individual and 3 group interview sources were included. Several countries have developed promising interventions supporting FGM resistance and recovery. However, gaps remain including community participation, professional knowledge and linkages, and evaluation of approaches. This scoping review is an initial attempt to describe available primary evidence on European initiatives responding to FGM. Further research is required to determine whether interventions are effective, while policy and practice development must be shaped and driven by the experiences, needs, and views of affected communities.

  18. Method for preventing micromechanical structures from adhering to another object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J.H.; Ricco, A.J.

    1998-06-16

    A method for preventing micromechanical structures from adhering to another object includes the step of immersing a micromechanical structure and its associated substrate in a chemical species that does not stick to itself. The method can be employed during the manufacture of micromechanical structures to prevent micromechanical parts from sticking or adhering to one another and their associated substrate surface. 3 figs.

  19. Early Prevention Method for Power System Instability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dmitrova, Evgenia; Wittrock, Martin Lindholm; Jóhannsson, Hjörtur

    2015-01-01

    are then determined, using a grid transformation coefficient (GTC) and a numerical, iterative solution to an equation system. The stability criteriacan then be assessed to evaluate the sufficiency of a suggested counter measure. The method is demonstrated on a synthetic 8-bus network and a 464-bus model...... of the Western Denm ark transmission grid. The method successfully demonstrates its ability to efficiently identify and evaluate counter measures for a large, practical system....

  20. Weight Gain Prevention among Midlife Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial to Address Needs Related to the Physical and Social Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney D. Perry

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Women tend to gain weight at midlife (40–60 years increasing risk of obesity-related chronic diseases. Within specific eating occasions, needs related to the physical and social environment may result in less healthy eating behavior, which can lead to weight gain over time. The purpose of this study was to determine if a dietitian-delivered nutrition counseling intervention tailored to eating occasion needs could improve diet and prevent weight gain among midlife women over two years. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with healthy midlife women (n = 354 in one U.S. metropolitan area. The intervention group (n = 185 received ten hours of individual nutrition counseling from dietitians over six months, while women in a control group (n = 169 received no counseling. Measured height, weight and waist circumference, and dietary intakes were collected at baseline and every six months over two years. Mixed linear models were used to test for intervention effect on change in outcome variables over time. Dietary intakes of fruit, reduced/low-fat dairy foods and refined grains were significantly improved over time in the intervention compared to control group. However, the intervention had no effect on weight over time (p = 0.48. Nutrition counseling tailored to address eating occasion needs improved self-reported diet but did not significantly affect weight change.

  1. Advances in Statistical Methods for Substance Abuse Prevention Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, David P.; Lockwood, Chondra M.

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes advances in statistical methods for prevention research with a particular focus on substance abuse prevention. Standard analysis methods are extended to the typical research designs and characteristics of the data collected in prevention research. Prevention research often includes longitudinal measurement, clustering of data in units such as schools or clinics, missing data, and categorical as well as continuous outcome variables. Statistical methods to handle these features of prevention data are outlined. Developments in mediation, moderation, and implementation analysis allow for the extraction of more detailed information from a prevention study. Advancements in the interpretation of prevention research results include more widespread calculation of effect size and statistical power, the use of confidence intervals as well as hypothesis testing, detailed causal analysis of research findings, and meta-analysis. The increased availability of statistical software has contributed greatly to the use of new methods in prevention research. It is likely that the Internet will continue to stimulate the development and application of new methods. PMID:12940467

  2. Sparsity Prevention Pivoting Method for Linear Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peiqiang; Li, Qiyuan; Li, Canbing

    2018-01-01

    When the simplex algorithm is used to calculate a linear programming problem, if the matrix is a sparse matrix, it will be possible to lead to many zero-length calculation steps, and even iterative cycle will appear. To deal with the problem, a new pivoting method is proposed in this paper....... The principle of this method is avoided choosing the row which the value of the element in the b vector is zero as the row of the pivot element to make the matrix in linear programming density and ensure that most subsequent steps will improve the value of the objective function. One step following...... this principle is inserted to reselect the pivot element in the existing linear programming algorithm. Both the conditions for inserting this step and the maximum number of allowed insertion steps are determined. In the case study, taking several numbers of linear programming problems as examples, the results...

  3. Sparsity Prevention Pivoting Method for Linear Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peiqiang; Li, Qiyuan; Li, Canbing

    2018-01-01

    . The principle of this method is avoided choosing the row which the value of the element in the b vector is zero as the row of the pivot element to make the matrix in linear programming density and ensure that most subsequent steps will improve the value of the objective function. One step following......When the simplex algorithm is used to calculate a linear programming problem, if the matrix is a sparse matrix, it will be possible to lead to many zero-length calculation steps, and even iterative cycle will appear. To deal with the problem, a new pivoting method is proposed in this paper...... this principle is inserted to reselect the pivot element in the existing linear programming algorithm. Both the conditions for inserting this step and the maximum number of allowed insertion steps are determined. In the case study, taking several numbers of linear programming problems as examples, the results...

  4. Use of quality management methods in the transition from efficacious prevention programs to effective prevention services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Vicki-Smith; Sandler, Irwin; Wolchik, Sharlene

    2008-06-01

    This paper applies concepts and methods developed in management to translate efficacious prevention programs into effective prevention services. The paper describes Quality Function Deployment (QFD) as a method for structured planning and development that connects the needs and wants of the consumer with the design of the product or service. The paper describes basic tools used in quality management, and discusses how they might be applied to prepare a prevention program for implementation by community agencies. Prevention programs are conceptualized as having multiple consumers (i.e., stakeholders), including the participants who receive the service, the service providers, the organizations that deliver the program, and the researchers who evaluate the programs. As an illustration of one step in the application of QFD to translate efficacious prevention programs into effective prevention services, analysis of the needs and preferences of Family Courts for the implementation of an the New Beginnings Program is presented.

  5. Limitations in small artisanal gold mining addressed by educational components paired with alternative mining methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolnikov, Tara R

    2012-03-01

    Current solutions continue to be inadequate in addressing the longstanding, worldwide problem of mercury emissions from small artisanal gold mining. Mercury, an inexpensive and easily accessible heavy metal, is used in the process of extracting gold from ore. Mercury emissions disperse, affecting human populations by causing adverse health effects and environmental and social ramifications. Many developing nations have sizable gold ore deposits, making small artisanal gold mining a major source of employment in the world. Poverty drives vulnerable, rural populations into gold mining because of social and economic instabilities. Educational programs responding to this environmental hazard have been implemented in the past, but have had low positive results due to lack of governmental support and little economic incentive. Educational and enforced intervention programs must be developed in conjunction with governmental agencies in order to successfully eliminate this ongoing problem. Industry leaders offered hopeful suggestions, but revealed limitations when trying to develop encompassing solutions to halt mercury emissions. This research highlights potential options that have been attempted in the past and suggests alternative solutions to improve upon these methods. Some methods include buyer impact recognition, risk assessment proposals exposing a cost-benefit analysis and toxicokinetic modeling, public health awareness campaigns, and the education of miners, healthcare workers, and locals within hazardous areas of mercury exposure. These methods, paired with the implementation of alternative mining techniques, propose a substantial reduction of mercury emissions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Methods to address ethical issues in Counterterrorisme : An overview of methods and tools used to address and manage ethical issues in healthcare, social work, police and the military

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anke van Gorp; Stijn Hoorens

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Chapter 4: Basing ourselves on a literature review and expert interviews we create an overview of methods and tools to identify and respond to ethical questions used in healthcare, social work, police and the military. We identify six main types of methods or tools that can support

  7. Methods employed in the prevention and treatment of malaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    onasoga olayinka

    of malaria among pregnant women in riverine community in Bayelsa State, ... at high risk of the effects of malaria infection and need special protective .... mentioned maintenance of clean environment, as other methods of preventing malaria.

  8. Prevention methods for pest control and their use in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyjaszczyk, Ewa

    2015-04-01

    Prevention methods can still be a cost-effective and efficient tool for pest control. Rational use of prevention methods is a feasible way to reduce dependency on chemical protection in agriculture. Costs, workload and farmers' awareness are key issues, however. In Poland, crop rotation is used as a method for pest control only to a limited extent owing to the high share of cereals in the crop structure. The choice of resistant varieties is satisfactory, but farmers should make use of qualified seed material more often. Liming is recommended on the majority of farms on account of widespread soil acidity. Favourable aspects as regards the prevention of pest development are biodiversity and the popularity of prevention cultivation techniques. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Using an Optimized Chinese Address Matching Method to Develop a Geocoding Service: A Case Study of Shenzhen, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Tian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available With the coming era of big data and the rapid development and widespread applications of Geographical Information Systems (GISs, geocoding technology is playing an increasingly important role in bridging the gap between non-spatial data resources and spatial data in various fields. However, Chinese geocoding faces great challenges because of the complexity of the address string format in Chinese, which contains no delimiters between Chinese words, and the poor address management resulting from the existence of multiple address authorities spread among different governmental agencies. This paper presents a geocoding service based on an optimized Chinese address matching method, including address modeling, address standardization and address matching. The address model focuses on the spatial semantics of each address element, and the address standardization process is based on an address tree model. A geocoding service application is implemented in practice using a large quantity of data from Shenzhen Municipality. More than 1,460,000 data records were used to test the geocoding service, and good matching rates were achieved with good adaptability and intelligence.

  10. Suicide Methods in Asia: Implications in Suicide Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul S. F. Yip

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available As the largest continent in the World, Asia accounts for about 60% of World suicides. Preventing suicide by restricting access to suicide methods is one of the few evidence-based suicide prevention strategies. However, there has been a lack of systematic exploration of suicide methods in Asian countries. To amend this shortage, the current review examines the leading suicide methods in different Asian countries, their trend, their age- and sex- specific characteristics, and their implications for suicide prevention. In total, 42 articles with leading suicide methods data in 17 Asian countries/regions were retrieved. The epidemiologic characteristics and recent trends of common suicide methods reflect specific socio-cultural, economic, and religious situations in the region. Common suicide methods shift with the introduction of technologies and constructions, and have specific age- or sex-characteristics that may render the restriction of suicide methods not equally effective for all sex and age sub-groups. Charcoal burning, pesticide poisoning, native plant poisoning, self-immolation, and jumping are all prominent examples. In the information society, suicide prevention that focuses on suicide methods must monitor and control the innovation and spread of knowledge and practices of suicide “technologies”. It may be more cost-effective to design safety into technologies as a way of suicide prevention while there is no rash of suicides yet by the new technologies. Further research on suicide methods is important for public health approaches to suicide prevention with sensitivity to socio-cultural, economic, and religious factors in different countries.

  11. Suicide Methods in Asia: Implications in Suicide Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kevin Chien-Chang; Chen, Ying-Yeh; Yip, Paul S. F.

    2012-01-01

    As the largest continent in the World, Asia accounts for about 60% of World suicides. Preventing suicide by restricting access to suicide methods is one of the few evidence-based suicide prevention strategies. However, there has been a lack of systematic exploration of suicide methods in Asian countries. To amend this shortage, the current review examines the leading suicide methods in different Asian countries, their trend, their age- and sex- specific characteristics, and their implications for suicide prevention. In total, 42 articles with leading suicide methods data in 17 Asian countries/regions were retrieved. The epidemiologic characteristics and recent trends of common suicide methods reflect specific socio-cultural, economic, and religious situations in the region. Common suicide methods shift with the introduction of technologies and constructions, and have specific age- or sex-characteristics that may render the restriction of suicide methods not equally effective for all sex and age sub-groups. Charcoal burning, pesticide poisoning, native plant poisoning, self-immolation, and jumping are all prominent examples. In the information society, suicide prevention that focuses on suicide methods must monitor and control the innovation and spread of knowledge and practices of suicide “technologies”. It may be more cost-effective to design safety into technologies as a way of suicide prevention while there is no rash of suicides yet by the new technologies. Further research on suicide methods is important for public health approaches to suicide prevention with sensitivity to socio-cultural, economic, and religious factors in different countries. PMID:22690187

  12. Methods for addressing "innocent bystanders" when evaluating safety of concomitant vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shirley V; Abdurrob, Abdurrahman; Spoendlin, Julia; Lewis, Edwin; Newcomer, Sophia R; Fireman, Bruce; Daley, Matthew F; Glanz, Jason M; Duffy, Jonathan; Weintraub, Eric S; Kulldorff, Martin

    2018-04-01

    The need to develop methods for studying the safety of childhood immunization schedules has been recognized by the Institute of Medicine and Department of Health and Human Services. The recommended childhood immunization schedule includes multiple vaccines in a visit. A key concern is safety of concomitant (same day) versus separate day vaccination. This paper addresses a methodological challenge for observational studies using a self-controlled design to investigate the safety of concomitant vaccination. We propose a process for distinguishing which of several concomitantly administered vaccines is responsible for increased risk of an adverse event while adjusting for confounding due to relationships between effect modifying risk factors and concomitant vaccine combinations. We illustrate the approach by re-examining the known increase in risk of seizure 7 to 10 days after measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination and evaluating potential independent or modifying effects of other vaccines. Initial analyses suggested that DTaP had both an independent and potentiating effect on seizure. After accounting for the relationship between age at vaccination and vaccine combination, there was little evidence for increased risk of seizure with same day administration of DTaP and MMR; incidence rate ratio, 95% confidence interval 1.2 (0.9-1.6), P value = θ.226. We have shown that when using a self-controlled design to investigate safety of concomitant vaccination, it can be critically important to adjust for time-invariant effect modifying risk factors, such as age at time of vaccination, which are structurally related to vaccination patterns due to recommended immunization schedules. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Chopsticks Don't Make It Culturally Competent: Addressing Larger Issues for HIV Prevention among Gay, Bisexual, and Queer Asian Pacific Islander Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chong-suk

    2009-01-01

    According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, men who have sex with men account for the largest proportion of cumulative AIDS cases among Asian Pacific Islanders. Yet little is known about the factors that need to be addressed in developing culturally competent intervention strategies for members of this group. This article explores…

  14. Universal prevention efforts should address eating disorder pathology across the weight spectrum: Implications for screening and intervention on college campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass, Andrea E.; Jones, Megan; Kolko, Rachel P.; Altman, Myra; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E.; Eichen, Dawn M.; Balantekin, Katherine N.; Trockel, Mickey; Taylor, C. Barr; Wilfley, Denise E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Given shared risk and maintaining factors between eating disorders and obesity, it may be important to include both eating disorder intervention and healthy weight management within a universal eating disorder care delivery program. This study evaluated differential eating disorder screening responses by initial weight status among university students, to assess eating disorder risk and pathology among individuals with overweight/obesity versus normal weight or underweight. Methods 1529 individuals were screened and analyzed. Screening was conducted via pilot implementation of the Internet-based Healthy Body Image program on two university campuses. Results Fifteen percent of the sample had overweight/obesity. Over half (58%) of individuals with overweight/obesity screened as high risk for an eating disorder or warranting clinical referral, and 58% of individuals with overweight/obesity endorsed a ≥10-pound weight change over the past year. Compared to individuals with normal weight or underweight, individuals with overweight/obesity were more likely to identify as Black, endorse objective binge eating and fasting, endorse that eating disorder-related concerns impaired their relationships/social life and made them feel badly, and endorse higher weight/shape concerns. Conclusions Results suggest rates of eating disorder pathology and clinical impairment are highest among students with overweight/obesity, and targeted intervention across weight categories and diverse races/ethnicities is warranted within universal eating disorder intervention efforts. Integrating eating disorder intervention and healthy weight management into universal prevention programs could reduce the incidence and prevalence of eating disorders, unhealthy weight control practices, and obesity among university students. PMID:27090854

  15. A Social Media mHealth Solution to Address the Needs of Dengue Prevention and Management in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwin, May O; Vijaykumar, Santosh; Rathnayake, Vajira Sampath; Lim, Gentatsu; Panchapakesan, Chitra; Foo, Schubert; Wijayamuni, Ruwan; Wimalaratne, Prasad; Fernando, Owen Noel Newton

    2016-07-01

    Sri Lanka has witnessed a series of dengue epidemics over the past five years, with the western province, home to the political capital of Colombo, bearing more than half of the dengue burden. Existing dengue monitoring prevention programs are exhausted as public health inspectors (PHIs) cope with increasing workloads and paper-based modes of surveillance and education, characterizing a reactive system unable to cope with the enormity of the problem. On the other hand, the unprecedented proliferation and affordability of mobile phones since 2009 and a supportive political climate have thus far remained unexploited for the use of mobile-based interventions for dengue management. To conduct a needs assessment of PHIs in Colombo with respect to their dengue-related tasks and develop a new mobile-based system to address these needs while strengthening existing systems. One-on-one in-depth interviews were conducted with 29 PHIs to a) gain a nuanced, in-depth understanding of the current state of surveillance practices, b) understand the logistical, technological and social challenges they confront, and c) identify opportunities for mobile-based interventions. Quantitative analysis included simple descriptive statistics while qualitative analysis comprised textual analysis of 209 pages of transcripts (or nearly 600 minutes of conversations) using grounded theory approaches. Current paper-based data collection practices for dengue surveillance involved a circuitous, time consuming process that could take between 7-10 days to officially report and record a single case. PHIs confronted challenges in terms of unreliable, standalone GIS devices, delays in registering mosquito breeding sites and lack of engagement from communities while delivering dengue education. These findings, in concert with a high motivation to use mobile-based systems, informed the development of Mo-Buzz, a mobile-based system that integrates three components - digitized surveillance, dynamic disease

  16. Incorporating primary and secondary prevention approaches to address childhood obesity prevention and treatment in a low-income, ethnically diverse population

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is consensus that development and evaluation of a systems-oriented approach for child obesity prevention and treatment that includes both primary and secondary prevention efforts is needed. This article describes the study design and baseline data from the Texas Childhood Obesity Research Demo...

  17. Purpose and methods of a Pollution Prevention Awareness Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flowers, P.A.; Irwin, E.F.; Poligone, S.E.

    1994-08-15

    The purpose of the Pollution Prevention Awareness Program (PPAP), which is required by DOE Order 5400.1, is to foster the philosophy that prevention is superior to remediation. The goal of the program is to incorporate pollution prevention into the decision-making process at every level throughout the organization. The objectives are to instill awareness, disseminate information, provide training and rewards for identifying the true source or cause of wastes, and encourage employee participation in solving environmental issues and preventing pollution. PPAP at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was created several years ago and continues to grow. We believe that we have implemented several unique methods of communicating environmental awareness to promote a more active work force in identifying ways of reducing pollution.

  18. A scalable addressing method when using IMS as a service bus infrastructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stokking, H.M.; Hartog, F.T.H. den; Walraven, F.A.

    2009-01-01

    The dynamic provisioning of SIP addresses is a challenge when many devices and services are dynamically attached to an IMS network. Manual provisioning is too labor intensive for a telecommunications operator, and it is difficult to do it in a way that allows those devices and services access to all

  19. Materials and methods for preventing and treating anastomotic leaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alverdy, John C.

    2018-04-10

    Materials and methods for preventing and treating anastomotic leaks are disclosed. Data establishes that pathogenic microbes interfere with establishing epithelial cell barriers in anastomoses and, more generally, with the reconnection of any two portions of like or different tissues comprising epithelia. Suitable prophylactic and therapeutic composition comprise, e.g., a phosphorylated high molecular weight polyethylene glycol compound.

  20. Development of a Systems Science Curriculum to Engage Rural African American Teens in Understanding and Addressing Childhood Obesity Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frerichs, Leah; Lich, Kristen Hassmiller; Young, Tiffany L.; Dave, Gaurav; Stith, Doris; Corbie-Smith, Giselle

    2018-01-01

    Engaging youth from racial and ethnic minority communities as leaders for change is a potential strategy to mobilize support for addressing childhood obesity, but there are limited curricula designed to help youth understand the complex influences on obesity. Our aim was to develop and pilot test a systems science curriculum to elicit rural…

  1. Description of the Design and Implementation of a School-Based Obesity Prevention Program Addressing Needs of Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward-Begnoche, Wendy L.; Gance-Cleveland, Bonnie; Harris, Margaret M.; Dean, Janice

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the design and implementation of a school-based obesity prevention program, the successes associated with its implementation, and challenges with development and application of the program's curriculum base. The program is described, including purpose and goals, content and structure of the curriculum, type and training of…

  2. Using mixed methods effectively in prevention science: designs, procedures, and examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wanqing; Watanabe-Galloway, Shinobu

    2014-10-01

    There is growing interest in using a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods to generate evidence about the effectiveness of health prevention, services, and intervention programs. With the emerging importance of mixed methods research across the social and health sciences, there has been an increased recognition of the value of using mixed methods for addressing research questions in different disciplines. We illustrate the mixed methods approach in prevention research, showing design procedures used in several published research articles. In this paper, we focused on two commonly used mixed methods designs: concurrent and sequential mixed methods designs. We discuss the types of mixed methods designs, the reasons for, and advantages of using a particular type of design, and the procedures of qualitative and quantitative data collection and integration. The studies reviewed in this paper show that the essence of qualitative research is to explore complex dynamic phenomena in prevention science, and the advantage of using mixed methods is that quantitative data can yield generalizable results and qualitative data can provide extensive insights. However, the emphasis of methodological rigor in a mixed methods application also requires considerable expertise in both qualitative and quantitative methods. Besides the necessary skills and effective interdisciplinary collaboration, this combined approach also requires an open-mindedness and reflection from the involved researchers.

  3. Evaluation method of radon preventing effect in underground construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Shaodong; Deng Yuequan; Dong Faqin; Qu Ruixue; Xie Zhonglei

    2014-01-01

    Background: It's difficult to evaluate the radon prevention effect because of the short operating time of measuring instrument under the circumstances of high humidity in underground construction. Purpose: A new rapid method to evaluate the radon prevention efficiency of underground construction was introduced. Methods: The radon concentrations before and after shielding operation were determined, and according to the regularity of radon decay, the shielding rate can be calculated. Results: The results showed that radon shielding rate in underground construction remains generally stable with variation of time, and the actual relatively standard deviation was 3.95%. So the rapid determination and evaluation of radon preventing effect under special conditions in underground construction can be realized by taking shielding rate in a short time for the final shielding rate. Compared with those by the local static method in ground lab, the results were similar. Conclusion: This paper provided a prompt, accurate and practicable way for the evaluation of radon prevention in underground construction, having a certain reference value. (authors)

  4. Improved Focusing Method for 3-D Imaging using Row–Column-Addressed 2-D Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouzari, Hamed; Engholm, Mathias; Stuart, Matthias Bo

    2017-01-01

    A row–column-addressed (RCA) 2-D array can be interpreted as two orthogonal 1-D arrays. By transmitting with row elements and receiving the echoes through column elements or vice versa, a rectilinear volume in front of the array can be beamformed. Since the transmit and receive 1-D arrays are ort...... measurements with a PZT λ/2-pitch 3 MHz 62+62 RCA 2-D transducer probe. A synthetic aperture imaging sequence with single element transmissions at a time, is designed for imaging down to 14 cm at a volume rate of 44 Hz....

  5. Using the method of judgement analysis to address variations in diagnostic decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Hancock, Helen C; Mason, James M; Murphy, Jerry J

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Heart failure is not a clear-cut diagnosis but a complex clinical syndrome with consequent diagnostic uncertainty. Judgment analysis is a method to help clinical teams to understand how they make complex decisions. The method of judgment analysis was used to determine the factors that influence clinicians' diagnostic decisions about heart failure. Methods Three consultants, three middle grade doctors, and two junior doctors each evaluated 45 patient scenarios. The main out...

  6. ONE TIME PASSWORDLESS and IP ADDRESS AUTHENTICATION METHOD for WEB APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sani Suprayogi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian yang membahas model autentikasi pengguna, mulai dari autentikasi tradisional menggunakan username dan password hingga metode multi-factor authentication telah sering dilakukan. Namun model autentikasi tersebut masih menggunakan password, dimana manusia memiki keterbatasan untuk mengingat sehingga resiko kehilangan password kerap terjadi. Selain itu pencurian data pada jaringan komputer masih marak dilakukan sehingga perlu pendekatan lain dalam autentikasi pengguna terhadap sistem. Passwordless authentication adalah model autentikasi yang mulai dikenalkan, hanya saja proses implementasinya masih terbatas. Paper ini berusaha meningkatkan metode passwordless dengan tambahan time limit, session, dan ipaddress dalam melakukan autentikasi pengguna. Hasilnya, pengguna tidak perlu membuat dan mengingat password. Pengguna cukup memanfaatkan layanan email untuk proses registrasi dan login, kemudian ip address menjamin bahwa hanya pengguna tersebut yang dapat mengakses layanan website.

  7. NEW METHOD OF PREVENTION OF IRONDEFENSE ANEMIA IN PREGNANT TEENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Mikhaylin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an assessment of the effectiveness of the method proposed by the authors for the prevention of iron deficiency anemia in minor pregnant women. In the first stage, 593 histories of childbirth were retrospectively analyzed (group 1 — minors 13-15 years (n = 49, 2 group — minors 16-17 (n = 434, 3rd group — middle reproductive age (n = 110 . In the second stage, a prospective study of the frequency and structure of anemia of pregnant women was carried out (group 1 — minors aged 13-15 years (n = 17, group 2 — minors 16-17 (n = 127, 3rd group — women of middle reproductive age (n = 110. At the III stage, minor pregnant women were divided into two groups: in 1 (main group (n = 144, iron deficiency anemia was prevented according to the method we proposed; in the 2nd group (comparison group traditional therapy with iron preparations was carried out at the appearance of signs of anemia. The essence of the proposed method is that an minor pregnant woman, without waiting for laboratory signs of anemia, is examined for ferritin in venous blood, and at a value below 35 ng/ml, oral iron preparations are prescribed in conventional preventive doses for a period of 3 months, and if through three months the content of ferritin in the venous blood is again below 35 ng/ml — the intake of iron-containing preparations continues for another 3 months. The use of the proposed method contributed to a significant decrease in the incidence of anemia in minor pregnant women. The proposed method of preventing iron deficiency anemia in minor pregnant women helps to reduce the frequency and severity of anemia in this complex category of patients. 

  8. Addressing social influences reduces antibiotic duration in complicated abdominal infection: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, Jennifer; Tee, Chin Li; Broom, Alex; Kelly, Mark D; Scott, Tahira; Grieve, David A

    2018-03-06

    Antimicrobial therapy for intra-abdominal infections is often inappropriately prolonged. An intervention addressing factors influencing the duration of intravenous antibiotic use was undertaken. This study reports the antibiotic prescribing patterns before and after the intervention and a qualitative analysis of the experience of the intervention. Quantitative: A retrospective audit of patients with complicated intra-abdominal infection before and after a multifaceted persuasive intervention was performed. Qualitative: Semi-structured interviews were performed to evaluate which elements of the intervention were perceived to be effective. An intervention including collaborative inter-specialty and inter-professional educational meetings, and education of all professional streams was undertaken. Quantitative: Twenty-three patients before and 22 patients after the intervention were included. The total duration of antibiotics decreased significantly following the intervention (9.2 versus 6.6 days P = 0.02). The duration of intravenous antibiotics did not change significantly (5.4 versus 4.5 days, P = 0.06). Qualitative: Eighteen health-care professionals participated. Thematic analysis indicated that a collaborative approach between senior surgical and infectious disease specialists in the pre-intervention stage led to perceived ownership and leadership of the intervention by the surgical team, which was thought critical to the success of the intervention. Conversely, the ability of nurses and pharmacists to influence antibiotic practice was considered limited and a poster promoting the intervention was perceived as ineffective. Consultant leadership and specialty ownership of the process were perceived to be critical in the success of the intervention. Antibiotic stewardship programs which address social factors may have greater efficacy to optimize antimicrobial prescribing. © 2018 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  9. Electronic laboratory quality assurance program: A method of enhancing the prosthodontic curriculum and addressing accreditation standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadam, Marjan; Jahangiri, Leila

    2015-08-01

    An electronic quality assurance (eQA) program was developed to replace a paper-based system and to address standards introduced by the Commission on Dental Accreditation (CODA) and to improve educational outcomes. This eQA program provides feedback to predoctoral dental students on prosthodontic laboratory steps at New York University College of Dentistry. The purpose of this study was to compare the eQA program of performing laboratory quality assurance with the former paper-based format. Fourth-year predoctoral dental students (n=334) who experienced both the paper-based and the electronic version of the quality assurance program were surveyed about their experiences. Additionally, data extracted from the eQA program were analyzed to identify areas of weakness in the curriculum. The study findings revealed that 73.8% of the students preferred the eQA program to the paper-based version. The average number of treatments that did not pass quality assurance standards was 119.5 per month. This indicated a 6.34% laboratory failure rate. Further analysis of these data revealed that 62.1% of the errors were related to fixed prosthodontic treatment, 27.9% to partial removable dental prostheses, and 10% to complete removable dental prostheses in the first 18 months of program implementation. The eQA program was favored by dental students who have experienced both electronic and paper-based versions of the system. Error type analysis can yield the ability to create customized faculty standardization sessions and refine the didactic and clinical teaching of the predoctoral students. This program was also able to link patient care activity with the student's laboratory activities, thus addressing the latest requirements of the CODA regarding the competence of graduates in evaluating laboratory work related to their patient care. Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Enhancing Perception in Ethical Decision Making: A Method to Address Ill-Defined Training Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Development Ethical Decision Making Qualitative Methods Applications of Gestalt Theory Decision Making Experiences Mixed-Method...U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences Research Report 1932 Enhancing Perception in Ethical...TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (from. . . to) April 2009 to May 2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Enhancing Perception in Ethical Decision Making: A

  11. Addressing Next Generation Science Standards: A Method for Supporting Classroom Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellien, Tamara; Rothenburger, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) will define science education for the foreseeable future, yet many educators struggle to see the bridge between current practice and future practices. The inquiry-based methods used by Extension professionals (Kress, 2006) can serve as a guide for classroom educators. Described herein is a method of…

  12. Use of the method for addressing the challenges of resources procurement management at a mining enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, T. V.; Strekalov, S. V.; Novichikhin, A. V.

    2017-09-01

    The article is devoted to the analysis of possible application of the total cost of ownership method for the purchase of resources at a mining enterprise. The description of the total cost of ownership method and experience of using this method in other spheres is provided. The article identifies the essential components needed to calculate the total cost of ownership of a resource. Particular attention is paid to the ratio of the price of the purchased resource and the total cost of ownership. To justify the relevance of application of this method at a mining enterprise for resources purchase, the technical and economic conditions of mining enterprises have been analyzed, which are quite specific and force to introduce certain adjustments to the application of the considered method and opens up new possibilities for its use. Specific spheres for application of this method at a mining enterprise are determined. The main result of the study is the proposed practical recommendations for the introduction and extension of the practice of using the method when a mining enterprise purchases resources.

  13. Deposit and scale prevention methods in thermal sea water desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froehner, K.R.

    1977-01-01

    Introductory remarks deal with the 'fouling factor' and its influence on the overall heat transfer coefficient of msf evaporators. The composition of the matter dissolved in sea water and the thermal and chemical properties lead to formation of alkaline scale or even hard, sulphate scale on the heat exchanger tube walls and can hamper plant operation and economics seriously. Among the scale prevention methods are 1) pH control by acid dosing (decarbonation), 2) 'threshold treatment' by dosing of inhibitors of different kind, 3) mechanical cleaning by sponge rubber balls guided through the heat exchanger tubes, in general combined with methods no. 1 or 2, and 4) application of a scale crystals germ slurry (seeding). Mention is made of several other scale prevention proposals. The problems encountered with marine life (suspension, deposit, growth) in desalination plants are touched. (orig.) [de

  14. Applying probabilistic methods for assessments and calculations for accident prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    The guidelines for the prevention of accidents require plant design-specific and radioecological calculations to be made in order to show that maximum acceptable expsoure values will not be exceeded in case of an accident. For this purpose, main parameters affecting the accident scenario have to be determined by probabilistic methods. This offers the advantage that parameters can be quantified on the basis of unambigious and realistic criteria, and final results can be defined in terms of conservativity. (DG) [de

  15. Method and apparatus for preventing overspeed in a gas turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, William E.

    1976-01-01

    A method and apparatus for preventing overspeed in a gas turbine in response to the rapid loss of applied load is disclosed. The method involves diverting gas from the inlet of the turbine, bypassing the same around the turbine and thereafter injecting the diverted gas at the turbine exit in a direction toward or opposing the flow of gas through the turbine. The injected gas is mixed with the gas exiting the turbine to thereby minimize the thermal shock upon equipment downstream of the turbine exit.

  16. Preventing method and device for underground permeation of hazardous material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funabashi, Kiyomi; Kurokawa, Hideaki; Fukazawa, Tetsuo; Yamazaki, Tadashi.

    1996-01-01

    In a method of preventing hazardous materials from permeating into ground by burying adsorbing materials underground, a plurality of adsorbing layers are laminated being spaced apart from each other, the concentration of the hazardous materials between each of the adsorbent layers is measured. When the concentration reaches a predetermined value, the adsorbent layers are regenerated. A suppression means for preventing hazardous materials from permeating into the ground are formed by an upper adsorbent layer and a lower adsorbent layer, and a means for measuring the concentration of hazardous materials passing through the upper adsorbent layer and a means for charging and discharging regenerated liquid are disposed. When it is detected that the poisonous materials can not be eliminated, the poisonous materials are already permeated to the adsorbent layer, and they start to inflow into underground water. In order to prevent it, an adsorbent layer is additionally disposed at the lower side of the place of detection to eliminate the poisonous materials completely thereby enabling to prevent poisonous materials from permeating into underground for a long period of time. (T.M.)

  17. Methods to address poultry robustness and welfare issues through breeding and associated ethical considerations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William eMuir

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available As consumers and society in general become more aware of ethical and moral dilemmas associated with confined rearing systems, pressure is put on the animal and poultry industries to adopt alternative forms of housing. This presents challenges especially regarding managing competitive social interactions between animals. However, selective breeding programs are rapidly advancing, enhanced by both genomics and new quantitative genetic theory and offer potential solutions by improving adaptation of the bird to existing and proposed production environments. The outcomes of adaptation could lead to improvement of animal welfare by increasing fitness of the animal for the given environments, which might lead to increased contentment and decreased distress in those systems. Genomic selection, based on dense genetic markers, will allow for more rapid improvement of traits that are expensive or difficult to measure, or have a low heritability, such as pecking, cannibalism, robustness, mortality, leg score, bone strength, disease resistance, and thus has the potential to address many poultry welfare concerns. Recently selection programs to include social effects, known as associative or indirect genetic effects (IGE, have received much attention. Group, kin, multi-level and multi-trait selection have all been shown to be highly effective in reducing mortality while increasing productivity of poultry layers and reduce or eliminate the need for beak trimming. Also, multi-level selection was shown to increases robustness as indicated by l greater ability of birds to cope with stressors. Kin selection has been shown to be easy to implement and improve both productivity and animal well-being . Because social effects are improved with such programs, it might be possible to increase stocking density, increase light levels, and use larger groups in floor pens. However, such changes raise ethical concerns that may constrain making these choices.

  18. Using a Concept Cartoon© Method to Address Elementary School Students' Ideas about Natural Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minárechová, Michaela

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the identification and subsequent development or modification of students´ ideas about scientific phenomena by teaching by concept cartoons© method. We found out ideas of students of the fourth grade of primary school by conceptual tasks which were parts of quasi-experiment (pretest and posttest design). For triangulation…

  19. Addressing Phase Errors in Fat-Water Imaging Using a Mixed Magnitude/Complex Fitting Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernando, D.; Hines, C. D. G.; Yu, H.; Reeder, S.B.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate, noninvasive measurements of liver fat content are needed for the early diagnosis and quantitative staging of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Chemical shift-based fat quantification methods acquire images at multiple echo times using a multiecho spoiled gradient echo sequence, and provide fat fraction measurements through postprocessing. However, phase errors, such as those caused by eddy currents, can adversely affect fat quantification. These phase errors are typically most significant at the first echo of the echo train, and introduce bias in complex-based fat quantification techniques. These errors can be overcome using a magnitude-based technique (where the phase of all echoes is discarded), but at the cost of significantly degraded signal-to-noise ratio, particularly for certain choices of echo time combinations. In this work, we develop a reconstruction method that overcomes these phase errors without the signal-to-noise ratio penalty incurred by magnitude fitting. This method discards the phase of the first echo (which is often corrupted) while maintaining the phase of the remaining echoes (where phase is unaltered). We test the proposed method on 104 patient liver datasets (from 52 patients, each scanned twice), where the fat fraction measurements are compared to coregistered spectroscopy measurements. We demonstrate that mixed fitting is able to provide accurate fat fraction measurements with high signal-to-noise ratio and low bias over a wide choice of echo combinations. PMID:21713978

  20. Addressing risk factors for child abuse among high risk pregnant women: design of a randomised controlled trial of the nurse family partnership in Dutch preventive health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mejdoubi Jamila

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low socio-economic status combined with other risk factors affects a person's physical and psychosocial health from childhood to adulthood. The societal impact of these problems is huge, and the consequences carry on into the next generation(s. Although several studies show these consequences, only a few actually intervene on these issues. In the United States, the Nurse Family Partnership focuses on high risk pregnant women and their children. The main goal of this program is primary prevention of child abuse. The Netherlands is the first country outside the United States allowed to translate and culturally adapt the Nurse Family Partnership into VoorZorg. The aim of the present study is to assess whether VoorZorg is as effective in the Netherland as in the United States. Methods The study consists of three partly overlapping phases. Phase 1 was the translation and cultural adaptation of Nurse Family Partnership and the design of a two-stage selection procedure. Phase 2 was a pilot study to examine the conditions for implementation. Phase 3 is the randomized controlled trial of VoorZorg compared to the care as usual. Primary outcome measures were smoking cessation during pregnancy and after birth, birth outcomes, child development, child abuse and domestic violence. The secondary outcome measure was the number of risk factors present. Discussion This study shows that the Nurse Family Partnership was successfully translated and culturally adapted into the Dutch health care system and that this program fulfills the needs of high-risk pregnant women. We hypothesize that this program will be effective in addressing risk factors that operate during pregnancy and childhood and compromise fetal and child development. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN16131117

  1. Integrating qualitative research methods into care improvement efforts within a learning health system: addressing antibiotic overuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Plaza, Corrine E; Parry, Carla; Hahn, Erin E; Tang, Tania; Nguyen, Huong Q; Gould, Michael K; Kanter, Michael H; Sharp, Adam L

    2016-08-15

    Despite reports advocating for integration of research into healthcare delivery, scant literature exists describing how this can be accomplished. Examples highlighting application of qualitative research methods embedded into a healthcare system are particularly needed. This article describes the process and value of embedding qualitative research as the second phase of an explanatory, sequential, mixed methods study to improve antibiotic stewardship for acute sinusitis. Purposive sampling of providers for in-depth interviews improved understanding of unwarranted antibiotic prescribing and elicited stakeholder recommendations for improvement. Qualitative data collection, transcription and constant comparative analyses occurred iteratively. Emerging themes and sub-themes identified primary drivers of unwarranted antibiotic prescribing patterns and recommendations for improving practice. These findings informed the design of a health system intervention to improve antibiotic stewardship for acute sinusitis. Core components of the intervention are also described. Qualitative research can be effectively applied in learning healthcare systems to elucidate quantitative results and inform improvement efforts.

  2. Method for preventing plugging of water wells by clay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blazhkov, V I

    1966-01-01

    A method is suggested for preventing the plugging of water-bearing sands by clay from drilling fluids. It consists in placing a cement plug in the upper nipple above the filter, in order to prevent its plugging during the installation. The drilling mud passes through the rinsing windows and fills the internal void of the filter column, thus preventing further percolation and plugging of the filter during its lowering. When a 2-filter column is lowered, the clay solution is pumped into the interval between the cement plug and the next filter; this is done gradually in proportion to the addition of new pipes. When the drilling mud level lowers in the annular space between the pipes, the mud cake, together with water-saturated sand, passes through the rinsing windows into the pipes and is removed to the surface by airlift or other methods. This procedure is described in detail, discussed for various conditions of well structure, and illustrated by schematic drawings. Its advantage is in the possibility of separate testing and production of all water-bearing zones in the well, and it does not require the use of pure water for well washing.

  3. Dear Critics: Addressing Concerns and Justifying the Benefits of Photography as a Research Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Elizabeth Miller

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Photography serves as an important tool for researchers to learn about the contextualized lives of individuals. This article explores the process of integrating photo elicitation interviews (PEI into research involving children and families. Much literature is dedicated to the general debate surrounding the ethics of visual methods in research, with little attention directed at the actual process of gaining study approval and publishing one's findings. There are two main critiques that researchers must face in order to conduct and disseminate studies involving visual images—ethics committees and peer reviewers. In this article, I identify and discuss some of the challenges that emerged across gaining protocol approval from an ethics committee in the United States. Ethical concerns and restrictions related to the use of photography can delay data collection and create barriers to research designs. Similarly, I describe the process of responding to reviewers' concerns as part of the publication process. Peer reviewers' lack of familiarity with the use of photography as a research tool may lead to misunderstandings and inappropriate requests for manuscript changes. While many concerns are sound, the range of benefits stemming from the use of visual data help to justify the time and energy required to defend this type of research. Implications are discussed for researchers using visual methods in their work. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1503274

  4. Universal prevention efforts should address eating disorder pathology across the weight spectrum: Implications for screening and intervention on college campuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass, Andrea E; Jones, Megan; Kolko, Rachel P; Altman, Myra; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E; Eichen, Dawn M; Balantekin, Katherine N; Trockel, Mickey; Taylor, C Barr; Wilfley, Denise E

    2017-04-01

    Given shared risk and maintaining factors between eating disorders and obesity, it may be important to include both eating disorder intervention and healthy weight management within a universal eating disorder care delivery program. This study evaluated differential eating disorder screening responses by initial weight status among university students, to assess eating disorder risk and pathology among individuals with overweight/obesity versus normal weight or underweight. 1529 individuals were screened and analyzed. Screening was conducted via pilot implementation of the Internet-based Healthy Body Image program on two university campuses. Fifteen percent of the sample had overweight/obesity. Over half (58%) of individuals with overweight/obesity screened as high risk for an eating disorder or warranting clinical referral, and 58% of individuals with overweight/obesity endorsed a ≥10-pound weight change over the past year. Compared to individuals with normal weight or underweight, individuals with overweight/obesity were more likely to identify as Black, endorse objective binge eating and fasting, endorse that eating disorder-related concerns impaired their relationships/social life and made them feel badly, and endorse higher weight/shape concerns. Results suggest rates of eating disorder pathology and clinical impairment are highest among students with overweight/obesity, and targeted intervention across weight categories and diverse races/ethnicities is warranted within universal eating disorder intervention efforts. Integrating eating disorder intervention and healthy weight management into universal prevention programs could reduce the incidence and prevalence of eating disorders, unhealthy weight control practices, and obesity among university students. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Incorporating primary and secondary prevention approaches to address childhood obesity prevention and treatment in a low-income, ethnically diverse population: study design and demographic data from the Texas Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (TX CORD) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelscher, Deanna M; Butte, Nancy F; Barlow, Sarah; Vandewater, Elizabeth A; Sharma, Shreela V; Huang, Terry; Finkelstein, Eric; Pont, Stephen; Sacher, Paul; Byrd-Williams, Courtney; Oluyomi, Abiodun O; Durand, Casey; Li, Linlin; Kelder, Steven H

    2015-02-01

    There is consensus that development and evaluation of a systems-oriented approach for child obesity prevention and treatment that includes both primary and secondary prevention efforts is needed. This article describes the study design and baseline data from the Texas Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (TX CORD) project, which addresses child obesity among low-income, ethnically diverse overweight and obese children, ages 2-12 years; a two-tiered systems-oriented approach is hypothesized to reduce BMI z-scores, compared to primary prevention alone. Our study aims are to: (1) implement and evaluate a primary obesity prevention program; (2) implement and evaluate efficacy of a 12-month family-centered secondary obesity prevention program embedded within primary prevention; and (3) quantify the incremental cost-effectiveness of the secondary prevention program. Baseline demographic and behavioral data for the primary prevention community areas are presented. Baseline data from preschool centers, elementary schools, and clinics indicate that most demographic variables are similar between intervention and comparison communities. Most families are low income (≤$25,000) and Hispanic/Latino (73.3-83.8%). The majority of parents were born outside of the United States. Child obesity rates exceed national values, ranging from 19.0% in preschool to 35.2% in fifth-grade children. Most parents report that their children consume sugary beverages, have a television in the bedroom, and do not consume adequate amounts of fruits and vegetables. Interventions to address childhood obesity are warranted in low-income, ethnically diverse communities. Integrating primary and secondary approaches is anticipated to provide sufficient exposure that will lead to significant decreases in childhood obesity.

  6. Surgical method for prevention of scaring in conducting sinustrabeculectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuravleva A.N.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged hypotensive effect in the postoperative period is one of the main tasks of modern glaucoma surgery. In connection with this, the aim of our study is to develop a surgical method of prevention of scarring during the classical sinustrabeculectomy. Material and Methods. The operation was performed in 13 patients (13 eyes with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG ll-lll (B-C in steps aged 50-70 years. The duration of observation up of 2 year. Results. After 9-12 months of hypotensive efficacy was 100% (13 eyes in 20-24 months — 98% (12 of 13 eyes. The result was confirmed using standard methods of examination (visometry, tonometry, computerized perimetry, tonography et al., in the early postoperative period was performed optical coherence tomography of the anterior segment, then — ultrasound biomicroscopy. Conclusions. Developed a new version of the surgical treatment of glaucoma a long-acting hypotensive effect.

  7. Bayesian methods for addressing long-standing problems in associative learning: The case of PREE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Fernando; Moris, Joaquín

    2017-07-20

    Most associative models typically assume that learning can be understood as a gradual change in associative strength that captures the situation into one single parameter, or representational state. We will call this view single-state learning. However, there is ample evidence showing that under many circumstances different relationships that share features can be learned independently, and animals can quickly switch between expressing one or another. We will call this multiple-state learning. Theoretically, it is understudied because it needs a different data analysis approach from those usually employed. In this paper, we present a Bayesian model of the Partial Reinforcement Extinction Effect (PREE) that can test the predictions of the multiple-state view. This implies estimating the moment of change in the responses (from the acquisition to the extinction performance), both at the individual and at the group levels. We used this model to analyze data from a PREE experiment with three levels of reinforcement during acquisition (100%, 75% and 50%). We found differences in the estimated moment of switch between states during extinction, so that it was delayed after leaner partial reinforcement schedules. The finding is compatible with the multiple-state view. It is the first time, to our knowledge, that the predictions from the multiple-state view are tested directly. The paper also aims to show the benefits that Bayesian methods can bring to the associative learning field.

  8. Factors Associated with Successful Mentoring of Parents Addressing Childhood Obesity: A Mixed Methods Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Abigail Villanueva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Parents mentoring other parents as a behavioral intervention for child obesity is novel with limited data describing the experience and dynamics of this approach. This study aimed to describe the experiences of parent mentors and the self-efficacy and attitudes of their mentees in the context of a clinical trial for childhood obesity. Methods. The context for this study was a randomized clinical trial using either parent mentors or a community health worker engaging parents of obese children in behavioral change over six months. Parent mentors were interviewed at the mid-point of the intervention using a semistructured questionnaire to elicit their perceptions and experiences during the process of mentoring. Parent mentees completed a survey assessing their self-efficacy, perception of the parent mentor, and attitudes and beliefs related to their child’s weight. Results. The qualitative analysis of parent mentor interviews indicated high commitment despite their nonprofessional status, facing challenges of engagement with fellow parents and attitudes of persistence and being nonjudgmental. The parent mentee ratings of parent mentors were overall very high and similar to the ratings of a community health worker (paraprofessional. Conclusion. The data suggest that a parent mentor model of intervention for child obesity is an acceptable mode of approaching behavior change in the Hispanic population around childhood obesity with potential for scalability if proven effective.

  9. By the book: ADHD prevalence in medical students varies with analogous methods of addressing DSM items

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Mattos

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The marked increase in the prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD among university students gives rise to questions about how best to diagnose in this setting. The aim of the present study was to calculate ADHD prevalence in a large non-clinical sample of medical students using a stepwise design and to determine whether ADHD diagnosis varies if interviewees use additional probing procedures to obtain examples of positive DSM items. Methods: A total of 726 students were screened with the Adult Self-Report Scale (ASRS and invited for an interview with the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (K-SADS adapted for adults. Results: The ASRS was positive for 247 students (37%, although only 83 (7.9% received an ADHD diagnosis. ASRS sensitivity and specificity rates were 0.97 and 0.40, respectively. Probing procedures were used with a subgroup of 226 students, which decreased the number of ADHD diagnoses to 12 (4.5%. Conclusion: Probing for an individual’s real-life examples during the K-SADS interview almost halved ADHD prevalence rate based on the ASRS and K-SADS, which rendered the rate consistent with that typically reported for young adults. In reclassified cases, although examples of inattention did not match the corresponding DSM item, they often referred to another DSM inattention item.

  10. A method for prevention of radioactive material release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Shunsuke; Sato, Chikara; Kitamura, Masao.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To provide a method for preventing an underwater radioactive material from being released in a simple and highly reliable manner, which can decrease an amount of radioactive materials discharged into open air from reactor water containing a large amount of radioactive materials such as a reactor core pool. Structure: Pure warm water higher in temperature than that of reactor water is poured from the top of a water surface of a water tank which stores reactor water containing radioactive materials such as radioactive iodine, and water is drawn through an outlet located downwardly of the pure warm water inlet to form a layer of pure warm water at the upper part of the water tank while preventing diffusion of the reactor water into the pure warm water by the difference in density between the reactor water and the pure warm water and downward movement of the pure warm water, thereby preventing contact of the reactor water with the atmosphere and diffusion of the radioactive material into the atmosphere. (Kamimura, M.)

  11. Weight-training injuries. Common injuries and preventative methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, L J; Yetman, R J; Risser, W L

    1993-07-01

    The use of weights is an increasingly popular conditioning technique, competitive sport and recreational activity among children, adolescents and young adults. Weight-training can cause significant musculoskeletal injuries such as fractures, dislocations, spondylolysis, spondylolisthesis, intervertebral disk herniation, and meniscal injuries of the knee. Although injuries can occur during the use of weight machines, most apparently happen during the aggressive use of free weights. Prepubescent and older athletes who are well trained and supervised appear to have low injury rates in strength training programmes. Good coaching and proper weightlifting techniques and other injury prevention methods are likely to minimise the number of musculoskeletal problems caused by weight-training.

  12. Clustering Methods with Qualitative Data: a Mixed-Methods Approach for Prevention Research with Small Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, David; Dymnicki, Allison B; Mohatt, Nathaniel; Allen, James; Kelly, James G

    2015-10-01

    Qualitative methods potentially add depth to prevention research but can produce large amounts of complex data even with small samples. Studies conducted with culturally distinct samples often produce voluminous qualitative data but may lack sufficient sample sizes for sophisticated quantitative analysis. Currently lacking in mixed-methods research are methods allowing for more fully integrating qualitative and quantitative analysis techniques. Cluster analysis can be applied to coded qualitative data to clarify the findings of prevention studies by aiding efforts to reveal such things as the motives of participants for their actions and the reasons behind counterintuitive findings. By clustering groups of participants with similar profiles of codes in a quantitative analysis, cluster analysis can serve as a key component in mixed-methods research. This article reports two studies. In the first study, we conduct simulations to test the accuracy of cluster assignment using three different clustering methods with binary data as produced when coding qualitative interviews. Results indicated that hierarchical clustering, K-means clustering, and latent class analysis produced similar levels of accuracy with binary data and that the accuracy of these methods did not decrease with samples as small as 50. Whereas the first study explores the feasibility of using common clustering methods with binary data, the second study provides a "real-world" example using data from a qualitative study of community leadership connected with a drug abuse prevention project. We discuss the implications of this approach for conducting prevention research, especially with small samples and culturally distinct communities.

  13. Clustering Methods with Qualitative Data: A Mixed Methods Approach for Prevention Research with Small Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, David; Dymnicki, Allison B.; Mohatt, Nathaniel; Allen, James; Kelly, James G.

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative methods potentially add depth to prevention research, but can produce large amounts of complex data even with small samples. Studies conducted with culturally distinct samples often produce voluminous qualitative data, but may lack sufficient sample sizes for sophisticated quantitative analysis. Currently lacking in mixed methods research are methods allowing for more fully integrating qualitative and quantitative analysis techniques. Cluster analysis can be applied to coded qualitative data to clarify the findings of prevention studies by aiding efforts to reveal such things as the motives of participants for their actions and the reasons behind counterintuitive findings. By clustering groups of participants with similar profiles of codes in a quantitative analysis, cluster analysis can serve as a key component in mixed methods research. This article reports two studies. In the first study, we conduct simulations to test the accuracy of cluster assignment using three different clustering methods with binary data as produced when coding qualitative interviews. Results indicated that hierarchical clustering, K-Means clustering, and latent class analysis produced similar levels of accuracy with binary data, and that the accuracy of these methods did not decrease with samples as small as 50. Whereas the first study explores the feasibility of using common clustering methods with binary data, the second study provides a “real-world” example using data from a qualitative study of community leadership connected with a drug abuse prevention project. We discuss the implications of this approach for conducting prevention research, especially with small samples and culturally distinct communities. PMID:25946969

  14. Prevention of the use of legal trafficking for nuclear material and radioactive sources smuggling. Keynote address/session 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravchenko, N.

    2001-01-01

    with liquid nitrogen. Therefore, it is difficult to use in customs offices. Alternative detector options, which do not require liquid nitrogen cooling should be explored. c) Verification of legal shipments is presently only done is Russia, to extent it worldwide an international data base containing design information of all shipment containers would be required; this is also important for the receiving country to verify arriving shipments. The data base must allow integration into available measurement and verification software. d) Presently no procedures for test, validation and certification of methods to verify legal shipments are available, therefore in Russia such measurements can only be used in court if combined with an additional investigation, requiring opening of the container. This is expensive and there is a strong desire to use measurement results directly to initiate a court order. e) Even if verification measurements are made, they can be faked when the thickness of the container is altered. Presently no generic methods are implemented which allow the verification of the container design Actuality of these problems can be confirmed by the real cases of smuggling disclosure, some of which I am going to adduce. In view of the above it would be desirable that the International organizations, such as IAEA, WCO and others, would provide assistance to National Customs Services. The State Customs Committee of the Russian Federation is willing to cooperate with any International organizations and National Customs Services in this area. (author)

  15. Mechanisms and methods for biofouling prevention via aeration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickenson, Natasha; Henoch, Charles; Belden, Jesse

    2013-11-01

    Biofouling is a major problem for the Navy and marine industries, with significant economic and ecological consequences. Specifically, biofouling on immersed hull surfaces generates increased drag and thus requires increased fuel consumption to maintain speed. Considerable effort has been spent developing techniques to prevent and control biofouling, but with limited success. Control methods that have proven to be effective are costly, time consuming, or negatively affect the environment. Recently, aeration via bubble injection along submerged surfaces has been shown to achieve long-lasting antifouling effects, and is the only effective non-toxic method available. An understanding of the basic mechanisms by which bubble-induced flow impedes biofouling is lacking, but is essential for the design of large-scale systems. We present results from an experimental investigation of several bubble induced flow fields over an inclined plate with simultaneous measurements of the fluid velocity and bubble characteristics using Digital article Image Velocimetry and high speed digital video. Trajectories of representative larval organisms are also resolved and linked with the flow field measurements to determine the mechanisms responsible for biofouling prevention.

  16. Qualitative research methods: key features and insights gained from use in infection prevention research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Jane; Creswell, John W; Damschroder, Laura; Kowalski, Christine P; Krein, Sarah L

    2008-12-01

    Infection control professionals and hospital epidemiologists are accustomed to using quantitative research. Although quantitative studies are extremely important in the field of infection control and prevention, often they cannot help us explain why certain factors affect the use of infection control practices and identify the underlying mechanisms through which they do so. Qualitative research methods, which use open-ended techniques, such as interviews, to collect data and nonstatistical techniques to analyze it, provide detailed, diverse insights of individuals, useful quotes that bring a realism to applied research, and information about how different health care settings operate. Qualitative research can illuminate the processes underlying statistical correlations, inform the development of interventions, and show how interventions work to produce observed outcomes. This article describes the key features of qualitative research and the advantages that such features add to existing quantitative research approaches in the study of infection control. We address the goal of qualitative research, the nature of the research process, sampling, data collection and analysis, validity, generalizability of findings, and presentation of findings. Health services researchers are increasingly using qualitative methods to address practical problems by uncovering interacting influences in complex health care environments. Qualitative research methods, applied with expertise and rigor, can contribute important insights to infection prevention efforts.

  17. Arbitral action and preventive methods against predatory journal practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Pil Park

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available As open access model of journal publication increases, predatory journals, which deceive scholars to publish journals in fake database websites and exploit them for publishing fee, is also increasing. There are two types of predatory journals. First, journal hijacking and cybersquatting generally create fake database website by mimicking authentic database website, thereby defrauding scholars for publication fee. Second, journal phishing use scam emails to steal scholars’ personal information. If scholars suffered damage from predatory journals, scholars can take either arbitral or judicial actions. Arbitral action follows arbitrational resolution process termed Uniform Domain-Name Dispute-Resolution Policy. Scholars can join Uniform Domain-Name Dispute-Resolution Policy proceeding with legal entity that has right to authentic database website, which will result in cancellation or transfer of fake database website. In contrast, scholars can take judicial action under Anticybersquatting Consumer Protection Act, which may help scholars to recover an actual monetary damage from predatory journals. Nonetheless, taking precaution to avoid predatory journals is the best course of action, rather than going through arduous cure procedures. Scholars may prevent predatory journals by carefully examining fake database website names or email addresses, or observing unreasonable number of published article issues in predatory journal websites.

  18. Regulatory approaches to obesity prevention: A systematic overview of current laws addressing diet-related risk factors in the European Union and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisnowski, Jana; Handsley, Elizabeth; Street, Jackie M

    2015-06-01

    High prevalence of overweight and obesity remains a significant international public health problem. Law has been identified as a tool for obesity prevention and selected high-profile measures have been reported. However, the nature and extent of enacted legislation internationally are unclear. This research provides an overview of regulatory approaches enacted in the United States, the European Union, and EU Member States since 2004. To this end, relevant databases of primary and secondary legislation were systematically searched to identify and explore laws addressing dietary risk factors for obesity. Across jurisdictions, current regulatory approaches to obesity prevention are limited in reach and scope. Target groups are rarely the general population, but instead sub-populations in government-supported settings. Consumer information provision is preferred over taxation and marketing restrictions other than the regulation of health and nutrition claims. In the EU in particular, product reformulation with industry consent has also emerged as a popular small-scale measure. While consistent and widespread use of law is lacking, governments have employed a range of regulatory measures in the name of obesity prevention, indicating that there is, in principle, political will. Results from this study may serve as a starting point for future research and policy development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Effectiveness of Fraud Prevention and Detection Methods at Universities in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Zamzami, Faiz; Nusa, Nabella Duta; Timur, Rudi Prasetya

    2016-01-01

    Some cases of corruption have taken place in several universities in Indonesia. To prevent and handle the cases, internal auditors play pivotal roles in detecting and preventing fraud. Therefore, effective methods to detect and prevent fraud are needed. The methods are expected to set the appropriate measures to detect and prevent fraud effectively. This research proposed a question how the internal auditors perceive the effectiveness of fraud detection and prevention methods. The research ai...

  20. Method of preventing contaminations in radioactive material handling facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Shunji.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent the contamination on the floor surface of working places by laying polyvinyl butyral sheets over the floor surface, replacing when the sheets are contaminated, followed by burning. Method: Polyvinyl butyral sheets comprising 50 - 70 mol% of butyral component are laid in a radioactive material handling facility, radioactive materials are handled on the polyvinyl butyral sheets and the sheets are replaced when contaminated. The polyvinyl butyral sheets used contain 62 - 68 mol% of butyral component and has 0.03 - 0.2 mm thickness. The contaminated sheets are subjected to burning processing. This can surely collect radioactive materials and the sheets have favorable burnability, releasing no corrosive or deleterious gases. In addition, they are inexpensive and give no hindrance to the workers walking. (Takahashi, M.)

  1. Computing travel time when the exact address is unknown: a comparison of point and polygon ZIP code approximation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berke, Ethan M; Shi, Xun

    2009-04-29

    Travel time is an important metric of geographic access to health care. We compared strategies of estimating travel times when only subject ZIP code data were available. Using simulated data from New Hampshire and Arizona, we estimated travel times to nearest cancer centers by using: 1) geometric centroid of ZIP code polygons as origins, 2) population centroids as origin, 3) service area rings around each cancer center, assigning subjects to rings by assuming they are evenly distributed within their ZIP code, 4) service area rings around each center, assuming the subjects follow the population distribution within the ZIP code. We used travel times based on street addresses as true values to validate estimates. Population-based methods have smaller errors than geometry-based methods. Within categories (geometry or population), centroid and service area methods have similar errors. Errors are smaller in urban areas than in rural areas. Population-based methods are superior to the geometry-based methods, with the population centroid method appearing to be the best choice for estimating travel time. Estimates in rural areas are less reliable.

  2. Preventing blood transfusion failures: FMEA, an effective assessment method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafpour, Zhila; Hasoumi, Mojtaba; Behzadi, Faranak; Mohamadi, Efat; Jafary, Mohamadreza; Saeedi, Morteza

    2017-06-30

    Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) is a method used to assess the risk of failures and harms to patients during the medical process and to identify the associated clinical issues. The aim of this study was to conduct an assessment of blood transfusion process in a teaching general hospital, using FMEA as the method. A structured FMEA was recruited in our study performed in 2014, and corrective actions were implemented and re-evaluated after 6 months. Sixteen 2-h sessions were held to perform FMEA in the blood transfusion process, including five steps: establishing the context, selecting team members, analysis of the processes, hazard analysis, and developing a risk reduction protocol for blood transfusion. Failure modes with the highest risk priority numbers (RPNs) were identified. The overall RPN scores ranged from 5 to 100 among which, four failure modes were associated with RPNs over 75. The data analysis indicated that failures with the highest RPNs were: labelling (RPN: 100), transfusion of blood or the component (RPN: 100), patient identification (RPN: 80) and sampling (RPN: 75). The results demonstrated that mis-transfusion of blood or blood component is the most important error, which can lead to serious morbidity or mortality. Provision of training to the personnel on blood transfusion, knowledge raising on hazards and appropriate preventative measures, as well as developing standard safety guidelines are essential, and must be implemented during all steps of blood and blood component transfusion.

  3. Evaluations of Structural Interventions for HIV Prevention: A Review of Approaches and Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskarpatyoti, Brittany S; Lebov, Jill; Hart, Lauren; Thomas, Jim; Mandal, Mahua

    2018-04-01

    Structural interventions alter the social, economic, legal, political, and built environments that underlie processes affecting population health. We conducted a systematic review of evaluations of structural interventions for HIV prevention in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) to better understand methodological and other challenges and identify effective evaluation strategies. We included 27 peer-reviewed articles on interventions related to economic empowerment, education, and substance abuse in LMICs. Twenty-one evaluations included clearly articulated theories of change (TOCs); 14 of these assessed the TOC by measuring intermediary variables in the causal pathway between the intervention and HIV outcomes. Although structural interventions address complex interactions, no evaluation included methods designed to evaluate complex systems. To strengthen evaluations of structural interventions, we recommend clearly articulating a TOC and measuring intermediate variables between the predictor and outcome. We additionally recommend adapting study designs and analytic methods outside traditional epidemiology to better capture complex results, influences external to the intervention, and unintended consequences.

  4. Bystander programs addressing sexual violence on college campuses: A systematic review and meta-analysis of program outcomes and delivery methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouriles, Ernest N; Krauss, Alison; Vu, Nicole L; Banyard, Victoria L; McDonald, Renee

    2018-02-06

    This systematic review and meta-analysis evaluates the effectiveness of bystander programs that address sexual violence on college campuses. Program effects on student attitudes/beliefs and bystander behavior were examined. Durability of program outcomes and the influence of program-delivery methods (e.g., facilitator-led programs vs. video, online or poster campaign programs) and program-parameters (e.g., program length) were also evaluated. Twenty-four studies met criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis, and 207 separate results from these studies were coded. Students who participated in a bystander program, compared to those who had not, had more pro-social attitudes/beliefs about sexual violence and intervening to prevent it, and engaged in more bystander behavior. Program effects diminished over time, but meaningful changes persisted for at least three months following program delivery. Longer programs had greater effects than shorter programs on attitudes/beliefs. Bystander programs can be a valuable addition to colleges' violence prevention efforts.

  5. Identifying research priorities for public health research to address health inequalities: use of Delphi-like survey methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, S; Ollerhead, E; Cook, A

    2017-10-09

    In the funding of health research and public health research it is vital that research questions posed are important and that funded research meets a research need or a gap in evidence. Many methods are used in the identification of research priorities, however, these can be resource intensive, costly and logistically challenging. Identifying such research priorities can be particularly challenging for complex public health problems as there is a need to consult a number of experts across disciplines and with a range of expertise. This study investigated the use of Delphi-like survey methods in identifying important research priorities relating to health inequalities and framing tractable research questions for topic areas identified. The study was conducted in two phases, both using Delphi-like survey methods. Firstly, public health professionals with an interest in health inequalities were asked to identify research priorities. Secondly academic researchers were asked to frame tractable research questions relating to the priorities identified. These research priorities identified using Delphi-like survey methods were subsequently compared to those identified using different methods. A total of 52 public health professionals and 21 academics across the United Kingdom agreed to take part. The response rates were high, from public health professionals across three survey rounds (69%, 50% and 40%) and from academics across one round (52%), indicating that participants were receptive to the method and motivated to respond. The themes identified as encompassing the most important research priorities were mental health, healthy environment and health behaviours. Within these themes, the topic areas that emerged most strongly included community interventions for prevention of mental health problems and the food and alcohol environment. Some responses received from academic researchers were (as requested) in the form of tractable research questions, whereas others

  6. PHYSIOTHERAPY METHODS IN PREVENTION OF FALLS IN ELDERLY PEOPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAŁGORZATA GAJOS

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The process of population ageing is observed not only in Poland but also in other European countries. Physiological processes of ageing reduces the functional capacity. In particular, associated diseases, progressive weakness and failure of the motor system increases the risk of collapse in seniors. Dangerous consequences of falls, inter alia, injuries, can often cause death, what justifies its classification as a so-called geriatric giant. Health and psychosocial consequences of falls should be noted. Therefore, there is a great need for induction of preventive measures. Many results of studies constantly show, that an effective intervention in preventing falls in seniors should include, first and foremost, multidirectional rehabilitation, which aims to improve balance and increase postural strength muscle. In addition, prevention should include: patient education, pharmacotherapy prescribed by a medical specialist, eyesight improvement, elimination of potential risks surrounding the patient. The introduction of multi-directional prevention of falls can reduce the risk of their occurrence up to 50%.

  7. Method for preventing and/or treating insulin resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwdorp, M.; Vos, de W.M.

    2013-01-01

    The present invention describes use of Eubacterium hallii et rel. and/or Alcaligenes faecalis et rel., as well as pharmaceutical, food, or feed compositions comprising these bacteria, as a medicament, in particular for preventing and/or treating insulin resistance and/or insulin resistance-related

  8. Ethical and Unethical Methods of Plagiarism Prevention in Academic Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtiyari, Kaveh; Salehi, Hadi; Embi, Mohamed Amin; Shakiba, Masoud; Zavvari, Azam; Shahbazi-Moghadam, Masoomeh; Ebrahim, Nader Ale; Mohammadjafari, Marjan

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses plagiarism origins, and the ethical solutions to prevent it. It also reviews some unethical approaches, which may be used to decrease the plagiarism rate in academic writings. We propose eight ethical techniques to avoid unconscious and accidental plagiarism in manuscripts without using online systems such as Turnitin and/or…

  9. Methods employed in the prevention and treatment of malaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    onasoga olayinka

    communities, health system, and workforce.8 The financial loss due to malaria annually is estimated ... in the form of treatment costs, prevention, loss of productivity and earning due to days lost from illness etc which whittle away Nigeria's prospects for development.9 .... combine the herbal medicine with orthodox drugs.

  10. Net Gain: A New Method for Preventing Malaria Deaths | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    A finely spun net could prevent as many as one-third of all child deaths in Africa, reports IDRC's new publication, Net Gain. Studies conducted in Gambia, Ghana, and Kenya show that the insecticide-treated mosquito net reduced the mortality rate of children under 5 years of age by up to 63 percent. Net Gain reviews and ...

  11. Convocation address.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, M S

    1998-07-01

    This address delivered to the 40th convocation of the International Institute for Population Sciences in India in 1998 opens by noting that a shortage of jobs for youth is India's most urgent problem but that the problems that attend the increasing numbers of elderly also require serious attention. The address then notes that the Earth's population is growing at an unsustainable rate while economic inequities among countries are increasing, so that, while intellectual property is becoming the most important asset in developed countries, nutritional anemia among pregnant women causes their offspring to be unable to achieve their full intellectual potential from birth. Next, the address uses a discussion of the 18th-century work on population of the Marquis de Condorcet and of Thomas Malthus to lead into a consideration of estimated increased needs of countries like India and China to import food grains in the near future. Next, the progress of demographic transition in Indian states is covered and applied to Mahbub ul Haq's measure of human deprivation developed for and applied to the region of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Bhutan, and the Maldives). The address continues by reiterating some of the major recommendations forwarded by a government of India committee charged in 1995 with drafting a national population policy. Finally, the address suggests specific actions that could be important components of the Hunger-Free India Programme and concludes that all success rests on the successful implementation of appropriate population policies.

  12. Recommended method to prevent leakage of titanium tube in condenser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jun

    2010-01-01

    Qinshan Phase III is located at the estuary area of Qiantang River, where contains much slit and sand in the seawater. Since the units were put into operation, tube bundles in the condenser have been scratched, damaged or blocked by hard foreign materials, and outside wall thickness reduced and broken due to various reasons. Many tube bundles are discarded. In order to effectively prevent the re-occurrence of such problem and eliminate the existing defects, equipment management personnels of Qinshan Phase III work together with experts both from home and abroad, and perfom root-analysis for various cause of defects. After the problem root is identified, a serious of specific and effective measures are taken to prevent and eliminate the problem and reached a good effect. This paper herein is written for comments and reference. (authors)

  13. Ethical and Unethical Methods of Plagiarism Prevention in Academic Writing

    OpenAIRE

    Bakhtiyari, Kaveh; Salehi, Hadi; Embi, Mohamed Amin; Shakiba, Masoud; Zavvari, Azam; Shahbazi-Moghadam, Masoomeh; Ale Ebrahim, Nader; Mohammadjafari, Marjan

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses plagiarism origins, and the ethical solutions to prevent it. It also reviews some unethical approaches, which may be used to decrease the plagiarism rate in academic writings. We propose eight ethical techniques to avoid unconscious and accidental plagiarism in manuscripts without using online systems such as Turnitin and/or iThenticate for cross checking and plagiarism detection. The efficiency of the proposed techniques is evaluated on five different texts using student...

  14. inaugral address

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While political reorientation and economic redress were of immediate concern, ... South African context, where widespread changes have been proposed for education at all ... education at school and other levels and needs to be addressed so as to ..... the major national curriculum intervention in environmental education.

  15. Experimental evaluation of the prevention methods for the interface between masonry infill walls and concrete columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Tramontin

    Full Text Available Cracks that form at the interfaces between masonry structures are common uncontrolled occurrences in buildings. Numerous methods have been proposed by the construction industry to address this problem. Cracks continuously form in the joints between concrete columns and masonry infill walls. In this study, the most common methods for preventing these types of cracks were evaluated in laboratory experiments. Column masonry models were constructed using different types of joints between concrete columns and masonry infill walls, such as steel bars and steel mesh. The efficiency of each type of joint method was evaluated by performing direct tensile tests (pullout tests on the models and monitoring the evolution of the crack opening in the joint between the column and wall, as a function of load applied to the model. The results from this study indicate that the model composed of "electrowelded wire mesh without steel angles" is the best model for controlling cracking in the joints between concrete columns and masonry infill walls.

  16. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ianko, L.

    1993-01-01

    This short talk was the opening remarks to the attendees at this conference, presented by the Scientific Secretary, IWG-LMNPP, of the IAEA. This meeting is an effort to aid research on problems related to the general area of nuclear plant aging and life management. In particular it addresses fracture properties of reactor materials and components, both as installed, and at end of service condition. A major concern is relating measurements made on laboratory samples to properties displayed by actual reactor components

  17. Convocation address.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, R

    1996-07-01

    By means of this graduation address at the International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS) in Bombay, the Chancellor of Urdu University voiced his concerns about overpopulation in India. During the speaker's tenure as Health Minister of Maharashtra, he implemented a sterilization incentive program that resulted in the state's having the best family planning (FP) statistics in India for almost 10 years. The incentive program, however, was misused by overenthusiastic officials in other states, with the result that the FP program was renamed the Family Welfare Programme. Population is growing in India because of improvements in health care, but the population education necessary to change fertility will require more time than the seriousness of the population problem allows. In the longterm, poverty and illiteracy must be addressed to control population. In the meanwhile, the graduate program at the IIPS should be expanded to include an undergraduate program, marriage age laws should be enforced, and misconceptions about religious objections to FP must be addressed. India can not afford to use the measures forwarded by developed countries to control population growth. India must integrate population control efforts with the provision of health care because if population continues to grow in the face of reduced infant mortality and longer life expectancy, future generations will be forced to live in a state of poverty and economic degradation.

  18. Performance-based incentives may be appropriate to address challenges to delivery of prevention of vertical transmission of HIV services in rural Mozambique: a qualitative investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Roseanne C; de Sousa, Octávio; Rivera, Jacqueline; Olson, Rebecca; Pinault, Delphine; Young, Sera L

    2016-10-07

    Performance-based incentives (PBIs) have garnered global attention as a promising strategy to improve healthcare delivery to vulnerable populations. However, literature gaps in the context in which an intervention is implemented and how the PBIs were developed exist. Therefore, we (1) characterized the barriers and promoters to prevention of vertical transmission of HIV (PVT) service delivery in rural Mozambique, where the vertical transmission rate is 12 %, and (2) assessed the appropriateness for a PBI's intervention and application to PVT. We conducted 24 semi-structured interviews with nurses, volunteers, community health workers, and traditional birth attendants about the barriers and promoters they experienced delivering PVT services. We then explored emergent themes in subsequent focus group discussions (n = 7, total participants N = 92) and elicited participant perspectives on PBIs. The ecological motivation-opportunity-ability framework guided our iterative data collection and thematic analysis processes. The interviews revealed that while all health worker cadres were motivated intrinsically and by social recognition, they were dissatisfied with low and late remuneration. Facility-based staff were challenged by factors across the rest of the ecological levels, primarily in the opportunity domain, including the following: poor referral and record systems (work mandate), high workload, stock-outs, poor infrastructure (facility environment), and delays in obtaining patient results and donor payment discrepancies (administrative). Community-based cadres' opportunity challenges included lack of supplies, distance (work environment), lack of incorporation into the health system (administration), and ability challenges of incorrect knowledge (health worker). PBIs based on social recognition and that enable action on intrinsic motivation through training, supervision, and collaboration were thought to have the most potential for targeting improvements

  19. Methods for preventing steam generator failure or degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, S.J.

    1986-01-01

    PWR steam generators have suffered from a variety of degradation phenomena. This paper identifies the corrosion-related defects and their probable causes and suggests approaches to correct and prevent corrosive activity. In the attempt to solve the degradation problems, research programs have concentrated on modifying materials, stresses, and the chemical environment in both new and operating steam generators. The following corrosion-related defects have been studied: tube wastage, denting, primary side (ID) intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC), OD-initiated intergranular attack (IGA), pitting, and corrosion fatigue. Plants affected by wastage have greatly reduced their problem by adopting an all volatile treatment (AVT). In the case of denting, a less aggressive chemical environment is recommended. Primary side IGSCC responds to temperature reduction, stress relief, and material improvements, while flushing and boric acid addition minimizes OD-initiated IGA. It has further been shown that pitting can be minimized by sludge lancing and by reducing impurity ingress. (author)

  20. Keynote address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, R.

    1985-01-01

    This paper addresses various aspects of the bases underlying the nuclear third party liability regime, and also analyses the distinction between danger and risk and the manner in which damage caused by flood, mass unemployment (economic damage mainly) and certain diseases is dealt with in the absence of liability provisions similar to those applicable to nuclear incidents. It also is suggested that the State because of its duty under the Basic Law to ensure adequate energy supplies, should be co-responsible for liability questions along with the nuclear operator. (NEA) [fr

  1. [Ancient methods of animal disease prevention in Belgium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammerickx, M

    1994-06-01

    The author describes traditional methods of animal disease control in Belgium and the evolution of these methods up to the present time. Evidence is drawn mainly from Belgian law. The principles of hygienic prophylaxis, which have required little modification over the passage of time, were set out at the beginning of the 18th century by Lancisi and Bates, physicians to Pope Clement XI and King George I of Great Britain, respectively. These principles were immediately incorporated into Belgian law. However, it was not until the second half of the 19th century that they were applied correctly and with success.

  2. The effectiveness of inking needle core prostate biopsies for preventing patient specimen identification errors: a technique to address Joint Commission patient safety goals in specialty laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raff, Lester J; Engel, George; Beck, Kenneth R; O'Brien, Andrea S; Bauer, Meagan E

    2009-02-01

    The elimination or reduction of medical errors has been a main focus of health care enterprises in the United States since the year 2000. Elimination of errors in patient and specimen identification is a key component of this focus and is the number one goal in the Joint Commission's 2008 National Patient Safety Goals Laboratory Services Program. To evaluate the effectiveness of using permanent inks to maintain specimen identity in sequentially submitted prostate needle biopsies. For a 12-month period, a grossing technician stained each prostate core with permanent ink developed for inking of pathology specimens. A different color was used for each patient, with all the prostate cores from all vials for a particular patient inked with the same color. Five colors were used sequentially: green, blue, yellow, orange, and black. The ink was diluted with distilled water to a consistency that allowed application of a thin, uniform coating of ink along the edges of the prostate core. The time required to ink patient specimens comprising different numbers of vials and prostate biopsies was timed. The number and type of inked specimen discrepancies were evaluated. The identified discrepancy rate for prostate biopsy patients was 0.13%. The discrepancy rate in terms of total number of prostate blocks was 0.014%. Diluted inks adhered to biopsy contours throughout tissue processing. The tissue showed no untoward reactions to the inks. Inking did not affect staining (histochemical or immunohistochemical) or pathologic evaluation. On average, inking prostate needle biopsies increases grossing time by 20%. Inking of all prostate core biopsies with colored inks, in sequential order, is an aid in maintaining specimen identity. It is a simple and effective method of addressing Joint Commission patient safety goals by maintaining specimen identity during processing of similar types of gross specimens. This technique may be applicable in other specialty laboratories and high

  3. Keynote address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farlinger, W.

    1997-01-01

    In this second keynote address of the conference Mr. Farlinger, Chairman of Ontario Hydro, attempted to respond to some of the criticisms levelled at the Corporation in the course of the Macdonald Committee process. He appeared to be particularly vexed by the criticism of IPPSO, saying that in effect, they are' beating up on their only customer', at a time when Hydro is being pulled in several different directions, and was facing pressure from jurisdictional dispute with municipal utilities, (MEUs). Nevertheless, he agreed with the need for restructuring. He defended Hydro by saying that the Macdonald Report in fact represented a vindication of the position Ontario Hydro had taken, particularly on such issues as open competition, customer choice, rationalization of the distribution system, and termination of Hydro's monopoly position. At the same time, he objected to the Report's assertion that dismantling the generation system into smaller units would be in the best interest of the people of Ontario. He suggested that there would be several large US utility companies willing and able to fill the vacuum if there was no large company with its head office in Ontario to stake its claim to the provincial market

  4. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boening, K.

    2003-01-01

    The program of this 9th Meeting of the International Group on Research Reactors IGORR includes are quite a number of fascinating new research reactor projects in France, Germany, Russia, Canada, China, Thailand, and in Australia. In addition to the session about New Facilities there are interesting sessions on the Upgrades and on the Optimization of Operation and Utilization of existing research reactors, on Secondary Neutron Sources, on Neutron Scattering applications, and on the aspects of Safety, Licensing and Decommissioning. Two particular projects of new research reactors are mentioned specially: the TRR-II project in Taiwan, has unfortunately been terminated last year because of a change to anti-nuclear of the ruling parties in the government - and the new FRM-II in Munich, Germany, which will hopefully survive such a political change and receive its green light for nuclear start up in the very near future. The charter of IGORR and its objectives are part of this address: The International Group on Research Reactors IGORR was formed to facilitate the sharing of knowledge and experience among those institutions and individuals who are actively working to design, build, and promote new research reactors or to make significant upgrades to existing facilities. The main IGORR objectives are to promote contacts between its members, to identify and discuss problems of common interest, to distribute newsletters about once or twice every year and to organize meetings about once every one-and-a-half years

  5. Are Dual-Method Messages Undermining STI/HIV Prevention?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann O'Leary

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent girls and young women who are at risk for unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection (STI, including HIV, are frequently counseled to use a hormonal contraceptive to protect against the former and condoms to protect against the latter, for exampe, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, 2011. The present paper reviews the literature on multiple risk messages, compliance with this dual-use recommendation, predictors of dual use, and interventions developed to encourage dual use. Data indicate that simultaneous use of these two methods is not common, and that efforts to encourage dual use have not yielded promising results. An alternative is to recommend condom use alone, since condoms protect very well against STI and HIV, and quite well against pregnancy when used consistently and correctly. The availability of emergency contraception is relevant here. Research utilizing a randomized controlled trial is recommended.

  6. Opening Address

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, T.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, it is my great honor and pleasure to present an opening address of the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3). On the behalf of the organizing committee, I certainly welcome all your visits to KGU Kannai Media Center belonging to Kanto Gakuin University, and stay in Yokohama. In particular, to whom come from abroad more than 17 countries, I would appreciate your participations after long long trips from your homeland to Yokohama. The first international workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics", called SOTANCP, was held in Strasbourg, France, in 2008, and the second one was held in Brussels, Belgium, in 2010. Then the third workshop is now held in Yokohama. In this period, we had the traditional 10th cluster conference in Debrecen, Hungary, in 2012. Thus we have the traditional cluster conference and SOTANCP, one after another, every two years. This obviously shows our field of nuclear cluster physics is very active and flourishing. It is for the first time in about 10 years to hold the international workshop on nuclear cluster physics in Japan, because the last cluster conference held in Japan was in Nara in 2003, about 10 years ago. The president in Nara conference was Prof. K. Ikeda, and the chairpersons were Prof. H. Horiuchi and Prof. I. Tanihata. I think, quite a lot of persons in this room had participated at the Nara conference. Since then, about ten years passed. So, this workshop has profound significance for our Japanese colleagues. The subjects of this workshop are to discuss "the state of the art in nuclear cluster physics" and also discuss the prospect of this field. In a couple of years, we saw significant progresses of this field both in theory and in experiment, which have brought better and new understandings on the clustering aspects in stable and unstable nuclei. I think, the concept of clustering has been more important than ever. This is true also in the

  7. Keynote address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    DOE biomass R ampersand D programs have the potential to provide America with both plentiful, clean-burning domestic transportation fuels and cost-competitive industrial and utility fuels, benefiting energy security in the United States. Biofuels developed under our programs will also help improve air quality, reduce greenhouse gases, reduce the large daily quantities of waste we produce, and revitalize rural America. These research motivations have been documented in the National Energy Strategy. DOE looks forward to expanding its biofuels research program and to forging a partnership with private sector for cost-shared commercialization of new fuels and vehicle technologies. Many alternative fuels (e.g., ethanol, methanol, compressed natural gas, propane, or electricity) are candidates for gaining market share. Indeed, there may be significant regional variation in the future fuel mix. Alcohol fuels from biomass, particularly ethanol, have the potential to make a major contribution. Currently, ethanol in the United States is almost entirely made from corn; and the limitations of that process are well known (e.g., costly feedstock, end product requiring subsidy to be competitive, use of fossil fuels in renewable feedstock production and processing, and potential adverse impact of corn ethanol production on the price of food). To address these concerns, the DOE biofuels program is pursuing an ambitious research program to develop the technologies needed to convert these crops into alternative transportation fuels, primarily cellulose-based ethanol and methanol. Program R ampersand D has reduced the estimated cost per gallon of cellulose-based ethanol from $3.60 in 1980 to the current $1.35, with a program goal of $0.60 by the year 2000. DOE is also investigating the thermochemical conversion of biomass to methanol. The program goal is to achieve commercial production of methanol (like ethanol) at the gasoline equivalent of $0.90 per gallon by the year 2000. 4 figs

  8. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A

    2001-01-01

    , breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....

  9. Welcome Address

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiku, H.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, It is an honor for me to present my welcome address in the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3), as the president of Kanto Gakuin University. Particularly to those from abroad more than 17 countries, I am very grateful for your participation after long long trips from your home to Yokohama. On the behalf of the Kanto Gakuin University, we certainly welcome your visit to our university and stay in Yokohama. First I would like to introduce Kanto Gakuin University briefly. Kanto Gakuin University, which is called KGU, traces its roots back to the Yokohama Baptist Seminary founded in 1884 in Yamate, Yokohama. The seminary's founder was Albert Arnold Bennett, alumnus of Brown University, who came to Japan from the United States to establish a theological seminary for cultivating and training Japanese missionaries. Now KGU is a major member of the Kanto Gakuin School Corporation, which is composed of two kindergartens, two primary schools, two junior high schools, two senior high schools as well as KGU. In this university, we have eight faculties with graduate school including Humanities, Economics, Law, Sciences and Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Design, Human and Environmental Studies, Nursing, and Law School. Over eleven thousands students are currently learning in our university. By the way, my major is the geotechnical engineering, and I belong to the faculty of Sciences and Engineering in my university. Prof. T. Yamada, here, is my colleague in the same faculty. I know that the nuclear physics is one of the most active academic fields in the world. In fact, about half of the participants, namely, more than 50 scientists, come from abroad in this conference. Moreover, I know that the nuclear physics is related to not only the other fundamental physics such as the elementary particle physics and astrophysics but also chemistry, medical sciences, medical cares, and radiation metrology

  10. A simple method for the prevention of endometrial autolysis in hysterectomy specimens

    OpenAIRE

    Houghton, J P; Roddy, S; Carroll, S; McCluggage, W G

    2004-01-01

    Aims: Uteri are among the most common surgical pathology specimens. Assessment of the endometrium is often difficult because of pronounced tissue autolysis. This study describes a simple method to prevent endometrial autolysis and aid in interpretation of the endometrium.

  11. A Mixed Methods Approach to Evaluate Partnerships and Implementation of the Massachusetts Prevention and Wellness Trust Fund

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebekka M. Lee

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Strong partnerships are critical to integrate evidence-based prevention interventions within clinical and community-based settings, offering multilevel and sustainable solutions to complex health issues. As part of Massachusetts' 2012 health reform, The Prevention and Wellness Trust Fund (PWTF funded nine local partnerships throughout the state to address hypertension, pediatric asthma, falls among older adults, and tobacco use. The initiative was designed to improve health outcomes through prevention and disease management strategies and reduce healthcare costs.Purpose: Describe the mixed-methods study design for investigating PWTF implementation.Methods: The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research guided the development of this evaluation. First, the study team conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews with leaders from each of nine partnerships to document partnership development and function, intervention adaptation and delivery, and the influence of contextual factors on implementation. The interview findings were used to develop a quantitative survey to assess the implementation experiences of 172 staff from clinical and community-based settings and a social network analysis to assess changes in the relationships among 72 PWTF partner organizations. The quantitative survey data on ratings of perceived implementation success were used to purposively select 24 staff for interviews to explore the most successful experiences of implementing evidence-based interventions for each of the four conditions.Conclusions: This mixed-methods approach for evaluation of implementation of evidence-based prevention interventions by PWTF partnerships can help decision-makers set future priorities for implementing and assessing clinical-community partnerships focused on prevention.

  12. Addressing Poverty, Unemployment and Gender Inequality in Southern Africa: An Alternative Strategy for HIV/AIDS Prevention with Sex Workers in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntseane, Peggy Gabo

    2004-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study that was conducted as an effort to identify the needs of sex workers as potential beneficiaries of future HIV prevention and empowerment activities. The purpose of this study was to assess the situation and needs of sex workers in the context of HIV/AIDS. Data were collected from one of the small…

  13. Presidential address.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shunglu, V K

    1994-07-01

    Rapid and substantial population growth in India is hampering development. Family welfare programs in the country during the last four years have not met population reduction goals. The decentralization of political and administrative power in relevant programs, however, will help the country attain its goal of replacement fertility. To that end, the 73rd and 74th amendments to the constitution have recently been enacted to help decentralize power to people at the village, intermediate, and district levels. The participation of the people is essential for success. State ministers of health must begin assigning management of the rural health care systems to the Panchayats. Population policy has changed so that family planning is now provided within the broader context of maternal and child health care, emphasizing voluntarism and informed choice among contraceptive methods and popular participation. The speaker laments the decline of male participation in family planning and calls for high priority to be given to developing fertility regulation methods for men as well as identifying factors which prohibit male participation. The country's unbalanced female to male sex ratio and interstate and inter-district variations in social parameters which have a bearing upon population growth rates also merit attention. Investing in human resources is crucial to the success of population programs. Financing has therefore increased for poverty alleviation programs and other social sector programs.

  14. New Methods to Address Old Challenges: The Use of Administrative Data for Longitudinal Replication Studies of Child Maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurren, Emily; Stewart, Anna; Dennison, Susan

    2017-09-15

    Administrative data are crucial to the "big data" revolution of social science and have played an important role in the development of child maltreatment research. These data are also of value to administrators, policy makers, and clinicians. The focus of this paper is the use of administrative data to produce and replicate longitudinal studies of child maltreatment. Child protection administrative data have several advantages. They are often population-based, and allow longitudinal examination of child maltreatment and complex multi-level analyses. They also allow comparison across subgroups and minority groups, remove burden from individuals to disclose traumatic experiences, and can be less biased than retrospective recall. Finally, they can be linked to data from other agencies to explore comorbidity and outcomes, and are comparatively cost and time effective. The benefits and challenges associated with the use of administrative data for longitudinal child maltreatment research become magnified when these data are used to produce replications. Techniques to address challenges and support future replication efforts include developing a biographical understanding of the systems from which the data are drawn, using multiple data sources to contextualize the data and research results, recognizing and adopting various approaches to replication, and documenting all data coding and manipulation processes. These techniques are illustrated in this paper via a case study of previous replication work.

  15. Utilizing findings from a gender-based analysis to address chronic disease prevention and management among African-American women in a Michigan community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard, Wendy; Burke, Jodi; Waddell, Sandra; Franke, Arthur

    2015-08-01

    This research note underscores the importance of including strategies to address gender-based disparities when planning and implementing community health improvement programs. Working in collaboration with the Inkster Partnership for a Healthier Community (IPHC), the National Kidney Foundation of Michigan conducted a gender-based analysis as part of its broader community health needs assessment efforts in Inkster, MI. The findings from these studies revealed significant challenges impacting women that were not being adequately addressed within the community. In response to these findings, the IPHC created a strategic action plan to respond to the highest priority needs by increasing community awareness of and linkages to resources that provide supportive services for low-income African-American women. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. ADDRESSING SEXUAL VIOLENCE IN THE UNIVERSITY: HOW DO WE PREVENT AND PUNISH SEXUAL VIOLENCE AT CAMPUSES? A CASE OF MAKERERE UNIVERSITY.

    OpenAIRE

    Makoboza, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Sexual violence is a common human rights violation among campus students. Students within the university, faculty committees, and members of staff are not only involved in sexual violence, but also in addressing its causes. This thesis describes sexual violence victimization and perpetration awareness, its relationship with human right and punitive measures accorded to it in a sample of 150-university students. A cross sectional survey design was used to contact students through voluntary gat...

  17. In the context of both International law and the application of Islamic Sharia Law, how effective have Kuwait and the Kuwaiti legal system been in addressing, preventing and combating human trafficking?

    OpenAIRE

    MEZHI MEJBEL MEZHI BATHAL ALRASHEDI, ALI

    2017-01-01

    This thesis answers the question of how effective Kuwait and the Kuwaiti legal system have been in addressing, preventing, and combating human trafficking in the context of both international law and the application of Islamic Sharia Law (ISL). The thesis is concerned with trafficking in persons with a particular focus on trafficking to exploit labour in Kuwait as compared to the five other Arab countries in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). The GCC countries are parties to the main interna...

  18. Addressing the targeting range of the ABILHAND-56 in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: A mixed methods psychometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleanthous, Sophie; Strzok, Sara; Pompilus, Farrah; Cano, Stefan; Marquis, Patrick; Cohan, Stanley; Goldman, Myla D; Kresa-Reahl, Kiren; Petrillo, Jennifer; Castrillo-Viguera, Carmen; Cadavid, Diego; Chen, Shih-Yin

    2018-01-01

    ABILHAND, a manual ability patient-reported outcome instrument originally developed for stroke patients, has been used in multiple sclerosis clinical trials; however, psychometric analyses indicated the measure's limited measurement range and precision in higher-functioning multiple sclerosis patients. The purpose of this study was to identify candidate items to expand the measurement range of the ABILHAND-56, thus improving its ability to detect differences in manual ability in higher-functioning multiple sclerosis patients. A step-wise mixed methods design strategy was used, comprising two waves of patient interviews, a combination of qualitative (concept elicitation and cognitive debriefing) and quantitative (Rasch measurement theory) analytic techniques, and consultation interviews with three clinical neurologists specializing in multiple sclerosis. Original ABILHAND was well understood in this context of use. Eighty-two new manual ability concepts were identified. Draft supplementary items were generated and refined with patient and neurologist input. Rasch measurement theory psychometric analysis indicated supplementary items improved targeting to higher-functioning multiple sclerosis patients and measurement precision. The final pool of Early Multiple Sclerosis Manual Ability items comprises 20 items. The synthesis of qualitative and quantitative methods used in this study improves the ABILHAND content validity to more effectively identify manual ability changes in early multiple sclerosis and potentially help determine treatment effect in higher-functioning patients in clinical trials.

  19. Acceptance of Addiction Prevention Exiting Methods and Presentation of Appropriate Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asghar Savad-Kouhi

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study is assessment of acceptance of addiction prevention existing methods and design and present of appropriate model. Materials & Methods: This research has done by survey and desariptive method by using questionnaire we assessed knowledge and belief of people about suggesting and existing methods of addiction prevention and their acceptence and finally design new and appropriate model of addiction prevention. For designing questionnaire, first exports and professors were openly interviewed and according their views final questionnaire was planned. We used questionnaire with 2 open ended and 61 close-ended tests for gathering data. The subjects of research were 2500 persons 13-35 years old that were selected by randomized sampling from 15 provinces. Results: The findings showed that according to people who were studied, they have positive beliefs about prevention methods and their effectiveness. According to findings a good model is inclusive model that able to do in four level: knowledge, change believe and attitude, control and change behavior. Conclusion: The people of study belive that acceptance of suggesting and existing methods of addiction prevention are effective direct and indirect to others, and appropriate model is inclusive model.

  20. [Pediatrician-parent interaction and early prevention : A review about the limits in addressing psychosocial risks during well-child visits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Pediatricians can be a door opener to early prevention for families at risk. The German well-child program is well-established, but there is a gap between the structural possibilities and the observed placements. The aim of this review is to show how pediatricians and parents talk about psychosocial risks under the very structured conditions of well-child visits. The challenges and traps of the framed interactions will be described and options for early prevention will be shown. The review is primarily based on the work of conversational and ethnomethodological studies reconstructing the pediatrician's discussion with parents about psychosocial issues in the family. Well-child visits are a highly routinized practice. Talking about family issues for both partners is a difficult task. Discussions about psychosocial issues are seldom and vague . Predominantly, they work cooperatively on reciprocal normalization of the child's development. Based on this shared orientation, pediatricians make an early, mostly general, prescription of parental tasks, supporting the child in the next developmental step. This kind of routine anticipatory counselling puts some pressure on the parents. Parents under unknown stress could be overburdened with this advice. In the script of well-child visits, there are no slots that indicate to pediatricians and parents when, which, how and for what purpose psychosocial issues can be discussed and negotiated. For implementing such slots in well-child visits, three steps are necessary: a structured and regular assessment of psychosocial issues, a trained pediatrician in motivational interviewing and a social worker guiding the family in the network of early prevention.

  1. A new method of preventing bulk-Si CMOS devices from latchup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xianguo; Xu Xi

    2004-01-01

    A new method, pseudo-latchup path method, has been put forward that is based on latchup effects of bulk-Si CMOS devices. After we study the design of pseudo-latchup path method in detail, a practice and the corresponding simulation result by computer are given in this text. Pseudo-latchup path method can be used to prevent permanent latchup, but it cannot be used to eliminate the dose rate upset of bulk-Si CMOS devices. (authors)

  2. Perceptions of vaginal microbicides as an HIV prevention method among health care providers in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantell Joanne E

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The promise of microbicides as an HIV prevention method will not be realized if not supported by health care providers. They are the primary source of sexual health information for potential users, in both the public and private health sectors. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine perceptions of vaginal microbicides as a potential HIV prevention method among health care providers in Durban and Hlabisa, South Africa, using a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods. Results During 2004, semi structured interviews with 149 health care providers were conducted. Fifty seven percent of hospital managers, 40% of pharmacists and 35% of nurses possessed some basic knowledge of microbicides, such as the product being used intra-vaginally before sex to prevent HIV infection. The majority of them were positive about microbicides and were willing to counsel users regarding potential use. Providers from both public and private sectors felt that an effective microbicide should be available to all people, regardless of HIV status. Providers felt that the product should be accessed over-the-counter in pharmacies and in retail stores. They also felt a need for potential microbicides to be available free of charge, and packaged with clear instructions. The media was seen by health care providers as being an effective strategy for promoting microbicides. Conclusion Overall, health care providers were very positive about the possible introduction of an effective microbicide for HIV prevention. The findings generated by this study illustrated the need for training health care providers prior to making the product accessible, as well as the importance of addressing the potential barriers to use of the product by women. These are important concerns in the health care community, and this study also served to educate them for the day when research becomes reality.

  3. Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms. A Critical Review of the International Study of Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms (ISUIA) and of Appropriate Methods to Address the Clinical Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, J; Guillemin, F; Proust, F; Molyneux, A J; Fox, A J; Claiborne, J S; Meder, J F; Rouleau, I

    2008-03-30

    The preventive treatment of unruptured aneurysms has been performed for decades despite the lack of evidence of a clinical benefit. Reports of observational studies such as the International Study of Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms (ISUIA) suggest that preventive treatments are rarely justified. Are these reports compelling enough to guide clinical practice? The ISUIA methods and data are reviewed and analysed in a more conventional manner. The design of the appropriate clinical research program is approached by steps, reviewing potential problems, from the formulation of the precise research question to the interpretation of subgroup analyses, including sample size, representativity, duration of observation period, blinding, definition of outcome events, analysis of cross-overs, losses to follow-up, and data reporting. Unruptured intracranial aneurysms observed in ISUIA ruptured at a minimal annual rate of 0.8% (0.5-1%), despite multiple methodological difficulties biased in favour of a benign natural history. Available registries do not have the power or the design capable of providing normative guidelines for clinical decisions. The appropriate method to solve the clinical dilemma is a multicentric trial comparing the incidence of a hard clinical outcome events in approximately 2000 patients randomly allocated to a treatment group and a deferred treatment group, all followed for ten years or more. Observational studies have failed to provide reliable evidence in favour or against the preventive treatment of unruptured aneurysms. A randomized trial is in order to clarify what is the role of prevention in this common clinical problem.

  4. Methods used for prevention of white spot lesion development during orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerbusch, A.E.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Mulder, J.; Sanden, W.J.M. van der

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to survey methods that Dutch orthodontists use to prevent development or progression of enamel decalcifications during orthodontic treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A pre-tested questionnaire was sent by post to all orthodontists in the Netherlands with a

  5. A Neglected Population: Drug-Using Women and Women's Methods of HIV/STI Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollub, Erica L.

    2008-01-01

    Women drug users are at extremely high risk of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) from sexual transmission, but remain seriously neglected in intervention research promoting women-initiated methods of HIV/STI prevention. Sparse available data indicate a high interest and enthusiasm for women-initiated methods among these women.…

  6. Preventing aggressive incidents and seclusions in forensic care by means of the 'Early Recognition Method'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fluttert, F.A.J.; Meijel, B.K.G. van; Nijman, H.L.I.; Björkly, S.; Grypdonck, M.H.F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective. The Early Recognition Method aims at improving collaboration between nurses and patients to prevent aggression in forensic psychiatric care. To achieve this goal, Early Recognition Method strongly focuses on early signs of aggression. In the current study, we investigated whether

  7. Adult Learners' Preferred Methods of Learning Preventative Heart Disease Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Nasim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the preferred method of learning about heart disease by adult learners. This research study also investigated if there was a statistically significant difference between race/ethnicity, age, and gender of adult learners and their preferred method of learning preventative heart disease care. This…

  8. Methods for assessing the preventability of adverse drug events: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkarainen, Katja Marja; Andersson Sundell, Karolina; Petzold, Max; Hägg, Staffan

    2012-02-01

    Preventable adverse drug events (ADEs) are common in both outpatient and inpatient settings. However, the proportion of preventable ADEs varies considerably in different studies, even when conducted in the same setting, and methods for assessing the preventability of ADEs are diverse. The aim of this article is to identify and systematically evaluate methods for assessing the preventability of ADEs. Seven databases (Cochrane, CINAHL, EMBASE, IPA, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Web of Science) were searched in September 2010 utilizing the databases' index terms and other common terminology on preventable ADEs. No limits for the years of publication were set. Reference lists of included original articles and relevant review articles were also screened. After applying predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria on 4161 unique citations, 142 (3.4%) original research articles were included in the review. One additional article was included from reference lists. Outcome measures of included studies had to include the frequency of ADEs and the assessment of their preventability. Studies were excluded if they focused on individuals with one specific type of treatment, medical condition, medical procedure or ADE. Measurement instruments for determining the preventability of ADEs in each article were extracted and unique instruments were compared. The process of assessing the preventability of ADEs was described based on reported actions taken to standardize and conduct the assessment, and on information about the reliability and validity of the assessment. Eighteen unique instruments for determining the preventability of ADEs were identified. They fell under the following four groups: (i) instruments using a definition of preventability only (n = 3); (ii) instruments with a definition of preventability and an assessment scale for determining preventability (n = 5); (iii) instruments with specific criteria for each preventability category (n = 3); and (iv) instruments

  9. The Use of Rapid Review Methods for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patnode, Carrie D; Eder, Michelle L; Walsh, Emily S; Viswanathan, Meera; Lin, Jennifer S

    2018-01-01

    Rapid review products are intended to synthesize available evidence in a timely fashion while still meeting the needs of healthcare decision makers. Various methods and products have been applied for rapid evidence syntheses, but no single approach has been uniformly adopted. Methods to gain efficiency and compress the review time period include focusing on a narrow clinical topic and key questions; limiting the literature search; performing single (versus dual) screening of abstracts and full-text articles for relevance; and limiting the analysis and synthesis. In order to maintain the scientific integrity, including transparency, of rapid evidence syntheses, it is imperative that procedures used to streamline standard systematic review methods are prespecified, based on sound review principles and empiric evidence when possible, and provide the end user with an accurate and comprehensive synthesis. The collection of clinical preventive service recommendations maintained by the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, along with its commitment to rigorous methods development, provide a unique opportunity to refine, implement, and evaluate rapid evidence synthesis methods and add to an emerging evidence base on rapid review methods. This paper summarizes the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force's use of rapid review methodology, its criteria for selecting topics for rapid evidence syntheses, and proposed methods to streamline the review process. Copyright © 2018 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Various Methods of Iron Deficiency Prevention in Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.А. Bielykh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the effectiveness of various methods of iron deficiency prevention in infants. Materials and Methods. Within 30-cluster regional epidemiological study on the prevalence of iodine and iron deficiency in children, we have analyzed the results of screening for anemia in 948 children, carried out questioning of mothers, determined the concentration of iron in breast milk. The effectiveness of preventive measures was assessed by indicators of iron supplementation of the body in 96 children depending on the existing method of iron prophylaxis. Results of the Study. It was found that the use by mother during lactation of iron-containing vitamin-mineral complexes had no effect on the iron content in breast milk. It is proved that administration of iron (III hydroxide polymaltose complex 1 mg/kg/day for 2 months is the most effective way to prevent iron deficiency in children who are exclusively breastfed.

  11. Characteristic of methods for prevention and correction of moral of alienation of students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. K. Malieva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A moral alienation is a complex integrative phenomenon characterized by individual’s rejection of universal spiritual and moral values of society. The last opportunity to find a purposeful competent solution of the problem of individual’s moral alienation lies in the space of professional education.The subject of study of this article is to identify methods for prevention and correction of moral alienation of students that can be used by teachers both in the process of extracurricular activities, and in conducting classes in humanitarian disciplines.The purpose of the work is to study methods and techniques that enhance the effectiveness of the prevention and correction of moral alienation of students, identify their characteristics and application in the educational activities of teachers.The paper concretizes a definition of methods to prevent and correct the moral alienation of students who represent a system of interrelated actions of educator and students aimed at: redefining of negative values, rules and norms of behavior; overcoming the negative mental states, negative attitudes, interests and aptitudes of aducatees.The article distinguishes and characterizes the most effective methods for prevention and correction of moral alienation of students: the conviction, the method of "Socrates"; understanding; semiotic analysis; suggestion, method of "explosion." It also presents the rules and necessary conditions for the application of these methods in the educational process.It is ascertained that the choice of effective preventive and corrective methods and techniques is determined by the content of intrapersonal, psychological sources of moral alienation associated with the following: negative attitude due to previous experience; orientation to these or those negative values; inadequate self-esteem, having a negative impact on the development and functioning of the individual’s psyche and behavior; mental states.The conclusions of the

  12. Building Capacity of Occupational Therapy Practitioners to Address the Mental Health Needs of Children and Youth: A Mixed-Methods Study of Knowledge Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirjian, Louise; LaGuardia, Teri; Thompson-Repas, Karen; Conway, Carol; Michaud, Paula

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE. We explored the meaning and outcomes of a 6-mo building capacity process designed to promote knowledge translation of a public health approach to mental health among pediatric occupational therapy practitioners participating in a Community of Practice. METHOD. A one-group (N = 117) mixed-methods design using a pretest–posttest survey and qualitative analysis of written reflections was used to explore the meaning and outcomes of the building capacity process. RESULTS. Statistically significant improvements (p occupational therapy’s role in addressing children’s mental health. PMID:26565099

  13. Multi-Sector Participation In The National Response To Prevent And Address The Hiv/Aids Epidemic In The Republic Of Cuba, 2007-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isora Ramos Valle

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of a strong national response involving multiple sectors—including civil society—is an essential aspect of the social management of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The goals of this response are to control the epidemic and improve the quality of life for people living with HIV/AIDS; this includes combating stigma and discrimination, as well as ensuring due compliance with the law. Cuba has a national program to prevent and control HIV/AIDS. Since 2003 Cuba’s national program has received material and financial support from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. Program evaluation is carried out by an independent team at ENSAP (National School of Public Health. This paper reports on results of one part of that evaluation: an assessment of the agencies and sectors who made up the organized social and national response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The evaluation primarily used qualitative analyses of the activities and tasks proposed by sectors in their 2006-2008 work plans. Visits were made to the provinces of Ciudad de la Habana, Matanzas, and Holguín. Qualitative techniques included in-depth interviews, semi-structured interviews, observation, and review of documentary evidence of all kinds (videos, reports, minutes, protocols, results of social research, and radio broadcast messages and varied depending on the particular features of each sector. We noted improvements in multi-sector participation in the prevention and response to the national HIV/AIDS epidemic. Conscious of their role, sectors generally carried out their programmed activities and had improved their organization, planning, and systematization; integration among the sectors was also better. These local initiatives provided evidence of a multi-sector response characterized by autonomy, emotional involvement, and an identification with the goals of the project; this went beyond simply meeting targets. Cross-sector work showed a marked increase and a

  14. Efficiency of various preventive methods of perinatal mother and child complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadretdinova T.L.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to study efficiency of various methods of prevention of perinatal complications in mother and child. Material and methods. In three risk groups preventive treatment of intrauterine infected fetus (IUIF, gestosis, noncarrying of pregnancy and fetoplacental insufficiency has been carried out. In group I consisted of 71 pregnant women preventive treatment has included medication with application of antioxidants; stimulators of processes of carboxylation in cycle Krebs; endogenic synthesis prostaglandins, prostacyclin; drugs improving processes of microcirculation, stabilizing function of endothelium ofvessels, an exchange of homocysteine. In group II consisted of 67 pregnant women prevention of IUIF and complications has been carried out by means of physical exercises in combination with aqua aerobics. In group III consisted of 100 women prevention of IUIF has been standard. In the control group IV consisted of 70 women pregnancy has not been complicated. Parameters of oxidant and antioxidant systems, central hemodynamics, determined in this group have been determined as normal for comparison. Results. In relation to group III medicamen-tous treatment in group I, regular aqua aerobics in group II have allowed to lower frequency of IUIF, perinatal mother complications, perinatal diseases, death rates in newborns and morbidity in children of early age. Conclusion. For the prevention of IUIF, mother and child perinatal complications, morbidity in children of early age it has been proposed to use medication and regular aqua aerobics which provides nonmedicamentous pregnancy course

  15. [Promising new injection method to prevent angialgia/phlebitis from epirubicin hydrochloride therapy for breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Chiemi; Yamagami, Mitsue; Kamatani, Rika; Yamamoto, Makoto; Mukouyama, Tomoya; Sugimoto, Masakazu; Suzuki, Taizan; Kamo, Nobuyuki; Seki, Nobuhiko; Eguchi, Kenji; Ikeda, Tadashi

    2012-05-01

    Epirubicin hydrochloride(EPI)is well known to cause phlebitis as a typical adverse drug reaction. By preventing the development of severe phlebitis, patients are expected to continue effective chemotherapy with EPI without a decrease in QOL. We have previously reported promising results of a new injection method to prevent phlebitis from occurring during EPI therapy thorough a prospective clinical trial in our hospital(Jpn J Cancer Chemother 36: 969-974, 2009). In the present study, we have compared the conventional injection method(EPI main -route method, n=15)with our new method, which has been consistently practiced at present(EPI sub -route method, n=77). We found that in the EPI main -route method, angialgia/phlebitis developed in 14 of 15 cases(Grade 3, 53. 3%), leading to alteration of the regimen in 3 cases. On the other hand, with the EPI sub -route method, incidence of angialgia/phlebitis was markedly decreased, and only 6 of 77 cases developed these adverse reactions(Grade 3, 0%). One possible explanation for these results is that the reduction of intimal stimulation by the EPI sub -route method might be caused by the dilution and washout of EPI with pre-medication, as well as the shortened infusion times of EPI. Therefore, on the basis of the above hypothesis, we conclude that the EPI sub-route method might be a more effective treatment for the expected prevention of angialgia/phlebitis.

  16. EPODE approach for childhood obesity prevention: methods, progress and international development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borys, J-M; Le Bodo, Y; Jebb, S A; Seidell, J C; Summerbell, C; Richard, D; De Henauw, S; Moreno, L A; Romon, M; Visscher, T L S; Raffin, S; Swinburn, B

    2012-04-01

    Childhood obesity is a complex issue and needs multi-stakeholder involvement at all levels to foster healthier lifestyles in a sustainable way. 'Ensemble Prévenons l'Obésité Des Enfants' (EPODE, Together Let's Prevent Childhood Obesity) is a large-scale, coordinated, capacity-building approach for communities to implement effective and sustainable strategies to prevent childhood obesity. This paper describes EPODE methodology and its objective of preventing childhood obesity. At a central level, a coordination team, using social marketing and organizational techniques, trains and coaches a local project manager nominated in each EPODE community by the local authorities. The local project manager is also provided with tools to mobilize local stakeholders through a local steering committee and local networks. The added value of the methodology is to mobilize stakeholders at all levels across the public and the private sectors. Its critical components include political commitment, sustainable resources, support services and a strong scientific input--drawing on the evidence-base--together with evaluation of the programme. Since 2004, EPODE methodology has been implemented in more than 500 communities in six countries. Community-based interventions are integral to childhood obesity prevention. EPODE provides a valuable model to address this challenge. © 2011 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2011 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  17. Implementing and evaluating a program to facilitate chronic disease prevention and screening in primary care: a mixed methods program evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manca, Donna Patricia; Aubrey-Bassler, Kris; Kandola, Kami; Aguilar, Carolina; Campbell-Scherer, Denise; Sopcak, Nicolette; O'Brien, Mary Ann; Meaney, Christopher; Faria, Vee; Baxter, Julia; Moineddin, Rahim; Salvalaggio, Ginetta; Green, Lee; Cave, Andrew; Grunfeld, Eva

    2014-10-08

    The objectives of this paper are to describe the planned implementation and evaluation of the Building on Existing Tools to Improve Chronic Disease Prevention and Screening in Primary Care (BETTER 2) program which originated from the BETTER trial. The pragmatic trial, informed by the Chronic Care Model, demonstrated the effectiveness of an approach to Chronic Disease Prevention and Screening (CDPS) involving the use of a new role, the prevention practitioner. The desired goals of the program are improved clinical outcomes, reduction in the burden of chronic disease, and improved sustainability of the health-care system through improved CDPS in primary care. The BETTER 2 program aims to expand the implementation of the intervention used in the original BETTER trial into communities across Canada (Alberta, Ontario, Newfoundland and Labrador, the Northwest Territories and Nova Scotia). This proactive approach provides at-risk patients with an intervention from the prevention practitioner, a health-care professional. Using the BETTER toolkit, the prevention practitioner determines which CDPS actions the patient is eligible to receive, and through shared decision-making and motivational interviewing, develops a unique and individualized 'prevention prescription' with the patient. This intervention is 1) personalized; 2) addressing multiple conditions; 3) integrated through linkages to local, regional, or national resources; and 4) longitudinal by assessing patients over time. The BETTER 2 program brings together primary care providers, policy/decision makers and researchers to work towards improving CDPS in primary care. The target patient population is adults aged 40-65. The reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, maintain (RE-AIM) framework will inform the evaluation of the program through qualitative and quantitative methods. A composite index will be used to quantitatively assess the effectiveness of the prevention practitioner intervention. The CDPS actions

  18. New innovative educational method to prevent accidents involving young road users (aged 15-24 – European Road Safety Tunes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankowska-Karpa Dagmara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a new teaching method designed to improve road safety among young road users. Developed under “European Road Safety Tunes”, this international project was cofunded by EU DG MOVE. Its main aim is to improve road safety and minimize the number of road accidents, injuries and fatalities among road users who are 15-24 years old. The Safety Tunes method contains a series of workshops addressed to young vocational school students: cyclists, moped and motor riders and car drivers. The workshops incorporate peer and emotive education, and delivery of road safety related messages through different types of artistic forms. The topics tackled during class address awareness of possible risks and risk-behaviour, prevention of distraction and reduction in young fatalities and serious injuries on the road. All actions within the project are evaluated, both in terms of the impact of the workshops on students’ attitudes towards road safety problems and in terms of process assessment.

  19. Main issues of pile foundation at waterfront development and its prevention method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manap, N.; Tan, K. Y.; Syahrom, N.

    2017-12-01

    Pile foundation is widely used in construction and building marine structures. This is because pile foundation is an important structure and should have long-term durability. However, in waterfront development, a lot of issues from the seawater should be considered distinctively because it consists of many problems that can affect the building structure especially the foundation of the building. Thus, a research should be conducted to identify issues of pile foundation at waterfront development and determine its prevention methods. The research was carried out through interviews with the developers and contractors from the projects of Lexis Hibiscus at Port Dickson, Negeri Sembilan and Redevelopment for Deep-Water Facilities at Quay 6 in Pasir Gudang, Johor, Malaysia. The objectives of this research are to identify issues of pile foundation and to determine the prevention methods of pile foundation issues at waterfront development. All respondents agreed that the main issues of pile foundations at waterfront development are the wave and tide condition. The prevention methods of the issue faced at waterfront development that are most frequently used for the pile foundation are coating system and concrete cover. This research is beneficial to all developers and contractors to ensure pile foundations at waterfront development can be protected by using the prevention methods.

  20. A Novel Method to Prevent Phrenic Nerve Injury During Catheter Ablation

    OpenAIRE

    Buch, Eric; Vaseghi, Marmar; Cesario, David A; Shivkumar, Kalyanam

    2006-01-01

    Epicardial catheter ablation is increasingly important in the treatment of ventricular arrhythmias. Collateral damage to adjacent structures like the phrenic nerve is an important concern with epicardial ablation. This report describes the use of a novel method to prevent phrenic nerve injury during epicardial ablation of ventricular tachycardia.

  1. Application of virtual reality methods to obesity prevention and management research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persky, Susan

    2011-03-01

    There is a great need for empirical evidence to inform clinical prevention and management of overweight and obesity. Application of virtual reality (VR) methods to this research agenda could present considerable advantages. Use of VR methods in basic and applied obesity prevention and treatment research is currently extremely limited. However, VR has been employed for social and behavioral research in many other domains where it has demonstrated validity and utility. Advantages of VR technologies as research tools include the ability to situate hypothetical research scenarios in realistic settings, tight experimental control inherent in virtual environments, the ability to manipulate and control any and all scenario elements, and enhanced behavioral measurement opportunities. The means by which each of these features could enhance obesity prevention and management research is discussed and illustrated in the context of an example research study. Challenges associated with the application of VR methods, such as technological limitations and cost, are also considered. By employing experimental VR methods to interrogate clinical encounters and other health-related situations, researchers may be able to elucidate causal relationships, strengthen theoretical models, and identify potential targets for intervention. In so doing, researchers stand to make important contributions to evidence-based practice innovation in weight management and obesity prevention. © 2011 Diabetes Technology Society.

  2. The radiation like preventive methods of the ectopic development after hip surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menendez Garcia, J.C.; Delgado Macias, M.T.

    1995-01-01

    In view of the prevalence of ectopic bone development after hip surgery, a review has been done on the reports appearing in the literature dealing with the use of irradiation, at different doses and postoperative intervals, as a method to prevent this complication. The results demonstrate the efficacy of radiotherapy in preventing ectopic bone formation, the need to begin its application within the first four days of surgical treatment and the fact that satisfactory results can be obtained with relatively low and, thus, theoretically innocuous doses. 17 refs

  3. Mycoplasma bovis pathogenesis, diagnostic methods and epidemiology of relevance for control and prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum

    Mycoplasma bovis introduction to and spread within cattle herds is difficult to predict, and no vaccines provide efficient prevention today despite the fact that this infection severely affects animal welfare and leads to economic losses in cattle farms worldwide. The most common transmission...... from infected bulls and perhaps long-distance airborne pathogens being spread between outbreaks and susceptible farms. Prevention and control methods have to focus on management and biosecurity measures that maximise resilience of the farm system and the animals’ resistance against the disease in case...

  4. Microwave-assisted Facile and Ultrafast Growth of ZnO Nanostructures and Proposition of Alternative Microwave-assisted Methods to Address Growth Stoppage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Abu Ul Hassan Sarwar; Kang, Mingi; Kim, Hyun-Seok

    2016-04-01

    The time constraint in the growth of ZnO nanostructures when using a hydrothermal method is of paramount importance in contemporary research, where a long fabrication time rots the very essence of the research on ZnO nanostructures. In this study, we present the facile and ultrafast growth of ZnO nanostructures in a domestic microwave oven within a pressurized environment in just a few minutes. This method is preferred for the conventional solution-based method because of the ultrafast supersaturation of zinc salts and the fabrication of high-quality nanostructures. The study of the effect of seed layer density, growth time, and the solution’s molar concentration on the morphology, alignment, density, and aspect ratio of ZnO nanorods (ZNRs) is explored. It is found in a microwave-assisted direct growth method that ~5 mins is the optimum time beyond which homogeneous nucleation supersedes heterogeneous nucleation, which results in the growth stoppage of ZNRs. To deal with this issue, we propound different methods such as microwave-assisted solution-replacement, preheating, and PEI-based growth methods, where growth stoppage is addressed and ZNRs with a high aspect ratio can be grown. Furthermore, high-quality ZnO nanoflowers and ZnO nanowalls are fabricated via ammonium hydroxide treatment in a very short time.

  5. Comparison of three different prehospital wrapping methods for preventing hypothermia - a crossover study in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakariassen Erik

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accidental hypothermia increases mortality and morbidity in trauma patients. Various methods for insulating and wrapping hypothermic patients are used worldwide. The aim of this study was to compare the thermal insulating effects and comfort of bubble wrap, ambulance blankets / quilts, and Hibler's method, a low-cost method combining a plastic outer layer with an insulating layer. Methods Eight volunteers were dressed in moistened clothing, exposed to a cold and windy environment then wrapped using one of the three different insulation methods in random order on three different days. They were rested quietly on their back for 60 minutes in a cold climatic chamber. Skin temperature, rectal temperature, oxygen consumption were measured, and metabolic heat production was calculated. A questionnaire was used for a subjective evaluation of comfort, thermal sensation, and shivering. Results Skin temperature was significantly higher 15 minutes after wrapping using Hibler's method compared with wrapping with ambulance blankets / quilts or bubble wrap. There were no differences in core temperature between the three insulating methods. The subjects reported more shivering, they felt colder, were more uncomfortable, and had an increased heat production when using bubble wrap compared with the other two methods. Hibler's method was the volunteers preferred method for preventing hypothermia. Bubble wrap was the least effective insulating method, and seemed to require significantly higher heat production to compensate for increased heat loss. Conclusions This study demonstrated that a combination of vapour tight layer and an additional dry insulating layer (Hibler's method is the most efficient wrapping method to prevent heat loss, as shown by increased skin temperatures, lower metabolic rate and better thermal comfort. This should then be the method of choice when wrapping a wet patient at risk of developing hypothermia in prehospital

  6. Development and application of preventive maintenance technique for pipes using laser cladding method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatakenaka, Hiroaki; Yamadera, Masao; Shiraiwa, Takanori.

    1995-01-01

    A laser cladding method which produces a highly corrosion-resisting coating (cladding) on the surface of the material was developed for the purpose of preventing stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in the austenitic stainless steel (Type 304). In this method, metallic powder paste is applied on the inner surface of pipes, and then a YAG laser beam is irradiated to the paste, which melts and forms a clad with excellent corrosion resistance. Recently, the laser cladding method was practically and successfully applied to the actual nuclear power plant in Japan. This report describes this laser cladding technique, the equipment, and actual works in the field. (author)

  7. Simulation-extrapolation method to address errors in atomic bomb survivor dosimetry on solid cancer and leukaemia mortality risk estimates, 1950-2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allodji, Rodrigue S.; Schwartz, Boris; Diallo, Ibrahima; Vathaire, Florent de [Gustave Roussy B2M, Radiation Epidemiology Group/CESP - Unit 1018 INSERM, Villejuif Cedex (France); Univ. Paris-Sud, Villejuif (France); Agbovon, Cesaire [Pierre and Vacances - Center Parcs Group, L' artois - Espace Pont de Flandre, Paris Cedex 19 (France); Laurier, Dominique [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), DRPH, SRBE, Laboratoire d' epidemiologie, BP17, Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France)

    2015-08-15

    Analyses of the Life Span Study (LSS) of Japanese atomic bombing survivors have routinely incorporated corrections for additive classical measurement errors using regression calibration. Recently, several studies reported that the efficiency of the simulation-extrapolation method (SIMEX) is slightly more accurate than the simple regression calibration method (RCAL). In the present paper, the SIMEX and RCAL methods have been used to address errors in atomic bomb survivor dosimetry on solid cancer and leukaemia mortality risk estimates. For instance, it is shown that using the SIMEX method, the ERR/Gy is increased by an amount of about 29 % for all solid cancer deaths using a linear model compared to the RCAL method, and the corrected EAR 10{sup -4} person-years at 1 Gy (the linear terms) is decreased by about 8 %, while the corrected quadratic term (EAR 10{sup -4} person-years/Gy{sup 2}) is increased by about 65 % for leukaemia deaths based on a linear-quadratic model. The results with SIMEX method are slightly higher than published values. The observed differences were probably due to the fact that with the RCAL method the dosimetric data were partially corrected, while all doses were considered with the SIMEX method. Therefore, one should be careful when comparing the estimated risks and it may be useful to use several correction techniques in order to obtain a range of corrected estimates, rather than to rely on a single technique. This work will enable to improve the risk estimates derived from LSS data, and help to make more reliable the development of radiation protection standards. (orig.)

  8. Addressing social issues in a universal HIV test and treat intervention trial (ANRS 12249 TasP) in South Africa: methods for appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orne-Gliemann, Joanna; Larmarange, Joseph; Boyer, Sylvie; Iwuji, Collins; McGrath, Nuala; Bärnighausen, Till; Zuma, Thembelile; Dray-Spira, Rosemary; Spire, Bruno; Rochat, Tamsen; Lert, France; Imrie, John

    2015-03-01

    The Universal HIV Test and Treat (UTT) strategy represents a challenge for science, but is also a challenge for individuals and societies. Are repeated offers of provider-initiated HIV testing and immediate antiretroviral therapy (ART) socially-acceptable and can these become normalized over time? Can UTT be implemented without potentially adding to individual and community stigma, or threatening individual rights? What are the social, cultural and economic implications of UTT for households and communities? And can UTT be implemented within capacity constraints and other threats to the overall provision of HIV services? The answers to these research questions will be critical for routine implementation of UTT strategies. A social science research programme is nested within the ANRS 12249 Treatment-as-Prevention (TasP) cluster-randomised trial in rural South Africa. The programme aims to inform understanding of the (i) social, economic and environmental factors affecting uptake of services at each step of the continuum of HIV prevention, treatment and care and (ii) the causal impacts of the TasP intervention package on social and economic factors at the individual, household, community and health system level. We describe a multidisciplinary, multi-level, mixed-method research protocol that includes individual, household, community and clinic surveys, and combines quantitative and qualitative methods. The UTT strategy is changing the overall approach to HIV prevention, treatment and care, and substantial social consequences may be anticipated, such as changes in social representations of HIV transmission, prevention, HIV testing and ART use, as well as changes in individual perceptions and behaviours in terms of uptake and frequency of HIV testing and ART initiation at high CD4. Triangulation of social science studies within the ANRS 12249 TasP trial will provide comprehensive insights into the acceptability and feasibility of the TasP intervention package at

  9. Design and methods for evaluating an early childhood obesity prevention program in the childcare center setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natale Ruby

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many unhealthy dietary and physical activity habits that foster the development of obesity are established by the age of five. Presently, approximately 70 percent of children in the United States are currently enrolled in early childcare facilities, making this an ideal setting to implement and evaluate childhood obesity prevention efforts. We describe here the methods for conducting an obesity prevention randomized trial in the child care setting. Methods/design A randomized, controlled obesity prevention trial is currently being conducted over a three year period (2010-present. The sample consists of 28 low-income, ethnically diverse child care centers with 1105 children (sample is 60% Hispanic, 15% Haitian, 12% Black, 2% non-Hispanic White and 71% of caregivers were born outside of the US. The purpose is to test the efficacy of a parent and teacher role-modeling intervention on children’s nutrition and physical activity behaviors. . The Healthy Caregivers-Healthy Children (HC2 intervention arm schools received a combination of (1 implementing a daily curricula for teachers/parents (the nutritional gatekeepers; (2 implementing a daily curricula for children; (3 technical assistance with meal and snack menu modifications such as including more fresh and less canned produce; and (4 creation of a center policy for dietary requirements for meals and snacks, physical activity and screen time. Control arm schools received an attention control safety curriculum. Major outcome measures include pre-post changes in child body mass index percentile and z score, fruit and vegetable and other nutritious food intake, amount of physical activity, and parental nutrition and physical activity knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs, defined by intentions and behaviors. All measures were administered at the beginning and end of the school year for year one and year two of the study for a total of 4 longitudinal time points for assessment

  10. The study of efficiency of endogenous and exogenous preventive methods of tooth enamel remineralisation by FTIR microscopy using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goloshchapov, D L; Kashkarov, V M; Seredin, P V; Ippolitov, Y A; Plotnikova, Y A; Bambery, K

    2016-01-01

    The efficiency carious preventive methods was detected with the use of equipment for IR-spectromicroscopy and high-intensive synchrotron radiation. The results of the experiment are indicative of the use of exogenous caries prevention alone (use of a toothpaste) being inadequate in saturating hard dental tissues by mineral groups and, thus, keeping teeth healthy, as this method is only short-lived. The use of endogenous methods (mineral tablets based on calcium glycerophosphate) in combination with exogenous prevention enhances prevention as part of remineralisation of dental tissues. (paper)

  11. Apparatus and method for preventing the rotation of rods used in nuclear fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilgrim, L.G. Jr.; Jackson, L.F.

    1985-01-01

    Apparatus and method for preventing the rotation of one or more elongated rods used in nuclear fuel assemblies include an end plug secured to one longitudinal end of such an elongated rod and having an out-of-cavity, non-round structure affixed thereto and configured to mate with a complementary shaped structure in a lower tie plate of a nuclear fuel assembly in such a manner as to prevent the rotation of the rod about its longitudinal axis. In one embodiment, the end plug includes a pair of flats formed on a portion of the end plug and configured to abut against a pair of flats formed on the outer surface of a cylindrical boss or sleeve of the lower tie plate, thereby to prevent the rotation of the rod. In another embodiment, four grooves, disposed 90 0 apart about the periphery of an end plug of a rod form a spline. The grooves are configured to receive four, radially inwardly protruding, key members disposed 90 0 apart about the periphery of a sleeve secured to the lower tie plate, thereby to prevent the rotation of the rod. In a further embodiment, a sleeve is secured to an end plug of a rod and includes four elongated slots disposed 90 0 apart about the periphery of the sleeve and configured in width, depth and spacing to receive and mate with four web portions of the lower tie plate of the nuclear fuel assembly, thereby to secure the rod against rotation about its longitudinal axis

  12. Study of Continuance Rate and Related Causes of Discontinuance of Pregnancy Prevention Methods among Women in Yazd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Fallahzadeh

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: From maturity to menopause, women are worried about pregnancy. Abstinence from sex or use of pregnancy prevention methods are choices for them. As abstinence is impossible, the only remaining choice is use of pregnancy prevention methods. Effective control of pregnancy is really essential for the health of mother and infant and also control of unplanned increase in population. Regarding the importance of continuance rate of pregnancy prevention methods (OCP, IUD, Condom &DMPA & the reasons for their disruption, this study was carried out with the aim of determining the continuance rate and reasons for discontinuance of pregnancy prevention methods in Yazd women. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. Six urban health care centers of Yazd were selected as study clusters and information of 15-49 year old women using the pregnancy prevention methods (OCP, IUD, Condom& injection was collected via a questionnaire. The data collected was analyzed by Coplan- Mayer statistic method and variance analysis test. Results: Pregnancy prevention methods were most prevalent in the 25-34 years old age group (57%. Mean duration of pregnancy prevention method usage was 27.98 months using Caplan-mayer method with a median of 24 months. 86.3% for 6 months, 72.8% for 12 months, 62.5% for 18 months, 47.9% for 24 months, 39.9% for 30 months and 37% for 37 months had used four certain methods of pregnancy prevention (OCP, IUD, Condom and Injection. The reasons of discontinuance were disease (15.6% for OCPS, bleeding (27% for IUD, unwanted pregnancy (21% for Condoms and also disease (75% for Injection method. Discussion: According to the results, not only education programs regarding family planning before starting each pregnancy prevention method to women is recommended, but a complete incentive consultation about these methods is essential. This educational & consultation programs should be implemented initially for women using OCP method.

  13. Factors that influence utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods among university students residing at a selected university campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndabarora, Eléazar; Mchunu, Gugu

    2014-01-01

    Various studies have reported that university students, who are mostly young people, rarely use existing HIV/AIDS preventive methods. Although studies have shown that young university students have a high degree of knowledge about HIV/AIDS and HIV modes of transmission, they are still not utilising the existing HIV prevention methods and still engage in risky sexual practices favourable to HIV. Some variables, such as awareness of existing HIV/AIDS prevention methods, have been associated with utilisation of such methods. The study aimed to explore factors that influence use of existing HIV/AIDS prevention methods among university students residing in a selected campus, using the Health Belief Model (HBM) as a theoretical framework. A quantitative research approach and an exploratory-descriptive design were used to describe perceived factors that influence utilisation by university students of HIV/AIDS prevention methods. A total of 335 students completed online and manual questionnaires. Study findings showed that the factors which influenced utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods were mainly determined by awareness of the existing university-based HIV/AIDS prevention strategies. Most utilised prevention methods were voluntary counselling and testing services and free condoms. Perceived susceptibility and perceived threat of HIV/AIDS score was also found to correlate with HIV risk index score. Perceived susceptibility and perceived threat of HIV/AIDS showed correlation with self-efficacy on condoms and their utilisation. Most HBM variables were not predictors of utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods among students. Intervention aiming to improve the utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods among students at the selected university should focus on removing identified barriers, promoting HIV/AIDS prevention services and providing appropriate resources to implement such programmes.

  14. Method to support Total Maximum Daily Load development using hydrologic alteration as a surrogate to address aquatic life impairment in New Jersey streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennen, Jonathan G.; Riskin, Melissa L.; Reilly, Pamela A.; Colarullo, Susan J.

    2013-01-01

    , and timing of flows were significantly correlated with ecological response. Multiple linear regression (MLR) models were developed to provide a more holistic evaluation of the combined effects of hydrologic alteration and to identify models with two or three hydrologic variables that account for a significant proportion of the variability in invertebrate-assemblage condition as represented by assemblage metric scores. MLR models, derived on the basis of hydrologic attributes, accounted for 35 to 75 percent of the variability in assemblage condition. The hydro-TMDL method developed herein for non- to moderately impaired Raritan River Basin streams utilizes a “surrogate” approach in place of the traditional “pollutant of concern” approach commonly used for TMDL development. Managers can use the results obtained by using the hydro-TMDL method to offset the effects of impervious-surface runoff and altered streamflow and to implement measures designed to achieve the necessary load reductions for the “pollutant of concern” (that is, percentage deviations of stream-class-specific flow-index values outside the established 25th-to-75th-percentile range). In this case, such deviations could represent all or a subset of the altered flow indices that prevent the stream from meeting designated aquatic-life criteria. This hydro-TMDL uses a reference, or attainment stream approach for developing the TMDL endpoint. That is, either observed or simulated baseline hydrographs were selected as appropriate reference conditions on the basis of results of QR analysis and watershed modeling procedures, respectively. For any stream in the Raritan River Basin evaluated as part of this study, the hydro-TMDL can be expressed as the greatest amount of deviation in flow a stream can exhibit without violating the stream’s designated aquatic-life criteria. Use of this surrogate approach is appropriate because flows that fall outside the established percentile ranges are ultimately a

  15. Methods to prevent the source term of methyl lodide during a core melt accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karhu, A. [VTT Energy (Finland)

    1999-11-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to gather available information of the methods to prevent a source term of methyl iodide during a core melt accident. The most widely studied methods for nuclear power plants include the impregnated carbon filters and alkaline additives and sprays. It is indicated that some deficiencies of these methods may emerge. More reactive impregnants and additives could make a great improvement. As a new method in the field of nuclear applications, the potential of transition metals to decompose methyl iodide, is introduced in this review. This area would require an additional research, which could elucidate the remaining questions of the reactions. The ionization of the gaseous methyl iodide by corona-discharge reactors is also shortly described. (au)

  16. Design and methods for evaluating an early childhood obesity prevention program in the childcare center setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natale, Ruby; Scott, Stephanie Hapeman; Messiah, Sarah E; Schrack, Maria Mesa; Uhlhorn, Susan B; Delamater, Alan

    2013-01-28

    Many unhealthy dietary and physical activity habits that foster the development of obesity are established by the age of five. Presently, approximately 70 percent of children in the United States are currently enrolled in early childcare facilities, making this an ideal setting to implement and evaluate childhood obesity prevention efforts. We describe here the methods for conducting an obesity prevention randomized trial in the child care setting. A randomized, controlled obesity prevention trial is currently being conducted over a three year period (2010-present). The sample consists of 28 low-income, ethnically diverse child care centers with 1105 children (sample is 60% Hispanic, 15% Haitian, 12% Black, 2% non-Hispanic White and 71% of caregivers were born outside of the US). The purpose is to test the efficacy of a parent and teacher role-modeling intervention on children's nutrition and physical activity behaviors. . The Healthy Caregivers-Healthy Children (HC2) intervention arm schools received a combination of (1) implementing a daily curricula for teachers/parents (the nutritional gatekeepers); (2) implementing a daily curricula for children; (3) technical assistance with meal and snack menu modifications such as including more fresh and less canned produce; and (4) creation of a center policy for dietary requirements for meals and snacks, physical activity and screen time. Control arm schools received an attention control safety curriculum. Major outcome measures include pre-post changes in child body mass index percentile and z score, fruit and vegetable and other nutritious food intake, amount of physical activity, and parental nutrition and physical activity knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs, defined by intentions and behaviors. All measures were administered at the beginning and end of the school year for year one and year two of the study for a total of 4 longitudinal time points for assessment. Although few attempts have been made to prevent obesity

  17. Comparison of address-based sampling and random-digit dialing methods for recruiting young men as controls in a case-control study of testicular cancer susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clagett, Bartholt; Nathanson, Katherine L; Ciosek, Stephanie L; McDermoth, Monique; Vaughn, David J; Mitra, Nandita; Weiss, Andrew; Martonik, Rachel; Kanetsky, Peter A

    2013-12-01

    Random-digit dialing (RDD) using landline telephone numbers is the historical gold standard for control recruitment in population-based epidemiologic research. However, increasing cell-phone usage and diminishing response rates suggest that the effectiveness of RDD in recruiting a random sample of the general population, particularly for younger target populations, is decreasing. In this study, we compared landline RDD with alternative methods of control recruitment, including RDD using cell-phone numbers and address-based sampling (ABS), to recruit primarily white men aged 18-55 years into a study of testicular cancer susceptibility conducted in the Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, metropolitan area between 2009 and 2012. With few exceptions, eligible and enrolled controls recruited by means of RDD and ABS were similar with regard to characteristics for which data were collected on the screening survey. While we find ABS to be a comparably effective method of recruiting young males compared with landline RDD, we acknowledge the potential impact that selection bias may have had on our results because of poor overall response rates, which ranged from 11.4% for landline RDD to 1.7% for ABS.

  18. Method for screening prevention and control measures and technologies based on groundwater pollution intensity assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Juan, E-mail: lijuan@craes.org.cn [College of Water Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Yang, Yang [College of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Huan, Huan; Li, Mingxiao [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Xi, Beidou, E-mail: xibd413@yeah.net [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Lanzhou Jiaotong University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Lv, Ningqing [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Wu, Yi [Guizhou Academy of Environmental Science and Designing, Guizhou 550000 (China); Xie, Yiwen, E-mail: qin3201@126.com [School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Dongguan University of Technology, Dongguan, 523808 (China); Li, Xiang; Yang, Jinjin [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China)

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a system for determining the evaluation and gradation indices of groundwater pollution intensity (GPI). Considering the characteristics of the vadose zone and pollution sources, the system decides which anti-seepage measures should be implemented at the contaminated site. The pollution sources hazards (PSH) and groundwater intrinsic vulnerability (GIV) are graded by the revised Nemerow Pollution Index and an improved DRTAS model, respectively. GPI is evaluated and graded by a double-sided multi-factor coupling model, which is constructed by the matrix method. The contaminated sites are categorized as prior, ordinary, or common sites. From the GPI results, we develop guiding principles for preventing and removing pollution sources, procedural interruption and remediation, and end treatment and monitoring. Thus, we can select appropriate prevention and control technologies (PCT). To screen the technological schemes and optimize the traditional analytical hierarchy process (AHP), we adopt the technique for order preference by the similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) method. Our GPI approach and PCT screening are applied to three types of pollution sites: the refuse dump of a rare earth mine development project (a potential pollution source), a chromium slag dump, and a landfill (existing pollution sources). These three sites are identified as ordinary, prior, and ordinary sites, respectively. The anti-seepage materials at the refuse dump should perform as effectively as a 1.5-m-thick clay bed. The chromium slag dump should be preferentially treated by soil flushing and in situ chemical remediation. The landfill should be treated by natural attenuation technology. The proposed PCT screening approach was compared with conventional screening methods results at the three sites and proved feasible and effective. The proposed method can provide technical support for the monitoring and management of groundwater pollution in China. - Highlights: • An

  19. Method for screening prevention and control measures and technologies based on groundwater pollution intensity assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Juan; Yang, Yang; Huan, Huan; Li, Mingxiao; Xi, Beidou; Lv, Ningqing; Wu, Yi; Xie, Yiwen; Li, Xiang; Yang, Jinjin

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a system for determining the evaluation and gradation indices of groundwater pollution intensity (GPI). Considering the characteristics of the vadose zone and pollution sources, the system decides which anti-seepage measures should be implemented at the contaminated site. The pollution sources hazards (PSH) and groundwater intrinsic vulnerability (GIV) are graded by the revised Nemerow Pollution Index and an improved DRTAS model, respectively. GPI is evaluated and graded by a double-sided multi-factor coupling model, which is constructed by the matrix method. The contaminated sites are categorized as prior, ordinary, or common sites. From the GPI results, we develop guiding principles for preventing and removing pollution sources, procedural interruption and remediation, and end treatment and monitoring. Thus, we can select appropriate prevention and control technologies (PCT). To screen the technological schemes and optimize the traditional analytical hierarchy process (AHP), we adopt the technique for order preference by the similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) method. Our GPI approach and PCT screening are applied to three types of pollution sites: the refuse dump of a rare earth mine development project (a potential pollution source), a chromium slag dump, and a landfill (existing pollution sources). These three sites are identified as ordinary, prior, and ordinary sites, respectively. The anti-seepage materials at the refuse dump should perform as effectively as a 1.5-m-thick clay bed. The chromium slag dump should be preferentially treated by soil flushing and in situ chemical remediation. The landfill should be treated by natural attenuation technology. The proposed PCT screening approach was compared with conventional screening methods results at the three sites and proved feasible and effective. The proposed method can provide technical support for the monitoring and management of groundwater pollution in China. - Highlights: • An

  20. Technical Note: Impact of the geometry dependence of the ion chamber detector response function on a convolution-based method to address the volume averaging effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barraclough, Brendan; Lebron, Sharon [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32608 and J. Crayton Pruitt Family Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Li, Jonathan G.; Fan, Qiyong; Liu, Chihray; Yan, Guanghua, E-mail: yangua@shands.ufl.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32608 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Purpose: To investigate the geometry dependence of the detector response function (DRF) of three commonly used scanning ionization chambers and its impact on a convolution-based method to address the volume averaging effect (VAE). Methods: A convolution-based approach has been proposed recently to address the ionization chamber VAE. It simulates the VAE in the treatment planning system (TPS) by iteratively convolving the calculated beam profiles with the DRF while optimizing the beam model. Since the convolved and the measured profiles are subject to the same VAE, the calculated profiles match the implicit “real” ones when the optimization converges. Three DRFs (Gaussian, Lorentzian, and parabolic function) were used for three ionization chambers (CC04, CC13, and SNC125c) in this study. Geometry dependent/independent DRFs were obtained by minimizing the difference between the ionization chamber-measured profiles and the diode-measured profiles convolved with the DRFs. These DRFs were used to obtain eighteen beam models for a commercial TPS. Accuracy of the beam models were evaluated by assessing the 20%–80% penumbra width difference (PWD) between the computed and diode-measured beam profiles. Results: The convolution-based approach was found to be effective for all three ionization chambers with significant improvement for all beam models. Up to 17% geometry dependence of the three DRFs was observed for the studied ionization chambers. With geometry dependent DRFs, the PWD was within 0.80 mm for the parabolic function and CC04 combination and within 0.50 mm for other combinations; with geometry independent DRFs, the PWD was within 1.00 mm for all cases. When using the Gaussian function as the DRF, accounting for geometry dependence led to marginal improvement (PWD < 0.20 mm) for CC04; the improvement ranged from 0.38 to 0.65 mm for CC13; for SNC125c, the improvement was slightly above 0.50 mm. Conclusions: Although all three DRFs were found adequate to

  1. Cost effectiveness of recruitment methods in an obesity prevention trial for young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jodie L; Fuerch, Janene H; Winiewicz, Dana D; Salvy, Sarah J; Roemmich, James N; Epstein, Leonard H

    2007-06-01

    Recruitment of participants for clinical trials requires considerable effort and cost. There is no research on the cost effectiveness of recruitment methods for an obesity prevention trial of young children. This study determined the cost effectiveness of recruiting 70 families with a child aged 4 to 7 (5.9+/-1.3) years in Western New York from February 2003 to November 2004, for a 2-year randomized obesity prevention trial to reduce television watching in the home. Of the 70 randomized families, 65.7% (n=46) were obtained through direct mailings, 24.3% (n=17) were acquired through newspaper advertisements, 7.1% (n=5) from other sources (e.g., word of mouth), and 2.9% (n=2) through posters and brochures. Costs of each recruitment method were computed by adding the cost of materials, staff time, and media expenses. Cost effectiveness (money spent per randomized participant) was US $0 for other sources, US $227.76 for direct mailing, US $546.95 for newspaper ads, and US $3,020.84 for posters and brochures. Of the methods with associated costs, direct mailing was the most cost effective in recruiting families with young children, which supports the growing literature of the effectiveness of direct mailing.

  2. User input in iterative design for prevention product development: leveraging interdisciplinary methods to optimize effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Kate M; Rosen, Rochelle K; Vargas, Sara E; Guillen, Melissa; Steger, Arielle L; Getz, Melissa L; Smith, Kelley A; Ramirez, Jaime J; Kojic, Erna M

    2017-10-01

    The development of HIV-preventive topical vaginal microbicides has been challenged by a lack of sufficient adherence in later stage clinical trials to confidently evaluate effectiveness. This dilemma has highlighted the need to integrate translational research earlier in the drug development process, essentially applying behavioral science to facilitate the advances of basic science with respect to the uptake and use of biomedical prevention technologies. In the last several years, there has been an increasing recognition that the user experience, specifically the sensory experience, as well as the role of meaning-making elicited by those sensations, may play a more substantive role than previously thought. Importantly, the role of the user-their sensory perceptions, their judgements of those experiences, and their willingness to use a product-is critical in product uptake and consistent use post-marketing, ultimately realizing gains in global public health. Specifically, a successful prevention product requires an efficacious drug, an efficient drug delivery system, and an effective user. We present an integrated iterative drug development and user experience evaluation method to illustrate how user-centered formulation design can be iterated from the early stages of preclinical development to leverage the user experience. Integrating the user and their product experiences into the formulation design process may help optimize both the efficiency of drug delivery and the effectiveness of the user.

  3. Moisture absorption characteristics of the Orbiter thermal protection system and methods used to prevent water ingestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomburg, C.; Dotts, R. L.; Tillian, D. J.

    1983-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Orbiter's silica tile Thermal Protection System (TPS) is beset by the moisture absorption problems inherently associated with low density, highly porous insulation systems. Attention is presently given to the comparative success of methods for the minimization and/or prevention of water ingestion by the TPS tiles, covering the development of water-repellent agents and their tile application techniques, flight test program results, and materials improvements. The use of external films for rewaterproofing of the TPS tiles after each mission have demonstrated marginal to unacceptable performance. By contrast, a tile interior waterproofing agent has shown promise.

  4. Youth injury prevention in Canada: use of the Delphi method to develop recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Ian; Piedt, Shannon; Davison, Colleen M; Russell, Kelly; Macpherson, Alison K; Pickett, William

    2015-12-22

    The Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Survey is one of very few cross-national health surveys that includes information on injury occurrence and prevention within adolescent populations. A collaboration to develop a Canadian youth injury report using these data resulted in, Injury among Young Canadians: A national study of contextual determinants. The objective of this study was to develop specific evidence-based, policy-oriented recommendations arising from the national report, using a modified-Delphi process with a panel of expert stakeholders. Eight injury prevention experts and a 3-person youth advisory team associated with a Canadian injury prevention organization (Parachute Canada) reviewed, edited and commented on report recommendations through a three-stage iterative modified-Delphi process. From an initial list of 27 draft recommendations, the modified-Delphi process resulted in a final list of 19 specific recommendations, worded to resonate with the group(s) responsible to lead or take the recommended action. Two recommendations were rated as "extremely important" or "very important" by 100 % of the expert panel, two were deleted, a further two recommendations were deleted but the content included as text in the report, and four were merged with other existing recommendations. The modified-Delphi process was an appropriate method to achieve agreement on 19 specific evidence-based, policy-oriented recommendations to complement the national youth injury report. In providing their input, it is noted that the injury stakeholders each acted as individual experts, unattached to any organizational position or policy. These recommendations will require multidisciplinary collaborations in order to support the proposed policy development, additional research, programming and clear decision-making for youth injury prevention.

  5. Methods Used and Topics Addressed in Quantitative Health Research on Gay, Bisexual and Other Men Who Have Sex With Men: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, David J; Bauer, Greta R; Bradley, Kaitlin; Tran, Oth Vilaythong

    2017-01-01

    Research on sexual minority men (gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men) was examined with regard to the measures of sexual orientation used, the methods of research, and the main health outcomes under study. A systematic review of English-language quantitative studies was conducted focused on the health of sexual minority men published in 2010 (n = 250). The results provide a snapshot of the literature and revealed that research on sexual minority men overwhelmingly focused on HIV, STIs, and sexual health for which sexual orientation was most commonly defined behaviorally. For topics of mental health or body/fitness outcomes, sexual orientation was most commonly defined by identity. Most study samples were venue-based, and only 8.8% of published papers drew data from population-based samples. The findings suggest that there exists a need for research on sexual minority men's health beyond STIs and HIV that will examine mental and physical health outcomes beyond sexual risk, uses probability-based samples, and addresses intersectional concerns related to race/ethnicity and age.

  6. Experimental tests and qualification of analytical methods to address thermohydraulic phenomena in advanced water cooled reactors. Proceedings of a technical committee meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-05-01

    Technical Committee Meeting on Experimental Tests and Qualification of Analytical Methods to Address Thermohydraulic Phenomena in Advanced Water Cooled Reactors was convened to review the current status and the remaining needs in this field

  7. Allegheny County Addressing Landmarks

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains address points which represent physical address locations assigned by the Allegheny County addressing authority. Data is updated by County...

  8. Allegheny County Address Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains address points which represent physical address locations assigned by the Allegheny County addressing authority. Data is updated by County...

  9. Primary prevention of cardio-metabolic diseases in general practice: a Dutch survey of attitudes and working methods of general practitioners.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielen, M.M.J.; Assendelft, W.J.J.; Drenthen, A.J.M.; Hombergh, P. van den; Dis, I. van; Schellevis, F.G.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To study the attitudes and working methods of general practitioners (GPs) in primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney diseases. METHODS: A questionnaire with questions about attitude and working methods in the primary prevention of

  10. Methods for evaluating a mature substance abuse prevention/early intervention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, L R; Hall, M; Fisher, D A; Miller, T R

    2000-05-01

    The authors describe methods for work in progress to evaluate four workplace prevention and/or early intervention programs designed to change occupational norms and reduce substance abuse at a major U.S. transportation company. The four programs are an employee assistance program, random drug testing, managed behavioral health care, and a peer-led intervention program. An elaborate mixed-methods evaluation combines data collection and analysis techniques from several traditions. A process-improvement evaluation focuses on the peer-led component to describe its evolution, document the implementation process for those interested in replicating it, and provide information for program improvement. An outcome-assessment evaluation examines impacts of the four programs on job performance measures (e.g., absenteeism, turnover, injury, and disability rates) and includes a cost-offset and employer cost-savings analysis. Issues related to using archival data, combining qualitative and quantitative designs, and working in a corporate environment are discussed.

  11. Methods and Strategies for Overvoltage Prevention in Low Voltage Distribution Systems with PV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashemi Toghroljerdi, Seyedmostafa; Østergaard, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    to handle a high share of PV power. This paper provides an in-depth review of methods and strategies proposed to prevent overvoltage in LV grids with PV, and discusses the effectiveness, advantages, and disadvantages of them in detail. Based on the mathematical framework presented in the paper......, the overvoltage caused by high PV penetration is described, solutions to facilitate higher PV penetration are classified, and their effectiveness, advantages, and disadvantages are illustrated. The investigated solutions include the grid reinforcement, electrical energy storage application, reactive power...... absorption by PV inverters, application of active medium voltage to low voltage (MV/LV) transformers, active power curtailment, and demand response (DR). Coordination between voltage control units by localized, distributed, and centralized voltage control methods is compared using the voltage sensitivity...

  12. Method for screening prevention and control measures and technologies based on groundwater pollution intensity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Yang, Yang; Huan, Huan; Li, Mingxiao; Xi, Beidou; Lv, Ningqing; Wu, Yi; Xie, Yiwen; Li, Xiang; Yang, Jinjin

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a system for determining the evaluation and gradation indices of groundwater pollution intensity (GPI). Considering the characteristics of the vadose zone and pollution sources, the system decides which anti-seepage measures should be implemented at the contaminated site. The pollution sources hazards (PSH) and groundwater intrinsic vulnerability (GIV) are graded by the revised Nemerow Pollution Index and an improved DRTAS model, respectively. GPI is evaluated and graded by a double-sided multi-factor coupling model, which is constructed by the matrix method. The contaminated sites are categorized as prior, ordinary, or common sites. From the GPI results, we develop guiding principles for preventing and removing pollution sources, procedural interruption and remediation, and end treatment and monitoring. Thus, we can select appropriate prevention and control technologies (PCT). To screen the technological schemes and optimize the traditional analytical hierarchy process (AHP), we adopt the technique for order preference by the similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) method. Our GPI approach and PCT screening are applied to three types of pollution sites: the refuse dump of a rare earth mine development project (a potential pollution source), a chromium slag dump, and a landfill (existing pollution sources). These three sites are identified as ordinary, prior, and ordinary sites, respectively. The anti-seepage materials at the refuse dump should perform as effectively as a 1.5-m-thick clay bed. The chromium slag dump should be preferentially treated by soil flushing and in situ chemical remediation. The landfill should be treated by natural attenuation technology. The proposed PCT screening approach was compared with conventional screening methods results at the three sites and proved feasible and effective. The proposed method can provide technical support for the monitoring and management of groundwater pollution in China. Copyright © 2015

  13. Core indicators evaluation of effectiveness of HIV-AIDS preventive-control programmes carried out by nongovernmental organizations. A mixed method study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansilla Rosa

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of nongovernmental organizations working on AIDS has grown. There is great diversity in the type of activities and population groups that have been targeted. The purposes of this study are: to describe and analyze the objectives and HIV-AIDS preventive activities that are carried out by the AIDS-NGOs that work with AIDS in Catalonia and that receive subsidies from the Department of Health; and to develop a comprehensive proposal for measurable and agreed upon core quality evaluation indicators to monitor and assess those objectives and activities that can have an impact on the fight against inequalities and stigmatization, and incorporate the perspectives of the service providers and users. Methods A mixed method study has been carried out with professionals from the 36 NGOs that work with HIV/AIDS in Catalonia, as well as their users. This study achieved the completeness model using the following phases: 1. A systematic review of AIDS-NGOs annual reports and preparation of a catalogue of activities grouped by objectives, level of prevention and AIDS-NGOs target population; 2. A transversal study through an ad-hoc questionnaire administered to the AIDS-NGOs representatives; 3. A qualitative study with a phenomenological approach through focus groups, individual interviews and observations; 4. Consensus meetings between AIDS-NGOs professionals and the research team using Haddon matrices in order to establish a proposal of evaluation indicators. Results The information was classified according to level of prevention and level of intervention. A total of 248 objectives and 258 prevention activities were identified. 1564 evaluation indicators, addressed to 7 target population groups, were produced. Thirty core activities were selected. The evaluation indicators proposed for these activities were: 76 indicators for 15 primary prevention activities, 43 for 5 secondary prevention activities and 68 for 10 tertiary

  14. Procedural pain in children with Cystic Fibrosis: an international survey on the methods used by CF centres to prevent and reduce it

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Festini, Filippo; Bregnballe, Vibeke

    2006-01-01

    do to prevent pain and fear in CF children. A 14-item questionnaire in 5 languages was sent to 441 CFCs' email addresses worldwide and posted on the INSG-CF web site. It regarded the methods used by CF Centres to control pain and fear during invasive procedures (e.g.: blood drawing, vein cannulation......Procedural pain is an additional burden for children with CE If not adequately prevented and treated procedural pain may result in anxiety and fear bound to the visits at the CF Centre (CFC) and it may affect patients' future compliance to treatments. Aim: To collect data on what CFCs in the world......, throat swab). Completed questionnaires were sent back by 50 CFCs from 12 countries (UK, USA, Canada, New Zealand, Israel, Italy, Belgium, The Netherlands, Sweden, Finland, France, Denmark) which take care of 4577 CF children overall. Results: 46% of CFCs collaborate with a local Pain Therapy Unit...

  15. Randomized controlled trial comparing tailoring methods of multimedia-based fall prevention education for community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepens, Stacey L; Panzer, Victoria; Goldberg, Allon

    2011-01-01

    We attempted to determine whether multimedia fall prevention education using different instructional strategies increases older adults' knowledge of fall threats and their fall prevention behaviors. Fifty-three community-dwelling older adults were randomized to iwo educational groups or a control group. Multimedia-based educational interventions to increase fall threats knowledge and encourage fall prevention behaviors had two tailoring strategies: (1) improve content realism for individual learners (authenticity group) and (2) highlight program goals and benefits while using participants' content selections (motivation group). Knowledge was measured at baseline and 1-mo follow-up. Participants recorded prevention behaviors for 1 mo. Intervention group participants showed greater knowledge gains and posttest knowledge than did control group participants. The motivation group engaged in more prevention behaviors over 1 mo than did the other groups. Tailoring fall prevention education by addressing authenticity and motivation successfully improved fall threats knowledge. Combining motivational strategies with multimedia education increased the effectiveness of the intervention in encouraging fall prevention behaviors.

  16. Comparison of Two Methods of Direct and Indirect Education on Osteoporosis Preventive Behaviors among Female Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Darabi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Osteoporosis is the most common metabolic bone disease that decreases bone mass, causes destruction and eventually friability. This disease is preventable, and because adolescent females are the high-risk population, teaching this age group is of the utmost importance. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of the two educational methods (Lecture and Pamphlet on osteoporosis preventive behaviors among female students. Materials and Methods: This was a randomized clinical trial (RCT. To collect data, demographic questionnaire, food frequency questionnaire (FFQ, and physical activity questionnaire were used. Subjects were 205 seventh-grade girls who were selected by multistage random method and allocated in two experimental (Lecture = 68, Pamphlet = 67 and 70 for control group. In the Lecture group, there were 5 sessions of training, each of which lasted 60 minutes. In the Pamphlet group, only educational pamphlets were given, and no interventions were performed in the control group. Data were analyzed through statistical software SPSS version 21.0. Descriptive statistics, chi-square tests, t-test and ANOVA were applied to analyze the data. Results: The mean age of the students was 13 + 0.856 years old and there was no difference in terms of demographic variables between intervention and control groups. The results identified the mean scores of physical activity behaviors significantly improved two mounts after the intervention in the lecture group (P=0.001.While, the men scores of the pamphlet group had no significant changes after two months, but the differences of the both group compared to the control group were significant. Considering the significant decreased in the control group (P= 001. The mean scores of calcium intake in the two lecture and pamphlet groups significantly increased (P

  17. Inverse probability weighting in STI/HIV prevention research: methods for evaluating social and community interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippman, Sheri A.; Shade, Starley B.; Hubbard, Alan E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Intervention effects estimated from non-randomized intervention studies are plagued by biases, yet social or structural intervention studies are rarely randomized. There are underutilized statistical methods available to mitigate biases due to self-selection, missing data, and confounding in longitudinal, observational data permitting estimation of causal effects. We demonstrate the use of Inverse Probability Weighting (IPW) to evaluate the effect of participating in a combined clinical and social STI/HIV prevention intervention on reduction of incident chlamydia and gonorrhea infections among sex workers in Brazil. Methods We demonstrate the step-by-step use of IPW, including presentation of the theoretical background, data set up, model selection for weighting, application of weights, estimation of effects using varied modeling procedures, and discussion of assumptions for use of IPW. Results 420 sex workers contributed data on 840 incident chlamydia and gonorrhea infections. Participators were compared to non-participators following application of inverse probability weights to correct for differences in covariate patterns between exposed and unexposed participants and between those who remained in the intervention and those who were lost-to-follow-up. Estimators using four model selection procedures provided estimates of intervention effect between odds ratio (OR) .43 (95% CI:.22-.85) and .53 (95% CI:.26-1.1). Conclusions After correcting for selection bias, loss-to-follow-up, and confounding, our analysis suggests a protective effect of participating in the Encontros intervention. Evaluations of behavioral, social, and multi-level interventions to prevent STI can benefit by introduction of weighting methods such as IPW. PMID:20375927

  18. Role of Religion in Preventing Youth Sexual Activity in Malaysia: A Mixed Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Noor Azimah; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Sulaiman, Zaharah; Amin, Rahmah Mohd; Omar, Khairani

    2017-12-01

    One of the popular approaches of preventing youth sexual activity in Malaysia is using religion to promote premarital sexual abstinence. Despite this intervention, youth continue to practise premarital sex. Thus, the purpose of this exploratory mixed methods study was to understand the role of religion on sexual activity among college students in Klang Valley, Malaysia. A self-administered questionnaire survey to determine the relationship between religiosity and youth sexual activity was carried out on 1026 students recruited from 12 randomly selected colleges. Concurrently, face-to-face interviews were conducted on 15 students to explore how religiosity had influenced their decision on sexual activity. The survey data were analysed using logistic regression, while the qualitative data from the interviews were examined using thematic analysis with separate analysis for each gender. Both quantitative and qualitative results were then compared and integrated. Religious activity significantly reduced the risk of continuing sexual activity among female students (AOR = 0.67, CI = 0.47, 0.95, p = 0.02) but not male students. There was no significant relationship of religious affiliation and intrinsic religiosity (inner faith) to sexual activity by gender. Having faith in religion and strong sexual desire were the main themes that explained participants' sexual behaviour. Engaging in religious activity might be effective at preventing female students from being sexually active. However, when sexual urges and desires are beyond control, religiosity might not be effective.

  19. Methods of preventing fast breeder reactor shield plug from adhesion of sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashiguchi, Koh; Hara, Johji; Nei, Hiromichi; Daiku, Motoichi; Wagatsuma, Kenji

    1980-01-01

    The shield plug, which is located at the upper part of a reactor vessel of a sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor, is composed of a rotating and a stationary plug. Fuel exchange is performed easily by the rotation of the rotating plug. The vapor or mist of sodium evaporated from liquid sodium deposits on the gap surfaces of the rotating and stationary plugs and is solidified or changed into a solid reactant. If such condition continues for a long period, harmful effects are exerted on the fuel exchange operation. In order to develop methods of preventing the sodium deposition, investigation was made on the phenomenon of sodium deposition. By the use of the testing equipment simulating the shield plug, deposition tests and specimen measurements were made for different gap width test section size and condition. On the basis of the effects of these parameters clarified by experiments, the effectiveness of three kinds of mechanism for preventing sodium deposition were investigated experimentally. In addition, by using a thermo-siphon analogical model, analysis was performed to deduce experimental equations for sodium deposition. (author)

  20. Evaluation of risk prioritization and budget allocation methods for pollution prevention activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniels, J.; Jones, E.; Lmont, A.; Ladmn, T.; Watz, J.

    1997-01-01

    This study reviews the structure of two main risk prioritization budget allocation methods developed by the DOE Risk-Based Priority Mode (RPM) and Management Evaluation Matrix (MEM). It identifies potential augmentations to the process that will address both risk reduction and cost-effective investments of finite resources for future Environmental Management activities. The evaluation was performed in accordance with the EM ten-year vision and principles for site cleanup. The evaluation and recommendations in this report strive to reflect four key principles, namely to eliminate the most urgent risks, reduce mortgage and support costs to make funds available for further risk reduction, protect worker health and safety, and reduce the generation of wastes

  1. Autogenic feedback training experiment: A preventative method for space motion sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowings, Patricia S.

    1993-01-01

    Space motion sickness is a disorder which produces symptoms similar to those of motion sickness on Earth. This syndrome has affected approximately 50 percent of all astronauts and cosmonauts exposed to microgravity in space, but it differs from what is commonly known as motion sickness in a number of critical ways. There is currently no ground-based method for predicting susceptibility to motion sickness in space. Antimotion sickness drugs have had limited success in preventing or counteracting symptoms in space, and frequently caused debilitating side effects. The objectives were: (1) to evaluate the effectiveness of Autogenic-Feedback Training as a countermeasure for space motion sickness; (2) to compare physiological data and in-flight symptom reports to ground-based motion sickness data; and (3) to predict susceptibility to space motion sickness based on pre-flight data of each treatment group crew member.

  2. Preventing Airborne Disease Transmission: Review of Methods for Ventilation Design in Health Care Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliabadi, Amir A.; Rogak, Steven N.; Bartlett, Karen H.; Green, Sheldon I.

    2011-01-01

    Health care facility ventilation design greatly affects disease transmission by aerosols. The desire to control infection in hospitals and at the same time to reduce their carbon footprint motivates the use of unconventional solutions for building design and associated control measures. This paper considers indoor sources and types of infectious aerosols, and pathogen viability and infectivity behaviors in response to environmental conditions. Aerosol dispersion, heat and mass transfer, deposition in the respiratory tract, and infection mechanisms are discussed, with an emphasis on experimental and modeling approaches. Key building design parameters are described that include types of ventilation systems (mixing, displacement, natural and hybrid), air exchange rate, temperature and relative humidity, air flow distribution structure, occupancy, engineered disinfection of air (filtration and UV radiation), and architectural programming (source and activity management) for health care facilities. The paper describes major findings and suggests future research needs in methods for ventilation design of health care facilities to prevent airborne infection risk. PMID:22162813

  3. Pulsed voltage electrospray ion source and method for preventing analyte electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertesz, Vilmos [Knoxville, TN; Van Berkel, Gary [Clinton, TN

    2011-12-27

    An electrospray ion source and method of operation includes the application of pulsed voltage to prevent electrolysis of analytes with a low electrochemical potential. The electrospray ion source can include an emitter, a counter electrode, and a power supply. The emitter can include a liquid conduit, a primary working electrode having a liquid contacting surface, and a spray tip, where the liquid conduit and the working electrode are in liquid communication. The counter electrode can be proximate to, but separated from, the spray tip. The power system can supply voltage to the working electrode in the form of a pulse wave, where the pulse wave oscillates between at least an energized voltage and a relaxation voltage. The relaxation duration of the relaxation voltage can range from 1 millisecond to 35 milliseconds. The pulse duration of the energized voltage can be less than 1 millisecond and the frequency of the pulse wave can range from 30 to 800 Hz.

  4. Core indicators evaluation of effectiveness of HIV-AIDS preventive-control programmes carried out by nongovernmental organizations. A mixed method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenguera, Anna; Pujol-Ribera, Enriqueta; Violan, Concepció; Romaguera, Amparo; Mansilla, Rosa; Giménez, Albert; Ascaso, Carlos; Almeda, Jesús

    2011-07-28

    The number of nongovernmental organizations working on AIDS has grown. There is great diversity in the type of activities and population groups that have been targeted. The purposes of this study are: to describe and analyze the objectives and HIV-AIDS preventive activities that are carried out by the AIDS-NGOs that work with AIDS in Catalonia and that receive subsidies from the Department of Health; and to develop a comprehensive proposal for measurable and agreed upon core quality evaluation indicators to monitor and assess those objectives and activities that can have an impact on the fight against inequalities and stigmatization, and incorporate the perspectives of the service providers and users. A mixed method study has been carried out with professionals from the 36 NGOs that work with HIV/AIDS in Catalonia, as well as their users. This study achieved the completeness model using the following phases:1. A systematic review of AIDS-NGOs annual reports and preparation of a catalogue of activities grouped by objectives, level of prevention and AIDS-NGOs target population; 2. A transversal study through an ad-hoc questionnaire administered to the AIDS-NGOs representatives; 3. A qualitative study with a phenomenological approach through focus groups, individual interviews and observations; 4. Consensus meetings between AIDS-NGOs professionals and the research team using Haddon matrices in order to establish a proposal of evaluation indicators. The information was classified according to level of prevention and level of intervention. A total of 248 objectives and 258 prevention activities were identified. 1564 evaluation indicators, addressed to 7 target population groups, were produced. Thirty core activities were selected. The evaluation indicators proposed for these activities were: 76 indicators for 15 primary prevention activities, 43 for 5 secondary prevention activities and 68 for 10 tertiary prevention activities. The results could help to homogeneously

  5. The limitations of 'Black MSM' as a category: Why gender, sexuality, and desire still matter for social and biomedical HIV prevention methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Jonathan; Parker, Richard G; Parker, Caroline; Wilson, Patrick A; Philbin, Morgan; Hirsch, Jennifer S

    2016-01-01

    The USA faces disproportionate and increasing HIV incidence rates among Black men who have sex with men (BMSM). New biomedical technologies such as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) have been developed to address their HIV risk. Very little consideration, however, has been given to the diversity obscured by 'BMSM' as a category, to how this diversity relates to men's sexual partnering strategies, or to the relevance of these issues for new HIV prevention methods. We conducted a community-based ethnography from June 2013 to May 2014 documenting factors that affect the acceptance of and adherence to PrEP among BMSM. We conducted in-depth interviews with 31 BMSM and 17 community stakeholders, and participant observation. To demonstrate the diversity of social identities, we present a taxonomy of indigenous categories organised along the axes of sexual identity, sexual positioning, and gender performance. We analyse how HIV prevention strategies, such as PrEP, may be more effective if programmes consider how gender, sexuality, and sexual desire shape sexual partnering strategies. This article underlines the importance of attending to the diversity of sexual and social subjectivities among BMSM, of bringing the study of sexuality back into HIV prevention, and of integrating biomedical prevention approaches into community-based programmes.

  6. A Review of Haptoglobin Typing Methods for Disease Association Study and Preventing Anaphylactic Transfusion Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae-Hyun Ko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Haptoglobin, the product of the gene, is a glycoprotein involved in the scavenging of free hemoglobin. Haptoglobin levels increase or decrease in response to various acquired conditions, and they are also influenced by genetic predisposition. There were 2 major alleles, and , and 1 minor allele, . Many researchers have attempted to study the haptoglobin types and their association with disease; however, no definitive conclusions have been reached yet. It is reported that patients who are genetically deficient in haptoglobin are at risk of anaphylaxis against blood components containing haptoglobin. Haptoglobin genotypes also affect the reference intervals of haptoglobin levels. Many studies have attempted to establish simple and accurate typing methods. In this paper, we have broadly reviewed several methods for haptoglobin typing—phenotyping, Southern blotting, conventional PCR, real-time PCR, and loop-mediated isothermal amplification. We discuss their characteristics, clinical applications, and limitations. The phenotyping methods are time consuming and labor intensive and not designed to detect patients harboring . The rapid and robust haptoglobin genotyping may help in preventing fatal anaphylactic reactions and in establishing the relationships between the haptoglobin phenotypes and diseases.

  7. Assessing Knowledge and Perceptions Related to Preventive Methods and Treatment of Malaria in the Local Endemic Area of Trujillo, Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campodonico, Joanna; Sevilla-Martir, Javier; Arrizabalaga, Gustavo; Kochhar, Komal

    2015-01-01

    Malaria in Honduras is endemic and accounts for 40% of the total cases in Central America. Our goal was to assess knowledge of preventive methods and current treatment of malaria among the affected community of Trujillo, Honduras. A cross-sectional survey was administered to 71 individuals. Most respondents had a good understanding about common malaria symptoms but not about the complications associated with severe cases. More important, we found that less than 20% of the respondents recognized indoor residual sprays and insecticide-treated nets as effective preventive measures, which are the most efficient preventive methods. Our study highlights the perceptions the people of Trujillo have about malaria. From our observations, we put forward recommendations to implement a comprehensive campaign to educate the Trujillo population about malaria preventive methods and to recruit local and international efforts to distribute insecticide-treated nets.

  8. Frequency Analysis Using Bootstrap Method and SIR Algorithm for Prevention of Natural Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, T.; Kim, Y. S.

    2017-12-01

    The frequency analysis of hydrometeorological data is one of the most important factors in response to natural disaster damage, and design standards for a disaster prevention facilities. In case of frequency analysis of hydrometeorological data, it assumes that observation data have statistical stationarity, and a parametric method considering the parameter of probability distribution is applied. For a parametric method, it is necessary to sufficiently collect reliable data; however, snowfall observations are needed to compensate for insufficient data in Korea, because of reducing the number of days for snowfall observations and mean maximum daily snowfall depth due to climate change. In this study, we conducted the frequency analysis for snowfall using the Bootstrap method and SIR algorithm which are the resampling methods that can overcome the problems of insufficient data. For the 58 meteorological stations distributed evenly in Korea, the probability of snowfall depth was estimated by non-parametric frequency analysis using the maximum daily snowfall depth data. The results show that probabilistic daily snowfall depth by frequency analysis is decreased at most stations, and most stations representing the rate of change were found to be consistent in both parametric and non-parametric frequency analysis. This study shows that the resampling methods can do the frequency analysis of the snowfall depth that has insufficient observed samples, which can be applied to interpretation of other natural disasters such as summer typhoons with seasonal characteristics. Acknowledgment.This research was supported by a grant(MPSS-NH-2015-79) from Disaster Prediction and Mitigation Technology Development Program funded by Korean Ministry of Public Safety and Security(MPSS).

  9. Physical activity prescription: a critical opportunity to address a modifiable risk factor for the prevention and management of chronic disease: a position statement by the Canadian Academy of Sport and Exercise Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Jane S; Frémont, Pierre; Khan, Karim; Poirier, Paul; Fowles, Jonathon; Wells, Greg D; Frankovich, Renata J

    2016-09-01

    Non-communicable disease is a leading threat to global health. Physical inactivity is a large contributor to this problem; in fact, the WHO ranks it as the fourth leading risk factor for overall morbidity and mortality worldwide. In Canada, at least 4 of 5 adults do not meet the Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines of 150 min of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity per week. Physicians play an important role in the dissemination of physical activity (PA) recommendations to a broad segment of the population, as over 80% of Canadians visit their doctors every year and prefer to get health information directly from them. Unfortunately, most physicians do not regularly assess or prescribe PA as part of routine care, and even when discussed, few provide specific recommendations. PA prescription has the potential to be an important therapeutic agent for all ages in primary, secondary and tertiary prevention of chronic disease. Sport and exercise medicine (SEM) physicians are particularly well suited for this role and should collaborate with their primary care colleagues for optimal patient care. The purpose of this Canadian Academy and Sport and Exercise Medicine position statement is to provide an evidence-based, best practices summary to better equip SEM and primary care physicians to prescribe PA and exercise, specifically for the prevention and management of non-communicable disease. This will be achieved by addressing common questions and perceived barriers in the field.Author note This position statement has been endorsed by the following nine sport medicine societies: Australasian College of Sports and Exercise Physicians (ACSEP), American Medical Society for Sports Medicine (AMSSM), British Association of Sports and Exercise Medicine (BASEM), European College of Sport & Exercise Physicians (ECOSEP), Norsk forening for idrettsmedisin og fysisk aktivite (NIMF), South African Sports Medicine Association (SASMA), Schweizerische Gesellschaft für Sportmedizin

  10. License Address List

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Address list generated from National Saltwater Angler Registry. Used in conjunction with an address-based sample as per survey design.

  11. Reach Address Database (RAD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Reach Address Database (RAD) stores the reach address of each Water Program feature that has been linked to the underlying surface water features (streams,...

  12. Is prophylactic fixation a cost-effective method to prevent a future contralateral fragility hip fracture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucett, Scott C; Genuario, James W; Tosteson, Anna N A; Koval, Kenneth J

    2010-02-01

    : A previous hip fracture more than doubles the risk of a contralateral hip fracture. Pharmacologic and environmental interventions to prevent hip fracture have documented poor compliance. The purpose of this study was to examine the cost-effectiveness of prophylactic fixation of the uninjured hip to prevent contralateral hip fracture. : A Markov state-transition model was used to evaluate the cost and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) for unilateral fixation of hip fracture alone (including internal fixation or arthroplasty) compared with unilateral fixation and contralateral prophylactic hip fixation performed at the time of hip fracture or unilateral fixation and bilateral hip pad protection. Prophylactic fixation involved placement of a cephalomedullary nail in the uninjured hip and was initially assumed to have a relative risk of a contralateral fracture of 1%. Health states included good health, surgery-related complications requiring a second operation (infection, osteonecrosis, nonunion, and malunion), fracture of the uninjured hip, and death. The primary outcome measure was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio estimated as cost per QALY gained in 2006 US dollars with incremental cost-effectiveness ratios below $50,000 per QALY gained considered cost-effective. Sensitivity analyses evaluated the impact of patient age, annual mortality and complication rates, intervention effectiveness, utilities, and costs on the value of prophylactic fixation. : In the baseline analysis, in a 79-year-old woman, prophylactic fixation was not found to be cost-effective (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio = $142,795/QALY). However, prophylactic fixation was found to be a cost-effective method to prevent contralateral hip fracture in: 1) women 71 to 75 years old who had 30% greater relative risk for a contralateral fracture; and 2) women younger than age 70 years. Cost-effectiveness was greater when the additional costs of prophylaxis were less than $6000. However, for

  13. STUDY ON STUDENTS’ AWARENESS CONCERNING ENVIRONMENTAL AND OCCUPATIONAL HAZARDOUS AGENTS OF CANCER RISK AND PREVENTION METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonina Cebulska-Wasilewska

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of our study was to assess the level of awareness and knowledge on environmental and occupational risk of cancer and its prevention among Polish students. We were interested also in their sources of knowledge. Methods. Survey, using the questionnaire, was conducted among 1080 respondents, who are or probably will be in their future work, exposed to harmful agents, due to study profile. Results. Students rated their knowledge on environmental and occupational cancer agents and cancer prevention mostly as limited (over 77%. Participation in “Safety Work and Environment” courses did not differentiate their level of cancer risk awareness. 901 students (84% responded to question about specific substances, which may cause cancer. Almost 2% of students indicated none from 10 given agents as carcinogenic. About 34% of respondents pointed all given agents, 39% pointed on 8–9 of them, 5–7 agents 13.2% of surveyed and 9% of them indicated on 1–4 agents. Students were aware of carcinogenic features of radiation, asbestos, cigarettes smoking (93.2–93.8%, benzene, benzo[?]pirene and pesticides (79,2 –83,6%. Less of them declared carcinogenic features of PAHs (75.4%, heavy metals (73.9%, electromagnetic field (64.8% and infections (60.8%. Only 48% of respondents specified possible lowering of the cancer by risk intervention practices. Medical and engineering profile, as well as attendance in courses covering the issues of health safety at work or environment (SWE significantly decreased percentage of respondents who didn’t specified any procedure (but it was still high: 48–62%. Conclusion. Our results demonstrate that most students, only to some extent, are aware of the most well known cancer-causing substances occurrence. Their knowledge is mostly limited and they do not know prevention procedures and ways to lower or eliminate the risk. Therefore the modernization of educational programs and development of more efficient

  14. An adhesive bonding method with microfabricating micro pillars to prevent clogging in a microchannel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Pin-Chuan; Liu, Yu-Min; Chou, Huang-Chieh

    2016-01-01

    Thermoplastics are widely used in the fabrication of microfluidic chips, due to their low cost, flexibility in manufacturing, and applicability in large-scale production. This paper presents a novel bonding method for the assembly of thermoplastic microfluidic chips, with the aim of preventing the flow of UV adhesive into microchannels during the bonding process. The proposed bonding methodology depends primarily on controlling the thickness of the UV adhesive, which is achieved by using spin-coating for the uniform UV adhesive in conjunction with the microfabrication of short pillars for keeping a uniform gap between the two bonded surfaces. In this study, two devices with serpentine microchannels (cross-sectional area of 500 μm  ×  500 μm and 200 μm  ×  200 μm) were fabricated on PMMA substrates using a micromilling machine, whereupon a hydrophobic coating was applied to the walls of 200 μm  ×  200 μm microchannels in order to prevent clogging, which might otherwise be caused by the seepage of UV adhesive into the channels. A variety of experiments were used to characterize the quality of bonding, the results of which reveal the following: (1) no leakage was observed in either of the microfluidic chips; (2) the hydrophobic coating proved highly effective in preventing the flow of UV adhesive into the smaller microchannels; (3) the average amount of clogging inside 500 μm  ×  500 μm microchannels was 1.13% with standard deviation of 0.55%, while the average amount of clogging inside 200 μm  ×  200 μm microchannels was 1.65% with standard deviation of 0.92%; (4) the average thickness of the UV adhesive in a 500 μm  ×  500 μm microfluidic chip was 32 μm with standard deviation of 2 μm, whereas the average thickness of the UV adhesive in a 200 μm  ×  200 μm microfluidic chip was 31 μm with standard deviation of 1.2 μm; (5) the two chips possess sufficient bonding strength to withstand

  15. Surface zwitterionization: Effective method for preventing oral bacterial biofilm formation on hydroxyapatite surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myoungjin; Kim, Heejin; Seo, Jiae; Kang, Minji; Kang, Sunah; Jang, Joomyung; Lee, Yan; Seo, Ji-Hun

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we conducted surface zwitterionization of hydroxyapatite (HA) surfaces by immersing them in the zwitterionic polymer solutions to provide anti-bacterial properties to the HA surface. Three different monomers containing various zwitterionic groups, i.e., phosphorylcholine (PC), sulfobetaine (SB), and carboxybetaine (CB), were copolymerized with the methacrylic monomer containing a Ca2+-binding moiety, using the free radical polymerization method. As a control, functionalization of the copolymer containing the Ca2+-binding moiety was synthesized using a hydroxy group. The stable immobilization of the zwitterionic functional groups was confirmed by water contact angle analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurement conducted after the sonication process. The zwitterionized HA surface showed significantly decreased protein adsorption, whereas the hydroxyl group-coated HA surface showed limited efficacy. The anti-bacterial adhesion property was confirmed by conducting Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) adhesion tests for 6 h and 24 h. When furanone C-30, a representative anti-quorum sensing molecule for S. mutans, was used, only a small amount of bacteria adhered after 6 h and the population did not increase after 24 h. In contrast, zwitterionized HA surfaces showed almost no bacterial adhesion after 6 h and the effect was retained for 24 h, resulting in the lowest level of oral bacterial adhesion. These results confirm that surface zwitterionization is a promising method to effectively prevent oral bacterial adhesion on HA-based materials.

  16. Blending Qualitative and Computational Linguistics Methods for Fidelity Assessment: Experience with the Familias Unidas Preventive Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Carlos; Pantin, Hilda; Villamar, Juan; Prado, Guillermo; Tapia, Maria; Ogihara, Mitsunori; Cruden, Gracelyn; Brown, C Hendricks

    2015-09-01

    Careful fidelity monitoring and feedback are critical to implementing effective interventions. A wide range of procedures exist to assess fidelity; most are derived from observational assessments (Schoenwald and Garland, Psycholog Assess 25:146-156, 2013). However, these fidelity measures are resource intensive for research teams in efficacy/effectiveness trials, and are often unattainable or unmanageable for the host organization to rate when the program is implemented on a large scale. We present a first step towards automated processing of linguistic patterns in fidelity monitoring of a behavioral intervention using an innovative mixed methods approach to fidelity assessment that uses rule-based, computational linguistics to overcome major resource burdens. Data come from an effectiveness trial of the Familias Unidas intervention, an evidence-based, family-centered preventive intervention found to be efficacious in reducing conduct problems, substance use and HIV sexual risk behaviors among Hispanic youth. This computational approach focuses on "joining," which measures the quality of the working alliance of the facilitator with the family. Quantitative assessments of reliability are provided. Kappa scores between a human rater and a machine rater for the new method for measuring joining reached 0.83. Early findings suggest that this approach can reduce the high cost of fidelity measurement and the time delay between fidelity assessment and feedback to facilitators; it also has the potential for improving the quality of intervention fidelity ratings.

  17. Methods of preventing vinorelbine-induced phlebitis: an experimental study in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohno, Emiko; Murase, Saori; Nishikata, Mayumi; Okamura, Noboru; Matzno, Sumio; Kuwahara, Takashi; Matsuyama, Kenji

    2008-07-22

    In order to identify methods for preventing phlebitis caused by intravenous administration of vinorelbine (VNR), we established a procedure for estimating the severity of phlebitis in an animal model. Four different factors (administration rate, dilution, flushing, and infusion of fat emulsion) were evaluated for alleviation of phlebitis caused by VNR infusion. VNR was diluted with normal saline to prepare test solutions with concentrations of 0.6 mg/mL or 0.3 mg/mL for infusion into the auricular veins of rabbits. Two days after VNR infusion, the veins were subjected to histopathological examination. VNR did not cause obvious loss of venous endothelial cells, the most sensitive and common feature of phlebitis, but VNR infusion led to inflammatory cell infiltration, edema, and epidermal degeneration. Tissue damage was significantly decreased by shortening the administration time and by diluting the VNR solution for infusion from 0.6 mg/mL to 0.3 mg/mL. However, there was no effect of flushing with normal saline after VNR infusion, while treatment with fat emulsion before and after VNR infusion only had a minimal effect. Rapid infusion and dilution are effective methods of reducing phlebitis caused by the infusion of VNR, but the efficacy of flushing with normal saline or infusion of fat emulsion was not confirmed.

  18. Detecting and Preventing Sybil Attacks in Wireless Sensor Networks Using Message Authentication and Passing Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhamodharan, Udaya Suriya Raj Kumar; Vayanaperumal, Rajamani

    2015-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks are highly indispensable for securing network protection. Highly critical attacks of various kinds have been documented in wireless sensor network till now by many researchers. The Sybil attack is a massive destructive attack against the sensor network where numerous genuine identities with forged identities are used for getting an illegal entry into a network. Discerning the Sybil attack, sinkhole, and wormhole attack while multicasting is a tremendous job in wireless sensor network. Basically a Sybil attack means a node which pretends its identity to other nodes. Communication to an illegal node results in data loss and becomes dangerous in the network. The existing method Random Password Comparison has only a scheme which just verifies the node identities by analyzing the neighbors. A survey was done on a Sybil attack with the objective of resolving this problem. The survey has proposed a combined CAM-PVM (compare and match-position verification method) with MAP (message authentication and passing) for detecting, eliminating, and eventually preventing the entry of Sybil nodes in the network. We propose a scheme of assuring security for wireless sensor network, to deal with attacks of these kinds in unicasting and multicasting.

  19. Detecting and Preventing Sybil Attacks in Wireless Sensor Networks Using Message Authentication and Passing Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udaya Suriya Raj Kumar Dhamodharan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks are highly indispensable for securing network protection. Highly critical attacks of various kinds have been documented in wireless sensor network till now by many researchers. The Sybil attack is a massive destructive attack against the sensor network where numerous genuine identities with forged identities are used for getting an illegal entry into a network. Discerning the Sybil attack, sinkhole, and wormhole attack while multicasting is a tremendous job in wireless sensor network. Basically a Sybil attack means a node which pretends its identity to other nodes. Communication to an illegal node results in data loss and becomes dangerous in the network. The existing method Random Password Comparison has only a scheme which just verifies the node identities by analyzing the neighbors. A survey was done on a Sybil attack with the objective of resolving this problem. The survey has proposed a combined CAM-PVM (compare and match-position verification method with MAP (message authentication and passing for detecting, eliminating, and eventually preventing the entry of Sybil nodes in the network. We propose a scheme of assuring security for wireless sensor network, to deal with attacks of these kinds in unicasting and multicasting.

  20. A new theory and method of preventing harmful waste landfill from pollution to groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Changli; Zhang Yun; Song Shuhong; Hou Hongbing

    2006-01-01

    It is limited in conventional Soil Liner theory of waste landfill, we must update the theory and the calculational methods must be broke, so that the cost of waste landfill could be reduced in wide scope, this is important to develop economy and environment in sustaining rate. It is an innovation in the theory of the pollution control in the waste landfill groundwater through translated the theories of 'excluding infiltrate to groundwater' into 'insulating waste, allowing water into groundwater', the theory of waste landfill from pollution to groundwater came true. Clayey Soil not only can prevent seepage, but also can obstruct waste. If we can make use of its filtration adequately, just as using experimentation in laboratory to research filtration capability, calculation, we could made new testing technique and calculated technique of liner parameters. This paper take an example of which calculate to liner parameters, such as 'filtration capability' and 'adequacy thickness of effective liner', and make a programming of landfill site by this theory and method in Beijing plain. (authors)

  1. Brucellosis Prevention Program: Applying “Child to Family Health Education” Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Allahverdipour

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Pupils have efficient potential to increase community awareness and promoting community health through participating in the health education programs. Child to family health education program is one of the communicative strategies that was applied in this field trial study. Because of high prevalence of Brucellosis in Hamadan province, Iran, the aim of this study was promoting families’ knowledge and preventive behaviors about Brucellosis in the rural areas by using child to family health education method.Materials & Methods: In this nonequivalent control group design study three rural schools were chosen (one as intervention and two others as control. At first knowledge and behavior of families about Brucellosis were determined using a designed questionnaire. Then the families were educated through “child to family” procedure. At this stage the students gained information. Then they were instructed to teach their parents what they had learned. After 3 months following the last session of education, the level of knowledge and behavior changes of the families about Brucellosis were determined and analyzed by paired t-test.Results: The results showed significant improvement in the knowledge of the mothers. The knowledge of the mothers about the signs of Brucellosis disease in human increased from 1.81 to 3.79 ( t:-21.64 , sig:0.000 , and also the knowledge on the signs of Brucellosis in animals increased from 1.48 to 2.82 ( t:-10.60 , sig:0.000. Conclusion: Child to family health education program is one of the effective and available methods, which would be useful and effective in most communities, and also Students potential would be effective for applying in the health promotion programs.

  2. Knowledge Reuse Method to Improve the Learning of Interference-Preventive Allocation Policies in Multi-Car Elevators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivielso Chian, Alex; Miyamoto, Toshiyuki

    In this letter, we introduce a knowledge reuse method to improve the performance of a learning algorithm developed to prevent interference in multi-car elevators. This method enables the algorithm to use its previously acquired experience in new learning processes. The simulation results confirm the improvement achieved in the algorithm's performance.

  3. Negotiating the Use of Female-Initiated HIV Prevention Methods in a Context of Gender-Based Violence: the Narrative of Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Miriam; Montgomery, Elizabeth; Stadler, Jonathan; Laborde, Nicole; Magazi, Busisiwe; Mathebula, Florence; van der Straten, Ariane

    2016-01-01

    Female-initiated methods of HIV prevention are needed to address barriers to HIV prevention rooted in gender inequalities. Understanding the socio-cultural context of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) trials, including gender-based violence, is thus critical. MTN-003C (VOICE-C), a qualitative sub-study of the larger MTN-003 (VOICE) trial, examined socio-cultural barriers and facilitators to PrEP amongst women in Johannesburg. We conducted focus group discussions, in-depth interviews, and ethnographic interviews with 102 trial participants, 22 male partners, 17 community advisory board members, and 23 community stakeholders. We analysed how discussions of rape are emblematic of the gendered context in which HIV risk occurs. Rape emerged spontaneously in half of discussions with community advisory board members, two-thirds with stakeholders and among one-fifth of interviews/discussions with trial participants. Rape was used to reframe HIV risk as external to women’s or partner’s behaviour and to justify the importance of PrEP. Our research illustrates how women, in contexts of high levels of sexual violence, may use existing gender inequalities to negotiate PrEP use. This suggests that future interventions should simultaneously address harmful gender attitudes, as well as equip women with alternative means to negotiate product use, in order to more effectively empower women to protect themselves from HIV. PMID:26551920

  4. Control methods for cattle feedstuffs aimed at prevention of Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nešić Ksenija

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the course of the last decades of the twentieth century, more than 30 new diseases were determined for the first time in history. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, or "mad cow disease" is one of them. The disease implies the subacute neurodegenerative transmission of spongiform encephalopathy and it was diagnosed and described for the first time in Great Britain in 1986. A theory has been established that BSE is spread through feedstuffs, more precisely, meat-bone flour which contains infective proteins of ruminants, and legislature has been passed throughout the world with the objective of preventing the entry of meat-bone flour into the food chain. The complete ban of the use of meat-bone flour for all farm animals (with the exception of fish flour for non-ruminants and an adequate thermal treatment in the production of meat-bone flour (133ºC, 3 bar, 20 min are the elements on which the European Union (EU legislature is based. The regulations in our country include a ban on the use of meat-bone flour in cattle feedstuffs and a ban on imports of beef proteins. The implementation of this legislature throughout the world requires the corresponding analytical means. At the present time, there are several available possibilities: optic microscopy, PCR, immunoprobes, spectroscopic methods, and several others which are still being examined for use for this purpose. All the analytical methods are being applied with the objective of controlling the implementation of the current regulations, but also in order to discover possible cross contamination that could take place in factories of animal feedstuffs, during transportation, storage, or on farms, in particular when there are no separate lines for feedstuffs that contains meat-bone flour and others in which even its traces are banned. In order to secure the successful control and prevention of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in our country, as well as to secure the unhindered continuation of

  5. STEEP STREAMS - Solid Transport Evaluation and Efficiency in Prevention: Sustainable Techniques of Rational Engineering and Advanced MethodS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armanini, Aronne; Cardoso, Antonio H.; Di Baldassarre, Giuliano; Bellin, Alberto; Breinl, Korbinian; Canelas, Ricardo B.; Larcher, Michele; Majone, Bruno; Matos, Jorges; Meninno, Sabrina; Nucci, Elena; Rigon, Riccardo; Rosatti, Giorgio; Zardi, Dino

    2017-04-01

    The STEEP STREAMS (Solid Transport Evaluation and Efficiency in Prevention: Sustainable Techniques of Rational Engineering and Advanced MethodS) project consists of a collaboration among the Universities of Trento, Uppsala and Lisbon, who joined in a consortium within the ERANET Water JPI call WaterWorks2014. The aim of the project is to produce new rational criteria for the design of protection works against debris flows, a phenomenon consisting in hyper-concentrated flows of water and sediments, classified as catastrophic events typical of small mountainous basins (area triggered by intense rainstorms. Such events are non-stationary phenomena that arise in a very short time, and their recurrence is rather difficult to determine. Compared to flash floods, they are more difficult to anticipate, mostly since they are triggered by convective precipitation events, posing a higher risk of damage and even loss of human lives. These extreme events occur almost annually across Europe, though the formal return period in an exposed site is much larger. Recently, an increase in intensity and frequency of small-scale storm events, leading to extreme solid transport in steep channels, are recognized as one of the effects of climate change. In this context, one of the key challenges of this project is the use of comparatively coarse RCM projections to the small catchments examined in STEEP STREAMS. Given these changes, conventional protection works and their design criteria may not suffice to provide adequate levels of protection to human life and urban settlements. These structures create a storage area upstream the alluvial fans and the settlements, thereby reducing the need of channelization in areas often constrained by urban regulations. To optimize the lamination, and in particular to reduce the peak of solid mass flux, it is necessary that the deposition basin is controlled by a slit check dam, capable of inducing a controlled sedimentation of the solid mas flux. In

  6. DEFINING THE "COMMUNITY" FOR A COMMUNITY-BASED PUBLIC HEALTH INTERVENTION ADDRESSING LATINO IMMIGRANT HEALTH DISPARITIES: AN APPLICATION OF ETHNOGRAPHIC METHODS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edberg, Mark; Cleary, Sean; Simmons, Lauren B; Cubilla-Batista, Idalina; Andrade, Elizabeth L; Gudger, Glencora

    2015-01-01

    Although Latino and other immigrant populations are the driving force behind population increases in the U.S., there are significant gaps in knowledge and practice on addressing health disparities in these populations. The Avance Center for the Advancement of Immigrant/Refugee Health, a health disparities research center in the Washington, DC area, includes as part of its mission a multi-level, participatory community intervention (called Adelante) to address the co-occurrence of substance abuse, violence and sex risk among Latino immigrant youth and young adults. Research staff and community partners knew that the intervention community had grown beyond its Census-designated place (CDP) boundaries, and that connection and attachment to community were relevant to an intervention. Thus, in order to understand current geographic and social boundaries of the community for sampling, data collection, intervention design and implementation, the research team conducted an ethnographic study to identify self-defined community boundaries, both geographic and social. Beginning with preliminary data from a pilot intervention and the original CDP map, the research included: geo-mapping de-identified addresses of service clients from a major community organization; key informant interviews; and observation and intercept interviews in the community. The results provided an expanded community boundary profile and important information about community identity.

  7. A simple method for the prevention of endometrial autolysis in hysterectomy specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, J P; Roddy, S; Carroll, S; McCluggage, W G

    2004-03-01

    Uteri are among the most common surgical pathology specimens. Assessment of the endometrium is often difficult because of pronounced tissue autolysis. This study describes a simple method to prevent endometrial autolysis and aid in interpretation of the endometrium. Sixty uteri were injected with formalin using a needle and syringe directed alongside a probe, which was inserted through the external cervical os into the endometrial cavity. Injection was performed on the same day as removal of the uterus. As controls, 60 uteri that were not injected with formalin were examined. The degree of endometrial autolysis was assessed on a four point scale (0-3), with a score of 0 representing no or minimal autolysis and a score of 3 representing extensive autolysis, such that histological interpretation of the endometrium was impossible. In the injected group, the number of cases with scores of 0, 1, 2, and 3 was 42, 13, four, and one, respectively. The corresponding values for the control group were 17, 23, eight, and 12, respectively. This was highly significant (p autolysis in uteri injected with formalin. The use of this simple procedure should be encouraged in hysterectomy specimens.

  8. [Breastfeeding as a method to prevent cardiovascular diseases in the mother and the child].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar Cordero, María José; Madrid Baños, Nayra; Baena García, Laura; Mur Villar, Norma; Guisado Barrilao, Rafael; Sánchez López, Antonio Manuel

    2015-05-01

    Breastfeeding is a recommended practice from all health institutions, both national and international, due to the benefits that it provides for both the nursling's and the mother's health. It has been proved that mothers who breastfeed their children suffer from less cardiovascular disorders, including hypertension, than those women who have never done it. The goal of this review is to analyse the studies that have done some research on breastfeeding as a protection from cardiovascular diseases in the mother and the infant. A systematic search has been carried out and 10 meta-analysis or reviews, 8 original articles of clinical studies, 31 longitudinal or cohort studies and 7 correlational studies of large sample and descriptive were selected. Cardiovascular disease is the main cause of death for women all over the world. Diet, exercise, quitting smoking and blood pressure control are well-known methods to prevent cardiovascular diseases. It has been shown that breastfeeding has a positive impact on the mother and child's blood pressure level, both in the short term and the long term. It is, thus, necessary to provide further information for the population so as to promote breastfeeding and know its benefits. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  9. A salutogenic approach to prevention of metabolic syndrome: a mixed methods population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miettola, Juhani; Viljanen, Anna Maria

    2014-12-01

    To find a salutogenic approach for prevention of metabolic syndrome in primary care practice. An explanatory sequential mixed-methods procedure was used to find salutogenic approaches for lifestyle change by assessing individual need, potential, and personal motivation. Data from a population health survey and interviews that focused on a sense of coherence were analysed. Altogether 480 Finnish subjects participated in a population health survey, and 43 of them were interviewed. The 43 interviewees' data were included in the final analysis. With the health survey participants' liability for MetS was assessed, and the objective need for lifestyle intervention was determined. Through the focused interviews potential and personal motivation for lifestyle modification were explored. Finally the data of the 43 interviewed subjects were merged. Four possible lifestyle intervention approaches were identified for specific intervention. First, subjects with a strong sense of coherence only need encouragement to maintain a healthy lifestyle; second, professional support was found important for subjects with gaps in health awareness to improve health understanding; third, strengthening of social support for lifestyle change is necessary for subjects with various practical constraints in their everyday life; and fourth, strengthening of stress adaptation is important for subjects with redundant concerns about their health. Salutogenic client-centred lifestyle modification approaches should be part of primary care practice. Further, a cross-disciplinary approach is needed in primary care research and practice to combat the exploding lifestyle illnesses.

  10. Internet Research: The Question of Method - A Keynote Address from the YouTube and the 2008 Election Cycle in the United States Conference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogers, R.

    2010-01-01

    Digital studies on culture may be distinguished from cultural studies of the digital, at least in terms of method. This lecture takes up the question of the distinctiveness of "digital methods" for researching Internet cultures. It asks, initially, should the methods of study change, however

  11. Preventive protection device and method for bottom of reactor pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Eisaku; Kurosawa, Koichi; Furukawa, Hideyasu; Morinaka, Ren; Enomoto, Kunio; Otaka, Masahiro; Yoshikubo, Fujio; Chiba, Noboru; Sato, Kazunori.

    1995-01-01

    In a preventive protection device for improving stresses in reactor structural components by jetting highly pressurized water with cavitation bubbles from a jetting nozzle toward structural components in a reactor pressure vessel, a fixed structure to a CRD housing is provided with a rotational body attached to the structure, a multi joint arm and a jetting nozzle supported to the multi joint arm. The jetting nozzle is disposed at a position where the center of the jetting deviates from the center of the CRD housing. In addition, a monitoring camera is disposed for displaying the target for preventive protection. The state of stresses on a plurality of targets for preventive protection can be improved by the preventive protection device at a fixed position in the bottom of a reactor pressure vessel where housings stand densely, thereby enabling to attain the preventive protection operation easily and rapidly. (N.H.)

  12. Study protocol for the optimisation, feasibility testing and pilot cluster randomised trial of Positive Choices: a school-based social marketing intervention to promote sexual health, prevent unintended teenage pregnancies and address health inequalities in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsford, Ruth; Allen, Elizabeth; Campbell, Rona; Elbourne, Diana; Hadley, Alison; Lohan, Maria; Melendez-Torres, G J; Mercer, Catherine H; Morris, Steve; Young, Honor; Bonell, Chris

    2018-01-01

    Since the introduction of the Teenage Pregnancy Strategy (TPS), England's under-18 conception rate has fallen by 55%, but a continued focus on prevention is needed to maintain and accelerate progress. The teenage birth rate remains higher in the UK than comparable Western European countries. Previous trials indicate that school-based social marketing interventions are a promising approach to addressing teenage pregnancy and improving sexual health. Such interventions are yet to be trialled in the UK. This study aims to optimise and establish the feasibility and acceptability of one such intervention: Positive Choices. Design: Optimisation, feasibility testing and pilot cluster randomised trial.Interventions: The Positive Choices intervention comprises a student needs survey, a student/staff led School Health Promotion Council (SHPC), a classroom curriculum for year nine students covering social and emotional skills and sex education, student-led social marketing activities, parent information and a review of school sexual health services.Systematic optimisation of Positive Choices will be carried out with the National Children's Bureau Sex Education Forum (NCB SEF), one state secondary school in England and other youth and policy stakeholders.Feasibility testing will involve the same state secondary school and will assess progression criteria to advance to the pilot cluster RCT.Pilot cluster RCT with integral process evaluation will involve six different state secondary schools (four interventions and two controls) and will assess the feasibility and utility of progressing to a full effectiveness trial.The following outcome measures will be trialled as part of the pilot:Self-reported pregnancy and unintended pregnancy (initiation of pregnancy for boys) and sexually transmitted infections,Age of sexual debut, number of sexual partners, use of contraception at first and last sex and non-volitional sexEducational attainmentThe feasibility of linking administrative

  13. [The physical methods for the prevention and management of weather-dependent pathological reactions (a literature review)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilenko, A M; Agasarov, L G; Sharipova, M M

    The review presents data on the non-pharmacological methods and technologies for the prevention and management of meteopathic reactions (MPR) applied in Russia for the treatment of the patients suffering from obstructive and cardiovascular diseases. It is assumed, based on the concept of heliogeophysical imprinting, that the major factors responsible for the development of MPR are the disturbances of electromagnetic homeostasis. The acupuncture points and channels are regarded as a system designed for the maintenance of electromagnetic balance in the human body. In this context, it is proposed to encourage the application of the methods of electro-diagnostics and reflexology for the prevention and correction of meteopathic reactions.

  14. New methods to minimize the preventive maintenance cost of series-parallel systems using ant colony optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samrout, M.; Yalaoui, F.; Cha-hat telet, E.; Chebbo, N.

    2005-01-01

    This article is based on a previous study made by Bris, Chatelet and Yalaoui [Bris R, Chatelet E, Yalaoui F. New method to minimise the preventive maintenance cost of series-parallel systems. Reliab Eng Syst Saf 2003;82:247-55]. They use genetic algorithm to minimize preventive maintenance cost problem for the series-parallel systems. We propose to improve their results developing a new method based on another technique, the Ant Colony Optimization (ACO). The resolution consists in determining the solution vector of system component inspection periods, T P . Those calculations were applied within the programming tool Matlab. Thus, highly interesting results and improvements of previous studies were obtained

  15. Suggested Methods for Preventing Core Saturation Instability in HVDC Transmission Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norheim, Ian

    2002-07-01

    In this thesis a study of the HVDC related phenomenon core saturation instability and methods to prevent this phenomenon is performed. It is reason to believe that this phenomenon caused disconnection of the Skagerrak HVDC link 10 August 1993. Internationally, core saturation instability has been reported at several HVDC schemes and thorough complex studies of the phenomenon has been performed. This thesis gives a detailed description of the phenomenon and suggest some interesting methods to prevent the development of it. Core saturation instability and its consequences can be described in a simplified way as follows: It is now assumed that a fundamental harmonic component is present in the DC side current. Due to the coupling between the AC side and the DC side of the HVDC converter, a subsequent second harmonic positive-sequence current and DC currents will be generated on the AC side. The DC currents will cause saturation in the converter transformers. This will cause the magnetizing current to also have a second harmonic positive-sequence component. If a high second harmonic impedance is seen from the commutation bus, a high positive-sequence second harmonic component will be present in the commutation voltages. This will result in a relatively high fundamental frequency component in the DC side voltage. If the fundamental frequency impedance at the DC side is relatively low the fundamental component in the DC side current may become larger than it originally was. In addition the HVDC control system may contribute to the fundamental frequency component in the DC side voltage, and in this way cause a system even more sensitive to core saturation instability. The large magnetizing currents that eventually will flow on the AC side cause large zero-sequence currents in the neutral conductors of the AC transmission lines connected to the HVDC link. This may result in disconnection of the lines. Alternatively, the harmonics in the large magnetizing currents may cause

  16. Development of a method to evaluate the technical and environmental feasibility of particular pollution prevention opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-06-01

    The Virginia Department of Transportation (VDOT) is obligated by House Joint Resolution 453 passed in 1995 by Virginia's General Assembly to develop and implement a pollution prevention (P2) program. The primary purpose of this study was to develop a...

  17. Wildland fire management. Volume 1: Prevention methods and analysis. [systems engineering approach to California fire problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissenberger, S. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    A systems engineering approach is reported for the problem of reducing the number and severity of California's wildlife fires. Prevention methodologies are reviewed and cost benefit models are developed for making preignition decisions.

  18. Understanding sharps injuries in home healthcare: The Safe Home Care qualitative methods study to identify pathways for injury prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markkanen, Pia; Galligan, Catherine; Laramie, Angela; Fisher, June; Sama, Susan; Quinn, Margaret

    2015-04-11

    Home healthcare is one of the fastest growing sectors in the United States. Percutaneous injuries from sharp medical devices (sharps) are a source of bloodborne pathogen infections among home healthcare workers and community members. Sharps use and disposal practices in the home are highly variable and there is no comprehensive analysis of the system of sharps procurement, use and disposal in home healthcare. This gap is a barrier to effective public health interventions. The objectives of this study were to i) identify the full range of pathways by which sharps enter and exit the home, stakeholders involved, and barriers for using sharps with injury prevention features; and ii) assess the leverage points for preventive interventions. This study employed qualitative research methods to develop two systems maps of the use of sharps and prevention of sharps injuries in home healthcare. Twenty-six in-depth interview sessions were conducted including home healthcare agency clinicians, public health practitioners, sharps device manufacturers, injury prevention advocates, pharmacists and others. Interview transcripts were audio-recorded and analyzed thematically using NVIVO qualitative research analysis software. Analysis of supporting archival material also was conducted. All findings guided development of the two maps. Sharps enter the home via multiple complex pathways involving home healthcare providers and home users. The providers reported using sharps with injury prevention features. However, home users' sharps seldom had injury prevention features and sharps were commonly re-used for convenience and cost-savings. Improperly discarded sharps present hazards to caregivers, waste handlers, and community members. The most effective intervention potential exists at the beginning of the sharps systems maps where interventions can eliminate or minimize sharps injuries, in particular with needleless treatment methods and sharps with injury prevention features

  19. Quick Reference: Cyber Attacks Awareness and Prevention Method for Home Users

    OpenAIRE

    Haydar Teymourlouei

    2015-01-01

    It is important to take security measures to protect your computer information, reduce identify theft, and prevent from malicious cyber-attacks. With cyber-attacks on the continuous rise, people need to understand and learn ways to prevent from these attacks. Cyber-attack is an important factor to be considered if one is to be able to protect oneself from malicious attacks. Without proper security measures, most computer technology would hinder home users more than such t...

  20. The importance of male partner involvement for women's acceptability and adherence to female-initiated HIV prevention methods in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Elizabeth T; van der Straten, Ariane; Chidanyika, Agnes; Chipato, Tsungai; Jaffar, Shabbar; Padian, Nancy

    2011-07-01

    Enlisting male partner involvement is perceived as an important component of women's successful uptake of female-initiated HIV prevention methods. We conducted a longitudinal study among a cohort of 955 Zimbabwean women participating in a clinical trial of the effectiveness of a female-initiated HIV prevention method (the diaphragm and lubricant gel) to: (a) describe the extent to which women involved their male partners in the decision to use the study products, and (b) measure the effect perceived male partner support had on their acceptability and consistent use of these methods. Reported levels of male partner involvement in discussions and decisions regarding: joining the study, study activities, the outcome of HIV/STI test results, and product use were very high. In multivariate analyses, regular disclosure of study product use and partner approval for the diaphragm and gel were significantly associated with women's acceptability and consistent use of the products; an essential component for determining efficacy of investigational prevention methods. These results support the need for more sophisticated measurement of how couples interact to make decisions that impact study participation and investigational product use as well as more rigorous adaptations and evaluations of existing strategies to involve male partners in female-initiated HIV prevention trials.

  1. Rationale and methods of the European Study on Cardiovascular Risk Prevention and Management in Daily Practice (EURIKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiménez Francisco

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The EURIKA study aims to assess the status of primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD across Europe. Specifically, it will determine the degree of control of cardiovascular risk factors in current clinical practice in relation to the European guidelines on cardiovascular prevention. It will also assess physicians' knowledge and attitudes about CVD prevention as well as the barriers impeding effective risk factor management in clinical practice. Methods/Design Cross-sectional study conducted simultaneously in 12 countries across Europe. The study has two components: firstly at the physician level, assessing eight hundred and nine primary care and specialist physicians with a daily practice in CVD prevention. A physician specific questionnaire captures information regarding physician demographics, practice settings, cardiovascular prevention beliefs and management. Secondly at the patient level, including 7641 patients aged 50 years or older, free of clinical CVD and with at least one classical risk factor, enrolled by the participating physicians. A patient-specific questionnaire captures information from clinical records and patient interview regarding sociodemographic data, CVD risk factors, and current medications. Finally, each patient provides a fasting blood sample, which is sent to a central laboratory for measuring serum lipids, apolipoproteins, hemoglobin-A1c, and inflammatory biomarkers. Discussion Primary prevention of CVD is an extremely important clinical issue, with preventable circulatory diseases remaining the leading cause of major disease burden. The EURIKA study will provide key information to assess effectiveness of and attitudes toward primary prevention of CVD in Europe. A transnational study creates opportunities for benchmarking good clinical practice across countries and improving outcomes. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00882336.

  2. Addressing Ozone Layer Depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Access information on EPA's efforts to address ozone layer depletion through regulations, collaborations with stakeholders, international treaties, partnerships with the private sector, and enforcement actions under Title VI of the Clean Air Act.

  3. Evaluation of awareness concerning fire prevention and control methods among personnel of operating room in a hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There are risk of fire accidents in Operating rooms during surgery. Experts estimate annually around 100 fire accidents occur in the operating rooms of United States’s hospitals. 10 to 20 of these accidents lead to severe injuries and about 1 to 2 lead to death. Despite such accidents rarely happen, but they can lead to serious injury or death of patients. .Material and Method: This Cross-sectional questionnaire based survey was conducted among several hospitals belonged to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. In this study, all personnel of operating rooms were investigated. Questionnaire were used to collect information and the chi-square test was applied to examine the relationship between the Knowledge of operating room personels on fire prevention and control methods, jobs and work experience. For statistical analysis SPSS14 were used. .Result: In this study from 220 participants, about 19.72% had full awareness, 19.62% had partial knowledge, 19.37% had low awareness and 40.97% had no knowledge on fire prevention methods, concerning fire control methods. However, 76% of the participate had full awareness and 24% had no knowledge. Test result Statistically showed that the relationship between the awareness of operating room personnel to fire control methods and work experience were significant (P-value <0.05. But, the relationship between the knowledge of operating room to fire control methods and the type of jobs were not significant. Also no significant relationship were found between the level of awareness in operating room personnel to fire prevention methods, work experience and job title. .Conclusion: The results indicated that the operating room staff awareness of fire prevention and control methods are low. The results also showed that awareness of fires prevention are lower than the awareness of fire control among the studied personel. Regarding to the potential risk of fire in the operating room, it is suggested

  4. Using a Feature Subset Selection method and Support Vector Machine to address curse of dimensionality and redundancy in Hyperion hyperspectral data classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Salimi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The curse of dimensionality resulted from insufficient training samples and redundancy is considered as an important problem in the supervised classification of hyperspectral data. This problem can be handled by Feature Subset Selection (FSS methods and Support Vector Machine (SVM. The FSS methods can manage the redundancy by removing redundant spectral bands. Moreover, kernel based methods, especially SVM have a high ability to classify limited-sample data sets. This paper mainly aims to assess the capability of a FSS method and the SVM in curse of dimensional circumstances and to compare results with the Artificial Neural Network (ANN, when they are used to classify alteration zones of the Hyperion hyperspectral image acquired from the greatest Iranian porphyry copper complex. The results demonstrated that by decreasing training samples, the accuracy of SVM was just decreased 1.8% while the accuracy of ANN was highly reduced i.e. 14.01%. In addition, a hybrid FSS was applied to reduce the dimension of Hyperion. Accordingly, among the 165 useable spectral bands of Hyperion, 18 bands were only selected as the most important and informative bands. Although this dimensionality reduction could not intensively improve the performance of SVM, ANN revealed a significant improvement in the computational time and a slightly enhancement in the average accuracy. Therefore, SVM as a low-sensitive method respect to the size of training data set and feature space can be applied to classify the curse of dimensional problems. Also, the FSS methods can improve the performance of non-kernel based classifiers by eliminating redundant features. Keywords: Curse of dimensionality, Feature Subset Selection, Hydrothermal alteration, Hyperspectral, SVM

  5. Geo-mapping of time trends in childhood caries risk a method for assessment of preventive care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strömberg Ulf

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental caries is unevenly distributed within populations with a higher burden in low socio-economy groups. Several attempts have been made to allocate resources to those that need them the most; there is a need for convenient approaches to population-based monitoring of caries risk over time. The aim of this study was to develop the geo-map concept, addressing time trends in caries risk, and demonstrate the novel approach by analyzing epidemiological data from preschool residents in the region of Halland, Sweden. Methods The study population consisted of 9,973 (2006 and 10,927 (2010 children between 3 to 6years of age (~77% of the eligible population from whom caries data were obtained. Reported dmfs>0 for a child was considered as the primary caries outcome. Each study individual was geo-coded with respect to his/her residence parish (66 parishes in the region. Smoothed caries risk geo-maps, along with corresponding statistical certainty geo-maps, were produced by using the free software Rapid Inquiry Facility and the ESRI ArcGIS system. Parish-level socioeconomic data were available. Results The overall proportion of caries-free (dmfs=0 children improved from 84.0% in 2006 to 88.6% in 2010. The ratio of maximum and minimum (parish-level smoothed relative risks (SmRRs increased from 1.76/0.44=4.0 in 2006 to 2.37/0.33=7.2 in 2010, which indicated an increased geographical polarization of early childhood caries in the population. Eight parishes showed evidential, positional changes in caries risk between 2006 and 2010; their corresponding SmRRs and statistical certainty ranks changed markedly. No considerable parallel changes in parish-level socioeconomic characteristics were seen during the same time period. Conclusion Geo-maps based on caries risk can be used to monitor changes in caries risk over time. Thus, geo-mapping offers a convenient tool for evaluating the effectiveness of tailored health promotion and preventive

  6. Comparison of Address-based Sampling and Random-digit Dialing Methods for Recruiting Young Men as Controls in a Case-Control Study of Testicular Cancer Susceptibility

    OpenAIRE

    Clagett, Bartholt; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Ciosek, Stephanie L.; McDermoth, Monique; Vaughn, David J.; Mitra, Nandita; Weiss, Andrew; Martonik, Rachel; Kanetsky, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    Random-digit dialing (RDD) using landline telephone numbers is the historical gold standard for control recruitment in population-based epidemiologic research. However, increasing cell-phone usage and diminishing response rates suggest that the effectiveness of RDD in recruiting a random sample of the general population, particularly for younger target populations, is decreasing. In this study, we compared landline RDD with alternative methods of control recruitment, including RDD using cell-...

  7. EPODE approach for childhood obesity prevention : methods, progress and international development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borys, J.M.; Le Bodo, Y.; Jebb, S.A.; Seidell, J C; Summerbell, C.; Richard, D.; De Henauw, S.; Moreno, L.A.; Romon, M.; Visscher, T L S; Raffin, S.; Swinburn, B.

    Childhood obesity is a complex issue and needs multi-stakeholder involvement at all levels to foster healthier lifestyles in a sustainable way. 'Ensemble Prévenons l'Obésité Des Enfants' (EPODE, Together Let's Prevent Childhood Obesity) is a large-scale, coordinated, capacity-building approach for

  8. A Program of Education in Accident Prevention, with Methods and Results. Bulletin, 1922, No. 32

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, E. George

    1922-01-01

    No movement in education in recent years has taken hold of the imagination and emotions of the American business man more effectively than education in accident prevention. This appeal to the business man is perhaps due more than anything else to the fact that when the educator begins to talk of education in terms of saving human lives he is using…

  9. Determination of susceptibility to heat-related disorders and prevention methods among agriculture workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: According to the results, agriculture workers based on their age distribution, education, body mass index, health knowledge, drug use and incidence of chronic diseases, are very vulnerable to heat-related disorders. Therefore, training on recognizing the early signs and doing control measures as essential element in heat stress prevention should be seriously considered.

  10. Recruitment of young adults into a randomized controlled trial of weight gain prevention: message development, methods, and cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Deborah F; LaRose, Jessica G; Griffin, Leah P; Erickson, Karen E; Robichaud, Erica F; Perdue, Letitia; Espeland, Mark A; Wing, Rena R

    2014-08-16

    Young adulthood (age 18 to 35) is a high-risk period for unhealthy weight gain. Few studies have recruited for prevention of weight gain, particularly in young adults. This paper describes the recruitment protocol used in the Study of Novel Approaches to Prevention (SNAP). We conducted extensive formative work to inform recruitment methods and message development. We worked with a professional marketing firm to synthesize major themes and subsequently develop age-appropriate messages for recruitment. A variety of approaches and channels were used across two clinical centers to recruit young adults who were normal or overweight (body mass index (BMI) 21 to 30 kg/m2) for a 3-year intervention designed to prevent weight gain. We tracked recruitment methods, yields, and costs by method. Logistic regression was used to identify recruitment methods that had the highest relative yield for subgroups of interest with covariate adjustments for clinic. The final sample of 599 participants (27% minority, 22% male) was recruited over a 19-month period of sustained efforts. About 10% of those who initially expressed interest via a screening website were randomized. The most common reason for ineligibility was already being obese (BMI >30 kg/m2). The top two methods for recruitment were mass mailing followed by email; together they were cited by 62% of those recruited. Television, radio, paid print advertising, flyers and community events each yielded fewer than 10% of study participants. Email was the most cost-effective method per study participant recruited. These findings can guide future efforts to recruit young adults and for trials targeting weight gain prevention. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01183689 (registered 13 August 2010).

  11. Worker education level is a factor in self-compliance with dust-preventive methods among small-scale agate industrial workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Bhagwan D

    2013-01-01

    High incidences of silicosis are continuing to be reported among the agate workers of small-scale household agate processing units in the Khambhat region of Gujarat (India). The objective of this study was to investigate reasons behind the high prevalence of silicosis, and factors affecting the noncompliance with preventive methods among agate workers. The study was conducted using a questionnaire-based structured interview method among 82 agate workers in Khambhat to assess their awareness level about silicosis and preventive methods, existing morbidity, worker's attitude toward health, and the prevalence of actual use of preventive methods to avoid silica exposure. The majority of the workers (55%) were aware of silicosis and the harmful effects of silica dust exposure (72%) and knew about simple preventive methods to avoid silica dust exposure (80%), but only a minority of the workers (22%) were actually using the simple and available dust-preventive methods. Only 9% of the uneducated workers were using the preventive methods, while usage was higher among educated workers (28%), who had five or more years of schooling, and these workers had fewer health conditions or less morbidity. Gender and job duration had no effect on the usage of dust-preventive methods. The data suggest that noncompliance with use of dust-preventive methods could be the reason behind the higher prevalence of silicosis and health morbidity in agate workers, and that years of schooling plays a significant role in the increased usage and self-compliance with dust-preventive methods among agate workers.

  12. Matrix Organization and Merit Factor Evaluation as a Method to Address the Challenge of Finding a Polymer Material for Roll Coated Polymer Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Eva; Livi, Francesco; Hagemann, Ole

    2015-01-01

    The results presented demonstrate how the screening of 104 light-absorbing low band gap polymers for suitability in roll coated polymer solar cells can be accomplished through rational synthesis according to a matrix where 8 donor and 13 acceptor units are organized in rows and columns. Synthesis...... silver comb back electrode structure. The matrix organization enables fast identification of active layer materials according to a weighted merit factor that includes more than simply the power conversion efficiency and is used as a method to identify the lead candidates. Based on several characteristics...

  13. Identifying barriers and facilitators to participation in pressure ulcer prevention in allied healthcare professionals: a mixed methods evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsley, Peter R; Clarkson, Paul; Bader, Dan L; Schoonhoven, Lisette

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the barriers and facilitators for allied health professional's participation in pressure ulcer prevention. Mixed method cohort study. Single centre study in an acute university hospital trust. Five physiotherapists and four occupational therapists were recruited from the hospital trust. Therapists had been working in the National Health Service (NHS) for a minimum of one year. Therapist views and experiences were collated using an audio recorded focus group. This recording was analysed using constant comparison analysis. Secondary outcomes included assessment of attitudes and knowledge of pressure ulcer prevention using questionnaires. Key themes surrounding barriers to participation in pressure ulcer prevention included resources (staffing and equipment), education and professional boundaries. Fewer facilitators were described, with new training opportunities and communication being highlighted. Results from the questionnaires showed the therapists had a positive attitude towards pressure ulcer prevention with a median score of 81% (range 50 to 83%). However, there were gaps in knowledge with a median score of 69% (range 50 to 77%). The therapist reported several barriers to pressure ulcer prevention and few facilitators. The primary barriers were resources, equipment and education. Attitudes and knowledge in AHPs were comparable to data previously reported from experienced nursing staff. Copyright © 2016 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Addressing the nuclear misconception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.J.

    1998-01-01

    There is a perception, fostered and encouraged by the anti-nuclear groups, that the nuclear industry generates large quantities of waste with no idea how to deal with it, that it is unsafe, uneconomic, and environmentally damaging. The task is to change these perceptions, by demonstrating that the industry is not a problem in itself, but in fact provides solutions to problems. This paper, while primarily concerned with waste, addresses all of these issues as each has a bearing on the perception of the industry and therefore must be considered when addressing the issue of waste. The paper concludes that evidence exists to support the industry view, but that the mission of the industry should be to change the perception of the industry, by influencing and working together with its stake holders to address their concerns, rather than merely presenting more and more facts. (author)

  15. Development of a universal psycho-educational intervention to prevent common postpartum mental disorders in primiparous women: a multiple method approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowe Heather J

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevention of postnatal mental disorders in women is an important component of comprehensive health service delivery because of the substantial potential benefits for population health. However, diverse approaches to prevention of postnatal depression have had limited success, possibly because anxiety and adjustment disorders are also problematic, mental health problems are multifactorially determined, and because relationships amongst psychosocial risk factors are complex and difficult to modify. The aim of this paper is to describe the development of a novel psycho-educational intervention to prevent postnatal mental disorders in mothers of firstborn infants. Methods Data from a variety of sources were synthesised: a literature review summarised epidemiological evidence about neglected modifiable risk factors; clinical research evidence identified successful psychosocial treatments for postnatal mental health problems; consultations with clinicians, health professionals, policy makers and consumers informed the proposed program and psychological and health promotion theories underpinned the proposed mechanisms of effect. The intervention was pilot-tested with small groups of mothers and fathers and their first newborn infants. Results What Were We Thinking! is a psycho-educational intervention, designed for universal implementation, that addresses heightened learning needs of parents of first newborns. It re-conceptualises mental health problems in mothers of infants as reflecting unmet needs for adaptations in the intimate partner relationship after the birth of a baby, and skills to promote settled infant behaviour. It addresses these two risk factors in half-day seminars, facilitated by trained maternal and child health nurses using non-psychiatric language, in groups of up to five couples and their four-week old infants in primary care. It is designed to promote confidence and reduce mental disorders by providing skills

  16. Addressing the need for biomarker liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry assays: a protocol for effective method development for the bioanalysis of endogenous compounds in cerebrospinal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitex, Yulia; McNaney, Colleen A; Luchetti, David; Schaeffer, Eric; Olah, Timothy V; Morgan, Daniel G; Drexler, Dieter M

    2013-08-30

    Research on disorders of the central nervous system (CNS) has shown that an imbalance in the levels of specific endogenous neurotransmitters may underlie certain CNS diseases. These alterations in neurotransmitter levels may provide insight into pathophysiology, but can also serve as disease and pharmacodynamic biomarkers. To measure these potential biomarkers in vivo, the relevant sample matrix is cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which is in equilibrium with the brain's interstitial fluid and circulates through the ventricular system of the brain and spinal cord. Accurate analysis of these potential biomarkers can be challenging due to low CSF sample volume, low analyte levels, and potential interferences from other endogenous compounds. A protocol has been established for effective method development of bioanalytical assays for endogenous compounds in CSF. Database searches and standard-addition experiments are employed to qualify sample preparation and specificity of the detection thus evaluating accuracy and precision. This protocol was applied to the study of the histaminergic neurotransmitter system and the analysis of histamine and its metabolite 1-methylhistamine in rat CSF. The protocol resulted in a specific and sensitive novel method utilizing pre-column derivatization ultra high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC/MS/MS), which is also capable of separating an endogenous interfering compound, identified as taurine, from the analytes of interest. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Vertical transmission of HIV from mother to child in sub-Saharan Africa: modes of transmission and methods for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santmyire, B R

    2001-05-01

    The impact of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa on future mortality rates of infants, children, and mothers, life expectancy, and economic growth is profound. Vertical transmission of HIV, transmission from mother to child, is a major factor in the increasing rates of HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa. Vertical transmission of HIV occurs in utero, intrapartum during labor and delivery, and postpartum during breast-feeding. Because of the large numbers of HIV-infected mothers in developing countries, the majority trials regarding prevention of vertical transmission of HIV have been conducted in sub-Saharan Africa. Thus, sub-Saharan Africa has become a human laboratory, which demonstrates both the successes and failures of preventative methods to reduce vertical transmission of HIV. This review summarizes the body of research dedicated to understanding the pathophysiology of vertical transmission of HIV and pharmacology of inhibition of vertical transmission of HIV. While many debate the ethics of conducting trials in developing countries where effective prevention modalities have been slow to be implemented for economic, social and political reasons, studies continue and researchers continue to discover therapies and preventative methods, which may reduce the future devastation of HIV both in sub-Saharan Africa and throughout the world.

  18. Modeling framework for representing long-term effectiveness of best management practices in addressing hydrology and water quality problems: Framework development and demonstration using a Bayesian method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaoze; Engel, Bernard A.; Flanagan, Dennis C.; Gitau, Margaret W.; McMillan, Sara K.; Chaubey, Indrajeet; Singh, Shweta

    2018-05-01

    Best management practices (BMPs) are popular approaches used to improve hydrology and water quality. Uncertainties in BMP effectiveness over time may result in overestimating long-term efficiency in watershed planning strategies. To represent varying long-term BMP effectiveness in hydrologic/water quality models, a high level and forward-looking modeling framework was developed. The components in the framework consist of establishment period efficiency, starting efficiency, efficiency for each storm event, efficiency between maintenance, and efficiency over the life cycle. Combined, they represent long-term efficiency for a specific type of practice and specific environmental concern (runoff/pollutant). An approach for possible implementation of the framework was discussed. The long-term impacts of grass buffer strips (agricultural BMP) and bioretention systems (urban BMP) in reducing total phosphorus were simulated to demonstrate the framework. Data gaps were captured in estimating the long-term performance of the BMPs. A Bayesian method was used to match the simulated distribution of long-term BMP efficiencies with the observed distribution with the assumption that the observed data represented long-term BMP efficiencies. The simulated distribution matched the observed distribution well with only small total predictive uncertainties. With additional data, the same method can be used to further improve the simulation results. The modeling framework and results of this study, which can be adopted in hydrologic/water quality models to better represent long-term BMP effectiveness, can help improve decision support systems for creating long-term stormwater management strategies for watershed management projects.

  19. Addressing Sexual Harassment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…

  20. Discussion on the Relevant Factors of General Surgery Incision Infection and Prevention Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Baotao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many reasons that can lead to incision infection of general surgical patients. The main reasons include weight, age, body albumin level, surgical time, observation ward, etc. This paper analyzes the clinic data of patients with incision infection after general surgery based on clinic practice and study on the reasons that have impact on general surgical incision infection and gives relevant prevention countermeasures.

  1. Using social network methods to reach out-of-care or ART-nonadherent HIV+ injection drug users in Russia: addressing a gap in the treatment cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirkhanian, Yuri; Kelly, Jeffrey; Kuznetsova, Anna; Meylakhs, Anastasia; Yakovlev, Alexey; Musatov, Vladimir; Chaika, Nikolay

    2014-01-01

    such as described in this study. This research establishes that PLH are connected in their day-to-day social networks with other HIV+ persons and shows that social network methods can be employed to reach infected persons through their connections with other PLH. This method has the potential to expand the reach of medical care efforts and ART uptake.

  2. A method for co-creation of an evidence-based patient workbook to address alcohol use when quitting smoking in primary care: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minian, Nadia; Noormohamed, Aliya; Zawertailo, Laurie; Baliunas, Dolly; Giesbrecht, Norman; Le Foll, Bernard; Rehm, Jürgen; Samokhvalov, Andriy; Selby, Peter L

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a patient engagement event designed to create an educational workbook with smokers who drink alcohol at harmful levels. The goal was to create a workbook that combined scientific evidence with patients' values, preferences, and needs. Fourteen adult smokers who drink alcohol were invited to the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) to take part in a four-hour event to help design the workbook with the CAMH research team. Participants provided their opinions and ideas to create an outline for the workbook, including activities, images, and titles. The workbook - called Self-Awareness - is currently being offered in a smoking cessation program in 221 primary care clinics across Ontario to help smokers quit or reduce their harmful alcohol use. The patient engagement event was a useful way to co-create educational materials that incorporate both scientific research and patient needs. Background Evidence-based medicine is the integration of best research evidence with clinical expertise and patient values. There are few methodologies on how to design evidence-based programs and resources to include patient values. The latter is an important aspect of patient-centered care, and is essential for patients to trust the recommendations and empower them as consumers to make informed choices. This manuscript describes a participatory research approach to design patient-facing educational materials that incorporate both evidence-based and community-sensitive principles. These materials are intended to support smokers to reduce or stop harmful alcohol consumption. Methods Adult smokers who report consuming alcohol were invited to a co-creation meeting at the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health's Nicotine Dependence Service to guide the adaptation of evidence-based materials. The four-hour event consisted of individual reflections, group discussions, and consensus-building interactions. Detailed notes were taken and then

  3. Guidelines for a cancer prevention smartphone application: A mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Nuno; Moreira, Luís; Barros, Ana; Almeida, Ana Margarida; Santos-Silva, Filipe

    2016-10-01

    This study sought to explore the views and experiences of healthy young adults concerning the fundamental features of a cancer prevention smartphone app that seeks behaviour change. Three focus groups were conducted with 16 healthy young adults that explored prior experiences, points of view and opinions about currently available health-related smartphone apps. Then, an online questionnaire was designed and applied to a larger sample of healthy young adults. Focus group and online questionnaire data were analysed and confronted. Study results identified behaviour tracking, goal setting, tailored information and use of reminders as the most desired features in a cancer prevention app. Participants highlighted the importance of privacy and were reluctant to share personal health information with other users. The results also point out important dimensions to be considered for long-term use of health promotion apps related with usability and perceived usefulness. Participants didn't consider gamification features as important dimensions for long-term use of apps. This study allowed the definition of a guideline set for the development of a cancer prevention app. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The concept of attributes and preventions of the variables that influence the pipeline risk in the Muhlbauer Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schafer, Alexandro G. [Universidade Federal do Pampa (UNIPAMPA), Bage, RS (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    There are several methods for the risk assessment and risk management applied to pipelines, among them the Muhlbauer's Method. Muhlbauer is an internationally recognized authority on pipeline risk management. The purpose of this model is to evaluate the public exposure to the risk and identify ways for management that risk in fact. The assessment is made by the attribution of quantitative values to the several items that influences in the pipeline risk. Because the ultimate goal of the risk assessment is to provide a means of risk management, it is sometimes useful to make a distinction between two types of risk variables. The risk evaluator can categorize each index risk variable as either an attribute or a prevention. This paper approaches the subject of the definition of attributes and preventions in the Muhlbauer basic model of risk assessment and also presents a classification of the variables that influence the risk in agreement with those two categories. (author)

  5. Estimating the Time to Benefit for Preventive Drugs with the Statistical Process Control Method: An Example with Alendronate

    OpenAIRE

    van de Glind, Esther M. M.; Willems, Hanna C.; Eslami, Saeid; Abu-Hanna, Ameen; Lems, Willem F.; Hooft, Lotty; de Rooij, Sophia E.; Black, Dennis M.; van Munster, Barbara C.

    2016-01-01

    Background For physicians dealing with patients with a limited life expectancy, knowing the time to benefit (TTB) of preventive medication is essential to support treatment decisions. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of statistical process control (SPC) for determining the TTB in relation to fracture risk with alendronate versus placebo in postmenopausal women. Methods We performed a post?hoc analysis of the Fracture Intervention Trial (FIT), a randomized, con...

  6. Back to Basics: Preventing Surgical Fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Lisa

    2016-09-01

    When fires occur in the OR, they are devastating and potentially fatal to both patients and health care workers. Fires can be prevented by understanding the fire triangle and methods of reducing fire risk, conducting fire risk assessments, and knowing how to respond if a fire occurs. This Back to Basics article addresses the basics of fire prevention and the steps that can be taken to prevent fires from occurring. Copyright © 2016 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. POSSIBLE METHODS FOR PREVENTING PLASTIC WASTE FROM ENTERING THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    David, Minodora-Florentina; Burdukovska, Valentina; Heng, Chen

    2013-01-01

    The widespread use of plastic has become a huge threat for the marine environment. With problems such as the oceanic garbage patches increasing more and more in scale, the focus is set on how could plastic waste be prevented from entering the oceans and adversely affecting the wildlife. Since the largest accumulation of plastic waste is found in the North Pacific Gyre, we have looked at the surrounding countries with the highest waste generation. By using the pyramid of waste as a starting po...

  8. Evaluating implementation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) prevention guidelines in spinal cord injury centers using the PARIHS framework: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbale, Salva N; Hill, Jennifer N; Guihan, Marylou; Hogan, Timothy P; Cameron, Kenzie A; Goldstein, Barry; Evans, Charlesnika T

    2015-09-09

    To prevent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Spinal Cord Injury and Disorder (SCI/D) Centers, the "Guidelines for Implementation of MRSA Prevention Initiative in the Spinal Cord Injury Centers" were released in July 2008 in the Veterans Affairs (VA) Health Care System. The purpose of this study was to use the Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Systems (PARiHS) framework to evaluate the experiences of implementation of SCI/D MRSA prevention guidelines in VA SCI/D Centers approximately 2-3 years after the guidelines were released. Mixed methods were used across two phases in this study. The first phase included an anonymous, web-based cross-sectional survey administered to providers at all 24 VA SCI/D Centers. The second phase included semi-structured telephone interviews with providers at 9 SCI/D Centers. The PARiHS framework was used as the foundation of both the survey questions and semi-structured interview guide. The survey was completed by 295 SCI/D providers (43.8 % response rate) from 22 of the 24 SCI/D Centers (91.7 % participation rate). Respondents included nurses (57.3 %), therapists (24.4 %), physicians (11.1 %), physician assistants (3.4 %), and other health care professionals (3.8 %). Approximately 36 % of the SCI/D providers surveyed had not seen, did not remember seeing, or had never heard of the MRSA SCI/D guidelines, whereas 42.3 % of providers reported that the MRSA SCI/D guidelines were fully implemented in their SCI/D Center. Data revealed numerous barriers and facilitators to guideline implementation. Facilitators included enhanced leadership support and provider education, focused guideline dissemination to reach SCI/D providers, and strong perceived evidence supporting the guidelines. Barriers included lack of awareness of the guidelines among physical therapists and physician assistants and challenges in cohorting/isolating MRSA-positive patients and following contact precautions. Successful

  9. Role of nondrug methods in a package of measures for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis: A review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Badalov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The review represents the results of investigations into the role of nondrug methods in the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis (OA. The data available in the literature suggest that a number of non-drug technologies, first of all exercise therapy, aquatic therapy, reflexotherapy, electrical stimulation, and electromagnetic therapy, have proven efficiency and a certain potential for reducing the risk of osteoporosis and its complications and for improving bone metabolism. Expanding the range of these methods and increasing their validity for clinical introduction are very promising.

  10. "And Then Break the Cliché": Understanding and Addressing HIV Vulnerability Through Development of an HIV Prevention Telenovela with Men Who Have Sex with Men and Transwomen in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Jonathan; Perez-Brumer, Amaya G; Cabello, Robinson; Clark, Jesse L

    2018-02-20

    HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) continue to affect men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TW) in Peru at disproportionately high rates. The ineffectiveness of traditional prevention strategies may be due to the disconnect between health promotion messages and community-level understandings of sexual cultures. We conducted 15 workshops with MSM and TW to develop a community-based sexual health intervention. Intervention development consisted of focus groups and scenic improvisation to identify sexual scripts for an HIV prevention telenovela, or Spanish soap opera. Workshops were stratified by self-reported socioeconomic status, sexual orientation, and gender identity: (1) low-income MSM (n = 9); (2) middle/high-income MSM (n = 6); and (3) TW (n = 8). Employing a conceptual model based on sexual scripts and critical consciousness theories, this paper reports on three themes identified during the telenovela-development process as participants sought to "rescript" social and sexual stereotypes associated with HIV-related vulnerability: (1) management of MSM and TW social identities at the intersection of socioeconomic status, sexuality, and gender performance; (2) social constructions of gender and/or sexual role and perceived and actual HIV/STI risk(s) within sexual partnership interactions; and (3) idealized and actual sexual scripts in the negotiation of safer sex practices between MSM/TW and their partners. These findings are key to reframing existing prevention strategies that fail to effectively engage poorly defined "high-risk populations." Leveraging community-based expertise, the results provide an alternative to the static transfer of information through expert-patient interactions in didactic sessions commonly used in HIV prevention interventions among MSM and TW.

  11. Community-based obesity prevention in Australia: Background, methods and recruitment outcomes for the evaluation of the effectiveness of OPAL (Obesity Prevention and Lifestyle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Leslie

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Obesity Prevention and Lifestyle (OPAL intervention program targets families and communities to improve children’s eating and physical activity patterns. We outline the quantitative evaluation design and recruitment results for baseline data collection. Methods: A longitudinal quasi-experimental design, with baseline data collection and five-year follow-up. Participants targeted are children, parents, and school principals/directors from primary, secondary/R-12 schools, pre-schools, childcare and out-of-school-hours-care (OSHC centers in 20 selected communities across South Australia (SA, and one in the Northern Territory (NT. A total of 277 (262 SA, 15 NT schools participated; 4860 9-11 year olds and 1164 12-16 year olds completed a questionnaire. Anthropometric measures were taken from 5531 students; 6552 parents, 276 pre/school/childcare directors, 139 OSHC directors and 237 principals completed questionnaires. Data include measurements of child participants’ weight/height/waist circumference; paper-based/online surveys of informants in early childhood, primary/secondary school and community settings; and secondary growth check data for 4-5 year old children. Serial cross-sectional analyses will compare intervention to matched comparison communities. Results: Overall school response rate was 50%. Student response rates were 20-22% and 11-13% (questionnaires and measurements respectively; 14-21% of parents, 49-55% of directors, and 26-44% of principals completed and returned questionnaires. Changes to child weight status; eating practices; sleep, physical activity/sedentary behaviors; physical environments; community capacity; and economic evaluation (Quality Adjusted Life year gain will examine program effectiveness. Conclusions: As the most significant program of its kind in Australia, OPAL will contribute to obesity prevention efforts on an international scale.

  12. Knowledge and attitudes of the third year medical students in a university about sexually transmitted diseases and prevention methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bünyamin Akça

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The passage from childhood to adulthood is the period when health habits and sexual behaviors start to form. Thus, the topics of sexual health and reproductive health should be approached with priority during this period. The objective of the study is to evaluate the knowledge and behavior of students of the medical faculty with respect to sexually transmitted diseases and prevention methods.Methods: The questionnaire that contains 23 headings created by the researchers after relevant literature reviews was administered to the third-semester students of the Izmir Katip Celebi University Medical Faculty in face-to-face interviews after obtaining their verbal consent. The study data was analyzed using the SPSS 20.0 demo software bundle. Conditions in which the p-value was under 0.05 were regarded as statistically significant.Results: The mean age of the students that participated in the study (n=104 was 21.88 ± 1.9 years of age, 51% (n=53 of the students were female, and 49.0% (n=51 were male. Among the students, 93% stated that they had received education about preventing pregnancy. Two of the  most well-known prevention methods by the participants were condoms in 99.0% (n=103 and oral contraceptives in 95.2% (n=99. The rate of correct answers given about all of the risk factors for sexually transmitted diseases (sex workers, polygamy, homosexuality, being sexually active, substance addiction was 22.1% (n=23.Conclusion: Identifying the level of knowledge in the youth about STDs in early periods, determining the services they require, cooperating with related institutions to review the adequacy of information online, and educating youth about STDs are important in preventing these diseases and also in the treatment of existing diseases before they lead to more problems.

  13. Death by hanging: implications for prevention of an important method of youth suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosky, R J; Dundas, P

    2000-10-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with deaths by hanging among young people in Queensland, Australia. An examination of coroner's reports for all deaths by hanging of people under 25 years of age that occurred in Queensland in the years 1995 and 1996. All cases were recorded as suicides. Most were males and a quarter were indigenous persons. Half the deaths occurred in regional or rural areas. Unemployment, the experience of personal loss, psychiatric illness and alcohol use were possible precipitating agents. Early warning signs were the onset of uncharacteristic behaviours and threats of suicide. The private nature of hanging means that there are rarely opportunities to prevent it in the period immediately before the fatal event. Earlier interventions will have to be considered. To prevent hanging as a means of suicide, we need to understand more about the difficulties experienced by some young men who are living in rural areas. We need more information about the cultural problems experienced by indigenous youths in their teenage years. Young people in the justice system may need personal support. There is a pressing need to determine if young people, especially in rural areas, have adequate access to the professional expertise needed to diagnose and treat mental disorders.

  14. Selective prevention of cardiometabolic diseases in general practice: attitudes and working methods of male and female general practitioners before and after the introduction of the Prevention Consultation guideline in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, H.M.M.; Delft, D.H. Van; Kleijn, M.J.J. de; Nielen, M.M.; Schellevis, F.G.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.

    2014-01-01

    RATIONALE, AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: In 2011 the module cardiometabolic risk of the Prevention Consultation guideline was introduced in the Netherlands in order to prevent cardiometabolic diseases. We aimed to compare attitudes and working methods of Dutch general practitioners (GPs) towards selective

  15. Selective prevention of cardiometabolic diseases in general practice: attitudes and working methods of male and female general practitioners before and after the introduction of the Prevention Consultation guideline in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, H.M.M.; Delft, D.H.W.J.M. van; Kleijn, M.J.J. de; Nielen, M.M.J.; Schellevis, F.G.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale, aims and objectives; In 2011 the module cardiometabolic risk of the Prevention Consultation guideline was introduced in the Netherlands in order to prevent cardiometabolic diseases. We aimed to compare attitudes and working methods of Dutch general practitioners (GPs) towards selective

  16. Selective prevention of cardiometabolic diseases in general practice: attitudes and working methods of male and female general practitioners before and after the introduction of the Prevention Consultation guideline in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, H.M.M.; Van Delft, D.H.W.J.; de Kleijn, M.J.J.; Nielen, M.M.J.; Schellevis, F.G.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale, aims and objectives In 2011 the module cardiometabolic risk of the Prevention Consultation guideline was introduced in the Netherlands in order to prevent cardiometabolic diseases. We aimed to compare attitudes and working methods of Dutch general practitioners (GPs) towards selective

  17. Assessment and comparison of two early warning indicator methods in the perspective of prevention of atypical accident scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paltrinieri, Nicola; Øien, Knut; Cozzani, Valerio

    2012-01-01

    Some severe major accidents occurred in Europe in recent years (e.g. the Vapour Cloud Explosion at Buncefield in 2005), which were not foreseen by their site “Seveso-II” safety reports. Detailed analyses of such “atypical” scenarios demonstrated that they are the result of a number of failures at different technical and organizational levels. Thus, their prevention is a major challenge and must be coordinated through different kinds of approaches, among which improved early detection plays an important role. Proactive methodologies for the development of early warning indicators can unveil early deviations in the causal chain. Two examples are the Resilience-based Early Warning Indicator (REWI) method and the so-called “Dual Assurance” method. The aim of this study was to analyse the possible integration of early warning indicators in the hazard identification process. A Buncefield-like site was analysed to obtain indicators that were compared with the actual causes that led to the accident at Buncefield (and to similar accident scenarios). The results show that indicators from both methods could have prevented the accidents from happening. However, one main difference is related to the issue of hazard identification, which is fundamental for the prevention of atypical accident scenarios. The REWI method is not dependent on the outcome of the hazard identification process. Instead it provides complementarities to the first prevention approach (improved identification of atypical scenarios), demonstrating that a mutual activity would be an effective strategy in which human, organizational, cultural and technical factors are treated in an integrated manner. - Highlights: ► Early warning indicators were created through 2 methods for the Buncefield oil depot. ► A general capacity to cover causes of atypical events was demonstrated. ► The Dual Assurance method showed to mainly cover operability failures. ► The REWI method showed to promote acts

  18. Methods for Addressing Conflict in Cotaught Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conderman, Greg

    2011-01-01

    As a service delivery option for students with disabilities, coteaching continues to gain popularity. Successful coteaching largely rests upon the compatibility of coteachers. Sometimes conflict may occur when two teachers with different backgrounds and views work closely together. This article focuses on why conflict is inevitable in cotaught…

  19. Method of preventing sodium from flowing when pipes of a fast breeder reactor are injured

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, Yasushi; Yamagishi, Yoshiaki; Koga, Tomonari.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To inject high pressure sodium into an inlet nozzle portion when fluid pressure in the inlet nozzle portion of a core cooling pipe on the inlet side is in an abnormal condition, to thereby quickly and positively prevent the flow of sodium in a high pressure chamber in a reactor vessel, when pipes are injured. Structure: When the core cooling pipe on the inlet side is injured and as a consequence the pressure gage detects an abnormal condition of fluid pressure in the inlet nozzle, the valve is opened to allow high pressure sodium to inject into the inlet nozzle through a high pressure sodium supply pipe, thereby blocking a back-flow of sodium in the high pressure chamber into the core cooling pipe. (Kamimura, M.)

  20. Promoting Community Conversations About Research to End Suicide: learning and behavioural outcomes of a training-of-trainers model to facilitate grassroots community health education to address Indigenous youth suicide prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wexler, Lisa; Trout, Lucas; Rataj, Suzanne; Kirk, Tanya; Moto, Roberta; McEachern, Diane

    2017-01-01

    Alaska Native (AN) youth suicide remains a substantial and recalcitrant health disparity, especially in rural/remote communities. Promoting Community Conversations About Research to End Suicide (PC CARES) is a community health intervention that responds to the need for culturally responsive and evidence-supported prevention practice, using a grassroots approach to spark multilevel and community-based efforts for suicide prevention. This paper describes theoretical and practical considerations of the approach, and assesses the feasibility and preliminary learning and behavioural outcomes of the training-of-trainers model. It details the training of a first cohort of intervention facilitators in Northwest Alaska (NWA). Thirty-two people from 11 NWA village communities completed the PC CARES facilitator training, preparing them to implement the intervention in their home communities. Facilitator pre-post surveys focused on readiness to facilitate, a group quiz assessed participants' understanding of relevant research evidence, and practice facilitation exercises demonstrated competency. Curriculum fidelity and accuracy scores were calculated using audio recordings from learning circles conducted by facilitators in their home communities. Facilitator reflections describe the successes of the model and identify several areas for improvement. As of March 2017, 20 of the 32 trained facilitators in 10 of the 11 participating villages have hosted 54 LCs, with a total of 309 unique community members. Coding of these LCs by 2 independent raters indicate acceptable levels of fidelity and accurate dissemination of research evidence by facilitators. Facilitator reflections were positive overall, suggesting PC CARES is feasible, acceptable and potentially impactful as a way to translate research to practice in under-resourced, rural AN communities. PC CARES represents a practical community education and mobilisation approach to Indigenous youth suicide prevention that displays

  1. A new experimental method to prevent paraffin - wax formation on the crude oil wells: A field case study in Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elhaddad Elnori E.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wax formation and deposition is one of the most common problems in oil producing wells. This problem occurs as a result of the reduction of the produced fluid temperature below the wax appearance temperature (range between 46°C and 50°C and the pour point temperature (range between 42°C and 44°C. In this study, two new methods for preventing wax formation were implemented on three oil wells in Libya, where the surface temperature is, normally, 29°C. In the first method, the gas was injected at a pressure of 83.3 bar and a temperature of 65°C (greater than the pour point temperature during the gas-lift operation. In the second method, wax inhibitors (Trichloroethylene-xylene (TEX, Ethylene copolymers, and Comb polymers were injected down the casings together with the gas. Field observations confirmed that by applying these techniques, the production string was kept clean and no wax was formed. The obtained results show that the wax formation could be prevented by both methods.

  2. Pilot Project to Integrate Community and Clinical Level Systems to Address Health Disparities in the Prevention and Treatment of Obesity among Ethnic Minority Inner-City Middle School Students: Lessons Learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Rieder

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective obesity prevention and treatment interventions are lacking in the United States, especially for impoverished minority youths at risk for health disparities, and especially in accessible community-based settings. We describe the launch and pilot implementation evaluation of the first year of the B’N Fit POWER initiative as a middle school-based comprehensive wellness program that integrates weight management programming into existing onsite preventive and clinical services. Consistent with the existing implementation science literature, we focused on both the organizational structures that facilitate communication and the development of trust among stakeholders, students, and families and the development of realistic and timely goals to implement and integrate all aspects of the program. New implementation and programming strategies were developed and tested to increase the proportion of students screened, support the linkage of students to care, and streamline the integration of program clinical and afterschool components into routine services already offered at the school. We report on our initial implementation activities using the Standards for Reporting Implementation Studies (StaRI framework using hybrid outcomes combining the Reach element from the RE-AIM framework with a newly conceptualized Wellness Cascade.

  3. Statistical Sensitive Data Protection and Inference Prevention with Decision Tree Methods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chang, LiWu

    2003-01-01

    .... We consider inference as correct classification and approach it with decision tree methods. As in our previous work, sensitive data are viewed as classes of those test data and non-sensitive data are the rest attribute values...

  4. Road Map to Address Cognitive Health

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-06-09

    In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Lynda Anderson highlights the important roles that states and communities can play in addressing cognitive health as part of overall health.  Created: 6/9/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 6/9/2014.

  5. Addressing Sexual Violence as Student Affairs Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landreman, Lisa M.; Williamsen, Kaaren M.

    2018-01-01

    In this chapter, we outline the challenges campuses face in addressing sexual violence and Title IX compliance. We argue that there are critical roles for student affairs professionals in Title IX work in developing effective campus sexual violence prevention and response strategies.

  6. Analysis of the method quality function deployment "qfd" in preventive services police

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauro Soares de Freitas

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite of the significant contribution of QFD for the construction of the theoretical framework for managing the development of new products and services, there is an embryonic implementation in the public sector. The purpose of this article is to analyze the application of the method in the context of public safety, and the study was delimited to the School Patrol in the Military Police of Minas Gerais. Action research was the research strategy chosen and qualitative and quantitative methods were used to collect and analyze data. The QFD method proved to be effective for: systematize a large set of internal and external corporate information, facilitating the subsequent planning of policing; promote a dynamic oriented and structured in encounters between police and the community; identify the needs of public school and prioritize activities policing which better fulfill these desires; and to understand the ability of service of a School Patrol Unit. Moreover, the police service has a unique set of characteristics that partially hindered planning service by QFD. This service does not have a specific market niche, being a service of law and not by purchase. Also relies on legal aspects and regulates behaviors, generating rejection. Although this particular nature, two factors favored the application of the method: the institutionalization of the philosophy of community policing in the organization and to familiarizing officers with management concepts and quality. The final conclusion is that the QFD method was presented as a promising tool for improving the quality of Brazilian public services.

  7. Method of preventing criticality of fresh fuel assembly in storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Makoto.

    1990-01-01

    With an aim of improving the operation efficiency of a reactor, extention of the operation cycle by increasing U 235 enrichment degree of fuel uranium is planned. However, along with the increase of the enrichment degree of the fuel uranium, there occurs a problem of criticality upon fuel handling. Then, in the present invention, boric acid incorporating B-10 of great neutron absorption effect are packed with water soluble polymeric materials which are further packed with a fuel packing sheet, or the water soluble polymeric materials incorporating boric acids are packed with fuel packing sheets which are disposed to a fresh fuel assembly and stored in a store house as they are. The fuel packing sheet is a perforated sheet having a plurality of water intruding pores. Then, if water should intrude to the store house accidentally, the water soluble polymeric materials are dissolved, so that the intruded water is converted into aqueous boric acid easily and absorbs neutrons effectively to thereby attain the prevention of criticality. (T.M.)

  8. Handwashing: a simple, economical and effective method for preventing nosocomial infections in intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyol, A; Ulusoy, H; Ozen, I

    2006-04-01

    As most nosocomial infections are thought to be transmitted by the hands of healthcare workers, handwashing is considered to be the single most important intervention to prevent nosocomial infections. However, studies have shown that handwashing practices are poor, especially among medical personnel. This review gives an overview of handwashing in health care and in the community, including some aspects that have attracted little attention, such as hand drying and cultural issues determining hand hygiene behaviour. Hand hygiene is the most effective measure for interrupting the transmission of micro-organisms which cause infection, both in the community and in the healthcare setting. Using hand hygiene as a sole measure to reduce infection is unlikely to be successful when other factors in infection control, such as environmental hygiene, crowding, staffing levels and education, are inadequate. Hand hygiene must be part of an integrated approach to infection control. Compliance with hand hygiene recommendations is poor worldwide. While the techniques involved in hand hygiene are simple, the complex interdependence of factors that determine hand hygiene behaviour makes the study of hand hygiene complex. It is now recognized that improving compliance with hand hygiene recommendations depends on altering human behaviour. Input from behavioural and social sciences is essential when designing studies to investigate compliance. Interventions to increase compliance with hand hygiene practices must be appropriate for different cultural and social needs.

  9. APPLICATION OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE NONMEDICAMENTOUS PREVENTION AND TREATMENT METHODS OF BRONCHIAL ASTHMA IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A. Bezrukova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the authors justify the necessity to apply non medicamentous treatment methods to the children with bronchial asthma. The scientists familiarize us with a new me dication, whose effect is based on the noninvasive impact of the electromagnetic radiation of the knowingly non thermal intensity. It is for normalization of the disturbed function of the respiratory system. The researchers showed the efficiency of the above said innovative medication, while treating bronchial asthma among children with no side effects whatsoever.Key words: bronchial asthma, nonmedicamentous treatment methods, children.

  10. Health Promotion Methods for Smoking Prevention and Cessation: A Comprehensive Review of Effectiveness and the Way Forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golechha, Mahaveer

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is one of the greatest causes of mortality in the world, responsible for over 5 million deaths per annum. The prevalence of smoking is over 1 billion people, with the majority coming from low or middle income countries. Yet, the incidence of smoking varies vastly between many countries. Some countries have been able to decline the smoking and tobacco related morbidity and mortality through the introduction of health promotion initiatives and effective policies in order to combat tobacco usage. However, on the other hand, in some countries, the incidence of smoking is increasing still further. With the growing body of evidence of detriment of tobacco to health, many control policies have been implemented as health promotion actions. Such methods include taxation of smoking, mass advertising campaigns in the media, peer education programs, community mobilization, motivational interviewing, health warnings on tobacco products, marketing restrictions, and banning smoking in public places. However, the review of the effectiveness of various health promotion methods used for smoking prevention and cessation is lacking. Therefore, the aim of this review is to identify and critically review the effectiveness of health promotion methods used for smoking prevention and cessation. All available studies and reports published were considered. Searches were conducted using PubMed, MEDLINE, Ovid, Karger, ProQuest, Sage Journals, Science Direct, Springer, Taylor and Francis, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Cochrane and Wiley Online Library. Various relevant search terms and keywords were used. After considering the inclusion and exclusion criteria, we selected 23 articles for the present review.

  11. Definitions and methods of measuring and reporting on injurious falls in randomised controlled fall prevention trials: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwenk Michael

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The standardisation of the assessment methodology and case definition represents a major precondition for the comparison of study results and the conduction of meta-analyses. International guidelines provide recommendations for the standardisation of falls methodology; however, injurious falls have not been targeted. The aim of the present article was to review systematically the range of case definitions and methods used to measure and report on injurious falls in randomised controlled trials (RCTs on fall prevention. Methods An electronic literature search of selected comprehensive databases was performed to identify injurious falls definitions in published trials. Inclusion criteria were: RCTs on falls prevention published in English, study population ≥ 65 years, definition of injurious falls as a study endpoint by using the terms "injuries" and "falls". Results The search yielded 2089 articles, 2048 were excluded according to defined inclusion criteria. Forty-one articles were included. The systematic analysis of the methodology applied in RCTs disclosed substantial variations in the definition and methods used to measure and document injurious falls. The limited standardisation hampered comparability of study results. Our results also highlight that studies which used a similar, standardised definition of injurious falls showed comparable outcomes. Conclusions No standard for defining, measuring, and documenting injurious falls could be identified among published RCTs. A standardised injurious falls definition enhances the comparability of study results as demonstrated by a subgroup of RCTs used a similar definition. Recommendations for standardising the methodology are given in the present review.

  12. Systematic review of the use of Statistical Process Control methods to measure the success of pressure ulcer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Michael; Young, Trudie; Fallon, Maureen

    2018-06-01

    Successful prevention of pressure ulcers is the end product of a complex series of care processes including, but not limited to, the assessment of vulnerability to pressure damage; skin assessment and care; nutritional support; repositioning; and the use of beds, mattresses, and cushions to manage mechanical loads on the skin and soft tissues. The purpose of this review was to examine where and how Statistical Process Control (SPC) measures have been used to assess the success of quality improvement initiatives intended to improve pressure ulcer prevention. A search of 7 electronic bibliographic databases was performed on May 17th, 2017, for studies that met the inclusion criteria. SPC methods have been reported in 9 publications since 2010 to interpret changes in the incidence of pressure ulcers over time. While these methods offer rapid interpretation of changes in incidence than is gained from a comparison of 2 arbitrarily selected time points pre- and post-implementation of change, more work is required to ensure that the clinical and scientific communities adopt the most appropriate SPC methods. © 2018 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Rationale for methods of prevention and treatment of toxic infections complications of combined radiation and thermal injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodugov, R.S.; Nesterenko, V.S.; Makarov, G.F.; Ul'yanova, L.P.; Khlopovskaya, E.I.

    1992-01-01

    Analysis of the results of experimental studies on the pathogenesis of combined radiation and thermal injuries (CRTI) helped single out the factors aggravating the outcomes of such injuries. Potentiation of the hepatotoxic effects of bacterial enteroendotoxicosis and early toxemia associated with burns is the principal factor augmenting the disorders in the reactivity of radiosensitive systems in CRTI. The authors' findings evidence the efficacy of enterosorption, of methods enhancing the gastrointestinal motoricity, and of a number of modifiers of biologic reactions and heterologous immunoglobulins for the prevention and treatment of toxic infectious complications of CRTI

  14. Addressing the Issue: Bullying and LGBTQ Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Allen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Each day, thousands of youth experience bullying and as many of 70% of all youth report having experienced bullying, either directly or indirectly (Cantor, 2005. For Gay, Lesbian, Bi-sexual, Transgender and Questioning (LGBTQ youth, the chances of experiencing bullying are much higher than for youth in the general population (Russell, Horn, Kosciw, & Saewyc, 2010. Although many youth serving organizations have begun to address the issue of bullying with bullying prevention programs, there is a deficit of information and a lack of inclusion of prevention efforts that specifically address LGBTQ youth. This article address the role of youth organizations in creating safe and inclusive environments for all youth, with specific attention paid to resources and strategies for inclusive environments for LGBTQ youth.

  15. Neurobehavioural methods, effects and prevention: workers' human rights are why the field matters for developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, L

    2009-11-01

    Little research into neurobehavioural methods and effects occurs in developing countries, where established neurotoxic chemicals continue to pose significant occupational and environmental burdens, and where agents newly identified as neurotoxic are also widespread. Much of the morbidity and mortality associated with neurotoxic agents remains hidden in developing countries as a result of poor case detection, lack of skilled personnel, facilities and equipment for diagnosis, inadequate information systems, limited resources for research and significant competing causes of ill-health, such as HIV/AIDS and malaria. Placing the problem in a human rights context enables researchers and scientists in developing countries to make a strong case for why the field of neurobehavioural methods and effects matters because there are numerous international human rights commitments that make occupational and environmental health and safety a human rights obligation.

  16. Mechanisms of Fatal Cardiotoxicity following High-Dose Cyclophosphamide Therapy and a Method for Its Prevention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuro Nishikawa

    is likely to be an important mechanism for preventing cardiotoxicity.

  17. Polymeric hydrogen diffusion barrier, high-pressure storage tank so equipped, method of fabricating a storage tank and method of preventing hydrogen diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessing, Paul A [Idaho Falls, ID

    2008-07-22

    An electrochemically active hydrogen diffusion barrier which comprises an anode layer, a cathode layer, and an intermediate electrolyte layer, which is conductive to protons and substantially impermeable to hydrogen. A catalytic metal present in or adjacent to the anode layer catalyzes an electrochemical reaction that converts any hydrogen that diffuses through the electrolyte layer to protons and electrons. The protons and electrons are transported to the cathode layer and reacted to form hydrogen. The hydrogen diffusion barrier is applied to a polymeric substrate used in a storage tank to store hydrogen under high pressure. A storage tank equipped with the electrochemically active hydrogen diffusion barrier, a method of fabricating the storage tank, and a method of preventing hydrogen from diffusing out of a storage tank are also disclosed.

  18. An SDN-Based Fingerprint Hopping Method to Prevent Fingerprinting Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fingerprinting attacks are one of the most severe threats to the security of networks. Fingerprinting attack aims to obtain the operating system information of target hosts to make preparations for future attacks. In this paper, a fingerprint hopping method (FPH is proposed based on software-defined networks to defend against fingerprinting attacks. FPH introduces the idea of moving target defense to show a hopping fingerprint toward the fingerprinting attackers. The interaction of the fingerprinting attack and its defense is modeled as a signal game, and the equilibriums of the game are analyzed to develop an optimal defense strategy. Experiments show that FPH can resist fingerprinting attacks effectively.

  19. What Does It Cost to Prevent On-Duty Firefighter Cardiac Events? A Content Valid Method for Calculating Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Daniel Patterson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac arrest is a leading cause of mortality among firefighters. We sought to develop a valid method for determining the costs of a workplace prevention program for firefighters. In 2012, we developed a draft framework using human resource accounting and in-depth interviews with experts in the firefighting and insurance industries. The interviews produced a draft cost model with 6 components and 26 subcomponents. In 2013, we randomly sampled 100 fire chiefs out of >7,400 affiliated with the International Association of Fire Chiefs. We used the Content Validity Index (CVI to identify the content valid components of the draft cost model. This was accomplished by having fire chiefs rate the relevancy of cost components using a 4-point Likert scale (highly relevant to not relevant. We received complete survey data from 65 fire chiefs (65% response rate. We retained 5 components and 21 subcomponents based on CVI scores ≥0.70. The five main components include, (1 investment costs, (2 orientation and training costs, (3 medical and pharmaceutical costs, (4 education and continuing education costs, and (5 maintenance costs. Data from a diverse sample of fire chiefs has produced a content valid method for calculating the cost of a prevention program among firefighters.

  20. Effect of the improving teaching method on the prevention of needle stick injuries in the department of infectious disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi CHEN

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To discuss the effect of improving teaching method and strengthening the training of occupational protection on the prevention of needle stick injuries in the department of infectious disease. Methods: Collect 17 cases of needle stick injuries that occurred in 2012 among 178 nurses in department of infectious disease. The same cases occurred in 2013 when the nurses had received the occupational protection training and targeted countermeasures were also collected. Results: The incidence of needle stick injuries was 9.55% in infectious department in 2012, and it is down to 3.4% in 2013. Conclusion: Nursing students are more likely to cause needle stick injuries. Training of occupational protection together with nursing technical operation specification can effectively control the occurrence of needle stick injuries.

  1. Addressing a Critical Gap in U.S. National Teen Pregnancy Prevention Programs: The Acceptability and Feasibility of Father-Based Sexual and Reproductive Health Interventions for Latino Adolescent Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Bowman, Alex S; Santa Maria, Diane; Kabemba, Francesca; Geronimo, Yoyce

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of the research was to examine the feasibility and acceptability of a father-based sexual and reproductive health intervention designed to reduce sexual and reproductive (SRH) disparities and increase correct and consistent condom use among Latino adolescent males. The current study conducted in-depth semi-structured interviews with Latino father-son dyads (N=30) designed to elicit perspectives on communication regarding sex and condom use. In addition, the interview protocol included father-son preferences regarding paternal involvement in condom instruction and perceived obstacles and advantages of father direct involvement in education efforts designed to increase correct and consistent condom use among their adolescent sons. Three independent coders conducted both vertical and horizontal analyses of the data to identify emergent themes and reach theoretical saturation. The main findings from this study suggest that Latino fathers can be impactful in shaping Latino adolescent male sexual decision-making and correct and consistent condom use. However, our data highlight that while both feasible and acceptable, Latino fathers identify needing additional support in how best to communicate and seek opportunities to master their own knowledge and skills regarding condom use and effective communication with their adolescent sons about sex. Latino father-based interventions represent an acceptable and feasible option for building upon the recent success of U.S. national efforts to reduce teen pregnancy rates and STI disparities among Latino youth. However, there exists a need for father-based programs that will support Latino fathers in best educating their sons about condom use and better addressing their SRH. Ongoing national efforts to reduce Latino teen SRH disparities warrant the consideration of father-son interventions for Latino adolescent males in the United States. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Difficulties experienced in setting and achieving goals by participants of a falls prevention programme: a mixed-methods evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Romi; Mason, Wendy; Haines, Terry P

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the ability of participants of a falls prevention programme to set and achieve goals. The study used a prospective longitudinal design and a mixed-methods approach to data collection. Study participants were (1) 220 older adults participating in a 15-week combined exercise and education falls prevention programme and (2) 9 practitioners (3 home-care nurses, 5 community workers, and an exercise physiologist) involved in delivering the programme. Data from goal-setting forms were analyzed, and descriptive statistics were used to determine the number of appropriate goals set and achieved. Data were analyzed according to programme setting (home- or group-based) and whether or not participants were classified as being from a Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CALD) background in the Australian context. Semi-structured interviews with programme practitioners were thematically analyzed. A total of 144 respondents (n=75 CALD group, n=41 non-CALD group, n=6 CALD home, n=22 non-CALD home) set 178 goals. Only 101 (57%) goals could be evaluated according to achievement, because participants set goals that focused on health state instead of behaviour, set goals not relevant to falls prevention, used inappropriate constructs to measure goal achievement, and either did not review their goals or dropped out of the programme before goal review. Of these 101 goals, 64 were achieved. Practitioners described their own difficulties in understanding the process of setting health behaviour goals along with communication, cultural, and logistic difficulties. Both CALD and non-CALD participants and those participating in both group- and home-based programmes experienced difficulty in setting and achieving goals to facilitate behaviour change for falls prevention. Data suggest that home-based participants had more difficulty in setting goals than their group-based counterparts and, to a lesser extent, that CALD participants experienced more difficulty in setting goals than

  3. Process evaluation of a cluster-randomised trial testing a pressure ulcer prevention care bundle: a mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Shelley; McInnes, Elizabeth; Bucknall, Tracey; Wallis, Marianne; Banks, Merrilyn; Chaboyer, Wendy

    2017-02-13

    As pressure ulcers contribute to significant patient burden and increased health care costs, their prevention is a clinical priority. Our team developed and tested a complex intervention, a pressure ulcer prevention care bundle promoting patient participation in care, in a cluster-randomised trial. The UK Medical Research Council recommends process evaluation of complex interventions to provide insight into why they work or fail and how they might be improved. This study aimed to evaluate processes underpinning implementation of the intervention and explore end-users' perceptions of it, in order to give a deeper understanding of its effects. A pre-specified, mixed-methods process evaluation was conducted as an adjunct to the main trial, guided by a framework for process evaluation of cluster-randomised trials. Data was collected across eight Australian hospitals but mainly focused on the four intervention hospitals. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected across the evaluation domains: recruitment, reach, intervention delivery and response to intervention, at both cluster and individual patient level. Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Qualitative data were analysed using thematic analysis. In the context of the main trial, which found a 42% reduction in risk of pressure ulcer with the intervention that was not significant after adjusting for clustering and covariates, this process evaluation provides important insights. Recruitment and reach among clusters and individuals was high, indicating that patients, nurses and hospitals are willing to engage with a pressure ulcer prevention care bundle. Of 799 intervention patients in the trial, 96.7% received the intervention, which took under 10 min to deliver. Patients and nurses accepted the care bundle, recognising benefits to it and describing how it enabled participation in pressure ulcer prevention (PUP) care. This process evaluation found no major failures

  4. Filling machine preventive maintenance using age replacement method in PT Lucas Djaja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustofa Fifi Herni

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available PT Lucas Djaja is a company engaged in the pharmaceutical industry which produce sterile drugs and non-sterile. Filling machine has a high failure rate and expensive corrective maintenance cost. PT Lucas Djaja has a policy to perform engine maintenance by way of corrective maintenance. The study focused on the critical components, namely bearing R2, bearing 625 and bearing 626. When the replacement of the failure done by the company is currently using the formula mean time to failure with the result of bearing R2 at point 165 days, bearing 625 at a point 205 days, and bearing 626 at a point 182 days. Solutions generated by using age replacement method with minimization of total maintenance cost given on the bearing R2 at a point 60 days, bearing 625 at the point of 80 days and bearing 626 at a point 40 days.

  5. Prioritization of intervention methods for prevention of communicable diseases in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, A. W.

    Water, sanitation, housing and hygienic behavior plays dominant role in the transmission and intensification of diseases. To effectively utilize limited financial resources, it is important to prioritize disease intervention methods in order to minimize mortality and morbidity cases. Realization of the environmental health components that respond to the practical effects of their contribution to transmission of diseases has greater chances of effectively enhancing health. Data of frequency of diseases and mortality rate were collected from four municipal hospitals from districts of Ilala, Kinondoni, Temeke and Kibaha in Dar es Salaam and Coast Regions. The populations at risk were sub-categorized in relation to age; below five years and above five years. The age parameter assists on envisaging the major causes to be either in-house or in public domain. Data were analyzed to assess the role of water quality, water quantity, excreta disposal, waste disposal and hygiene education on spreading the diseases in order to come up with scientifically evaluated information. Scores were given to each intervention method depending on its importance in controlling a particular disease. The results indicate that incidences of malaria, skin and eye infections, pneumonia and diarrhea are frequent in these districts. Children under 5 years are particularly affected by pneumonia and diarrhea more than adults. Malaria, tuberculosis and pneumonia are the major causes of mortality rates in these districts. Fatality cases are caused largely by malaria, pneumonia and diarrhea for children less than 5 years, but malaria, tuberculosis and pneumonia are responsible for mortality rates in adults and children over 5 years. Statistical analysis revealed that in all districts, hygiene education is the major factor responsible for transmission of diseases accounting for 32-39%. Other factors, which are the major contributors to the incidences of diseases, are inadequacy of water (15.6-22.5%) and

  6. Preventive methods for coastal protection towards the use of ocean dynamics for pollution control

    CERN Document Server

    Quak, Ewald

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the book is to present for non-specialist researchers as well as for experts a comprehensive overview of the background, key ideas, basic methods, implementation details and a selection of solutions offered by a novel technology for the optimisation of the location of dangerous offshore activities in terms of environmental criteria, as developed in the course of the BalticWay project.   The book consists of two parts. The first part introduces the basic principles of ocean modeling and depicts the long way from the generic principles to the practical modeling of oil spills and of the propagation of other adverse impacts. The second part focuses on the techniques for solving the inverse problem of the quantification of offshore areas with respect to their potential to serve as a source of environmental danger to vulnerable regions (such as spawning, nursing or also tourist areas).   The chapters are written in a tutorial style; they are mostly self-contained and understandable for non-specialist r...

  7. The suggestion of droplets generation prevention method of CNx coating by ion beam assisted deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, Yuji; Tokoroyama, Takayuki; Kousaka, Hiroyuki; Umehara, Noritsugu; Fuwa, Yoshio; Manabe, Kazuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    It has been reported that the carbon nitride (CNx) coating was the super-low friction in which friction coefficient was less than 0.01, and it attracts attention as a high wear resistance and low friction material. When synthesizing a CNx coating with Ion Beam Assisted Deposition (IBAD) method, it was clear that the small asperities called droplets was generated onto the CNx coating surface with increasing thickness, and these droplets generated high friction. Therefore, it is necessary to clarify droplets generation mechanism to reduce droplets. To establish optimal coating conditions for controlling droplets were clarified by paying attention to the energy of an electron beam and the shape of a carbon target. First of all, 300 nm thickness CNx coatings were synthesized with five different filament current densities to clarify the relationship between the filament current density and droplet heights. Secondly, the effect of carbon target shape on droplets generation was confirmed with normal and processed carbon target. Finally, friction coefficient of these surfaces was measured by friction tests under PAO lubrication. (author)

  8. Joint hyperlaxity prevents relapses in clubfeet treated by Ponseti method-preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosma, Dan Ionuţ; Corbu, Andrei; Nistor, Dan Viorel; Todor, Adrian; Valeanu, Madalina; Morcuende, Jose; Man, Sorin

    2018-05-07

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the role of joint hyperlaxity (by Beighton score) as a protective factor for clubfoot relapse. Patients with idiopathic clubfoot treated with the Ponseti method between January 2004 and December 2012, without other congenital foot deformity, and not previously treated by open surgery were included in either the Relapse group (n = 23) if it was a clubfoot relapse or the Control group (n = 19) if no relapse was noted. Joint laxity was evaluated using the Beighton score at the latest follow-up against the Normal group (n = 22, children matched by sex and age without clubfoot deformity). We found a significantly higher joint laxity in the Control group (4.58, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.1-7.06) as compared to the Relapse (3.17, 95% CI: 1.53-4.81, p = 0.032) and Normal (3.14, 95% CI: 1.78-4.5, p = 0.03) groups. The univariate logistic regression showed a 5.28-times increase in the risk of relapse for a Beighton score lower than 4/9 points (odds ratio = 5.28; 95% CI = 1.29-21.5; p = 0.018). Joint hyperlaxity could be a protective factor for clubfoot relapse.

  9. Dental plaque as a biofilm - a risk in oral cavity and methods to prevent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Chałas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria living constantly in the oral cavity are in the form of a biofilm. The biofilm formed on a solid base such as the enamel of the teeth, fillings, restorations, orthodontic appliances or obturators is dental plaque. Disturbance of homeostasis of biofilm, excessive growth or increase in the number of acid-forming bacteria leads to the development of the most common diseases of the oral cavity, i.e. dental caries and periodontal disease. The presence of bacterial biofilm on the walls of the root canal or at the top of the root on an outer wall leads to complications and failure in endodontic treatment. The aim of the study was to present the latest information on the occurrence, development and the role of biofilm in the etiopathogenesis of oral diseases and its control. Based on the literature analyzed, it can be concluded that the biofilm, due to its complex structure and numerous mechanisms of bacteria adaptation, is an effective barrier against the traditional agents with antibacterial properties. There are now great hopes for nanotechnology as an innovative method for obtaining new structures of nanometric size and different properties than source materials. The use of antibacterial properties of nano-silver used in dentistry significantly reduces the metabolic activity and the number of colony forming bacteria and lactic acid production in the biofilm.

  10. [Dental plaque as a biofilm - a risk in oral cavity and methods to prevent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chałas, Renata; Wójcik-Chęcińska, Ilona; Woźniak, Michał J; Grzonka, Justyna; Święszkowski, Wojciech; Kurzydłowski, Krzysztof J

    2015-10-13

    Bacteria living constantly in the oral cavity are in the form of a biofilm. The biofilm formed on a solid base such as the enamel of the teeth, fillings, restorations, orthodontic appliances or obturators is dental plaque. Disturbance of homeostasis of biofilm, excessive growth or increase in the number of acid-forming bacteria leads to the development of the most common diseases of the oral cavity, i.e. dental caries and periodontal disease. The presence of bacterial biofilm on the walls of the root canal or at the top of the root on an outer wall leads to complications and failure in endodontic treatment. The aim of the study was to present the latest information on the occurrence, development and the role of biofilm in the etiopathogenesis of oral diseases and its control. Based on the literature analyzed, it can be concluded that the biofilm, due to its complex structure and numerous mechanisms of bacteria adaptation, is an effective barrier against the traditional agents with antibacterial properties. There are now great hopes for nanotechnology as an innovative method for obtaining new structures of nanometric size and different properties than source materials. The use of antibacterial properties of nano-silver used in dentistry significantly reduces the metabolic activity and the number of colony forming bacteria and lactic acid production in the biofilm.

  11. Health promotion methods for smoking prevention and cessation: A comprehensive review of effectiveness and the way forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahaveer Golechha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoking is one of the greatest causes of mortality in the world, responsible for over 5 million deaths per annum. The prevalence of smoking is over 1 billion people, with the majority coming from low or middle income countries. Yet, the incidence of smoking varies vastly between many countries. Some countries have been able to decline the smoking and tobacco related morbidity and mortality through the introduction of health promotion initiatives and effective policies in order to combat tobacco usage. However, on the other hand, in some countries, the incidence of smoking is increasing still further. With the growing body of evidence of detriment of tobacco to health, many control policies have been implemented as health promotion actions. Such methods include taxation of smoking, mass advertising campaigns in the media, peer education programs, community mobilization, motivational interviewing, health warnings on tobacco products, marketing restrictions, and banning smoking in public places. However, the review of the effectiveness of various health promotion methods used for smoking prevention and cessation is lacking. Therefore, the aim of this review is to identify and critically review the effectiveness of health promotion methods used for smoking prevention and cessation. All available studies and reports published were considered. Searches were conducted using PubMed, MEDLINE, Ovid, Karger, ProQuest, Sage Journals, Science Direct, Springer, Taylor and Francis, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Cochrane and Wiley Online Library. Various relevant search terms and keywords were used. After considering the inclusion and exclusion criteria, we selected 23 articles for the present review.

  12. A method of constructing geo-object ontology in disaster system for prevention and decrease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Liu, Jiping; Shi, Lihong; Wang, Zhenfeng

    2009-10-01

    A kind of formal system, which can express clearly a certain entity or information, is needed to express geographical concept. Besides, some rules explaining the interrelationship and action between different components are also required. Therefore, the conception of geo-object ontology is introduced. It is a shared formalization and display specification of conceptual knowledge system in the field of concrete application of spatial information science. It can constitute hierarchy structure, which derives from the concept classification system in the geographical area. Its concepts can be described by the property. Property sets can form a vector space with multi-dimensional characteristics. Geographic space is composed of different types of geographic entities. And its concept is formed by a series of geographic entities with the same properties and actions. Moreover, each of the geographic entities can be mapped to an object, and each object has its spatial property, time information and topology, semantic relationships associated with other objects. The biggest difference between ecumenical information ontology and geo-ontology is that the latter has the spatial characteristics. During the construction process of geo-object ontology, some important components, such as geographic type, spatial relation, spatial entity type and coordinates, time, should be included to make further research. Here, taking disaster as an example, by using Protégé and OWL, combined methods used by constructing the geo-object ontology in the form of being manual made by domanial experts and semi-automatic are investigated oriented to disaster to serve ultimately geographic information retrieval service driven by ontology.

  13. Cask for radioactive material and method for preventing release of neutrons from radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaffney, M.F.; Shaffer, P.T.

    1981-01-01

    A cask for radioactive material, such as nuclear reactor fuel or spent nuclear reactor fuel, includes a plurality of associated walled internal compartments for containing such radioactive material, with neutron absorbing material present to absorb neutrons emitted by the radioactive material, and a plurality of thermally conductive members, such as longitudinal copper or aluminum castings, about the compartment and in thermal contact with the compartment walls and with other such thermally conductive members and having thermal contact surfaces between such members extending, preferably radially, from the compartment walls to external surfaces of the thermally conductive members, which surfaces are preferably in the form of a cylinder. The ends of the shipping cask also preferably include a neutron absorber and a conductive metal covering to dissipate heat released by decay of the radioactive material. A preferred neutron absorber utilized is boron carbide, preferably as plasma sprayed with metal powder or as particles in a matrix of phenolic polymer, and the compartment walls are preferably of stainless steel, copper or other corrosion resistant and heat conductive metal or alloy. The invention also relates to shipping casks, storage casks and other containers for radioactive materials in which a plurality of internal compartments for such material, e.g., nuclear reactor fuel rods, are joined together, preferably in modular construction with surrounding heat conductive metal members, and the modules are joined together to form a major part of a finished shipping cask, which is preferably of cylindrical shape. Also within the invention are methods of safely storing radioactive materials which emit neutrons, while dissipating the heat thereof, and of manufacturing the present shipping casks

  14. CORONARY DIET INTERVENTION WITH OLIVE OIL AND CARDIOVASCULAR PREVENTION STUDY (THE CORDIOPREV STUDY): RATIONALE, METHODS, AND BASELINE CHARACTERISTICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Lista, Javier; Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Garcia-Rios, Antonio; Alcala-Diaz, Juan F; Perez-Caballero, Ana I.; Gomez-Delgado, Francisco; Fuentes, Francisco; Quintana-Navarro, Gracia; Lopez-Segura, Fernando; Ortiz-Morales, Ana M; Delgado-Casado, Nieves; Yubero-Serrano, Elena; Camargo, Antonio; Marin, Carmen; Rodriguez-Cantalejo, Fernando; Gomez-Luna, Purificacion; Ordovas, Jose M; Lopez-Miranda, Jose; Perez-Jimenez, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) represents a major global health burden. However, despite the well-known influence that dietary habits exert over the progression of this disease, there are no well-established and scientifically sound dietary approaches to prevent the onset of clinical outcomes in secondary prevention. The objective of the CORonary Diet Intervention with Olive oil and cardiovascular PREVention study (CORDIOPREV study, clinical trials number NCT00924937) is to compare the ability of a Mediterranean diet rich in virgin olive oil versus a low-fat diet to influence the composite incidence of cardiovascular events after 7 years, in subjects with documented CHD at baseline. For this purpose, we enrolled 1002 coronary patients from Spain. Baseline assessment (2009–12) included detailed interviews and measurements to assess dietary, social and biological variables. Results of baseline characteristics: The CORDIOPREV study in Spain describes a population with a high BMI (37.2% overweight and 56.3% obesity), with a median of LDL-cholesterol of 88.5 mg/dL (70.6% of the patients having <100 mg/dL, and 20.3% patients < 70 mg/dL). 9.6% of the participants were active smokers, and 64.4% were former smokers. Metabolic Syndrome was present in 58% of this population. To sum up, we describe here the rationale, methods and baseline characteristics of the CORDIOPREV study, which will test for the first time the efficacy of a Mediterranean Diet rich in extra virgin olive oil as compared with a low-fat diet on the incidence of CHD recurrence in a long term follow-up study. PMID:27297848

  15. Methods for computational disease surveillance in infection prevention and control: Statistical process control versus Twitter's anomaly and breakout detection algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiemken, Timothy L; Furmanek, Stephen P; Mattingly, William A; Wright, Marc-Oliver; Persaud, Annuradha K; Guinn, Brian E; Carrico, Ruth M; Arnold, Forest W; Ramirez, Julio A

    2018-02-01

    Although not all health care-associated infections (HAIs) are preventable, reducing HAIs through targeted intervention is key to a successful infection prevention program. To identify areas in need of targeted intervention, robust statistical methods must be used when analyzing surveillance data. The objective of this study was to compare and contrast statistical process control (SPC) charts with Twitter's anomaly and breakout detection algorithms. SPC and anomaly/breakout detection (ABD) charts were created for vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, Acinetobacter baumannii, catheter-associated urinary tract infection, and central line-associated bloodstream infection data. Both SPC and ABD charts detected similar data points as anomalous/out of control on most charts. The vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus ABD chart detected an extra anomalous point that appeared to be higher than the same time period in prior years. Using a small subset of the central line-associated bloodstream infection data, the ABD chart was able to detect anomalies where the SPC chart was not. SPC charts and ABD charts both performed well, although ABD charts appeared to work better in the context of seasonal variation and autocorrelation. Because they account for common statistical issues in HAI data, ABD charts may be useful for practitioners for analysis of HAI surveillance data. Copyright © 2018 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Prevention and treatment of demineralisation during fixed appliance therapy: a review of current methods and future applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, C; Stewart, S; Su, B; Sandy, J; Ireland, A

    2013-11-01

    Orthodontic treatment, like all aspects of dentistry, exposes the clinician to the risk of malpractice and litigation. Demineralisation of tooth enamel is still one of the main complications of orthodontic treatment and it is essential patients are made aware of this risk during the consent process. There are a variety of fluoride delivery systems (mouthrinse, varnish, bonding system, and elastics), which can be used to prevent white spot lesion (WSL) formation. Glass-ionomer bonding cements (GIC) have also been shown to reduce WSL formation and have the benefit of not relying on patient compliance. However, these materials have not found widespread acceptance, possibly due to handling characteristics. A number of new technologies, principally fillers and coatings, have recently become available with potential antimicrobial and antibiofilm properties. Coatings can be applied to brackets and wires, which prevent bacterial adhesion. However, the longevity of these coatings is questionable. There are a number of methods available aimed at reducing the incidence of WSL, but they all have limitations. Capitalising on technological advances will enable the production of tailor made orthodontic brackets and adhesive systems, which provide long-term protection against WSL without relying on patient compliance.

  17. Unilateral Measures addressing Non-Trade Concerns. A Study on WTO Consistency, Relevance of other International Agreements, Economic Effectiveness and Impact on Developing Countries of Measures concerning Non-Product-Related Processes and Production Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Bossche, P.; Schrijver, N.; Faber, G.

    2007-01-01

    Over the last two years, the debate in the Netherlands on trade measures addressing non-trade concerns has focused on two important and politically sensitive issues, namely: (1) the sustainability of the large-scale production of biomass as an alternative source of energy; and (2) the production of livestock products in a manner that is consistent with animal welfare requirements. In February 2007 a report was issued on the 'Toetsingskader voor Duurzame Biomassa', the so-called Cramer Report. This report discusses the risks associated with large-scale biomass production and establishes a list of criteria for the sustainable production of biomass. These criteria reflect a broad range of non-trade concerns, including environmental protection, global warming, food security, biodiversity, economic prosperity and social welfare. The report recognizes that the implementation of the criteria (including the establishment of a certification system) will require careful consideration of the obligations of the Netherlands under EU and WTO law. Governments called upon to address non-trade concerns may do so by using different types of measures. Prominent among these are measures concerning processes and production methods of products. In the present study, these issues are examined primarily with regard to existing, proposed or still purely hypothetical measures for implementing the Cramer criteria for the sustainable production of biomass. Several other, non-energy-related issues are discussed in this report

  18. Local Reactive Power Control Methods for Overvoltage Prevention of Distributed Solar Inverters in Low-Voltage Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demirok, Erhan; Gonzalez, Pablo Casado; Frederiksen, Kenn H. B.

    2011-01-01

    on sensitivity analysis. The sensitivity analysis shows that the same amount of reactive power becomes more effective for grid voltage support if the solar inverter is located at the end of a feeder. Based on this fundamental knowledge, a location-dependent power factor set value can be assigned to each inverter......voltage (LV) grids by means of solar inverters with reactive power control capability. This paper underlines weak points of standard reactive power strategies which are already imposed by certain grid codes, and then, the study introduces a new reactive power control method that is based......, and the grid voltage support can be achieved with less total reactive power consumption. In order to prevent unnecessary reactive power absorption from the grid during admissible voltage range or to increase reactive power contribution from the inverters that are closest to the transformer during grid...

  19. Autogenic-Feedback Training (AFT) as a preventive method for space motion sickness: Background and experimental design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowings, Patricia S.; Toscano, William B.

    1993-01-01

    Finding an effective treatment for the motion sickness-like symptoms that occur in space has become a high priority for NASA. The background research is reviewed and the experimental design of a formal life sciences shuttle flight experiment designed to prevent space motion sickness in shuttle crew members is presented. This experiment utilizes a behavioral medicine approach to solving this problem. This method, Autogenic-Feedback Training (AFT), involves training subjects to voluntarily control several of their own physiological responses to environmental stressors. AFT has been used reliably to increase tolerance to motion sickness during ground-based tests in over 200 men and women under a variety of conditions that induce motion sickness, and preliminary evidence from space suggests that AFT may be an effective treatment for space motion sickness as well. Proposed changes to this experiment for future manifests are included.

  20. Using evaluation methods to guide the development of a tobacco-use prevention curriculum for youth: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, P D; Gallagher, R E; Berry-Bobovski, L C

    2000-01-01

    Fundamental to the development of educational programs and curricula is the evaluation of processes and outcomes. Unfortunately, many otherwise well-designed programs do not incorporate stringent evaluation methods and are limited in measuring program development and effectiveness. Using an advertising lesson in a school-based tobacco-use prevention curriculum as a case study, the authors examine the role of evaluation in the development, implementation, and enhancement of the curricular lesson. A four-phase formative and summative evaluation design was developed to divide the program-evaluation continuum into a structured process that would aid in the management of the evaluation, as well as assess curricular components. Formative and summative evaluation can provide important guidance in the development, implementation, and enhancement of educational curricula. Evaluation strategies identified unexpected barriers and allowed the project team to make necessary "time-relevant" curricular adjustments during each stage of the process.

  1. Evaluation of partnerships in a transnational family violence prevention network using an integrated knowledge translation and exchange model: a mixed methods study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Family violence is a significant and complex public health problem that demands collaboration between researchers, practitioners, and policymakers for systemic, sustainable solutions. An integrated knowledge translation network was developed to support joint research production and application in the area. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which the international Preventing Violence Across the Lifespan (PreVAiL) Research Network built effective partnerships among its members, with a focus on the knowledge user partner perspective. Methods This mixed-methods study employed a combination of questionnaire and semi-structured interviews to understand partnerships two years after PreVAiL’s inception. The questionnaire examined communication, collaborative research, dissemination of research, research findings, negotiation, partnership enhancement, information needs, rapport, and commitment. The interviews elicited feedback about partners’ experiences with being part of the network. Results Five main findings were highlighted: i) knowledge user partner involvement varied across activities, ranging from 11% to 79% participation rates; ii) partners and researchers generally converged on their assessment of communication indicators; iii) partners valued the network at both an individual level and to fulfill their organizations’ mandates; iv) being part of PreVAiL allowed partners to readily contact researchers, and partners felt comfortable acting as an intermediary between PreVAiL and the rest of their own organization; v) application of research was just emerging; partners needed more actionable insights to determine ways to move forward given the research at that point in time. Conclusions Our results demonstrate the importance of developing and nurturing strong partnerships for integrated knowledge translation. Our findings are applicable to other network-oriented partnerships where a diversity of stakeholders work to address

  2. Forms of address in Isizulu

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    M.A. (African Studies) The study deals with forms of address in isiZulu. Therefore, the various aspects of speech that play roles when addressing a person, the factors affecting forms of address in isiZulu and the effect of languages such as English, Afrikaans and other African languages on the forms of address in isiZulu are of interest. Research was conducted on forms of address in isiZulu in parts of Soweto and it was discovered that form of address are determined by different factors i...

  3. Sibanye Methods for Prevention Packages Program Project Protocol: Pilot Study of HIV Prevention Interventions for Men Who Have Sex With Men in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaghten, Ad; Kearns, Rachel; Siegler, Aaron J; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Stephenson, Rob; Baral, Stefan D; Brookmeyer, Ron; Yah, Clarence S; Lambert, Andrew J; Brown, Benjamin; Rosenberg, Eli; Blalock Tharp, Mondie; de Voux, Alex; Beyrer, Chris; Sullivan, Patrick S

    2014-10-16

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention intervention programs and related research for men who have sex with men (MSM) in the southern African region remain limited, despite the emergence of a severe epidemic among this group. With a lack of understanding of their social and sexual lives and HIV risks, and with MSM being a hidden and stigmatized group in the region, optimized HIV prevention packages for southern African MSM are an urgent public health and research priority. The objective of the Sibanye Health Project is to develop and evaluate a combination package of biomedical, behavioral, and community-level HIV prevention interventions and services for MSM in South Africa. The project consists of three phases: (1) a comprehensive literature review and summary of current HIV prevention interventions (Phase I), (2) agent-based mathematical modeling of HIV transmission in southern African MSM (Phase II), and (3) formative and stigma-related qualitative research, community engagement, training on providing health care to MSM, and the pilot study (Phase III). The pilot study is a prospective one-year study of 200 men in Cape Town and Port Elizabeth, South Africa. The study will assess a package of HIV prevention services, including condom and condom-compatible lubricant choices, risk-reduction counseling, couples HIV testing and counseling, pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for eligible men, and non-occupational post-exposure prophylaxis for men with a high risk exposure. The pilot study will begin in October 2014. Preliminary results from all components but the pilot study are available. We developed a literature review database with meta-data extracted from 3800 documents from 67 countries. Modeling results indicate that regular HIV testing and promotion of condom use can significantly impact new HIV infections among South African MSM, even in the context of high coverage of early treatment of HIV-positive men and high coverage of PrEP for at-risk HIV

  4. Design of preventive maintenance system using the reliability engineering and maintenance value stream mapping methods in PT. XYZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sembiring, N.; Panjaitan, N.; Angelita, S.

    2018-02-01

    PT. XYZ is a company owned by non-governmental organizations engaged in the field of production of rubber processing becoming crumb rubber. Part of the production is supported by some of machines and interacting equipment to achieve optimal productivity. Types of the machine that are used in the production process are Conveyor Breaker, Breaker, Rolling Pin, Hammer Mill, Mill Roll, Conveyor, Shredder Crumb, and Dryer. Maintenance system in PT. XYZ is corrective maintenance i.e. repairing or replacing the engine components after the crash on the machine. Replacement of engine components on corrective maintenance causes the machine to stop operating during the production process is in progress. The result is in the loss of production time due to the operator must replace the damaged engine components. The loss of production time can impact on the production targets which were not reached and lead to high loss costs. The cost for all components is Rp. 4.088.514.505. This cost is really high just for maintaining a Mill Roll Machine. Therefore PT. XYZ is needed to do preventive maintenance i.e. scheduling engine components and improving maintenance efficiency. The used methods are Reliability Engineering and Maintenance Value Stream Mapping (MVSM). The needed data in this research are the interval of time damage to engine components, opportunity cost, labor cost, component cost, corrective repair time, preventive repair time, Mean Time To Opportunity (MTTO), Mean Time To Repair (MTTR), and Mean Time To Yield (MTTY). In this research, the critical components of Mill Roll machine are Spier, Bushing, Bearing, Coupling and Roll. Determination of damage distribution, reliability, MTTF, cost of failure, cost of preventive, current state map, and future state map are done so that the replacement time for each critical component with the lowest maintenance cost and preparation of Standard Operation Procedure (SOP) are developed. For the critical component that has been

  5. Mixed methods evaluation of targeted case finding for cardiovascular disease prevention using a stepped wedged cluster RCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marshall Tom

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A pilot project cardiovascular prevention was implemented in Sandwell (West Midlands, UK. This used electronic primary care records to identify untreated patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease then invited these high risk patients for assessment by a nurse in their own general practice. Those found to be eligible for treatment were offered treatment. During the pilot a higher proportion of high risk patients were started on treatment in the intervention practices than in control practices. Following the apparent success of the prevention project, it was intended to extend the service to all practices across the Sandwell area. However the pilot project was not a robust evaluation. There was a need for an efficient evaluation that would not disrupt the planned rollout of the project. Methods/design Project nurses will sequentially implement targeted cardiovascular case finding in a phased way across all general practices, with the sequence of general practices determined randomly. This is a stepped wedge randomised controlled trial design. The target population is patients aged 35 to 74, without diabetes or cardiovascular disease whose ten-year cardiovascular risk, (determined from data in their electronic records is ≥20%. The primary outcome is the number of high risk patients started on treatment, because these data could be efficiently obtained from electronic primary care records. From this we can determine the effects of the case finding programme on the proportion of high risk patients started on treatment in practices before and after implementation of targeted case finding. Cost-effectiveness will be modelled from the predicted effects of treatments on cardiovascular events and associated health service costs. Alongside the implementation it is intended to interview clinical staff and patients who participated in the programme in order to determine acceptability to patients and clinicians. Practical

  6. Primary Prevention Is? A Global Perspective on How Organizations Engaging Men in Preventing Gender-Based Violence Conceptualize and Operationalize Their Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storer, Heather L; Casey, Erin A; Carlson, Juliana; Edleson, Jeffrey L; Tolman, Richard M

    2016-02-01

    Engaging men in addressing violence against women (VAW) has become a strategy in the global prevention of gender-based violence. Concurrently, Western public health frameworks have been utilized to guide prevention agendas worldwide. Using qualitative methods, this study describes how global anti-violence organizations that partner with men conceptualize primary prevention in their work. Findings suggest that "primary prevention" is not a fixed term in the context of VAW and that front-line prevention work challenges rigidly delineated distinctions between levels of prevention. Much can be learned from global organizations' unique and contextualized approaches to the prevention of VAW. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Preventing distracted driving among college students: Addressing smartphone use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani, Sahar; Kelly, Erin H; Smith, Jennifer; Thorpe, Sara; Sozzer, Fatima H; Atchley, Paul; Sullivan, Elroy; Larson, Dean; Vogel, Lawrence C

    2017-02-01

    Based on the National Highway Traffic Safety Association's (NHTSA) Report, fatalities due to distracted driving are on the rise and the highest proportion of fatalities by age group is the 20-29 year old category. To date little has been done to educate college students about the dangers of distracted driving and engage these students in promoting a safe driving culture. Intervening among college students has the potential for making real-time behavior change, can foster a lifetime of safe driving habits among these students, and can help contribute to a culture of safe driving that can be created and sustained through positive messages from peers. The goals of this study were to develop, implement and evaluate a distracted driving presentation for college students to change knowledge, attitude and behavior on distracted driving. A 30-min, multi-media presentation on distracted driving was presented to 19 colleges and universities, totaling 444 college students (mean age 23.7±7.0 years of age, 61% females, 39% males). Students completed three surveys: prior to the workshop (interview 1), immediately after the workshop (interview 2), and 3 months following the workshop (interview 3). We assessed changes between interview 1 and interview 2 and found 15 of the 15 attitude-knowledge based questions significantly improved after the course. In addition, we assessed changes from interviews 1 and 3, and found 11 of the 15 attitude-knowledge based questions maintained their significance. Responses to behavior related questions at three months were also compared to baseline, and significant improvements were found for 12 of the 14 questions. While this study was successful in improving the short-term attitude-knowledge and behaviors on distracted driving, work is needed to sustain (and evaluate) long-term effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Preventing Lone Wolf Terrorism: some CT Approaches Addressed

    OpenAIRE

    Edwin Bakker; Beatrice de Graaf

    2011-01-01

    After a brief discussion of the epistemological and phenomenological difficulties associated with the concept of lone wolf terrorism, a number of possible counter-terrorist approaches are discussed. Lone operator terrorist acts should be considered ‘black swan’ occurrences that are almost impossible to categorize or systematize, let alone forecast. Thus, not the profile of the perpetrator, but the modus operandi offer clues for a better response to this particular threat. Furtherm...

  9. Statistical Considerations of Food Allergy Prevention Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahnson, Henry T; du Toit, George; Lack, Gideon

    Clinical studies to prevent the development of food allergy have recently helped reshape public policy recommendations on the early introduction of allergenic foods. These trials are also prompting new research, and it is therefore important to address the unique design and analysis challenges of prevention trials. We highlight statistical concepts and give recommendations that clinical researchers may wish to adopt when designing future study protocols and analysis plans for prevention studies. Topics include selecting a study sample, addressing internal and external validity, improving statistical power, choosing alpha and beta, analysis innovations to address dilution effects, and analysis methods to deal with poor compliance, dropout, and missing data. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Access to Difficult-to-reach Population Subgroups: A Family Midwife Based Home Visiting Service for Implementing Nutrition-related Preventive Activities - A Mixed Methods Explorative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Walz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Health and social inequality are tightly linked and still pose an important public health problem. However, vulnerable and disadvantaged populations are difficult to reach for health-related interventions. Given the long-lasting effects of an adverse, particular nutrition-related, intrauterine and neonatal environment on health development (perinatal programming, an early and easy access is essential for sustainable interventions. The goal of this explorative study was therefore to elucidate whether an existing access of family midwives (FMs to families in need of support could be an option to implement effective public health and nutrition interventions. To that end three research objectives were formulated: (1 to determine whether a discernible impact of home visits by FMs can be described; (2 to identify subgroups among these families in need of more specific interventions; (3 to determine how relevant nutrition-related topics are for both FMs and the supported families. For addressing these objectives a mixed methods design was used: Routine documentation data from 295 families visited by a family midwife (FM were analyzed (secondary analysis, and structured expert interviews with FMs were conducted and analyzed. Study reporting followed the STROBE (STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology statement. Based on the FMs reports, a significant improvement (p < 0.001 regarding psycho-social variables could be determined after the home visits. Single mothers, however, seemed to benefit less from the FMs service compared to their counterparts (p = 0.015. Nutritional counseling was demanded by 89% of the families during the home visits. In addition, nutrition-related topics were reported in the interviews to be of high interest to both families and the FMs. Based on the obtained results it is concluded that FMs home visits offer a promising access to vulnerable and disadvantaged families for implementing nutrition

  11. A Novel Method of Protection to Prevent Reverse Power Flow Based on Neuro-Fuzzy Networks for Smart Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hadi Abdulwahid

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the energy challenges related to the weak protection of renewable energy from reverse energy flow and expanding access to high-quality energy at the same time. Furthermore, this paper focuses on participation in the global transition to clean and low-carbon energy systems. Moreover, the increased demand for renewable energy seems to likely depend on whether it will be possible to greatly accelerate rates of progress toward increased efficiency, de-carbonization, greater generating diversity and lower pollutant emissions. This paper focuses on the protection of renewable energy technologies because they can be particularly attractive in dispersed areas and therefore, represent an important option for rural areas that lack electrical energy and distribution infrastructure. This paper proposes an improved protection device for a reverse power protection system using a new intelligent decision support system (IDSS. The IDSS is a support system for decision making, which makes extensive use of artificial intelligence (AI techniques. The new method integrates the powerful specification for neural networks and fuzzy inference systems. The main advantage of this method is that it causes a decrease in the steady state oscillation for the reverse power relay. In addition, the proposed method has the ability to monitor extreme environmental conditions. The generator can be converted into a motor when the steam supply to a turbine is interrupted while the generator is still connected to a grid (or operates in parallel with another generator. As a result, the generator will become a synchronous motor and will actually cause significant mechanical damage. The reverse energy protection device should be included in the generator protection scheme. Smart grids use communication networks with sophisticated algorithms to ensure coordination between protection systems. ZigBee is a newly developed technology that can be used in wireless sensor

  12. Prevention of relapsing backache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raspe, Heiner

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The condition of non-specific back pain is characterized by high prevalence, non satisfactory therapeutic options and severe socioeconomic consequences. Therefore prevention seems an attractive option to downsize the problem. However, the construction of effective preventive measures is complicated by the obscure aetiology of the condition, the multidimensionality of risk and prognostic factors (bio psychosocial model! and the variability of its natural as well as clinical course. This led to the development of a wide variety of preventive measures: e. g. exercise programs, educational measures (including back school, ergonomic modification of the work environment, mechanical supports (e. g. back belts as well as multidisciplinary interventions. For two reasons the workplace seems to be a suitable setting for prevention. First, because a number of strong risk factors are associated with working conditions and second, because it allows addressing a large proportion of the adult population. Against this background the assessment at hand sets out to answer the following questions: What is the amount and methodological quality of the available scientific literature on the effectiveness of back pain prevention in the workplace environment? What are effective measures for the prevention of back pain and its consequences in the workplace environment and how effective are they? Is back pain prevention in the workplace environment cost-effective? Is there a need for more research? As primary outcomes for effectiveness the assessment will focus on time lost from work and the frequency and duration of episodes with back pain. The preventive measures assessed belong to the following categories: exercise programs, educational and information measures, multidimensional interventions, back belts, lifting teams and ergonomic interventions. Methods: The assessment is based on a systematic review of the published literature according to the

  13. Cash transfers for HIV prevention: what do young women spend it on? Mixed methods findings from HPTN 068

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine MacPhail

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social grants have been found to have an impact on health and wellbeing in multiple settings. Who receives the grant, however, has been the subject of discussion with regards to how the money is spent and who benefits from the grant. Methods Using survey data from 1214 young women who were in the intervention arm and completed at least one annual visit in the HPTN 068 trial, and qualitative interview data from a subset of 38 participants, we examined spending of a cash transfer provided to young women conditioned on school attendance. Results We found that spending was largely determined and controlled by young women themselves and that the cash transfer was predominately spent on toiletries, clothing and school supplies. In interview data, young women discussed the significant role of cash transfers for adolescent identity, specifically with regard to independence from family and status within the peer network. There were almost no negative consequences from receiving the cash transfer. Conclusions We established that providing adolescents access to cash was not reported to be associated with social harms or negative consequences. Rather, spending of the cash facilitated appropriate adolescent developmental behaviours. The findings are encouraging at a time in which there is global interest in addressing the structural drivers of HIV risk, such as poverty, for young women. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01233531 (1 Nov 2010. First participant enrolled 5 March 2011.

  14. High and Low Impact Aerobic Exercise as a Method of Early Prevention of Hypercholesterolaemia Development among Young Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowak Robert

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Hypercholesterolaemia is a highly prevalent condition that has major health- and cost-related implications for the society. Aerobic-type exercise improves lipoprotein-lipid profiles, cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition in healthy young women. Thus, the aim of the study was to assess the impact of 9 weeks of low-high aerobic-type exercise on the lipid profile among young women. Methods. On the basis of the lipid profile, 64 women (median age, 21.8 years; range, 19.0-24.7 years were divided into two groups: with low (LRH and intermediate (IRH risk of developing hypercholesterolaemia. The participants completed a 9-week-long low-high aerobic exercise programme. Before and after the training programme, we determined the lipid profile: triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol (TC, lipoprotein cholesterol: HDL-C and LDL-C, and glucose levels. Selected cardiorespiratory fitness variables and body composition were also determined. Results. It was found that aerobic-type fitness exercise in the IRH group caused statistically significant decreases in TC and TG levels in comparison with baseline values. Significant increase in maximum oxygen uptake and decrease in HDL-C in the LRH group were also observed. Conclusions. Aerobic fitness exercises, a combination of two alternating styles, could influence the blood lipid profile by decreasing plasma TC and TG levels. In non-athlete women, physical activity may be a good tool to prevent cardiovascular diseases.

  15. Antifungal Effect of Henna against Candida albicans Adhered to Acrylic Resin as a Possible Method for Prevention of Denture Stomatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawasrah, Amal; AlNimr, Amani; Ali, Aiman A.

    2016-01-01

    Denture stomatitis is a very common disease affecting the oral mucosa of denture wearers. The aim of this study was to measure the antifungal effect of henna against Candida albicans adhered to acrylic resin as a possible method for prevention of denture stomatitis. One-hundred-eighty acrylic plates were prepared of heat-cured acrylic denture resin. The specimens were divided into six groups of 30 samples each. The first group was only polymer and monomer following the conventional manufacturer instruction for processing complete dentures. The other five groups were processed by adding different concentration of Yamani henna powder (Harazi) to the polymer in a concentration of henna: polymer 1%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and 10%, respectively. Samples were incubated in artificial saliva rich with Candida albicans at 37 °C, and the effect of henna on Candida albicans was evaluated in two different methods: semi-quantitative slide count and a culture-based quantitative assay (quantitative). Variation in the number of live Candida was observed with the increase in the concentration of Yamani henna powder. It was observed that the variation in live Candida, between control group and group B (concentration of Yamani henna powder was 1%), was statistically significant with a p-value of 0.0001. Similarly, variations in live Candida were significant, when the concentration of powder was 7.5% or 10% in contrast with control group and p-values were 0.0001 and 0.001 respectively. Adding henna to acrylic resin denture could be effective in controlling Candida albicans proliferation on the denture surface; however, its effects on the physical properties of acrylic resin denture need further studies. PMID:27223294

  16. Estimating the Time to Benefit for Preventive Drugs with the Statistical Process Control Method: An Example with Alendronate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Glind, Esther M M; Willems, Hanna C; Eslami, Saeid; Abu-Hanna, Ameen; Lems, Willem F; Hooft, Lotty; de Rooij, Sophia E; Black, Dennis M; van Munster, Barbara C

    2016-05-01

    For physicians dealing with patients with a limited life expectancy, knowing the time to benefit (TTB) of preventive medication is essential to support treatment decisions. The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of statistical process control (SPC) for determining the TTB in relation to fracture risk with alendronate versus placebo in postmenopausal women. We performed a post hoc analysis of the Fracture Intervention Trial (FIT), a randomized, controlled trial that investigated the effect of alendronate versus placebo on fracture risk in postmenopausal women. We used SPC, a statistical method used for monitoring processes for quality control, to determine if and when the intervention group benefited significantly more than the control group. SPC discriminated between the normal variations over time in the numbers of fractures in both groups and the variations that were attributable to alendronate. The TTB was defined as the time point from which the cumulative difference in the number of clinical fractures remained greater than the upper control limit on the SPC chart. For the total group, the TTB was defined as 11 months. For patients aged ≥70 years, the TTB was 8 months [absolute risk reduction (ARR) = 1.4%]; for patients aged <70 years, it was 19 months (ARR = 0.7%). SPC is a clear and understandable graphical method to determine the TTB. Its main advantage is that there is no need to define a prespecified time point, as is the case in traditional survival analyses. Prescribing alendronate to patients who are aged ≥70 years is useful because the TTB shows that they will benefit after 8 months. Investigators should report the TTB to simplify clinical decision making.

  17. Reclaiming unused IPv4 addresses

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2016-01-01

    As many people might know, the number of IPv4 addresses is limited and almost all have been allocated (see here and here for more information).   Although CERN has been allocated some 340,000 addresses, the way these are allocated across the site is not as efficient as we would like. As we face an increasing demand for IPv4 addresses with the growth in virtual machines, the IT Department’s Communication Systems Group will be reorganising address allocation during 2016 to make more efficient use of the IPv4 address ranges that have been allocated to CERN. We aim, wherever possible, to avoid giving out fixed IP addresses, and have all devices connected to the campus network obtain an address dynamically each time they connect. As a first stage, starting in February, IP addresses that have not been used for more than 9 months will be reclaimed. No information about the devices concerned will be deleted from LANDB, but a new IP address will have to be requested if they are ever reconnected to t...

  18. Port virtual addressing for PC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolanos, L.; Arista, E.; Osorio Deliz, J.F.

    1997-01-01

    Instruments for nuclear signal measurements based on add-on card for a personal computer (PC) are designed often. Then one faces the problem of the addressing of data input/output devices which show an integration level or intelligence that makes the use of several port address indispensable, and these are limited in the PC. The virtual addressing offers the advantage of the occupation of few addresses to accede to many of these devices. The principles of this technique and the appliances of a solution in radiometric in a radiometric card based on programmed logic are discussed in this paper

  19. A review on prevention and treatment of post-orthodontic white spot lesions - evidence-based methods and emerging technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrand, Fredrik; Twetman, Svante

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to update the evidence for primary and secondary prevention (treatment) of white spot lesions (WSL) adjacent to fixed orthodontic appliances.......The aim of this paper was to update the evidence for primary and secondary prevention (treatment) of white spot lesions (WSL) adjacent to fixed orthodontic appliances....

  20. Preventing childhood obesity during infancy in UK primary care: a mixed-methods study of HCPs' knowledge, beliefs and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swift Judy A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a strong rationale for intervening in early childhood to prevent obesity. Over a quarter of infants gain weight more rapidly than desirable during the first six months of life putting them at greater risk of obesity in childhood. However, little is known about UK healthcare professionals' (HCPs approach to primary prevention. This study explored obesity-related knowledge of UK HCPs and the beliefs and current practice of general practitioners (GPs and practice nurses in relation to identifying infants at risk of developing childhood obesity. Method Survey of UK HCPs (GPs, practice nurses, health visitors, nursery, community and children's nurses. HCPs (n = 116 rated their confidence in providing infant feeding advice and completed the Obesity Risk Knowledge Scale (ORK-10. Semi-structured interviews with a sub-set of 12 GPs and 6 practice nurses were audio recorded, taped and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was applied using an interpretative, inductive approach. Results GPs were less confident about giving advice about infant feeding than health visitors (p = 0.001 and nursery nurses (p = 0.009 but more knowledgeable about the health risks of obesity (p Six main themes emerged from the interviews: 1 Attribution of childhood obesity to family environment, 2 Infant feeding advice as the health visitor's role, 3 Professional reliance on anecdotal or experiential knowledge about infant feeding, 4 Difficulties with recognition of, or lack of concern for, infants "at risk" of becoming obese, 5 Prioritising relationship with parent over best practice in infant feeding and 6 Lack of shared understanding for dealing with early years' obesity. Conclusions Intervention is needed to improve health visitors and nursery nurses' knowledge of obesity risk and GPs and practice nurses' capacity to identify and manage infants' at risk of developing childhood obesity. GPs value strategies that maintain relationships with

  1. Methods for Addressing Uncertainty and Variability to Characterize Potential Health Risk From Trichloroethylene-Contaminated Ground Water Beale Air Force Base in California: Integration of Uncertainty and Variability in Pharmacokinetics and Dose-Response; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogen, K.T.

    1999-01-01

    Traditional estimates of health risk are typically inflated, particularly if cancer is the dominant endpoint and there is fundamental uncertainty as to mechanism(s) of action. Risk is more realistically characterized if it accounts for joint uncertainty and interindividual variability after applying a unified probabilistic approach to the distributed parameters of all (linear as well as nonlinear) risk-extrapolation models involved. Such an approach was applied to characterize risks to potential future residents posed by trichloroethylene (TCE) in ground water at an inactive landfill site on Beale Air Force Base in California. Variability and uncertainty were addressed in exposure-route-specific estimates of applied dose, in pharmacokinetically based estimates of route-specific metabolized fractions of absorbed TCE, and in corresponding biologically effective doses estimated under a genotoxic/linear (MA(sub g)) vs. a cytotoxic/nonlinear (MA(sub c)) mechanistic assumption for TCE-induced cancer. Increased risk conditional on effective dose was estimated under MA(sub G) based on seven rodent-bioassay data sets, and under MA, based on mouse hepatotoxicity data. Mean and upper-bound estimates of combined risk calculated by the unified approach were and lt;10(sup -6) and and lt;10(sup -4), respectively, while corresponding estimates based on traditional deterministic methods were and gt;10(sup -5) and and gt;10(sup -4), respectively. It was estimated that no TCE-related harm is likely occur due any plausible residential exposure scenario involving the site. The unified approach illustrated is particularly suited to characterizing risks that involve uncertain and/or diverse mechanisms of action

  2. Preventing dehydration-related hospitalizations: a mixed-methods study of parents, inpatient attendings, and primary care physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanley, Leticia; Mittal, Vineeta; Flores, Glenn

    2013-07-01

    The goal of this study was to identify the proportion of dehydration-related ambulatory care-sensitive condition hospitalizations, the reasons why these hospitalizations were preventable, and factors associated with preventability. A cross-sectional survey of primary care providers (PCPs), inpatient attending physicians, and parents was conducted in a consecutive series of children with ambulatory care-sensitive conditions admitted to an urban hospital over 14 months. Eighty-five children were diagnosed with dehydration. Their mean age was 1.6 years; most had public (74%) or no (17%) insurance, and were nonwhite (91%). The proportion of hospitalizations assessed as preventable varied from 12% for agreement among all 3 sources to 45% for any source. Parents identified inadequate prevention (50%), poor self-education (34%), and poor quality of care (38%) as key factors. PCPs identified parents providing insufficient home rehydration (33%), not visiting the clinic (25%), and not calling earlier (16%) as reasons. Inpatient attending physicians cited home rehydration (40%), delays in seeking care (40%), and lacking a PCP (20%) as contributors. Physicians (PCPs and inpatient attending physicians) were more likely than parents to describe the admission as inappropriate (75% vs 67% vs 0%; P dehydration-related hospitalizations may be preventable. Inadequate parental education by physicians, insufficient home rehydration, deferring clinic visits, insurance and cost barriers, inappropriate admissions, poor quality of care, and parental dissatisfaction with PCPs are the reasons that these hospitalizations might have been prevented.

  3. Youth Suicide Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalafat, John

    2006-01-01

    Youth suicide prevention programs are described that promote the identification and referral of at-risk youth, address risk factors, and promote protective factors. Emphasis is on programs that are both effective and sustainable in applied settings.

  4. Research into methods of dust prevention on mechanised faces. Proyecto de investigacion de metodos de prevencion de polvo en talleres mecanizados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    In collaboration with the National Institute of Silicosis and AITEMIN, HUNOSA has just completed the first part of a research project on methods of dust prevention on mechanised thin seam faces. Results have been good. The project was largely financed by the EEC in addition to receiving assistance from Ocicarbon and the Directorate General for Mines. 1 fig.

  5. The Effectiveness of a Facebook-Assisted Teaching Method on Knowledge and Attitudes about Cervical Cancer Prevention and HPV Vaccination Intention among Female Adolescent Students in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ching-Yi; Wu, Wei-Wen; Tsai, Shao-Yu; Cheng, Su-Fen; Lin, Kuan-Chia; Liang, Shu-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lack of education is a known barrier to vaccination, but data on the design and effectiveness of interventions remain limited. Objective: This study aims to identify the effectiveness of a Facebook-assisted teaching method on female adolescents' knowledge and attitudes about cervical cancer prevention and on their human papillomavirus…

  6. Participation of HIV prevention programs among men who have sex with men in two cities of China—a mixed method study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Wei

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although various HIV prevention programs targeting men who have sex with men (MSM are operating in China, whether and how these programs are being utilized is unclear. This study explores participation of HIV prevention programs and influencing factors among MSM in two cities in China. Methods This is a mixed-method study conducted in Beijing and Chongqing. A qualitative study consisting of in-depth interviews with 54 MSM, 11 key informants, and 8 focus group discussions, a cross-sectional survey using respondent-driven sampling among 998 MSM were conducted in 2009 and 2010 respectively to elicit information on MSM’s perception and utilization of HIV prevention programs. Qualitative findings were integrated with quantitative multivariate factors to explain the quantitative findings. Results Fifty-six percent of MSM in Chongqing and 75.1% in Beijing ever participated in at least one type of HIV prevention program (P=0.001. Factors related to participation in HIV prevention programs included age, ethnicity, income, HIV risk perception, living with boyfriend, living in urban area, size of MSM social network, having talked about HIV status with partners, and knowing someone who is HIV positive. Reasons why MSM did not participate in HIV prevention programs included logistical concerns like limited time for participation and distance to services; program content and delivery issues such as perceived low quality services and distrust of providers; and, cultural issues like HIV-related stigma and low risk perception. Conclusions The study shows that there is much room for improvement in reaching MSM in China. HIV prevention programs targeting MSM in China may need to be more comprehensive and incorporate the cultural, logistic and HIV-related needs of the population in order to effectively reach and affect this population’s risk for HIV.

  7. PRIMARY PREVENTION IS? A GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE ON HOW ORGANIZATIONS ENGAGING MEN IN PREVENTING GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE CONCEPTUALIZE AND OPERATIONALIZE THEIR WORK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storer, Heather L.; Casey, Erin A.; Carlson, Juliana; Edleson, Jeffrey L.; Tolman, Richard M.

    2014-01-01

    Engaging men in addressing violence against women (VAW) has become a strategy in the global prevention of gender-based violence. Concurrently, Western public health frameworks have been utilized to guide prevention agendas worldwide. Using qualitative methods, this study describes how global anti-violence organizations that partner with men conceptualize primary prevention in their work. Findings suggest that ‘primary prevention’ is not a fixed term in the context of VAW and that front-line prevention work challenges rigidly delineated distinctions between levels of prevention. Much can be learned from global organizations’ unique and contextualized approaches to the prevention of VAW. PMID:26333283

  8. Bullying Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Patrice

    2016-01-01

    The focus of the milestone project is to focus on bridging the gap of bullying and classroom instruction methods. There has to be a defined expectations and level of accountability that has to be defined when supporting and implementing a plan linked to bullying prevention. All individuals involved in the student's learning have to be aware of…

  9. ADDRESS SEQUENCES FOR MULTI RUN RAM TESTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Yarmolik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A universal approach for generation of address sequences with specified properties is proposed and analyzed. A modified version of the Antonov and Saleev algorithm for Sobol sequences genera-tion is chosen as a mathematical description of the proposed method. Within the framework of the proposed universal approach, the Sobol sequences form a subset of the address sequences. Other sub-sets are also formed, which are Gray sequences, anti-Gray sequences, counter sequences and sequenc-es with specified properties.

  10. Addressing techniques of liquid crystal displays

    CERN Document Server

    Ruckmongathan, Temkar N

    2014-01-01

    Unique reference source that can be used from the beginning to end of a design project to aid choosing an appropriate LCD addressing technique for a given application This book will be aimed at design engineers who are likely to embed LCD drivers and controllers in many systems including systems on chip. Such designers face the challenge of making the right choice of an addressing technique that will serve them with best performance at minimal cost and complexity. Readers will be able to learn about various methods available for driving matrix LCDs and the comparisons at the end of each chap

  11. Piloting the use of indigenous methods to prevent Nipah virus infection by interrupting bats' access to date palm sap in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Nazmun; Mondal, Utpal Kumar; Sultana, Rebeca; Hossain, M Jahangir; Khan, M Salah Uddin; Gurley, Emily S; Oliveras, Elizabeth; Luby, Stephen P

    2013-09-01

    People in Bangladesh frequently drink fresh date palm sap. Fruit bats (Pteropus giganteus) also drink raw sap and may contaminate the sap by shedding Nipah virus through saliva and urine. In a previous study we identified two indigenous methods to prevent bats accessing the sap, bamboo skirts and lime (calcium carbonate). We conducted a pilot study to assess the acceptability of these two methods among sap harvesters. We used interactive community meetings and group discussions to encourage all the sap harvesters (n = 12) from a village to use either bamboo skirts or lime smear that some of them (n = 4) prepared and applied. We measured the preparation and application time and calculated the cost of bamboo skirts. We conducted interviews after the use of each method. The sap harvesters found skirts effective in preventing bats from accessing sap. They were sceptical that lime would be effective as the lime was washed away by the sap flow. Preparation of the skirt took ∼105 min. The application of each method took ∼1 min. The cost of the bamboo skirt is minimal because bamboo is widely available and they made the skirts with pieces of used bamboo. The bamboo skirt method appeared practical and affordable to the sap harvesters. Further studies should explore its ability to prevent bats from accessing date palm sap and assess if its use produces more or better quality sap, which would provide further incentives to make it more acceptable for its regular use.

  12. Evaluating the impact of implementation factors on family-based prevention programming: methods for strengthening causal inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, D Max; Coffman, Donna L; Feinberg, Mark E; Greenberg, Mark T; Spoth, Richard L

    2014-04-01

    Despite growing recognition of the important role implementation plays in successful prevention efforts, relatively little work has sought to demonstrate a causal relationship between implementation factors and participant outcomes. In turn, failure to explore the implementation-to-outcome link limits our understanding of the mechanisms essential to successful programming. This gap is partially due to the inability of current methodological procedures within prevention science to account for the multitude of confounders responsible for variation in implementation factors (i.e., selection bias). The current paper illustrates how propensity and marginal structural models can be used to improve causal inferences involving implementation factors not easily randomized (e.g., participant attendance). We first present analytic steps for simultaneously evaluating the impact of multiple implementation factors on prevention program outcome. Then, we demonstrate this approach for evaluating the impact of enrollment and attendance in a family program, over and above the impact of a school-based program, within PROSPER, a large-scale real-world prevention trial. Findings illustrate the capacity of this approach to successfully account for confounders that influence enrollment and attendance, thereby more accurately representing true causal relations. For instance, after accounting for selection bias, we observed a 5% reduction in the prevalence of 11th grade underage drinking for those who chose to receive a family program and school program compared to those who received only the school program. Further, we detected a 7% reduction in underage drinking for those with high attendance in the family program.

  13. Mixed methods study of engagement in behaviors to prevent type 2 diabetes among employees with pre-diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullgren, Jeffrey T; Knaus, Megan; Jenkins, Kristi Rahrig; Heisler, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Many employers use screenings to identify and recommend modification of employees' risk factors for type 2 diabetes, yet little is known about how often employees then engage in recommended behaviors and what factors influence engagement. We examined the frequency of, facilitators of, and barriers to engagement in recommended behaviors among employees found to have pre-diabetes during a workplace screening. We surveyed 82 University of Michigan employees who were found to have pre-diabetes during a 2014 workplace screening and compared the characteristics of employees who 3 months later were and were not engaged in recommended behaviors. We interviewed 40 of these employees to identify the facilitators of and barriers to engagement in recommended behaviors. 3 months after screening, 54% of employees with pre-diabetes reported attempting to lose weight and getting recommended levels of physical activity, had asked their primary care provider about metformin for diabetes prevention, or had attended a Diabetes Prevention Program. These employees had higher median levels of motivation to prevent type 2 diabetes (9/10 vs 7/10, pmotivation and social and external supports. Key barriers were lack of motivation and resources, and competing demands. Most employees found to have pre-diabetes through a workplace screening were engaged in a recommended preventive behavior 3 months after the screening. This engagement could be enhanced by optimizing motivation and risk perception as well as leveraging social networks and external supports.

  14. Estimating the Time to Benefit for Preventive Drugs with the Statistical Process Control Method: An Example with Alendronate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Glind, Esther M. M.; Willems, Hanna C.; Eslami, Saeid; Abu-Hanna, Ameen; Lems, Willem F.; Hooft, Lotty; de Rooij, Sophia E.; Black, Dennis M.; van Munster, Barbara C.

    2016-01-01

    For physicians dealing with patients with a limited life expectancy, knowing the time to benefit (TTB) of preventive medication is essential to support treatment decisions. The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of statistical process control (SPC) for determining the TTB in

  15. Estimating the Time to Benefit for Preventive Drugs with the Statistical Process Control Method :  An Example with Alendronate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Glind, Esther M M; Willems, Hanna C.; Eslami, Saeid; Abu-Hanna, Ameen; Lems, Willem F.; Hooft, Lotty; de Rooij, Sophia E.; Black, Dennis M.; van Munster, Barbara C.

    2016-01-01

    Background For physicians dealing with patients with a limited life expectancy, knowing the time to benefit (TTB) of preventive medication is essential to support treatment decisions. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of statistical process control (SPC) for

  16. Estimating the Time to Benefit for Preventive Drugs with the Statistical Process Control Method : An Example with Alendronate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Glind, Esther M. M.; Willems, Hanna C.; Eslami, Saeid; Abu-Hanna, Ameen; Lems, Willem F.; Hooft, Lotty; de Rooij, Sophia E.; Black, Dennis M.; van Munster, Barbara C.

    For physicians dealing with patients with a limited life expectancy, knowing the time to benefit (TTB) of preventive medication is essential to support treatment decisions. The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of statistical process control (SPC) for determining the TTB in

  17. Goal Attainment Scaling: A Primary Method of Treatment and Program Evaluation in Project SAIL - A Special Education Dropout Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Linda Hall; Thompson, John L.

    The manual discusses Project SAIL's (a special dropout prevention program) use of Goal Attainment Scaling as part of individualized education plans in the treatment of troubled adolescents and in overall program evaluation. The scaling is characterized as an explicit, respectful treatment contact through which the adolescent can learn to set…

  18. Addressing problems of employee performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Charles R

    2011-01-01

    Employee performance problems are essentially of 2 kinds: those that are motivational in origin and those resulting from skill deficiencies. Both kinds of problems are the province of the department manager. Performance problems differ from problems of conduct in that traditional disciplinary processes ordinarily do not apply. Rather, performance problems are addressed through educational and remedial processes. The manager has a basic responsibility in ensuring that everything reasonable is done to help each employee succeed. There are a number of steps the manager can take to address employee performance problems.

  19. Centrally managed unified shared virtual address space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, John

    2018-02-13

    Systems, apparatuses, and methods for managing a unified shared virtual address space. A host may execute system software and manage a plurality of nodes coupled to the host. The host may send work tasks to the nodes, and for each node, the host may externally manage the node's view of the system's virtual address space. Each node may have a central processing unit (CPU) style memory management unit (MMU) with an internal translation lookaside buffer (TLB). In one embodiment, the host may be coupled to a given node via an input/output memory management unit (IOMMU) interface, where the IOMMU frontend interface shares the TLB with the given node's MMU. In another embodiment, the host may control the given node's view of virtual address space via memory-mapped control registers.

  20. Centrally managed unified shared virtual address space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkes, John

    2018-02-13

    Systems, apparatuses, and methods for managing a unified shared virtual address space. A host may execute system software and manage a plurality of nodes coupled to the host. The host may send work tasks to the nodes, and for each node, the host may externally manage the node's view of the system's virtual address space. Each node may have a central processing unit (CPU) style memory management unit (MMU) with an internal translation lookaside buffer (TLB). In one embodiment, the host may be coupled to a given node via an input/output memory management unit (IOMMU) interface, where the IOMMU frontend interface shares the TLB with the given node's MMU. In another embodiment, the host may control the given node's view of virtual address space via memory-mapped control registers.

  1. An Assessment of Household and Individual-Level Mosquito Prevention Methods during the Chikungunya Virus Outbreak in the United States Virgin Islands, 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldstein, Leora R; Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali; Staples, J Erin; Halloran, M Elizabeth; Ellis, Esther M

    2018-03-01

    Recent large-scale chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Zika virus epidemics in the Americas pose a growing public health threat. Given that mosquito bite prevention and vector control are the main prevention methods available to reduce transmission of these viruses, we assessed adherence to these methods in the United States Virgin Islands (USVI). We interviewed 334 USVI residents between December 2014 and February 2015 to measure differences in mosquito prevention practices by gender, income, presence of CHIKV symptoms, and age. Only 27% (91/334) of participants reported having an air conditioner, and of the 91 with air-conditioners, 18 (20%) reported never using it. Annual household income > $50,000 was associated with owning and using an air conditioner (41%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 28-53% compared with annual household income ≤ $50,000: 17%; 95% CI: 12-22%). The majority of participants reported the presence of vegetation in their yard or near their home (79%; 265) and a cistern on their property (78%; 259). Only 52 (16%) participants reported wearing mosquito repellent more than once per week. Although the majority (80%; 268) of participants reported having screens on all of their windows and doors, most (82%; 273) of those interviewed still reported seeing mosquitoes in their homes. Given the uniformly low adherence to individual- and household-level mosquito bite prevention measures in the USVI, these findings emphasize the need for improved public health messaging and investment in therapeutic and vaccine research to mitigate vector-borne disease outbreaks.

  2. Pre-exposure and postexposure prophylaxes and the combination HIV prevention methods (The Combine! Study): protocol for a pragmatic clinical trial at public healthcare clinics in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grangeiro, Alexandre; Couto, Márcia Thereza; Peres, Maria Fernanda; Luiz, Olinda; Zucchi, Eliana Miura; de Castilho, Euclides Ayres; Estevam, Denize Lotufo; Alencar, Rosa; Wolffenbüttel, Karina; Escuder, Maria Mercedes; Calazans, Gabriela; Ferraz, Dulce; Arruda, Érico; Corrêa, Maria da Gloria; Amaral, Fabiana Rezende; Santos, Juliane Cardoso Villela; Alvarez, Vivian Salles; Kietzmann, Tiago

    2015-08-25

    Few results from programmes based on combination prevention methods are available. We propose to analyse the degree of protection provided by postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) for consensual sexual activity at healthcare clinics, its compensatory effects on sexual behaviour; and the effectiveness of combination prevention methods and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), compared with exclusively using traditional methods. A total of 3200 individuals aged 16 years or older presenting for PEP at 5 sexually transmitted disease (STD)/HIV clinics in 3 regions of Brazil will be allocated to one of two groups: the PEP group-individuals who come to the clinic within 72 h after a sexual exposure and start PEP; and the non-PEP group-individuals who come after 72 h but within 30 days of exposure and do not start PEP. Clinical follow-up will be conducted initially for 6 months and comprise educational interventions based on information and counselling for using prevention methods, including PrEP. In the second study phase, individuals who remain HIV negative will be regrouped according to the reported use of prevention methods and observed for 18 months: only traditional methods; combined methods; and PrEP. Effectiveness will be analysed according to the incidence of HIV, syphilis and hepatitis B and C and protected sexual behaviour. A structured questionnaire will be administered to participants at baseline and every 6 months thereafter. Qualitative methods will be employed to provide a comprehensive understanding of PEP-seeking behaviour, preventive choices and exposure to HIV. This study will be conducted in accordance with the resolution of the School of Medicine Research Ethics Commission of Universidade de São Paulo (protocol no. 251/14). The databases will be available for specific studies, after management committee approval. Findings will be presented to researchers, health managers and civil society members by means of newspapers, electronic media and scientific journals

  3. Zone memories and pseudorandom addressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marino, D.; Mirizzi, N.; Stella, R.; Visaggio, G.

    1975-01-01

    A quantitative comparison between zone memories, pseudorandom addressed memories and an alternative special purpose memory (spread zone memory) in which the distance between any two transformed descriptors, at first adjacent, is independent of the descriptors pair and results the maximum one is presented. This memory has not been particularly considered at present in spite of its efficiency and its simple implementation

  4. Introduction to IP address management

    CERN Document Server

    Rooney, Tim

    2010-01-01

    "The book begins with a basic overview of IP networking, followed by chapters describing each of the three core IPAM technologies: IPv4 and IPv6 addressing, DHCP, and DNS. The next three chapters describe IPAM management techniques and practice, followed by chapters on IPv4-IPv6 co-existence, security and the IPAM business case"--

  5. Identification of barriers to the prevention and treatment of heat-related illness in Latino farmworkers using activity-oriented, participatory rural appraisal focus group methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Michelle; Krenz, Jennifer; Palmández, Pablo; Negrete, Maria; Perla, Martha; Murphy-Robinson, Helen; Spector, June T

    2013-10-24

    Heat-related illness (HRI) is an important cause of non-fatal illness and death in farmworkers. We sought to identify potential barriers to HRI prevention and treatment in Latino farmworkers. We conducted three semi-structured focus group discussions with 35 Latino farmworkers in the Central Washington, USA area using participatory rural appraisal techniques. Interviews were audio taped and transcribed in Spanish. Three researchers reviewed and coded transcripts and field notes, and investigator triangulation was used to identify relevant themes and quotes. Although the majority of participants in our study reported never receiving formal HRI training, most participants were aware that extreme heat can cause illness and were able to accurately describe HRI symptoms, risk factors, and certain prevention strategies. Four main observations regarding farmworkers' HRI-relevant beliefs and attitudes were identified: 1) farmworkers subscribe to varying degrees to the belief that cooling treatments should be avoided after heat exposure, with some believing that such treatments should be avoided after heat exposure, and others encouraging the use of such treatments; 2) the desire to lose weight may be reflected in behaviors that promote increased sweating; 3) highly caffeinated energy drinks are preferred to increase work efficiency and maintain alertness; and 4) the location of drinking water at work (e.g. next to restrooms) and whether water is clean, but not necessarily chemically-treated, are important considerations in deciding whether to drink the water provided at worksites. We identified potential barriers to HRI prevention and treatment related to hydration, certain HRI treatments, clothing use, and the desire to lose weight among Latino farmworkers. Strategies to address potential barriers to HRI prevention and treatment in this population may include engineering, administrative, and health education and health promotion strategies at individual, workplace

  6. “The Good Start Method for English” or how to support development, prevent and treat risk of dyslexia in children learning English as a second language

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdanowicz Katarzyna M.; Bogdanowicz Marta

    2016-01-01

    Children with developmental dyslexia and at its risk have difficulties in the acquisition of foreign languages, especially non-transparent English. The problems of such pupils concern various aspects of the language system but in particular relate to the ability to read and spell. The research literature dedicated to effective preventative methods and dyslexia treatment suggests that both children with dyslexia and at its risk need phonological awareness training and multi-sensory learning. I...

  7. Traditional preventive treatment options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longbottom, C; Ekstrand, K; Zero, D

    2009-01-01

    Preventive treatment options can be divided into primary, secondary and tertiary prevention techniques, which can involve patient- or professionally applied methods. These include: oral hygiene (instruction), pit and fissure sealants ('temporary' or 'permanent'), fluoride applications (patient...... options....

  8. Do pediatric gastroenterology doctors address pediatric obesity?

    OpenAIRE

    Batra, Suruchi; Yee, Caitlin; Diez, Bernadette; Nguyen, Nicholas; Sheridan, Michael J; Tufano, Mark; Sikka, Natalie; Townsend, Stacie; Hourigan, Suchitra

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To assess how often obesity is acknowledged at pediatric gastroenterology outpatient visits. Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed to identify obese children seen at a gastroenterology subspecialty clinic over a 1-year period of time; 132 children were identified. Demographics, obesity comorbidities, reasons for referral, diagnosis of obesity, and a plan to address obesity were abstracted. Chi-square or Fisher?s exact tests were used to examine statistical associatio...

  9. Transformed composite sequences for improved qubit addressing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, J. True; Doret, S. Charles; Vittorini, Grahame; Addison, J. P.; Brown, Kenneth R.

    2014-10-01

    Selective laser addressing of a single atom or atomic ion qubit can be improved using narrow-band composite pulse sequences. We describe a Lie-algebraic technique to generalize known narrow-band sequences and introduce sequences related by dilation and rotation of sequence generators. Our method improves known narrow-band sequences by decreasing both the pulse time and the residual error. Finally, we experimentally demonstrate these composite sequences using 40Ca+ ions trapped in a surface-electrode ion trap.

  10. Methods of medical prevention of borderline states and maintaining capacity to work in miners at deep coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobets, G.P.; Perederii, G.S.; Tkachenko, L.N.; Ivanov, V.V.; Kiva, A.I. (Institut Gigieny Truda i Profzabolevanii, Donetsk (USSR))

    1990-01-01

    Describes the procedures used to identify and treat borderline states in coal miners working in deep mines in the Donbass. Timely preventive treatment helps to maintain the condition of the miners and reduce time lost through sickness. Diagnosis is performed on the basis of a number of physical indices coupled with a subjective assessment marked on a points scale. The types of treatment available at sanatoria are outlined: they include physiotherapy, mud and carbon dioxide baths, various types of massage, etc. Courses last 2-3 weeks and are followed by 3-8 days of rehabilitation at work, depending on occupation and working conditions. 6 refs.

  11. Application of Pulse Spark Discharges for Scale Prevention and Continuous Filtration Methods in Coal-Fired Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Young; Fridman, Alexander

    2012-06-30

    The overall objective of the present work was to develop a new scale-prevention technology by continuously precipitating and removing dissolved mineral ions (such as calcium and magnesium) in cooling water while the COC could be doubled from the present standard value of 3.5. The hypothesis of the present study was that if we could successfully precipitate and remove the excess calcium ions in cooling water, we could prevent condenser-tube fouling and at the same time double the COC. The approach in the study was to utilize pulse spark discharges directly in water to precipitate dissolved mineral ions in recirculating cooling water into relatively large suspended particles, which could be removed by a self-cleaning filter. The present study began with a basic scientific research to better understand the mechanism of pulse spark discharges in water and conducted a series of validation experiments using hard water in a laboratory cooling tower. Task 1 of the present work was to demonstrate if the spark discharge could precipitate the mineral ions in water. Task 2 was to demonstrate if the selfcleaning filter could continuously remove these precipitated calcium particles such that the blowdown could be eliminated or significantly reduced. Task 3 was to demonstrate if the scale could be prevented or minimized at condenser tubes with a COC of 8 or (almost) zero blowdown. In Task 1, we successfully completed the validation study that confirmed the precipitation of dissolved calcium ions in cooling water with the supporting data of calcium hardness over time as measured by a calcium ion probe. In Task 2, we confirmed through experimental tests that the self-cleaning filter could continuously remove precipitated calcium particles in a simulated laboratory cooling tower such that the blowdown could be eliminated or significantly reduced. In addition, chemical water analysis data were obtained which were used to confirm the COC calculation. In Task 3, we conducted a series

  12. Assessing Implementation Fidelity and Adaptation in a Community-Based Childhood Obesity Prevention Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Zoe; Kostadinov, Iordan; Jones, Michelle; Richard, Lucie; Cargo, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Little research has assessed the fidelity, adaptation or integrity of activities implemented within community-based obesity prevention initiatives. To address this gap, a mixed-method process evaluation was undertaken in the context of the South Australian Obesity Prevention and Lifestyle (OPAL) initiative. An ecological coding procedure assessed…

  13. Evaluation of Smoking Prevention Television Messages Based on the Elaboration Likelihood Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Brian S.; Worden, John K.; Bunn, Janice Yanushka; Connolly, Scott W.; Dorwaldt, Anne L.

    2011-01-01

    Progress in reducing youth smoking may depend on developing improved methods to communicate with higher risk youth. This study explored the potential of smoking prevention messages based on the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) to address these needs. Structured evaluations of 12 smoking prevention messages based on three strategies derived from…

  14. PRIMARY PREVENTION IS? A GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE ON HOW ORGANIZATIONS ENGAGING MEN IN PREVENTING GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE CONCEPTUALIZE AND OPERATIONALIZE THEIR WORK

    OpenAIRE

    Storer, Heather L.; Casey, Erin A.; Carlson, Juliana; Edleson, Jeffrey L.; Tolman, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015, The Author(s) 2015. Engaging men in addressing violence against women (VAW) has become a strategy in the global prevention of gender-based violence. Concurrently, Western public health frameworks have been utilized to guide prevention agendas worldwide. Using qualitative methods, this study describes how global anti-violence organizations that partner with men conceptualize primary prevention in their work. Findings suggest that “primary prevention” is not a fixed term in the context ...

  15. Camp NERF: methods of a theory-based nutrition education recreation and fitness program aimed at preventing unhealthy weight gain in underserved elementary children during summer months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Laura C; Fristad, Mary; Goodway, Jacqueline D; Eneli, Ihuoma; Holloman, Chris; Kennel, Julie A; Melnyk, Bernadette; Gunther, Carolyn

    2016-10-26

    The number of obese children in the US remains high, which is problematic due to the mental, physical, and academic effects of obesity on child health. Data indicate that school-age children, particularly underserved children, experience unhealthy gains in BMI at a rate nearly twice as fast during the summer months. Few efforts have been directed at implementing evidence-based programming to prevent excess weight gain during the summer recess. Camp NERF is an 8-week, multi-component (nutrition, physical activity, and mental health), theory-based program for underserved school-age children in grades Kindergarten - 5th coupled with the USDA Summer Food Service Program. Twelve eligible elementary school sites will be randomized to one of the three programming groups: 1) Active Control (non-nutrition, physical activity, or mental health); 2) Standard Care (nutrition and physical activity); or 3) Enhanced Care (nutrition, physical activity, and mental health) programming. Anthropometric, behavioral, and psychosocial data will be collected from child-caregiver dyads pre- and post-intervention. Site-specific characteristics and process evaluation measures will also be collected. This is the first, evidence-based intervention to address the issue of weight gain during the summer months among underserved, school-aged children. Results from this study will provide researchers, practitioners, and public health professionals with insight on evidence-based programming to aid in childhood obesity prevention during this particular window of risk. NCT02908230/09-19-2016.

  16. Healthy Habits, Happy Homes: methods and baseline data of a randomized controlled trial to improve household routines for obesity prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taveras, Elsie M; McDonald, Julia; O'Brien, Ashley; Haines, Jess; Sherry, Bettylou; Bottino, Clement J; Troncoso, Karen; Schmidt, Marie Evans; Koziol, Renata

    2012-11-01

    To develop a home-based intervention for parents of 2-5 year old children to promote household routines to prevent overweight/obesity. We recruited 121 children from health centers in Boston between 2011 and 2012 and randomized 62 to intervention and 59 to the control condition. The 6-month intervention included 1) motivational coaching at home and by phone with a health educator, 2) mailed educational materials, and 3) weekly text messages. The intervention promoted three household routines: eating meals as a family, obtaining adequate sleep, and limiting screen time. Of the 121 children, mean (SD) age was 4.0 (1.1) years; 52% were Hispanic, 34% Black, and 14% White/Other. Nearly 60% of the sample had annual household incomes ≤ $20,000. Approximately 64% of families reported eating together ≥ 7 times per week, however, many meals were eaten in front of a TV. Over half of the children slept less than the recommended 11h/night and 78% viewed ≥ 2 h/day of screen time. Household routines that increase obesity risk were prevalent among low-income families in this study. If proven to be effective, promotion of household routines related to family meals, sleep, and screen time may prevent young children from becoming overweight/obese. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. AREVA Adhesive Technology. A method to mitigate and/or prevent leaks in pools with stainless steel liners Georg Kramer AREVA GmbH IBOC-G

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraemer, G.

    2013-01-01

    Repair methods with conventional welding technique are not promising as a preventative measure mostly due to cost and time issues. With the provided repair method, the AREVA adhesive technology, it is possible to stop existing leaks and work as a prophylactic measure against future penetration from the concrete side of the pool. This technique can cover the failure mechanisms from weld failures over corrosion to mechanical stresses. Another advantage of the adhesive technology is the possibility of using remote-controlled underwater repair methods which are particularly beneficial in the repair of leaks in spent fuel pools. Extensive laboratory testing and longstanding successful experience in nuclear power plants have proved the suitability of the adhesive technology as active and proactive methods to minimize leakages in pools.

  18. Comparing Efficacy of Four Preventive Methods on Attitude of Drug Substance Abuse and Self–Esteem in Students Supported by Emdad Committee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    aziz allah agha babaei

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study was aimed to compare the efficacy of four drug substance abuse preventive methods: cognitive–behavioral social traioning, life skills training, poster presentation and short message system on attitude change and enhancement self-esteem in students supported by Emdad Committee. Method:This was a quasi experimental study. 150 students were selected and randomly assigned to the four experimental and control groups. The groups were completed attitude of drug substance abuse and self-esteem inventories. Experimental groups received: group 1 received 10 sessions of group cognitive-behavioral social training 120 minutes each, group 2, 10 sessions of life skills training, 120 minutes each, group 3 for 10 weeks into presented of 40 posters and group 4 short message service for 10 weeks. Findings: The results revealed that preventive techniques were effected on attitude and self–esteem. Also results of post-hoc (LSD test revealed that preventive techniques with difference effectiveness were effected on change attitude of substance abuse. Also cognitive–behavioral social training and life skills training techniques were effected on self esteem. Conclusion: The results of the study revealed that all the four techniques were effective in the generation negative attitude into drug abuse, otherwise only cognitive–behavioral social training and life skills training enhancement on self esteem.

  19. Introduction of a method of constructing heat preventing panels in holds in freezing carrier. Reito unpansen ni okeru sonai bonetsu panel koho no shokai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawaki, T; Fujita, H; Yamamoto, K

    1994-06-25

    A freezing carrier is a dedication ship to transport frozen and refrigerated cargoes such as foodstuffs loaded in holds. Ship's heat preventing devices must have the heat insulating structure formed according to complex shapes characteristic to an ocean vessel, and the most part of the work is done by skilled technicians working on the site. Therefore, discussions have been given on a heat preventing structure using a panel construction method aiming at simplifying cross sections to more efficient and uniform shapes, and hold shapes and work in them to more suitable for palletized packaging styles, and improving working environments. The results of the discussions have been applied to two ships for the first time, and the effects have been verified. This paper reports its specifications and construction. The heat preventing panel is a sandwiched composite of a surface material and a polyurethane foam, made to a panel size of about 1 m [times] 2 m. Joints are fixed by fasteners. The present ships have adopted such a form that the side walls are vertical, but the floor area and the clear height are the same as the conventional construction methods. Good heat insulation performance and workability have been verified, and results that are expected of further development have been obtained. 7 figs.

  20. The Effectiveness of a Facebook-Assisted Teaching Method on Knowledge and Attitudes About Cervical Cancer Prevention and HPV Vaccination Intention Among Female Adolescent Students in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ching-Yi; Wu, Wei-Wen; Tsai, Shao-Yu; Cheng, Su-Fen; Lin, Kuan-Chia; Liang, Shu-Yuan

    2015-06-01

    Lack of education is a known barrier to vaccination, but data on the design and effectiveness of interventions remain limited. This study aims to identify the effectiveness of a Facebook-assisted teaching method on female adolescents' knowledge and attitudes about cervical cancer prevention and on their human papillomavirus vaccination intention. A quasi-experimental time series research design was used. Two hundred female adolescents at a senior high school in Taipei were recruited into two groups. Following a classroom lecture, one group was provided a Facebook-assisted online discussion, and the other group was provided an in-person discussion forum. A demographic questionnaire and cervical cancer prevention questionnaire were distributed. Data were analyzed for descriptive statistics and generalized estimation equations. Improvement from T0 to T2 in knowledge and attitude scores was 4.204 and 4.496 points, respectively. The Facebook group's improvement in vaccination intention from T0 to T2 was 2.310 times greater than the control group's improvement under conditions of out-of-pocket expenses and 2.368 times greater under conditions of free vaccination. School-based cervical cancer prevention education can be effective. The Facebook-assisted discussion method was more effective than the in-person discussion. Providing the human papillomavirus vaccine free of charge would increase female adolescents' intention to be vaccinated. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  1. Image Coding Based on Address Vector Quantization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yushu

    Image coding is finding increased application in teleconferencing, archiving, and remote sensing. This thesis investigates the potential of Vector Quantization (VQ), a relatively new source coding technique, for compression of monochromatic and color images. Extensions of the Vector Quantization technique to the Address Vector Quantization method have been investigated. In Vector Quantization, the image data to be encoded are first processed to yield a set of vectors. A codeword from the codebook which best matches the input image vector is then selected. Compression is achieved by replacing the image vector with the index of the code-word which produced the best match, the index is sent to the channel. Reconstruction of the image is done by using a table lookup technique, where the label is simply used as an address for a table containing the representative vectors. A code-book of representative vectors (codewords) is generated using an iterative clustering algorithm such as K-means, or the generalized Lloyd algorithm. A review of different Vector Quantization techniques are given in chapter 1. Chapter 2 gives an overview of codebook design methods including the Kohonen neural network to design codebook. During the encoding process, the correlation of the address is considered and Address Vector Quantization is developed for color image and monochrome image coding. Address VQ which includes static and dynamic processes is introduced in chapter 3. In order to overcome the problems in Hierarchical VQ, Multi-layer Address Vector Quantization is proposed in chapter 4. This approach gives the same performance as that of the normal VQ scheme but the bit rate is about 1/2 to 1/3 as that of the normal VQ method. In chapter 5, a Dynamic Finite State VQ based on a probability transition matrix to select the best subcodebook to encode the image is developed. In chapter 6, a new adaptive vector quantization scheme, suitable for color video coding, called "A Self -Organizing

  2. Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard Bond; Kevin Kostelnik; Richard Holman

    2006-11-01

    A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need.

  3. Measuring the quality of infection control in Dutch nursing homes using a standardized method; the Infection prevention RIsk Scan (IRIS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsen, I.; Nelson-Melching, J.; Hendriks, Y.; Mulders, A.; Verhoeff, S.; Kluytmans-Vandenbergh, M.; Kluytmans, J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We developed a standardised method to assess the quality of infection control in Dutch Nursing Home (NH), based on a cross-sectional survey that visualises the results. The method was called the Infection control RIsk Infection Scan (IRIS). We tested the applicability of this new tool in

  4. Recruitment, Methods, and Descriptive Results of a Physiologic Assessment of Latino Farmworkers: The California Heat Illness Prevention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Diane C; Castro, Javier; Armitage, Tracey L; Vega-Arroyo, Alondra J; Moyce, Sally C; Tancredi, Daniel J; Bennett, Deborah H; Jones, James H; Kjellstrom, Tord; Schenker, Marc B

    2017-07-01

    The California heat illness prevention study (CHIPS) devised methodology and collected physiological data to assess heat related illness (HRI) risk in Latino farmworkers. Bilingual researchers monitored HRI across a workshift, recording core temperature, work rate (metabolic equivalents [METs]), and heart rate at minute intervals. Hydration status was assessed by changes in weight and blood osmolality. Personal data loggers and a weather station measured exposure to heat. Interviewer administered questionnaires were used to collect demographic and occupational information. California farmworkers (n = 588) were assessed. Acceptable quality data was obtained from 80% of participants (core temperature) to 100% of participants (weight change). Workers (8.3%) experienced a core body temperature more than or equal to 38.5 °C and 11.8% experienced dehydration (lost more than 1.5% of body weight). Methodology is presented for the first comprehensive physiological assessment of HRI risk in California farmworkers.

  5. A study of foreign object damage (FOD) and prevention method at the airport and aircraft maintenance area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussin, R.; Ismail, N.; Mustapa, S.

    2016-10-01

    Foreign object damage (FOD) is common risk for aviation industry since long time ago and it has contributed to many terrible incidents and fatalities. The cost of FOD cases every year is very high, which is around RM 1.2 billion. Therefore, a proper technique and strategy has to be taken by the designated organizations including airlines to further eliminate the FOD occurrences. It is not easy to control FOD due to some circumstances such as inappropriate working behaviour, poor working environment, insufficient technology and also disorganized housekeeping system. The main purpose of this research is to discuss and explain further about FOD and the techniques to prevent FOD. FOD is a universal concern in aviation industry and it is one of the reasons that contribute to aircraft failure and unwanted damages such as fatalities and causalities. Throughout this research, many information related to FOD problems and their impact on aviation industry are gathered and presented.

  6. MARKETING PREDICTIONS IN ANTI-DRUG SOCIAL PROGRAMS: USE OF CAUSAL METHODS IN THE STUDY AND PREVENTION OF DRUG ABUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serban Corina

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Drug use is one of the major challenges that todays society faces; its effects are felt at the level of various social, professional and age categories. Over 50 non-profit organizations are involved in the development of anti-drug social programs in Romania. Their role is to improve the degree of awareness of the target population concerning the risks associated with drug use, but also to steer consumers towards healthy areas, beneficial to their future. This paper aims to detail the issue of drug use in Romania, by making predictions based on the evolution of this phenomenon during the next five years. The obtained results have revealed the necessity to increase the number of programs preventing drug use, aswell as the need to continue social programs that have proved effective in previous years.

  7. Presidential address: distinction or extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressman, Barry D

    2008-10-01

    Despite its continuing scientific successes in imaging, radiology as a specialty is faced with a very difficult and competitive environment. Nonradiologists are more and more interested in vertically integrating imaging into their practices, while teleradiology and picture archiving and communication systems are resulting in the greater isolation of radiologists. Commoditization is a realistic and devastating threat to the survival and professionalism of the specialty. To remain viable as a specialty, radiologists must elevate their practice by subspecializing, becoming more involved with clinical care, and actively interacting with patients and referring clinicians. Distinction will prevent extinction.

  8. Quantitative tools for addressing hospital readmissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lagoe Ronald J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased interest in health care cost containment is focusing attention on reduction of hospital readmissions. Major payors have already developed financial penalties for providers that generate excess readmissions. This subject has benefitted from the development of resources such as the Potentially Preventable Readmissions software. This process has encouraged hospitals to renew efforts to improve these outcomes. The aim of this study was to describe quantitative tools such as definitions, risk estimation, and tracking of patients for reducing hospital readmissions. Findings This study employed the Potentially Preventable Readmissions software to develop quantitative tools for addressing hospital readmissions. These tools included two definitions of readmissions that support identification and management of patients. They also included analytical approaches for estimation of the risk of readmission for individual patients by age, discharge status of the initial admission, and severity of illness. They also included patient specific spreadsheets for tracking of target populations and for evaluation of the impact of interventions. Conclusions The study demonstrated that quantitative tools including the development of definitions of readmissions, estimation of the risk of readmission, and patient specific spreadsheets could contribute to the improvement of patient outcomes in hospitals.

  9. Developing Online Recruitment and Retention Methods for HIV Prevention Research Among Adolescent Males Who Are Interested in Sex with Males: Interviews with Adolescent Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Kimberly M; Ramirez, Jaime J; Carey, Michael P

    2017-12-21

    Adolescent males interested in sex with males (AMSM) are an important audience for HIV prevention interventions, but they are difficult to reach due to their age and social stigma. We aim to identify efficient methods to recruit and retain AMSM in online research. Interviews with 14-to-18-year-old AMSM (N=16) were conducted at 2017 Pride events in Boston, MA and Providence, RI. Participants reported that (1) social media platforms are viable recruitment venues; (2) recruitment advertisements should describe the study using colorful/bright pictures, familiar words, and information about compensation; (3) surveys should be recruitment and retention procedures to increase the efficiency of HIV prevention research for this at-risk group. ©Kimberly M Nelson, Jaime J Ramirez, Michael P Carey. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 21.12.2017.

  10. A Life’s Addresses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balle, Søren Hattesen

    According to Jonathan Culler’s essay ”Apostrophe”, ”…post-enlightenment poetry seeks to overcome the alienation of subject from object”, and “apostrophe takes the crucial step of constituting the object as another subject with whom the poetic subject might hope to strike up a harmonious relations......According to Jonathan Culler’s essay ”Apostrophe”, ”…post-enlightenment poetry seeks to overcome the alienation of subject from object”, and “apostrophe takes the crucial step of constituting the object as another subject with whom the poetic subject might hope to strike up a harmonious...... to a number of different aspects of Koch’s own life such as marijuana, the Italian language, World War Two, etc. In this way, the book quite conventionally inscribes itself in the tradition of post-enlightenment apostrophic poetry as characterized by Culler, just as all its poems belong to the favourite......, are literally troped as and addressed in the manner of so many acquaintances, personal connections, relatives, friends, lovers, and family members in Koch’s life. My main claim is that Koch’s poetics in New Addresses is one that slightly dislocates the romantic dichotomy between the world of things...

  11. “The Good Start Method for English” or how to support development, prevent and treat risk of dyslexia in children learning English as a second language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanowicz Katarzyna M.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Children with developmental dyslexia and at its risk have difficulties in the acquisition of foreign languages, especially non-transparent English. The problems of such pupils concern various aspects of the language system but in particular relate to the ability to read and spell. The research literature dedicated to effective preventative methods and dyslexia treatment suggests that both children with dyslexia and at its risk need phonological awareness training and multi-sensory learning. It is also known that prevention and early treatment is more effective than therapeutic intervention used in older students. Experts in foreign language acquisition recommend that children have contact with longer oral texts and live language (e.g., poems and songs. A recently-published report on the methods of English language teaching in Polish primary schools shows that the lessons conducted there do not realise the majority of the aforementioned recommendations. As a consequence, they do not serve any pupils including those with dyslexia and at its risk. A method which meets most of the demands mentioned above is “The Good Start Method for English”. It is a new program of teaching the English language designed for five to seven-year-olds, which at the same time ensures support for the psychomotor development of children, leading to acceleration in learning progress.

  12. Forecast and Prevention of Coal and Gas Outbursts in the Case of Application of a New Mining Method - Drilling of a Coal Pillar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlastimil Hudeček

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Coal and gas outbursts are one of risk factors accompanying the mining of coal in low seams in the Ostrava-Karviná Coalfield.At the use of the method of longwall mining, all coal reserves have not been mined out owing to tectonic faults. For mining outthe residual reserves, the application of a new mining method - drilling of a coal pillar was proposed.The method of mining of a coal seam utilizing long large diameter boreholes is verified in the Paskov Mine (company OKD, JSC –Czech Republic under conditions of rock mass with hazard of rock and gas outbursts in localities of residual pillars left in seams afterfinishing the mining operations performed with using the classical method of longwall working along the strike. [5]Forecast and preventive measures applied to the verification of the new method were based on previous experience withthe mining of seams with hazard of coal and gas outbursts. They accepted fully valid legislation, i.e. Ordinance of Ostrava RegionalMining Authority No. 3895/2002 and supplementary materials (Instructions and Guidelines. The proposed measures respectedthe character of the method being verified. [4]For all areas being mined, projects containing also chapters specifying the problems of ensuring the safety of mining worksand operation under conditions of hazard of coal and gas outbursts were prepared.In the contributions, basic proposals for the principles of coal and gas outburst forecast and prevention when applying the newmining method – drilling of a coal pillar are presented

  13. Actions States and Communities Can Take to Address Cognitive Health

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-06-09

    In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Lynda Anderson highlights the important roles that states and communities can play in addressing cognitive health as part of overall health.  Created: 6/9/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 6/9/2014.

  14. Ronald Reagan's "Star Wars" Address: Mythic Containment of Technical Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushing, Janice Hocker

    1986-01-01

    Views Reagan's "Star Wars" address as part of the culturally evolving myth of the New Frontier. Discusses how the speech creates the illusion of both preserving and transcending science by (1) subordinating technical reasoning to prevent nuclear holocaust and (2) using technoscience to rescript history and remove temporal and spacial…

  15. Simple extraction methods that prevent the artifactual conversion of chlorophyll to chlorophyllide during pigment isolation from leaf samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xueyun; Tanaka, Ayumi; Tanaka, Ryouichi

    2013-06-19

    When conducting plant research, the measurement of photosynthetic pigments can provide basic information on the physiological status of a plant. High-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) is becoming widely used for this purpose because it provides an accurate determination of a variety of photosynthetic pigments simultaneously. This technique has a drawback compared with conventional spectroscopic techniques, however, in that it is more prone to structural modification of pigments during extraction, thus potentially generating erroneous results. During pigment extraction procedures with acetone or alcohol, the phytol side chain of chlorophyll is sometimes removed, forming chlorophyllide, which affects chlorophyll measurement using HPLC. We evaluated the artifactual chlorophyllide production during chlorophyll extraction by comparing different extraction methods with wild-type and mutant Arabidopsis leaves that lack the major isoform of chlorophyllase. Several extraction methods were compared to provide alternatives to researchers who utilize HPLC for the analysis of chlorophyll levels. As a result, the following three methods are recommended. In the first method, leaves are briefly boiled prior to extraction. In the second method, grinding and homogenization of leaves are performed at sub-zero temperatures. In the third method, N, N'-dimethylformamide (DMF) is used for the extraction of pigments. When compared, the first two methods eliminated almost all chlorophyllide-forming activity in Arabidopsis thaliana, Glebionis coronaria, Pisum sativum L. and Prunus sargentii Rehd. However, DMF effectively suppressed the activity of chlorophyllase only in Arabidopsis leaves. Chlorophyllide production in leaf extracts is predominantly an artifact. All three methods evaluated in this study reduce the artifactual production of chlorophyllide and are thus suitable for pigment extraction for HPLC analysis. The boiling method would be a practical choice when leaves are not too

  16. Emergency Protocol and Violence Prevention in a University Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, Dylan

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzed the emergency protocol and violence prevention methods utilized at an American university. The four research questions were: (1) What are the sources of violence at the university? a. How has the university addressed these sources? (2) What constitutes an emergency in the eyes of the university? (3) How do emergency protocols…

  17. The MEDIA model: An innovative method for digitizing and training community members to facilitate an HIV prevention intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renfro, Tiffaney; Johnson, Erin; Lambert, Danielle N; Wingood, Gina; DiClemente, Ralph J

    2018-02-17

    As human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) continues to disproportionately affect African American women, practitioners remain committed to developing innovative strategies to reduce HIV prevalence. These strategies include training community organizations, such as churches, and utilizing digital media to make intervention dissemination more sustainable. This article describes one such effort to train lay community members within predominantly Black churches in Atlanta, GA, to implement an HIV prevention intervention. Lay educators were trained by translating a face-to-face Training of Facilitators (TOF) to a digital platform using the MEDIA (Motivate-Engage-Digitize-Implement-Assess) model. Formative evaluations, consultation with experts in the digital platform of choice, and the experience of two P4 for Women Master Trainers informed our translation. The model guided the translation process as our research team worked alongside topical experts and a production company to develop storyboards for core curriculum activities, which were later scripted and filmed with mock participants. A user guide, toolkit, and program website were also developed as supplemental materials to accompany the video training. Lessons learned from this study indicate future attempts at digitizing TOFs should keep in mind that digitization can be a time-consuming process, pilot testing in the new format is necessary even for a previously tested intervention, and the structure provided by facilitators in face-to-face training must be embedded into the format of digitized trainings.

  18. [Prevention of an outbreak of Acinetobacter baumannii in intensive care units: study of the efficacy of different mathematical methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresnadillo-Martínez, María José; García-Merino, Enrique; García-Sánchez, Enrique; Martín-del Rey, Ángel; Rodríguez-Encinas, Ángel; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Gerardo; García-Sánchez, José Elías

    2015-02-01

    Although in past decades, Acinetobacter baumanni infections have been sporadically identified in hospitals, nowadays the nosocomial infections due to this pathogen have notably increased. Its importance is due to its multidrug- resistance, morbidity and mortatility in healthcare settings. Consequently, it is important to predict the evolution of these outbreaks in order to stablish the most efficient control measures. There are several experimental studies shown that the compliance with hand and environmental hygiene and the efficient management of the healthcare work help to control the evolution of these outbreaks. The goal of this work is to formally proof these experimental results by means of the analysis of the results provided by the model. A stochastic mathematical model based on cellular automata was developed. The variables and parameters involved in it have been identified from the knowledge of the epidemiology and main characteristics of Acinetobacter infections. The model provides several simulations from different initial conditions. The analysis of these results proofs in a formal way that the compliance with hand and environmental hygiene and an efficient plannification of the work of healtcare workers yield a decrease in the colonized patients. Moreover, this is the unique model proposed studying the dynamics of an outbreak of A. baumanni. The computational implementation of the model provides us an efficient tool in the management of outbreaks due to A. baumanni. The analysis of the simulations obtained allows us to obtain a formal proof of the behaviour of the measures for control and prevention.

  19. Prevention of suicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Suicide is a major public health problem in India, probably even bigger than in the West. Suicidal behavior is the best conceptualized as a multifaceted complex problem involving social factors and mental illnesses. Broadly, there are two approaches to suicide prevention; population preventive strategies and high-risk preventive strategies. Population preventive strategies include reducing availability of means for suicide, education of primary care physicians, influencing media portrayal of suicidal behavior, education of the public, telephone helplines, and addressing economic issues associated with suicidal behavior. High-risk preventive strategy includes identifying individuals with high risk of committing suicide, intensively treating mental illness if present, and providing psychosocial support. Thus, prevention requires a multipronged effort with collaboration from various sectors including mental health professionals, social justice department, and macroeconomic policy makers.

  20. Effects of complex interventions in 'skin cancer prevention and treatment': protocol for a mixed-method systematic review with qualitative comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beifus, Karolina; Breitbart, Eckhard; Köberlein-Neu, Juliane

    2017-09-05

    Occurring from ultraviolet radiation combined with impairing ozone levels, uncritical sun exposure and use of tanning beds an increasing number of people are affected by different types of skin cancer. But preventive interventions like skin cancer screening are still missing the evidence for effectiveness and therefore are criticised. Fundamental for an appropriate course of action is to approach the defined parameters as measures for effectiveness critically. A prerequisite should be the critical application of used parameter that are defined as measures for effectiveness. This research seeks to establish, through the available literature, the effects and conditions that prove the effectiveness of prevention strategies in skin cancer. A mixed-method approach is employed to combine quantitative to qualitative methods and answer what effects can display effectiveness considering time horizon, perspective and organisational level and what are essential and sufficient conditions to prove effectiveness and cost-effectiveness in skin cancer prevention strategies. A systematic review will be performed to spot studies from any design and assess the data quantitatively and qualitatively. Included studies from each key question will be summarised by characteristics like population, intervention, comparison, outcomes, study design, endpoints, effect estimator and so on. Beside statistical relevancies for a systematic review the qualitative method of qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) will be performed. The estimated outcomes from this review and QCA are the accomplishment and absence of effects that are appropriate for application in effectiveness assessments and further cost-effectiveness assessment. Formal ethical approval is not required as primary data will not be collected. International Prospective Register for Systematic Reviews number CRD42017053859. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights

  1. Application of Human Factors Methods to Design Healthcare Work Systems: Instance of the prevention of Adverse Drug Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcilly, Romaric; Beuscart-Zephir, Marie-Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Human Factors (HF) methods are increasingly needed to support the design of new technologies in order to avoid that introducing those technologies into healthcare work systems induces use errors with potentially catastrophic consequences for the patients. This chapter illustrates the application of HF methods in developing two health technologies aiming at securing the hospital medication management process. Lessons learned from this project highlight the importance of (i) analyzing the work system in which the technology is intended to be implemented, (ii) involving end users in the design process and (iii) the intermediation role of HF between end users and scientific/technical experts.

  2. Re-establishing safer medical-circumcision-integrated initiation ceremonies for HIV prevention in a rural setting in Papua New Guinea. A multi-method acceptability study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement Morris Manineng

    Full Text Available Efforts to stem the spread of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV in Papua New Guinea (PNG are hampered by multiple interrelated factors including limited health services, extreme diversities in culture and language and highly prevalent gender inequity, domestic violence and poverty. In the rural district of Yangoru-Saussia, a revival of previously ceased male initiation ceremonies (MICs is being considered for a comprehensive approach to HIV prevention. In this study, we explore the local acceptability of this undertaking including replacing traditional penile cutting practices with medical male circumcision (MMC.A multi-method study comprising three phases. Phase one, focus group discussions with male elders to explore locally appropriate approaches to HIV prevention; Phase two, interviews and a cross-sectional survey with community men and women to assess views on MICs that include MMC for HIV prevention; Phase three, interviews with cultural leaders and a cross sectional survey to assess the acceptability of replacing traditional penile bleeding with MMC.Cultural leaders expressed that re-establishing MICs was locally appropriate for HIV prevention given the focus on character building and cultural preservation. Most surveyed participants (81.5% supported re-establishing MICs and 92.2% supported adapting MICs with MMC. Changes to penile bleeding emerged as a contentious and contested issue given its cultural significance in symbolizing initiates' transition from childhood to adulthood. Participants were concerned about potential clash with modern education, introduced religious beliefs and limited government support in leadership and funding.Most people in this study in Yangoru-Saussia support re-establishing MICs and replacing traditional penile bleeding with MMC. This culturally-sensitive alignment of MMC (and HIV prevention with revived MICs responds to a national health priority in PNG and acts as an example of providing culturally

  3. Novel real-time tumor-contouring method using deep learning to prevent mistracking in X-ray fluoroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terunuma, Toshiyuki; Tokui, Aoi; Sakae, Takeji

    2018-03-01

    Robustness to obstacles is the most important factor necessary to achieve accurate tumor tracking without fiducial markers. Some high-density structures, such as bone, are enhanced on X-ray fluoroscopic images, which cause tumor mistracking. Tumor tracking should be performed by controlling "importance recognition": the understanding that soft-tissue is an important tracking feature and bone structure is unimportant. We propose a new real-time tumor-contouring method that uses deep learning with importance recognition control. The novelty of the proposed method is the combination of the devised random overlay method and supervised deep learning to induce the recognition of structures in tumor contouring as important or unimportant. This method can be used for tumor contouring because it uses deep learning to perform image segmentation. Our results from a simulated fluoroscopy model showed accurate tracking of a low-visibility tumor with an error of approximately 1 mm, even if enhanced bone structure acted as an obstacle. A high similarity of approximately 0.95 on the Jaccard index was observed between the segmented and ground truth tumor regions. A short processing time of 25 ms was achieved. The results of this simulated fluoroscopy model support the feasibility of robust real-time tumor contouring with fluoroscopy. Further studies using clinical fluoroscopy are highly anticipated.

  4. A randomized comparative trial of combinational methods for preventing post-spinal hypotension at elective cesarean delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Jabalameli

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: Among the three studied methods, administration of ephedrine plus bandage of the lower extremities was the most effective one in reducing the incidence of post-spinal hypotension. The groups were not clinically different concerning the effect of treatment on newborn health.

  5. A Top Pilot Tunnel Preconditioning Method for the Prevention of Extremely Intense Rockbursts in Deep Tunnels Excavated by TBMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuanqing; Feng, Xiating; Zhou, Hui; Qiu, Shili; Wu, Wenping

    2012-05-01

    The headrace tunnels at the Jinping II Hydropower Station cross the Jinping Mountain with a maximum overburden depth of 2,525 m, where 80% of the strata along the tunnels consist of marble. A number of extremely intense rockbursts occurred during the excavation of the auxiliary tunnels and the drainage tunnel. In particular, a tunnel boring machine (TBM) was destroyed by an extremely intense rockburst in a 7.2-m-diameter drainage tunnel. Two of the four subsequent 12.4-m-diameter headrace tunnels will be excavated with larger size TBMs, where a high risk of extremely intense rockbursts exists. Herein, a top pilot tunnel preconditioning method is proposed to minimize this risk, in which a drilling and blasting method is first recommended for the top pilot tunnel excavation and support, and then the TBM excavation of the main tunnel is conducted. In order to evaluate the mechanical effectiveness of this method, numerical simulation analyses using the failure approaching index, energy release rate, and excess shear stress indices are carried out. Its construction feasibility is discussed as well. Moreover, a microseismic monitoring technique is used in the experimental tunnel section for the real-time monitoring of the microseismic activities of the rock mass in TBM excavation and for assessing the effect of the top pilot tunnel excavation in reducing the risk of rockbursts. This method is applied to two tunnel sections prone to extremely intense rockbursts and leads to a reduction in the risk of rockbursts in TBM excavation.

  6. Experimental validation of the design method to prevent flow-induced vibration in high Reynolds-number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Takaaki; Yamaguchi, Akira; Morisita, Masaki; Iwata, Koji

    1998-08-01

    The incident of sodium leakage from a main pipe of the secondary heat transport system of Monju fast breeder reactor was caused by the failure of a thermometer well. 'Flow-induced vibration design guide for thermometer wells' (express as 'design guide') was proposed by PNC Working Group to prevent the same cause of the sodium leak incident in future. On this report, applicability of the 'design guide' was estimated to plant conditions in high Reynolds-number(approximately 3x10 5 ∼ 3x10 6 ) involving the supercritical region, by measured data on a vortex synchronized vibration and a turbulence induced vibration. Experiments were performed for cylindrical and taper shaped types of test pieces. As results, reduced velocity (Vr) at onsets of the inline synchronized vibration were evaluated to be grater than 1.0 in the range of experimental conditions. Fluctuating drag and lift coefficients, which were evaluated from power spectrum of turbulence for Vr < 1.0 condition, were 0.01 ∼ 0.05 for drag direction and 0.04 ∼ 0.13 for lift direction. The fluctuating drag and lift coefficients used in the 'design guide' were estimated to be conservative by comparison with these data. Correlation lengths for a cylinder and a taper shaped one in the high Reynolds-number region were estimated to be 1.6 times of the diameter(D) in the maximum case. The measured value of correlation length is enough smaller than the 'design guide' value of 3.0D. Displacement amplitudes of test pieces for Vr < 1.0 conditions were enough smaller (fives times) than calculated values based on the 'design guide'. Consequently, the applicability of the design guide' was confirmed in the range of experiments involving the super critical Reynolds-number region. (author)

  7. Industrial pollution prevention handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, H.M.

    1995-01-01

    This book presents the techniques, technologies, regulations, and strategies that define pollution prevention. The subject is addressed from many perspectives by prominent experts. In many ways pollution prevention, rather than being a specialty field itself, is actually a convergence of fields drawing upon knowledge in a wide variety of more typical fields of expertise. Individual chapters have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  8. [A New Way to Look Up. Solar Retinopathy Risks and Methods of Prevention Prior to the 2015 Solar Eclipse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsatsos, M; MacGregor, C; Gousia, D; Moschos, M; Detorakis, E

    2017-06-01

    A solar eclipse is an impressive natural phenomenon that was last experienced in Europe in 2006. Last year, on March 20th 2015, a solar eclipse was visible in much of Europe. Solar retinopathy is a recognised potentially sight threatening condition that has been associated with direct or unprotected sun gazing. Public education has been shown to improve behaviour and attitudes that could influence the development of solar retinopathy during an eclipse. We have performed a study through newspapers prior to the 2015 solar eclipse in different European countries, in order to determine the level of public health awareness and attitudes to protection. Methods: 31 online editions of national newspapers were reviewed from six countries where the eclipse was most visible. Solar retinopathy, potential warnings, safe methods of viewing an eclipse and assessment of use and dangers of modern technologies were assessed. Results: All 25 newspapers examined mentioned the solar eclipse and risk to eyesight. Safe methods for viewing the eclipse were discussed in all newspapers. Eclipse eyeglasses were mentioned in 29 of the 31 newspapers reviewed. Children were identified as a high-risk group but advice for children viewing the eclipse varied between countries. Conclusion: Since the solar eclipse of 2006, there has been an increase in the level of education available in the media. Although the safe methods for viewing an eclipse have not changed in recent years, emerging technologies, such as camera phones and the "selfie" trend, have potentially increased the risk of eclipse-associated retinopathy. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Validation of Housing Standards Addressing Accessibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helle, Tina

    2013-01-01

    The aim was to explore the use of an activity-based approach to determine the validity of a set of housing standards addressing accessibility. This included examination of the frequency and the extent of accessibility problems among older people with physical functional limitations who used...... participant groups were examined. Performing well-known kitchen activities was associated with accessibility problems for all three participant groups, in particular those using a wheelchair. The overall validity of the housing standards examined was poor. Observing older people interacting with realistic...... environments while performing real everyday activities seems to be an appropriate method for assessing accessibility problems....

  10. First keynote address - biological monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    The author describes the interplay of physical research and the practice of radiation protection. There are both analogies in and differences between the problems of health protection from radiation and chemical pollutants. In formulating research objectives for synfuel technologies, it is important to take what lessons there are to be learned from the radiation experience. The regulation of the exposure of persons to radiation probably rests on a firmer scientific basis than does the regulation of exposure to many toxic chemicals. Some things in radiation protection - in both applied work and in research - should help to guide in approaching chemicals. The second section of this paper gives a brief description of the practice of radiation protection. The next section mentions some fundamental deficiencies that exist in radiation protection. Some physical research avenues illustrate how such deficiencies are being addressed as part of an integrated radiation research program. In the fourth section the author focuses on chemical pollutants, drawing some lessons from the radiation experience

  11. A region addresses patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Karen Wolk; Grunden, Naida; Harrison, Edward I

    2002-06-01

    The Pittsburgh Regional Healthcare Initiative (PRHI) is a coalition of 35 hospitals, 4 major insurers, more than 30 major and small-business health care purchasers, dozens of corporate and civic leaders, organized labor, and partnerships with state and federal government all working together to deliver perfect patient care throughout Southwestern Pennsylvania. PRHI believes that in pursuing perfection, many of the challenges facing today's health care delivery system (eg, waste and error in the delivery of care, rising costs, frustration and shortage among clinicians and workers, financial distress, overcapacity, and lack of access to care) will be addressed. PRHI has identified patient safety (nosocomial infections and medication errors) and 5 clinical areas (obstetrics, orthopedic surgery, cardiac surgery, depression, and diabetes) as ideal starting points. In each of these areas of work, PRHI partners have assembled multifacility/multidisciplinary groups charged with defining perfection, establishing region-wide reporting systems, and devising and implementing recommended improvement strategies and interventions. Many design and conceptual elements of the PRHI strategy are adapted from the Toyota Production System and its Pittsburgh derivative, the Alcoa Business System. PRHI is in the proof-of-concept phase of development.

  12. Preventing syndemic Zika virus, HIV/STIs and unintended pregnancy: dual method use and consistent condom use among Brazilian women in marital and civil unions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuyuki, Kiyomi; Gipson, Jessica D; Barbosa, Regina Maria; Urada, Lianne A; Morisky, Donald E

    2017-12-12

    Syndemic Zika virus, HIV and unintended pregnancy call for an urgent understanding of dual method (condoms with another modern non-barrier contraceptive) and consistent condom use. Multinomial and logistic regression analysis using data from the Pesquisa Nacional de Demografia e Saúde da Criança e da Mulher (PNDS), a nationally representative household survey of reproductive-aged women in Brazil, identified the socio-demographic, fertility and relationship context correlates of exclusive non-barrier contraception, dual method use and condom use consistency. Among women in marital and civil unions, half reported dual protection (30% condoms, 20% dual methods). In adjusted models, condom use was associated with older age and living in the northern region of Brazil or in urban areas, whereas dual method use (versus condom use) was associated with younger age, living in the southern region of Brazil, living in non-urban areas and relationship age homogamy. Among condom users, consistent condom use was associated with reporting Afro-religion or other religion, not wanting (more) children and using condoms only (versus dual methods). Findings highlight that integrated STI prevention and family planning services should target young married/in union women, couples not wanting (more) children and heterogamous relationships to increase dual method use and consistent condom use.

  13. Keynote Address from K. Mendelsohn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendelsohn, K.

    2015-01-01

    The United States believes it is critically important for Member States to support the Secretariat's efforts to continually improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the IAEA safeguards system. We should continue to work with the Agency to provide resources, technology, expertise, and training to strengthen the Secretariat's capabilities to implement safeguards agreements effectively and efficiently. The Secretariat went to extraordinary lengths over the last year to explain how safeguards implementation has evolved, particularly at the level of the state as a whole. The United States, like other member states, found the Secretariat's thorough technical briefings and the Director General's Supplementary Document to be extremely valuable. Now, after discussion of the issue at the September meetings of the Board of Governors and the General Conference, it really is time to let the Secretariat get on with its work. Our task now, especially for the assembled experts here at this Symposium, is to identify options for helping the IAEA as appropriate to find the best possible technologies, procedures, and practices for safeguards implementation. And like all of you, we look forward to further updates from the Secretariat on future lessons learned in implementing strengthened safeguards. I urge you to work together at this Symposium to make real progress on promoting peaceful uses of nuclear energy, strengthening safeguards, and preventing proliferation

  14. A modern method of treatment: The role of silver dressings in promoting healing and preventing pathological scarring in patients with burn wounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munteanu, A; Florescu, IP; Nitescu, C

    2016-01-01

    Burn wounds are a global public health problem, which affects all countries, no matter the development stage and occurs in all age groups, from toddlers to elderly. In spite of burns being the cause of numerous household and work accidents, there are still no clear stated unanimous rules for their treatment. Every day new products appear on the market, each of them trying to prove more effective. Since ancient times, silver has been known for its antimicrobial properties, so it has been used for a long time in the treatment of burns and other types of wounds. One of the relatively modern methods of treatment is applying silver sheets on the scald lesions. In this paper, which was part of a larger study (research for a PhD thesis), concerning prevention and treatment of the post-burn pathological scars, the cases of some patients with burns, who were treated by using the above mentioned method were presented and analyzed. The results obtained by applying silver sheets were then commented and interpreted, pointing out the advantages and disadvantages compared to silver sulfadiazine creams and ointments, which have already been used at a large scale. The prevention and treatment of post-burn pathological (hypertrophic and keloid) scars is a field in which still little is known and in which there are also no clearly set therapy plans. We hope that through this research and the following ones we will manage to establish some major guidelines concerning the prevention of pathological scars, which are not only disabling, but also a major aesthetic issue for any patient, in order to obtain better outcomes. PMID:27974941

  15. Novel Method for Recruiting Representative At-Risk Individuals into Cancer Prevention Trials: Online Health Risk Assessment in Employee Wellness Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Siu-Kuen Azor; Miller, Suzanne M; Hazuda, Leah; Engelman, Kimberly; Ellerbeck, Edward F

    2016-09-01

    Participation in cancer prevention trials (CPT) is lower than 3 % among high-risk healthy individuals, and racial/ethnic minorities are the most under-represented. Novel recruitment strategies are therefore needed. Online health risk assessment (HRA) serves as a gateway component of nearly all employee wellness programs (EWPs) and may be a missed opportunity. This study aimed to explore employees' interest, willingness, motivators, and barriers of releasing their HRA responses to an external secure research database for recruitment purpose. We used qualitative research methods (focus group and individual interviews) to examine employees' interest and willingness in releasing their online HRA responses to an external, secure database to register as potential CPT participants. Fifteen structured interviews (40 % of study participants were of racial/ethnic minority) were conducted, and responses reached saturation after four interviews. All employees showed interest and willingness to release their online HRA responses to register as a potential CPT participant. Content analyses revealed that 91 % of participants were motivated to do so, and the major motivators were to (1) obtain help in finding personally relevant prevention trials, (2) help people they know who are affected by cancer, and/or (3) increase knowledge about CPT. A subset of participants (45 %) expressed barriers of releasing their HRA responses due to concerns about credibility and security of the external database. Online HRA may be a feasible but underutilized recruitment method for cancer prevention trials. EWP-sponsored HRA shows promise for the development of a large, centralized registry of racially/ethnically representative CPT potential participants.

  16. Intake of Po-210 into the body through the damaged skin and efficiency of some methods in preventing its absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilyin, L.A.; Ivannikov, A.T.; Bazhin, A.G.; Konstantinova, T.P.; Altukhova, G.A.

    1977-01-01

    The metabolic behaviour of 210 Po nitrate arising from contamination of damaged skin (stabbed, cutaneous and muscular wounds and abrasions) of rats and the efficiency of some methods of decontaminating the wounds and stimulating 210 Po removal from the body, have been studied. The decontamination efficiency obtained, by wiping and washing the wound surface with oxatiol, by surgical incision of the wounds, and by parenteral oxatiol injections, are compared. The accumulation of 210 Po in various organs and tissues of rats after the different decontamination routines had been carried out are shown tabulated. (U.K.)

  17. The New Corporate Conflicts Management: The Use of Appropriate Methods for Prevention, Management and Resolution of Organizational Conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Antonella Godinho Pereira

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The organizations become more aware of the rising cost of conflict (in economic, relational and human terms, so they are seeking to manage conflict more efficiently. The intent of this article is to present some Alternative Dispute Resolution methods and show how they may become valuable to business organizations. The conclusion is that the existence of conflict is a necessary catalyst that allows a company to survive and progress. The goal in dealing with the conflict is not to eliminate it, but to respond to it constructively.

  18. Obesity Prevention and Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Eleanor R; Olson, Alexandra; DiFazio, Marc; Cassidy, Omni

    2016-03-01

    Obesity is widespread, associated with several physical and psychosocial comorbidities, and is difficult to treat. Prevention of obesity across the lifespan is critical to improving the health of individuals and society. Screening and prevention efforts in primary care are an important step in addressing the obesity epidemic. Each period of human development is associated with unique risks, challenges, and opportunities for prevention and intervention. Screening tools for overweight/obesity, although imperfect, are quick and easy to administer. Screening should be conducted at every primary care visit and tracked longitudinally. Screening tools and cutoffs for overweight and obesity vary by age group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Invaders in hot water: a simple decontamination method to prevent the accidental spread of aquatic invasive non-native species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lucy G; Dunn, Alison M; Rosewarne, Paula J; Stebbing, Paul D

    Watersports equipment can act as a vector for the introduction and spread of invasive non native species (INNS) in freshwater environments. To support advice given to recreational water users under the UK Government's Check Clean Dry biosecurity campaign and ensure its effectiveness at killing a range of aquatic INNS, we conducted a survival experiment on seven INNS which pose a high risk to UK freshwaters. The efficacy of exposure to hot water (45 °C, 15 min) was tested as a method by which waters users could 'clean' their equipment and was compared to drying and a control group (no treatment). Hot water had caused 99 % mortality across all species 1 h after treatment and was more effective than drying at all time points (1 h: χ 2  = 117.24, p  clean equipment. We recommend that it is advocated in future biosecurity awareness campaigns.

  20. Open Fireplaces. A method to prevent smoking from open fires; Oeppna Spisar. Metod som foerhindrar oeppna spisar att ryka in

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soedergren, David

    2007-04-15

    The primary purpose of this thesis is to account for a new method of limiting the risk of smoke leaking out from the open fireplace into the room. The improved functionality is obtained by adding a turnplate to the open fireplace mounted horizontally inside the lower edge at the hood of the open fire. The streams of smoke and air, which are cold of the contact with the cool surfaces in the stove, have a tendency to fall down along the inside of the hood and continue out into the room. The stream is stopped and redirected back up into the chimney by the turnplate. The development of the method is based on measuring of temperatures and air flows in a monitored fireplace. Tests have been carried out partially in a test fireplace in full scale and partially in a model of the test fireplace at the scale 1:2. The model fireplace is made in glass which makes it possible to study and photograph the streams of smoke inside of the fireplace and oil fog has been used for the demonstration. Temperatures on surfaces and gases in the fireplace have been measured during different periods of time. These measurements have shown that the greatest risk for backwards floating air currents occurs directly after having lit the fire and during some hour after that. It is during this time the temperatures in the fireplace will rise. Measurements and also film-recordings have therefore been concentrated to these periods of time. The heat gain from the fire has been measured in connection to the tests. The distribution of the heat through radiation and convection based on the temperature measurements is shown

  1. Identifying risk factors for healthcare-associated infections from electronic medical record home address data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenman Marc B

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Residential address is a common element in patient electronic medical records. Guidelines from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention specify that residence in a nursing home, skilled nursing facility, or hospice within a year prior to a positive culture date is among the criteria for differentiating healthcare-acquired from community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA infections. Residential addresses may be useful for identifying patients residing in healthcare-associated settings, but methods for categorizing residence type based on electronic medical records have not been widely documented. The aim of this study was to develop a process to assist in differentiating healthcare-associated from community-associated MRSA infections by analyzing patient addresses to determine if residence reported at the time of positive culture was associated with a healthcare facility or other institutional location. Results We identified 1,232 of the patients (8.24% of the sample with positive cultures as probable cases of healthcare-associated MRSA based on residential addresses contained in electronic medical records. Combining manual review with linking to institutional address databases improved geocoding rates from 11,870 records (79.37% to 12,549 records (83.91%. Standardization of patient home address through geocoding increased the number of matches to institutional facilities from 545 (3.64% to 1,379 (9.22%. Conclusions Linking patient home address data from electronic medical records to institutional residential databases provides useful information for epidemiologic researchers, infection control practitioners, and clinicians. This information, coupled with other clinical and laboratory data, can be used to inform differentiation of healthcare-acquired from community-acquired infections. The process presented should be extensible with little or no added data costs.

  2. Realization and Addressing Analysis In Blockchain Bitcoin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakti Arief Daulay, Raja; Michrandi Nasution, Surya; Paryasto, Marisa W.

    2017-11-01

    The implementation research and analyze address blockchain on this bitcoin will have the results that refers to making address bitcoin a safe and boost security of address the bitcoin. The working mechanism of blockchain in making address bitcoin which is already in the blockchain system.

  3. The use of typing methods and infection prevention measures to control a bullous impetigo outbreak on a neonatal ward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koningstein Maike

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We describe an outbreak of Bullous Impetigo (BI, caused by a (methicillin susceptible, fusidic acid resistant Staphylococcus aureus (SA strain, spa-type t408, at the neonatal and gynaecology ward of the Jeroen Bosch hospital in the Netherlands, from March-November 2011. Methods We performed an outbreak investigation with revision of the hygienic protocols, MSSA colonization surveillance and environmental sampling for MSSA including detailed typing of SA isolates. Spa typing was performed to discriminate between the SA isolates. In addition, Raman-typing was performed on all t408 isolates. Results Nineteen cases of BI were confirmed by SA positive cultures. A cluster of nine neonates and three health care workers (HCW with SA t408 was detected. These strains were MecA-, PVL-, Exfoliative Toxin (ETA-, ETB+, ETAD-, fusidic acid-resistant and methicillin susceptible. Eight out of nine neonates and two out of three HCW t408 strains yielded a similar Raman type. Positive t408 HCW were treated and infection control procedures were reinforced. These measures stopped the outbreak. Conclusions We conclude that treatment of patients and HCW carrying a predominant SA t408, and re-implementing and emphasising hygienic measures were effective to control the outbreak of SA t408 among neonates.

  4. Biological fire prevention method: Evaluating the effects of goat grazing on the fire-prone mediterranean scrub

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancilla-Leyton, J. M.; Martin Vicente, A.

    2012-11-01

    The effect of goat grazing on the shrubby under story of a pine forest in Donana Natural Park was evaluated using non-destructive measures of vegetation volume over a period of twenty-four months. After establishing grazing exclusion fenced plots 350 adult Payoyas goats were introduced. Vegetation was sampled before the introduction of goats and afterwards twice a year, using the point intercept method and thereby obtaining data of height, frequency, cover and biovolume of species. After two years the total biovolume of the vegetation of the un grazed area had increased significantly by 32.9%, while at grazed area, vegetation bio volume decreased significantly by 23.1%, leading to a significant decrease in mean height of the species. Although the number of species remained unchanged throughout the study, significant changes in their relative abundance were found in grazed area. The different responses of scrub species to grazing can be used as a tool to control species sensitive to grazing in shrubby forested areas. Significant reduction of total bio volume due to a reduction in vegetation height will help to reduce fire risk, thus contributing to the conservation of Mediterranean woodlands and forests while also fulfilling an important role in the economic and social lives of the rural population of Mediterranean countries. (Author) 15 refs.

  5. Teen pregnancy prevention: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavin, Claudia; Cox, Joanne E

    2012-08-01

    Teen pregnancy has been subject of public concern for many years. In the United States, despite nearly 2 decades of declining teen pregnancy and birth rates, the problem persists, with significant disparities present across racial groups and in state-specific rates. This review examines recent trends, pregnancy prevention initiatives and family planning policies that address the special needs of vulnerable youth. Unintended teen pregnancies impose potentially serious social and health burdens on teen parents and their children, as well as costs to society. Trends in teen pregnancy and birth rates show continued decline, but state and racial disparities have widened. Demographic factors and policy changes have contributed to these disparities. Research supports comprehensive pregnancy prevention initiatives that are multifaceted and promote consistent and correct use of effective methods of contraception for youth at risk of becoming pregnant. There is strong consensus that effective teen pregnancy prevention strategies should be multifaceted, focusing on delay of sexual activity especially in younger teens while promoting consistent and correct use of effective methods of contraception for those youth who are or plan to be sexually active. There is a need for further research to identify effective interventions for vulnerable populations.

  6. Applying data envelopment analysis to preventive medicine: a novel method for constructing a personalized risk model of obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroto Narimatsu

    Full Text Available Data envelopment analysis (DEA is a method of operations research that has not yet been applied in the field of obesity research. However, DEA might be used to evaluate individuals' susceptibility to obesity, which could help establish effective risk models for the onset of obesity. Therefore, we conducted this study to evaluate the feasibility of applying DEA to predict obesity, by calculating efficiency scores and evaluating the usefulness of risk models. In this study, we evaluated data from the Takahata study, which was a population-based cohort study (with a follow-up study of Japanese people who are >40 years old. For our analysis, we used the input-oriented Charnes-Cooper-Rhodes model of DEA, and defined the decision-making units (DMUs as individual subjects. The inputs were defined as (1 exercise (measured as calories expended and (2 the inverse of food intake (measured as calories ingested. The output was defined as the inverse of body mass index (BMI. Using the β coefficients for the participants' single nucleotide polymorphisms, we then calculated their genetic predisposition score (GPS. Both efficiency scores and GPS were available for 1,620 participants from the baseline survey, and for 708 participants from the follow-up survey. To compare the strengths of the associations, we used models of multiple linear regressions. To evaluate the effects of genetic factors and efficiency score on body mass index (BMI, we used multiple linear regression analysis, with BMI as the dependent variable, GPS and efficiency scores as the explanatory variables, and several demographic controls, including age and sex. Our results indicated that all factors were statistically significant (p < 0.05, with an adjusted R2 value of 0.66. Therefore, it is possible to use DEA to predict environmentally driven obesity, and thus to establish a well-fitted model for risk of obesity.

  7. Integrating emotional and psychological support into the end-stage renal disease pathway: a protocol for mixed methods research to identify patients' lower-level support needs and how these can most effectively be addressed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Francesca; Taylor, Celia; Baharani, Jyoti; Nicholas, Johann; Combes, Gill

    2016-08-02

    As a result of difficulties related to their illness, diagnosis and treatment, patients with end-stage renal disease experience significant emotional and psychological problems, which untreated can have considerable negative impact on their health and wellbeing. Despite evidence that patients desire improved support, management of their psychosocial problems, particularly at the lower-level, remains sub-optimal. There is limited understanding of the specific support that patients need and want, from whom, and when, and also a lack of data on what helps and hinders renal staff in identifying and responding to their patients' support needs, and how barriers to doing so might be overcome. Through this research we therefore seek to determine what, when, and how, support for patients with lower-level emotional and psychological problems should be integrated into the end-stage renal disease pathway. The research will involve two linked, multicentre studies, designed to identify and consider the perspectives of patients at five different stages of the end-stage renal disease pathway (Study 1), and renal staff working with them (Study 2). A convergent, parallel mixed methods design will be employed for both studies, with quantitative and qualitative data collected separately. For each study, the data sets will be analysed separately and the results then compared or combined using interpretive analysis. A further stage of synthesis will employ data-driven thematic analysis to identify: triangulation and frequency of themes across pathway stages; patterns and plausible explanations of effects. There is an important need for this research given the high frequency of lower-level distress experienced by end-stage renal disease patients and lack of progress to date in integrating support for their lower-level psychosocial needs into the care pathway. Use of a mixed methods design across the two studies will generate a holistic patient and healthcare professional perspective that

  8. Aaron V. Cicourel: I Am NOT Opposed to Quantification or Formalization or Modeling, but I Do Not Want to Pursue Quantitative Methods That Are Not Commensurate With the Research Phenomena Addressed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Witzel

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available In this interview, which was conducted mainly by e-mail, we trace the evolution of Aaron V. CICOUREL's thinking and career. In Part 1 we begin with his undergraduate education, then as a doctoral student, as an assistant professor, and his experiences with field research. Part 2 con­tains his critical reflections on the ecological val­idity problem which underlie self-contained inter­views and surveys that lack ethnographic data. In Part 3 he shows that it is necessary—and this is his specific contribution to the qualitative approach—to reflect on respondents' daily life experiences and understanding of fixed-choice or open-ended questions. Many strategies for valid interviews are also discussed in this part. Part 4 contains CICOUREL's reflections on the broad field of qualitative research and his own current research on daily life decision-making, routine information and communication processing, or activating memo­ry. Different methods for analyzing natural settings are proposed. In the Part 5 general devel­op­ments in qualitative research—challenges, ob­sta­cles and solutions—are pointed out. In Part 6 CICOUREL describes national differences of research cultures in the United States, Europe, and Latin America. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0403412

  9. Name-Based Address Mapping for Virtual Private Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surányi, Péter; Shinjo, Yasushi; Kato, Kazuhiko

    IPv4 private addresses are commonly used in local area networks (LANs). With the increasing popularity of virtual private networks (VPNs), it has become common that a user connects to multiple LANs at the same time. However, private address ranges for LANs frequently overlap. In such cases, existing systems do not allow the user to access the resources on all LANs at the same time. In this paper, we propose name-based address mapping for VPNs, a novel method that allows connecting to hosts through multiple VPNs at the same time, even when the address ranges of the VPNs overlap. In name-based address mapping, rather than using the IP addresses used on the LANs (the real addresses), we assign a unique virtual address to each remote host based on its domain name. The local host uses the virtual addresses to communicate with remote hosts. We have implemented name-based address mapping for layer 3 OpenVPN connections on Linux and measured its performance. The communication overhead of our system is less than 1.5% for throughput and less than 0.2ms for each name resolution.

  10. BCB polymer based row-column addressed CMUT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havreland, Andreas Spandet; Ommen, Martin Lind; Silvestre, Chantal

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an inexpensive, low temperature and rapid fabrication method for capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUT). The fabrication utilizes the bonding and dielectric properties of the photosensitive polymer Benzocyclobutene (BCB). A BCB based row-column addressed CMUT w...

  11. Comparison of three different methods to prevent heat loss in healthy dogs undergoing 90 minutes of general anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark-Price, Stuart C; Dossin, Olivier; Jones, Katherine R; Otto, Angela N; Weng, Hsin-Yi

    2013-05-01

    To compare a towel under, a warm water pad under or a forced warm air blanket over dogs as techniques to reduce heat loss during a standardized anesthetic. Prospective, randomized, crossover study. Eight, healthy, mixed breed dogs weighing 16.3-19.6 kg. Dogs were anesthetized four times for 90 minutes. Dogs were placed on a steel table (treatment TA), with a cotton towel (treatment TO) or a circulating warm water pad (treatment WP) between the dog and the table, or with, a towel under the dog and covered with a forced warm air blanket (treatment WAB). Rectal temperature (RT) was recorded at 5 minute intervals. Changes in temperature (ΔRT) were calculated as the RT at a given point subtracted from the RT before anesthesia (baseline) and compared over time. After 90 minutes of anesthesia, the ΔRT was 3.42 °C ± 0.29 for TA, 2.78 °C ± 0.43 for TO, 1.98 °C ± 0.29 for WP, and 0.91 °C ± 0.27 for WAB. Significant differences in ΔRT occurred between TA and WAB at 20 minutes (0.94 °C ± 0.42, p = 0.0206), between TO and WAB at 30 minutes (1.16 °C ± 0.62, p = 0.0063), between WP and WAB at 50 minutes (0.96 °C ± 0.98, p = 0.0249), between TA and WP at 35 minutes (1.19 °C ± 0.54, p = 0.0091), between TO and WP at 70 minutes (1.12 °C ± 0.56, p = 0.0248), and between TA and TO at 75 minutes (0.96 °C ± 0.62, p = 0.0313). These differences in ΔRT between each treatment persisted from the times indicated until the end of the anesthesia. During anesthesia, forced warm air blankets were superior to other methods tested for limiting heat loss. An efficient heat loss technique should be used for anesthesia longer than 20 minutes duration in medium sized dogs. © 2013 The Authors. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia © 2013 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

  12. Organizing and addressing magnetic molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatteschi, Dante; Cornia, Andrea; Mannini, Matteo; Sessoli, Roberta

    2009-04-20

    Magnetic molecules ranging from simple organic radicals to single-molecule magnets (SMMs) are intensively investigated for their potential applications in molecule-based information storage and processing. The goal of this Article is to review recent achievements in the organization of magnetic molecules on surfaces and in their individual probing and manipulation. We stress that the inherent fragility and redox sensitivity of most SMM complexes, combined with the noninnocent role played by the substrate, ask for a careful evaluation of the structural and electronic properties of deposited molecules going beyond routine methods for surface analysis. Detailed magnetic information can be directly obtained using X-ray magnetic circular dichroism or newly emerging scanning probe techniques with magnetic detection capabilities.

  13. Evaluation of Enterococcus faecalis adhesion, penetration, and method to prevent the penetration of Enterococcus faecalis into root cementum: Confocal laser scanning microscope and scanning electron microscope analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halkai, Rahul S; Hegde, Mithra N; Halkai, Kiran R

    2016-01-01

    To ascertain the role of Enterococcus faecalis in persistent infection and a possible method to prevent the penetration of E. faecalis into root cementum. One hundred and twenty human single-rooted extracted teeth divided into five groups. Group I (control): intact teeth, Group II: no apical treatment done, Group III divided into two subgroups. In Groups IIIa and IIIb, root apex treated with lactic acid of acidic and neutral pH, respectively. Group IV: apical root cementum exposed to lactic acid and roughened to mimic the apical resorption. Group V: apical treatment done same as Group IV and root-end filling done using mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). Apical one-third of all samples immersed in E. faecalis broth for 8 weeks followed by bone morphogenetic protein and obturation and again immersed into broth for 8 weeks. Teeth split into two halves and observed under confocal laser scanning microscope and scanning electron microscope, organism identified by culture and polymerase chain reaction techniques. Adhesion and penetration was observed in Group IIIa and Group IV. Only adhesion in Group II and IIIB and no adhesion and penetration in Group I and V. Adhesion and penetration of E. faecalis into root cementum providing a long-term nidus for subsequent infection are the possible reason for persistent infection and root-end filling with MTA prevents the adhesion and penetration.

  14. Waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-05-31

    The purpose of this plan is to document the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program. The plan specifies those activities and methods that are or will be employed to reduce the quantity and toxicity of wastes generated at the site. The intent of this plan is to respond to and comply with (DOE's) policy and guidelines concerning the need for pollution prevention. The Plan is composed of a LLNL Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan and, as attachments, Program- and Department-specific waste minimization plans. This format reflects the fact that waste minimization is considered a line management responsibility and is to be addressed by each of the Programs and Departments. 14 refs.

  15. Waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this plan is to document the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program. The plan specifies those activities and methods that are or will be employed to reduce the quantity and toxicity of wastes generated at the site. The intent of this plan is to respond to and comply with (DOE's) policy and guidelines concerning the need for pollution prevention. The Plan is composed of a LLNL Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan and, as attachments, Program- and Department-specific waste minimization plans. This format reflects the fact that waste minimization is considered a line management responsibility and is to be addressed by each of the Programs and Departments. 14 refs

  16. A comparison of four scoring methods based on the parent-rated Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire as used in the Dutch preventive child health care system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Treffers Philip DA

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Validated questionnaires can support the identification of psychosocial problems by the Preventive Child Health Care (PCH system. This study assesses the validity and added value of four scoring methods used with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ for the identification of psychosocial problems among children aged 7–12 by the PCH. Methods We included 711 (of 814 children (response: 87% aged 7–12 undergoing routine health assessments in nine PCH services across the Netherlands. Child health professionals interviewed and examined children and parents. Prior to the interview, parents completed the SDQ and the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL, which were not shown to the professionals. The CBCL and data about the child's current treatment status were used as criteria for the validity of the SDQ. We used four SDQ scoring approaches: an elevated SDQ Total Difficulties Score (TDS, parent-defined difficulties, an elevated score for emotional symptoms, conduct problems or hyperactivity in combination with a high impairment score, and a combined score: an elevated score for any of these three methods. Results The Cohen's Kappa ranged from 0.33 to 0.64 for the four scoring methods with the CBCL scores and treatment status, generally indicating a moderate to good agreement. All four methods added significantly to the identification of problems by the PCH. Classification based on the TDS yielded results similar to more complicated methods. Conclusion The SDQ is a valid tool for the identification of psychosocial problems by PCH. As a first step, the use of a simple classification based on the SDQ TDS is recommended.

  17. Design and methods for a cluster randomized trial of the Sunless Study: A skin cancer prevention intervention promoting sunless tanning among beach visitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merriam Philip

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Skin cancer is the most prevalent yet most preventable cancer in the US. While protecting oneself from ultraviolet radiation (UVR can largely reduce risk, rates of unprotected sun exposure remain high. Because the desire to be tan often outweighs health concerns among sunbathers, very few interventions have been successful at reducing sunbathing behavior. Sunless tanning (self-tanners and spray tans, a method of achieving the suntanned look without UVR exposure, might be an effective supplement to prevention interventions. Methods and Design This cluster randomized trial will examine whether a beach-based intervention that promotes sunless tanning as a substitute for sunbathing and includes sun damage imaging and sun safety recommendations is superior to a questionnaire only control group in reducing sunbathing frequency. Female beach visitors (N = 250 will be recruited from 2 public beaches in eastern Massachusetts. Beach site will be the unit of randomization. Follow-up assessment will occur at the end of the summer (1-month following intervention and 1 year later. The primary outcome is average sunbathing time per week. The study was designed to provide 90% power for detecting a difference of .70 hours between conditions (standard deviation of 2.0 at 1-year with an intra-cluster correlation coefficient of 0.01 and assuming a 25% rate of loss to follow-up. Secondary outcomes include frequency of sunburns, use of sunless tanning products, and sun protection behavior. Discussion Interventions might be improved by promoting behavioral substitutes for sun exposure, such as sunless tanners, that create a tanned look without exposure to UVR. Trial registration NCT00403377

  18. Clinical contributions to addressing the social determinants of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kiran C R; Spilsbury, Peter; Shukla, Rashmi

    2010-04-01

    The drive to address social determinants of health is gaining momentum. Appreciating that health outcomes are only partly affected by healthcare, clinicians and clinical communities can play a significant role in this crusade by action at local, regional, national and global levels. A concerted and systematic focus on integrating and industrialising upstream interventions at every healthcare encounter is essential to prevent future illness, thus enabling a paradigm shift in the healthcare service from being one of illness management to health preservation. The evidence base demonstrates the cost efficacy of upstream interventions. The challenge is how this evidence is utilised to implement these interventions in everyday healthcare. Today, with a global economic crisis and challenged public sector funding, the need to address prevention has never been more pressing. Clinical engagement at all levels, from the front line to the boardroom is vital. Clinicians must address access, communication, strategy and commissioning to fulfil a professional responsibility to become and remain the corporate memory of a health service focused on preventing illness while simultaneously delivering cost-effective healthcare.

  19. School-based interventions to address bullying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter K. Smith

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Following some background studies on the nature of school bullying, its prevalence, and the negative consequences it can have, this article reviews the history of anti-bullying interventions over the last 30 years. It considers several major programmes in detail, such as the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, KiVa, Steps to Respect, and Friendly Schools. The nature and evaluation of the interventions is discussed, followed by a review of meta-analyses of the programmes effectiveness. Issues considered are the effect at different ages; components of interventions; work with peers; disciplinary methods, non-punitive and restorative approaches; challenges regarding cyberbullying; the role of parents; the role of teachers and teacher training; set menu versus à la carte approaches; sustainability of interventions and societal context. Conclusions show that interventions have had some success, with traditional bullying. However, further progress is needed in strengthening theoretical underpinnings to interventions, and in tackling cyberbullying.

  20. Positional error in automated geocoding of residential addresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talbot Thomas O

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public health applications using geographic information system (GIS technology are steadily increasing. Many of these rely on the ability to locate where people live with respect to areas of exposure from environmental contaminants. Automated geocoding is a method used to assign geographic coordinates to an individual based on their street address. This method often relies on street centerline files as a geographic reference. Such a process introduces positional error in the geocoded point. Our study evaluated the positional error caused during automated geocoding of residential addresses and how this error varies between population densities. We also evaluated an alternative method of geocoding using residential property parcel data. Results Positional error was determined for 3,000 residential addresses using the distance between each geocoded point and its true location as determined with aerial imagery. Error was found to increase as population density decreased. In rural areas of an upstate New York study area, 95 percent of the addresses geocoded to within 2,872 m of their true location. Suburban areas revealed less error where 95 percent of the addresses geocoded to within 421 m. Urban areas demonstrated the least error where 95 percent of the addresses geocoded to within 152 m of their true location. As an alternative to using street centerline files for geocoding, we used residential property parcel points to locate the addresses. In the rural areas, 95 percent of the parcel points were within 195 m of the true location. In suburban areas, this distance was 39 m while in urban areas 95 percent of the parcel points were within 21 m of the true location. Conclusion Researchers need to determine if the level of error caused by a chosen method of geocoding may affect the results of their project. As an alternative method, property data can be used for geocoding addresses if the error caused by traditional methods is

  1. Addressing the "Research Gap" in Special Education through Mixed Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingner, Janette K.; Boardman, Alison G.

    2011-01-01

    At least some of the challenges faced in special education, such as the disproportionate representation of culturally and linguistically diverse students, the gap between research and practice, and inequitable educational opportunities, can be explained in part by a research gap, or, in other words, a failure to conduct the different types of…

  2. 33 CFR 135.9 - Fund address.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OFFSHORE OIL POLLUTION COMPENSATION FUND General § 135.9 Fund address. The address to which correspondence relating to the Coast Guard's administration of the Fund... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fund address. 135.9 Section 135.9...

  3. Salmonella Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and in vegetable and fruit harvesting and packing operations may help prevent salmonellosis caused by contaminated foods. Better education of food industry workers in basic food safety and restaurant inspection procedures may prevent cross-contamination and other ...

  4. A comparison of four sampling methods among men having sex with men in China: implications for HIV/STD surveillance and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yan; Li, Xiaoming; Fang, Xiaoyi; Lin, Xiuyun; Song, Yan; Jiang, Shuling; Stanton, Bonita

    2011-01-01

    Sample representativeness remains one of the challenges in effective HIV/STD surveillance and prevention targeting MSM worldwide. Although convenience samples are widely used in studies of MSM, previous studies suggested that these samples might not be representative of the broader MSM population. This issue becomes even more critical in many developing countries where needed resources for conducting probability sampling are limited. We examined variations in HIV and Syphilis infections and sociodemographic and behavioral factors among 307 young migrant MSM recruited using four different convenience sampling methods (peer outreach, informal social network, Internet, and venue-based) in Beijing, China in 2009. The participants completed a self-administered survey and provided blood specimens for HIV/STD testing. Among the four MSM samples using different recruitment methods, rates of HIV infections were 5.1%, 5.8%, 7.8%, and 3.4%; rates of Syphilis infection were 21.8%, 36.2%, 11.8%, and 13.8%; rates of inconsistent condom use were 57%, 52%, 58%, and 38%. Significant differences were found in various sociodemographic characteristics (e.g., age, migration history, education, income, places of employment) and risk behaviors (e.g., age at first sex, number of sex partners, involvement in commercial sex, and substance use) among samples recruited by different sampling methods. The results confirmed the challenges of obtaining representative MSM samples and underscored the importance of using multiple sampling methods to reach MSM from diverse backgrounds and in different social segments and to improve the representativeness of the MSM samples when the use of probability sampling approach is not feasible. PMID:21711162

  5. Improved product planning by problem-oriented use of preventive quality management methods; Verbesserte Produktplanung durch den problemorientierten Einsatz praeventiver Qualitaetsmanagementmethoden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesmeister, F.

    2001-07-01

    The development of innovative products meeting the customer's needs is getting increasingly complex. The production cost and the time to market must be reduced constantly. Modern methods of preventive quality management like QFD, FMEA and Target Costing offer help but they tend to be complex and costly. The author attempted a modularisation of the methods, with the possibility of linking modules as desired using a commercially available software. [German] Die Entwicklung innovativer, den Kundenbeduerfnissen entsprechender Produkte wird zunehmend komplexer. Die Unternehmen sind gezwungen, die Kosten der Produkterstellung stetig zu reduzieren und den Time-to-Market zu verkuerzen. Moderne Methoden des praeventiven Qualitaetsmanagements wie das QFD, die FMEA und das Target Costing bieten Unterstuetzungsmoeglichkeiten zur Loesung der damit zusammenhaengenden Probleme. Doch ist der Einsatz der oft komplizierten Methoden sehr aufwendig. Gruende hierfuer sind die oft starren Anwendungsschemata, die einem situationsspezifischen Einsatz der Methoden entgegenstehen, und die fehlende Verknuepfung der Methoden. Ergebnis der Arbeit ist eine Modularisierung der Methoden und eine Verknuepfung der einzelnen Methodenmodule. Hierdurch koennen die Methoden an die jeweilige Problemsituation angepasst eingesetzt und dadurch der gesamte Produktentwicklungsprozess durchgaengig unterstuetzt werden. Die Anwendung der Methoden wird mittels einer auf dem Markt erhaeltlichen Software unterstuetzt. (orig.)

  6. Tuberculosis Prevention in the Private Sector: Using Claims-Based Methods to Identify and Evaluate Latent Tuberculosis Infection Treatment With Isoniazid Among the Commercially Insured.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockbridge, Erica L; Miller, Thaddeus L; Carlson, Erin K; Ho, Christine

    Targeted identification and treatment of people with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) are key components of the US tuberculosis elimination strategy. Because of recent policy changes, some LTBI treatment may shift from public health departments to the private sector. To (1) develop methodology to estimate initiation and completion of treatment with isoniazid for LTBI using claims data, and (2) estimate treatment completion rates for isoniazid regimens from commercial insurance claims. Medical and pharmacy claims data representing insurance-paid services rendered and prescriptions filled between January 2011 and March 2015 were analyzed. Four million commercially insured individuals 0 to 64 years of age. Six-month and 9-month treatment completion rates for isoniazid LTBI regimens. There was an annual isoniazid LTBI treatment initiation rate of 12.5/100 000 insured persons. Of 1074 unique courses of treatment with isoniazid for which treatment completion could be assessed, almost half (46.3%; confidence interval, 43.3-49.3) completed 6 or more months of therapy. Of those, approximately half (48.9%; confidence interval, 44.5-53.3) completed 9 months or more. Claims data can be used to identify and evaluate LTBI treatment with isoniazid occurring in the commercial sector. Completion rates were in the range of those found in public health settings. These findings suggest that the commercial sector may be a valuable adjunct to more traditional venues for tuberculosis prevention. In addition, these newly developed claims-based methods offer a means to gain important insights and open new avenues to monitor, evaluate, and coordinate tuberculosis prevention.

  7. Guidelines for prevention in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The effectiveness of prevention to enhance human functioning and reduce psychological distress has been demonstrated. From infancy through adulthood, access to preventive services and interventions is important to improve the quality of life and human functioning and reduce illness and premature death. The importance of prevention is consistent with the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010. Even with the increased focus on prevention, psychology training programs rarely require specific courses on prevention. In particular, conceptualizations about best practices in prevention, particularly at the environmental level, are lacking. Therefore, psychologists engaged in prevention can benefit from a set of guidelines that address and inform prevention practices. Accordingly, the Guidelines for Prevention in Psychology are intended to "inform psychologists, the public, and other interested parties regarding desirable professional practices" in prevention. The Prevention Guidelines are recommended based on their potential benefits to the public and the professional practice of psychology. They support prevention as an important area of practice, research, and training for psychologists. The Guidelines give increased attention to prevention within APA, encouraging psychologists to become involved with preventive activities relevant to their area of practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Reading handprinted addresses on IRS tax forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanaprasad, Vemulapati; Shin, Yong-Chul; Srihari, Sargur N.

    1996-03-01

    The hand-printed address recognition system described in this paper is a part of the Name and Address Block Reader (NABR) system developed by the Center of Excellence for Document Analysis and Recognition (CEDAR). NABR is currently being used by the IRS to read address blocks (hand-print as well as machine-print) on fifteen different tax forms. Although machine- print address reading was relatively straightforward, hand-print address recognition has posed some special challenges due to demands on processing speed (with an expected throughput of 8450 forms/hour) and recognition accuracy. We discuss various subsystems involved in hand- printed address recognition, including word segmentation, word recognition, digit segmentation, and digit recognition. We also describe control strategies used to make effective use of these subsystems to maximize recognition accuracy. We present system performance on 931 address blocks in recognizing various fields, such as city, state, ZIP Code, street number and name, and personal names.

  9. Addressing health literacy in patient decision aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Effective use of a patient decision aid (PtDA) can be affected by the user’s health literacy and the PtDA’s characteristics. Systematic reviews of the relevant literature can guide PtDA developers to attend to the health literacy needs of patients. The reviews reported here aimed to assess: 1. a) the effects of health literacy / numeracy on selected decision-making outcomes, and b) the effects of interventions designed to mitigate the influence of lower health literacy on decision-making outcomes, and 2. the extent to which existing PtDAs a) account for health literacy, and b) are tested in lower health literacy populations. Methods We reviewed literature for evidence relevant to these two aims. When high-quality systematic reviews existed, we summarized their evidence. When reviews were unavailable, we conducted our own systematic reviews. Results Aim 1: In an existing systematic review of PtDA trials, lower health literacy was associated with lower patient health knowledge (14 of 16 eligible studies). Fourteen studies reported practical design strategies to improve knowledge for lower health literacy patients. In our own systematic review, no studies reported on values clarity per se, but in 2 lower health literacy was related to higher decisional uncertainty and regret. Lower health literacy was associated with less desire for involvement in 3 studies, less question-asking in 2, and less patient-centered communication in 4 studies; its effects on other measures of patient involvement were mixed. Only one study assessed the effects of a health literacy intervention on outcomes; it showed that using video to improve the salience of health states reduced decisional uncertainty. Aim 2: In our review of 97 trials, only 3 PtDAs overtly addressed the needs of lower health literacy users. In 90% of trials, user health literacy and readability of the PtDA were not reported. However, increases in knowledge and informed choice were reported in those studies

  10. The potential role of mother-in-law in prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV: a mixed methods study from the Kilimanjaro region, northern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leshabari Sebalda

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Kilimanjaro region the mother-in-law has traditionally had an important role in matters related to reproduction and childcare. The aim of this study was to explore the role of the mothers-in-law in prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT service utilization and adherence to infant feeding guidelines. Methods The study was conducted during 2007-2008 in rural and urban areas of Moshi district in the Kilimanjaro region of Tanzania. Mixed methods were used and included focus group discussions with mothers-in-law, mothers and fathers; in-depth interviews with mothers-in-law, mothers, fathers and HIV-infected mothers, and a survey of 446 mothers bringing their four-week-old infants for immunisation at five reproductive and child health clinics. Results The study demonstrated that the mother-in-law saw herself as responsible for family health issues in general and child care in particular. However she received limited trust, and couples, in particular couples living in urban areas, tended to exclude her from decisions related to childbearing and infant feeding. Mothers-in-law expected their daughters-in-law to breastfeed in a customary manner and were generally negative towards the infant feeding methods recommended for HIV-infected mothers; exclusive replacement feeding and exclusive breastfeeding. Conclusions Decreasing influence of the mother-in-law and increasing prominence of the conjugal couples in issues related to reproduction and child care, reinforce the importance of continued efforts to include male partners in the PMTCT programme. The potential for involving mothers-in-law in the infant feeding component, where she still has influence in some areas, should be further explored.

  11. [AIDS prevention in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pott, E

    2007-04-01

    In 1987 the national AIDS prevention campaign "Gib AIDS keine Chance" (Don't give AIDS a chance) was started in Germany. After a very difficult and controversial political debate about a probably successful response to AIDS, in the end a political decision was made in favour of the implementation of a long term "social learning strategy". Thus, since then the Bundeszentrale für gesundheitliche Aufklärung (Federal Centre for Health Education, BZgA) has been running the campaign on behalf of the Federal Ministry of Health. The result of this prevention program is a low rate of infections. In Germany there were 2600 newly diagnosed infections in 2005: 59 % in homosexual men, 16 % by heterosexual contacts, 17 % in people from high prevalence countries and 7 % in i.v. drug users. In comparison to the international situation Germany has a relatively low HIV-prevalence even nowadays. However, Germany has also been confronted with an increasing number of newly diagnosed infections in the last few years. When the prevention program was started it was very important to build new structures for a successful implementation of the campaign. That meant for instance to build up an effective infrastructure for cooperation between the governmental and the nongovernmental sector, including organising the coordinated action among the partners at the federal, regional and local levels. Likewise, international networking was of great importance. A key element, relevant for the success of the campaign was the close cooperation at the federal level between the BZgA and the Deutsche AIDS Hilfe (German AIDS Help, DAH), to combine the highreach intervention in low-prevalence populations with intensive interventions for high prevalence groups. An effective national AIDS prevention campaign must reach the whole population; inform the public about the main risks of infection, about methods of protection and about what is not infectious. Moreover groups with a higher level of risk of

  12. Prevention of acute malnutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Pee, Saskia; Grais, Rebecca; Fenn, Bridget

    2015-01-01

    of cash or food, enables households to better meet the food, health, and other needs of household members and may increase resilience; water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) and health interventions help prevent and address illness and hence reduce wasting risk. The contributions of specific interventions...... "best possible" treatment, can provide evidence about what works, to what extent, at what cost, and under which circumstances. Programs should address the most important causes in given contexts, be feasible to implement at scale, and assess implementation, coverage, and outcomes....

  13. Addressable droplet microarrays for single cell protein analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi-Reyhani, Ali; Burgin, Edward; Ces, Oscar; Willison, Keith R; Klug, David R

    2014-11-07

    Addressable droplet microarrays are potentially attractive as a way to achieve miniaturised, reduced volume, high sensitivity analyses without the need to fabricate microfluidic devices or small volume chambers. We report a practical method for producing oil-encapsulated addressable droplet microarrays which can be used for such analyses. To demonstrate their utility, we undertake a series of single cell analyses, to determine the variation in copy number of p53 proteins in cells of a human cancer cell line.

  14. Addressable-Matrix Integrated-Circuit Test Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayah, Hoshyar R.; Buehler, Martin G.

    1991-01-01

    Method of quality control based on use of row- and column-addressable test structure speeds collection of data on widths of resistor lines and coverage of steps in integrated circuits. By use of straightforward mathematical model, line widths and step coverages deduced from measurements of electrical resistances in each of various combinations of lines, steps, and bridges addressable in test structure. Intended for use in evaluating processes and equipment used in manufacture of application-specific integrated circuits.

  15. Dietary prevention of allergic diseases in infants and small children. Part II. Evaluation of methods in allergy prevention studies and sensitization markers. Definitions and diagnostic criteria of allergic diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muraro, Antonella; Dreborg, Sten; Halken, Susanne

    2004-01-01

    The role of primary prevention of allergic disease has been a matter of debate for the last 40 years. In order to shed some light into this issue a group of experts of the Section of Pediatrics EAACI critically reviewed the existing literature on the subject. The design of observational and inter......The role of primary prevention of allergic disease has been a matter of debate for the last 40 years. In order to shed some light into this issue a group of experts of the Section of Pediatrics EAACI critically reviewed the existing literature on the subject. The design of observational...

  16. A mixed-method evaluation of the New York State Eat Well Play Hard Community Projects: Building local capacity for sustainable childhood obesity prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Kaydian S; Sekhobo, Jackson P; Gantner, Leigh A; Holbrook, MaryEllen K; Allsopp, Marie; Whalen, Linda B; Koren-Roth, Amy

    2018-04-01

    This study used a mixed-method, comparative case study approach to assess the level of capacity built for childhood obesity prevention among seven New York State Eat Well Play Hard-Community Projects (EWPH-CP). Data were collected through a self-reported survey in 2007, semi-structured interviews in 2009, and EWPH-CP program documentation throughout the 2006-2010 funding cycle. Quantitative and qualitative analyses were used along with an integrative framework for assessing local capacity building to characterize the capacity built by the study coalitions. Four coalitions rated membership characteristics as a challenge at the beginning of the funding cycle. Towards the end of the funding cycle, all seven coalitions reported activities that were initially focused on building their membership (i.e., member capacity) or positive working relationships (i.e. relational capacity), before eventually pursuing support and resources (i.e., organizational capacity) for implementing their chosen community-oriented programmatic goals (i.e., programmatic capacity). Five coalitions reported environmental changes aimed at increasing physical activity or fruit and vegetable intake. Technical assistance provided to coalitions was credited with contributing to the achievement of programmatic goals. These results suggest that the coalitions succeeded in building local capacity for increasing age-appropriate physical activity or fruit and vegetables intake in the target communities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Active methods of preventing bumps in situations where the longwall face advances to and crosses a roadway in thick coal beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loboda, C

    1978-01-01

    The method was analyzed in the Wujek coal mine, where the coal bed is located at 600 m and was 5.3 m to 5.7 m thick. The following situation is described: A longwall face had to pass through a ventilation tunnel. To reduce the inner stress of the coal mass above and below the ventilation tunnel infusion was used. Water was forced into the walls of the tunnel. The tunnel section was 200 m long, 28 holes were drilled, each 40 m deep, diameter of the bore 42 to 45 mm, water pressure 300 at. To prevent bumps the orientation of the longwall face, which had been parallel to the ventilation tunnel, was changed so that it was at the angle of 15 degrees to the ventilation tunnel. Experience showed that the most dangerous situation in the tunnel arises when the distance between a longwall face and a roadway is reduced to 45 m. At that moment pressure on the road support system is the greatest. The danger of bumps at a longwall face is the greatest when it is 25 m away from a roadway.

  18. Organization of Control Units with Operational Addressing

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander A. Barkalov; Roman M. Babakov; Larysa A. Titarenko

    2012-01-01

    The using of operational addressing unit as the block of control unit is proposed. The new structure model of Moore finite-state machine with reduced hardware amount is developed. The generalized structure of operational addressing unit is suggested. An example of synthesis process for Moore finite-state machine with operational addressing unit is given. The analytical researches of proposed structure of control unit are executed.

  19. IP Address Management Principles and Practice

    CERN Document Server

    Rooney, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    This book will be the first covering the subject of IP address management (IPAM). The practice of IPAM includes the application of network management disciplines to IP address space and associated network services, namely DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) and DNS (Domain Name System). The consequence of inaccurately configuring DHCP is that end users may not be able to obtain IP addresses to access the network. Without proper DNS configuration, usability of the network will greatly suffer as the name-to-address lookup process may fail. Imagine having to navigate to a website or send a

  20. The Development and Evaluation of a Measure Assessing School Nurses' Perceived Barriers to Addressing Pediatric Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yelena P.; Steele, Ric G.

    2011-01-01

    School nurses represent an important resource for addressing pediatric obesity and weight-related health. However, school nurses perceive numerous barriers that prevent them from addressing the weight-related health of students. The current study developed and tested a new, comprehensive measure of nurses' perceptions of 10 types of barriers to…

  1. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Steroid Injections Lumbar Zygapophysical (Facet) Joint Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle Choices 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen ...

  2. The challenges in monitoring and preventing patient safety incidents for people with intellectual disabilities in NHS acute hospitals: evidence from a mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuffrey-Wijne, Irene; Goulding, Lucy; Gordon, Vanessa; Abraham, Elisabeth; Giatras, Nikoletta; Edwards, Christine; Gillard, Steve; Hollins, Sheila

    2014-09-24

    There has been evidence in recent years that people with intellectual disabilities in acute hospitals are at risk of preventable deterioration due to failures of the healthcare services to implement the reasonable adjustments they need. The aim of this paper is to explore the challenges in monitoring and preventing patient safety incidents involving people with intellectual disabilities, to describe patient safety issues faced by patients with intellectual disabilities in NHS acute hospitals, and investigate underlying contributory factors. This was a 21-month mixed-method study involving interviews, questionnaires, observation and monitoring of incident reports to assess the implementation of recommendations designed to improve care provided for patients with intellectual disabilities and explore the factors that compromise or promote patient safety. Six acute NHS Trusts in England took part. Data collection included: questionnaires to clinical hospital staff (n = 990); questionnaires to carers (n = 88); interviews with: hospital staff including senior managers, nurses and doctors (n = 68) and carers (n = 37); observation of in-patients with intellectual disabilities (n = 8); monitoring of incident reports (n = 272) and complaints involving people with intellectual disabilities. Staff did not always readily identify patient safety issues or report them. Incident reports focused mostly around events causing immediate or potential physical harm, such as falls. Hospitals lacked effective systems for identifying patients with intellectual disabilities within their service, making monitoring safety incidents for this group difficult.The safety issues described by the participants were mostly related to delays and omissions of care, in particular: inadequate provision of basic nursing care, misdiagnosis, delayed investigations and treatment, and non-treatment decisions and Do Not Attempt Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (DNACPR) orders. The events leading to avoidable harm

  3. Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Fiona W.M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid prototyping of microchannel gain lots of attention from researchers along with the rapid development of microfluidic technology. The conventional methods carried few disadvantages such as high cost, time consuming, required high operating pressure and temperature and involve expertise in operating the equipment. In this work, new method adapting xurography method is introduced to replace the conventional method of fabrication of microchannels. The novelty in this study is replacing the adhesion film with clear plastic film which was used to cut the design of the microchannel as the material is more suitable for fabricating more complex microchannel design. The microchannel was then mold using polymethyldisiloxane (PDMS and bonded with a clean glass to produce a close microchannel. The microchannel produced had a clean edge indicating good master mold was produced using the cutting plotter and the bonding between the PDMS and glass was good where no leakage was observed. The materials used in this method is cheap and the total time consumed is less than 5 hours where this method is suitable for rapid prototyping of microchannel.

  4. Global Governance Mechanisms to Address Antimicrobial Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padiyara, Ponnu; Inoue, Hajime; Sprenger, Marc

    2018-01-01

    Since their discovery, antibiotics, and more broadly, antimicrobials, have been a cornerstone of modern medicine. But the overuse and misuse of these drugs have led to rising rates of antimicrobial resistance, which occurs when bacteria adapt in ways that render antibiotics ineffective. A world without effective antibiotics can have drastic impacts on population health, global development, and the global economy. As a global common good, antibiotic effectiveness is vulnerable to the tragedy of the commons, where a shared limited resource is overused by a community when each individual exploits the finite resource for their own benefit. A borderless threat like antimicrobial resistance requires global governance mechanisms to mitigate its emergence and spread, and it is the responsibility of all countries and relevant multilateral organizations. These mechanisms can be in the form of legally binding global governance mechanisms such as treaties and regulatory standards or nonbinding mechanisms such as political declarations, resolutions, or guidelines. In this article, we argue that while both are effective methods, the strong, swift, and coordinated action needed to address rising rates of antimicrobial resistance will be better served through legally binding governance mechanisms.

  5. Assessing what to address in science communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Bostrom, Ann

    2013-08-20

    As members of a democratic society, individuals face complex decisions about whether to support climate change mitigation, vaccinations, genetically modified food, nanotechnology, geoengineering, and so on. To inform people's decisions and public debate, scientific experts at government agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and other organizations aim to provide understandable and scientifically accurate communication materials. Such communications aim to improve people's understanding of the decision-relevant issues, and if needed, promote behavior change. Unfortunately, existing communications sometimes fail when scientific experts lack information about what people need to know to make more informed decisions or what wording people use to describe relevant concepts. We provide an introduction for scientific experts about how to use mental models research with intended audience members to inform their communication efforts. Specifically, we describe how to conduct interviews to characterize people's decision-relevant beliefs or mental models of the topic under consideration, identify gaps and misconceptions in their knowledge, and reveal their preferred wording. We also describe methods for designing follow-up surveys with larger samples to examine the prevalence of beliefs as well as the relationships of beliefs with behaviors. Finally, we discuss how findings from these interviews and surveys can be used to design communications that effectively address gaps and misconceptions in people's mental models in wording that they understand. We present applications to different scientific domains, showing that this approach leads to communications that improve recipients' understanding and ability to make informed decisions.

  6. National Institutes of Health Pathways to Prevention Workshop: Advancing Research to Prevent Youth Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Todd D; Roche, Kathleen M; Chow, Sy-Miin; Schenck, Anna P; Byam, Leslie-Ann

    2016-12-06

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) Pathways to Prevention Workshop "Advancing Research to Prevent Youth Suicide" was cosponsored by the NIH Office of Disease Prevention, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institute on Drug Abuse, and National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health. A multidisciplinary working group developed the agenda, and an evidence-based practice center prepared an evidence report that addressed data systems relevant to suicide prevention efforts through a contract with the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. During the workshop, experts discussed the evidence and participants commented during open forums. After considering the data from the evidence report, expert presentations, and public comments, an independent panel prepared a draft report that was posted on the NIH Office of Disease Prevention Web site for 5 weeks for public comment. This abridged version of the final report provides a road map for optimizing youth suicide prevention efforts by highlighting strategies for guiding the next decade of research in this area. These strategies include recommendations for improving data systems, enhancing data collection and analysis methods, and strengthening the research and practice community.

  7. Generative Street Addresses from Satellite Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlke Demir

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe our automatic generative algorithm to create street addresses from satellite images by learning and labeling roads, regions, and address cells. Currently, 75% of the world’s roads lack adequate street addressing systems. Recent geocoding initiatives tend to convert pure latitude and longitude information into a memorable form for unknown areas. However, settlements are identified by streets, and such addressing schemes are not coherent with the road topology. Instead, we propose a generative address design that maps the globe in accordance with streets. Our algorithm starts with extracting roads from satellite imagery by utilizing deep learning. Then, it uniquely labels the regions, roads, and structures using some graph- and proximity-based algorithms. We also extend our addressing scheme to (i cover inaccessible areas following similar design principles; (ii be inclusive and flexible for changes on the ground; and (iii lead as a pioneer for a unified street-based global geodatabase. We present our results on an example of a developed city and multiple undeveloped cities. We also compare productivity on the basis of current ad hoc and new complete addresses. We conclude by contrasting our generative addresses to current industrial and open solutions.

  8. Forms of Address in Chilean Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Kelley; Michnowicz, Jim

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation examines possible social and linguistic factors that influence forms of address used in Chilean Spanish with various interlocutors. A characteristic of the Spanish of Chile is the use of a variety of forms of address for the second person singular, "tu", "vos", and "usted", with corresponding…

  9. 29 CFR 4245.7 - PBGC address.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false PBGC address. 4245.7 Section 4245.7 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION INSOLVENCY, REORGANIZATION, TERMINATION, AND OTHER RULES APPLICABLE TO MULTIEMPLOYER PLANS NOTICE OF INSOLVENCY § 4245.7 PBGC address. See...

  10. Practical Strategies for Preventing Adolescent Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Keith

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive approach to suicide prevention is needed to effectively address the problem of teen suicide. This article describes three levels of prevention (primary prevention, intervention, and postvention) and provides practical strategies that community, mental, and social health professionals can use within each level to help prevent…

  11. New safety valve addresses environmental concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.; Austin, R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Conoco Pipeline is using a unique relief valve to reduce costs while improving environmental protection at its facilities. Conoco Pipeline Co. Inc. began testing new relief valves in 1987 to present over-pressuring its pipelines while enhancing the safety, environmental integrity and profitability of its pipelines. Conoco worked jointly with Rupture Pin Technology Inc., Oklahoma City, to seek a solution to a series of safety, environmental, and operational risks in the transportation of crude oil and refined products through pipelines. Several of the identified problems were traced to a single equipment source: the reliability of rupture discs used at pipeline stations to relieve pressure by diverting flow to tanks during over-pressure conditions. Conoco's corporate safety and environmental policies requires solving problems that deal with exposure to hydrocarbon vapors, chemical spills or the atmospheric release of fugitive emissions, such as during rupture disc maintenance. The company had used rupture pin valves as vent relief devices in conjunction with development by Rick Austin of inert gas methods to protect the inner casing wall and outer carrier pipeline wall in pipeline road crossings. The design relies on rupture pin valves set at 5 psi to isolate vent openings from the atmosphere prior to purging the annular space between the pipeline and casing with inert gas to prevent corrosion. Speciality Pipeline Inspection and Engineering Inc., Houston, is licensed to distribute the equipment for the new cased-crossing procedure

  12. Estimated time spent on preventive services by primary care physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gradison Margaret

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Delivery of preventive health services in primary care is lacking. One of the main barriers is lack of time. We estimated the amount of time primary care physicians spend on important preventive health services. Methods We analyzed a large dataset of primary care (family and internal medicine visits using the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (2001–4; analyses were conducted 2007–8. Multiple linear regression was used to estimate the amount of time spent delivering each preventive service, controlling for demographic covariates. Results Preventive visits were longer than chronic care visits (M = 22.4, SD = 11.8, M = 18.9, SD = 9.2, respectively. New patients required more time from physicians. Services on which physicians spent relatively more time were prostate specific antigen (PSA, cholesterol, Papanicolaou (Pap smear, mammography, exercise counseling, and blood pressure. Physicians spent less time than recommended on two "A" rated ("good evidence" services, tobacco cessation and Pap smear (in preventive visits, and one "B" rated ("at least fair evidence" service, nutrition counseling. Physicians spent substantial time on two services that have an "I" rating ("inconclusive evidence of effectiveness", PSA and exercise counseling. Conclusion Even with limited time, physicians address many of the "A" rated services adequately. However, they may be spending less time than recommended for important services, especially smoking cessation, Pap smear, and nutrition counseling. Future research is needed to understand how physicians decide how to allocate their time to address preventive health.

  13. B Plant Complex pollution prevention plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beam, T.G.

    1994-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has directed Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to develop an effective strategy to minimize the generation of hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes at Hanford in compliance with state and federal regulations. WHC has formalized a pollution prevention program composed of management policies, management requirements and procedures. This plan addresses pollution prevention for B Plant Complex. A pollution prevention team is in place and has been assigned responsibility for implementing the plan. This plan includes actions and goals for reducing volume and toxicity of waste generated, as well as a basis for evaluation of progress. Descriptions of waste streams, current specific goals, general pollution prevention methods, and specific accomplishments are in the appendices of this plan

  14. method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Kimball

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an interior point algorithm to solve the multiperiod hydrothermal economic dispatch (HTED. The multiperiod HTED is a large scale nonlinear programming problem. Various optimization methods have been applied to the multiperiod HTED, but most neglect important network characteristics or require decomposition into thermal and hydro subproblems. The algorithm described here exploits the special bordered block diagonal structure and sparsity of the Newton system for the first order necessary conditions to result in a fast efficient algorithm that can account for all network aspects. Applying this new algorithm challenges a conventional method for the use of available hydro resources known as the peak shaving heuristic.

  15. Preventative Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliorino, James

    Boards of education must be convinced that spending money up front for preventive maintenance will, in the long run, save districts' tax dollars. A good program of preventive maintenance can minimize disruption of service; reduce repair costs, energy consumption, and overtime; improve labor productivity and system equipment reliability; handle…

  16. Application of the Pareto principle to identify and address drug-therapy safety issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Fabian; Dormann, Harald; Pfistermeister, Barbara; Sonst, Anja; Patapovas, Andrius; Vogler, Renate; Hartmann, Nina; Plank-Kiegele, Bettina; Kirchner, Melanie; Bürkle, Thomas; Maas, Renke

    2014-06-01

    Adverse drug events (ADE) and medication errors (ME) are common causes of morbidity in patients presenting at emergency departments (ED). Recognition of ADE as being drug related and prevention of ME are key to enhancing pharmacotherapy safety in ED. We assessed the applicability of the Pareto principle (~80 % of effects result from 20 % of causes) to address locally relevant problems of drug therapy. In 752 cases consecutively admitted to the nontraumatic ED of a major regional hospital, ADE, ME, contributing drugs, preventability, and detection rates of ADE by ED staff were investigated. Symptoms, errors, and drugs were sorted by frequency in order to apply the Pareto principle. In total, 242 ADE were observed, and 148 (61.2 %) were assessed as preventable. ADE contributed to 110 inpatient hospitalizations. The ten most frequent symptoms were causally involved in 88 (80.0 %) inpatient hospitalizations. Only 45 (18.6 %) ADE were recognized as drug-related problems until discharge from the ED. A limited set of 33 drugs accounted for 184 (76.0 %) ADE; ME contributed to 57 ADE. Frequency-based listing of ADE, ME, and drugs involved allowed identification of the most relevant problems and development of easily to implement safety measures, such as wall and pocket charts. The Pareto principle provides a method for identifying the locally most relevant ADE, ME, and involved drugs. This permits subsequent development of interventions to increase patient safety in the ED admission process that best suit local needs.

  17. Preventing Sexual Violence and HIV in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommarin, Clara; Kilbane, Theresa; Mercy, James A.; Moloney-Kitts, Michele; Ligiero, Daniela P.

    2018-01-01

    Background Evidence linking violence against women and HIV has grown, including on the cycle of violence and the links between violence against children and women. To create an effective response to the HIV epidemic, it is key to prevent sexual violence against children and intimate partner violence (IPV) against adolescent girls. Methods Authors analyzed data from national household surveys on violence against children undertaken by governments in Swaziland, Tanzania, Kenya, and Zimbabwe, with support of the Together for Girls initiative, as well as an analysis of evidence on effective programmes. Results Data show that sexual and physical violence in childhood are linked to negative health outcomes, including increased sexual risk taking (eg, inconsistent condom use and increased number of sexual partners), and that girls begin experiencing IPV (emotional, physical, and sexual) during adolescence. Evidence on effective programmes addressing childhood sexual violence is growing. Key interventions focus on increasing knowledge among children and caregivers by addressing attitudes and practices around violence, including dating relationships. Programmes also seek to build awareness of services available for children who experience violence. Discussion Findings include incorporating attention to children into HIV and violence programmes directed to adults; increased coordination and leveraging of resources between these programmes; test transferability of programmes in low- and middle-income countries; and invest in data collection and robust evaluations of interventions to prevent sexual violence and IPV among children. Conclusions This article contributes to a growing body of evidence on the prevention of sexual violence and HIV in children. PMID:24918598

  18. The Development of a Community-Based, Pharmacist-Provided Falls Prevention MTM Intervention for Older Adults: Relationship Building, Methods, and Rationale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Mott

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Th