WorldWideScience

Sample records for prevention means source

  1. Contamination of wines and spirits by phthalates: types of contaminants present, contamination sources and means of prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatonnet, P; Boutou, S; Plana, A

    2014-01-01

    This research determines the concentrations of various phthalates in French wines and grape spirits marketed in Europe or intended for export. Dibutyl phthalate (DBP), diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) were the most frequently detected compounds in the wines analysed. While only 15% of the samples examined contained quantifiable concentrations (> 0.010 mg kg(-1)) of DEHP and BBP, 59% of the wines contained significant quantities of DBP, with a median value as high as 0.0587 mg kg(-1). Only 17% of the samples did not contain any detectable quantity of at least one of the phthalates and 19% contained only non-quantifiable traces. In the spirits analysed, DBP (median = 0.105 mg kg(-1)) and DEHP (median = 0.353 mg kg(-1)) were the substances measured at the highest concentrations, as well as the most frequently detected (90% of samples). BBP was present in 40% of the samples at an average concentration of 0.026 mg kg(-1). Di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP), which is not permitted in contact with food, was found in 25% of the spirits tested. According to the specific migration limits (SML) for materials in contact with food, slightly more than 11% of the wines analysed were non-compliant, as they exceeded the SML for DBP (0.3 mg kg(-1)); just under 4% were close to the SML for DEHP. Concerning spirits, 19% of the samples analysed were considered non-compliant to the SML for DBP and nearly 7% were close to the SML for DEHP. The aged grape spirits analysed were often excessively contaminated with DiBP, which is not permitted to be used in contact with food (> 0.01 mg kg(-1)). A study of various materials frequently present in wineries revealed that a relatively large number of polymers sometimes contained high concentrations of phthalates. However, the epoxy resin coatings used on vats represented the major source of contamination.

  2. Mean energy polarized neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleshin, V.A.; Zaika, N.I.; Kolotyj, V.V.; Prokopenko, V.S.; Semenov, V.S.

    1988-01-01

    Physical bases and realization scheme of a pulsed source of polarized neutrons with the energy of up to 75 MeV are described. The source comprises polarized deuteron source, transport line, low-energy ion and axial injector to the accelerator, U-240 isochronous cyclotron, targets for polarized neutron production, accelerated deuteron transport line and flight bases. The pulsed source of fast neutrons with the energy of up to 75 MeV can provide for highly polarized neutron beams with the intensity by 2-3 orders higher than in the most perfect source of this range which allows one to perform various experiments with high efficiency and energy resolution. 9 refs.; 1 fig

  3. Stabilized-solubilized ferric pyrophosphate as a new iron source for food fortification. Bioavailability studies by means of the prophylactic-preventive method in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgueiro, M J; Arnoldi, S; Kaliski, M A; Torti, H; Messeri, E; Weill, R; Zubillaga, M; Boccio, J

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of the present work was to evaluate the iron bioavailability of a new ferric pyrophosphate salt stabilized and solubilized with glycine. The prophylactic-preventive test in rats, using ferrous sulfate as the reference standard, was applied as the evaluating methodology both using water and yogurt as vehicles. Fifty female Sprague-Dawley rats weaned were randomized into five different groups (group 1: FeSO(4); group 2: pyr; group 3: FeSO(4) + yogurt; group 4: pyr + yogurt and group 5: control). The iron bioavailability (BioFe) of each compound was calculated using the formula proposed by Dutra-de-Oliveira et al. where BioFe % = (HbFef - HbFei) x 100/ToFeIn. Finally, the iron bioavailability results of each iron source were also given as relative biological value (RBV) using ferrous sulfate as the reference standard. The results showed that both BioFe % and RBV % of the new iron source tested is similar to that of the reference standard independently of the vehicle employed for the fortification procedure (FeSO(4) 49.46 +/- 12.0% and 100%; Pyr 52.66 +/- 15.02% and 106%; FeSO(4) + yogurth 54.39 +/- 13.92% and 110%; Pyr + yogurt 61.97 +/- 13.54% and 125%; Control 25.30 +/- 6.60, p soluble ferric pyrophosphate may be considered as an optimal iron source for food fortification.

  4. Means for preventing radioactive fluid leaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akatsu, Jun-ichi.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To permit prevention of leakage of radioactive fluid from line and valve leak sections while also recovering the liquid by producing a vacuum state in a leak-off line by means of a water ejector. Structure: A portion of the water from a condenser is forced by a condensed water pump through a water ejector tank to a recovery tank while controlling an orifice and valve, whereby a vacuum state is produced in the leak-off line to withdraw the leakage fluid. (Kamimura, M.)

  5. Contamination sources, prevention, and research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contamination is defined as anything other than cotton in cotton lint. Worldwide, contamination is on the rise and plastic contamination has increased at a faster rate than contamination overall. In the U.S., there are many sources of plastic contaminants, such as plastic trash that collects in cott...

  6. Periodontal Health vs. Various Preventive Means in Toy Dog Breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Capík

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study used six toy Chihuahua dogs in relationship. They underwent four 8 week periods differing in type of food (dry, soft, dental diet and preventive means of periodontitis (tooth-brushing and enzymatic chewing strips. The results showed nonsignificant influence of food consistency on dental plaque, calculus and gingivitis scores. Dental diet nonsignificantly decreased dental calculus deposition in comparison to common commercial food. The best results were achieved with toothbrushing. The enzymatic chewing strips significantly decreased dental plaque, calculus and gingivitis scores only on carnassial teeth. These results confirm that there are no absolute preventive measures of periodontitis.

  7. Constructive Use of Authoritative Sources in Science Meaning-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Jennifer; Tan, Seng Chee

    2010-01-01

    Researchers are skeptical about the role of authoritative sources of information in a constructivist learning environment for fear of usurping students' critical thinking. Taking a social semiotics perspective in this study, authoritative sources are regarded as inscriptions of cultural artifacts, and science learning involves meaning-making of…

  8. Malicious acts involving radioactive sources: prevention and preparedness for response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradeepkumar, K.S.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The increasing concern over the malevolent use of radioactive sources and radiological terrorism demands strengthening the preparedness for response to radiological emergencies. In spite of various security measures adopted internationally, availability of orphan sources cannot be completely ruled out. The trends in terrorism also indicates the possibility of various means which may be adopted by terrorists especially if they are aware of the challenges of radioactive contamination in public domain and the capability of 'denial of area' and the fear factor which can be injected during such radiological emergencies. It is to be well understood that whatever measures are taken by some countries in preventing the sources from getting stolen or smuggled in/out of their country are not adequate to eliminate radiological terrorism in a global level unless all nations collectively address and ensure the security of radioactive sources, hence preventing the generation of any orphan sources. While preparedness for response to various radiological emergency scenario have many common factors, the challenges involved in responding to radiological terrorism involves understanding the fear factor due to the presence of radioactive contamination after the blast and thermal effects on the victims and issues like handling of contaminated and seriously injured persons, restriction on the movement of responders and forensic teams in a contaminated field etc. Hence an understanding and anticipation of all possible means of radiological terrorism is very essential to prevent and to reduce the consequences. There are many deterrents, which are to be developed and maintained by all nations collectively which should include intelligence, wide usage of radiation monitors by customs, police and other security agencies, installation of state of the art high sensitive radiation monitors and systems etc to prevent and deter stealing and illicit trafficking of radioactive sources

  9. Meaning in life as a source of entertainment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Delden, Robertus Wilhelmus; Reidsma, Dennis; Katayose, Haruhiro; Nijholt, Antinus

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we mean to introduce into the field of entertainment computing an overview of insights concerning fundamental human needs. Researchers such as Hassenzahl and Desmet, discuss design approaches based on psychological insights from various and varied sources. We collect these and expand

  10. Researching the meaning of life: finding new sources of hope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alon, Shirly

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to discuss means of assisting terminally ill patients in seeking for sources of meaning and hope, alongside the acknowledgment that their lifespan is short.Psycho-spiritual aspects make a substantial component patients suffering from incurable illness have to deal with. Evaluating and mapping the causes and expressions of psychological--spiritual suffering may assist in tailoring appropriate strategies of distress relief. Therefore, interventions should be given in accordance with their specific focus of difficulties, as well as with wishes and needs. Appropriate interventions in palliative psychotherapeutic rapport are inspired by identifying new sources for meaning in current life (sometimes, aided by past experiences or future visions). Reinforcing sources for meaning may attempt in providing patients amongst:--equilibrium, between suffering and sorrow (which sometimes take over the patient's world), and on the other hand, new experiences, sense of satisfaction and fulfillment. Individual's acknowledgment that he is not completely withdrawn from the circle of life, and yet significance and fulfillment in life still exists. For a holistic meaning ? centered intervention it is advisable to simultaneously integrate two central axes: the existential analysis, inspired by concepts driven from Frenkl's Logotherapy, such as freedom of choice, personal responsibility, inner truth, hope and transcendentalism; the operative axis, enhancing meaning and hope by assisting patient's wishes come true. Patients are aware, many times, that those wishes may be their last one, therefore perceive their fulfillment as crucial for their sense of meaning. Moreover, those wishes may elevate patient and family's spirit and reduce risk of demoralization. Whereas existential--spiritual interventions are recommended to be given by qualified professional therapists, the operation of fulfilling wishes is feasible by everyone, from family members to multi

  11. Annotated Bibliography of Law-Related Pollution Prevention Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Holly; Murphy, Elaine

    This annotated bibliography of law-related pollution prevention sources was prepared by the National Pollution Prevention Center for Higher Education. Some topics of the items include waste reduction, hazardous wastes, risk reduction, environmental policy, pollution prevention, environmental protection, environmental leadership, environmental…

  12. PREVENTING CORRUPTION IN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION: OLD MEANS, NEW APPROACHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela CĂRĂUȘAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to identify corruption prevention tools and new ways of approaching them. The research question is how society coped with corruption in an era heavily marked by the media and the internet. The hypothesis that led us to the study was that new strategies of communication are necessary and based on them the civil society capacity to monitor and evaluate can be improved. The new approaches highlighted new entities, such as education, NGOs, media and internet, or new concepts, such as prevention, local strategies, audit, image and identity. Among these new entities involved in prevention, education should act as a real inner actor to change.

  13. The air pollution: sources, effects, prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elichegaray, C.

    2008-01-01

    The author offers a detailed and illustrated panorama of the air pollution sources and effects. The study is realized at the individual scale with the indoor pollution and at a global scale with the consequences of the greenhouse effect gases. Added to classical pollutants, the book takes into account new pollutants (organic, nano particulates, biological) and the epidemiology. (A.L.B.)

  14. Discussing Firearm Ownership and Access as Part of Suicide Risk Assessment and Prevention: "Means Safety" versus "Means Restriction".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Ian H; Hom, Melanie A; Rogers, Megan L; Anestis, Michael D; Joiner, Thomas E

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this study was to describe the relative utility of the terms "means safety" versus "means restriction" in counseling individuals to limit their access to firearms in the context of a mock suicide risk assessment. Overall, 370 participants were randomized to read a vignette depicting a clinical scenario in which managing firearm ownership and access was discussed either using the term "means safety" or "means restriction." Participants rated the term "means safety" as significantly more acceptable and preferable than "means restriction." Participants randomized to the "means safety" condition reported greater intentions to adhere to clinicians' recommendations to limit access to a firearm for safety purposes (F[1,367] = 7.393, p = .007, [Formula: see text]). The term "means safety" may be more advantageous than "means restriction" when discussing firearm ownership and access in clinical settings and public health-oriented suicide prevention efforts.

  15. Narrative Means to Preventative Ends: A Narrative Engagement Framework for Designing Prevention Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Day, Michelle; Hecht, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a Narrative Engagement Framework (NEF) for guiding communication-based prevention efforts. This framework suggests that personal narratives have distinctive capabilities in prevention. The paper discusses the concept of narrative, links narrative to prevention, and discusses the central role of youth in developing narrative interventions. As illustration, the authors describe how the NEF is applied in the keepin’ it REAL adolescent drug prevention curriculum, pose theoretical directions, and offer suggestions for future work in prevention communication. PMID:23980613

  16. Preventing radiological accidents and emergencies by legislative and regulatory means

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelzer, N.

    1998-01-01

    The Goiania radiation accident triggered a reassessment of radiation safety systems. From a legal point of view, the course of events indicates that there were deficiencies either in the existing legal framework or in the implementation of that framework. Proposals to avoid similar accidents in the future are discussed, stressing the need for a sound legal regime and a close co-operation between state authorities and users of radioactive sources. In particular, the importance is underscored of the human factor in achieving a high level of radiation safety. (author)

  17. Lessons in Suicide Prevention from the Golden Gate Bridge: Means Restriction, Public Health, and the School Psychologist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David N.

    2013-01-01

    Youth suicide is a global public health problem and some lessons for more effectively preventing it can be found in a perhaps unlikely source: the Golden Gate Bridge. Issues discussed include means restriction and method substitution, the stigma associated with suicide and the consequences of it, myths and misconceptions regarding suicide, and…

  18. Heidegger and the source of meaning | Knowles | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sandra Lee Bartky criticises the account of meaning contained in Heidegger's ontology in Being and Time. In her view, Heidegger must choose between the claim that meaning is received and the claim that it is created, but is unable to do so. This paper argues that Bartky's criticism is misconceived, by showing that ...

  19. Agronomic evaluation of guano sources by means of isotope techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapata, F.; Arrillaga, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    Many soils of the tropics and subtropics under continuous cultivation are very infertile, thus poor yields are obtained and little crop residues remain to protect the soils from degrading erosion. External nutrient inputs in the form of chemical fertilizers, organic materials and other nutrients sources are essential for developing sustainable agricultural production systems. As chemical fertilizers are costly for developing countries with insufficient foreign currency for their purchase and their supplies are limited and irregular for small landholders, alternative nutrient sources must be sought and evaluated for use in dominant agricultural production systems. Locally available organic materials of different origin are potential sources of nutrients. One such source with high agronomic potential is guano. The present study was carried out to evaluate the agronomic effectiveness of two guano materials of different origin (Zaire and Peru) as sources of nitrogen and phosphorus as compared to chemical fertilizers (ammonium sulfate and triple superphosphate) using isotopic ( 15 N and 32 P) techniques. Using the classical method of comparing dry matter weight and P uptake, no significant differences among the tested guano sources were found. The use of the isotopic techniques allowed a quantitative assessment of the N and P supply to crops. Both guano materials were found to be good sources of N but in contrast were poor sources of phosphorus. In addition, from the agronomic evaluation, it was found that the guano of Zaire and the ammonium sulfate were N sources of equivalent efficiency and the guano of Peru even slightly better than the ammonium sulfate. As expected, P in the single superphosphate was as available to the P in the triple superphosphate. However, the substitution ratios for the guano sources were relatively high. Thus, 1 kg P as single superphosphate was equivalent to 9.5 kg P as guano from Zaire or 12.5 kg P as guano from Peru. Further field trials in

  20. Technology collaboration by means of an open source government

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berardi, Steven M.

    2009-05-01

    The idea of open source software originally began in the early 1980s, but it never gained widespread support until recently, largely due to the explosive growth of the Internet. Only the Internet has made this kind of concept possible, bringing together millions of software developers from around the world to pool their knowledge. The tremendous success of open source software has prompted many corporations to adopt the culture of open source and thus share information they previously held secret. The government, and specifically the Department of Defense (DoD), could also benefit from adopting an open source culture. In acquiring satellite systems, the DoD often builds walls between program offices, but installing doors between programs can promote collaboration and information sharing. This paper addresses the challenges and consequences of adopting an open source culture to facilitate technology collaboration for DoD space acquisitions. DISCLAIMER: The views presented here are the views of the author, and do not represent the views of the United States Government, United States Air Force, or the Missile Defense Agency.

  1. MEANS OF ESTABLISHING CHURCH PROPERTY AND FUNDING SOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cricovean Mircea

    2013-07-01

    Regarding the administration of goods, the Church finds guidance in the laws of the State to which it belongs (Stan, 1952 but taking into consideration the fact that the Church cannot “have its special principles and rules contradicted”(Floca, 1990: 448. However, the church, in fulfilling its purpose - the salvation of believers, needs wealth or heritage. This is not to understand that the Church can “lose its essential character, supernatural character, because, for the Church the earthly possessions and temporal happiness are not an immediate end” (Floca, 1990: 451-452. To understand the Church’s sources of financing it is necessary to take account of its properties. Along the time the church was holder of ownership rights. Its property had to be maintained, at least, so it needed funding. The Church’s canonical and statutory provisions are those governing the Church’s source of funding. They cannot conclusively be understood without observing the principles and rules specific for the ecclesiastical wealth management. Noted should be that previously there were no generally accepted rules on the management of financial resources of the church. The canonical, legal and statutory establishments have become customary in time, making it possible this way, by the dioceses supervisors, that sources of funding should be directed towards the maintenance of the Church, of the worship and of social activities.

  2. Meanings of Falls and Prevention of Falls According to Rehabilitation Nurses: A Qualitative Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bok, Amy; Pierce, Linda L; Gies, Cheryl; Steiner, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Guided by Friedemann's theoretical framework, this survey explored the meaning of a fall of an institutionalized older adult or fall prevention to rehabilitation registered nurses and whether the experience changed the nurse's practice. Qualitative, descriptive survey. A convenience sample of 742 rehabilitation nurses was asked to describe these experiences and the impact on their practice. Themes discovered related to the meaning of a fall include negative feelings (incongruence) and positive feelings (congruence). Themes related to the meaning of preventing a fall include positive feelings (congruence). Practice change themes emerged from both the experience of a fall and fall prevention. Practice change themes were drawn to Friedemann's (1995) process dimensions. Nurses' experiences and meanings of falls uncovered negative and positive feelings about these falls. New findings of this study were the positive feelings expressed by nurses, when there was no injury or when a fall was prevented. © 2015 Association of Rehabilitation Nurses.

  3. Means for controlling operation of power sources associated with an axial tomographic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    An axial tomographic system is described having scanner means normally in an off-condition where all associated power sources are electrically isolated from the units driven thereby. It also includes means for activating the scanner means to establish an on-condition, control means including means to measure one or more system parameters when the scanner means is in an on-condition and to determine if the measured parameters are within predetermined limits, and means for maintaining the on-condition only if the control means is properly operational and all measured system parameters are within the predetermined limits

  4. Risk Prevention for Nuclear Materials and Radioactive Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badawy, I.

    2008-01-01

    The present paper investigates the parameters which may have effects on the safety of nuclear materials and other radioactive sources used in peaceful applications of atomic energy. The emergency response planning in such situations are also indicated. In synergy with nuclear safety measures, an approach is developed in this study for risk prevention. It takes into consideration the collective implementation of measures of nuclear material accounting and control, physical protection and monitoring of such strategic and dangerous materials in an integrated and coordinated real-time mode at a nuclear or radiation facility and in any time

  5. Ionizing radiation sources: very diversified means, multiple applications and a changing regulatory environment. Conference proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-11-01

    This document brings together the available presentations given at the conference organised by the French society of radiation protection about ionizing radiation source means, applications and regulatory environment. Twenty eight presentations (slides) are compiled in this document and deal with: 1 - Overview of sources - some quantitative data from the national inventory of ionizing radiation sources (Yann Billarand, IRSN); 2 - Overview of sources (Jerome Fradin, ASN); 3 - Regulatory framework (Sylvie Rodde, ASN); 4 - Alternatives to Iridium radiography - the case of pressure devices at the manufacturing stage (Henri Walaszek, Cetim; Bruno Kowalski, Welding Institute); 5 - Dosimetric stakes of medical scanner examinations (Jean-Louis Greffe, Charleroi hospital of Medical University); 6 - The removal of ionic smoke detectors (Bruno Charpentier, ASN); 7 - Joint-activity and reciprocal liabilities - Organisation of labour risk prevention in case of companies joint-activity (Paulo Pinto, DGT); 8 - Consideration of gamma-graphic testing in the organization of a unit outage activities (Jean-Gabriel Leonard, EDF); 9 - Radiological risk control at a closed and independent work field (Stephane Sartelet, Areva); 10 - Incidents and accidents status and typology (Pascale Scanff, IRSN); 11 - Regional overview of radiation protection significant events (Philippe Menechal, ASN); 12 - Incident leading to a tritium contamination in and urban area - consequences and experience feedback (Laurence Fusil, CEA); 13 - Experience feedback - loss of sealing of a calibration source (Philippe Mougnard, Areva); 14 - Blocking incident of a 60 Co source (Bruno Delille, Salvarem); 15 - Triggering of gantry's alarm: status of findings (Philippe Prat, Syctom); 16 - Non-medical electric devices: regulatory changes (Sophie Dagois, IRSN; Jerome Fradin, ASN); 17 - Evaluation of the dose equivalent rate in pulsed fields: method proposed by the IRSN and implementation test (Laurent Donadille, IRSN

  6. Preventing Suicide on Campus May Mean Fences and Nets as Well as Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratford, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Limiting access to some methods of suicide, a strategy known as means restriction, is gaining support among mental-health researchers. Some suicides can be prevented, the logic goes, if it is more challenging for an impulsive individual to harm himself. But on most campuses, that strategy has not taken hold. Instead, counseling and education tend…

  7. "Yes Means Yes:" A New Approach to Sexual Assault Prevention and Positive Sexuality Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafrance, Dawn E.; Loe, Meika; Brown, Scott C.

    2012-01-01

    "Yes Means Yes" (YMY) is an interdisciplinary, noncredit, five-week, positive sexuality seminar offered at a small liberal arts college as part of a campus-wide initiative to improve students' relationship skills and behaviors. Most university campuses employ some sort of sexual assault prevention program to help protect students from problematic…

  8. The Golden mean, Fibonacci matrices and partial weakly super-increasing sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esmaeili, M.; Gulliver, T.A.; Kakhbod, A.

    2009-01-01

    A source S={s 1 ,s 2 ,...}, with at least i+1 source symbols, having a binary Huffman code with codeword lengths satisfying l 1 =1,l 2 =2,...,l i =i, is called an i-level partial weakly super-increasing (PWSI) source. Connections between these sources, Fibonacci matrices and the Golden mean are studied. It is shown that the Euclidean projection of the distributions associated with these sources is given by Fibonacci-Hessenberg matrices. While there is no upper bound on the expected codeword length of Huffman codes representing PWSI sources (and hence no upper bound on their entropy), the Fibonacci sequence and the Golden mean (1+√(5))/2 provide a lower bound on the maximum expected codeword length of these codes.

  9. Solid waste as an alternative energy source and a means of solving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents practical ways of generating energy from solid waste as a means of solving the problem of solid waste disposal which is confronting the major cities in Nigeria and also providing alternative energy source to supplement the high cost and fast depleting conventional sources of energy. It also discussed the ...

  10. Treadmills: a preventable source of pediatric friction burn injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguiña, Pirko; Palmieri, Tina L; Greenhalgh, David G

    2004-01-01

    Treadmills are a burn risk for children. A child's hand can get trapped in the conveyor belt, causing friction burns to the underlying tissue. The purpose of this retrospective study was to review the characteristics and treatment of treadmill-related burns in children from 1998 to 2002. Ten patients, at a mean age of 3.4 years, sustained injuries associated with treadmill use. Trapping of the hand between the conveyor belt and the base was the most frequent injury mechanism. Burn location was predominantly on fingers and palms. Four patients required operative intervention. All patients required specialized wound care as well as scar management and occupational therapy. Treadmills pose a danger to children. Current safety devices are ineffective for preventing serious hand injuries in children. New design modifications and public awareness are needed to improve child safety.

  11. Meaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harteveld, Casper

    The second world to be considered concerns Meaning. In contrast to Reality and Play, this world relates to the people, disciplines, and domains that are focused on creating a certain value. For example, if this value is about providing students knowledge about physics, it involves teachers, the learning sciences, and the domains education and physics. This level goes into the aspects and criteria that designers need to take into account from this perspective. The first aspect seems obvious when we talk of “games with a serious purpose.” They have a purpose and this needs to be elaborated on, for example in terms of what “learning objectives” it attempts to achieve. The subsequent aspect is not about what is being pursued but how. To attain a value, designers have to think about a strategy that they employ. In my case this concerned looking at the learning paradigms that have come into existence in the past century and see what they have to tell us about learning. This way, their principles can be translated into a game environment. This translation involves making the strategy concrete. Or, in other words, operationalizing the plan. This is the third aspect. In this level, I will further specifically explain how I derived requirements from each of the learning paradigms, like reflection and exploration, and how they can possibly be related to games. The fourth and final aspect is the context in which the game is going to be used. It matters who uses the game and when, where, and how the game is going to be used. When designers have looked at these aspects, they have developed a “value proposal” and the worth of it may be judged by criteria, like motivation, relevance, and transfer. But before I get to this, I first go into how we human beings are meaning creators and what role assumptions, knowledge, and ambiguity have in this. I will illustrate this with some silly jokes about doctors and Mickey Mouse, and with an illusion.

  12. Mean energy of ions at outlet of a type Ecr plasma source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez T, C.; Gonzalez D, J.

    1998-01-01

    In this work it is described the calculations to mean energy of the ions in the extraction zone of a type Ecr plasma source considering the presence of a metallic substrate. This zone is characterized by the existence of a divergent magnetic field. It is showed that mean energy is function as the distance between the outlet and substrate as the value of the external magnetic field. (Author)

  13. VITAMIN DEFICIENCY IN CHILDREN: MAIN CAUSES, FORMS, AND MEANS OF PREVENTION IN INFANTS AND PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.Yu. Volkova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The lecture deals with the main causes of development of hypo vitaminoses in infants and preschool children, with the emphasis made on the lack of pathognomonic signs of vitamin in sufficiency, showing the demands for the essential vitamins, and describing the natural sources of their entering the human body. The authors compare the composition of various multivitamin preparations registered in Russian the liquid dosage form convenient for use in 1ctoc7cyearcold children.Key words: avitaminosis, hypovitaminosis, prevention, infants, children.

  14. Safety barriers on oil and gas platforms. Means to prevent hydrocarbon releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sklet, Snorre

    2005-12-15

    The main objective of the PhD project has been to develop concepts and methods that can be used to define, illustrate, analyse, and improve safety barriers in the operational phase of offshore oil and gas production platforms. The main contributions of this thesis are; Clarification of the term safety barrier with respect to definitions, classification, and relevant attributes for analysis of barrier performance Development and discussion of a representative set of hydrocarbon release scenarios Development and testing of a new method, BORA-Release, for qualitative and quantitative risk analysis of hydrocarbon releases Safety barriers are defined as physical and/or non-physical means planned to prevent, control, or mitigate undesired events or accidents. The means may range from a single technical unit or human actions, to a complex socio-technical system. It is useful to distinguish between barrier functions and barrier systems. Barrier functions describe the purpose of safety barriers or what the safety barriers shall do in order to prevent, control, or mitigate undesired events or accidents. Barrier systems describe how a barrier function is realized or executed. If the barrier system is functioning, the barrier function is performed. If a barrier function is performed successfully, it should have a direct and significant effect on the occurrence and/or consequences of an undesired event or accident. It is recommended to address the following attributes to characterize the performance of safety barriers; a) functionality/effectiveness, b) reliability/ availability, c) response time, d) robustness, and e) triggering event or condition. For some types of barriers, not all the attributes are relevant or necessary in order to describe the barrier performance. The presented hydrocarbon release scenarios include initiating events, barrier functions introduced to prevent hydrocarbon releases, and barrier systems realizing the barrier functions. Both technical and human

  15. Spectrometry and dosimetry of isotopic sources of neutrons by means of artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega C, H. R.; Ortiz R, J. M.; Hernandez D, V. M; Martinez B, M. R.; Gallego, E.; Lorente, A.; Barquero, R.

    2010-09-01

    The artificial neural networks technology has been applied to reconstruct the neutrons spectra of two isotopic sources: 252 Cf, and 241 Am-Be. Also, this technology has been applied to obtain the effective dose, E, and the personal dose equivalents, Hp(10) and environmental, H *(10). To obtain the spectra and the doses only were used the count rates produced in a Bonner Spheres spectrometer with a scintillator of 6 LiI(Eu) of 0.4 φ x 0.4 cm 2 . The equivalent environmental dose and the spectra of the sources were also obtained by means of the reconstruction code BUNKIUT. When comparing the results obtained by means of both procedures it was found that they are consistent. (Author)

  16. Gas Source Localization via Behaviour Based Mobile Robot and Weighted Arithmetic Mean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeon, Ahmad Shakaff Ali; Kamarudin, Kamarulzaman; Visvanathan, Retnam; Mamduh Syed Zakaria, Syed Muhammad; Zakaria, Ammar; Munirah Kamarudin, Latifah

    2018-03-01

    This work is concerned with the localization of gas source in dynamic indoor environment using a single mobile robot system. Algorithms such as Braitenberg, Zig-Zag and the combination of the two were implemented on the mobile robot as gas plume searching and tracing behaviours. To calculate the gas source location, a weighted arithmetic mean strategy was used. All experiments were done on an experimental testbed consisting of a large gas sensor array (LGSA) to monitor real-time gas concentration within the testbed. Ethanol gas was released within the testbed and the source location was marked using a pattern that can be tracked by a pattern tracking system. A pattern template was also mounted on the mobile robot to track the trajectory of the mobile robot. Measurements taken by the mobile robot and the LGSA were then compared to verify the experiments. A combined total of 36.5 hours of real time experimental runs were done and the typical results from such experiments were presented in this paper. From the results, we obtained gas source localization errors between 0.4m to 1.2m from the real source location.

  17. Drug Abuse Prevention Among Students In Improving The Lives Meaning Through Counseling Logo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadek Suranata

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Abuse of drugs, psychotropic substances, illegal drugs and other addictive substances (drugs among teenagers especially students to be a problem from time to time keeps going on and it seems difficult to be finalized. So also in Indonesia drug abuse prevention efforts at the level of the student and the student assessment has been a great school for education practitioners and also involving relevant agencies such as BNN, BKKBN, the health department and the police. On the other hand, the number of victims of drug abuse among adolescents from year-to-year increase. spiritual intelligence (SQ is low is one of the students to be drug users. Various approaches, models and techniques of counseling has been developed and implemented in schools in order to develop students' potential. Counseling logo is one of the counseling intervention model that was first introduced by Viktor Frankl who seek to build the spiritual dimension of human besides raceway and psychological dimensions, and assume that the meaning of life and a desire for meaningful is the primary motivation of men to achieve meaningful livelihoods (the meaningful life is wanted. This research aimed to develop the logo counseling to improving the lives meaning drug abuse prevention and to know the effectiveness of that model. This research uses  research and development approach or R&D with seven essential steps, namely (1 research and information collecting, (2 planning, (3 developing preliminary from of product, (4 preliminary field testing and product revision, (5 main field test and product revision, (6 operational field test and product revision, and (7 dissemination implementation and institutionalization. The population of this research includes practitioners or school counselors, experts and both state, Junior High School, Senior High Scholl and vocational students in Bali Province. The results of research on the effect of counseling logo on the trend of drug abuse in students in

  18. Measures to prevent to illicit users of radioactive sources and nuclear material in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stasiunaitiene, R.M.; Mastauskas, A.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The government of every country, depending on its economic recourses, attaches a great importance to the radiation protection and safety of population. And one of the instruments that helps in realization of this problem is to create a system in the country that prevents the possibility to illicitly use sources of ionizing radiation. It was a very important task to create such a system after Lithuania got back its independence in 1991. Because of its geographic location, Lithuania becomes a transit country of illicit transport of radioactive materials from Russia, Ukraine and other former Soviet states into western countries. At the same time it was very important to ensure the safety of the sources (that means to ensure from stealing, plundering, loss, etc.), because when the former system disintegrated, companies became bankrupt. The system was developed to solve such problems. Under the requirements of legal acts there were prescribed (delegated) functions of State institutions in order of competence in solving the problems to ensure Radiation Protection. Under the requirements of the Law on Radiation Protection, Radiation Protection Center is the main institution in Lithuania responsible for solving the problems of Radiation Protection of the population from the harmful effects of ionizing radiation. The responsibilities and obligations of the users of the sources were defined in legal acts: 1. The Law on Nuclear Energy; 2. The Law on Radiation Protection; 3. The Law on Radioactive Waste Management; 4. The Law on Changes and Appendices of the Code of the Administrative Law Violations; 5. On the Establishing the State Register of the Sources of Ionizing Radiation and Exposure of Workers, Governmental Resolution; 6. On the Confirm an Regulation of Licensing the Practices with Ionizing Radiation Sources, Governmental Resolution. After approval of the State Register of the Sources of Ionizing Radiation and Exposure of Workers, all the users of sources of

  19. Nanocomposite metal/plasma polymer films prepared by means of gas aggregation cluster source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polonskyi, O.; Solar, P.; Kylian, O.; Drabik, M.; Artemenko, A.; Kousal, J.; Hanus, J.; Pesicka, J.; Matolinova, I. [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, V Holesovickach 2, 18000 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Kolibalova, E. [Tescan, Libusina trida 21, 632 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Slavinska, D. [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, V Holesovickach 2, 18000 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Biederman, H., E-mail: bieder@kmf.troja.mff.cuni.cz [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, V Holesovickach 2, 18000 Prague 8 (Czech Republic)

    2012-04-02

    Nanocomposite metal/plasma polymer films have been prepared by simultaneous plasma polymerization using a mixture of Ar/n-hexane and metal cluster beams. A simple compact cluster gas aggregation source is described and characterized with emphasis on the determination of the amount of charged clusters and their size distribution. It is shown that the fraction of neutral, positively and negatively charged nanoclusters leaving the gas aggregation source is largely influenced by used operational conditions. In addition, it is demonstrated that a large portion of Ag clusters is positively charged, especially when higher currents are used for their production. Deposition of nanocomposite Ag/C:H plasma polymer films is described in detail by means of cluster gas aggregation source. Basic characterization of the films is performed using transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopies. It is shown that the morphology, structure and optical properties of such prepared nanocomposites differ significantly from the ones fabricated by means of magnetron sputtering of Ag target in Ar/n-hexane mixture.

  20. Raising Awareness of Cybercrime--The Use of Education as a Means of Prevention and Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bele, Julija Lapuh; Dimc, Maja; Rozman, David; Jemec, Andreja Sladoje

    2014-01-01

    The widespread use of mobile devices that enable Internet access increases the exposure of both individuals and organizations to cybercrime. This article addresses the issue of strategic prevention of cybercrime with the key focus on the measures to prevent cybercrime related to children and teenagers. The primary tool for such prevention is…

  1. A statistical approach for evaluating the effectiveness of heartworm preventive drugs: what does 100% efficacy really mean?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand N. Vidyashankar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Initial studies of heartworm preventive drugs all yielded an observed efficacy of 100% with a single dose, and based on these data the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA required all products to meet this standard for approval. Those initial studies, however, were based on just a few strains of parasites, and therefore were not representative of the full assortment of circulating biotypes. This issue has come to light in recent years, where it has become common for studies to yield less than 100% efficacy. This has changed the landscape for the testing of new products because heartworm efficacy studies lack the statistical power to conclude that finding zero worms is different from finding a few worms. Methods To address this issue, we developed a novel statistical model, based on a hierarchical modeling and parametric bootstrap approach that provides new insights to assess multiple sources of variability encountered in heartworm drug efficacy studies. Using the newly established metrics we performed both data simulations and analyzed actual experimental data. Results Our results suggest that an important source of modeling variability arises from variability in the parasite establishment rate between dogs; not accounting for this can overestimate the efficacy in more than 40% of cases. We provide strong evidence that ZoeMo-2012 and JYD-34, which both were established from the same source dog, have differing levels of susceptibility to moxidectin. In addition, we provide strong evidence that the differences in efficacy seen in two published studies using the MP3 strain were not due to randomness, and thus must be biological in nature. Conclusion Our results demonstrate how statistical modeling can improve the interpretation of data from heartworm efficacy studies by providing a means to identify the true efficacy range based on the observed data. Importantly, these new insights should help to inform regulators on how to

  2. Prevention of illicit trafficking of nuclear material and radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravchenko, N.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Countries like Russia, which have a large nuclear industry, export a significant number of radioactive sources and substances. Some of them are nuclear material. In general, it is the task of the customs inspectors to verify that the content of the shipment is in agreement with the declaration (as safeguards inspectors verify operators declarations). In case of other goods, this is easy. The consignment can be opened and the content can be seen and compared with the declaration. In the case of radioactive shipments this cannot be done. The radioactive substance is in a shielded container and opening is often only possible in a hot cell. Opening of the package and measurement of the removed source in presence of the customs inspector is impossible because the customs inspector is impossible because the customs control begins only after the declaration has been registered. Therefore, the Russian customs authorities have contracted a company to develop a gamma spectrometer, which can be used to verify the source, even if inside the shielded shipping container. Throughout the country - near the where many shipments or receivables take place - there are 18 customs offices, equipped with gamma spectrometers and special software. If a container arrives for customs inspection, its design is called from a database. Then the gamma spectrum outside the container is measured and the measured gamma peak energy and intensity is compared with the expected, which is calculated by software based on the design information of the container. This approach works well. Several cases were already discovered in Russia, where there were attempts to use legal shipments for smuggling radioactive sources. I would like to mention some technical problems concerning control of legal export and import of radioactive sources: a) There are not enough commercial suppliers, which offer the needed equipment; because of lack of competition prices for the equipment are too high b) Presently

  3. Preventing industrial pollution at its source: the final report of the Michigan source reduction initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-09-01

    This report describes a collaborative effort between NRDC, Dow Chemical, and Michigan Environmental Groups. The effort resulted in the identification and implementation of 17 pollution prevention projects that reduced substantial quantities of wastes and emissions and saved Dow considerable money.

  4. Preventing industrial pollution at its source: the final report of the Michigan source reduction initiative; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    1999-01-01

    This report describes a collaborative effort between NRDC, Dow Chemical, and Michigan Environmental Groups. The effort resulted in the identification and implementation of 17 pollution prevention projects that reduced substantial quantities of wastes and emissions and saved Dow considerable money

  5. Investigations on microbial leaching of zircon by means of spark source mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, S.; Dietze, H.J.; Bullmann, M.; Iske, U.

    1985-01-01

    Spark source mass spectrometry is a useful method for chemical element analysis of geological and biological samples. This sensitive technique (detection limit down to the ppb-range) is used to analyze leaching processes by means of several microorganisms. The problem of microbial leaching of chemical resistent materials was tested under laboratory condition with regard to possible analytical and technical applications. Leaching of metalls with chemolithotrophic and heterotrophic, organic acids producing microorganisms has been investigated with zircon from Baltic Shield containing 0.7% rare earth elements and 1.67% hafnium. When zircon is leached with strains of Thiobacillus ferroxidans the rare earth elements, Hf, Th, and U mostly (about 80%) can be recovered. (author)

  6. Analysis of geological material and especially ores by means of a 252Cf source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrandon, J.N.; Borderie, B.; Melky, S.; Halfon, J.; Marce, A.

    1976-01-01

    Tests were made on the possibilities for analysis by 252 Cf activation in the earth sciences and mining research. The results obtained show that while 252 Cf activation can only resolve certain very specific geochemical research problems, it does allow the exact and rapid determination of numerous elements whose ores are of great economic importance such as fluorine, titanium, vanadium, manganese, copper, antimony, barium, and tungsten. The utilization of activation analysis methods in the earth sciences is not a recent phenomenon. It has generally been limited to the analysis of traces in relatively small volumes by means of irradiation in nuclear reactors. Traditional neutron sources were little used and were not very applicable. The development of 252 Cf isotopic sources emitting more intense neutron fluxes make it possible to consider carrying out more sensitive determinations without making use of a nuclear reactor. In addition, this technique can be adapted for in situ analysis in mines and mine borings. Our work which is centered upon the possibilities of instrumental laboratory analyses of geological materials through 252 Cf activation is oriented in two principal directions: the study of the experimental sensitivities of the various elements in different rocks with the usual compositions; and the study of the possibilities for routine ore analyses

  7. Chemicals and excess materials disposition during deactivation as a means of pollution prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godfrey, S.D.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents several innovative and common sense approaches to pollution prevention that have been employed during facility deactivation at the Hanford Site in South Central Washington. It also presents several pollution prevention principles applicable to other projects. Innovative pollution prevention ideas employed at the Hanford site during facility deactivation included: (1) Recycling more than 185,000 gallons of radioactively contaminated nitric acid by sending it to an operating nuclear fuels reprocessing facility in England; (2) Recycling millions of pounds of chemicals and excess materials to other industries for reuse; (3) Evaporating flush water at a low rate and discharging it into the facility exhaust air stream to avoid discharging thousands of gallons of liquid to the soil column; and (4) Decontaminating and disposing of thousands of gallons of radioactively contaminated organic solvent waste to a RCRA licensed, power-producing, commercial incinerator. Common sense pollution prevention ideas that were employed include recycling office furniture, recycling paper from office files, and redeploying tools and miscellaneous process equipment. Additional pollution prevention occurred as the facility liquid and gaseous discharge streams were deactivated. From the facilities deactivation experiences at Hanford and the ensuing efforts to disposition excess chemicals and materials, several key pollution prevention principles should be considered at other projects and facilities, especially during the operational periods of the facility's mission. These principles include: Institute pollution prevention as a fundamental requirement early in the planning stage of a project or during the operational phase of a facility's mission; Promote recognition and implementation of pollution prevention initiatives; Instill pollution prevention as a value in all participants in the project or facility work scope; Minimize the amount of chemical products and materials

  8. Orphan sources and the challenges: requirement for the prevention of malevolent use of radioactive sources and preparedness for radiological emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradeepkumar, K.S.; Sharma, D.N.

    2006-01-01

    Challenges from smuggled or illegally transported radioactive sources with intention of causing threats to the society are similar to the radiological emergencies possible from misplaced/lost radioactive sources. While large number of radioactive sources are transported and are in use world over, the emergency preparedness and response system is not adequately developed compared to that for nuclear facilities. After the terrorist attack on W.T.C., there is concern world over about the malicious use of radioactive material calling for improving the emergency response system and international cooperation for preventing illicit trafficking of radioactive sources/material. Extremely sensitive state-of-the art monitoring systems installed at appropriate locations and periodic mobile radiation monitoring around suspected areas can be deterrent and can prevent the illicit trafficking of radioactive sources. Unless every nation ensures strict administrative control over the sources and implement usage of state-of-the art systems and methodology for early detection/prevention of illegal movement of sources within the territory and across its boundaries, the challenges from the orphan sources will remain for ever. The issues and challenges of man made radiological emergencies, remedial measures and the methodology for prevention and management of such emergencies are discussed here. The threat from an orphan source depends on many parameters. The type and quantity of the radionuclide, physical and chemical form influencing dispersion in air, deposition, solubility, migration in soil etc., can vary the radiological consequences when the source gets crushed accidentally along with scrap or is used for malevolent purposes. Depending on the level of environmental contamination, long term effects of the radiological emergency can significantly vary. Development of capability for quick detection, assessment and response are essential if prevention of theft/misuse of such sources

  9. Social connectedness as a source and consequence of meaning in life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stavrova, O.; Luhmann, Maike

    2016-01-01

    Multiple studies have shown that the sense of belonging and connectedness contribute to meaning in life, but does meaning also influence social connectedness? The present research examines the reciprocal relationships between meaning and different types of connectedness: intimate, relational, and

  10. Sealed Radioactive Sources. Information, Resources, and Advice for Key Groups about Preventing the Loss of Control over Sealed Radioactive Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-10-01

    Among its many activities to improve the safety and security of sealed sources, the IAEA has been investigating the root causes of major accidents and incidents since the 1980's and publishes findings so that others can learn from them. There are growing concerns today about the possibility that an improperly stored source could be stolen and used for malicious purposes. To improve both safety and security, information needs to be in the hands of those whose actions and decisions can prevent a source from being lost or stolen in the first place. The IAEA developed this booklet to help improve communication with key groups about hazards that may result from the loss of control over sealed radioactive sources and measures that should be implemented to prevent such loss of control. Many people may benefit from the information contained in this booklet, particularly those working with sources and those likely to be involved if control over a source is lost; especially: officials in government agencies, first responders, medical users, industrial users and the metal recycling industry. The general public may also benefit from an understanding of the fundamentals of radiation safety. This booklet is comprised of several stand-alone chapters intended to communicate with these key groups. Various accidents that are described and information that is provided are relevant to more than one key group and therefore, some information is repeated throughout the booklet. This booklet seeks to raise awareness of the importance of the safety and security of sealed radioactive sources. However, it is not intended to be a comprehensive 'how to' guide for implementing safety and security measures for sealed radioactive sources. For more information on these measures, readers are encouraged to consult the key IAEA safety and security-related publications identified in this booklet

  11. GOZCARDS Source Data for Ozone Monthly Zonal Means on a Geodetic Latitude and Pressure Grid V1.01

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GOZCARDS Source Data for Ozone Monthly Zonal Averages on a Geodetic Latitude and Pressure Grid product (GozSmlpO3) contains zonal means and related information...

  12. GOZCARDS Source Data for Nitrous Oxide Monthly Zonal Means on a Geodetic Latitude and Pressure Grid V1.01

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GOZCARDS Source Data for Nitrous Oxide Monthly Zonal Averages on a Geodetic Latitude and Pressure Grid product (GozSmlpN2O) contains zonal means and related...

  13. GOZCARDS Source Data for Nitric Acid Monthly Zonal Means on a Geodetic Latitude and Pressure Grid V1.01

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GOZCARDS Source Data for Nitric Acid Monthly Zonal Averages on a Geodetic Latitude and Pressure Grid product (GozSmlpHNO3) contains zonal means and related...

  14. Preventing aggressive incidents and seclusions in forensic care by means of the 'Early Recognition Method'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fluttert, F.A.J.; Meijel, B.K.G. van; Nijman, H.L.I.; Björkly, S.; Grypdonck, M.H.F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective. The Early Recognition Method aims at improving collaboration between nurses and patients to prevent aggression in forensic psychiatric care. To achieve this goal, Early Recognition Method strongly focuses on early signs of aggression. In the current study, we investigated whether

  15. Tracing diffuse anthropogenic Pb sources in rural soils by means of Pb isotope analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walraven, N.; Gaans, P.F.M. van; Veer, G. van der; Os, B.J.H. van; Klaver, G.T.; Vriend, S.P.; Middelburg, J.J.; Davies, G.R.

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of the cause and source of Pb pollution is important to abate environmental Pb pollution by taking source-related actions. Lead isotope analysis is a potentially powerful tool to identify anthropogenic Pb and its sources in the environment. Spatial information on the variation of

  16. Prevention of pharyngocutaneous fistulas by means of laser-weld techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shohet, J A; Reinisch, L; Ossoff, R H

    1995-07-01

    Although much has been written on methods of dealing with pharyngocutaneous fistulas once they have formed, there are few reports of methods of preventing fistula formation from occurring. We examined the use of laser-weld techniques with the neodymium:yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) and diode lasers to seal pharyngotomy closures. Laser-weld techniques have been used successfully in many other tissues, but reports documenting use in the upper aerodigestive tract are minimal. Indocyanine-green dye-enhanced collagen and fibrinogen were studied as laser solder materials for the diode laser. Twenty-nine experimental animals were studied. Neither the Nd:YAG nor the diode laser was successful in preventing fistula formation. Tensiometric studies documented significant strength of the laser welds ex vivo, but this finding was not clinically significant.

  17. Ukrainian efforts in preventing illicit trafficking in nuclear materials and other radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondratov, S.I.

    1998-01-01

    The Ukrainian efforts in preventing illicit trafficking in nuclear materials and other radioactive sources are described. Attention is paid for Ukrainian Government's Decree intended, in particular, to facilitate in establishing well-coordinated activities of the Ukrainian law enforcement bodies and other agencies involved, assigning the status of the main expert organization on illicit trafficking in nuclear materials to the Scientific Center 'Institute for Nuclear Research', in developing the three-years Program on prevention illicit trafficking in nuclear materials and other radioactive sources on the Ukrainian territory as well as measures at the State and customs borders. The main directions provided by the draft Program mentioned are presented as well. (author)

  18. A proposal for prevention of acute radiation hazard and social panic regarding orphan sources in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahash, T. [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto Univ., Osaka (Japan); Kai, M. [Oita Univ., of Nursing and Health Sciences, Oita (Japan); Yamazaki, K. [Chiyoda Technol Corporation, Tokyo (Japan); Gomi, K. [Japan Radioisotope Association, Tokyo (Japan); Nakazato, K. [School of Medicine, Keio univ., Tokyo (Japan); Iida, T. [Nagoya Univ., Nagoya (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    To respond to an increase of social problems concerning orphan sources in Japan, a working group was formed in the Japan Health Physics Society. In this working group, we investigated how to prevent acute radiation hazard or social panic regarding orphan sources in scrap metal and detection system for orphan sources brought into scrap yards before recycle. For detection system in a scrap yard we conducted an experiment on detectability of monitoring instrument using a radiation source mixed in scrap metal on a truck. The result showed that it was not easy to detect even a high-level source if it was shielded by scrap metal. We also estimated detection limits for radioactive materials in scrap metal by calculation that was validated with experimental data. We summarized present status about orphan sources in Japan and proposed a categorization of orphan sources according to dose rates to deal with unknown sources in a scrap yard. Our report includes some proposals to the government, industry and academic world for preventing acute radiation hazard and social panic.

  19. A proposal for prevention of acute radiation hazard and social panic regarding orphan sources in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahash, T.; Kai, M.; Yamazaki, K.; Gomi, K.; Nakazato, K.; Iida, T.

    2002-01-01

    To respond to an increase of social problems concerning orphan sources in Japan, a working group was formed in the Japan Health Physics Society. In this working group, we investigated how to prevent acute radiation hazard or social panic regarding orphan sources in scrap metal and detection system for orphan sources brought into scrap yards before recycle. For detection system in a scrap yard we conducted an experiment on detectability of monitoring instrument using a radiation source mixed in scrap metal on a truck. The result showed that it was not easy to detect even a high-level source if it was shielded by scrap metal. We also estimated detection limits for radioactive materials in scrap metal by calculation that was validated with experimental data. We summarized present status about orphan sources in Japan and proposed a categorization of orphan sources according to dose rates to deal with unknown sources in a scrap yard. Our report includes some proposals to the government, industry and academic world for preventing acute radiation hazard and social panic

  20. Adaptation of Individual Meaning-Centered Psychotherapy for Chinese Immigrant Cancer Patients | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of the study is to modify a type of counseling called "Individual Meaning Centered Psychotherapy" to meet the needs of Chinese cancer patients. Many cancer patients use counseling or other resources to help cope with the emotional burden of their illnesses. Counseling often helps them cope with cancer by giving them a place to express their feelings.

  1. The Search for Meaning: The Columbine Tragedy and Recommendations To Prevent Future School Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancato, Frank A.

    This article provides a rationale to support the position that the violence at Columbine High School in Littleton, Colorado, was driven by the attempt of Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold to choose violence, suicide, and death as an alternative to the pain caused by a negative self-concept and a lack of meaning in their attempt to resolve questions of…

  2. Definition and Means of Maintaining the Criticality Prevention Design Features Portion of the PFP Safety Envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RAMBLE, A.L.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to record the technical evaluation of the Operational Safety Requirements described in the Plutonium Finishing Plant Final (PFP) Operational Safety Requirements, WHC-SD-CP-OSR-010. Rev. 0-N , Section 3.1.1, ''Criticality Prevention System.'' This document, with its appendices, provides the following: (1) The results of a review of Criticality Safety Analysis Reports (CSAR), later called Criticality Safety Evaluation Reports (CSER), and Criticality Prevention Specifications (CPS) to determine which equipment or components analyzed in the CSER or CPS are considered as one of the two unlikely, independent, and concurrent changes before a criticality accident is possible. (2) Evaluations of equipment or components to determine the safety boundary for the system (Section 4). (3) A list of essential drawings that show the safety system or component (Appendix A). (4) A list of the safety envelope (SE) equipment (Appendix B). (5) Functional requirements for the individual safety envelope equipment (Sections 3 and 4). (6) A list of the operational and surveillance procedures necessary to maintain the system equipment within the safety envelope (Section 5)

  3. Gas migration from closed coal mines to the surface. Risk assessment methodology and prevention means

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokryszka, Z.; Tauziede, Ch.; Lagny, C.; Guise, Y.; Gobillot, R.; Planchenault, J.M.; Lagarde, R.

    2005-01-01

    French law as regards renunciation to mining concessions calls for the mining operator to first undertake analyses of the risks represented by their underground mining works. The problem of gas migration to the surface is especially significant in the context of coal mines. This is because mine gas can migrate to the earth's surface, then present significant risks: explosion, suffocation or gas poisoning risks. As part of the scheduled closure of all coal mining operations in France, INERIS has drawn up, at the request of national mining operator Charbonnages de France, a general methodology for assessing the risk linked to gas in the context of closed coal mines. This article presents the principles of this methodology. An application example based on a true case study is then described. This is completed by a presentation of the preventive and monitoring resources recommended and usually applied in order to manage the risk linked to gaseous emissions. (authors)

  4. Water-equivalent solid sources prepared by means of two distinct methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koskinas, Marina F.; Yamazaki, Ione M.; Potiens Junior, Ademar

    2014-01-01

    The Nuclear Metrology Laboratory at IPEN is involved in developing radioactive water-equivalent solid sources prepared from an aqueous solution of acrylamide using two distinct methods for polymerization. One of them is the polymerization by high dose of 60 Co irradiation; in the other method the solid matrix-polyacrylamide is obtained from an aqueous solution composed by acrylamide, catalyzers and an aliquot of a radionuclide. The sources have been prepared in cylindrical geometry. In this paper, the study of the distribution of radioactive material in the solid sources prepared by both methods is presented. (author)

  5. Paid advertising for AIDS prevention--would the ends justify the means?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, R J; Jason, J; Gibbs, D A; Kroger, F

    1991-01-01

    An examination by the Centers for Disease Control and the Research Triangle Institute concluded that "hard-to-reach" populations could be reached with AIDS prevention messages through the broadcast and print media and that a study should be undertaken to assess whether paid placement of these messages could have an effect on HIV-related behaviors. The recommended target population for a study of paid advertising would be sexually active 18-24-year-old black urban dwellers. Its behavioral objectives would include abstinence and safer sex practices. For any evaluation of a paid advertising campaign to be valid, there would have to be extensive audience profiling, research into the development of the message, pretesting of the message, and involvement of the community. The proposed study would include measurement of various "dosage" levels of paid advertising, use of a no-intervention comparison group, and a novel data collection technique. Although a specific target group and specific messages would be involved, the evaluation would make a substantial contribution to resolving the broader issue of whether and how mass media should be used directly or indirectly to change or reinforce health-related behaviors. PMID:1659711

  6. Calculations of the mean regional dispersion of a radioactive gas emitted from a continuous source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, C.

    1974-10-01

    The mean dispersion of a radioactive gas over distances of the order of 1000 kilometers is estimated with the aid of a statistical treatment of computed geostrophic trajectories and simplified vertical diffusion calculations based on the eddy diffusivity theory. (author)

  7. Means for obtaining a metal ion beam from a heavy-ion cyclotron source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, E.D.; Mallory, M.L.

    1975-08-01

    A description is given of a modification to a cyclotron ion source used in producing a high intensity metal ion beam. A small amount of an inert support gas maintains the usual plasma arc, except that it is necessary for the support gas to have a heavy mass, e.g., xenon or krypton as opposed to neon. A plate, fabricated from the metal (or anything that can be sputtered) to be ionized, is mounted on the back wall of the ion source arc chamber and is bombarded by returning energetic low-charged gas ions that fail to cross the initial accelerating gap between the ion source and the accelerating electrode. Some of the atoms that are dislodged from the plate by the returning gas ions become ionized and are extracted as a useful beam of heavy ions. (auth)

  8. Design and dosimetry of a novel 90y beta source to prevent restenosis after angioplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueck, Konrad; Schmidt, Werner; Wexberg, Paul; Goerz, Walter; Maurer, Gerald; Gottsauner-Wolf, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: Post-dilatation irradiation of the vessel wall is currently under investigation for prevention of restenosis after balloon dilatation. For the irradiation, special sources were designed for animal experiments which would give equivalent irradiation conditions and doses to the vessel wall that would later be employed for human application. Methods and Materials: For the planned irradiations, a specially designed yttrium-wire of 0.45-mm diameter coated with a thin shrink tube to prevent contamination was deployed. Several leakage tests applied before and after application proved that the irradiation source was leakproof. Dosimetry was performed by using 0.1-mm-thick thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD-100) calibrated against a primary standard. A shielding transport and application container was designed to facilitate the handling of the source during use, while reducing exposure of the medical personnel. Results: The designed source proves to be flexible for the insertion into proximal coronary vessels, and positioning at the site of stenosis. It provides an optimum protection of the animal and requires little radiation protection efforts on behalf of the medical staff. Dosimetric calculations and measurements showed that a centering of the source inside the vessel could be achieved with a maximum deviation of 50% between maximum and average dose levels. Conclusion: A yttrium-90 beta brachytherapy source was designed which provides high flexibility within proximal coronary arteries, ensures an adequate centering inside the artery, and provides irradiation conditions to the vessel wall of the experimental animal comparable to the application inside a human artery

  9. Rest/stress myocardial perfusion imaging: A means to prevent missed acute ischemic coronary syndrome diagnoses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink-Bennett, D.; Pattekar, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: The sensitivity and specificity of rest/stress (R/S) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) in detecting an acute ischemic coronary syndrome (AICS) was determined in 100 consecutive patients (pts) admitted to the Chest Pain Clinic-Observation Unit (CPC-OU) with chest pain (CP) of suspected cardiac etiology and a negative (neg) or non diagnostic (dx) EKG. There were 57 females and 43 males, 30-83 years of age. 50 studies were performed from 1/15/98 to 4/2/98; 50 from 11/19/99 to 1/10/00. Material and Methods: An AICS was deemed present if a reversible perfusion defect was demonstrated scintigraphically; a ?50% luminal narrow angiographically. No AICS if the pt had a normal R/S MPI, a fixed defect with normal wall motion and thickening, a neg cardiac catheterization, or was free of cardiac symptoms and had no history of a vascular event for 2-3 years post CPC-OU admission. 13 pts with a positive MPI had a cardiac catheterization, none with a neg MPI. SPECT rest MPI's were performed 30-90 minutes (mins) post 10.0 mCi of technetium 99m Sestamibi. SPECT stress MPI's were performed following a 6-8 hour acute myocardial infarction enzyme (CP-MB/Troponin 1) rule out and 30-90 mins post 30.0 mCi of technetium 99m Sestamibi. Results: 29 pts were lost to follow-up. There were 12 true positive, 5 false positive, 54 true negative and 0 false negative studies. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of a R/S MPI in detecting an AICS is 100%, 91%, 70% and 100%, respectively. An AICS was detected in 12% of pts admitted to the CPC-OU; a finding that correlates with its reported incidence of 2-12%. 6 were managed medically, 3 required emergent bypass surgery, 3 were stented. Conclusion: R/S MPI should be included in the CPC-OU dx work-up of pts with CP of suspected cardiac etiology to prevent missed AICS diagnoses. Patient care will be optimized and health care and medical malpractice awards for failure to diagnosis an acute myocardial infarction

  10. Aging of nanocluster Ti/TiOx films prepared by means of gas aggregation cluster source

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drábik, M.; Choukourov, A.; Artemenko, A.; Matoušek, J.; Polonskyi, O.; Solař, P.; Pešička, J.; Lorinčík, Jan; Slavínská, D.; Biederman, H.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 205, SUPPL. 2 (2011), S48-S52 ISSN 0257-8972. [12th International Conference on Plasma Surface Engineering. Garmisch-Partenkirchen, 13.09.2010-17.09.2010] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : Aging * Cluster source * Oxidation Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.867, year: 2011

  11. Imaging of noncarious cervical lesions by means of a fast swept source optical coherence tomography system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoica, Eniko T.; Marcauteanu, Corina; Bradu, Adrian; Sinescu, Cosmin; Topala, Florin Ionel; Negrutiu, Meda Lavinia; Duma, Virgil Florin; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh.

    2014-01-01

    Non-carious cervical lesions (NCCL) are defined as the loss of tooth substance at the cemento-enamel junction and are caused by abrasion, erosion and/or occlusal overload. In this paper we proved that our fast swept source OCT system is a valuable tool to track the evolution of NCCL lesions in time. On several extracted bicuspids, four levels of NCCL were artificially created. After every level of induced lesion, OCT scanning was performed. B scans were acquired and 3D reconstructions were generated. The swept source OCT instrument used in this study has a central wavelength of 1050 nm, a sweeping range of 106 nm (measured at 10 dB), an average output power of 16 mW and a sweeping rate of 100 kHz. A depth resolution determined by the swept source of 12 μm in air was experimentally obtained. NCCL were measured on the B-scans as 2D images and 3D reconstructions (volumes). For quantitative evaluations of volumes, the Image J software was used. By calculating the areas of the amount of lost tissue corresponding to each difference of Bscans, the final volumes of NCCL were obtained. This swept source OCT method allows the dynamic diagnosis of NCCL in time.

  12. Using Value-Focused Thinking as an Alternative Means of Opportunity Assessment for Strategic Sourcing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    comparison between two objectives at a time. The decision maker develops a micro - version of the value equation using only the two objectives that...variety of different functional areas. Table 10. New Alternatives Identified Alternative Source Base Recycling Services AFCEC Airfield Pavement Repair

  13. External Carbon Source Addition as a Means to Control an Activated Sludge Nutrient Removal Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isaacs, Steven Howard; Henze, Mogens; Søeberg, Henrik

    1994-01-01

    In alternating type activated sludge nutrient removal processes, the denitrification rate can be limited by the availability of readily-degradable carbon substrate. A control strategy is proposed by which an easily metabolizable COD source is added directly to that point in the process at which d...

  14. Analysis of aCGH Integrating Different Sources of Information by Means of a CBR

    OpenAIRE

    Zato Domínguez, Carolina; de Paz Santana, Juan F.; Bajo Pérez, Javier; Corchado Rodríguez, Juan M.

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge management is a key element in medical environments. Arrays CGH make possible the realization of tests on patients for the detection of mutations in chromosomal regions. The detection of the regions with mutations associated to different pathologies is an important step for the selection of relevant genes, proteins or diseases. The corresponding information of the mutations and genes is distributed in dif- ferent public sources and databases, so it is necessary the use of systems th...

  15. Prevention and Control of Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollutions in UK and Suggestions to China

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Kun; Ren, Tianzhi; Wu, Wenliang; Meng, Fanquiao; Bellarby, Jessica; Smith, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the world is facing challenges of maintaining food production growth while improving agricultural ecological environmental quality. The prevention and control of agricultural non-point source pollution, a key component of these challenges, is a systematic program which integrates many factors such as technology and its extension, relevant regulation and policies. In the project of UK-China Sustainable Agriculture Innovation Network, we undertook a comprehensive analysis of the prev...

  16. Dose rate measurement of a cobalt source 'Issledovatel' by means of Fricke dosimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Peimel-Stuglik, Z

    2001-01-01

    The results of measurements leading to the elaboration of a reliable and accurate dose rate determination for a cobalt irradiator 'Issledovatel' were presented. The dose measurements were done by means of classic Fricke dosimeter. The conclusions from measurements can be useful also for the dosimetry of other kinds of cobalt irradiators. The measurements were performed by a newly employed Laboratory for Measurements of Technological Doses staff and were a practical test of their proficiency in gamma ray dosimetry.

  17. Sources of HIV infection among men having sex with men and implications for prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratmann, O.; van Sighem, A.; Bezemer, D.; Gavryushkina, A.; Jurriaans, S.; Wensing, A.; de Wolf, F.; Reiss, P.; Fraser, C.

    2016-01-01

    New HIV diagnoses among men having sex with men (MSM) have not decreased appreciably in most countries, even though care and prevention services have been scaled up substantially in the past twenty years. To maximize the impact of prevention strategies, it is crucial to quantify the sources of transmission at the population level. We used viral sequence and clinical patient data from one of Europe’s nation-wide cohort studies to estimate probable sources of transmission for 617 recently infected MSM. 71% of transmissions were from undiagnosed men, 6% from men who had initiated antiretroviral therapy (ART), 1% from men with no contact to care for at least 18 months, and 43% from those in their first year of infection. The lack of substantial reductions in incidence amongst Dutch MSM is not a result of ineffective ART provision or inadequate retention in care. In counterfactual modeling scenarios, 19% of these past cases could have been averted with current annual testing coverage and immediate ART to those testing positive. 66% of these cases could have been averted with available antiretrovirals (immediate ART provided to all MSM testing positive, and pre-exposure antiretroviral prophylaxis taken by half of all who test negative for HIV), but only if half of all men at risk of transmission had tested annually. With increasing sequence coverage, molecular epidemiological analyses can be a key tool to direct HIV prevention strategies to the predominant sources of infection, and help send HIV epidemics amongst MSM into a decisive decline. PMID:26738795

  18. After the withdrawal of 'informed choice': the meanings and social effects of mothers' choice for HIV prevention in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desclaux, Alice

    2014-01-01

    To prevent HIV transmission through breastfeeding, African health services in 1998 implemented the World Health Organization's approach of 'informed choice' when recommending infant feeding options to HIV-positive mothers. In 2010, 'informed choice' was withdrawn in favour of antiretroviral prophylaxis with breastfeeding. A 2010-11 ethnographic study conducted in Senegal among HIV-positive mothers revealed three broad responses to the withdrawal of choice and formula provision: 'resistance' from association members claiming the health system was responsible for providing formula to ensure efficient prevention; 'compliance' among mothers adopting 'protected breastfeeding' without complaints; and 'self-reliance' among women trying to obtain formula through other means without mentioning choice. These three responses shed light on the meanings attributed to choice and on the social impact of formula provision during the 'informed choice era.' The analysis shows that the top-down introduction of 'informed choice' as an ethical and management imperative was appropriated and re-signified locally, making space for new forms of sociality within medical and associative social spaces. These social forms could not easily be maintained after the withdrawal of formula provision; women who continue to exert choice do so silently. By focusing on the upheaval of social care arrangements after the introduction of prophylaxis by pharmaceuticals, this paper sheds light on the understudied local consequences of changes in public health policies and the social framing of 'choice' in low-income countries' health systems.

  19. Deposition and characterization of Pt nanocluster films by means of gas aggregation cluster source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kylián, Ondřej, E-mail: ondrej.kylian@gmail.com; Prokeš, Jan; Polonskyi, Oleksandr; Čechvala, Juraj; Kousal, Jaroslav; Pešička, Josef; Hanuš, Jan; Biederman, Hynek

    2014-11-28

    In this study we report on the deposition of Pt nanocluster films prepared by gas aggregation source that was operated with argon as working gas. The aim of this study was optimization of deposition process as well as determination of properties of deposited nanocluster films and their temporal stability. It was found that the production of Pt nanoclusters reached maximum value for pressure of 100 Pa and increases monotonously with magnetron current. The deposition rate at optimized deposition conditions was 0.7 nm of the Pt nanocluster film per second. Deposited films were porous and composed of 4 nm Pt nanoclusters. The nanoclusters were metallic and no sights of their oxidation were observed after 1 year on open air as witnessed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Regarding the electrical properties, a dramatic decrease of the resistivity was observed with increasing amount of deposited nanoclusters. This decrease saturated for the films approximately 50 nm thick. Such behavior indicates transition between different mechanisms of electrical conductivity: charge hopping for thin discontinuous films and current conduction through conducting path formed when higher amount of nanoclusters is deposited. Different mechanisms of electrical conduction for thin and thick layers of Pt were confirmed by subsequent investigation of temperature dependence of resistivity. In addition, no changes in resistivity were observed after one year on open air that confirms stability of produced Pt nanocluster films. - Highlights: • Pt nanocluster films were deposited by gas aggregation nanocluster source. • Conditions leading to effective deposition of Pt nanocluster films were found. • Deposited nanocluster films have good temporal stability. • Electrical properties of Pt films were found to depend on their thickness.

  20. Means to improve light source productivity: from proof of concept to field implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausa, E.; Cacouris, T.; Conley, W.; Jackson, M.; Luo, S.; Murthy, S.; Rechtsteiner, G.; Steiner, K.

    2016-03-01

    Light source technological performance is key to enabling chipmaker yield and production success. Just as important is ensuring that performance is consistent over time to help maintain as high an uptime as possible on litho-cells (scanner and track combination). While it is common to see average tool uptime of over 99% based on service intervention time, we will show that there are opportunities to improve equipment availability through a multifaceted approach that can deliver favorable results and significantly improve on the actual production efficiency of equipment. The majority of chipmakers are putting light source data generated by tools such as Cymer OnLine (COL), OnPulse Plus, and SmartPulse to good use. These data sets, combined with in-depth knowledge of the equipment, makes it possible to draw powerful conclusions that help increase both chip manufacturing consistency as well as equipment productivity. This discussion will focus on the latter, equipment availability, and how data analysis can help increase equipment availability for Cymer customers. There are several types of opportunities for increasing equipment availability, but in general we can focus on two primary categories: 1) scheduled downtime and 2) unscheduled downtime. For equipment that is under control of a larger entity, as the laser is to the scanner, there are additional categories related to either communication errors or better synchronization of events that can maximize overall litho-cell efficiency. In this article we will focus on general availability without highlighting the specific cause of litho-cell (laser, scanner and track). The goal is to increase equipment available time with a primary focus is on opportunities to minimize errors and variabilities.

  1. THE SPHERE OF THE SOURCES FOR ENERGY AND OF THE MEANS FOR RENFORCING IN FOOTBALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelian Drăgan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available If the footballers have a rich nourishment in carbohydrats, she has an positive effect on thecapacity of them biological performance. The footballer who is good trained, has a big concentration of glycogenin muscle, if the meal after the last traning before the game contents a big proportion of carbohydrats. Also, thefootballers can to use in excess the vitamins A, C and E, with the justification that they are capable to stop thefortuitous frequency of the free radicals who oxidize and who work in the same kind as the antioxidants.In the view of the renforcing after effort, the footballers have at disposition a series of natural means: theaerobycal activity; the therapy through extent (streching; the total rest, as well as a series of physiotherapeuticalmeans: the massage; the therapy at warm; the therapy at cold; the cold-warm

  2. Joint Source-Channel Coding by Means of an Oversampled Filter Bank Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinkovic Slavica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantized frame expansions based on block transforms and oversampled filter banks (OFBs have been considered recently as joint source-channel codes (JSCCs for erasure and error-resilient signal transmission over noisy channels. In this paper, we consider a coding chain involving an OFB-based signal decomposition followed by scalar quantization and a variable-length code (VLC or a fixed-length code (FLC. This paper first examines the problem of channel error localization and correction in quantized OFB signal expansions. The error localization problem is treated as an -ary hypothesis testing problem. The likelihood values are derived from the joint pdf of the syndrome vectors under various hypotheses of impulse noise positions, and in a number of consecutive windows of the received samples. The error amplitudes are then estimated by solving the syndrome equations in the least-square sense. The message signal is reconstructed from the corrected received signal by a pseudoinverse receiver. We then improve the error localization procedure by introducing a per-symbol reliability information in the hypothesis testing procedure of the OFB syndrome decoder. The per-symbol reliability information is produced by the soft-input soft-output (SISO VLC/FLC decoders. This leads to the design of an iterative algorithm for joint decoding of an FLC and an OFB code. The performance of the algorithms developed is evaluated in a wavelet-based image coding system.

  3. Carotenoids from Marine Microalgae: A Valuable Natural Source for the Prevention of Chronic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Filomena de Jesus Raposo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have shown a relation between antioxidants and the prevention of several chronic diseases. Microalgae are a potential novel source of bioactive molecules, including a wide range of different carotenoids that can be used as nutraceuticals, food supplements and novel food products. The objective of this review is (i to update the research that has been carried out on the most known carotenoids produced by marine microalgae, including reporting on their high potentialities to produce other less known important compounds; (ii to compile the work that has been done in order to establish some relationship between carotenoids and oxidative protection and treatment; (iii to summarize the association of oxidative stress and the various reactive species including free radicals with several human diseases; and (iv to provide evidence of the potential of carotenoids from marine microalgae to be used as therapeutics to treat or prevent these oxidative stress-related diseases.

  4. Carotenoids from Marine Microalgae: A Valuable Natural Source for the Prevention of Chronic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposo, Maria Filomena de Jesus; de Morais, Alcina Maria Miranda Bernardo; de Morais, Rui Manuel Santos Costa

    2015-08-14

    Epidemiological studies have shown a relation between antioxidants and the prevention of several chronic diseases. Microalgae are a potential novel source of bioactive molecules, including a wide range of different carotenoids that can be used as nutraceuticals, food supplements and novel food products. The objective of this review is (i) to update the research that has been carried out on the most known carotenoids produced by marine microalgae, including reporting on their high potentialities to produce other less known important compounds; (ii) to compile the work that has been done in order to establish some relationship between carotenoids and oxidative protection and treatment; (iii) to summarize the association of oxidative stress and the various reactive species including free radicals with several human diseases; and (iv) to provide evidence of the potential of carotenoids from marine microalgae to be used as therapeutics to treat or prevent these oxidative stress-related diseases.

  5. Prevention and control of zoonoses at their source: from the Chinese perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songtao YANG,Yuwei GAO,Jun QIAN,Quan LIU,Xuexing ZHENG,Hualei WANG,Zhiping XIA,Xianzhu XIA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Zoonoses are a significant public health concern and cause considerable socioeconomic problems globally. The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI, and Ebola virus disease (EVD has had a significant effect on the national economy and public health in China, and other countries. This review analyzed zoonotic disease issues faced by China, and the main factors contributing to the risk of zoonotic disease. The Chinese government has devised new strategies and has taken measures to deal with the challenges of these diseases, and the prevention and control of zoonoses at their source. A strategy that is suited to China's national conditions, is proposed.

  6. Pulsed voltage electrospray ion source and method for preventing analyte electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertesz, Vilmos [Knoxville, TN; Van Berkel, Gary [Clinton, TN

    2011-12-27

    An electrospray ion source and method of operation includes the application of pulsed voltage to prevent electrolysis of analytes with a low electrochemical potential. The electrospray ion source can include an emitter, a counter electrode, and a power supply. The emitter can include a liquid conduit, a primary working electrode having a liquid contacting surface, and a spray tip, where the liquid conduit and the working electrode are in liquid communication. The counter electrode can be proximate to, but separated from, the spray tip. The power system can supply voltage to the working electrode in the form of a pulse wave, where the pulse wave oscillates between at least an energized voltage and a relaxation voltage. The relaxation duration of the relaxation voltage can range from 1 millisecond to 35 milliseconds. The pulse duration of the energized voltage can be less than 1 millisecond and the frequency of the pulse wave can range from 30 to 800 Hz.

  7. Practice of implementation of innovative means of teaching in forming of preventive thinking in students of higher medical educational establisments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biletska E.M.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The problem of construction of a holistic methodological system of training future doctors considered in the article, is impossible outside the context of integration processes taking place in modern education and needs a careful study of international experience. The research aim is to develop a system of innovative means of education for the formation of preventive thinking in students of higher medical educational establishment, concerning professionally oriented undergraduate preparation of doctors. Analysis of the results allowed to determine the characteristic features of innovative means, forms and teaching methods, specificity of their use in interactive educational environment, this against the background of meticulous work of the teaching staff of the department of general hygiene of Dnepropetrovsk Medical Academy provides the efficiency of educational process which integrates personal, creative, social and educational purposes. The suggested innovative methods are involved in the general system of modern education in higher school being effectively used for providing a high level of professional training in teaching of academic subject area "Hygiene and Ecology".

  8. Source reduction for prevention of methylene chloride hazards: cases from four industrial sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellenbecker Michael J

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Source reduction, defined as chemical, equipment and process changes that intervene in an industrial process to eliminate or reduce hazards, has not figured as a front-line strategy for the protection of workers' health. Such initiatives are popular for environmental protection, but their feasibility and effectiveness as an industrial hygiene approach have not been well described. Methods We investigated four cases of source reduction as a hazard prevention strategy in Massachusetts companies that had used methylene chloride, an occupational carcinogen, for cleaning and adhesive thinning. Three cases were retrospective and one was prospective, where the researchers assisted with the source reduction process change. Data were collected using qualitative research methods, including in-depth interviews and site visits. Results Motivated by environmental restrictions, a new worker health standard, and opportunity for productivity improvements, three companies eliminated their use of methylene chloride by utilizing available technologies and drop-in substitutes. Aided by technical assistance from the investigators, a fourth case dramatically reduced its use of methylene chloride via process and chemistry changes. While the companies' evaluations of potential work environment impacts of substitutes were not extensive, and in two cases new potential hazards were introduced, the overall impact of the source reduction strategy was deemed beneficial, both from a worker health and a production standpoint. Conclusion The findings from these four cases suggest that source reduction should be considered potentially feasible and effective for reducing or eliminating the potential hazards of methylene chloride exposure. Especially when faced with a hazard that is both an environmental and worker health concern, companies may chose to change their processes rather than rely on local exhaust ventilation equipment or personal protective

  9. Numerical simulation of the throwing power of cathodic prevention applied to marine reinforced concrete piles by means of sacrificial anodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertolini, Luca; Redaelli, Elena [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e Ingegneria Chimica ' G. Natta' , Via Mancinelli, 7, 20131 Milan (Italy)

    2004-07-01

    The paper deals with the determination of current and potential distribution in reinforced concrete elements partially submerged in seawater aimed at predicting the throwing power of cathodic prevention applied by means of sacrificial anodes. Previous laboratory studies carried out on reinforced concrete columns 15 cm x 15 cm x 120 cm showed that the use of sacrificial anodes placed in the solution at the bottom of the column could provide protection of corroding steel bars in the emerged part of the pile up to about 60 cm from the water level. However, if sacrificial anodes were applied when the concrete was chloride free and steel bars were still passive, even the highest bar, placed at 1 m from the level of water, was protected. This is due to the higher polarizability of passive steel, that makes the throwing power of cathodic prevention higher compared to that of cathodic protection. In order to extend the results obtained on small-scale specimens to elements of higher dimensions, numerical simulations of current and potential distribution were carried out. Two-dimensional models were set up of reinforced concrete piles containing steel bars at different heights protected with sacrificial anodes placed in the water in which they were partially submerged. Boundary conditions describing the electrochemical behaviour of bars were obtained from polarisation curves measured on the previously mentioned columns. Values of concrete conductivity at different heights from the water level were also obtained from those tests. Several cases were considered, representative of conditions differing in electrochemical behaviour of steel bars, dimensions of element, position of sacrificial anodes. The paper discusses the results obtained from the models and compares them in terms of the throwing power that can be reached by using sacrificial anodes immersed in the seawater to protect reinforcing steel bars in the emerged part of a pile. (authors)

  10. Methods to prevent the source term of methyl lodide during a core melt accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karhu, A. [VTT Energy (Finland)

    1999-11-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to gather available information of the methods to prevent a source term of methyl iodide during a core melt accident. The most widely studied methods for nuclear power plants include the impregnated carbon filters and alkaline additives and sprays. It is indicated that some deficiencies of these methods may emerge. More reactive impregnants and additives could make a great improvement. As a new method in the field of nuclear applications, the potential of transition metals to decompose methyl iodide, is introduced in this review. This area would require an additional research, which could elucidate the remaining questions of the reactions. The ionization of the gaseous methyl iodide by corona-discharge reactors is also shortly described. (au)

  11. Priorities for injury prevention in women's Australian football: a compilation of national data from different sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortington, Lauren V; Finch, Caroline F

    2016-01-01

    Participation in Australian football (AF) has traditionally been male dominated and current understanding of injury and priorities for prevention are based solely on reports of injuries in male players. There is evidence in other sports that indicates that injury types differ between males and females. With increasing participation in AF by females, it is important to consider their specific injury and prevention needs. This study aimed to provide a first injury profile from existing sources for female AF. Compilation of injury data from four prospectively recorded data sets relating to female AF: (1) hospital admissions in Victoria, 2008/09-13/14, n=500 injuries; (2) emergency department (ED) presentations in Victoria, 2008/09-2012/13, n=1,879 injuries; (3) insurance claims across Australia 2004-2013, n=522 injuries; (4) West Australian Women's Football League (WAWFL), 2014 season club data, n=49 injuries. Descriptive results are presented as injury frequencies, injury types and injury to body parts. Hospital admissions and ED presentations were dominated by upper limb injuries, representing 47% and 51% of all injuries, respectively, primarily to the wrist/hand at 32% and 40%. Most (65%) insurance claim injuries involved the lower limb, 27% of which were for knee ligament damage. A high proportion of concussions (33%) were reported in the club-collected data. The results provide the first compilation of existing data sets of women's AF injuries and highlight the need for a rigorous and systematic injury surveillance system to be instituted.

  12. Vegetables as a Source of Dietary Fiber to Prevent Degenerative Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deddy Muchtadi

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available For long time vegetables were thought only as sources of several vitamins; however, it has been shown that vegetables contain other component, which is also important for maintaining body's health, i.e., dietary fiber. Dietary fiber is a group of polysaccharides oan other polymers, which cannot be digested by upper gastro-intestinal system of human. Dietary fiber can be grouped as soluble and insoluble dietary fiber, showing in different physiological effect. Soluble dietary fiber (SDF is effective in preventing cardiovascular disease, while insoluble dietary fiber (IDF can prevent the development of colon cancer, diverticulosis as well as obesity.Local vegetables found to contain high SDF (higher than 3,06% db are: watercress, green bean, carrot, eggplant, lettuce, broccoli, spinach, string bean, and aubergine; while which contain high IDF (higher than 40,60% db are: winged bean, watercress, chinese leaves, katuk leaves, lettuce, green bean, broccoli, carrot and spinach. Cooking (i.e. boiling, steaming and pan frying decrease the IDF content of vegetables, while their SDF content is not affected by cooking treatments.

  13. Optimization of the ship type using waveform by means of Rankine source method; Rankine source ho ni yoru hakei wo mochiita funagata saitekika ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirayama, A; Eguchi, T [Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-04-10

    Among the numerical calculation methods for steady-state wave-making problems, the panel shift Rankine source (PSRS) method has the advantages of rather precise determination of wave pattern of practical ship types, and short calculation period. The wave pattern around the hull was calculated by means of the PSRS method. The waveform analysis was carried out for the wave, to obtain an amplitude function of the original ship type. Based on the amplitude function, a ship type improvement method aiming at the optimization of ship type was provided using a conditional calculus of variation. A Series 60 (Cb=0.6) ship type was selected for the ship type improvement, to apply this technique. It was suggested that optimum design can be made for reducing the wave making resistance by means of this method. For the improvement of Series 60 ship type using this method, a great degree of reduction in the wave making resistance was recognized from the results of numerical waveform analysis. It was suggested that the ship type improvement aiming at the reduction of wave-making resistance can be made in shorter period and by smaller labor compared with the method using a waveform analysis of cistern tests. 5 refs., 9 figs.

  14. Organization of work for prevention of propagation of radioactive contamination, for decontamination of the premise surfaces and individual protective means in case of radiation accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klochkov, V.N.; Vas'kin, A.G.; Filatova, V.M.

    1995-01-01

    Radiation accident results in radioactive contamination of the surface, clothes and other property. If proper measures are taken, it will prevent propagation of contamination. Decontamination of surfaces - is a complicated and tedious process. The paper has examined the measures of organization and technical aspects of prevention of propagation of radioactive contamination. Methods of decontamination of internal surfaces of premises are demonstrated, organization of the individual protective means is determined. 9 refs

  15. Exploring origin of food as a source of meanings for Finnish consumers: A qualitative comparison of meanings in Swedish, German and French food

    OpenAIRE

    Luomala, Harri

    2004-01-01

    The findings show that Finnish consumers attach partly overlapping partly distinct cognitive, affective, and normative meanings to Swedish, German, and French food. Swedish and French foods are perceived healthier than German food. Finnish consumers also think that Swedish and French food is of high quality, safe and pure while in the case of German food consumers were more doubtful.

  16. Expounding a Few Key Strategies of Imam Ali (AS on Prevention of Diseases by Means of Improving Nutrition Style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Moradi

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: Using the guidelines of Imam Ali (AS, new dimensions of prevention practices and treatment of chronic diseases can be achieved. Furthermore, many other hypotheses can be raised making available a wide range of scientific researches

  17. Identifying effective components of alcohol abuse prevention programs: effects of fear appeals, message style, and source expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stainback, R D; Rogers, R W

    1983-04-01

    Despite the importance of alcohol abuse prevention programs, the effectiveness of many components of these programs has not been demonstrated empirically. An experiment tested the efficacy of three components of many prevention programs: fear appeals, one- versus two-sided message style, and the expertise of the source. The persuasive impact of this information was examined on 113 ninth-grade students' intentions to abstain from drinking alcohol while they are teenagers. The results reveal that fear appeals are successful in strengthening students' intentions to refrain from drinking. Implications are discussed for implementing these principles and for designing future investigations of alcohol abuse prevention programs.

  18. Tomato as a Source of Carotenoids and Polyphenols Targeted to Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Martí

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A diet rich in vegetables has been associated with a reduced risk of many diseases related to aging and modern lifestyle. Over the past several decades, many researches have pointed out the direct relation between the intake of bioactive compounds present in tomato and a reduced risk of suffering different types of cancer. These bioactive constituents comprise phytochemicals such as carotenoids and polyphenols. The direct intake of these chemoprotective molecules seems to show higher efficiencies when they are ingested in its natural biological matrix than when they are ingested isolated or in dietary supplements. Consequently, there is a growing trend for improvement of the contents of these bioactive compounds in foods. The control of growing environment and processing conditions can ensure the maximum potential accumulation or moderate the loss of bioactive compounds, but the best results are obtained developing new varieties via plant breeding. The modification of single steps of metabolic pathways or their regulation via conventional breeding or genetic engineering has offered excellent results in crops such as tomato. In this review, we analyse the potential of tomato as source of the bioactive constituents with cancer-preventive properties and the result of modern breeding programs as a strategy to increase the levels of these compounds in the diet.

  19. Ionizing radiation sources: very diversified means, multiple applications and a changing regulatory environment. Conference proceedings; Les sources de rayonnements ionisants: des moyens tres diversifies, des applications multiples et une reglementation en evolution. Recueil des presentations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-15

    This document brings together the available presentations given at the conference organised by the French society of radiation protection about ionizing radiation source means, applications and regulatory environment. Twenty eight presentations (slides) are compiled in this document and deal with: 1 - Overview of sources - some quantitative data from the national inventory of ionizing radiation sources (Yann Billarand, IRSN); 2 - Overview of sources (Jerome Fradin, ASN); 3 - Regulatory framework (Sylvie Rodde, ASN); 4 - Alternatives to Iridium radiography - the case of pressure devices at the manufacturing stage (Henri Walaszek, Cetim; Bruno Kowalski, Welding Institute); 5 - Dosimetric stakes of medical scanner examinations (Jean-Louis Greffe, Charleroi hospital of Medical University); 6 - The removal of ionic smoke detectors (Bruno Charpentier, ASN); 7 - Joint-activity and reciprocal liabilities - Organisation of labour risk prevention in case of companies joint-activity (Paulo Pinto, DGT); 8 - Consideration of gamma-graphic testing in the organization of a unit outage activities (Jean-Gabriel Leonard, EDF); 9 - Radiological risk control at a closed and independent work field (Stephane Sartelet, Areva); 10 - Incidents and accidents status and typology (Pascale Scanff, IRSN); 11 - Regional overview of radiation protection significant events (Philippe Menechal, ASN); 12 - Incident leading to a tritium contamination in and urban area - consequences and experience feedback (Laurence Fusil, CEA); 13 - Experience feedback - loss of sealing of a calibration source (Philippe Mougnard, Areva); 14 - Blocking incident of a {sup 60}Co source (Bruno Delille, Salvarem); 15 - Triggering of gantry's alarm: status of findings (Philippe Prat, Syctom); 16 - Non-medical electric devices: regulatory changes (Sophie Dagois, IRSN; Jerome Fradin, ASN); 17 - Evaluation of the dose equivalent rate in pulsed fields: method proposed by the IRSN and implementation test (Laurent Donadille

  20. ["Where there's a woman, there's a Pap smear": the meanings assigned to cervical cancer prevention among women in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, Ana María; Iriart, Jorge Alberto Bernstein

    2013-09-01

    This study focuses on the meanings assigned to practices for cervical cancer prevention among women from low-income neighborhoods in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil. This was a qualitative study based on content analysis of semi-structured interviews with 15 women 24 to 68 years of age. The results showed high appreciation of the Pap smear test, performed as part of routine gynecological examination (but without the patient necessarily having biomedical knowledge of its role). Besides accessibility and quality of health services, other factors influence the way the women assign meaning to cervical cancer prevention. Moral values associated with sexuality and gender influence risk perception, adoption of preventive practices, and interpretation of cervical cytology results. The ongoing practice of the Pap smear test is part of the construction of femininity, which is associated with maturity and personal responsibility for self care in a context of medicalization of the female body.

  1. THE MEANING OF THE PREVENTION WITH SPEECH THERAPY AS A IMPORTANT FAC-TOR FOR THE PROPER DEVELOPMENT OF THE CHILDREN SPEECH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. FILIPOVA

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presented some conscientious and results from the finished research which showing the meaning of the prevention with speech therapy in the development of the speech. The research was done at Negotino and with that are shown the most frequent speech deficiency of the children at preschool age.

  2. The prevention of oral complications in bone-marrow transplantations by means of oral hygiene and dental intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raber-Durlacher, J. E.; Abraham-Inpijn, L.; van Leeuwen, E. F.; Lustig, K. H.; van Winkelhoff, A. J.

    1989-01-01

    Oral complications cause morbidity and mortality in patients, undergoing allogeneic or autologous bone-marrow transplantation. The clinical features and the pathogenesis of the oral sequelae of bone marrow ablative therapy and graft-versus-host disease are discussed. In addition, a preventive oral

  3. Breast cancer prevention knowledge, beliefs, and information sources between non-Hispanic and Hispanic college women for risk reduction focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzke, Cynthia; Amatya, Anup; Vilchis, Hugo

    2015-02-01

    Although growing research focuses on breast cancer screenings, little is known about breast cancer prevention with risk reduction awareness for ethnic differences among college-age women. This study examined breast cancer prevention knowledge, beliefs, and information sources between non-Hispanic and Hispanic college women. Using a cross-sectional study, women at a university in the Southwest completed a 51-item survey about breast cancer risk factors, beliefs, and media and interpersonal information sources. The study was guided by McGuire's Input Output Persuasion Model. Of the 546 participants, non-Hispanic college women (n = 277) and Hispanic college women (n = 269) reported similar basic knowledge levels of modifiable breast cancer risk factors for alcohol consumption (52 %), obesity (72 %), childbearing after age 35 (63 %), and menopausal hormone therapy (68 %) using bivariate analyses. Most common information sources were Internet (75 %), magazines (69 %), provider (76 %) and friends (61 %). Least common sources were radio (44 %), newspapers (34 %), and mothers (36 %). Non-Hispanic college women with breast cancer family history were more likely to receive information from providers, friends, and mothers. Hispanic college women with a breast cancer family history were more likely to receive information from their mothers. Breast cancer prevention education for college women is needed to include risk reduction for modifiable health behavior changes as a new focus. Health professionals may target college women with more information sources including the Internet or apps.

  4. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A

    2001-01-01

    , breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....

  5. Suicide and attempted suicide: epidemiological surveillance as a crucial means of a local suicide prevention project in Trento's Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Napoli, Wilma Angela; Della Rosa, Alberto

    2015-09-01

    The World Health Organization identifies suicide among the top 10 causes of death in many countries with an overall mortality rate of 16 per 100,000 inhabitants. Furthermore suicide attempts present a frequency 4-10 times greater than the suicidal events, representing also one of the main risk factors to lead to recurrent attempts of suicide. In 2008 the Autonomous Province of Trento launched a suicide prevention pogram called "Invitation to Life" which includes various interventions intended to counter the phenomenon of suicide in the region. Actually the epidemiological research upon the phenomenon of suicide in Trentino region is one of the main pillars of the project: it represents a fundamental requirement to identify risk and protective factors in the population in order to adopt more specific and effective preventive strategies. This article aims to present methods and instruments for epidemiological monitoring of suicide and attempted suicide which are applied in Trentino and to describe results after seven years from the beginning of the local prevention program "Invitation to life".

  6. The electron cyclotron resonance coupled to laser ion source for charge state enhancement experiment: production of high inensity ion beams by means of hybrid ion source

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gammino, S.; Torrisi, L.; Ciavola, G.; Andó, L.; Celona, L.; Manciagli, S.; Krása, Josef; Láska, Leoš; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Rohlena, Karel; Mazzasalma, A. M.; Gentile, C.; Picciotto, A.; Wolowski, J.; Woryna, E.; Badziak, J.; Parys, P.; Hitz, D.; Shirkov, G. D.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 96, č. 5 (2004), s. 2961-2967 ISSN 0021-8979 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010921 Keywords : laser ion sources * ECR ion sources Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.255, year: 2004

  7. Association Between Parental Barriers to Accessing a Usual Source of Care and Children's Receipt of Preventive Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellettiere, John; Chuang, Emmeline; Hughes, Suzanne C; Quintanilla, Isaac; Hofstetter, C Richard; Hovell, Melbourne F

    Preventive health services are important for child development, and parents play a key role in facilitating access to services. This study examined how parents' reasons for not having a usual source of care were associated with their children's receipt of preventive services. We used pooled data from the 2011-2014 National Health Interview Survey (n = 34 843 participants). Parents' reasons for not having a usual source of care were framed within the Penchansky and Thomas model of access and measured through 3 dichotomous indicators: financial barriers (affordability), attitudes and beliefs about health care (acceptability), and all other nonfinancial barriers (accessibility, accommodation, and availability). We used multivariable logistic regression models to test associations between parental barriers and children's receipt of past-year well-child care visits and influenza vaccinations, controlling for other child, family, and contextual factors. In 2014, 14.3% (weighted percentage) of children had at least 1 parent without a usual source of care. Children of parents without a usual source of care because they "don't need a doctor and/or haven't had any problems" or they "don't like, trust, or believe in doctors" had 35% lower odds of receiving well-child care (adjusted odds ratio = 0.65; 95% CI, 0.56-0.74) and 23% lower odds of receiving influenza vaccination (adjusted odds ratio = 0.77; 95% CI, 0.69-0.86) than children of parents without those attitudes and beliefs about health care. Financial and other nonfinancial parental barriers were not associated with children's receipt of preventive services. Results were independent of several factors relevant to children's access to preventive health care, including whether the child had a usual source of care. Parents' attitudes and beliefs about having a usual source of care were strongly associated with their children's receipt of recommended preventive health services. Rates of receipt of child preventive

  8. Radiation safety supervisory system in Latvia and its role in prevention of unauthorised practices with radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eglajs, A.; Salmins, A.

    2001-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the practical and legal aspects of the use of radiation sources. The existing regulatory infrastructure is briefly analysed and proposed systems are described. The proposed interactions between the regulatory body and the advisory board are presented and some details about joint activities of different institutions concerning radiation safety are given. An implementation example of the supervisory system in combating illicit trafficking is analysed and the essential components in the prevention of illicit trafficking are assessed. Some findings of investigations are quoted regarding improvements in protection and prevention on the national and the international level. (author)

  9. Reducing the threat of RDDs. It's not enough to plug gaps in security systems for radioactive sources. Needed are integrated 'cradle-to-grave' controls to prevent high-risk sources from finding their way into the wrong hands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, C.D.

    2003-01-01

    Common radioactive materials, such as commercial radioactive sources used in medicine, industry, and scientific research, could fuel radiological dispersal devices (RDDs). While the IAEA has worked toward improving the security of radioactive sources long before the September 11 attacks, the IAEA moved quickly after this date to increase its efforts to prevent these materials from becoming tools of radiological terror. IAEA Director General Elbaradei has spoken often about the need for a 'cradle-to-grave' protection system for radioactive materials. While the IAEA and several Member States have striven to establish such a system, more thinking and work are still required to develop an integrated, layered, and cooperative defense system for radioactive source security. Security improvement should be prioritized on those radioactive sources that pose the greatest security risks. Although perfect security systems do not exist a layered security system should be established. This means that multiple barriers should be in place to lessen the likelihood of a radiological terror act. A summary of the findings of the International Conference on Security of Radioactive sources held in March 2003 is included in this paper

  10. Secondary Prevention of Visual Impairment in Students with Medium Degree Myopia by Means of Physical Therapy in a Vocational School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С. А. Пашкевич

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective is to implement a visual impairment prevention program into a vocational school’s academic process for the risk group students and to determine its effectiveness based on the dynamics of comprehensive scoring assessment of the degree of visual pathology risk. Materials and methods. Observed were 91 students (35 boys and 56 girls. For the formative experiment purposes, a study group (SG consisting of 10 persons (4 boys and 6 girls with a visual organ pathology who performed the designed preventive program and a reference group (RG consisting of 10 persons (5 boys and 5 girls with a visual organ pathology who studied under the usual program were selected The program effectiveness was evaluated by changes in the students’ subjective evaluation of their visual comfort. The Relative Risk Index (RR was used to perform a rough evatuation of the cause-effect relations between the acting factor and the effect appearance. The output characteristics were compared between the groups using χ2 tests (binary variables, t-tests (continuous variables, Mann-Whitney test for comparing the distribution of ordinal variables, and Wilcoxon test (related sampling. Results. The dynamics in the RG over the academic year showed an increase in the scoring assessment of the visual fatigue, which constituted 90.6 ± 10.3%. At the same time, the students in the SG demonstrated a reduced intensity and number of complaints about the visual analyzer fatigue. In the SG, the complex scoring assessment reliably decreased from 9.8 ± 0.8 to 7.2 ± 0.9 c.u. The implemented preventive program had a positive effect on the complaints: “the desire to bring the text closer to the eyes” (relative risk (RR = 6.0, χ2 = 5.6, p <0.05, “the feeling of existence of certain periods of change in the visual acuity” (relative risk (RR = 3.5; χ2 = 5.1; p <0.05, and the overall assessment of the questionnaire (relative risk (RR = 7.0; χ2 = 7.5; p <0.01. The

  11. Understanding meaning and bridging divides: the use of an African metaphor for the South African Open Source Centre

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Byrne, E

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available , University of South Africa (UNISA), Tshwane, South Africa 3. Open Source Centre (OSC), Meraka Institute, Centre for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Tshwane, South Africa * corresponding author: jollirm@unisa.ac.za Abstract This paper... illustrates how metaphors can be used in organizational change and how the use of a particular metaphor (meraka2) was used strategically to effect such a change in the Open Source Centre (OSC) at the Centre for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR...

  12. 76 FR 80747 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Oregon: New Source Review/Prevention of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ..., Definitions; Rule 0300, Excess Emissions and Emergency Provision, Purpose and Applicability; Rule 0310, Excess... GHG emissions under Oregon's NSR/PSD program. Oregon's definition of ``federal major source'' is almost identical to EPA's definition of ``major stationary source'' and as such, Oregon has tailored its...

  13. Memories of the past contribute to prevention: photography as a direct means for public understanding of science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Piccione

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available There are thousands of ways to achieve a sustainable future for our Planet. Some of these follow high-value scientific research activities, while others simply aim to increase people’s awareness of what can and should be done to improve our, and our children’s, quality of life. The easiest way to develop this specific kind of ‘spread of culture’ consists of bringing back to life what was preserved of the history of a population and of a territory, by representing it in a renewed form, and by making it ‘food for thought’. The Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV followed this approach and decided to publish two volumes where the objective was to make people more aware of the geological and volcanic risks in some specific areas of Italy. The immediacy of the photography is used to tell the stories of volcanoes and earthquakes, to represent past events that have become ‘memories’. and to use these as a basis to build a better future. Terremoto Calabro Messinese, 1908/2008 and Terre di Fuoco are the two photographic books that have been published by INGV in cooperation with Alinari, the oldest firm in the world in the field of photography and image communication. The photographs selected to be included in the two books had a double significance: on the one side, they had to convey to the reader the immediacy of the emotions that other people had felt and lived; and on the other side, they had to make people understand the importance of prevention. The fascination of history, the importance of memories of the past, and the extraordinary strength of images help the reader build a link between the past, the present and the future, where the lessons learnt from past centuries and from the study of the Earth and its energy help us to understand which steps should be taken to achieve a ‘sustainable’ future.

  14. Prevention of the ash deposits by means of process conditions in biomass gasification; Biomassapolttoaineiden tuhkan kuonaantumiskaeyttaeytymisen estaeminen prosessiolosuhteiden avulla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moilanen, A; Laatikainen-Luntama, J; Nieminen, M; Kurkela, E; Korhonen, J [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    In fluidised-bed gasification, various types of deposits and agglomerates may be formed by biomass ash in the bed, in upper zones of the reactor, for instance in cyclones. These may decisively hamper the operation of the process. The aim of the project was to obtain data on the detrimental fouling behaviour of the ash of different types of biomass in fluidised-bed gasification, and on the basis of these data to determine the process conditions and ways of preventing this kind of behaviour. Different types of biomass fuel relevant to energy production such as straw, wood residue were be used as samples. The project consisted of laboratory studies and fluidised-bed reactor tests including ash behaviour studied both in the bed and freeboard. In laboratory tests, the sample material was characterised as a function of different process parameters. In fluid-bed reactors, the most harmful biomasses were tested using process variables such as temperature, bed material and the gasification agents. Bubbling fluidised-bed gasification tests with wheat straw showed that agglomerates with different sizes and structures formed in the bed depending on the temperature, the feed gas composition and bed material. Agglomerates consisted of molten ash which sintered with bed material and other solids. In all BFB tests, freeboard walls were slicked by ash agglomerates (different amounts) which, however, were easily removable. The results of this project and the earlier pilot-scale gasification experience obtained with the same feedstocks showed that useful characteristic data about ash behaviour can be obtained using laboratory tests and small scale reactors. (orig.)

  15. Historical evolution of sources identification by means of Receptor Modeling in the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, R. M.; Andrade, M. D. F.; Marien, Y., Sr.

    2017-12-01

    The atmospheric aerosols sources have been identified in Sao Paulo since the 80´s with the use of receptor models. The Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP) is a megacity with a population of 21 million, corresponding to more than 11% of the total population of Brazil. The first results for the identification of sources of particles were obtained with the application of Absolute Principal Component Analysis, Factor Analysis and Chemical Mass Balance. More recently the Positive Matrix Factorization has been used in combination with the other receptor models. With the improvement of the aerosol composition analytical determination (more elements and better resolution) the source identification has became more accurate. But, in spite of that, the main sources are the same for fine particles: vehicular emission, secondary formation and biomass burning. The large amount of biofuels used in the MASP makes this region an important example of the atmospheric chemistry of fossil fuel and biofuel emissions. The 7 million vehicles can run on gasohol, ethanol (95% ethanol + 5% gasoline) and biodiesel (mostly for trucks and buses). We have considered the Black Carbon as the tracer for diesel engines and biomass burning, being this last source associated not only with burning of sugar cane plantation and forest fires, but also with wood and charcoal used in restaurant and domestic cooking and residues burning. The responsibility of the vehicular emission to the fine particles has been maintained in approximately 50% of the mass. The soil resuspension was associated with 8% of the fine particles origin. We are presenting the data obtained from experiments performed from 1983 to 2014, not continuously and mainly performed in the winter time. It is a long period of data that is going to be considered. The previous results obtained with the application of PCA were compared to that obtained with PMF applied to the historical data collected at MASP, showing the evolution of the

  16. 75 FR 19567 - Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) and Nonattainment New Source Review (NSR...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    ...\\ Memorandum from John Rasnic, Director, Stationary Source Compliance Division, OAQPS, to George Czerniak..., Federal & Delegated Air Programs Unit, EPA Region 10, to Grant Cooper et al., Frederickson Power L.P. (Oct...

  17. The German system to prevent, detect and respond to illicit uses of nuclear materials and radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fechner, J.B.

    2001-01-01

    The German system to prevent, detect and respond to illicit uses of nuclear materials and radioactive sources consists of a variety of different elements: International and national laws and regulations covering safeguards, physical protection, and import/export control; Licensing and regulatory supervision of all activities related to nuclear materials and radioactive sources, including import and export; Responsibility of the licensee to ensure compliance with licensing conditions; sanctions; Law enforcement by police, security and customs authorities; prosecution and penalties; Detection of illicitly trafficked radioactive materials through intelligence and technical means; analysis capabilities; Response arrangements for normal and for severe cases of illicit use of nuclear materials; Participation in international programmes and POC-systems. Safeguards measures have been implemented in Germany in accordance with the Non- Proliferation Treaty and with safeguards agreements based on INFCIRC/153. As Germany is a member of the European Union, the Euratom Treaty and the Euratom-Ordinance Nr. 3227/76 together with the Verification Agreement between the IAEA, the European Commission and the European Member States have led to safeguards measures jointly implemented by the IAEA and by Euratom. The relevant international law for the physical protection of nuclear material in force in Germany is the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material. The recommendations on physical protection objectives and fundamentals and on physical protection measures specified in INFCIRC/225/Rev. 4 have been taken into account in various national regulations pertaining to the national design basis threat, the physical protection of LWR nuclear power plants, of interim spent fuel storage facilities, of facilities containing category III material, of nuclear material and radioactive waste transports by road or railway vehicles, aircraft or sea vessels; additional guidelines

  18. 75 FR 27643 - Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) and Nonattainment New Source Review (NSR): Aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-18

    ... once the delay is no longer necessary. ADDRESSES: Docket: The final rule, the petition for...): Aggregation AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Delay of effective date. SUMMARY: EPA is delaying the effective date of the final rule titled ``Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) and...

  19. Levels and sources of forest fire prevention knowledge of California hunters

    Science.gov (United States)

    William S. Folkman

    1963-01-01

    Males 30-50 years of age from the smaller urban centers (under 25,000 population) make up the bulk of the California hunter population. They are mainly from the skilled-semiskilled and professional-managerial occupations. Their level of knowledge about forest fire prevention is generally high, but their knowledge is weak in some pertinent areas. Most frequently...

  20. Chlorine Isotopic Composition of Perchlorate in Human Urine as a Means of Distinguishing Among Natural and Synthetic Exposure Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poghosyan, Armen; Morel-Espinosa, Maria; Valentín-Blasini, Liza; Blount, Benjamin C.; Ferreccio, Catterina; Steinmaus, Craig M.; Sturchio, Neil C.

    2015-01-01

    Perchlorate (ClO4−) is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant with high human exposure potential; it has both natural and man-made sources in the environment. Natural perchlorate forms in the atmosphere from where it deposits onto the surface of Earth, whereas synthetic perchlorate is manufactured as an oxidant for industrial, aerospace, and military applications. Perchlorate exposure can potentially cause adverse health effects in humans by interfering with the production of thyroid hormones through competitively blocking iodide uptake. To control and reduce perchlorate exposure, the contributions of different sources of perchlorate exposure need to be quantified. Thus, we demonstrate a novel approach for determining the contribution of different perchlorate exposure sources by quantifying stable and radioactive chlorine isotopes of perchlorate extracted from composite urine samples from two distinct populations: one in Atlanta, USA and one in Taltal, Chile (Atacama region). Urinary perchlorate from the Atlanta region resembles indigenous natural perchlorate from the southwestern USA [δ37Cl = +4.1 ± 1.0 ‰; 36Cl/Cl = 1811 (± 136) × 10−15], and urinary perchlorate from the Taltal, Chile region is similar to natural perchlorate in nitrate salt deposits from the Atacama Desert of northern Chile [δ37Cl = −11.0 ± 1.0 ‰; 36Cl/Cl = 254 (± 40) × 10−15]. Neither urinary perchlorate resembled the isotopic pattern found in synthetic perchlorate. These results indicate that natural perchlorate of regional provenance is the dominant exposure source for the two sample populations, and that chlorine isotope ratios provide a robust tool for elucidating perchlorate exposure pathways. PMID:25805252

  1. Study of crystalline thin films and nanofibers by means of the laser–plasma EUV-source based microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachulak, P.W.; Bartnik, A.; Baranowska-Korczyc, A.; Pánek, D.; Brůža, P.; Kostecki, J.; Węgrzyński, Ł.; Jarocki, R.; Szczurek, M.; Fronc, K.; Elbaum, D.; Fiedorowicz, H.

    2013-01-01

    New developments in nanoscience and nanotechnology require nanometer scale resolution imaging tools and techniques such as an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft X-ray (SXR) microscopy, based on Fresnel zone plates. In this paper, we report on applications of a desk-top microscopy using a laser-plasma EUV source based on a gas-puff target for studies of morphology of thin silicon membranes coated with NaCl crystals and samples composed of ZnO nanofibers

  2. Getting sports injury prevention on to public health agendas - addressing the shortfalls in current information sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Caroline F

    2012-01-01

    Public health policy is a successful population-level strategy for injury prevention but it is yet to be widely applied to the sports sector. Such policy is generally coordinated by government health departments concerned with the allocation of limited resources to health service delivery and preventive programs for addressing large community health issues. Prioritisation of sports injury prevention (SIP) requires high-quality evidence about the size of the problem and its public health burden; identification of at-risk vulnerable groups; confirmed effective prevention solutions; evidence of intervention cost-effectiveness; and quantification of both financial and policy implications of inaction. This paper argues that the major reason for a lack of sports injury policy by government departments for health or sport to date is a lack of relevant information available for policy makers to make their decisions. Key information gaps evident in Australia are used to highlight this problem. SIP policy does not yet rank highly because, relative to other health/injury issues, there is very little hard evidence to support: claims for its priority ranking, the existence of solutions that can be implemented and which will work, and potential cost-savings to government agencies. Moreover, policy action needs to be integrated across government portfolios, including sport, health and others. Until sports medicine research generates high-quality population-level information of direct relevance and importance to policy makers, especially intervention costing and implementation cost-benefit estimates, and fully engage in policy-informing partnerships, SIP will continue to be left off the public health agenda.

  3. Organizing and conducting career guidance and crime prevention among young people by means of physical culture and sports specialized university departments Internal Affairs of Ukraine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakorko I.P

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available At the present stage of social development takes on special urgency the problem of finding new means and methods of crime prevention among youth in the context of strengthening the nation's health. In our opinion, employees of the Ukrainian Interior Ministry must take a decisive role in solving these problems. One of the most effective ways to solve them is to organize youth sports schools and clubs to professionally-applied sports at the bases of relevant departments of higher educational institutions of Ministry of Internal Affairs of Ukraine, the involvement of the best specialists and trainers.

  4. 78 FR 2871 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Georgia: New Source Review-Prevention of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    ... management processes; CO 2 from the combustion of biogas collected from biological decomposition of waste in... provision at (i)(4) provide exemptions from the requirement of a source to obtain a SIP permit for... regarding testing and monitoring, and changes regarding exemptions from the requirement to obtain a SIP...

  5. 77 FR 20582 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Florida: New Source Review Prevention...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ... quality planning and air pollution control technology requirements. The CAA NSR program is comprised of... protection, Air pollution control, Intergovernmental relations, Ozone, Oxides of nitrogen, Recordkeeping and... preconstruction review program for the construction and modification of any stationary source of air pollution to...

  6. Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, L.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the sources of radiation in the narrow perspective of radioactivity and the even narrow perspective of those sources that concern environmental management and restoration activities at DOE facilities, as well as a few related sources. Sources of irritation, Sources of inflammatory jingoism, and Sources of information. First, the sources of irritation fall into three categories: No reliable scientific ombudsman to speak without bias and prejudice for the public good, Technical jargon with unclear definitions exists within the radioactive nomenclature, and Scientific community keeps a low-profile with regard to public information. The next area of personal concern are the sources of inflammation. This include such things as: Plutonium being described as the most dangerous substance known to man, The amount of plutonium required to make a bomb, Talk of transuranic waste containing plutonium and its health affects, TMI-2 and Chernobyl being described as Siamese twins, Inadequate information on low-level disposal sites and current regulatory requirements under 10 CFR 61, Enhanced engineered waste disposal not being presented to the public accurately. Numerous sources of disinformation regarding low level radiation high-level radiation, Elusive nature of the scientific community, The Federal and State Health Agencies resources to address comparative risk, and Regulatory agencies speaking out without the support of the scientific community

  7. EPA's Radioactive Source Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopsick, D.

    2004-01-01

    The US EPA is the lead Federal agency for emergency responses to unknown radiological materials, not licensed, owned or operated by a Federal agency or an Agreement state (Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan, 1996). The purpose of EPA's clean materials programme is to keep unwanted and unregulated radioactive material out of the public domain. This is achieved by finding and securing lost sources, maintaining control of existing sources and preventing future losses. The focus is on both, domestic and international fronts. The domestic program concentrates on securing lost sources, preventing future losses, alternative technologies like tagging of radioactive sources in commerce, pilot radioactive source roundup, training programs, scrap metal and metal processing facilities, the demolition industry, product stewardship and alternatives to radioactive devices (fewer radioactive source devices means fewer orphan sources). The international program consists of securing lost sources, preventing future losses, radiation monitoring of scrap metal at ports and the international scrap metal monitoring protocol

  8. Comparative Tuberculosis (TB) Prevention Effectiveness in Children of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) Vaccines from Different Sources, Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favorov, Michael; Ali, Mohammad; Tursunbayeva, Aigul; Aitmagambetova, Indira; Kilgore, Paul; Ismailov, Shakhimurat; Chorba, Terence

    2012-01-01

    Background Except during a 1-year period when BCG vaccine was not routinely administered, annual coverage of infants with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) in Kazakhstan since 2002 has exceeded 95%. BCG preparations from different sources (Japan, Serbia, and Russia) or none were used exclusively in comparable 7-month time-frames, September through March, in 4 successive years beginning in 2002. Our objective was to assess relative effectiveness of BCG immunization. Methods/Findings We compared outcomes of birth cohorts from the 4 time-frames retrospectively. Three cohorts received vaccine from one of three manufacturers exclusively, and one cohort was not vaccinated. Cohorts were followed for 3 years for notifications of clinical TB and of culture-confirmed TB, and for 21 months for TB meningitis notifications. Prevention effectiveness based on relative risk of TB incidence was calculated for each vaccinated cohort compared to the non-vaccinated cohort. Although there were differences in prevention effectiveness observed among the three BCG vaccines, all were protective. The Japanese vaccine (currently used in Kazakhstan), the Serbian vaccine, and the Russian vaccine respectively were 69%, 43%, and 22% effective with respect to clinical TB notifications, and 92%, 82%, and 51% effective with respect to culture confirmed TB. All three vaccines were >70% effective with respect to TB meningitis. Limitations Potential limitations included considerations that 1) the methodology used was retrospective, 2) multiple risk factors could have varied between cohorts and affected prevention effectiveness measures, 3) most cases were clinically diagnosed, and TB culture-positive case numbers and TB meningitis case numbers were sparse, and 4) small variations in reported population TB burden could have affected relative risk of exposure for cohorts. Conclusions/Significance All three BCG vaccines evaluated were protective against TB, and prevention effectiveness varied by

  9. Comparative tuberculosis (TB prevention effectiveness in children of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG vaccines from different sources, Kazakhstan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Favorov

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Except during a 1-year period when BCG vaccine was not routinely administered, annual coverage of infants with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG in Kazakhstan since 2002 has exceeded 95%. BCG preparations from different sources (Japan, Serbia, and Russia or none were used exclusively in comparable 7-month time-frames, September through March, in 4 successive years beginning in 2002. Our objective was to assess relative effectiveness of BCG immunization. METHODS/FINDINGS: We compared outcomes of birth cohorts from the 4 time-frames retrospectively. Three cohorts received vaccine from one of three manufacturers exclusively, and one cohort was not vaccinated. Cohorts were followed for 3 years for notifications of clinical TB and of culture-confirmed TB, and for 21 months for TB meningitis notifications. Prevention effectiveness based on relative risk of TB incidence was calculated for each vaccinated cohort compared to the non-vaccinated cohort. Although there were differences in prevention effectiveness observed among the three BCG vaccines, all were protective. The Japanese vaccine (currently used in Kazakhstan, the Serbian vaccine, and the Russian vaccine respectively were 69%, 43%, and 22% effective with respect to clinical TB notifications, and 92%, 82%, and 51% effective with respect to culture confirmed TB. All three vaccines were >70% effective with respect to TB meningitis. LIMITATIONS: Potential limitations included considerations that 1 the methodology used was retrospective, 2 multiple risk factors could have varied between cohorts and affected prevention effectiveness measures, 3 most cases were clinically diagnosed, and TB culture-positive case numbers and TB meningitis case numbers were sparse, and 4 small variations in reported population TB burden could have affected relative risk of exposure for cohorts. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: All three BCG vaccines evaluated were protective against TB, and prevention effectiveness

  10. Comparative tuberculosis (TB) prevention effectiveness in children of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccines from different sources, Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favorov, Michael; Ali, Mohammad; Tursunbayeva, Aigul; Aitmagambetova, Indira; Kilgore, Paul; Ismailov, Shakhimurat; Chorba, Terence

    2012-01-01

    Except during a 1-year period when BCG vaccine was not routinely administered, annual coverage of infants with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) in Kazakhstan since 2002 has exceeded 95%. BCG preparations from different sources (Japan, Serbia, and Russia) or none were used exclusively in comparable 7-month time-frames, September through March, in 4 successive years beginning in 2002. Our objective was to assess relative effectiveness of BCG immunization. We compared outcomes of birth cohorts from the 4 time-frames retrospectively. Three cohorts received vaccine from one of three manufacturers exclusively, and one cohort was not vaccinated. Cohorts were followed for 3 years for notifications of clinical TB and of culture-confirmed TB, and for 21 months for TB meningitis notifications. Prevention effectiveness based on relative risk of TB incidence was calculated for each vaccinated cohort compared to the non-vaccinated cohort. Although there were differences in prevention effectiveness observed among the three BCG vaccines, all were protective. The Japanese vaccine (currently used in Kazakhstan), the Serbian vaccine, and the Russian vaccine respectively were 69%, 43%, and 22% effective with respect to clinical TB notifications, and 92%, 82%, and 51% effective with respect to culture confirmed TB. All three vaccines were >70% effective with respect to TB meningitis. Potential limitations included considerations that 1) the methodology used was retrospective, 2) multiple risk factors could have varied between cohorts and affected prevention effectiveness measures, 3) most cases were clinically diagnosed, and TB culture-positive case numbers and TB meningitis case numbers were sparse, and 4) small variations in reported population TB burden could have affected relative risk of exposure for cohorts. All three BCG vaccines evaluated were protective against TB, and prevention effectiveness varied by manufacturer. When setting national immunization policy, consideration

  11. H2 as source of renewable energy: production through catalytic methods by means of the reforming of methanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez H, R.; Lopez, P.; Gutierrez M, A.; Gutierrez W, C.; Mondragon G, G.; Mendoza A, D.; Angeles Ch, C.; Arenas A, J.

    2010-01-01

    The fuel cells transform the chemical energy stored in the connection H-H of the H 2 molecule in electric energy and water vapor when is combines with the oxygen. Even when the hydrogen has a high potential as energy source, its handling is difficult (storage and transport). This has motivated the search of hydrogen production methods in situ starting from liquid fuels like the methanol or ethanol through the reaction of reforming. The methanol is a fuel of easy availability for fuel cells with electronic applications and of transport. Although the methanol energy density is approximately half of the gasoline and diesel, it is more reagent and can be used directly in fuel cells or can also be reformed to low temperatures for the hydrogen obtaining to be used in fuel cells of proton exchange. In this article the results obtained of the systems, Cu-Ni/ZrO 2 and Ag-Au(1-D)-CeO 2 are presented and can be competitive to generate H 2 and being used in the fuel cells to generate energy. (Author)

  12. Suicide prevention through means restriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knipe, Duleeka W.; Chang, Shu-Sen; Dawson, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of 3-year phased bans of the pesticides dimethoate and fenthion in 2008–2010, and paraquat in 2009–2011, on suicide mortality in Sri Lanka. Methods: Age-standardised overall, sex-specific, and method-specific suicide rates were calculated using Sri Lankan police...... data (1989–2015). Using negative binomial regression models, we estimated the change in the rate and number of suicide deaths in post-ban years (2011–15) compared to those expected based on pre-ban trends (2001–10). Findings: Overall suicide mortality dropped by 21% between 2011 and 2015, from 18.......3 to 14.3 per 100,000. The decline in pesticide suicides during this same period was larger than for overall suicides: from 8.5 to 4.2 per 100,000, a 50% reduction. This was accompanied by a smaller concurrent rise in non-pesticide suicide mortality with a 2% increase (9.9 to 10.1 per 100,000). In 2015...

  13. Effective means for preventive control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novakov, V.; Yakimov, J.; Moskovska, N.

    1993-01-01

    The noxious emissions of substances can be determined and identified for each site (a complex of electric power stations, industrial enterprises, towns, villages etc). The specific requirements from the apparatuses, systems and technological procedures forming the monitoring factor equivalent (MFE) are presented. MFE gives an opportunity to examine the environmental status, the degree of the harmfulness of the registered emissions of gases, particles, aerosols, fluids and hard formations emitted in the air, soil and water. A method for evaluating deviations is proposed and a system scale for determining the danger of serious technological disturbances and emergency situations is offered. (author)

  14. Measures to prevent, intercept and respond to illicit uses of nuclear material and radioactive sources. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    As nuclear programmes have evolved, the quantities of nuclear material in use or storage, and the number of facilities operating or shut down has increased. In particular, the dismantling of nuclear weapons has resulted in greatly increased stockpiles of weapons usable plutonium and highly enriched uranium. Concern over the security of these and related materials has been further raised by the continued occurrence of cases of illicit trafficking. The risks are theft, leading to trafficking and possible illicit use, and sabotage which could lead to the creation of radiological hazards. The challenge is threefold: prevention, detection and interception, and response. Prevention starts with effective national systems for accountancy, control and protection. Detection and interception involves effective measures to combat illicit trafficking, and response requires planning for the consequences of theft and sabotage. Responsibilities in these fields are national, but nuclear security also has a powerful international dimension. The consequences of failures in national measures reach beyond national boundaries. The effectiveness of national nuclear security can be enhanced through international measures: through agreed international norms, standards and guides, through training and advice, through information exchange and the sharing of experience, and through developing common understandings and perceptions. The Stockholm Conference contributed by focusing on the threats, including terrorist, to nuclear and other radioactive materials; on how to assess them and on how to develop the appropriate security measures. National measures to protect nuclear material and facilities and the continuing development of international standards and obligations were described. The conference discussed the patterns and trends in the illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive materials and national and international measures to combat such trafficking. Finally, it considered

  15. Measures to prevent, intercept and respond to illicit uses of nuclear material and radioactive sources. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-08-01

    As nuclear programmes have evolved, the quantities of nuclear material in use or storage, and the number of facilities operating or shut down has increased. In particular, the dismantling of nuclear weapons has resulted in greatly increased stockpiles of weapons usable plutonium and highly enriched uranium. Concern over the security of these and related materials has been further raised by the continued occurrence of cases of illicit trafficking. The risks are theft, leading to trafficking and possible illicit use, and sabotage which could lead to the creation of radiological hazards. The challenge is threefold: prevention, detection and interception, and response. Prevention starts with effective national systems for accountancy, control and protection. Detection and interception involves effective measures to combat illicit trafficking, and response requires planning for the consequences of theft and sabotage. Responsibilities in these fields are national, but nuclear security also has a powerful international dimension. The consequences of failures in national measures reach beyond national boundaries. The effectiveness of national nuclear security can be enhanced through international measures: through agreed international norms, standards and guides, through training and advice, through information exchange and the sharing of experience, and through developing common understandings and perceptions. The Stockholm Conference contributed by focusing on the threats, including terrorist, to nuclear and other radioactive materials; on how to assess them and on how to develop the appropriate security measures. National measures to protect nuclear material and facilities and the continuing development of international standards and obligations were described. The conference discussed the patterns and trends in the illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive materials and national and international measures to combat such trafficking. Finally, it considered

  16. Spectrometry and dosimetry of isotopic sources of neutrons by means of artificial neural networks; Espectrometria y dosimetria de fuentes isotopicas de neutrones mediante redes neuronales artificiales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega C, H. R.; Ortiz R, J. M.; Hernandez D, V. M; Martinez B, M. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Calle Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Gallego, E.; Lorente, A. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear, C/Jose Gutierrez Abascal No. 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Barquero, R., E-mail: fermineutron@yahoo.co [Hospital del Rio Hortega, C/Dulzaina No. 2, 47012 Valladolid (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    The artificial neural networks technology has been applied to reconstruct the neutrons spectra of two isotopic sources: {sup 252}Cf, and {sup 241}Am-Be. Also, this technology has been applied to obtain the effective dose, E, and the personal dose equivalents, Hp(10) and environmental, H *(10). To obtain the spectra and the doses only were used the count rates produced in a Bonner Spheres spectrometer with a scintillator of {sup 6}LiI(Eu) of 0.4 {phi} x 0.4 cm{sup 2}. The equivalent environmental dose and the spectra of the sources were also obtained by means of the reconstruction code BUNKIUT. When comparing the results obtained by means of both procedures it was found that they are consistent. (Author)

  17. Management for the prevention of accidents from disused sealed radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-04-01

    The objective of this report is to provide advice to sealed radiation source (SRS) users, radioactive waste operators, and other concerned public sectors on the measures to be taken to reduce the risk of accidents associated with disused or spent SRS. The report also explains policies as well as technical and administrative procedures to minimize the risk of accidents and to mitigate the consequences should an accident occur. The report emphasizes areas of high risk in handling disused or spent SRS in any form and condition to help to save health, life and financial resources

  18. A psychological perspective on God-belief as a source of meaning and well-being / E. Karen van der Merwe

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Merwe, Eveline Karen

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore God-belief as a source of meaning and psychological well-being qualitatively and through the review of literature. The study is embedded in the growing field of Psychology of Religion. In the first article, a literature overview regarding the field of Psychology of Religion, and specifically research done in the South African context, was reported. The key constructs spirituality and religiousness were investigated and defined. It was argued that tra...

  19. Preventive Dental Checkups and Their Association With Access to Usual Source of Care Among Rural and Urban Adult Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Aishah; Thapa, Janani R; Zhang, Donglan

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to assess the relationship between rural or urban residence and having a usual source of care (USC), and the utilization of preventive dental checkups among adults. Cross-sectional analysis was conducted using data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey 2012. We performed a logit regression on the relationship between rural and urban residence, having a USC, and having at least 1 dental checkup in the past year, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and health status. After controlling for covariates, rural adult residents had significantly lower odds of having at least 1 dental checkup per year compared to their urban counterparts (odds ratio [OR] = 0.73, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.62-0.86, P rural and urban residents, having a USC was significantly associated with an 11% (95% CI = 9%-13%) increase in the probability of having a preventive dental checkup within a year. Individuals with a USC were more likely to obtain a preventive dental visit, with similar effects in rural and urban settings. We attributed the lower odds of having a checkup in rural regions to the lower density of oral health care providers in these areas. Integration of rural oral health care into primary care may help mitigate the challenges due to a shortage of oral health care providers in rural areas. © 2017 National Rural Health Association.

  20. sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yin Chiang

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the simplified models of the ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode multiplexer network with Bernoulli random traffic sources. Based on the model, the performance measures are analyzed by the different output service schemes.

  1. Identification and characterization of scenarios of natural source, representation of the same ones by means of radiological maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez Ley, Orlando; Capote Ferrera, Eduardo; Alonso Abad, Dolores; Gil Castillo, Reynaldo; Castillo Gomez, Rafael; Ramos Viltre, Enma O.

    2008-01-01

    The National Network of Environmental Radiological Surveillance of the Cuba Republic (NNERS) between their main functions of controlling permanently, from the radiological point of view, the environment in the whole national territory, monitoring, among other indicators, the environmental gamma dose rate. This monitoring is carried out in 18 radiological posts distributed by the whole country that gives us an idea of the atmospheric gamma background of a certain region. The influence of the natural sources scenarios in the measurement of the gamma dose rate, results in the variability of the measurement inside oneself region and even in distances so short as 500 meters the variation can be between the 30 or 40 nGy/h, for that, when we estimate the exhibition dose to which the population is subjected, we would introduce a great error when we take like base the gamma dose rate of the region in study. The study of the environmental gamma background was carried out in Havana City, using a mobile gamma dose rate system, with a high sensibility and a very low time of answer. The used system is able to register in real time the position and the gamma dose rate. The monitoring carries out from an automobile, using an interval of measurement of 10 seconds. The obtained results are classified by measurements ranges, and they were associated to different codes of colors and were showed in a map for a better interpretation and visualization of the same ones. Computer tools were developed for do that. The average value of dose rate in Havana City (taking into account the contribution of the cosmic radiation) is 55,6 nGy/h, similar to the national historical average reported by the NNERS that is of 55,3 nGy/h. The municipality of higher dose rate was Cerro with 61,3 nGy/h, and that of lower value was San Miguel del Padron with 51,9 nGy/h. If we discard the contribution of the cosmic radiation, the dose rate in air in Havana City is below 50 % of the world average. (author)

  2. Information sources for obesity prevention policy research: a review of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanneke, Rosie; Young, Sabrina K

    2017-08-08

    Systematic identification of evidence in health policy can be time-consuming and challenging. This study examines three questions pertaining to systematic reviews on obesity prevention policy, in order to identify the most efficient search methods: (1) What percentage of the primary studies selected for inclusion in the reviews originated in scholarly as opposed to gray literature? (2) How much of the primary scholarly literature in this topic area is indexed in PubMed/MEDLINE? (3) Which databases index the greatest number of primary studies not indexed in PubMed, and are these databases searched consistently across systematic reviews? We identified systematic reviews on obesity prevention policy and explored their search methods and citations. We determined the percentage of scholarly vs. gray literature cited, the most frequently cited journals, and whether each primary study was indexed in PubMed. We searched 21 databases for all primary study articles not indexed in PubMed to determine which database(s) indexed the highest number of these relevant articles. In total, 21 systematic reviews were identified. Ten of the 21 systematic reviews reported searching gray literature, and 12 reviews ultimately included gray literature in their analyses. Scholarly articles accounted for 577 of the 649 total primary study papers. Of these, 495 (76%) were indexed in PubMed. Google Scholar retrieved the highest number of the remaining 82 non-PubMed scholarly articles, followed by Scopus and EconLit. The Journal of the American Dietetic Association was the most-cited journal. Researchers can maximize search efficiency by searching a small yet targeted selection of both scholarly and gray literature resources. A highly sensitive search of PubMed and those databases that index the greatest number of relevant articles not indexed in PubMed, namely multidisciplinary and economics databases, could save considerable time and effort. When combined with a gray literature search and

  3. Risk assessment of water pollution sources based on an integrated k-means clustering and set pair analysis method in the region of Shiyan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunhui; Sun, Lian; Jia, Junxiang; Cai, Yanpeng; Wang, Xuan

    2016-07-01

    Source water areas are facing many potential water pollution risks. Risk assessment is an effective method to evaluate such risks. In this paper an integrated model based on k-means clustering analysis and set pair analysis was established aiming at evaluating the risks associated with water pollution in source water areas, in which the weights of indicators were determined through the entropy weight method. Then the proposed model was applied to assess water pollution risks in the region of Shiyan in which China's key source water area Danjiangkou Reservoir for the water source of the middle route of South-to-North Water Diversion Project is located. The results showed that eleven sources with relative high risk value were identified. At the regional scale, Shiyan City and Danjiangkou City would have a high risk value in term of the industrial discharge. Comparatively, Danjiangkou City and Yunxian County would have a high risk value in terms of agricultural pollution. Overall, the risk values of north regions close to the main stream and reservoir of the region of Shiyan were higher than that in the south. The results of risk level indicated that five sources were in lower risk level (i.e., level II), two in moderate risk level (i.e., level III), one in higher risk level (i.e., level IV) and three in highest risk level (i.e., level V). Also risks of industrial discharge are higher than that of the agricultural sector. It is thus essential to manage the pillar industry of the region of Shiyan and certain agricultural companies in the vicinity of the reservoir to reduce water pollution risks of source water areas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The Paris Convention for the prevention of marine pollution from land-based sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinkloh, L.; Braun, H.

    1983-01-01

    The Paris Convention of 1974 which entered into force at an international level in 1978 is an important instrument to protect the North Sea and the North Atlantic against pollution from land-based sources. Contracting Parties are practically all riparian states of its scope of application - 13 states on the whole - as well as the EC. There is a survey of the functions, organization and working method, the instruments and results so far achieved in the framework of the Convention. Priority was so far given to the following substances or, respectively, groups of substances: oil, mercury, cadmium, drines, PCB's and PCT's as well as titanium dioxide. In this respect, it was above all agreed on: emission and immission standards (or guide values, respectively), recommendations for measures reducing emissions and a number of obligations to report. Studies and discussions on organosilicone compounds, radioactivity, water pollution through the atmosphere and eutrophication phenomena are relatively new. The opportunities offered by the Paris Convention have not yet been fully used. (orig.) [de

  5. Source segregation and food waste prevention activities in high-density households in a deprived urban area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rispo, A.; Williams, I.D.; Shaw, P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Study of waste management in economically and socially deprived high-density housing. • Food waste segregation, prevention and recycling activities investigated. • Study involved a waste audit and household survey of 1034 households. • Populations in such areas are “hard-to-reach”. • Exceptional efforts and additional resources are required to improve performance. - Abstract: A waste audit and a household questionnaire survey were conducted in high-density housing estates in one of the most economically and socially deprived areas of England (Haringey, London). Such areas are under-represented in published research. The study examined source segregation, potential participation in a food waste segregation scheme, and food waste prevention activities in five estates (1034 households). The results showed that: contamination of recyclables containers was low; ca. 28% of the mixed residual waste’s weight was recyclable; food waste comprised a small proportion of the waste from these residents, probably because of their relatively disadvantaged economic circumstances; and the recycling profile reflected an intermittent pattern of behaviour. Although the majority of respondents reported that they would participate in a food waste separation scheme, the response rate was low and many responses of “don’t know” were recorded. Municipalities committed to foster improved diversion from landfill need to recognise that there is no “quick and easy fix”, regardless of local or national aspirations. Lasting and sustained behaviour change requires time and the quality of service provision and associated infrastructure play a fundamental role in facilitating residents to participate effectively in waste management activities that maximise capture of source-segregated materials. Populations in deprived areas that reside in high-rise, high-density dwellings are “hard-to-reach” in terms of participation in recycling schemes and exceptional

  6. Source segregation and food waste prevention activities in high-density households in a deprived urban area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rispo, A.; Williams, I.D., E-mail: idw@soton.ac.uk; Shaw, P.J.

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Study of waste management in economically and socially deprived high-density housing. • Food waste segregation, prevention and recycling activities investigated. • Study involved a waste audit and household survey of 1034 households. • Populations in such areas are “hard-to-reach”. • Exceptional efforts and additional resources are required to improve performance. - Abstract: A waste audit and a household questionnaire survey were conducted in high-density housing estates in one of the most economically and socially deprived areas of England (Haringey, London). Such areas are under-represented in published research. The study examined source segregation, potential participation in a food waste segregation scheme, and food waste prevention activities in five estates (1034 households). The results showed that: contamination of recyclables containers was low; ca. 28% of the mixed residual waste’s weight was recyclable; food waste comprised a small proportion of the waste from these residents, probably because of their relatively disadvantaged economic circumstances; and the recycling profile reflected an intermittent pattern of behaviour. Although the majority of respondents reported that they would participate in a food waste separation scheme, the response rate was low and many responses of “don’t know” were recorded. Municipalities committed to foster improved diversion from landfill need to recognise that there is no “quick and easy fix”, regardless of local or national aspirations. Lasting and sustained behaviour change requires time and the quality of service provision and associated infrastructure play a fundamental role in facilitating residents to participate effectively in waste management activities that maximise capture of source-segregated materials. Populations in deprived areas that reside in high-rise, high-density dwellings are “hard-to-reach” in terms of participation in recycling schemes and exceptional

  7. Analytical estimation of emission zone mean position and width in organic light-emitting diodes from emission pattern image-source interference fringes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, Ariel; Tessler, Nir; Einziger, Pinchas D.; Roberts, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    We present an analytical method for evaluating the first and second moments of the effective exciton spatial distribution in organic light-emitting diodes (OLED) from measured emission patterns. Specifically, the suggested algorithm estimates the emission zone mean position and width, respectively, from two distinct features of the pattern produced by interference between the emission sources and their images (induced by the reflective cathode): the angles in which interference extrema are observed, and the prominence of interference fringes. The relations between these parameters are derived rigorously for a general OLED structure, indicating that extrema angles are related to the mean position of the radiating excitons via Bragg's condition, and the spatial broadening is related to the attenuation of the image-source interference prominence due to an averaging effect. The method is applied successfully both on simulated emission patterns and on experimental data, exhibiting a very good agreement with the results obtained by numerical techniques. We investigate the method performance in detail, showing that it is capable of producing accurate estimations for a wide range of source-cathode separation distances, provided that the measured spectral interval is large enough; guidelines for achieving reliable evaluations are deduced from these results as well. As opposed to numerical fitting tools employed to perform similar tasks to date, our approximate method explicitly utilizes physical intuition and requires far less computational effort (no fitting is involved). Hence, applications that do not require highly resolved estimations, e.g., preliminary design and production-line verification, can benefit substantially from the analytical algorithm, when applicable. This introduces a novel set of efficient tools for OLED engineering, highly important in the view of the crucial role the exciton distribution plays in determining the device performance.

  8. Analytical estimation of emission zone mean position and width in organic light-emitting diodes from emission pattern image-source interference fringes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epstein, Ariel, E-mail: ariel.epstein@utoronto.ca; Tessler, Nir, E-mail: nir@ee.technion.ac.il; Einziger, Pinchas D. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Roberts, Matthew, E-mail: mroberts@cdtltd.co.uk [Cambridge Display Technology Ltd, Building 2020, Cambourne Business Park, Cambourne, Cambridgeshire CB23 6DW (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-14

    We present an analytical method for evaluating the first and second moments of the effective exciton spatial distribution in organic light-emitting diodes (OLED) from measured emission patterns. Specifically, the suggested algorithm estimates the emission zone mean position and width, respectively, from two distinct features of the pattern produced by interference between the emission sources and their images (induced by the reflective cathode): the angles in which interference extrema are observed, and the prominence of interference fringes. The relations between these parameters are derived rigorously for a general OLED structure, indicating that extrema angles are related to the mean position of the radiating excitons via Bragg's condition, and the spatial broadening is related to the attenuation of the image-source interference prominence due to an averaging effect. The method is applied successfully both on simulated emission patterns and on experimental data, exhibiting a very good agreement with the results obtained by numerical techniques. We investigate the method performance in detail, showing that it is capable of producing accurate estimations for a wide range of source-cathode separation distances, provided that the measured spectral interval is large enough; guidelines for achieving reliable evaluations are deduced from these results as well. As opposed to numerical fitting tools employed to perform similar tasks to date, our approximate method explicitly utilizes physical intuition and requires far less computational effort (no fitting is involved). Hence, applications that do not require highly resolved estimations, e.g., preliminary design and production-line verification, can benefit substantially from the analytical algorithm, when applicable. This introduces a novel set of efficient tools for OLED engineering, highly important in the view of the crucial role the exciton distribution plays in determining the device performance.

  9. Her life ended jumping from the fifth floor: the importance of scene investigation and the need for restrictive means to prevent jumping suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentone, Alessandra; Innamorato, Liliana; Introna, Francesco

    2015-06-01

    In January 2014, a dead woman was found lying near the back entrance of a building belonging to Bari University Hospital compound. After the external examination and identification of the corpse, through history, circumstances, and postmortem findings, it was supposed that the woman probably committed suicide, by jumping from the nearby building. But only after additional investigation of the scene was it possible to locate the window through which the victim had jumped, by assessing the height from which she leapt. We underline the importance of the examination of the scene. It has to be done with circumspection, even in cases that could be considered routine, paying attention to details, not excluding things that, at first glance, seem to be unnecessary. Inspection needs time, patience and accuracy, knowledge, competence, and intuition and must be the result of an efficient team action. Furthermore the occurrence of suicides, particularly jumping from a height, among immediate postdischarge psychiatric patients, stresses the importance of immediate follow-up treatment and alternative preventive strategies, considering, of course, the feasibility of structural means.

  10. International conference on security of material. Measures to prevent, intercept and respond to illicit uses of nuclear material and radioactive sources. Book of extended synopses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-10-01

    The papers cover the subjects relating to the trafficking of highly enriched nuclear materials, less radioactive, radioactive materials, radiations sources, prevention of crime, capabilities of preventing smuggling, radiation detection devices that are or should be applied on borders. Different aspects of physical protection, security and safety of nuclear materials in a number of countries are discussed. A number of papers are devoted to detectors, and measuring methods

  11. International conference on security of material. Measures to prevent, intercept and respond to illicit uses of nuclear material and radioactive sources. Book of extended synopses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-10-01

    The papers cover the subjects relating to the trafficking of highly enriched nuclear materials, less radioactive, radioactive materials, radiations sources, prevention of crime, capabilities of preventing smuggling, radiation detection devices that are or should be applied on borders. Different aspects of physical protection, security and safety of nuclear materials in a number of countries are discussed. A number of papers are devoted to detectors, and measuring methods.

  12. Means-source on the international pages of O Estado de S. Paulo Meios-fonte nas pginas de internacional de O Estado de S. Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Zamin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available On journalistic production, the objectivation of each event involves a conflict of perspectives between journalists and sources through the present definition that surrounds us. These combats are established in the discursive level, among social controls and pressures for what to say and how to say it, being conformed within an information network built up from priorities on which informational efforts in each media are focused. This article approaches the use of other medias (newspapers, radio and TV stations by the newspaper O Estado de S. Paulo as sources for the signification of the diplomatic crisis between Colombia and Ecuador, in the period from March 2008 to August 2009. The article is guided by a debate on the implications of the means-source used by the journalistic production about international occurrences. For the analysis the corpus is based on 307 pieces of the International section.Na produo jornalstica, a objetivao de cada acontecimento envolve um conflito de perspectivas entre jornalistas e fontes pela definio do presente que nos cerca. Esses combates se estabelecem no discursivo, em meio a controles e presses sociais pelo que dizer e como dizer, sendo conformados no interior de uma rede informativa estabelecida a partir de prioridades sobre as quais se concentram os esforos informativos de cada meio. Este artigo aborda o uso de outros meios (jornais, rdios, TVs pelo jornal O Estado de S. Paulo como fontes na significao da crise diplomtica entre Colmbia e Equador, no perodo de maro de 2008 a agosto de 2009. Orienta-se por um debate acerca das implicaes do emprego de meios-fonte na produo jornalstica que versa sobre ocorrncias internacionais. Para a anlise serve de base um corpus de 307 peas da editoria de Internacional.

  13. MappERS-C and MappERS-V. The crowd source for prevention and crisis support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigerio, Simone; Schenato, Luca; Bianchizza, Chiara; Del Bianco, Daniele

    2015-04-01

    The responsibilities within natural hazards at local/regional levels involve citizens and volunteers as first actors of civil protection and territorial management. The prevention implicates the capacities of professional operators and technical volunteers, but the priority implies now the involvement and awareness of the citizens over the territory they inhabit. The involvement of population creates context-specific strategies of territorial surveillance and management, skipping the limit to face risks only when they have to bear impacts on their lives. MAppERS (Mobile Application for Emergency Response and Support) is a EU project (funded under programme 2013-2015 Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protection, ECHO A5) which empowers "crowd-sourced mappers" through smart phone applications and sensors, with geo-tagged information, detailed gathered parameters, field-check survey in a contest of geospatial response. The process of development includes feedback from citizens, involving them in training courses on the monitoring as long term objective (raising public awareness and participation). The project deals with the development and testing of the smart phone applications (module MAppERS-V for volunteers, module MAppERS-C for citizens) according to Android SDK environment. A first research described a desk-based investigation on consequences of disasters impacts and costs of prevention strategies in pilot countries. Furthermore a review of state-of-the-art of database management systems (DBMS) in pilot countries and involvement of volunteers/citizens in data collection/monitoring collected basic info on data structure for the development. A desk-based research proposed communication methods/graphic solutions within mobile technologies for disaster management in pilot countries and available smartphone applications linked to centralized web/server database. A technical review is compulsory for a useful design-line for MappERS development, and it is linked with on

  14. Nuclear weapon relevant materials and preventive arms control. Uranium-free fuels for plutonium elimination and spallation neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebert, Wolfgang; Englert, Matthias; Pistner, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    technological challenges of nuclear non-proliferation, which are directly connected with the central role of weapon-relevant materials, and it is trying to present practical solutions on a technical basis: - Discover paths for the disposal of existing amounts of nuclear weapon-relevant materials elaborating on the example of technically-based plutonium disposal options: central technical questions of the possible use of uranium-free inert matrix fuel (IMF) in currently used light water reactors will be addressed in order to clarify which advantages or disadvantages do exist in comparison to other disposal options. The investigation is limited on the comparison with one other reactor-based option, the use of uranium-plutonium mixed-oxide (MOX) fuels. - Analysis of proliferation relevant potentials of new nuclear technologies (accessibility of weapon materials): Exemplary investigation of spallation neutron sources in order to improve this technology by a more proliferation resistant shaping. Although they are obviously capable to breed nuclear weapon-relevant materials like plutonium, uranium-233 or tritium, there is no comprehensive analysis of nonproliferation aspects of spallation neutron sources up to now. Both project parts provide not only contributions to the concept of preventive arms control but also to the shaping of technologies, which is oriented towards the criteria of proliferation resistance.

  15. A qualitative study on health workers' and community members' perceived sources, role of information and communication on malaria treatment, prevention and control in southeast Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeano-Enemuoh, Jane C; Uzochukwu, Benjamim; Ezumah, Nkoli; Mangham-Jefferies, Lindsay; Wiseman, Virginia; Onwujekwe, Obinna

    2015-10-22

    It has been widely acknowledged that well-planned and executed communication programmes can contribute to achieving malaria prevention and treatment goals. This however requires a good understanding of current sources and roles of information used by both health workers and communities. The study aimed at determining health workers' and community members' sources, value and use of information on malaria prevention and treatment in Nigeria. Qualitative data was collected from six selected communities (three urban and three rural) in Enugu state, southeast Nigeria. A total of 18 Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) with 179 community members and 26 in-depth interviews (IDIs) with health workers in public and private health facilities were used to collect data on where people receive treatment for malaria and access information on malaria. The FGDS and IDIs also provided data on the values, uses and effects of information and communication on malaria treatment seeking and provision of services. The findings revealed that the major sources of information on malaria for health workers and community members were advertisements in the mass media, workshops and seminars organized by donor agencies, facility supervision, posters, other health workers, television and radio adverts. Community involvement in the design and delivery of information on malaria control was seen as a strong strategy for improving both consumer and provider knowledge. Information from the different sources catalyzed appropriate provision and consumption of malaria treatment amongst health workers and community members. Health workers and consumers receive information on malaria prevention and treatment from multiple sources of communication and information, which they find useful. Harnessing these information sources to encourage consistent and accurate messages around malaria prevention and treatment is a necessary first step in the design and implementation of malaria communication and behaviour change

  16. Oil Fields, Oil and gas production platforms are potential source for oil spills and may interfere with mechanical means to clean up oil spills., Published in 1998, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Louisiana State University (LSU).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Oil Fields dataset current as of 1998. Oil and gas production platforms are potential source for oil spills and may interfere with mechanical means to clean up oil...

  17. Improving nuclear utility generation capacity, understanding the sources of forced outage and learning how to prevent them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodeur, D.L.; Todreas, N.E.; Angus, V.T.

    1998-01-01

    MIT and PECO Energy have completed a detailed examination of the sources of forced outages at the Limerick Generating Station (LGS) Boiling Water Reactor Class IV (BWR IV) site over a five year period and contrasted that information to similar BWR IV utilities in the United States over the same period. Each forced outage was attributed to one system and assigned causal codes of equipment versus human factors and failure attributes such as weak design, poor craftsmanship, and worn parts. It was found that fifty four percent of the lost power at LGS was the result of Balance of Plant failures. Industry wide data identifies fifty nine percent of the lost power as attributed to Balance of Plant failures. Balance of Plant systems are those systems not included in the primary and safety related system category. Considering failure causal factors, forty six percent of the lost power at the utility under study was the result of equipment factors such as weak design or worn parts. Significantly, the study showed a high variance between those systems which caused significant forced outage at the two sister LGS units. This demonstrated the infrequent nature of plant forced outages within a given system. This was supported by the observation that dominant systems attributing to forced outage at LGS were not equally represented in industry data. It is suggested that for individual utilities to dramatically improve unit capability factors with regard to Balance of Plant systems, they must learn from industry wide experiences and develop cooperative means of exchanging lessons learned among similarly designed plants and systems. With the broad knowledge base of system failures, current designs must be frequently assessed and altered until each system poses an acceptable level of risk to generation capacity. (author)

  18. Investigation of the present management status of calibration source based on the law concerning prevention of radiation hazards due to radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Yasuyuki; Igarashi, Hiroshi; Hirano, Kunihiro; Kawaharada, Yasuhiro; Igarashi, Hitoshi; Murase, Ken-ya; Mochizuki, Teruhito

    2007-01-01

    An amendment concerning the enforcement of the law on the prevention of radiation hazards due to radioisotopes, etc., and the medical service law enforcement regulations were promulgated on June 1, 2005. This amendment concerned international basic safety standards and the sealing of radiation sources. Sealed radiation sources ≤3.7 MBq, which had been excluded from regulation, were newly included as an object of regulation. Investigation of the single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system instituted in hospitals indicated that almost all institutions adhere to the new amendment, and the calibration source, the checking source, etc., corresponding to this amendment were maintained appropriately. Any institutions planning to return sealed radioisotopes should refer to this report. (author)

  19. Municipal water pollution prevention program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-03-01

    EPA believes that the most effective and equitable means of assuring viability of this infrastructure is through environmentally preferred pollution prevention approaches especially through application of Municipal Water Pollution Prevention (MWPP). These approaches may enhance worker safety, improve the usability of sludge, increase the ability for local community expansion, and reduce operation and compliance costs. State-based municipal pollution prevention programs focus attention on a series of actions to prevent pollution in advance rather than taking more expensive corrective actions. MWPP encourages resource conservation to reduce water and energy use, appropriate pricing, toxicity reductions at the source, BOD reductions, recycling, proper treatment of wastes, and beneficial uses of sludge

  20. European Legislation to Prevent Loss of Control of Sources and to Recover Orphan Sources, and Other Requirements Relevant to the Scrap Metal Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssens, A.; Tanner, V.; Mundigl, S., E-mail: augustin.janssens@ec.europa.eu [European Commission (Luxembourg)

    2011-07-15

    European legislation (Council Directive 2003/122/EURATOM) has been adopted with regard to the control of high-activity sealed radioactive sources (HASS). This Directive is now part of an overall recast of current radiation protection legislation. At the same time the main Directive, 96/29/EURATOM, laying down Basic Safety Standards (BSS) for the health protection of the general public and workers against the dangers of ionizing radiation, is being revised in the light of the new recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The provisions for exemption and clearance are a further relevant feature of the new BSS. The current issues emerging from the revision and recast of the BSS are discussed, in the framework of the need to protect the scrap metal industry from orphan sources and to manage contaminated metal products. (author)

  1. Trade in electricity certificates: a new means for stimulating electricity from renewable energy sources: final report from the electricity certificate inquiry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    We recommend the introduction of a quota-based Swedish certificate system to promote production of electricity from renewable energy sources commencing on 1 January 2003. We recommend that the certificate system should be based on the following principles: The quota obligation should be set for the years 2003 to 2010 and for all intervening years. The quota is expressed as a share of the total amount of electricity used. It is proposed that as a guideline, a target of an increase in electricity production from renewable energy sources of 10 TWh, in a period from 2003 to 2010 inclusive, is adopted. It is estimated that approximately half of this increase can come from expansion of existing production and half from new plants. The following electricity production plants are to be entitled to certificates provided they comply with the requirement that electricity is to be produced from renewable energy sources and that they meet the environmental criteria set, including fuel requirements, where electricity is produced with the aid of: 1. wind power, 2. solar energy, 3. geothermal energy, 4. certain types of biofuel, 5. wave energy, 6. hydroelectric power at existing plants which, at the time of the Electricity Certificate law coming into effect, have a capacity not exceeding 1 500 kilowatt, 7. hydroelectric power at plants which have not been in operation after 1 July 2001 but which were commissioned after the coming into effect of the Electricity Certificate law, 8. increased installed capacity at existing hydroelectric power plants to the extent that capacity is increased by measures undertaken after 1 July 2002, and 9. hydroelectric power produced at plants, which started operation for the first time after 1 July 2002. The quota period is defined as one calendar year. Certificates may be 'banked' by those subject to quota should they have more certificates at the end of the quota period than need to be submitted. A certificate is valid for an unlimited period of

  2. Composition of minerals and trace elements at Mamasani thermal source: A possible preventive treatment for some skin diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidizadeh, Nasrin; Simaeetabar, Shima; Handjani, Farhad; Ranjbar, Sara; Moghadam, Mohammad Gohari; Parvizi, Mohammad Mahdi

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Some skin diseases are incurable and modern medicine can only control them. In addition, alternative treatment remedies including balneotherapy can be effective in improving skin conditions. However, there are only a limited number of studies on particular mineral or trace elements of mineral sources that have been identified in Iran. In this respect, the amount of minerals and trace elements in Mamasani thermal source, Fars Province, Iran, was measured using electrochemical, titration, and spectrophotometric methods and evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The amount of minerals and trace elements in Mamasani thermal source, Fars Province, Iran, was measured using electrochemical, titration, and spectrophotometric methods. RESULTS: The concentrations of natural gases such as H2S and NO3 in Mamasani thermal source were measured to be 22.10 mg/L and 42.79 mg/L, respectively. The source also contained major ions such as chloride, sulfate, sodium, calcium, magnesium, potassium, and carbonate. Due to the high concentration of chloride, sulfate, and sodium ions in comparison with other major ions, the water source is also classified as sulfide water. The existing trace elements in this thermal water source are iron, zinc, copper, selenium, cobalt, chromium, boron, silisium, aluminum, magnesium, and molybdenum. CONCLUSION: We concluded that bathing in this source could be beneficial. As nitrate concentration is close to the highest standard concentration for drinking water, it can be used in chronic dermatitis, psoriasis, burns, and allergy. Furthermore, the antibacterial and antifungal effects of sulfur-containing water in this source can be helpful in the treatment of leg ulcers, tinea versicolor, tinea corporis, and tinea capitis. PMID:29296611

  3. Fat food for a bad mood. Could we treat and prevent depression in Type 2 diabetes by means of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouwer, F; Nijpels, G; Beekman, Aartjan T F

    2005-01-01

    that eicosapentaenoic acid is an effective adjunct treatment of depression in diabetes, while docosahexanoic acid is not. Moreover, consumption of omega-3 PUFA reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease and may therefore indirectly decrease depression in Type 2 diabetes, via the reduction of cardiovascular......AIMS: Evidence strongly suggests that depression is a common complication of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, there is considerable room to improve the effectiveness of pharmacological antidepressant agents, as in only 50-60% of the depressed subjects with diabetes does pharmacotherapy lead...... to remission of depression. The aim of the present paper was to review whether polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) of the omega-3 family could be used for the prevention and treatment of depression in Type 2 diabetes. METHODS: MEDLINE database and published reference lists were used to identify studies...

  4. Preventing Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... protective factors listed below: Skills in problem solving, conflict resolution, and nonviolent ways of handling disputes Effective ... 2017 Page last updated: August 9, 2017 Content source: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Division ...

  5. The Meaning of Meaning, Etc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Don L. F.

    This paper attempts to dispel a number of misconceptions about the nature of meaning, namely that: (1) synonyms are words that have the same meanings, (2) antonyms are words that have opposite meanings, (3) homonyms are words that sound the same but have different spellings and meanings, (4) converses are antonyms rather than synonyms, (5)…

  6. Assessment of high performance concrete containing fly ash and calcium nitrite based corrosion inhibitor as a mean to prevent the corrosion of reinforcing steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montes-García, P; Jiménez-Quero, V; López-Calvo, H

    2015-01-01

    This research analyses the effectiveness of the water-to-cement ratio (w/c), fly ash and a calcium nitrite based corrosion inhibitor to prevent the corrosion of reinforcing steel embedded in high performance concrete. The interactive effect between the inhibitor and fly ash was evaluated because the occurrence of a negative effect when both ingredients are added together in a concrete mixture has been reported. All the concrete mixtures studied in this investigation had 8.2% of silica fume. Twenty seven prismatic concrete specimens were fabricated with dimensions of 55 × 230 × 300 mm each containing two steel rods embedded for the purpose of corrosion monitoring. The specimens were exposed to a simulated marine environment with two daily cycles of wetting and drying for one year. To evaluate the deterioration of the specimens corrosion potentials and linear polarization resistance tests were carried out. The results indicate that the use of a low w/c, the addition of fly ash and the addition of the corrosion inhibitor contributed to the reduction of the corrosion of steel in the concrete specimens. The results further suggest that the combination of fly ash and corrosion inhibitor does not promote the deterioration of the concrete matrix

  7. Experimental verification by means of thermoluminescent dosimetry of the distribution dose absorbed in water for a 137Cs Amersham CDCS-M-3 source, Monte Carlo simulated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fragoso Valdez, F. R.; Alvarez Romero, J. T.

    2001-01-01

    It verifies, in a experimental way, the Monte Carlo simulation results (PENELOPE algorithm) for the water absorbed dose distribution, imparted by a 1 37 Cs - Amersham source (model CDCS-M-3). The feigned results are expressed in terms of the functions Α(r,z), g(r) and F(r,Θ) according to the recommendations of the AAPM TG 43 [es

  8. Behaviour of radionuclides during accidental melting of orphan sources in electric arc furnaces by means of C.F.D. gas flow modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penalva, I.; Damborenea, J.; Legarda, F.; Zuloaga, P.; Ordonez, M.; Serrano, I.

    2006-01-01

    The appearance of orphan sources in steelmaking facilities has become a fact nowadays. Radiation sources, hidden within the scrap, may come into the scrap yard and become part of the melting. As a result, dispersion of the radioactive material that makes up the source takes place throughout the facility. The University of the Basque Country (U.P.V.-E.H.U.), in collaboration with the Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos, S.A. (E.N.R.E.S.A.) and the Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear (C.S.N.), has carried out a Research Project to analyze this accidental melting of radioactive sources in electric arc furnaces (E.A.F.). The whole steelmaking process can be analyzed in several discrete phases. Radioactive sources that may be incorporated to this process will be exposed to the different critical conditions prevailing during each phase. In this sense, Computational Fluid Dynamics (C.F.D.) has been used in order to recreate such conditions and so, determine the characteristics of the dispersion of radioactivity. Two different situations have been studied in detail using C.F.D. techniques: thermal conditions around a scrap-basket that contains the source just before entering the furnace and the deposition of steelmaking dust containing 137 Cs on the inner surface of flue pipes. Before entering the furnace, scrap is usually placed inside a basket that remains above the furnace during some time. Once the furnace is open the scrap is dropped into the furnace to complete the loading process. C.F.D. techniques have been used to analyze the thermal conditions around the basket in order to assess the possibility of a break of the radioactive source hidden within the scrap, concluding that commercial sources will maintain their integrity during the whole loading process. On the other hand, after entering the furnace dispersion of the radioactive material will take place. Physical and chemical properties of the active elements (chemical form, composition, melting point, etc

  9. Behaviour of radionuclides during accidental melting of orphan sources in electric arc furnaces by means of C.F.D. gas flow modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penalva, I.; Damborenea, J.; Legarda, F. [University of the Basque Country, Nuclear Engineering and Fluids Mechanics (Spain); Zuloaga, P.; Ordonez, M. [Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos, SA (ENRESA), Madrid (Spain); Serrano, I. [Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear, Madrid (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    The appearance of orphan sources in steelmaking facilities has become a fact nowadays. Radiation sources, hidden within the scrap, may come into the scrap yard and become part of the melting. As a result, dispersion of the radioactive material that makes up the source takes place throughout the facility. The University of the Basque Country (U.P.V.-E.H.U.), in collaboration with the Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos, S.A. (E.N.R.E.S.A.) and the Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear (C.S.N.), has carried out a Research Project to analyze this accidental melting of radioactive sources in electric arc furnaces (E.A.F.). The whole steelmaking process can be analyzed in several discrete phases. Radioactive sources that may be incorporated to this process will be exposed to the different critical conditions prevailing during each phase. In this sense, Computational Fluid Dynamics (C.F.D.) has been used in order to recreate such conditions and so, determine the characteristics of the dispersion of radioactivity. Two different situations have been studied in detail using C.F.D. techniques: thermal conditions around a scrap-basket that contains the source just before entering the furnace and the deposition of steelmaking dust containing {sup 137}Cs on the inner surface of flue pipes. Before entering the furnace, scrap is usually placed inside a basket that remains above the furnace during some time. Once the furnace is open the scrap is dropped into the furnace to complete the loading process. C.F.D. techniques have been used to analyze the thermal conditions around the basket in order to assess the possibility of a break of the radioactive source hidden within the scrap, concluding that commercial sources will maintain their integrity during the whole loading process. On the other hand, after entering the furnace dispersion of the radioactive material will take place. Physical and chemical properties of the active elements (chemical form, composition, melting point, etc

  10. Communication Skills for Patient Engagement: Argumentation Competencies as Means to Prevent or Limit Reactance Arousal, with an example from the Italian healthcare system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Bigi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the role of argumentative competencies for the achievement of patient engagement through communication in doctor-patient consultations. The achievement of patient engagement is being proposed by recent studies as a condition that can facilitate in particular patient adherence, which involves behavior change. One obstacle to behavior change that has been observed is reactance, i.e. resistance to persuasive messages when a threat to freedom is perceived. In the medical field, reactance theory has been mostly applied in the field of mental health, less frequently to understand non adherence in general. However, a few studies have revealed that reactance can actually explain in part the motives behind non adherence. These studies propose that the arousal of reactance could be limited or prevented by adopting relational measures aimed at giving patients the feeling that they still hold some control over the process of care and that the ‘impositions’ on their freedoms are acceptable because they have had the opportunity to decide about them. However, they do not discuss how these strategies should be operationalized at the dialogical level. A debated issue in the study of reactance is the role played by knowledge. It seems that pure information regarding an issue is likely to represent a threat in itself. Complementary to this is the finding that quality of argument does not impact on the degree of reactance. These findings pose a problem in view of the goal of patient education, itself considered as a necessary premise for any process of patient engagement and adherence. It seems necessary to move away from a conception of education as mere transmission of information and look for more effective ways of transferring knowledge to patients. With regard to this issue, the paper argues that useful insights can be found in studies on science education, in which it is shown experimentally that argumentative processes favor learning

  11. Communication Skills for Patient Engagement: Argumentation Competencies As Means to Prevent or Limit Reactance Arousal, with an Example from the Italian Healthcare System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigi, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The paper discusses the role of argumentative competencies for the achievement of patient engagement through communication in doctor-patient consultations. The achievement of patient engagement is being proposed by recent studies as a condition that can facilitate in particular patient adherence, which involves behavior change. One obstacle to behavior change that has been observed is reactance, i.e., resistance to persuasive messages when a threat to freedom is perceived. In the medical field, reactance theory has been mostly applied in the field of mental health, less frequently to understand non-adherence in general. However, a few studies have revealed that reactance can actually explain in part the motives behind non-adherence. These studies propose that the arousal of reactance could be limited or prevented by adopting relational measures aimed at giving patients the feeling that they still hold some control over the process of care and that the "impositions" on their freedoms are acceptable because they have had the opportunity to decide about them. However, they do not discuss how these strategies should be operationalized at the dialogical level. A debated issue in the study of reactance is the role played by knowledge. It seems that pure information regarding an issue is likely to represent a threat in itself. Complementary to this is the finding that quality of argument does not impact on the degree of reactance. These findings pose a problem in view of the goal of patient education, itself considered as a necessary premise for any process of patient engagement and adherence. It seems necessary to move away from a conception of education as mere transmission of information and look for more effective ways of transferring knowledge to patients. With regard to this issue, the paper argues that useful insights can be found in studies on science education, in which it is shown experimentally that argumentative processes favor learning and understanding

  12. Spectrometer for the analysis of radiation, emitted by an X-ray source, by means of an analyzer crystal and a rotating detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guernet, J.; Boissel, P.

    1979-01-01

    The detector is kept tangential to the Rowland circle by means of a mechanical device. For this purpose the device is provided with a support plate for the detector which is fastened to a guiding arm and for which the angular position of the crystal is determined with the aid of a transmission gear having a transmission ratio of 2:1. (DG) [de

  13. A methodological approach to a realistic evaluation of skin absorbed doses during manipulation of radioactive sources by means of GAMOS Monte Carlo simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Italiano, Antonio; Amato, Ernesto; Auditore, Lucrezia; Baldari, Sergio

    2018-05-01

    The accurate evaluation of the radiation burden associated with radiation absorbed doses to the skin of the extremities during the manipulation of radioactive sources is a critical issue in operational radiological protection, deserving the most accurate calculation approaches available. Monte Carlo simulation of the radiation transport and interaction is the gold standard for the calculation of dose distributions in complex geometries and in presence of extended spectra of multi-radiation sources. We propose the use of Monte Carlo simulations in GAMOS, in order to accurately estimate the dose to the extremities during manipulation of radioactive sources. We report the results of these simulations for 90Y, 131I, 18F and 111In nuclides in water solutions enclosed in glass or plastic receptacles, such as vials or syringes. Skin equivalent doses at 70 μm of depth and dose-depth profiles are reported for different configurations, highlighting the importance of adopting a realistic geometrical configuration in order to get accurate dosimetric estimations. Due to the easiness of implementation of GAMOS simulations, case-specific geometries and nuclides can be adopted and results can be obtained in less than about ten minutes of computation time with a common workstation.

  14. Power generation from a 7700C heat source by means of a main steam cycle, a topping closed gas cycle and a ammonia bottoming cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilliette, Z.P.

    1981-03-01

    For power generation, steam cycles make an efficient use of medium temperature heat sources. They can be adapted to dry cooling, higher power ratings and output increase in winter by addition of an ammonia bottoming cycle. Active development is carried out in this field by 'Electricite de France'. As far as heat sources at higher temperatures are concerned, particularly related to coal-fired or nuclear power plants, a more efficient way of converting energy is at first to expand a hot working fluid through a gas turbine. It is shown in this paper that a satisfactory result, for heat sources of about 770 0 C, is obtained with a topping closed gas cycle of moderate power rating, rejecting its waste heat into the main steam cycle. Attention has to be paid to this gas cycle waste heat recovery and to the coupling of the gas and steam cycles. This concept drastically reduces the importance of new technology components. The use and the significance of an ammonia bottoming cycle in this case are investigated

  15. Consolidation and compaction as a means to prevent settlement of bentonite/sandy silt mixes for use in waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abeele, W.V.

    1985-01-01

    The texture of the local Los Alamos tuff is that of a sandy silt with a high hydraulic conductivity. The permeability is dramatically decreased by addition of small amounts of bentonite. The coefficient of consolidation for bentonite/sandy silt ratios decreases inversely proportional with the square of that ratio, whereas the compression index, the swelling index, and the permeability change index increase with increasing bentonite ratio. A strong relationship also exists between the void ratio and the logarithm of the applied stress for any given bentonite ratio. The empirical linear relationship between the void ratio and the logarithm of the applied stress, developed by Taylor, is excellent and enables us to limit the evaluation of conductivity at any void ratio to the measurement of the initial and the desired void ratio, the initial conductivity, and the permeability change index. The decrease in void ratio caused by consolidation or natural compaction of the mixes are scrutinized. Examples of expected settlement and subsidence are calculated based on the known geotechnical characteristics of bentonite/sandy silt mixes. Remedial actions, i.e., means to limit the amount of settlement, are considered. We finally discuss our field experiment, which studies the influence of subsidence on layered systems in general and on biobarriers in particular. 15 refs., 5 tabs

  16. Prevention of the use of legal trafficking for nuclear material and radioactive sources smuggling. Keynote address/session 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravchenko, N.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Countries like Russia, which have a large nuclear industry, export a significant number of radioactive sources and substances. Some of them are nuclear material. In general, it is the task of the customs inspectors to verify that the content of the shipment is in agreement with the declaration (as safeguards inspectors verify operators declarations). In case of other goods, this is easy. The consignment can be opened and the content can be seen and compared with the declaration. In the case of radioactive shipments this cannot be done. The radioactive substance is in a shielded container and opening is often only possible in a hot cell. Opening of the package and measurement of the removed source in presence of the customs inspector is impossible because the customs control begins only after the declaration has been registered. Therefore, the Russian customs authorities have contracted a company to develop a gamma spectrometer, which can be used to verify the source, even if inside the shielded shipping container. Throughout the country - where many shipments or receivables take place - there are 18 customs offices, equipped with gamma spectrometers and special software. If a container arrives for customs inspection, its design is called from a database. Then the gamma spectrum outside the container is measured and the measured gamma peak energy and intensity is compared with the expected, which is calculated by software based on the design information of the container. This approach works well. Several cases were already discovered in Russia, where there were attempts to use legal shipments for smuggling radioactive sources. I would like to mention some technical problems concerning control of legal export and import of radioactive sources: a) There are not enough commercial suppliers which offer the needed equipment; because of lack of competition prices for the equipment are too high. b) Presently available equipment is mainly based on HPGE cooled

  17. Characterization of Escherichia coli isolates from different fecal sources by means of classification tree analysis of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seurinck, Sylvie; Deschepper, Ellen; Deboch, Bishaw; Verstraete, Willy; Siciliano, Steven

    2006-03-01

    Microbial source tracking (MST) methods need to be rapid, inexpensive and accurate. Unfortunately, many MST methods provide a wealth of information that is difficult to interpret by the regulators who use this information to make decisions. This paper describes the use of classification tree analysis to interpret the results of a MST method based on fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiles of Escherichia coli isolates, and to present results in a format readily interpretable by water quality managers. Raw sewage E. coli isolates and animal E. coli isolates from cow, dog, gull, and horse were isolated and their FAME profiles collected. Correct classification rates determined with leaveone-out cross-validation resulted in an overall low correct classification rate of 61%. A higher overall correct classification rate of 85% was obtained when the animal isolates were pooled together and compared to the raw sewage isolates. Bootstrap aggregation or adaptive resampling and combining of the FAME profile data increased correct classification rates substantially. Other MST methods may be better suited to differentiate between different fecal sources but classification tree analysis has enabled us to distinguish raw sewage from animal E. coli isolates, which previously had not been possible with other multivariate methods such as principal component analysis and cluster analysis.

  18. On the use of mean groundwater age, life expectancy and capture probability for defining aquifer vulnerability and time-of-travel zones for source water protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molson, J W; Frind, E O

    2012-01-01

    Protection and sustainability of water supply wells requires the assessment of vulnerability to contamination and the delineation of well capture zones. Capture zones, or more generally, time-of-travel zones corresponding to specific contaminant travel times, are most commonly delineated using advective particle tracking. More recently, the capture probability approach has been used in which a probability of capture of P=1 is assigned to the well and the growth of a probability-of-capture plume is tracked backward in time using an advective-dispersive transport model. This approach accounts for uncertainty due to local-scale heterogeneities through the use of macrodispersion. In this paper, we develop an alternative approach to capture zone delineation by applying the concept of mean life expectancy E (time remaining before being captured by the well), and we show how life expectancy E is related to capture probability P. Either approach can be used to delineate time-of-travel zones corresponding to specific travel times, as well as the ultimate capture zone. The related concept of mean groundwater age A (time since recharge) can also be applied in the context of defining the vulnerability of a pumped aquifer. In the same way as capture probability, mean life expectancy and groundwater age account for local-scale uncertainty or unresolved heterogeneities through macrodispersion, which standard particle tracking neglects. The approach is tested on 2D and 3D idealized systems, as well as on several watershed-scale well fields within the Regional Municipality of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) as a means for detecting carbon in GaAs and in source materials and additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bethge, K.; Mader, A.; Michelmann, R.; Krauskopf, J.; Thee, P.; Meyer, J.D.

    1991-01-01

    The nuclear reaction ananlysis (NRA) on the basis of the reaction 12 C (d,p) 13 C is a method allowing the detection and description of both lateral and depth profiles of the presence of carbon in GaAs and in the source materials and additives. The NRA is an absolute method with a detection limit for C of approx. 4x10 15 cm 3 . The achievable detection range in depth under the experimental conditions goes from the surface down to 6 μm. Combined with channeling measurements, NRA is capable of identifying the position of carbon in the GaAs crystal lattice, and thus permits to examine the mobility of C in GaAs. (BBR) With 11 refs [de

  20. Identification of abiotic and biotic reductive dechlorination in a chlorinated ethene plume after thermal source remediation by means of isotopic and molecular biology tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badin, Alice; Broholm, Mette Martina; Jacobsen, Carsten S.

    2016-01-01

    Thermal tetrachloroethene (PCE) remediation by steam injection in a sandy aquifer led to the release of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from aquifer sediments resulting in more reduced redox conditions, accelerated PCE biodegradation, and changes in microbial populations. These changes were...... documented by comparing data collected prior to the remediation event and eight years later. Based on the premise that dual C-Cl isotope slopes reflect ongoing degradation pathways, the slopes associated with PCE and TCE suggest the predominance of biotic reductive dechlorination near the source area. PCE...... is supported by the relative lack of Dhc in the downgradient part of the plume. The results of this study show that thermal remediation can enhance the biodegradation of chlorinated ethenes, and that this effect can be traced to the mobilisation of DOC due to steam injection. This, in turn, results in more...

  1. Production of sensory compounds by means of the yeast Dekkera bruxellensis in different nitrogen sources with the prospect of producing cachaça.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro Parente, Denise; Vidal, Esteban Espinosa; Leite, Fernanda Cristina Bezerra; de Barros Pita, Will; de Morais, Marcos Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The distilled spirit made from sugar cane juice, also known as cachaça, is a traditional Brazilian beverage that in recent years has increased its market share among international distilled beverages. Several volatile compounds produced by yeast cells during the fermentation process are responsible for the unique taste and aroma of this drink. The yeast Dekkera bruxellensis has acquired increasing importance in the fermented beverage production, as the different metabolites produced by this yeast may be either beneficial or harmful to the end-product. Since D. bruxellensis is often found in the fermentation processes carried out in ethanol fuel distillation in Brazil, we employed this yeast to analyse the physiological profile and production of aromatic compounds and to examine whether it is feasible to regard it as a cachaça-producing microorganism. The assays were performed on a small scale and simulated the conditions for the production of handmade cachaça. The results showed that the presence of aromatic and branched-chain amino acids in the medium has a strong influence on the metabolism and production of flavours by D. bruxellensis. The assimilation of these alternative nitrogen sources led to different fermentation yields and the production of flavouring compounds. The influence of the nitrogen source on the metabolism of fusel alcohols and esters in D. bruxellensis highlights the need for further studies of the nitrogen requirements to obtain the desired level of sensory compounds in the fermentation. Our results suggest that D. bruxellensis has the potential to play a role in the production of cachaça. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Bunch by bunch beam monitoring in 3rd and 4th generation light sources by means of single crystal diamond detectors and quantum well devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonelli, M.; Di Fraia, M.; Tallaire, A.; Achard, J.; Carrato, S.; Menk, R. H.; Cautero, G.; Giuressi, D.; Jark, W. H.; Biasiol, G.; Ganbold, T.; Oliver, K.; Callegari, C.; Coreno, M.; De Sio, A.; Pace, E.

    2012-10-01

    New generation Synchrotron Radiation (SR) sources and Free Electron Lasers (FEL) require novel concepts of beam diagnostics to keep photon beams under surveillance, asking for simultaneous position and intensity monitoring. To deal with high power load and short time pulses provided by these sources, novel materials and methods are needed for the next generation BPMs. Diamond is a promising material for the production of semitransparent in situ X-ray BPMs withstanding the high dose rates of SR rings and high energy FELs. We report on the development of freestanding, single crystal CVD diamond detectors. Performances in both low and radio frequency SR beam monitoring are presented. For the former, sensitivity deviation was found to be approximately 2%; a 0.05% relative precision in the intensity measurements and a 0.1-μm precision in the position encoding have been estimated. For the latter, single-shot characterizations revealed sub-nanosecond rise-times and spatial precisions below 6 μm, which allowed bunch-by-bunch monitoring in multi-bunch operation. Preliminary measurements at the Fermi FEL have been performed with this detector, extracting quantitative intensity and position information for FEL pulses (~ 100 fs, energy 12 ÷ 60 eV), with a long-term spatial precision of about 85 μm results on FEL radiation damages are also reported. Due to their direct, low-energy band gap, InGaAs quantum well devices too may be used as fast detectors for photons ranging from visible to X-ray. Results are reported which show the capability of a novel InGaAs/InAlAs device to detect intensity and position of 100-fs-wide laser pulses.

  3. Governing change: land-use change and the prevention of nonpoint source pollution in the north coastal basin of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Anne G

    2013-01-01

    Many rural areas in the United States and throughout much of the postindustrial world are undergoing significant ecological, socioeconomic, and political transformations. The migration of urban and suburban dwellers into rural areas has led to the subdivision of large tracts of land into smaller parcels, which can complicate efforts to govern human-environmental problems. Non-point source (NPS) pollution from private rural lands is a particularly pressing human-environmental challenge that may be aggravated by changing land tenure. In this article, I report on a study of the governance and management of sediment (a common NPS pollutant) in the North Coastal basin of California, a region undergoing a transition from traditional extractive and agricultural land uses to rural residential and other alternative land uses. I focus on the differences in the governance and management across private timber, ranch, residential, vacation, and other lands in the region. I find that (1) the stringency and strength of sediment regulations differ by land use, (2) nonregulatory programs tend to target working landscapes, and (3) rural residential landowners have less knowledge of sediment control and report using fewer sediment-control techniques than landowners using their land for timber production or ranching. I conclude with an exploration of the consequences of these differences on an evolving rural landscape.

  4. An analytical model for the distribution of CO2 sources and sinks, fluxes, and mean concentration within the roughness sub-layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, M. B.; Katul, G. G.

    2009-12-01

    A one-dimensional analytical model that predicts foliage CO2 uptake rates, turbulent fluxes, and mean concentration throughout the roughness sub-layer (RSL), a layer that extends from the ground surface up to 5 times the canopy height (h), is proposed. The model combines the mean continuity equation for CO2 with first-order closure principles for turbulent fluxes and simplified physiological and radiative transfer schemes for foliage uptake. This combination results in a second-order ordinary differential equation in which it is imposed soil respiration (RE) as lower and CO2 concentration well above the RSL as upper boundary conditions. An inverse version of the model was tested against data sets from two contrasting ecosystems: a tropical forest (TF, h=40 m) and a managed irrigated rice canopy (RC, h=0.7 m) - with good agreement noted between modeled and measured mean CO2 concentration profiles within the entire RSL (see figure). Sensitivity analysis on the model parameters revealed a plausible scaling regime between them and a dimensionless parameter defined by the ratio between external (RE) and internal (stomatal conductance) characteristics controlling the CO2 exchange process. The model can be used to infer the thickness of the RSL for CO2 exchange, the inequality in zero-plane displacement between CO2 and momentum, and its consequences on modeled CO2 fluxes. A simplified version of the solution is well suited for being incorporated into large-scale climate models. Furthermore, the model framework here can be used to a priori estimate relative contributions from the soil surface and the atmosphere to canopy-air CO2 concentration thereby making it synergetic to stable isotopes studies. Panels a) and c): Profiles of normalized measured leaf area density distribution (a) for TF and RC, respectively. Continuous lines are the constant a used in the model and dashed lines represent data-derived profiles. Panels b) and d) are modeled and ensemble-averaged measured

  5. Information sources, awareness and preventive health behaviors in a population at risk of Arsenic exposure: The role of gender and social networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Mertens

    Full Text Available The population of Paracatu is at risk of Arsenic (As exposure associated with long-term exploration of the largest open pit gold mine in Brazil. As part of the interdisciplinary research "The Paracatu project: Arsenic environmental contamination and human health risks assessment in Paracatu-MG", carried out between 2011 and 2013, we used data disaggregated by gender to identify the sources of As-related information being accessed by inhabitants of Paracatu and to examine if access to these sources was correlated to awareness of As health effects and adoption of behaviors to reduce risk of As exposure. Semi-structured, face-to-face interviews were carried out with 460 participants (294 women and 166 men to collect data on respondent's socio-demographic characteristics, use of mass media and social communication networks as sources of information on As issues, the trustworthiness of these information sources, awareness of As health effects, and adoption of behaviors to reduce As exposure. For both men and women, interpersonal communication was used and trusted more frequently than mass media to obtain information on As. Discussion of As issues occurred preferentially among individuals of the same gender and was associated with awareness of As health risks. There are marked differences in variables correlated with the adoption of behaviors to reduce the risk of As exposure between men and women. Discussing As issues with women was associated with adoption of risk-reduction practices for both genders. In contrast, men who discuss As issues with other men were less likely to adopt As exposure prevention behaviors. Finally, adoption was associated with awareness of As health effects for women, but this was not the case for men. Policy implications for decision makers, practitioners and researchers are discussed, based on concrete examples of how gender-specific approaches can effectively guide the formulation and implementation of health promotion

  6. Neural congruency effects in the multi-source interference task vanish in healthy youth after controlling for conditional differences in mean RT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamin Kim

    Full Text Available According to the conflict monitoring model of cognitive control, reaction time (RT in distracter interference tasks (e.g., the Stroop task is a more precise index of response conflict than stimulus congruency (incongruent vs. congruent. The model therefore predicts that RT should be a reliable predictor of activity in regions of the posterior medial frontal cortex (pMFC that are posited to detect response conflict. In particular, pMFC activity should be (a greater in slow-RT than in fast-RT trials within a given task condition (e.g., congruent and (b equivalent in RT-matched trials from different conditions (i.e., congruent and incongruent trials. Both of these effects have been observed in functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI studies of adults. However, neither effect was observed in a recent study of healthy youth, suggesting that (a the model does not accurately describe the relationship between RT and pMFC activity in this population or (b the recent study was characterized by high variability due to a relatively small sample size. To distinguish between these possibilities, we asked a relatively large group of healthy youth (n = 28 to perform a distracter interference task - the multi-source interference task (MSIT - while we recorded their brain activity with functional MRI. In this relatively large sample, both of the model's predictions were confirmed. We conclude that the model accurately describes the relationship between pMFC activity and RT in healthy youth, but that additional research is needed to determine whether processes unrelated to response conflict contribute to this relationship.

  7. Dosimetry boron neutron capture therapy in liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma) by means of MCNP-code with neutron source from thermal column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irhas; Andang Widi Harto; Yohannes Sardjono

    2014-01-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) using physics principle when B 10 (Boron-10) irradiated by low energy neutron (thermal neutron). Boron and thermal neutron reaction produced B 11m (Boron-11m) (t 1/2 =10 -2 s). B 11m decay emitted alpha, Li 7 (Lithium-7) particle and gamma ray. Irradiated time needed to ensure cancer dose enough. Liver cancer was primary malignant who located in liver (Hepatocellular carcinoma). Malignant in liver were different to metastatic from Breast, Colon Cancer, and the other. This condition was Metastatic Liver Cancer. Monte Carlo method used by Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) Software. Probabilistic approach used for probability of interaction occurred and record refers to characteristic of particle and material. In this case, thermal neutron produced by model of Collimated Thermal Column Kartini Research Nuclear Reactor, Yogyakarta. Modelling organ and source used liver organ that contain of cancer tissue and research reactor. Variation of boron concentration was 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, and 47 µg/g cancers. Output of MCNP calculation were neutron scattering dose, gamma ray dose and neutron flux from reactor. Neutron flux used to calculate alpha, proton and gamma ray dose from interaction of tissue material and thermal neutron. Variation of boron concentration result dose rate to every variation were 0,059; 0,072; 0,084; 0,098; 0.108; 0,12; 0,125 Gy/sec. Irradiation time who need to every concentration were 841,5 see (14 min 1 sec); 696,07 sec(11 min 36 sec); 593.11 sec (9 min 53 sec); 461,35 sec (8 min 30 sec); 461,238 sec (7 min 41 sec); 414,23 sec (6 min 54 sec); 398,38 sec (6 min 38 sec). Irradiating time could shortly when boron concentration more high. (author)

  8. GREENHOUSE GASES AND MEANS OF PREVENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušica Stojanović

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The greenhouse effect can be defined as the consequence of increased heating of the Earth's surface, as well as the lower atmosphere by carbon dioxide, water vapor, and other trace amounts gases. It is well-known that human industrial activities have released large amounts of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, about 900 billion tons of carbon dioxide, and it is estimated that up to 450 billion are still in the atmosphere. In comparison to greenhouse gases water vapor is one of the greatest contributors to the greenhouse effect on Earth. Many projects, as does the PURGE project, have tendences to build on the already conducted research and to quantify the positive and negative impacts on health and wellbeing of the population with greenhouse gas reduction strategies that are curently being implemented and should be increasingly applied in various sectors and urban areas, having offices in Europe, China and India.

  9. Australian governments' spending on preventing and responding to drug abuse should target the main sources of drug-related harm and the most cost-effective interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, David

    2011-01-01

    A notable feature of Australian drug policy is the limited public and professional attention given to the financial costs of drug abuse and to the levels and patterns of government expenditures incurred in preventing and responding to this. Since 1991, Collins and Lapsley have published scholarly reports documenting the social costs of drug abuse in Australia and their reports also contain estimates of governments' drug budgets: revenue and expenditures. They show that, in 2004-2005, Australian governments expended at least $5288 million on drug abuse, with 50% of the expenditure directed to preventing and dealing with alcohol-related problems, 45% to illicit drugs and just 5% to tobacco. Some 60% of the expenditure was directed at drug crime and 37% at health interventions. This pattern of resource allocation does not adequately reflect an evidence-informed policy orientation in that it largely fails to focus on the drug types that are the sources of the most harm (tobacco and alcohol rather than illicit drugs), and the sectors for which we have the strongest evidence of the cost-effectiveness of the available interventions (treatment and harm reduction rather than legislation and law enforcement). The 2010-2014 phase of Australia's National Drug Strategy should include incremental changes to the resource allocation mix, and not simply maintain the historical resource allocation formulae. © 2010 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  10. Using tritium to document the mean transit time and sources of water contributing to a chain-of-ponds river system: Implications for resource protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartwright, I.; Morgenstern, U.

    2016-01-01

    Documenting the interaction between groundwater and rivers is fundamental to understanding hydrological systems. While many studies have examined the location and magnitude of groundwater inflows to rivers, much less is known about the transit times of water in catchments and from where in the aquifer the groundwater originates. Resolving those questions is vital for protecting riverine ecosystems, assessing the impact of contamination, and understanding the potential consequences of groundwater pumping. This study uses tritium ("3H) to evaluate the mean transit times of water contributing to Deep Creek (southeast Australia), which is a chain-of-ponds river system. "3H activities of river water vary between 1.47 and 2.91 TU with lower "3H activities recorded during cease-to-flow periods when the river comprises isolated groundwater-fed pools. Regional groundwater 1–2.5 km away from Deep Creek at depths of 7.5–46.5 m has "3H activities of between 100 years. Alternatively the variation in "3H activities can be explained by mixing of a young near-river water component with up to 50% older groundwater. The results of this study reinforce the need to protect shallow near-river groundwater from contamination in order to safeguard riverine ecosystems and also illustrate the potential pitfalls in using regional bores to characterise the geochemistry of near-river groundwater. - Highlights: • We measured tritium in river water and groundwater from a groundwater-fed river. • Transit times of the river water are years to decades. • Transit times of regional groundwater are decades to centuries. • Regional groundwater is only a minor component of the river water. • Results have implications for protection of the river and its ecosystems.

  11. Study of a Slightly Enriched R Reactor Fuel by Means of a Pulsed Neutron Source; Etude d'un reacteur a combustible legerement enrichi (rubeole) a l'aide de sources pulsees de neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagot, M.; Tellier, H. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique. Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1962-04-01

    A Be O moderated reactor using slightly enriched uranium oxide as fuel was studied by the pulsed neutron source technique. The neutron lifetime was measured in two different cores without reflector, then attempts were made at the measurement of great negative reactivities introduced into the reactor under the following forms: decrease of the volume of the un reflected core, introduction of absorbing cadmium rods, removal of fuel at the periphery of the critical core while maintaining a constant height, and substitution of fuel elements by less reactive elements. In all cases, the results are compared with the data obtained by another type of experiment or by computation. (author) [French] Nous avons applique la methode des sources pulsees de neutrons a un reacteur utilisant de l'oxyde d'uranium legerement enrichi, modere a l'oxyde de beryllium et, apres avoir mesure le temps de vie des neutrons dans deux coeurs differents non reflechis, nous avons porte notre effort, sur la mesure de reactivites negatives importantes introduites dans le reacteur sous differentes formes: - diminution du volume du coeur non reflechi, - introduction de barres absorbantes en cadmium, - enlevement de combustible a la peripherie du coeur critique, tout en conservant une hauteur constante, - substitution d'elements de combustible par des elements moins reactifs. Dans tous les cas, les resultats sont compares aux valeurs obtenues par un autre type d'experience ou par le calcul. (auteur)

  12. Study of a Slightly Enriched R Reactor Fuel by Means of a Pulsed Neutron Source; Etude d'un reacteur a combustible legerement enrichi (rubeole) a l'aide de sources pulsees de neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagot, M; Tellier, H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique. Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1962-04-01

    A Be O moderated reactor using slightly enriched uranium oxide as fuel was studied by the pulsed neutron source technique. The neutron lifetime was measured in two different cores without reflector, then attempts were made at the measurement of great negative reactivities introduced into the reactor under the following forms: decrease of the volume of the un reflected core, introduction of absorbing cadmium rods, removal of fuel at the periphery of the critical core while maintaining a constant height, and substitution of fuel elements by less reactive elements. In all cases, the results are compared with the data obtained by another type of experiment or by computation. (author) [French] Nous avons applique la methode des sources pulsees de neutrons a un reacteur utilisant de l'oxyde d'uranium legerement enrichi, modere a l'oxyde de beryllium et, apres avoir mesure le temps de vie des neutrons dans deux coeurs differents non reflechis, nous avons porte notre effort, sur la mesure de reactivites negatives importantes introduites dans le reacteur sous differentes formes: - diminution du volume du coeur non reflechi, - introduction de barres absorbantes en cadmium, - enlevement de combustible a la peripherie du coeur critique, tout en conservant une hauteur constante, - substitution d'elements de combustible par des elements moins reactifs. Dans tous les cas, les resultats sont compares aux valeurs obtenues par un autre type d'experience ou par le calcul. (auteur)

  13. Meaning in mathematics education

    CERN Document Server

    Valero, Paola; Hoyles, Celia; Skovsmose, Ole

    2005-01-01

    What does it mean to know mathematics? How does meaning in mathematics education connect to common sense or to the meaning of mathematics itself? How are meanings constructed and communicated and what are the dilemmas related to these processes? There are many answers to these questions, some of which might appear to be contradictory. Thus understanding the complexity of meaning in mathematics education is a matter of huge importance. There are twin directions in which discussions have developed - theoretical and practical - and this book seeks to move the debate forward along both dimensions while seeking to relate them where appropriate. A discussion of meaning can start from a theoretical examination of mathematics and how mathematicians over time have made sense of their work. However, from a more practical perspective, anybody involved in teaching mathematics is faced with the need to orchestrate the myriad of meanings derived from multiple sources that students develop of mathematical knowledge.

  14. 29 CFR 1910.39 - Fire prevention plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Means of Egress § 1910.39 Fire prevention plans. (a) Application. An.... A fire prevention plan must be in writing, be kept in the workplace, and be made available to... employees responsible for the control of fuel source hazards. (d) Employee information. An employer must...

  15. High dose rate brachytherapy for prevention of restenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty: preliminary dosimetric tests of a new source presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popowski, Youri; Verin, Vitali; Papirov, Igor; Nouet, Philippe; Rouzaud, Michel; Grob, Eugene; Schwager, Michael; Urban, Philippe; Rutishauser, Wilhelm; Kurtz, John M.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: Balloon dilatation of coronary artery stenosis has become a standard treatment of atherosclerotic heart disease. Restenosis due to excessive intimal cell proliferation, which subsequently occurs in 20-50% of patients, represents one of the major clinical problems in contemporary cardiology, and no satisfactory method for its prevention has thus far been found. Because modest doses of radiation have proved effective in preventing certain types of abnormal cellular proliferation resulting from surgical trauma, and brachytherapy has already been used successfully after dilatation of peripheral arteries, development of a radioactive source suitable for coronary artery applications would be of great interest. Methods and Materials: Nonradioactive flexible yttrum-89 wires (diameter of 0.15 and 0.26 mm) were activated within the thermal neutron flux of an experimental reactor. Standard angioplasty balloons (2 cm long, 2.5 mm in diameter when inflated) were inserted for dosimetry into a specially manufactured tissue equivalent phantom. Four wells, drilled perpendicular to the axis of the balloon, allowed for the insertion of thermal luminescent dosimeters (TLDs; 2 mm of diameter) and spacers. The angioplasty balloon was inflated with air or with contrast media. Radioactive yttrium-90 wires were left in the central lumen of the balloon for 2 min. Doses at the surface of the balloon, and at 1, 2, and 3 mm were determined from TLD readings. Results: Doses obtained at the surface of the balloon, for a 2-min exposure for the 0.26 mm wire (balloon inflated with air) and the 0.15 mm wire (air or contrast), were 56.5 Gy, 17.8 Gy, 5.4 Gy, respectively. As expected for a beta emitter, the fall-off in dose as a function of depth was rapid. External irradiation from the beta source was negligible. Conclusions: Our experiments indicate that the dose rates attainable at the surface of the angioplasty balloon using this technique allow the doses necessary for the inhibition of

  16. Grant Programs for Pollution Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics is responsible for overseeing several grant programs for tribes and states which promote pollution prevention through source reduction and resource conservation.

  17. Suicide Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... corresponding to World Suicide Prevention Day, to celebrate life, hope, and reasons to live. SAMHSA is committed to ... members, and helping people navigate the struggles of life to find a sustainable sense of hope, meaning, and purpose. For information about how you ...

  18. Overestimation of Knowledge about Word Meanings: The "Misplaced Meaning" Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kominsky, Jonathan F.; Keil, Frank C.

    2014-01-01

    Children and adults may not realize how much they depend on external sources in understanding word meanings. Four experiments investigated the existence and developmental course of a "Misplaced Meaning" (MM) effect, wherein children and adults overestimate their knowledge about the meanings of various words by underestimating how much…

  19. Electric Arc Furnace as a Source of Emission of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins and Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans in Perspective of the Council Directive 96/61 EC Concerning Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofilić, T.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available As the accumulation of PCDDs/Fs in the natural environment poses a great threat, and the pollution of the environment with these highly toxic compounds from various emitters needs to be prevented, many countries have conducted an inventory of industrial sources and their emissions in order to obtain better insight into the share of particular sources in the total emission of PCDDs/Fs and to develop strategies to reduce these emissions.Metallurgical processes like sintering of iron ore, production of steel and non-ferrous and light metals from scrap material belong to a group of stationary PCDDs/Fs emitters and their share in the total PCDDs/Fs emission into the environment is very significant. The relative significance of particular metallurgical processes varies from country to country, depending on the nature of a particular process, installed capacities and annual output levels.As the modern approach to observing the environment includes preventive measures, as opposed to corrective post-event measures that were common practice in the past, the owners/operators of metallurgical processes are developing and introducing pollution monitoring and surveillance systems, based on which they take appropriate measures.One of the frequently applied measures is to build and implement the ISO 14001 environmental management system that very efficiently runs production processes along with maintenance of environmental protection on a daily basis. Since the adoption of the ISO 14001 environmental management system is a voluntary decision to be made by each organization, in 1996 the European Union adopted, for the purpose of environmental protection and pollution prevention, the Directive 96/61 EC or IPPC Directive on Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC requiring from industrial installations, depending on their type and output level, to obtain environmental permits to run production processes using best available techniques, thus maintaining

  20. Customer acceptance of renewable energy sources. Target group segmentation by means of a lifestyle typology of end users; Verbraucherakzeptanz von Erneuerbaren Energien. Zielgruppensegmentierung durch Einordnung privater Endverbraucher in eine Lebensstiltypologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiedmann, Klaus-Peter; Zitzewitz, Mareike von

    2010-07-01

    Sustainable use of resources worldwide, protection of the global climate, and enhanced energy efficiency are important challenges for Germany in the 21st century. A key element is the energy turnaround by enhanced use of renewable energy sources, especially in the private sector. The publication presents an acceptance model relating to this context; it is based on the three-component attitude theory and supplemented by concrete, behaviour-related acceptance of use. Statistical methods of verification showed that acceptance in attitude is the necessary condition for acceptance of action, which in turn is the necessary condition for acceptance of use. This means that acceptance in attitude will be the most common type of acceptance and acceptance of use the least common one. On the basis of the acceptance model and of other active and passive variables, a two-stage market segmentation and a cluster analysis were carried out in order to identify four different lifestyle types that are target groups for renewable energy sources. Among the active variables of the private end consumers were personality characteristics, personal values, technology affinity, thriftiness, environmental awareness and environmental behaviour. Descriptive or passive variables were recreational activities, media consumption, orientation in style and taste, and demographic characteristics. (orig./RHM)

  1. Agricultural nonpoint source pollution: prevention and estimate methods; L'inquinamento di origine agricola: quali strumenti di prevenzione e stima?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caffarelli, V.; Rapagnani, M.R.; Triolo, L. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione

    1999-07-01

    Non point source pollutants, such as pesticides and fertilizers derived from agricultural activities, are recognized as an important threat to environment and human health. To prevent the adverse effects of these agrochemicals it is necessary to provide growers and decision makers with easy-to-use information. Attempts have been made to put information on pesticides environmental and health effects into a formula that could summarize, in a single number, these effects. However a single number could be misleading because of the lack of information on chemical-physical parameters and the difficulty to evaluate the relative importance of various environmental and health effects. As an alternative it is here proposed an approach based on schedule containing information, for each pesticides, such as short and long term effects on human health, environmental fate and degradation time, capacity to bio accumulate, toxicity of degradation products. Using information in the schedule, decision makers could make more circumstantiate choices and could program the best agricultural actions under particular environmental circumstances with less impact on man and environment. [Italian] L'inquinamento diffuso derivante dall'uso dei fertilizzanti e dei pesticidi in agricoltura, rappresenta un rischio rilevante per l'ambiente e la salute umana. Al fine di prevenire tale rischio e' necessario fornire a coloro che gestiscono e pianificano le attivita' agricole informazioni facilmente comprensibili, mirate a ridurre o eliminare gli effetti indesiderati derivanti dai prodotti agrochimici. Tentativi sono stati fatti per sviluppare metodologie che sintetizzino queste informazioni in un indice numerico in modo da stilare una graduatoria di pericolosita' dei singoli prodotti. Si propone, in questo lavoro, un approccio basato sulla elaborazione di schede, per ogni principio attivo, che contengono una serie di informazioni quali gli effetti a breve e lungo termine

  2. Activities of voluntary public squads in Dnipropetrovsk region in the field of crime prevention during in the late 50’s – mid 60’s of XX century (according the sources connected with Dnipropetrovsk radio factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malyga, N. M.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the article considered the activities of voluntary public squads in Dnipropetrovsk region in the field of crime prevention during in the late 50’s – mid 60’s of XX century according the sources connected with Dnipropetrovsk radio factory. This enterprise clearly shows peculiarities of social activity of citizens under the leadership of the Communist Party, which considered labor collective as a main link of communist self government. In Ukrainian and foreign historiography this problem is almost unconsidered. Source base is represented by the fund of State archive of Dnipropetrovsk region, acts of the CC KPSU (Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, and puplications of local press. In the article made an attempt to show the process of functioning of voluntary public squads on the example of Dnipropetrovsk radio factory and show the results in field of crime prevention.

  3. EFSA (European Food Safety Authority) and ECDC (European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control), 2015. The European Union summary report on trends and sources of zoonoses, zoonotic agents and food-borne outbreaks in 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helwigh, Birgitte; Porsbo, Lone Jannok; Boysen, Louise

    This report of the European Food Safety Authority and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control presents the results of the zoonoses monitoring activities carried out in 2014 in 32 European countries (28 Member States (MS) and four non-MS). Campylobacteriosis was the most commonly re......, molluscs and products thereof’. The report further summarises trends and sources along the food chain of tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis, Brucella, Trichinella, Echinococcus, Toxoplasma, rabies, Coxiella burnetii (Q fever), West Nile virus and tularaemia....

  4. EFSA (European Food Safety Authority) and ECDC (European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control), 2014. The European Union Summary Report on Trends and Sources of Zoonoses, Zoonotic Agents and Food-borne Outbreaks in 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Korsgaard, Helle; Helwigh, Birgitte; Sørensen, Anna Irene Vedel; Skiby, Jeffrey Edward; Borck Høg, Birgitte

    2014-01-01

    Zoonoses are infections and diseases that are naturally transmissible, directly or indirectly, for example via contaminated foodstuffs, between animals and humans. The severity of these diseases in humans varies from subclinical infection or mild symptoms to life-threatening conditions. In order to prevent zoonoses from occurring, it is important to identify which animals and foodstuffs are the main sources of infection. For this purpose information aimed at protecting human health is collect...

  5. Music, memory and meaning

    OpenAIRE

    Fair, Laura

    2012-01-01

    I his paper examines the music and career of Siti binti Saadi, a famous taarab musician who performed in Zanzibar during the 1920s and 1930s. Relying on four distinctive types of evidence: her recorded music, written documentation produced in East Africa, interviews with men and women who heard her perform and records of company executives I compare perspectives regarding the source of power and authority attributed to her voice as well as the meaning of her music. Siti binti Saadi was the fi...

  6. MEAN OF MEDIAN ABSOLUTE DERIVATION TECHNIQUE MEAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    development of mean of median absolute derivation technique based on the based on the based on .... of noise mean to estimate the speckle noise variance. Noise mean property ..... Foraging Optimization,” International Journal of. Advanced ...

  7. Fiscal Year 2015 Pollution Prevention Grant Summaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics is responsible for overseeing several grant programs for tribes and states which promote pollution prevention through source reduction and resource conservation.

  8. Fiscal Year 2014 Pollution Prevention Grant Summaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics is responsible for overseeing several grant programs for tribes and states which promote pollution prevention through source reduction and resource conservation.

  9. The Brazilian experience of incentive of renewable sources expansion by means of electric power auctions; A experiencia brasileira de incentivo a expansao das fontes renovaveis por meio de leiloes de energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viana, Alexandre Guedes [Camara de Comercializacao de Energia Eletrica (CCEE), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Parente, Virginia [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the Brazilian experience to encourage renewable sources of power generation through the auctions into the Regulated Environment of Contracting. These auctions are subdivided into auctions of existing plants, new plants, alternative sources and structural plants. In this process we observe the structure of the mechanism for contracting new projects of renewable sources without neglecting the low tariffs issues. Thus, the auctions of electricity in Brazil is an alternative to be considered in an attempt to group market mechanisms, low tariffs and incentives to renewable sources of generation. (author)

  10. A study on prevention of an electric discharge at an extraction electrode of an electron cyclotron resonance ion source for cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishii, Y; Kawasaki, S; Kitagawa, A; Muramatsu, M; Uchida, T

    2014-02-01

    A compact ECR ion source has utilized for carbon radiotherapy. In order to increase beam intensity with higher electric field at the extraction electrode and be better ion supply stability for long periods, electric geometry and surface conditions of an extraction electrode have been studied. Focusing attention on black deposited substances on the extraction electrode, which were observed around the extraction electrode after long-term use, the relation between black deposited substances and the electrical insulation property is investigated. The black deposited substances were inspected for the thickness of deposit, surface roughness, structural arrangement examined using Raman spectroscopy, and characteristics of electric discharge in a test bench, which was set up to simulate the ECR ion source.

  11. Fungal Diseases: Ringworm Risk & Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Testing Treatment & Outcomes Health Professionals Statistics More Resources Candidiasis Candida infections of the mouth, throat, and esophagus Vaginal candidiasis Invasive candidiasis Definition Symptoms Risk & Prevention Sources Diagnosis ...

  12. Iodine removing means

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeshima, Masaki.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To employ exhaust gas from an incinerator to effect regeneration of an adsorbent such as active carbon which has adsorbed a radioactive gas such as iodine contained in the ventilating system exhaust gas of a boiling water reactor power plant. Structure: Radioactive exhaust gas such as iodine, xenon and krypton is led to an active carbon adsorbing means for removal through adsorption. When the adsorbing function of the active carbon adsorption means is reduced, the exhaust gas discharged from the incinerator is cooled down to 300 0 C and then caused to flow into the active carbon layer, and after depriving it of sulfur dioxide gas, oxides of nitrogen, daughter nuclides resulting from attenuation of radioactive gas and so forth, these being adsorbed by the carbon active layer, it is led again to the incinerator, whereby the radioactivity accompanying the regenerated gas is sealed as ash within the incinerator. Further, similarly accompanying fine active carbon particles and the like are utilized as a heat source for the incinerator. (Kamimura, M.)

  13. Meaningful Commitment: Finding Meaning in Volunteer Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, Tatjana; Hoof, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that volunteer work is associated with various aspects of meaning making by employing a multi-dimensional model of meaning operationalized by the "Sources of Meaning and Meaning in Life Questionnaire" ("SoMe"). An empirical study comparing 168 volunteers with a representative sample of the general population (N =…

  14. The dance of meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Ole Elstrup

    2005-01-01

    competence, qualifications, sense making, reasoning, meaning, intentionality, interpersonal relationship......competence, qualifications, sense making, reasoning, meaning, intentionality, interpersonal relationship...

  15. Neutron source multiplication method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, E.D.

    1985-01-01

    Extensive use has been made of neutron source multiplication in thousands of measurements of critical masses and configurations and in subcritical neutron-multiplication measurements in situ that provide data for criticality prevention and control in nuclear materials operations. There is continuing interest in developing reliable methods for monitoring the reactivity, or k/sub eff/, of plant operations, but the required measurements are difficult to carry out and interpret on the far subcritical configurations usually encountered. The relationship between neutron multiplication and reactivity is briefly discussed and data presented to illustrate problems associated with the absolute measurement of neutron multiplication and reactivity in subcritical systems. A number of curves of inverse multiplication have been selected from a variety of experiments showing variations observed in multiplication during the course of critical and subcritical experiments where different methods of reactivity addition were used, with different neutron source detector position locations. Concern is raised regarding the meaning and interpretation of k/sub eff/ as might be measured in a far subcritical system because of the modal effects and spectrum differences that exist between the subcritical and critical systems. Because of this, the calculation of k/sub eff/ identical with unity for the critical assembly, although necessary, may not be sufficient to assure safety margins in calculations pertaining to far subcritical systems. Further study is needed on the interpretation and meaning of k/sub eff/ in the far subcritical system

  16. The project “D.E.A.Th. by Eros to Thanatos AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Diseases”. A multimedia exhibition as a means of prevention of sexually transmitted infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ferrara

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: An educational intervention on Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs accompanied by a multimedia exhibition was proposed in order to verify the effectiveness of an exhibition as a tool for prevention, to increase awareness in youth and to evaluate whether it yielded changes in the sexual behaviour of its’ visitors. The Target population were high schools and university students.

    Methods: The Exhibition consisted of a historical overview and four other sections: biological and clinical aspects, epidemiology, prevention and a section called the Red Zone with clear and explicit images relating to STDs. The exhibition was supported by three observational studies carried out on about2000 students of two High Schools and the university in the city of Cassino, Italy. Data collection took place through three different types of “ad hoc” questionnaires. The Statistical analysis carried out was that typical of cross-sectional surveys. We utilized the statistical program Epi-Info 3.5.

    Results: Regarding survey 1, 48% of 529 students taking part said that the exhibition had contributed “enough” for them to acquire new knowledge, 75.2% had already had sexual intercourse and 37.7% of them did not change their sexual habits. Relative to survey 2, 583 responded to the pre test and 403 posttests returned. Regarding knowledge, data obtained from processing of pre-tests showed how 63.9% of the sample did not know how many STDs existed, whilst this value dropped in post test answers to 49.2% . AIDS was the best known disease (96% whilst other STDs were little known. The educational intervention partly increased these percentages. With regard to sexual practices although 43% of the sample claimed to have already had sexual intercourse (66% male and 34% female. The family doctor is seen by a high percentage of young people (70% - 68.6% as the first figure which should address an

  17. Identifying advanced glycation end products as a major source of oxidants in aging: implications for the management and/or prevention of reduced renal function in elderly persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlassara, Helen; Uribarri, Jaime; Ferrucci, Luigi; Cai, Weijing; Torreggiani, Massimo; Post, James B; Zheng, Feng; Striker, Gary E

    2009-11-01

    Aging is characterized by increasing inflammation and oxidant stress (OS). Reduced renal function was present in more than 20% of normal-aged individuals sampled in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) cross-sectional study of the US population. Longitudinal studies in the United States and Italy showed that renal function does not decline in some individuals, suggesting that a search for causes of the loss of renal function in some persons might be indicated and interventions to reduce this outcome should be sought. Because advanced glycation end products (AGEs) induce both inflammation and OS, accumulate with age, and primarily are excreted by the kidney, one outcome of reduced renal function in aging could be decreased AGE disposal. The build-up of AGEs with reduced renal function could contribute to inflammation, increased oxidant stress, and accumulation of AGEs in aging. In fact, results from a longitudinal study of normal aging adults in Italy showed that the most significant correlation with mortality was the level of renal function. A clear link between inflammation, OS, AGEs, and chronic disease was shown in studies of mice that showed that reduction of AGE levels by drugs or decreased intake of AGEs reduces chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular disease of aging. The data support a role for AGEs in the development of renal lesions in aging mice and reveal that AGEs in the diet are very important contributors to renal and cardiovascular lesions. AGEs signal through two receptors, one of which is anti-inflammatory (AGER1) and the other is proinflammatory (RAGE). Overexpression of AGER1 protects against OS and acute vascular injury. The reduction of AGEs in the diet is as efficient in preventing aging-related cardiovascular and renal lesions in mice as that seen with calorie restriction. Studies in normal adults of all ages and those with CKD suggest that the findings in mice may be directly applicable to both aging and CKD

  18. [Darwinism and the meaning of "meaning"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrodeza, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    The problem of the meaning of life is herewith contemplated from a Darwinian perspective. It is argued how factors such as existential depression, the concern about the meaning of "meaning," the problem of evil, death as the end of our personal identity, happiness as an unachievable goal, etc. may well have an adaptive dimension "controlled" neither by ourselves nor obscure third parties (conspiracy theories) but "simply" by our genes (replicators in general) so that little if anything is to be done to find a radical remedy for the human condition.

  19. 'Change means sacrificing a good life': perceptions about severity of type 2 diabetes and preventive lifestyles among people afflicted or at high risk of type 2 diabetes in Iganga Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayega, Roy W; Etajak, Samuel; Rutebemberwa, Elizeus; Tomson, Goran; Kiguli, Juliet

    2014-08-21

    Interventions for prevention of type 2 diabetes ought to be acceptable to target communities. We assessed perceptions about type 2 diabetes and lifestyle change among people afflicted or at high risk of this disease in a low income setting in Iganga Uganda. Twelve focus group discussions (FGDs) of eight participants each were conducted, balancing rural and peri-urban (near the Municipality) residence and gender. The FGDs involved people with suspected type 2 diabetes (based on fasting plasma glucose (FPG), people with suspected pre-diabetes and obese people with normal FPG. Content analysis was conducted. Diabetes was perceived to be a very severe disease. Its severity was attributed to its incurability and its numerous health effects. Men were also concerned about reduced sexual performance. However, participants' strong concerns about the severity of diabetes were not reflected in their perceptions about the risk factors and lifestyles associated with it. While people with diabetes perceive obesity as 'sickness', those without diabetes perceive it as a sign of 'success'. Although participants are willing to change their diet, they mention numerous barriers including poverty, family size, and access to some foods. Because of their good taste, reduction of high risk foods like sugar and fried food is perceived as 'sacrificing a good life'. Increments in physical activity were said to be feasible, but only in familiar forms like domestic work. An over-arching theme emerged that 'lifestyle changes are viewed as sacrificing a good life'. Health promotion should target both community norms and individual awareness regarding obesity, physical activity and diet, and should address the notion that obesity and unhealthy foods represent a good life. Health educators should plan with clients on how to overcome barriers and misconceptions to lifestyle change, leveraging the pervasive perception of type 2 diabetes as a severe disease to motivate change.

  20. Preventing recurrence of endometriosis by means of long-acting progestogen therapy (PRE-EMPT): report of an internal pilot, multi-arm, randomised controlled trial incorporating flexible entry design and adaption of design based on feasibility of recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Lee J; Daniels, Jane P; Weckesser, Annalise; Bhattacharya, Siladitya

    2017-03-11

    Endometriosis is associated with the growth of endometrium in ectopic sites mainly within the pelvis. This results in inflammation and scarring, causing pain and impaired quality of life. Endometriotic lesions can be excised or ablated surgically, but the risk of recurrence is high. A Heath Technology Assessment commissioning call in 2011 sought applications for trials aimed at evaluating long-term effectiveness of postoperative, long-acting, reversible contraceptives (LARCs) in preventing recurrence of endometriosis. A survey of gynaecologists indicated that there was no consensus about which LARC (Levonorgestrel Intrauterine System (LNG-IUS) or depot medroxyprogesterone acetate injection (DMPA)) or comparator (combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP) or no treatment) should be evaluated. Hence, we designed a 'flexible-entry' internal pilot to assess whether a four-arm trial was feasible including a possible design adaption based on pilot findings. In this pilot, women could be randomised to two, three or four treatment options provided that one was a LARC and one was a non-LARC. An assessment of feasibility based on recruitment to these options and a revised substantive trial design was considered by an independent oversight committee. The study ran for 1 year from April 2014 and 77 women were randomised. Only 5 (6%) women accepted randomisation to all groups, with 63 (82%) having a LARC preference and 55 (71%) a non-LARC preference. Four-way and three-way designs were ruled out with a two-way LARC versus COCP design, stratified by prerandomisation choice of LARC and optional subrandomisation to LNG-IUS versus DMPA considered a feasible substantive study. Multi-arm studies are potentially efficient as they can answer multiple questions simultaneously but are difficult to recruit to if there are strong patient or clinician preferences. A flexible approach to randomisation in a pilot phase can be used to assess feasibility of such studies and modify a trial design

  1. Prevention of suicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Suicide is a major public health problem in India, probably even bigger than in the West. Suicidal behavior is the best conceptualized as a multifaceted complex problem involving social factors and mental illnesses. Broadly, there are two approaches to suicide prevention; population preventive strategies and high-risk preventive strategies. Population preventive strategies include reducing availability of means for suicide, education of primary care physicians, influencing media portrayal of suicidal behavior, education of the public, telephone helplines, and addressing economic issues associated with suicidal behavior. High-risk preventive strategy includes identifying individuals with high risk of committing suicide, intensively treating mental illness if present, and providing psychosocial support. Thus, prevention requires a multipronged effort with collaboration from various sectors including mental health professionals, social justice department, and macroeconomic policy makers.

  2. Meaning through Things

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marilynn

    2017-01-01

    Interpretation is the process by which we find meaning in the things in the world around us: clouds on the horizon, bones, street signs, hairbrushes, uniforms, paintings, letters, and utterances. But where does that meaning come from and on what basis are we justified in saying a particular meaning is the right meaning? Drawing from debates in the…

  3. INITIAL ALLERGY PREVENTION IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Pampura

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergy prevention is an urgent pediatric issue. Food allergy spread among infants amounts to 6–8%. This review highlights the modern viewpoints on diet prevention of this pathology among children, including by means of the hypoallergic nutritional formulas.Key words: food allergy, prevention, allergies, prebiotics, children.

  4. Tomboys: meanings, marginalization, and misunderstandings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Joanne M

    2008-06-01

    Girls who act like boys are called "tomboys." This is an exploration using feminist guiding principles, about what "tomboyism" means to children and how adults around them construct it. The purpose is to examine tomboyism from literary, linguistic, historical and cultural perspectives. The exploration includes a review of selected scientific sources, children's and some adult literature, and conversations with adult women who recall their tomboyism from youth and how it now affects them as adults.

  5. Internalized Meaning Factualism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hohwy, Jakob

    2006-01-01

    The normative character of meaning creates deep problems for the attempt to give a reductive explanation of the constitution of meaning. I identify and critically examine an increasingly popular Carnap-style position, which I call Internalized Meaning Factualism (versions of which I argue...... are defended by, e.g., Robert Brandom, Paul Horwich and Huw Price), that promises to solve the problems. According to this position, the problem of meaning can be solved by prohibiting an external perspective on meaning constituting properties. The idea is that if we stick to a perspective on meaning...

  6. Salmonella Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and in vegetable and fruit harvesting and packing operations may help prevent salmonellosis caused by contaminated foods. Better education of food industry workers in basic food safety and restaurant inspection procedures may prevent cross-contamination and other ...

  7. Means on scattered compacta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banakh T.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We prove that a separable Hausdor_ topological space X containing a cocountable subset homeomorphic to [0, ω1] admits no separately continuous mean operation and no diagonally continuous n-mean for n ≥ 2.

  8. H{sub 2} as source of renewable energy: production through catalytic methods by means of the reforming of methanol; H{sub 2} como fuente de energia renovable: produccion por metodos cataliticos mediante el reformado de metanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez H, R; Lopez, P; Gutierrez M, A; Gutierrez W, C; Mondragon G, G; Mendoza A, D [ININ, Departamento de Tecnologia de Materiales, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Angeles Ch, C [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas Norte 152, Col. San Bartolo Atepehuacan, 07730 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Arenas A, J., E-mail: raul.perez@inin.gob.m [UNAM, Instituto de Fisica, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    The fuel cells transform the chemical energy stored in the connection H-H of the H{sub 2} molecule in electric energy and water vapor when is combines with the oxygen. Even when the hydrogen has a high potential as energy source, its handling is difficult (storage and transport). This has motivated the search of hydrogen production methods in situ starting from liquid fuels like the methanol or ethanol through the reaction of reforming. The methanol is a fuel of easy availability for fuel cells with electronic applications and of transport. Although the methanol energy density is approximately half of the gasoline and diesel, it is more reagent and can be used directly in fuel cells or can also be reformed to low temperatures for the hydrogen obtaining to be used in fuel cells of proton exchange. In this article the results obtained of the systems, Cu-Ni/ZrO{sub 2} and Ag-Au(1-D)-CeO{sub 2} are presented and can be competitive to generate H{sub 2} and being used in the fuel cells to generate energy. (Author)

  9. Implications for the crustal Architecture in West Antarctica revealed by the means of depth-to-the-bottom of the magnetic source (DBMS) mapping and 3D FEM geothermal heat flux models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziadek, Ricarda; Gohl, Karsten; Kaul, Norbert

    2017-04-01

    The West Antarctic Rift System (WARS) is one of the largest rift systems in the world, which displays unique coupled relationships between tectonic processes and ice sheet dynamics. Palaeo-ice streams have eroded troughs across the Amundsen Sea Embayment (ASE) that today route warm ocean deep water to the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) grounding zone and reinforce dynamic ice sheet thinning. Rift basins, which cut across West Antarctica's landward-sloping shelves, promote ice sheet instability. Young, continental rift systems are regions with significantly elevated geothermal heat flux (GHF), because the transient thermal perturbation to the lithosphere caused by rifting requires 100 m.y. to reach long-term thermal equilibrium. The GHF in this region is, especially on small scales, poorly constrained and suspected to be heterogeneous as a reflection of the distribution of tectonic and volcanic activity along the complex branching geometry of the WARS, which reflects its multi-stage history and structural inheritance. We investigate the crustal architecture and the possible effects of rifting history from the WARS on the ASE ice sheet dynamics, by the use of depth-to-the-bottom of the magnetic source (DBMS) estimates. These are based on airborne-magnetic anomaly data and provide an additional insight into the deeper crustal properties. With the DBMS estimates we reveal spatial changes at the bottom of the igneous crust and the thickness of the magnetic layer, which can be further incorporated into tectonic interpretations. The DBMS also marks an important temperature transition zone of approximately 580°C and therefore serves as a boundary condition for our numerical FEM models in 2D and 3D. On balance, and by comparison to global values, we find average GHF of 90 mWm-2 with spatial variations due to crustal heterogeneities and volcanic activities. This estimate is 30% more than commonly used in ice sheet models in the ASE region.

  10. Structure of the cyanobactin oxidase ThcOx from Cyanothece sp. PCC 7425, the first structure to be solved at Diamond Light Source beamline I23 by means of S-SAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, Andrew F; Mann, Greg; Houssen, Wael E; Mykhaylyk, Vitaliy; Duman, Ramona; Thomas, Louise; Jaspars, Marcel; Wagner, Armin; Naismith, James H

    2016-11-01

    Determination of protein crystal structures requires that the phases are derived independently of the observed measurement of diffraction intensities. Many techniques have been developed to obtain phases, including heavy-atom substitution, molecular replacement and substitution during protein expression of the amino acid methionine with selenomethionine. Although the use of selenium-containing methionine has transformed the experimental determination of phases it is not always possible, either because the variant protein cannot be produced or does not crystallize. Phasing of structures by measuring the anomalous diffraction from S atoms could in theory be almost universal since almost all proteins contain methionine or cysteine. Indeed, many structures have been solved by the so-called native sulfur single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (S-SAD) phasing method. However, the anomalous effect is weak at the wavelengths where data are normally recorded (between 1 and 2 Å) and this limits the potential of this method to well diffracting crystals. Longer wavelengths increase the strength of the anomalous signal but at the cost of increasing air absorption and scatter, which degrade the precision of the anomalous measurement, consequently hindering phase determination. A new instrument, the long-wavelength beamline I23 at Diamond Light Source, was designed to work at significantly longer wavelengths compared with standard synchrotron beamlines in order to open up the native S-SAD method to projects of increasing complexity. Here, the first novel structure, that of the oxidase domain involved in the production of the natural product patellamide, solved on this beamline is reported using data collected to a resolution of 3.15 Å at a wavelength of 3.1 Å. The oxidase is an example of a protein that does not crystallize as the selenium variant and for which no suitable homology model for molecular replacement was available. Initial attempts collecting anomalous

  11. Meaning in work of secondary school teachers: A qualitative study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hennie

    In order to identify specific, shared sources of meaning and mechanisms with which ... Keywords: education sector; meaning in work; meaning-making mechanisms; ..... was mainly divided into purpose and significance- ... Attention ought.

  12. Are food labels effective as a means of health prevention?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaia Claudia Viviana Viola

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Chronic diseases related to unbalanced and unhealthy eating habits have definitely become one of the major issues of modern age, not only in western countries but also in those ones where rapid economic growth has increased global prosperity levels. In order to avoid medical systems to collapse under excessive costs, International and Public Organizations strongly support health policies that aim to make people shift towards wholesome dietary patterns, also encouraging the use of food-labels to choose healthier products. To evaluate the consumers’ knowledge and perception about food-labels a brief questionnaire was developed and shared on Facebook between January-March 2016. Most of the participants were young adults with higher education. They declared to do their shopping at least once a week, reading the foodlabels quite often. Despite owing limited knowledge in basic nutrition principles and food-labelling they were generally able to recognize healthier products looking over their nutritional fact tables. Anyway, on average, what they care the most about the products they purchase is the global quality level rather than the nutritional values. In order to induce the whole population to use food label as an effective self-protection tool, more efforts should be done to improve their knowledge on nutrition fundamentals and basics about food labelling, because that would make them able to take safer and more conscious choices as regards their own health.

  13. [Gene doping--current possibilities, risks and means of prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleger, N; Vitzthum, K; Schöffel, N; Quarcoo, D; Uibel, S; Groneberg, D A

    2011-03-01

    With the advances in gene therapy fears of an abuse in sports arise. The WADA's definition of the term strictly differentiates between gene doping and gene therapy. There are in vivo and ex vivo practices to manipulate the different phases of gene expression in the organism, with viral vectors being looked upon as the most efficient ones. IGF-1, PPARδ, MSTN and EPO play the most important roles in today's scientific research. Their potential was proven in various animal studies, showing a significant improvement of performances. Potential risks for human users include severe immune reactions, mutagenesis, and raised risk for cancer. Big efforts are being put into the development of ways of detection, however until now there are neither practicable methods of control nor any reported cases of manipulated humans. Still, a usage of gene doping that has already taken place cannot be ruled out and is highly likely. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Understanding Tumor Dormancy as a Means of Secondary Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    within the micro - environment that contact cancer cells. This molecular description of the dormant state will allow us to perform loss-of-function and...understand further the biology of retinal ganglion loss. Role: Primary Investigator OVERLAP None Cancer Research UK Cambridge Institute ACTIVE...the biological functions and mechanisms of non-coding RNAs; to attempt to tackle critical problems in cancer biology , with a major focus on breast and

  15. Understanding Tumor Dormancy as a Means of Secondary Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-14

    Hughes Medical Institute • National Philanthropic Trust • PEW Charitable Trust • 5 R01 HG005238-04 Greg Hannon has been replaced as the Primary...OVERLAP: None NBCC (Hannon) 10/10/13 – 10/09/15 0.00 calendar* National Philanthropic Trust Research and analysis activities in support of...Investigator/Senior Personnel NBCC (Hannon) 10/10/13 – 10/09/14 0.00 calendar* National Philanthropic Trust Research and analysis activities in

  16. Music, Meaning and Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Widdess

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper situates musical meaning in culture, addressing music as social symbol and as ongoing process of meaning creation. Three examples of non- Western musical practice are used to illustrate the embedding of musical meaning in cultural context. The performance of an Australian Aboriginal song is shown to exemplify the interdependence of song style and social structure as a matrix for the emergence of cultural meanings; an example of North Indian performance is adduced to demonstrate the multi-layered nature of meaning as embodied in musical performance; and an example of collective festival performance from Nepal illustrates ways in which the structure of musical performance can mirror local cultural forms. Each of the three examples lends weight to the idea that music's meanings are often non-linguistic and reflect foundational schemas that are specific to the cultures from the musics are drawn.

  17. Brand Meaning Cocreation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kieran D.; Karpen, Ingo; Westberg, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to consolidate and advance the understanding of brand meaning and the evolving process by which it is determined by introducing and explicating the concept of brand meaning cocreation (BMCC). Design/methodology/approach: In-depth review and integration...... of literature from branding, cocreation, service systems, and practice theory. To support deep theorizing, the authors also examine the role of institutional logics in the BMCC process in framing interactions and brand meaning outcomes. Findings: Prior research is limited in that it neither maps the process...... of cocreation within which meanings emerge nor provides theoretical conceptualizations of brand meaning or the process of BMCC. While the literature acknowledges that brand meaning is influenced by multiple interactions, their nature and how they contribute to BMCC have been overlooked. Research limitations...

  18. Pollution Prevention Information Network (PPIN) Grant Summaries 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics is responsible for overseeing several grant programs for tribes and states which promote pollution prevention through source reduction and resource conservation.

  19. Agency, Context and Meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkmann, Mads Nygaard

    2014-01-01

    The paper is a meta-discursive contribution to the discussion of how design can be understood as a medium of meaning formation and questioning of meaning. Further, the paper builds on plea for the role of humanities in relation to formulate relevant questions in design through conceptualizing the...... of meaning formulation and cultural contexts and, by this, contest design. In reflecting the foundational ground of design in terms of its agency, contexts and meaning constituents, design and its questioning of meaning can be critically reframed.......The paper is a meta-discursive contribution to the discussion of how design can be understood as a medium of meaning formation and questioning of meaning. Further, the paper builds on plea for the role of humanities in relation to formulate relevant questions in design through conceptualizing...... history, 2) the question of context in and of design, i.e. which contexts give meaning to design; this question calls for interpretive models of cultural analysis of the circuit of design in acknowledging phases and aspects of production, mediation and consumption, and 3) the question of the meaning...

  20. Parallel k-means++

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-04-04

    A parallelization of the k-means++ seed selection algorithm on three distinct hardware platforms: GPU, multicore CPU, and multithreaded architecture. K-means++ was developed by David Arthur and Sergei Vassilvitskii in 2007 as an extension of the k-means data clustering technique. These algorithms allow people to cluster multidimensional data, by attempting to minimize the mean distance of data points within a cluster. K-means++ improved upon traditional k-means by using a more intelligent approach to selecting the initial seeds for the clustering process. While k-means++ has become a popular alternative to traditional k-means clustering, little work has been done to parallelize this technique. We have developed original C++ code for parallelizing the algorithm on three unique hardware architectures: GPU using NVidia's CUDA/Thrust framework, multicore CPU using OpenMP, and the Cray XMT multithreaded architecture. By parallelizing the process for these platforms, we are able to perform k-means++ clustering much more quickly than it could be done before.

  1. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Steroid Injections Lumbar Zygapophysical (Facet) Joint Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle Choices 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen ...

  2. Mean field games

    KAUST Repository

    Gomes, Diogo A.

    2014-01-06

    In this talk we will report on new results concerning the existence of smooth solutions for time dependent mean-field games. This new result is established through a combination of various tools including several a-priori estimates for time-dependent mean-field games combined with new techniques for the regularity of Hamilton-Jacobi equations.

  3. Phenomenology and Meaning Attribution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    John Paley. (2017). Phenomenology as Qualitative Research: A Critical Analysis of Meaning Attribution. ... basic philosophical nature of phenomenological meaning and inquiry, and that he not ... In keeping with the title of my book, Researching. Lived Experience ...... a quantitative social science that can make generalizing.

  4. Mean field games

    KAUST Repository

    Gomes, Diogo A.

    2014-01-01

    In this talk we will report on new results concerning the existence of smooth solutions for time dependent mean-field games. This new result is established through a combination of various tools including several a-priori estimates for time-dependent mean-field games combined with new techniques for the regularity of Hamilton-Jacobi equations.

  5. When light means gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deye, M.; Lepetit, V.

    2007-01-01

    Solar energy, which today is not a profitable energy source, shows a 20 to 45% growth per year. This paradoxal situation is explained by the multiple incentives and subsidies implemented by governments in the framework of their policy of development of renewable energy sources. The solar market is developing and competition is becoming harder. This paper presents an overview of photovoltaic and solar thermal energy development in Western Europe countries. (J.S.)

  6. Myth, Metaphors, and Meaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Judith W.

    In post-medieval times, art became sacrosanct rather than special as it had been regarded in previous cultures. This notion still drives art education and prevents the inclusion of entire cultures in contemporary curricula in art education. The myths that any society lives with, whether religious, political, or economic, are embedded in that…

  7. Radiation induced cancer: risk assessment and prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shore, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    A number of factors have to be considered in defining the cancer risk from ionizing radiation. These include the radiation sensitivity of the target tissue(s), the temporal pattern of risk, the shape of the dose-incidence curve, the effects of low dose rates, host susceptibility factors, and synergism with other environmental exposures. For the population as a whole the largest sources of radiation exposure are natural background radiation and medical/dental radiation. Radiation exposures in the medical field make up the largest volume of occupational exposures as well. Although new technologies offer opportunities to lower exposures, worker training, careful exposure monitoring with remedial feedback, and monitoring to prevent unnecessary radiodiagnostic procedures may be even more important means of reducing radiation exposure. Screening of irradiated populations can serve a useful preventive function, but only for those who have received very high doses

  8. Controlling Access to Suicide Means

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Iosue

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Restricting access to common means of suicide, such as firearms, toxic gas, pesticides and other, has been shown to be effective in reducing rates of death in suicide. In the present review we aimed to summarize the empirical and clinical literature on controlling the access to means of suicide. Methods: This review made use of both MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science and the Cochrane library databases, identifying all English articles with the keywords “suicide means”, “suicide method”, “suicide prediction” or “suicide prevention” and other relevant keywords. Results: A number of factors may influence an individual’s decision regarding method in a suicide act, but there is substantial support that easy access influences the choice of method. In many countries, restrictions of access to common means of suicide has lead to lower overall suicide rates, particularly regarding suicide by firearms in USA, detoxification of domestic and motor vehicle gas in England and other countries, toxic pesticides in rural areas, barriers at jumping sites and hanging, by introducing “safe rooms” in prisons and hospitals. Moreover, decline in prescription of barbiturates and tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs, as well as limitation of drugs pack size for paracetamol and salicylate has reduced suicides by overdose, while increased prescription of SSRIs seems to have lowered suicidal rates. Conclusions: Restriction to means of suicide may be particularly effective in contexts where the method is popular, highly lethal, widely available, and/or not easily substituted by other similar methods. However, since there is some risk of means substitution, restriction of access should be implemented in conjunction with other suicide prevention strategies.

  9. Preventative Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliorino, James

    Boards of education must be convinced that spending money up front for preventive maintenance will, in the long run, save districts' tax dollars. A good program of preventive maintenance can minimize disruption of service; reduce repair costs, energy consumption, and overtime; improve labor productivity and system equipment reliability; handle…

  10. Mean-periodic functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Berenstein

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available We show that any mean-periodic function f can be represented in terms of exponential-polynomial solutions of the same convolution equation f satisfies, i.e., u∗f=0(μ∈E′(ℝn. This extends to n-variables the work of L. Schwartz on mean-periodicity and also extends L. Ehrenpreis' work on partial differential equations with constant coefficients to arbitrary convolutors. We also answer a number of open questions about mean-periodic functions of one variable. The basic ingredient is our work on interpolation by entire functions in one and several complex variables.

  11. Meaning in Work Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    meaningful is still lacking (Harpaz & Fu, 2002), as are definitions of key terms. Here, I define meaning as the experience that something fits into a wider context or coheres within a larger whole.     I conceptualize meaning in work life as deriving from four factors, each of which helps us contribute...... to something larger than ourselves (Seligman, 2002) through our work. Thus, a person experiences meaning in work life when she... A. is able to use her signature strengths at work (Peterson and Seligman, 2004), B. makes an important contribution to the workplace (Drucker, 1999), C. participates in a productive...

  12. Mean nuclear volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, O.; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Bichel, P.

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated the following nine parameters with respect to their prognostic value in females with endometrial cancer: four stereologic parameters [mean nuclear volume (MNV), nuclear volume fraction, nuclear index and mitotic index], the immunohistochemical expression of cancer antigen (CA125...

  13. Meaning in couples relationships.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues T.F.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on psycholinguistics and L. Vygotsky’s (2007 theories on sign, meaning and sense categories, as later discussed by A. Leontiev (2004, 2009, we present a case study that focuses on the intricacies of a love relationship for a woman who remained in a painful marriage. Interview material is presented in a Relational-Historical Psychology theoretical framework to provide central categories of meaning and sense. This is understood as a privileged method for apprehending the uniqueness of a human being. To segment the qualitative material, we used the “Analysis of the Nuclei of Meanings for the Apprehension of the Constitution of Sense,” by Aguiar and Ozella (2006, 2013. This approach seeks to discriminate the meanings and senses that constitute the content of a speech sample.

  14. Soils - Mean Permeability

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This digital spatial data set provides information on the magnitude and spatial pattern of depth-weighted, mean soil permeability throughout the State of Kansas. The...

  15. Meaning in Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Anders

    2013-01-01

    When addressing present-day challenges, design discourse put faith mainly in design understood as a problem-solving activity, pertaining to innovation on functional, systems and technological level. The aesthetically founded fields, e.g. craft-based design, on the other hand, do not seem to play ...... - in particular those which carry _corporeal affordance_, such as clothing, blankets, chairs, tables and houses - perhaps even cities. Things that mean to us, what they mean, mainly _qua_ their physical properties....

  16. Stats means business

    CERN Document Server

    Buglear, John

    2010-01-01

    Stats Means Business is an introductory textbook written for Business, Hospitality and Tourism students who take modules on Statistics or Quantitative research methods. Recognising that most users of this book will have limited if any grounding in the subject, this book minimises technical language, provides clear definition of key terms, and gives emphasis to interpretation rather than technique.Stats Means Business enables readers to:appreciate the importance of statistical analysis in business, hospitality and tourism understand statis

  17. Preventive analgesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Jørgen B; Kehlet, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    This paper will discuss the concepts of pre-emptive and preventive analgesia in acute and persistent postsurgical pain, based on the most recent experimental and clinical literature, with a special focus on injury-induced central sensitization and the development from acute to chronic pain. Recent...... of preventive analgesia for persistent postoperative pain are promising. However, clinicians must be aware of the demands for improved design of their clinical studies in order to get more conclusive answers regarding the different avenues for intervention. Summary: The concept of preventive analgesia is still...

  18. Mean square number fluctuation for a fermion source and its ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the standard Big-Bang model of cosmology [3], which is supported by the observation of the cosmic .... described in the next section that even for the scaled distribution function (Nν(k)), the relations (Nν) = ∑k ∑σ(Nν(k)) and (∆ ... One thing we must keep in mind is that if the distribution at the present epoch turns out to be ...

  19. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic ... Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy and Back Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain ...

  20. Preventing Rejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... After the transplant Preventing rejection Post-transplant medications Types of immunosuppressants Switching immunosuppressants Side effects Other medications Generic and brand name drugs Post-transplant tests Infections and immunity Lifestyle changes Health concerns Back to work or ...

  1. Prevent Cyberbullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tips for Teachers Report Cyberbullying Print Share Prevent Cyberbullying Be Aware of What Your Kids are Doing ... Signs a Child is Being Cyberbullied or is Cyberbullying Others Many of the warning signs that cyberbullying ...

  2. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A SPECIALIST Prevention Strengthening Exercise Committee Exercise Committee Core Strengthening Many popular forms of exercise focus on ... acute pain, you should stop doing it. Transverse Core Strengthening This strengthens the muscles that cross from ...

  3. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy and Back Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain Basics ... increases your back pain after five repetitions, or causes acute pain, you should stop doing it. Transverse ...

  4. Preventing accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    As the most effective strategy for improving safety is to prevent accidents from occurring at all, the Volpe Center applies a broad range of research techniques and capabilities to determine causes and consequences of accidents and to identify, asses...

  5. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility ... Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain Basics Book RESOURCES Patient Information Feature Articles Patient Q&A Success Stories ...

  6. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain Basics Book RESOURCES Patient Information Feature Articles Patient Q&A Success Stories Definitions Anatomy of the Spine Definitions A-Z Spine Specialists Videos 9 ...

  7. MEAN STACK WEB DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Le Thanh, Nghi

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to provide a universal website using JavaScript as the main programming language. It also shows the basic parts anyone need to create a web application. The thesis creates a simple CMS using MEAN stack. MEAN is a collection of JavaScript based technologies used to develop web application. It is an acronym for MongoDB, Express, AngularJS and Node.js. It also allows non-technical users to easily update and manage a website’s content. But the application also lets o...

  8. Intersubjective meaning making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Jacob

    of single-touch screen interaction among 8-9 year-old children presented here, shows that while the constraints of single-touch screens does not support equality of interaction at the verbal and the physical level, there seems to be an intersubjective learning outcome. More precisely, the constraints...... of single-touch screens offer support for intersubjective meaning making in its ability of constraining the interaction. By presenting a short embodied interaction analysis of 22 seconds of collaboration, I illustrate how an embodied interaction perspective on intersubjective meaning making can tell...... a different story about touch-screen supported collaborative learning....

  9. Computing meaning v.4

    CERN Document Server

    Bunt, Harry; Pulman, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    This book is a collection of papers by leading researchers in computational semantics. It presents a state-of-the-art overview of recent and current research in computational semantics, including descriptions of new methods for constructing and improving resources for semantic computation, such as WordNet, VerbNet, and semantically annotated corpora. It also presents new statistical methods in semantic computation, such as the application of distributional semantics in the compositional calculation of sentence meanings. Computing the meaning of sentences, texts, and spoken or texted dialogue i

  10. HIV Prevention

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-01

    Dr. Kevin Fenton, Director of CDC’s National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, talks about steps people can take to protect their health from HIV.  Created: 2/1/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 2/1/2012.

  11. The role of drugs in HIV prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kembaren, T.

    2018-03-01

    WHO reports 36.7 million people are living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) worldwide by 2016 with about 1.8 million new infections each year. It will be a specific health problem for the world in both developed and developing countries so it is necessary strategies to reduce HIV transmission to the community. HIV transmission in people with risk factors is largely determined by the amount of virus in the blood of people who are the source of infection. Antiretroviral (ARV) therapy has long been used in HIV patients, which serves to suppress viral replication so that the patient’s immunity increases; opportunistic infections are resolved and prolong the lifespan and lower transmission rates. In the HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) study 052 there was a 96% reduction in transmission in earlier antiretroviral. ARV is also used in the prevention of transmission in people exposed to HIV virus that is Postexposure Prophylaxis as well as in people at risk before exposure (Pre-exposure Prophylaxis). Three prevention strategies with the provision of ARV is expected to be guided as a means of prevention of transmission in addition to behavioral changes has long been declared since the beginning of the HIV epidemic.

  12. Engagement Means Everyone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Employee engagement is not just HR's responsibility. While HR is responsible for the process of measuring and driving engagement, improving it is actually everyone's responsibility. And that means reducing the barriers to productivity to drive business performance. Training departments can play a pivotal role. Their job is to enhance curriculum or…

  13. Monstrosity by Monstrous Means

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Post, Hans Christian

    2016-01-01

    The Cambodian memorials to the Cambodian genocide between 1975 and 1979 can in numerous ways be termed monstrous. Not so much in that they deal with atrocities monstrous in scale and character, as in the monstrous visual means they employ and the imprecise, monster-ridden explanations they delive...

  14. The meaning of talent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Lorenzo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge society gives a remarkable role to human potentialities into organizations. For this reason has emerged talent management. But it is necessary to know its meaning to put on practice programs. In this paper, the author analyzes different points of views about this topic.

  15. Meaning construction in remembering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagoner, Brady

    2011-01-01

    F.C. Bartlett and L.S.Vygotsky were two seminal figures in the psychological study of remembering. Both emphasized the role of meaning and imagination in this process. Bartlett did this by showing the systematic and holistic changes that ensue when cultural material is repeatedly reproduced outsi...

  16. PR Means Positive Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foree, Marilyn

    1992-01-01

    Describes the advantages of public relations to a school music program. Suggests that, to succeed, a music program must have the support of school administrators, teachers, parents, and students alike. Recommends means of attracting support from the four groups. Stresses the importance of effective local publicity. (SG)

  17. Jeans and Means

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 8. Jeans and Means - The Story of Indigo. Subramania Ranganathan. Series Article Volume 1 Issue 8 August 1996 pp 22-27. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/08/0022-0027 ...

  18. Levels of Literary Meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Søren Harnow

    2017-01-01

    I argue that intentionalist theories of meaning and interpretation, like those of Hirsch and Juhl, have been insufficiently attentive to the different levels of authorial intention that are operative in literary works. By countenancing intentions on different levels – ranging from simple semantic...

  19. Gas measuring apparatus with standardization means, and method therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Typpo, P.M.

    1980-01-01

    An apparatus and a method for standardizing a gas measuring device has a source capable of emitting a beam of radiation aligned to impinge a detector. A housing means encloses the beam. The housing means has a plurality of apertures permitting the gas to enter the housing means, to intercept the beam, and to exit from the housing means. The device further comprises means for closing the apertures and a means for purging said gas from the housing means

  20. Singular mean-filed games

    KAUST Repository

    Cirant, Marco; Gomes, Diogo A.; Pimentel, Edgard A.; Sá nchez-Morgado, Hé ctor

    2016-01-01

    Here, we prove the existence of smooth solutions for mean-field games with a singular mean-field coupling; that is, a coupling in the Hamilton-Jacobi equation of the form $g(m)=-m^{-\\alpha}$. We consider stationary and time-dependent settings. The function $g$ is monotone, but it is not bounded from below. With the exception of the logarithmic coupling, this is the first time that MFGs whose coupling is not bounded from below is examined in the literature. This coupling arises in models where agents have a strong preference for low-density regions. Paradoxically, this causes the agents to spread and prevents the creation of solutions with a very-low density. To prove the existence of solutions, we consider an approximate problem for which the existence of smooth solutions is known. Then, we prove new a priori bounds for the solutions that show that $\\frac 1 m$ is bounded. Finally, using a limiting argument, we obtain the existence of solutions. The proof in the stationary case relies on a blow-up argument and in the time-dependent case on new bounds for $m^{-1}$.

  1. Singular mean-filed games

    KAUST Repository

    Cirant, Marco

    2016-11-22

    Here, we prove the existence of smooth solutions for mean-field games with a singular mean-field coupling; that is, a coupling in the Hamilton-Jacobi equation of the form $g(m)=-m^{-\\\\alpha}$. We consider stationary and time-dependent settings. The function $g$ is monotone, but it is not bounded from below. With the exception of the logarithmic coupling, this is the first time that MFGs whose coupling is not bounded from below is examined in the literature. This coupling arises in models where agents have a strong preference for low-density regions. Paradoxically, this causes the agents to spread and prevents the creation of solutions with a very-low density. To prove the existence of solutions, we consider an approximate problem for which the existence of smooth solutions is known. Then, we prove new a priori bounds for the solutions that show that $\\\\frac 1 m$ is bounded. Finally, using a limiting argument, we obtain the existence of solutions. The proof in the stationary case relies on a blow-up argument and in the time-dependent case on new bounds for $m^{-1}$.

  2. Cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubiana, M

    1999-01-01

    Over 70% of human cancers are associated with lifestyle and about half of cancer deaths could be prevented by relatively simple individual actions: no smoking, moderate consumption of alcohol, increased consumption of fruit and vegetables, avoidance of sunbathing, obesity and a too high consumption of saturated lipids. Most of these efforts would also markedly decrease the incidence of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. However, the concept of prevention is currently neither well accepted nor understood by the medical community and the general public. It is often felt that it restricts freedom, imposes a choice between pleasure and duty, and that passing judgement on lifestyle is a form of intolerance. The case of tobacco illustrates the difficulties encountered by prevention, notably among adolescents. The fight against smoking requires information, a societal approach (ban on advertising, increase in price), and a reduction of the example given by adult smoking (parents, peers, teachers, physicians, TV presenters, movie stars, have a great influence on adolescents), while tobacco cessation programs must be promoted. The various approaches should be integrated into a global program of health prevention, including health education at school from 5 to 12 years of age. The efficacy of each of the global program's components should be evaluated. Misconceptions such as overestimation of the impact of pollution on health should also be corrected. Health is created and experienced by people within the setting of their daily lives, in particular during childhood. Prevention is the responsibility of individual members of the community but also of the community as a whole.

  3. Negotiating meaning through artefacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavella, Elena

    2015-01-01

    This research contributes to the domain of strategy making, specifically to unpacking the complexity of sociomateriality in strategy discourse. Scholars have emphasized the potential of artefacts to enhance sensemaking during strategizing. However there is a lack of insight into how artefacts...... and conversational aspects are linked at the micro‑level of discourse, also how artefacts and sensemaking shape one another. This research addresses this gap by empirically analyzing strategy discourse within a facilitated modelling workshop. Considering strategizing as a socially constructed activity, the author...... analyzes a workshop transcript to assess the extent to which stakeholders’ appropriation of artefacts supports them in engaging in negotiation of meaning with action implications. Moreover, how artefacts and negotiation of meaning shape one another is identified. The data suggest that appropriating...

  4. Means on scattered compacta

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Banakh, T.; Bonnet, R.; Kubiś, Wieslaw

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 1 (2014), s. 5-10 ISSN 2299-3231 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP201/12/0290 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : scattered compact space * mean operation Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/taa.2014.2.issue-1/taa-2014-0002/taa-2014-0002.xml

  5. The Meaning of Mandela

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbe, Julia Suárez

    2017-01-01

    Book Reviews The Meaning of Mandela: A Broader Canvas. Sabelo J. Ndlovu-Gatsheni, The Decolonial Mandela: Peace, Justice and the Politics of Life (Oxford and New York, Berghahn Books, 2016), 186 pp., hardback, £64.00, US$90.00, ISBN 978-1-78533-118-3; paperback, £19.00, US$27.95, ISBN 978......-1-78533-296-8; e-book, ISBN 978-1-79533-119-0...

  6. Meaning and significance of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph D Student Roman Mihaela

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of "public accountability" is a challenge for political science as a new concept in this area in full debate and developement ,both in theory and practice. This paper is a theoretical approach of displaying some definitions, relevant meanings and significance odf the concept in political science. The importance of this concept is that although originally it was used as a tool to improve effectiveness and eficiency of public governance, it has gradually become a purpose it itself. "Accountability" has become an image of good governance first in the United States of America then in the European Union.Nevertheless,the concept is vaguely defined and provides ambiguous images of good governance.This paper begins with the presentation of some general meanings of the concept as they emerge from specialized dictionaries and ancyclopaedies and continues with the meanings developed in political science. The concept of "public accontability" is rooted in economics and management literature,becoming increasingly relevant in today's political science both in theory and discourse as well as in practice in formulating and evaluating public policies. A first conclusin that emerges from, the analysis of the evolution of this term is that it requires a conceptual clarification in political science. A clear definition will then enable an appropriate model of proving the system of public accountability in formulating and assessing public policies, in order to implement a system of assessment and monitoring thereof.

  7. Consistency and sources of divergence in recommendations on screening with questionnaires for presently experienced health problems or symptoms: a comparison of recommendations from the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care, UK National Screening Committee, and US Preventive Services Task Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thombs, Brett D; Saadat, Nazanin; Riehm, Kira E; Karter, Justin Michael; Vaswani, Akansha; Andrews, Bonnie K; Simons, Peter; Cosgrove, Lisa

    2017-08-09

    Recently, health screening recommendations have gone beyond screening for early-stage, asymptomatic disease to include "screening" for presently experienced health problems and symptoms using self-report questionnaires. We examined recommendations from three major national guideline organizations to determine the consistency of recommendations, identify sources of divergent recommendations, and determine if guideline organizations have identified any direct randomized controlled trial (RCT) evidence for the effectiveness of questionnaire-based screening. We reviewed recommendation statements listed by the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (CTFPHC), the United Kingdom National Screening Committee (UKNSC), and the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) as of 5 September 2016. Eligible recommendations focused on using self-report questionnaires to identify patients with presently experienced health problems or symptoms. Within each recommendation and accompanying evidence review we identified screening RCTs. We identified 22 separate recommendations on questionnaire-based screening, including three CTFPHC recommendations against screening, eight UKNSC recommendations against screening, four USPSTF recommendations in favor of screening (alcohol misuse, adolescent depression, adult depression, intimate partner violence), and seven USPSTF recommendations that did not recommend for or against screening. In the four cases where the USPSTF recommended screening, either the CTFPHC, the UKNSC, or both recommended against. When recommendations diverged, the USPSTF expressed confidence in benefits based on indirect evidence, evaluated potential harms as minimal, and did not consider cost or resource use. CTFPHC and UKNSC recommendations against screening, on the other hand, focused on the lack of direct evidence of benefit and raised concerns about harms to patients and resource use. Of six RCTs that directly evaluated screening interventions, five

  8. Orphan sources in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janzekovic, H.; Cesarek, J.

    2005-01-01

    For decades the international standards and requirements postulate severe control over all lifecycle phases of radioactive sources in order to prevent risks associated with exposure of people and the environment. Despite this fact the orphan sources became a serious problem as a consequence of enlargement of economic transactions in many countries in Europe as well as in the world. The countries as well as international organisations, aware of this emerging problem, are trying to gain control over orphan sources using different approaches. These approaches include control over sources before they could become orphan sources. In addition, countries are also developing action plans in case that an orphan source could be found. The problems related to orphan sources in Slovenia is discussed based on the case studies from the last years. While in the nineties of the last century just a few cases of orphan sources were identified their number has increased substantially since 2003. The paper discusses the general reasons for the phenomena of orphan sources as well as the experience related to regaining control over orphan sources. (author)

  9. The Meaning of Freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo Hoyos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article it is pretended to prepare the conceptual field for the correct use of the attribution of freedom. It is defended the importance to consider the complementarity of freedom of action and freedom of the will and it is argued for a non-metaphysical conception of adscription of freedom. The adequate use of the attribution of freedom is social and normative. This means additionally that the freedom is not a presupposition of the moral responsibility and the authorship, but on the contrary the moral responsibility and the authorship are presuppositions of the attribution of freedom.

  10. Prevent Pneumonia

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-08-06

    CDC’s Matthew Westercamp explains what pneumonia is, its symptoms, and how to prevent it.  Created: 8/6/2015 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Bacterial Diseases (DBD), Respiratory Diseases Branch (RDB).   Date Released: 8/6/2015.

  11. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Information Feature Articles Patient Q&A Success Stories Definitions Anatomy of the Spine Definitions A-Z Spine Specialists Videos 9 for Spine Epidural Steroid Injections Exercise: The Backbone of Spine Treatment Spondylolisthesis BLOG FIND A SPECIALIST Prevention ...

  12. Bullying Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Patrice

    2016-01-01

    The focus of the milestone project is to focus on bridging the gap of bullying and classroom instruction methods. There has to be a defined expectations and level of accountability that has to be defined when supporting and implementing a plan linked to bullying prevention. All individuals involved in the student's learning have to be aware of…

  13. The Chandra Source Catalog: Source Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Michael; Rots, A. H.; McCollough, M. L.; Primini, F. A.; Glotfelty, K. J.; Bonaventura, N. R.; Chen, J. C.; Davis, J. E.; Doe, S. M.; Evans, J. D.; Evans, I.; Fabbiano, G.; Galle, E. C.; Gibbs, D. G., II; Grier, J. D.; Hain, R.; Hall, D. M.; Harbo, P. N.; He, X.; Houck, J. C.; Karovska, M.; Lauer, J.; McDowell, J. C.; Miller, J. B.; Mitschang, A. W.; Morgan, D. L.; Nichols, J. S.; Plummer, D. A.; Refsdal, B. L.; Siemiginowska, A. L.; Sundheim, B. A.; Tibbetts, M. S.; van Stone, D. W.; Winkelman, S. L.; Zografou, P.

    2009-09-01

    The Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) contains fields of view that have been studied with individual, uninterrupted observations that span integration times ranging from 1 ksec to 160 ksec, and a large number of which have received (multiple) repeat observations days to years later. The CSC thus offers an unprecedented look at the variability of the X-ray sky over a broad range of time scales, and across a wide diversity of variable X-ray sources: stars in the local galactic neighborhood, galactic and extragalactic X-ray binaries, Active Galactic Nuclei, etc. Here we describe the methods used to identify and quantify source variability within a single observation, and the methods used to assess the variability of a source when detected in multiple, individual observations. Three tests are used to detect source variability within a single observation: the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and its variant, the Kuiper test, and a Bayesian approach originally suggested by Gregory and Loredo. The latter test not only provides an indicator of variability, but is also used to create a best estimate of the variable lightcurve shape. We assess the performance of these tests via simulation of statistically stationary, variable processes with arbitrary input power spectral densities (here we concentrate on results of red noise simulations) at variety of mean count rates and fractional root mean square variabilities relevant to CSC sources. We also assess the false positive rate via simulations of constant sources whose sole source of fluctuation is Poisson noise. We compare these simulations to an assessment of the variability found in real CSC sources, and estimate the variability sensitivities of the CSC.

  14. Sealed radioactive source management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Sealed radioactive sources have been used in a wide range of application in medicine, agriculture, geology, industry and other fields. Since its utilization many sources have become out of use and became waste but no proper management. This has lead to many accidents causing deaths and serious radiation injuries worldwide. Spent sources application is expanding but their management has seen little improvements. Sealed radioactive sources have become a security risk calling for prompt action. Source management helps to maintain sources in a good physical status and provide means of source tracking and control. It also provides a well documented process of the sources making any future management options safe, secure and cost effective. Last but not least good source management substantially reduces the risk of accidents and eliminates the risk of malicious use. The International Atomic Energy Agency assists Member States to build the infrastructure to properly manage sealed radioactive sources. The assistance includes training of national experts to handle, condition and properly store the sources. For Member States that do not have proper facilities, we provide the technical assistance to design a proper facility to properly manage the radioactive sources and provide for their proper storage. For Member States that need to condition their sources properly but don't have the required infrastructure we provide direct assistance to physically help them with source recovery and provide an international expert team to properly condition their sources and render them safe and secure. We offer software (Radioactive Waste Management Registry) to properly keep a complete record on the sources and provide for efficient tracking. This also helps with proper planning and decision making for long term management

  15. Ordinary and extraordinary means.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillon, R

    1986-01-25

    The Roman Catholic doctrine of ordinary and extraordinary means in patient care decisions is the subject of this essay in Gillon's series on medical ethics. He briefly traces the Church history of this doctrine, which holds that saving life is not obligatory if doing so would be excessively burdensome or disproportionate in relation to the expected benefits. The burdens and benefits are to be weighed in the context of "circumstances of persons, places, times, and cultures," and factors such as the costs and risks of undergoing a proposed treatment may be considered. Gillon also notes the disagreement among Roman Catholic commentators over whether it is ever permissible to discontinue feeding as a burdensome, extraordinary treatment. He concludes that, despite different weightings of harms and benefits, Roman Catholic and non-Catholic thinkers are in accord over the appropriate moral approach to deciding when treatment is not obligatory.

  16. Focus on Meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chun; Wang Jingjing, Jenny

    recognizing new vocabulary (two-, three and four-character words) in a series of simple meaning recognition tests administered by the authors over three weeks. The test sets consist of vocabulary with target words that were given semantic and conceptual explanation by the authors in the previous week......Abstract This study examines the effect of mapping between the semantic and conceptual representation of target words 房,堂,屋, and 厅on Chinese (L2) vocabulary learning at a university class. Students (N=25) were the 2nd-year Chinese –major students at one university in Denmark. They were given tests...... of Chinese (L2) words can have a measurable effect on students’ efficacy of (Nation 2011) vocabulary learning in the classroom. The findings also reveal that conceptual representation of Chinese (L2) words reinforce the students’ reliance on L 1 by building a link between L 1semantic representations and L 2...

  17. Mean inactivation dose (D)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayakumar, S.; Ng, T.C.; Raudkivi, U.; Meaney, T.J.

    1990-01-01

    By predicting treatment outcome to radiotherapy from in vitro radiobiological parameters, not only individual patient treatments can be tailored, but also new promising treatment protocols can be tried in patients in whom unfavorable outcome is predicted. In this respect, choosing the right parameter can be very important. Unlike D 0 and N which provide information of the distal part of the survival curve, mean inactivation dose (D) estimates overall radiosensitivity. However, the parameters reflecting the response at the clinically relevant low-dose region are neglected in the literature. In a literature survey of 98 papers in which survival curves or D 0 /N were used, only in 2 D was used. In 21 papers the D 0 /n values were important in drawing conclusions. By calculating D in 3 of these 21 papers, we show that the conclusion drawn may be altered with the use of D. The importance of ''low-dose-region-parameters'' is reviewed. (orig.)

  18. The mean Evershed flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, W.-R.

    1984-09-01

    The paper gives a theoretical analysis of the overall characteristics of the Evershed flow (one of the main features of sunspots), with particular attention given to its outward flow from the umbra in the photosphere, reaching a maximum somewhere in the penumbra, and decreasing rapidly further out, and its inward flow of a comparable magnitude in chromosphere. Because the inertial force of the flow is small, the relevant dynamic process can be divided into a base state and a perturbation. The base-state solution yields the equilibrium relations between the pressure gradient, the Lorentz force, and gravity, and the flow law. The perturbation describes the force driving the Evershed flow. Since the pressure gradient in the base state is already in equilibrium with the Lorentz force and the gravity, the driving force of the mean Evershed flow is small.

  19. Improvisation and meaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbertson, Simon

    2013-08-07

    This article presents and discusses a long-term repeated-immersion research process that explores meaning allocated to an episode of 50 seconds of music improvisation in early neurosurgical rehabilitation by a teenage boy with severe traumatic brain injury and his music therapist. The process began with the original therapy session in August 1994 and extends to the current time of writing in 2013. A diverse selection of qualitative research methods were used during a repeated immersion and engagement with the selected episodes. The multiple methods used in this enquiry include therapeutic narrative analysis and musicological and video analysis during my doctoral research between 2002 and 2004, arts-based research in 2008 using expressive writing, and arts-based research in 2012 based on the creation of a body cast of my right hand as I used it to play the first note of my music improvising in the original therapy episode, which is accompanied by reflective journaling. The casting of my hand was done to explore and reconsider the role of my own body as an embodied and integral, but originally hidden, part of the therapy process. Put together, these investigations explore the potential meanings of the episode of music improvisation in therapy in an innovative and imaginative way. However, this article does not aim at this stage to present a model or theory for neurorehabilitation but offers an example of how a combination of diverse qualitative methods over an extended period of time can be instrumental in gaining innovative and rich insights into initially hidden perspectives on health, well-being, and human relating.

  20. Improvisation and meaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Gilbertson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This article presents and discusses a long-term repeated-immersion research process that explores meaning allocated to an episode of 50 seconds of music improvisation in early neurosurgical rehabilitation by a teenage boy with severe traumatic brain injury and his music therapist. The process began with the original therapy session in August 1994 and extends to the current time of writing in 2013. A diverse selection of qualitative research methods were used during a repeated immersion and engagement with the selected episodes. The multiple methods used in this enquiry include therapeutic narrative analysis and musicological and video analysis during my doctoral research between 2002 and 2004, arts-based research in 2008 using expressive writing, and arts-based research in 2012 based on the creation of a body cast of my right hand as I used it to play the first note of my music improvising in the original therapy episode, which is accompanied by reflective journaling. The casting of my hand was done to explore and reconsider the role of my own body as an embodied and integral, but originally hidden, part of the therapy process. Put together, these investigations explore the potential meanings of the episode of music improvisation in therapy in an innovative and imaginative way. However, this article does not aim at this stage to present a model or theory for neurorehabilitation but offers an example of how a combination of diverse qualitative methods over an extended period of time can be instrumental in gaining innovative and rich insights into initially hidden perspectives on health, well-being, and human relating.

  1. Improvisation and meaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This article presents and discusses a long-term repeated-immersion research process that explores meaning allocated to an episode of 50 seconds of music improvisation in early neurosurgical rehabilitation by a teenage boy with severe traumatic brain injury and his music therapist. The process began with the original therapy session in August 1994 and extends to the current time of writing in 2013. A diverse selection of qualitative research methods were used during a repeated immersion and engagement with the selected episodes. The multiple methods used in this enquiry include therapeutic narrative analysis and musicological and video analysis during my doctoral research between 2002 and 2004, arts-based research in 2008 using expressive writing, and arts-based research in 2012 based on the creation of a body cast of my right hand as I used it to play the first note of my music improvising in the original therapy episode, which is accompanied by reflective journaling. The casting of my hand was done to explore and reconsider the role of my own body as an embodied and integral, but originally hidden, part of the therapy process. Put together, these investigations explore the potential meanings of the episode of music improvisation in therapy in an innovative and imaginative way. However, this article does not aim at this stage to present a model or theory for neurorehabilitation but offers an example of how a combination of diverse qualitative methods over an extended period of time can be instrumental in gaining innovative and rich insights into initially hidden perspectives on health, well-being, and human relating. PMID:23930989

  2. [Temporal meaning of suffering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porée, J

    2015-09-01

    If we had to find a few simple words to express what a suffering human being experiences, no matter what ills are causing the suffering and no matter what circumstances underlie the ills themselves, we could unmistakably say that it is the experience of not being able to go on like this. Suffering can be described, in this same sense, as an alteration in temporality. However, describing suffering as such only makes sense if we already have a conception of normal temporality. Yet for this, philosophical tradition offers not one but four competing conceptions. In the present article, we begin by briefly presenting these different conceptions. We then show how each one sheds light, by way of contrast, on a phenomenon whose meaning thus appears to be essentially negative. But does this phenomenon have a negative meaning only? Doesn't it correspond as much to a transformation as an alteration of temporality? This is what we will strive to establish in the third part of the article by relating suffering to hope, in a paradoxical sense of the term. Of the four conceptions of time likely to shed a contrasting light on the upheavals that suffering introduces into our life experience, the one described by Aristotle in Physics is historically the first. In particular, the notion of succession originates therein. But this conception does not account for what makes time the unit of a past, a present, and a future. In Book XI of Confessions, St. Augustine situated this unit not in nature but in the human mind. Hence, his definition of time as a distension of the soul and the necessary division into physical time and psychic time it entails. Husserl's Lessons on the phenomenology of the consciousness of internal time lend credit to this division, but they illuminate only the internal constitution of the "present", which is at the heart of the psychological conception of time. In Being and Time, Heidegger breaks away from this long-standing tradition; in his view, physical time

  3. When Information Conveys Meaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Reading

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available While some information is clearly meaningful and some clearly is not, no one has been able to identify exactly what the difference is. The major obstacle has been the way information and meaning are conceptualized: the one in the physical realm of tangible, objective entities and the other in the mental world of intangible, subjective ones. This paper introduces an approach that incorporates both of them within a unified framework by defining them in terms of what they do, rather than what they are. Meaningful information is thus conceptualized here as patterns of matter and energy that have a tangible effect on the entities that detect them, either by changing their function, structure or behavior, while patterns of matter and energy that have no such effects are considered meaningless. The way that meaningful information can act as a causal agent in bio-behavioral systems enables us to move beyond dualistic concepts of ourselves as comprised of a material body that obeys the laws of physics and a non-material essence that is too elusive to study [1].

  4. Safety and security of radioactive sources - international provisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czarwinski, R.; Weiss, W.

    2005-01-01

    For more than 50 years radioactive sources are used beneficially world-wide in medicine, industry, research and teaching. In the early 50ies mainly Ra-226 sources were used especially for medical applications. In the mean time a great number of radionuclides with more or less risk to individuals, society and environment are used. The number of these sources is increasing. The available experience with the application of sealed sources in industry, medicine, research and teaching shows that despite the widespread use of such sources a high level of safety can be achieved. One precondition is that the regulatory control of a radioactive source has to be carried out consistently during the life cycle of the sources - 'from cradle to grave'. Particular attention has to be given to the so-called orphan sources which are not subject to regulatory control, either because they have never been under control, or because they have been lost, misplaced, abandoned, stolen or transferred without proper authorisation. The concern about orphan sources arising from poor safety and security standards of radioactive material around the world resulted in intensive global actions especially in the light of the security situation after the 11 th September 2001. The improvement of regulatory control is one of the key elements in preventing people, goods and environment from being exposed exceptionally by the misuse of radioactive sources. Important steps toward the improvement of the safety and security of high radioactive sources are the IAEA Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources and the European Directive on the Control of High Activity Sealed Radioactive Sources and Orphan Sources. (orig.)

  5. Hardening by means of ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spoor, H.; Demmler, K.

    1979-01-01

    The polymerisable ethylic unsaturated mixture can be hardened by means of electron irradiation and used as a corrosion preventive layer. The mixture mainly consists of at least a di-olefinic unsaturated polyester, partial esters of polycarbonic acids, in particular the monoester of dicarbonic acids, with a copolymerizable C-C double bond, and mono-olefine unsaturated hydrocarbons, for example vinyl aromatics. The coatings exhibit good adhesion to the substrate, in particular to metal, and good flexibility. (DG) [de

  6. The Meaning of "Magma"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartley, J. M.; Glazner, A. F.; Coleman, D. S.

    2016-12-01

    Magma is a fundamental constituent of the Earth, and its properties, origin, evolution, and significance bear on issues ranging from volcanic hazards to planetary evolution. Unfortunately, published usages indicate that the term "magma" means distinctly different things to different people and this can lead to miscommunication among Earth scientists and between scientists and the public. Erupting lava clearly is magma; the question is whether partially molten rock imaged at depth and too crystal-rich to flow should also be called magma. At crystal fractions > 50%, flow can only occur via crystal deformation and solution-reprecipitation. As the solid fraction increases to 90% or more, the material becomes a welded crystal framework with melt in dispersed pores and/or along grain boundaries. Seismic images commonly describe such volumes of a few % melt as magma, yet the rheological differences between melt-rich and melt-poor materials make it vital not to confuse a large rock volume that contains a small melt fraction with melt-rich material. To ensure this, we suggest that "magma" be reserved for melt-rich materials that undergo bulk fluid flow on timescales consonant with volcanic eruptions. Other terms should be used for more crystal-rich and largely immobile partially molten rock (e.g., "crystal mush," "rigid sponge"). The distinction is imprecise but useful. For the press, the public, and even earth scientists who do not study magmatic systems, "magma" conjures up flowing lava; reports of a large "magma" body that contains a few percent melt can engender the mistaken perception of a vast amount of eruptible magma. For researchers, physical processes like crystal settling are commonly invoked to account for features in plutonic rocks, but many such processes are only possible in melt-rich materials.

  7. Source Water Protection Contaminant Sources

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Simplified aggregation of potential contaminant sources used for Source Water Assessment and Protection. The data is derived from IDNR, IDALS, and US EPA program...

  8. Allergy prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muche-Borowski, Cathleen; Kopp, Matthias; Reese, Imke; Sitter, Helmut; Werfel, Thomas; Schäfer, Torsten

    2010-09-01

    The further increase of allergies in industrialized countries demands evidence-based measures of primary prevention. The recommendations as published in the guideline of 2004 were updated and consented on the basis of a systematic literature search. Evidence from the period February 2003-May 2008 was searched in the electronic databases Cochrane and MEDLINE as well as in reference lists of recent reviews and by contacting experts. The retrieved citations were screened for relevance first by title and abstract and in a second step as full paper. Levels of evidence were assigned to each included study and the methodological quality of the studies was assessed as high or low. Finally the revised recommendations were formally consented (nominal group process) by representatives of relevant societies and organizations including a self-help group. Of originally 4556 hits, 217 studies (4 Cochrane Reviews, 14 meta-analyses, 19 randomized controlled trials, 135 cohort and 45 case-control studies) were included and critically appraised. Grossly unchanged remained the recommendations on avoiding environmental tobacco smoke, breast-feeding over 4 months (alternatively hypoallergenic formulas for children at risk), avoiding a mold-promoting indoor climate, vaccination according to current recommendations, and avoidance of furry pets (especially cats) in children at risk. The recommendation on reducing the house dust mite allergen exposure as a measure of primary prevention was omitted and the impact of a delayed introduction of supplementary food was reduced. New recommendations were adopted concerning fish consumption (during pregnancy / breast-feeding and as supplementary food in the first year), avoidance of overweight, and reducing the exposure to indoor and outdoor air pollutants. The revision of this guideline on a profound evidence basis led to (1) a confirmation of existing recommendations, (2) substantial revisions, and (3) new recommendations. Thereby it is possible

  9. Pollution prevention: A regulatory update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walzer, A.E.; Maynard, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    Pollution prevention is the emphasis of the 1990s environmental philosophy. This new environmental era was ushered in when President Bush signed the Pollution Prevention Act in October 1990. This law, with its accompanying philosophy, was in response to the realization that end-of-the-pipe treatment, which frequently changed the media in which a pollutant or waste was discharged, was inadequate to protect the environment and human health. Pollution prevention advocates source reduction, where material substitutions and engineering solutions are sought to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste and pollutants. This proactive approach reduces environmental impacts such as those of former waste sites which have produced environmental legacies that will cost billions of dollars and take decades to remediate. This paper describes pollution prevention philosophy and summarizes regulatory pollution prevention requirements. It describes current regulatory trends in the area of pollution prevention, including voluntary programs and enforcement actions. The Pollution Prevention Act of 1990 is described, and pollution prevention initiatives embodied in other laws, including the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, the Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, and the Toxic Substances Control Act, are discussed. A historical overview of waste minimization initiatives within the Department of Energy is given, and other pollution prevention initiatives that affect federal facilities, such as Executive Order 12780, which mandates recycling and the procurement of recycled materials, are also outlined

  10. Elevated carboxyhemoglobin: sources of carbon monoxide exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchelli Ramirez, Herminia; Fernández Alvarez, Ramón; Rubinos Cuadrado, Gemma; Martinez Gonzalez, Cristina; Rodriguez Jerez, Francisco; Casan Clara, Pere

    2014-11-01

    Inhalation of carbon monoxide (CO) can result in poisoning, with symptoms ranging from mild and nonspecific to severe, or even death. CO poisoning is often underdiagnosed because exposure to low concentrations goes unnoticed, and threshold values for normal carboxyhemoglobin vary according to different authors. The aim of our study was to analyze carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels in an unselected population and detect sources of CO exposure In a cross-sectional descriptive study, we analyzed consecutive arterial blood gas levels processed in our laboratory. We selected those with COHb≥2.5% in nonsmokers and ≥5% in smokers. In these cases a structured telephone interview was conducted. Elevated levels of COHb were found in 64 (20%) of 306 initial determinations. Of these, data from 51 subjects aged 65±12 years, 31 (60%) of which were men, were obtained. Mean COHb was 4.0%. Forty patients (78%) were non-smokers with mean COHb of 3.2%, and 11 were smokers with COHb of 6.7%. In 45 patients (88.2%) we detected exposure to at least one source of ambient CO other than cigarette smoke. A significant proportion of individuals from an unselected sample had elevated levels of COHb. The main sources of CO exposure were probably the home, so this possibility should be explored. The population should be warned about the risks and encouraged to take preventive measures. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Human sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Staff preparation and development, preventive medical care, reconditions stays, employees toning-up, complementary pension insurance, and plant boarding carried out by the Nuclear power plants Jaslovske Bohunice in 1997 are presented

  12. Preventing medical device recalls

    CERN Document Server

    Raheja, Dev

    2014-01-01

    Introduction to Medical Device RequirementsIntroductionThe ChallengesSources of ErrorsUnderstanding the Science of Safety     Overview of FDA Quality System Regulation     Overview of Risk Management Standard ISO 14971     Overview of FDA Device Approval Process     Overview of Regulatory Requirements for Clinical TrialsSummaryReferencesPreventing Recalls during Specification WritingIntroductionConduct Requirements Analysis to Identify Missing RequirementsSpecifications for Safety, Durability, and

  13. Extracting meaning from astronomical telegrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Matthew; Conwill, L.; Djorgovski, S. G.; Mahabal, A.; Donalek, C.; Drake, A.

    2011-01-01

    The rapidly emerging field of time domain astronomy is one of the most exciting and vibrant new research frontiers, ranging in scientific scope from studies of the Solar System to extreme relativistic astrophysics and cosmology. It is being enabled by a new generation of large synoptic digital sky surveys - LSST, PanStarrs, CRTS - that cover large areas of sky repeatedly, looking for transient objects and phenomena. One of the biggest challenges facing these is the automated classification of transient events, a process that needs machine-processible astronomical knowledge. Semantic technologies enable the formal representation of concepts and relations within a particular domain. ATELs (http://www.astronomerstelegram.org) are a commonly-used means for reporting and commenting upon new astronomical observations of transient sources (supernovae, stellar outbursts, blazar flares, etc). However, they are loose and unstructured and employ scientific natural language for description: this makes automated processing of them - a necessity within the next decade with petascale data rates - a challenge. Nevertheless they represent a potentially rich corpus of information that could lead to new and valuable insights into transient phenomena. This project lies in the cutting-edge field of astrosemantics, a branch of astroinformatics, which applies semantic technologies to astronomy. The ATELs have been used to develop an appropriate concept scheme - a representation of the information they contain - for transient astronomy using aspects of natural language processing. We demonstrate that it is possible to infer the subject of an ATEL from the vocabulary used and to identify previously unassociated reports.

  14. Positron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chehab, R.

    1994-01-01

    A tentative survey of positron sources is given. Physical processes on which positron generation is based are indicated and analyzed. Explanation of the general features of electromagnetic interactions and nuclear β + decay makes it possible to predict the yield and emittance for a given optical matching system between the positron source and the accelerator. Some kinds of matching systems commonly used - mainly working with solenoidal field - are studied and the acceptance volume calculated. Such knowledge is helpful in comparing different matching systems. Since for large machines, a significant distance exists between the positron source and the experimental facility, positron emittance has to be preserved during beam transfer over large distances and methods used for that purpose are indicated. Comparison of existing positron sources leads to extrapolation to sources for future linear colliders. Some new ideas associated with these sources are also presented. (orig.)

  15. Photonic crystal light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, James G [Albuquerque, NM; Lin, Shawn-Yu [Albuquerque, NM; Bur, James A [Corrales, NM

    2004-07-27

    A light source is provided by a photonic crystal having an enhanced photonic density-of-states over a band of frequencies and wherein at least one of the dielectric materials of the photonic crystal has a complex dielectric constant, thereby producing enhanced light emission at the band of frequencies when the photonic crystal is heated. The dielectric material can be a metal, such as tungsten. The spectral properties of the light source can be easily tuned by modification of the photonic crystal structure and materials. The photonic crystal light source can be heated electrically or other heating means. The light source can further include additional photonic crystals that exhibit enhanced light emission at a different band of frequencies to provide for color mixing. The photonic crystal light source may have applications in optical telecommunications, information displays, energy conversion, sensors, and other optical applications.

  16. Debris prevention system, radiation system, and lithograpic apparatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    A debris prevention system is constructed and arranged to prevent debris that emanates from a radiation source from propagating with radiation from the radiation source into or within a lithographic apparatus. The debris prevention system includes an aperture that defines a maximum emission angle of

  17. Sources management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansoux, H.; Gourmelon; Scanff, P.; Fournet, F.; Murith, Ch.; Saint-Paul, N.; Colson, P.; Jouve, A.; Feron, F.; Haranger, D.; Mathieu, P.; Paycha, F.; Israel, S.; Auboiroux, B.; Chartier, P.

    2005-01-01

    Organized by the section of technical protection of the French society of radiation protection ( S.F.R.P.), these two days had for objective to review the evolution of the rule relative to the sources of ionising radiations 'sealed and unsealed radioactive sources, electric generators'. They addressed all the actors concerned by the implementation of the new regulatory system in the different sectors of activities ( research, medicine and industry): Authorities, manufacturers, and suppliers of sources, holders and users, bodies involved in the approval of sources, carriers. (N.C.)

  18. Prevention of oiled wildlife project (POW)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, T.C.

    1998-01-01

    The establishment of a project to analyse the nature and extent of the problem of marine oil spills and their impact on the wildlife in coastal Newfoundland was described. Pelagic seabirds were identified as the marine wildlife most affected by oil released into the ocean. The Prevention of Oiled Wildlife (POW) project was initiated by the Canadian Coast Guard, the lead agency for oil spills of unknown origin. Details of the POW project were provided. It was shown that the project serves as an interdepartmental approach to: (1) identifying past occurrences, probable sources, causes, effects and possible releases of oil into the marine environment, (2) identifying remedial measures undertaken to date to curb the release of oil, and (3) establishing a plan of action through legislation, education, detection, prosecution or any other means, to eliminate the release of oil. 14 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs

  19. Rotating preventers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tangedahl, M.J.; Stone, C.R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that recent changes in the oil and gas industry and ongoing developments in horizontal and underbalanced drilling necessitated development of a better rotating head. A new device called the rotating blowout preventer (RBOP) was developed by Seal-Tech. It is designed to replace the conventional rotating control head on top of BOP stacks and allows drilling operations to continue even on live (underbalanced) wells. Its low wear characteristics and high working pressure (1,500 psi) allow drilling rig crews to drill safely in slightly underbalanced conditions or handle severe well control problems during the time required to actuate other BOPs in the stack. Drilling with a RBOP allows wellbores to be completely closed in tat the drill floor rather than open as with conventional BOPs

  20. Preventive Radiation Protection Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roewer, H.

    1988-01-01

    The commentary is intended to contribute to protection of the population by a practice-oriented discussion and explanation of questions arising in connection with the Preventive Radiation Protection Act. Leaving aside discussions about abandonment of nuclear power, or criticism from any legal point of view, the commentary adopts the practical approach that accepts, and tries to help implementing, the act as it is. It is a guide for readers who are not experts in the law and gives a line of orientation by means of explanations and sometimes by citations from other acts (in footnotes). The commentary also presents the EURATOM Directive No. 3954/87 dated 22 December 1987, the EC Directive No. 3955/87 dated 22 December 1987, and the EC Directive No. 1983/88 dated 5 July 1988. A tabular survey shows the system of duties and competences defined by the Preventive Radiation Protection Act. (RST) [de

  1. EFSA and ECDC (European Food Safety Authority and European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control), 2015. The European Union Summary Report on Trends and Sources of Zoonoses, Zoonotic Agents and Food-borne Outbreaks in 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helwigh, Birgitte

    This report of the European Food Safety Authority and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control presents the results of the zoonoses monitoring activities carried out in 2013 in 32 European countries (28 Member States and four non-Member States). Campylobacter iosis was the most comm...... chain of tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis, Brucella, Trichinella, Echinococcus, Toxoplasma , rabies, Coxiella burnetii (Q fever), West Nile Virus and tularaemia....

  2. EFSA and ECDC (European Food Safety Authority and European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control), 2015. The European Union Summary Report on Trends and Sources of Zoonoses, Zoonotic Agents and Food-borne Outbreaks in 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Helwigh, Birgitte

    2015-01-01

    This report of the European Food Safety Authority and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control presents the results of the zoonoses monitoring activities carried out in 2013 in 32 European countries (28 Member States and four non-Member States). Campylobacter iosis was the most commonly reported zoonosis. After several years of an increasing European Union (EU) trend, the human Campylobacter iosis notification rate has stabilised. In food and animals no EU trends were observed a...

  3. EFSA (European Food Safety Authority) and ECDC (European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control), 2015. The European Union summary report on trends and sources of zoonoses, zoonotic agents and food-borne outbreaks in 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Helwigh, Birgitte; Porsbo, Lone Jannok; Boysen, Louise; Bager, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    This report of the European Food Safety Authority and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control presents the results of the zoonoses monitoring activities carried out in 2014 in 32 European countries (28 Member States (MS) and four non-MS). Campylobacteriosis was the most commonly reported zoonosis with an increase in confirmed human cases in the European Union (EU) since 2008. In food the occurrence of Campylobacter remained high in broiler meat. The decreasing EU trend for conf...

  4. Ethnic differences in breast cancer prevention information-seeking among rural women: will provider mobile messages work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzke, Cynthia; Wilson, Susan

    2014-09-01

    Although growing research supports cancer survivor information-seeking, little is known about breast cancer prevention information-seeking among women. The purpose of the study was to examine differences in breast cancer risk factor knowledge, information sources, and desired mobile messages among Hispanic and non-Hispanic rural women. Women were recruited to complete a survey at an imaging center during a mammography screening visit. A total of 156 women (mean age = 61, SD = 12.07) completed the survey. Breast cancer risk factor knowledge was significantly higher for non-Hispanic women compared to Hispanic women (p = .035). Television, magazines, and Internet were the most frequent information sources. Providers were the most frequent interpersonal information source. Nearly 87 % used cell phones and 47 % used texting. Hispanic women were more likely to desire breast cancer prevention cell voice messages (p breast cancer prevention education, and best practices to manage screening appointments.

  5. Sourcing Excellence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adeyemi, Oluseyi

    2011-01-01

    Sourcing Excellence is one of the key performance indicators (KPIs) in this world of ever changing sourcing strategies. Manufacturing companies need to access and diagnose the reliability and competencies of existing suppliers in order to coordinate and develop them. This would help in managing...

  6. Pressure ulcer prevention knowledge among Jordanian nurses: a cross- sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Pressure ulcer remains a significant problem in the healthcare system. In addition to the suffering it causes patients, it bears a growing financial burden. Although pressure ulcer prevention and care have improved in recent years, pressure ulcer still exists and occurs in both hospital and community settings. In Jordan, there are a handful of studies on pressure ulcer. This study aims to explore levels of knowledge and knowledge sources about pressure ulcer prevention, as well as barriers to implementing pressure ulcer prevention guidelines among Jordanian nurses. Methods Using a cross-sectional study design and a self-administered questionnaire, data was collected from 194 baccalaureate and master’s level staff nurses working in eight Jordanian hospitals. From September to October of 2011, their knowledge levels about pressure ulcer prevention and the sources of this knowledge were assessed, along with the barriers which reduce successful pressure ulcer care and prevention. ANOVA and t-test analysis were used to test the differences in nurses’ knowledge according to participants’ characteristics. Means, standard deviation, and frequencies were used to describe nurses’ knowledge levels, knowledge sources, and barriers to pressure ulcer prevention. Results The majority (73%, n = 141) of nurses had inadequate knowledge about pressure ulcer prevention. The mean scores of the test for all participants was 10.84 out of 26 (SD = 2.3, range = 5–17), with the lowest score in themes related to PU etiology, preventive measures to reduce amount of pressure/shear, and risk assessment. In-service training was the second source of education on pressure ulcer, coming after university training. Shortage of staff and lack of time were the most frequently cited barriers to carrying out pressure ulcer risk assessment, documentation, and prevention. Conclusions This study highlights concerns about Jordanian nurses’ knowledge of pressure ulcer prevention. The

  7. Positron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chehab, R.

    1989-01-01

    A tentative survey of positron sources is given. Physical processes on which positron generation is based are indicated and analyzed. Explanation of the general features of electromagnetic interactions and nuclear β + decay makes it possible to predict the yield and emittance for a given optical matching system between the positron source and the accelerator. Some kinds of matching systems commonly used - mainly working with solenoidal fields - are studied and the acceptance volume calculated. Such knowledge is helpful in comparing different matching systems. Since for large machines, a significant distance exists between the positron source and the experimental facility, positron emittance has to be preserved during beam transfer over large distances and methods used for that purpose are indicated. Comparison of existing positron sources leads to extrapolation to sources for future linear colliders

  8. Meaning in life of older persons : An integrative literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MSc S.H.A. Hupkens; Anja Machielse; Dr. M.J.B.M. Goumans; P. Derkx

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this integrative review for nurses is to synthesize knowledge from scholarly literature to provide insight into how older persons find meaning in life, what are influencing circumstances, and what are their sources of meaning. The review serves as a starting point for including meaning in

  9. Sunburn: Treatment and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Living Healthy Living Healthy Living Nutrition Fitness Sports Oral Health Emotional Wellness Growing Healthy Sleep Safety & Prevention Safety & Prevention Safety and Prevention Immunizations ...

  10. Pollution Prevention Information Network (PPIN) Grant Summaries for 2011 and 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics is responsible for overseeing several grant programs for tribes and states which promote pollution prevention through source reduction and resource conservation.

  11. Dosimetry of linear sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mafra Neto, F.

    1992-01-01

    The dose of gamma radiation from a linear source of cesium 137 is obtained, presenting two difficulties: oblique filtration of radiation when cross the platinum wall, in different directions, and dose connection due to the scattering by the material mean of propagation. (C.G.C.)

  12. Radiation attenuation gauge with magnetically coupled source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, S.A.

    1978-01-01

    Disclosed is a radiation attenuation gauge for measuring thickness and density of a material which includes, in combination, a source of gamma radiation contained within a housing of magnetic or ferromagnetic material, and a means for measuring the intensity of gamma radiation. The measuring means has an aperture and magnetic means disposed adjacent to the aperture for attracting and holding the housed source in position before the aperture. The material to be measured is placed between the source and the measuring means

  13. Dosimetry of industrial sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega C, H.R.; Rodriguez J, R.; Manzanares A, E.; Hernandez V, R.; Ramirez G, J.; Rivera M, T.

    2007-01-01

    The gamma rays are produced during the disintegration of the atomic nuclei, its high energy allows them to cross thick materials. The capacity to attenuate a photons beam allows to determine the density, in line, of industrial interest materials as the mining. By means of two active dosemeters and a TLDs group (passive dosimetry) the dose rates of two sources of Cs-137 used for determining in line the density of mining materials were determined. With the dosemeters the dose levels in diverse points inside the grave that it harbors the sources and by means of calculations the isodoses curves were determined. In the phase of calculations was supposed that both sources were punctual and the isodose curves were calculated for two situations: naked sources and in their Pb packings. The dosimetry was carried out around two sources of 137 Cs. The measured values allowed to develop a calculation procedure to obtain the isodoses curves in the grave where the sources are installed. (Author)

  14. The Forensic Accountants' Skills and Ethics on Fraud Prevention in the Nigerian Public Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lateef Saheed Ademola

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the required skills and ethics of the forensic accountant in preventing fraudulent practices in the Nigerian public sector. The primary source of data was utilized for data collection. Using the simple random sampling (SRS, a total of 300 questionnaires were administered; 163 were retrieved. The data obtained was analyzed using SmartPLS - for measurement and structural model. One of the major findings revealed that skills requirement was significant predator of fraud prevention as well as ethics requirement. This means that the higher the skills and ethics of the forensic accountant, the better is the fraud prevention. It is thus, recommended that forensic accounting services should be made statutory in the Nigerian public sector to help in preventing fraudulent practices. Hence the need to create awareness and expand the application of forensic accounting services in Nigerian public sector.

  15. Tomographic scanning apparatus with ionization detector means

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This patent specification describes a tomographic scanning apparatus using a fan beam and digital output signal. Particular reference is made to the gas-pressurized ionization detector chamber, consisting of an array of side-by-side elongate ionization detection cells, the principal axis of each of the said cells being oriented along a radius extending towards the radiation source, and connection means for applying potentials across the cells for taking their output signals. (U.K.)

  16. Preventing Informal Urban Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; McLaren, Robin

    2008-01-01

    . This is directly linked to citizen participation in the process of land use control. Decentralisation should aim to combine responsibility for decision making with accountability for financial, social, and environmental consequences. Decentralisation requires access to appropriate quality of land information......, addresses the main issue of how to prevent informal urban development, especially through the use of adequate and sustainable means of land use control and good governance. Three key means are addressed: Decentralisation: There is a need to separate central policy/regulation making and local decision making...... in the decision making process? Legislation in itself is not enough. A cultural change within society may need to be encouraged. Again, access to participation requires access to land information. Comprehensive planning at local level supported by citizen participation should also enable establishment proper...

  17. Informal sector shops and AIDS prevention An exploratory social ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Informal sector shops and AIDS prevention An exploratory social marketing ... The existence of a variety of media and interpersonal information sources on the ... shops should be further investigated as avenues for AIDS prevention efforts.

  18. Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recruiting Patients & Families Consortia, Networks & Centers Reports & Planning Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) The NIDDK-sponsored Diabetes Prevention ... Diabetes Prevention Program for those who are eligible. Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) DPP Goal The DPP looked ...

  19. Cholera Prevention and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... name=”commit” type=”submit” value=”Submit” /> Prevention & Control Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Prevention of ... of cholera and other diarrheal disease prevention. Prevention & Control Topics Ending Cholera: The Global Roadmap to 2030 ...

  20. Means of Hilbert space operators

    CERN Document Server

    Hiai, Fumio

    2003-01-01

    The monograph is devoted to a systematic study of means of Hilbert space operators by a unified method based on the theory of double integral transformations and Peller's characterization of Schur multipliers. General properties on means of operators such as comparison results, norm estimates and convergence criteria are established. After some general theory, special investigations are focused on three one-parameter families of A-L-G (arithmetic-logarithmic-geometric) interpolation means, Heinz-type means and binomial means. In particular, norm continuity in the parameter is examined for such means. Some necessary technical results are collected as appendices.

  1. West Nile Virus: Prevention and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... not likely to be effective. Take steps to control mosquitoes inside and outside your home Use screens ... August 14, 2017 Content source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic ...

  2. The Meaning(s) of Teacher Leadership in an Urban High School Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scribner, Samantha M. Paredes; Bradley-Levine, Jill

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the meaning of teacher leadership from teachers' perspectives. The authors examine teachers' practice of and talk about legitimate sources of power and influence in the context of an urban high school reform. Design: This is an interpretive study of teacher leadership situated in one small high…

  3. Culture as meaning-making

    OpenAIRE

    Lenkauskienė, Rūta; Liubinienė, Vilmantė

    2002-01-01

    The present paper analyses the role of social and cultural background knowledge in the cognition of meaning. Language and culture integrated studies have long been in the focus of attention. In order to study the language of a target culture, one should understand how human beings construct meanings, understand processes of meaning-making, account for different meanings, and examine their effects in social life. The language cannot be interpreted in the right way without taking the target cul...

  4. Court interpreting and pragmatic meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Bente

    In Denmark, court interpreters are required to deliver verbatim translations of speakers' originals and to refrain from transferring pragmatic meaning. Yet, as this paper demonstrates, pragmatic meaning is central to courtroom interaction.......In Denmark, court interpreters are required to deliver verbatim translations of speakers' originals and to refrain from transferring pragmatic meaning. Yet, as this paper demonstrates, pragmatic meaning is central to courtroom interaction....

  5. Neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cason, J.L. Jr.; Shaw, C.B.

    1975-01-01

    A neutron source which is particularly useful for neutron radiography consists of a vessel containing a moderating media of relatively low moderating ratio, a flux trap including a moderating media of relatively high moderating ratio at the center of the vessel, a shell of depleted uranium dioxide surrounding the moderating media of relatively high moderating ratio, a plurality of guide tubes each containing a movable source of neutrons surrounding the flux trap, a neutron shield surrounding one part of each guide tube, and at least one collimator extending from the flux trap to the exterior of the neutron source. The shell of depleted uranium dioxide has a window provided with depleted uranium dioxide shutters for each collimator. Reflectors are provided above and below the flux trap and on the guide tubes away from the flux trap

  6. Crowd Sourcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Neil

    2016-01-01

    The Internet has contributed new words and slang to our daily vernacular. A few terms, such as tweeting, texting, sexting, blogging, and googling, have become common in most vocabularies and in many languages, and are now included in the dictionary. A new buzzword making the rounds in industry is crowd sourcing, which involves outsourcing an activity, task, or problem by sending it to people or groups outside a business or a practice. Crowd sourcing allows doctors and practices to tap the wisdom of many instead of relying only on the few members of their close-knit group. This article defines "crowd sourcing," offers examples, and explains how to get started with this approach that can increase your ability to finish a task or solve problems that you don't have the time or expertise to accomplish.

  7. Practical open source software for libraries

    CERN Document Server

    Engard, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    Open source refers to an application whose source code is made available for use or modification as users see fit. This means libraries gain more flexibility and freedom than with software purchased with license restrictions. Both the open source community and the library world live by the same rules and principles. Practical Open Source Software for Libraries explains the facts and dispels myths about open source. Chapters introduce librarians to open source and what it means for libraries. The reader is provided with links to a toolbox full of freely available open source products to use in

  8. Energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajda, Gy.

    1998-01-01

    A comprehensive review is presented of the available sources of energy in the world is presented. About 80 percent of primary energy utilization is based on fossile fuels, and their dominant role is not expected to change in the foreseeable future. Data are given on petroleum, natural gas and coal based power production. The role and economic aspects of nuclear power are analyzed. A brief summary of renewable energy sources is presented. The future prospects of the world's energy resources are discussed, and the special position of Hungary regarding fossil, nuclear and renewable energy and the country's energy potential is evaluated. (R.P.)

  9. Effectiveness of infection prevention measures featuring advanced source control and environmental cleaning to limit transmission of extremely-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in a Thai intensive care unit: An analysis before and after extensive flooding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apisarnthanarak, Anucha; Pinitchai, Uayporn; Warachan, Boonyasit; Warren, David K; Khawcharoenporn, Thana; Hayden, Mary K

    2014-02-01

    Advanced source control (once-daily bathing and 4-times daily oral care with chlorhexidine aqueous solution) and thorough environmental cleaning were implemented in response to an increased incidence of colonization and infection with extremely drug-resistant (XDR) Acinetobacter baumannii in a Thai medical intensive care unit (MICU). During the 12-month baseline period (P1), contact isolation, active surveillance for XDR A baumannii, cohorting of XDR A baumannii patients, twice-daily environmental cleaning with detergent-disinfectant, and antibiotic stewardship were implemented. In the 5.5-month intervention period (P2), additional measures were introduced. Sodium hypochlorite was substituted for detergent-disinfectant, and advanced source control was implemented. All interventions except cleaning with sodium hypochlorite were continued during the 12.5-month follow-up period (P3). Extensive flooding necessitating closure of the hospital for 2 months occurred between P2 and P3. A total of 1,365 patients were studied. Compared with P1 (11.1 cases/1,000 patient-days), the rate of XDR A baumannii clinical isolates declined in P2 (1.74 cases/1,000 patient-days; P control and thorough environmental cleaning to limit colonization and infection with XDR A baumannii in MICUs in resource-limited settings. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. DNSC08 mean sea surface and mean dynamic topography models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Knudsen, Per

    2009-01-01

    -2004. It is the first global MSS without a polar gap including all of the Arctic Ocean by including laser altimetry from the ICESat mission. The mean dynamic topography (MDT) is the quantity that bridges the geoid and the mean sea surface constraining large-scale ocean circulation. Here we present a new high...

  11. Ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The specifications of a set of point-shape electrodes of non-corrodable material that can hold a film of liquid material of equal thickness is described. Contained in a jacket, this set forms an ion source. The electrode is made of tungsten with a glassy carbon layer for insulation and an outer layer of aluminium-oxide ceramic material

  12. Meaning identification and meaning selection for general language monolingual dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Henning; Agerbo, Heidi

    2014-01-01

    The traditional way for lexicographers to deal with polysemy in dictionaries is by applying the terms lumping and splitting. We will not follow this tradition. Instead, we argue that the identification and selection of meaning items (= polysems) should be treated in the same way as the identifica......The traditional way for lexicographers to deal with polysemy in dictionaries is by applying the terms lumping and splitting. We will not follow this tradition. Instead, we argue that the identification and selection of meaning items (= polysems) should be treated in the same way...... to references in the world (in this contribution called things), followed by a formulation of the identified meaning items which can be used for reception situations. Not always – as in the case of lemma selection – will all the identified meaning items be included in the dictionary. The selection of identified...... meaning items will depend on the genuine purpose of the dictionary....

  13. Some Elementary Aspects of Means

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mowaffaq Hajja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We raise several elementary questions pertaining to various aspects of means. These questions refer to both known and newly introduced families of means, and include questions of characterizations of certain families, relations among certain families, comparability among the members of certain families, and concordance of certain sequences of means. They also include questions about internality tests for certain mean-looking functions and about certain triangle centers viewed as means of the vertices. The questions are accessible to people with no background in means, and it is also expected that these people can seriously investigate, and contribute to the solutions of, these problems. The solutions are expected to require no more than simple tools from analysis, algebra, functional equations, and geometry.

  14. Joke as a means of conflict settling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana A. Sadovnikova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the use of jokes as one of the verbal means of deintensification of confrontation. The examples from modern English works of art illustrating the use of jokes at different stages of the conflict are presented. As a rule, a joke can be used in open and post-conflict phases, the latent phase of the conflict is not expressed. The use of jokes on the open stage of the conflict can create a kind of tipping point to change the course of the conflict, and thereby help to resolve it. On the post-conflict stage, a joke helps to build relationships that can be important preventing renewed conflict. The article draws attention to the combination of other means of deintensification confrontation with a joke to achieve the best result in the conflict settlement process. The verbal means can be referred to the apology and change of subject, non-verbal gestures and kisses, para-verbal — soothing tone. All of these funds, if used in conjunction with a joke, contribute to a successful resolution of the conflict. They can also enhance the effect of the joke, which is especially important in the case of non-verbal means. The author notes that the effectiveness of the joke depends on both sides — how well one of the interviewees apply the tool and how the second would take it. In the case of a failed joke, the conflict is likely to increase.

  15. Protective and preventative measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedman, P. N

    2002-01-01

    Health care workers who come in contact with blood and other body fluids in their working environment risk being exposed to blood borne diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B and C. An anti-hepatitis B vaccine is available as well as hepatitis B immunoglobulin but no vaccine is available against hepatitis C and HIV. The best way to protect against exposure to blood and body fluids is to use 'Universal Precautions' which encourage safe working methods. If an exposure does take place it should be regarded as an urgent medical problem and every facility should have a management policy to deal with this problem. The source patient's rights must also be protected. The preventative and protective measures available to health care workers as well as practical suggestions to carry out in the event of an exposure are discussed (Au)

  16. GPC Single Source Letter

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  17. Subspace K-means clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmerman, Marieke E; Ceulemans, Eva; De Roover, Kim; Van Leeuwen, Karla

    2013-12-01

    To achieve an insightful clustering of multivariate data, we propose subspace K-means. Its central idea is to model the centroids and cluster residuals in reduced spaces, which allows for dealing with a wide range of cluster types and yields rich interpretations of the clusters. We review the existing related clustering methods, including deterministic, stochastic, and unsupervised learning approaches. To evaluate subspace K-means, we performed a comparative simulation study, in which we manipulated the overlap of subspaces, the between-cluster variance, and the error variance. The study shows that the subspace K-means algorithm is sensitive to local minima but that the problem can be reasonably dealt with by using partitions of various cluster procedures as a starting point for the algorithm. Subspace K-means performs very well in recovering the true clustering across all conditions considered and appears to be superior to its competitor methods: K-means, reduced K-means, factorial K-means, mixtures of factor analyzers (MFA), and MCLUST. The best competitor method, MFA, showed a performance similar to that of subspace K-means in easy conditions but deteriorated in more difficult ones. Using data from a study on parental behavior, we show that subspace K-means analysis provides a rich insight into the cluster characteristics, in terms of both the relative positions of the clusters (via the centroids) and the shape of the clusters (via the within-cluster residuals).

  18. Obstetric fistula: a narrative review of the literature on preventive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Obstetric fistula: a narrative review of the literature on preventive ... Eniya K. Lufumpa, Sarah Steele ... The literature also highlights the need for increased governmental support, as a means of preventing the development of fistulas.

  19. Take Steps to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... En español Take Steps to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes Browse Sections The Basics Overview Types of Diabetes ... 1 of 9 sections The Basics: Types of Diabetes What is diabetes? Diabetes means you have glucose ( ...

  20. Sensors prevent theft; Sensoren gegen Langfinger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannen, Petra

    2012-07-01

    Solar farms are interesting objects not only for planners and investors but also for criminals intending theft. Operators attempt to prevent theft by different means. The contribution takes a look at four different countries.

  1. Problems and perspectives of domestic violence prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Kasperskis, Darius

    2009-01-01

    This paper will analyze the domestic violence prevention problems and perspectives. The goal of this work is to discuss the main domestic violence characteristics, analyze Lithuanian and international prevention means and offer suggestions to improve Lithuanian domestic violence prevention. This work consentrates on mens violence over women. The conseption of violence is analyzed – the general violence features in criminology and law literature are discussed, the main domestic violence forms ...

  2. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment: Foundation of pollution prevention for waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damewood, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to promote the Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (PPOA) technique as a fundamental of pollution prevention for waste management. All key elements of an effective PPOA program are presented. These key elements include impacts of environmental laws on pollution prevention, PPOA concepts and overview, waste minimization opportunities assessment, reporting and monitoring waste minimization progress, and PPOA program implementation. As environmental laws evolve the focus is shifting from end-of-pipe pollution control to front-end source reduction. Waste minimization was mistakenly interpreted to mean the reduction of hazardous waste after generation in the past. The Pollution Prevention Act of 1990 has clearly defined its requirement on resource reduction. Waste reduction can be viewed as a criterion to assess all industrial processes and operations. The fundamental approach of PPOA focuses on a mass balance concept. This concept deals with tracking of chemicals from the point of purchase, through storage, utilization in the process, and waste generation at the end of process. In other words, PPOA is a technique to analyze this input/output process. By applying PPOA techniques, the framework of applicable compliance requirements to the current operation process is established. Furthermore, documentation of PPOA itself can meet as documentation requirements for environmental compliance. In general, the PPOA process consists of two phases. The first phase involves input and output process description and waste characterization. The second phase is an opportunities assessment for waste minimization from input/output waste characterization. These two phases are explained in detail in the paper

  3. Filtered cathodic arc source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falabella, S.; Sanders, D.M.

    1994-01-01

    A continuous, cathodic arc ion source coupled to a macro-particle filter capable of separation or elimination of macro-particles from the ion flux produced by cathodic arc discharge is described. The ion source employs an axial magnetic field on a cathode (target) having tapered sides to confine the arc, thereby providing high target material utilization. A bent magnetic field is used to guide the metal ions from the target to the part to be coated. The macro-particle filter consists of two straight solenoids, end to end, but placed at 45 degree to one another, which prevents line-of-sight from the arc spot on the target to the parts to be coated, yet provides a path for ions and electrons to flow, and includes a series of baffles for trapping the macro-particles. 3 figures

  4. [Evaluation of knowledge about colon cancer prevention versus other tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanguinetti, José María; Henry, Nicolás; Ocaña, Domingo; Polesel, Julio Lotero

    2015-06-01

    In Argentina almost 7% of deaths are due to different cancers with screening strategies. Evaluate knowledge about cancer prevention compared with other tumors. Materials. A descriptive and comparative study. A survey between April and June 2013 in Salta City, province of Salta, Argentina. Correct answers were considered. Statistical analysis: Descriptive (mean and percentage), comparative Chi square Test (significance level Pmama and cervix. 20% (CI 0,13-0,28) knew that colon cancer has a genetic predisposition and 58% (CI 0,48-0,67) about mama. 73% (CI 0,63-0,8) received information about cancer prevention. The main source of information was the physician. 46% (CI 0,36-0,55) received medical care in private institutions. Those who had social security, higher educational levels and medical care in private institutions had better knowledge about cancer prevention except in colon cancer. The global results showed levels below 70% in general but extremely low in colon cancer. Not having social security, receiving medical care in public institutions and having a low educational level are related with poor knowledge about cancer prevention except for colon and prostate cancer.

  5. Conference on disarmament: prevention of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, R.

    1985-01-01

    Australia's Ambassador for Disarmament urges the Conference to establish an appropriate means for ensuring that practical work under Item 3 - the prevention of nuclear war - is carried out. The text of the Australian reply to the Secretary-General of the United Nations on the prevention of nuclear war follows the Ambassador's speech

  6. Organizing knowledge for tutoring fire loss prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel L. Schmoldt

    1989-01-01

    The San Bernardino National Forest in southern California has recently developed a systematic approach to wildfire prevention planning. However, a comprehensive document or other mechanism for teaching this process to other prevention personnel does not exist. An intelligent tutorial expert system is being constructed to provide a means for learning the process and to...

  7. Pollution prevention projects in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijn, Theo; Coenen, Franciscus H.J.M.; Lulofs, Kristiaan R.D.

    1996-01-01

    As part of its waste matter prevention policy, the Dutch government has tried over the past few years to stimulate pollution prevention in firms by means of so-called stimulation and learning projects. To be able to determine the effectiveness of future policies, an extensive evaluation study was

  8. Reference Ranges & What They Mean

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... htm. Accessed August 2015. Sources Used in Previous Reviews Books: Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. 20th ed. Henry JB, ed. New York: Saunders: 2001. Laboratory Medicine: Test Selection and Interpretation. ...

  9. Dental radiology in preventive dentistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stallard, J S; Stallard, R E [Group Health Plan, Minnesota (USA)

    1975-02-01

    Preventive measures in dental radiography for radiation protection of both the patients and occupational personnel (and at the same time giving maximum diagnostic yield) are described. The amount of X-radiation to the patients can be reduced by filtration and collimation of X-ray beam, eliminating tube-head leakage and using lead impregnated aprons while radiographing children and female patients in their reproductive age. Exposure of the operator can be minimized by the proper choice of his position and distance from the radiation source and placing a barrier between him and the source.

  10. The Mean as Balance Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Robin S.

    2012-01-01

    There are two primary interpretations of the mean: as a leveler of data (Uccellini 1996, pp. 113-114) and as a balance point of a data set. Typically, both interpretations of the mean are ignored in elementary school and middle school curricula. They are replaced with a rote emphasis on calculation using the standard algorithm. When students are…

  11. Mean-field lattice trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgs, C.; Chayes, J.T.; Hofstad, van der R.W.; Slade, G.

    1999-01-01

    We introduce a mean-field model of lattice trees based on embeddings into d of abstract trees having a critical Poisson offspring distribution. This model provides a combinatorial interpretation for the self-consistent mean-field model introduced previously by Derbez and Slade [9], and provides an

  12. Orphan sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pust, R.; Urbancik, L.

    2008-01-01

    The presentation describes how the stable detection systems (hereinafter referred to as S DS ) have contributed to reveal the uncontrolled sources of ionizing radiation on the territory of the State Office for Nuclear Safety (SONS) Brno Regional Centre (RC Brno). It also describes the emergencies which were solved by or in which the workers from the Brno. Regional Centre participated in. The contribution is divided into the following chapters: A. SDS systems installed on the territory of SONS RC Brno; B. Selected unusual emergencies; C. Comments to individual emergencies; D. Aspects of SDS operation in term of their users; E. Aspects of SDS operation and related activities in term of radiation protection; F. Current state of orphan sources. (authors)

  13. Tritium sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glodic, S.; Boreli, F.

    1993-01-01

    Tritium is the only radioactive isotope of hydrogen. It directly follows the metabolism of water and it can be bound into genetic material, so it is very important to control levels of contamination. In order to define the state of contamination it is necessary to establish 'zero level', i.e. actual global inventory. The importance of tritium contamination monitoring increases with the development of fusion power installations. Different sources of tritium are analyzed and summarized in this paper. (author)

  14. Source rock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakr F. Makky

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available West Beni Suef Concession is located at the western part of Beni Suef Basin which is a relatively under-explored basin and lies about 150 km south of Cairo. The major goal of this study is to evaluate the source rock by using different techniques as Rock-Eval pyrolysis, Vitrinite reflectance (%Ro, and well log data of some Cretaceous sequences including Abu Roash (E, F and G members, Kharita and Betty formations. The BasinMod 1D program is used in this study to construct the burial history and calculate the levels of thermal maturity of the Fayoum-1X well based on calibration of measured %Ro and Tmax against calculated %Ro model. The calculated Total Organic Carbon (TOC content from well log data compared with the measured TOC from the Rock-Eval pyrolysis in Fayoum-1X well is shown to match against the shale source rock but gives high values against the limestone source rock. For that, a new model is derived from well log data to calculate accurately the TOC content against the limestone source rock in the study area. The organic matter existing in Abu Roash (F member is fair to excellent and capable of generating a significant amount of hydrocarbons (oil prone produced from (mixed type I/II kerogen. The generation potential of kerogen in Abu Roash (E and G members and Betty formations is ranging from poor to fair, and generating hydrocarbons of oil and gas prone (mixed type II/III kerogen. Eventually, kerogen (type III of Kharita Formation has poor to very good generation potential and mainly produces gas. Thermal maturation of the measured %Ro, calculated %Ro model, Tmax and Production index (PI indicates that Abu Roash (F member exciting in the onset of oil generation, whereas Abu Roash (E and G members, Kharita and Betty formations entered the peak of oil generation.

  15. Radioactive source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drabkina, L.E.; Mazurek, V.; Myascedov, D.N.; Prokhorov, P.; Kachalov, V.A.; Ziv, D.M.

    1976-01-01

    A radioactive layer in a radioactive source is sealed by the application of a sealing layer on the radioactive layer. The sealing layer can consist of a film of oxide of titanium, tin, zirconium, aluminum, or chromium. Preferably, the sealing layer is pure titanium dioxide. The radioactive layer is embedded in a finish enamel which, in turn, is on a priming enamel which surrounds a substrate

  16. Muon sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsa, Z.

    2001-01-01

    A full high energy muon collider may take considerable time to realize. However, intermediate steps in its direction are possible and could help facilitate the process. Employing an intense muon source to carry out forefront low energy research, such as the search for muon-number non-conservation, represents one interesting possibility. For example, the MECO proposal at BNL aims for 2 x 10 -17 sensitivity in their search for coherent muon-electron conversion in the field of a nucleus. To reach that goal requires the production, capture and stopping of muons at an unprecedented 10 11 μ/sec. If successful, such an effort would significantly advance the state of muon technology. More ambitious ideas for utilizing high intensity muon sources are also being explored. Building a muon storage ring for the purpose of providing intense high energy neutrino beams is particularly exciting.We present an overview of muon sources and example of a muon storage ring based Neutrino Factory at BNL with various detector location possibilities

  17. Polio and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Essays Photo Collections Videos Polio Today → Polio + Prevention Polio + Prevention Polio and prevention Polio is a crippling ... for poliovirus within 48 hours of onset. Bulbar polio More extensive paralysis, involving the trunk and muscles ...

  18. Prevent Child Abuse America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Week Parenting Tip of the Week – Preventing Child Sexual Abuse Parenting Tip of the Week Parenting Tip of the Week – Talking to Teens about Healthy Relationships ... of child abuse prevention through our Pinwheels for Prevention campaign. ...

  19. National Suicide Prevention Lifeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Initiatives Best Practices Our Network Media Resources National Suicide Prevention Lifeline We can all help prevent suicide. The ... Call The Lifeline Everyone Plays A Role In Suicide Prevention Here are some helpful links: GET HELP NOW ...

  20. Prevention Research Matters

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Prevention Research Matters is a series of one-on-one interviews with researchers from 26 university prevention research centers across the country. Their work focuses on preventing and controlling chronic diseases like obesity, cancer, and heart disease.

  1. Preventing pollution from plutonium processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillay, K.K.S.

    1993-01-01

    The plutonium processing facility at Los Alamos has adopted the strategic goal of becoming a facility that processes plutonium in a way that produces only environmentally benign waste streams. Pollution prevention through source reduction and environmentally sound recycling are being pursued. General approaches to waste reductions are administrative controls, modification of process technologies, and additional waste polishing. Recycling of waste materials, such as spent acids and salts, are technical possibilities and are being pursued to accomplish additional waste reduction. Liquid waste stream polishing to remove final traces of plutonium and hazardous chemical constituents is accomplished through (a) process modifications, (b) use of alternative chemicals and sorbents for residue removal, (c) acid recycling, and (d) judicious use of a variety of waste polishing technologies. Technologies that show promise in waste minimization and pollution prevention are identified. Working toward this goal of pollution prevention is a worthwhile endeavor, not only for Los Alamos, but for the Nuclear Complex of the future

  2. Preventing pollution from plutonium processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillay, K.K.S.

    1995-01-01

    The plutonium processing facility at Los Alamos has adopted the strategic goal of becoming a facility that processes plutonium in a way that produces only environmentally benign waste streams. Pollution prevention through source reduction and environmentally sound recycling are being pursued. General approaches to waste reductions are administrative controls, modification of process technologies, and additional waste polishing. Recycling of waste materials, such as spent acids and salts, are technical possibilities and are being pursued to accomplish additional waste reduction. Liquid waste stream polishing to remove final traces of plutonium and hazardous chemical constituents is accomplished through process modifications, use of alternative chemicals and sorbents for residue removal, acid recycling, and judicious use of a variety of waste polishing technologies. Technologies that show promise in waste minimization and pollution prevention are identified. Working toward this goal of pollution prevention is a worthwhile endeavor , not only for Los Alamos, but for the Nuclear Complex of the future. (author) 12 refs.; 2 figs

  3. Personal Meaning Orientations and Psychosocial Adaptation in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary T. Reker

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined how different patterns of sources of meaning in life impact the psychosocial adaptation of older adults. A total of 120 (62 women and 58 men community-residing older adults completed self-report measures of sources of meaning in life, physical health, life satisfaction, depression, personality, existential regrets, attitudes toward aging, and attitudes toward life. Cluster analysis of sources of meaning revealed four distinct meaning orientations: self-transcendent (n = 32, collectivistic (n = 24, individualistic (n = 34, and self-preoccupied (n = 30. MANCOVA analysis of the four groups, controlling for age, marital status, education, and financial satisfaction, revealed a strong multivariate main effect for meaning orientation. No statistically significant gender and Gender × Meaning orientation interaction effects were found. Older adults, who derive meaning from self-transcendent sources, are more extraverted, open to experience, agreeable, and conscientious; perceive greater purpose and coherence in life; feel more in control in directing their lives; express a stronger desire to get more out of life; and are less depressed compared with those who derive meaning through pursuing self-serving interests without any real commitment to personal, interpersonal, or societal development. The implications of the findings for positive aging are discussed.

  4. Leakage of caesium braquitherapy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lozada, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    In several Venezuelan public hospitals where cervix uteri tumours are treated by intracavitary radiotherapy, that use manual after loading Fletcher method, with Caesium 137 sources, the use of improper source holders, locally manufactured from pieces of drainage plastic tubing, which deteriorated and created a corrosive environment all around the sources, omission of manufacturer's recommendations regarding corrosion information, source storage, inspection and testing, violation of International Atomic Energy Agency Radiation Protection Procedures, and lack of proper regulatory control, resulted integrity damage to about sixty special form sources (ISO2919 C 63322), leakage of Cs-137 from a supposed insoluble refractory active content (caesium silicoaluminate), and contamination of applicators, floors and bedding. When the situation was detected by means removal contamination tests, after routine inspections, the sources were removed from the hospitals, decontaminated by means of immersion in 3% EDTA solution in ultrasonic bath, subjected to leaking assessment tests, and the ones that passed were placed in low cost stainless steel source holders, designed and built by the instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas (IVIC) returned to the hospitals. The leaking sources were removed from use and considered radioactive waste. In order to avoid the occurrence of similar situations, all the importers of such sources are now required to send them to IVIC for testing and placement in proper source holders, before they are shipped to the hospitals. (author)

  5. Sociocultural Meanings of Nanotechnology: Research Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainbridge, William Sims

    2004-06-01

    This article identifies six social-science research methodologies that will be useful for charting the sociocultural meaning of nanotechnology: web-based questionnaires, vignette experiments, analysis of web linkages, recommender systems, quantitative content analysis, and qualitative textual analysis. Data from a range of sources are used to illustrate how the methods can delineate the intellectual content and institutional structure of the emerging nanotechnology culture. Such methods will make it possible in future to test hypotheses such as that there are two competing definitions of nanotechnology - the technical-scientific and the science-fiction - that are influencing public perceptions by different routes and in different directions.

  6. Investigating Meaning in Experimental Semiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts Gareth

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Experimental semiotics is a new discipline developed over the last decade to study human communication. Studies within this discipline typically involve people creating novel signs by associating signals with meanings. Here we suggest ways this discipline can be used to shed light on how people create and communicate meaning. First we present observations drawn from studies in which participants not only construct novel signals, but also have considerable freedom over what these signals refer to. These studies offer intriguing insight on non-saussurian signs (where a single unit of meaning is associated with different signals, communicative egocentricity, private and public meaning, and the distinction between meaningful and meaningless units in linguistic structure, that is between morphemes and phonemes (or analogous entities. We then present a novel quantitative approach to determining the extent to which a signal unit is meaningful, and illustrate its use with data from a study in which participants construct signals to refer to predetermined meanings. Aside from these specific contributions, we show more generally how challenging investigating meaning in Experimental Semiotics is, but we argue that this reflects the difficulties we must face when studying meaning, outside the lab as well as in it.

  7. Lectures on mean curvature flows

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Xi-Ping

    2002-01-01

    "Mean curvature flow" is a term that is used to describe the evolution of a hypersurface whose normal velocity is given by the mean curvature. In the simplest case of a convex closed curve on the plane, the properties of the mean curvature flow are described by Gage-Hamilton's theorem. This theorem states that under the mean curvature flow, the curve collapses to a point, and if the flow is diluted so that the enclosed area equals \\pi, the curve tends to the unit circle. In this book, the author gives a comprehensive account of fundamental results on singularities and the asymptotic behavior of mean curvature flows in higher dimensions. Among other topics, he considers in detail Huisken's theorem (a generalization of Gage-Hamilton's theorem to higher dimension), evolution of non-convex curves and hypersurfaces, and the classification of singularities of the mean curvature flow. Because of the importance of the mean curvature flow and its numerous applications in differential geometry and partial differential ...

  8. History based batch method preserving tally means

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Hyung Jin; Choi, Sung Hoon

    2012-01-01

    In the Monte Carlo (MC) eigenvalue calculations, the sample variance of a tally mean calculated from its cycle-wise estimates is biased because of the inter-cycle correlations of the fission source distribution (FSD). Recently, we proposed a new real variance estimation method named the history-based batch method in which a MC run is treated as multiple runs with small number of histories per cycle to generate independent tally estimates. In this paper, the history-based batch method based on the weight correction is presented to preserve the tally mean from the original MC run. The effectiveness of the new method is examined for the weakly coupled fissile array problem as a function of the dominance ratio and the batch size, in comparison with other schemes available

  9. Meanings of the Home and Living

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verônica Gonçalves Azeredo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at making considerations about what homes mean to their residents, an an approach related to the socio-cultural processes underlying its spatiality. The article is essentially theoretical and based on the literature. Following this methodology, the research was conducted in order to explore ethnographic sources focused on the anthropology of space. Reflections were guided by the notion of homes as well as the relations established in them, with emphasis on the intersection between the territorial, architectural, cultural, sociodemographic and psychological aspects. In addition to conceptual abstractions, the investigation aims to understand the meaning of and in space, the importance of homes, and the relationships established between them and their residents.

  10. Scabies: Prevention and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Scabies FAQs Workplace FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals Medications Institutional Settings Prevention ...

  11. *K-means and Cluster Models for Cancer Signatures

    OpenAIRE

    Kakushadze, Zura; Yu, Willie

    2017-01-01

    We present *K-means clustering algorithm and source code by expanding statistical clustering methods applied in https://ssrn.com/abstract=2802753 to quantitative finance. *K-means is statistically deterministic without specifying initial centers, etc. We apply *K-means to extracting cancer signatures from genome data without using nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF). *K-means’ computational cost is a fraction of NMF’s. Using 1389 published samples for 14 cancer types, we find that 3 cancer...

  12. Spirituality in narratives of meaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois Wessels

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article forms part of a study which was inspired by the ever-growing need for significance expressed both by my life coaching and pastoral therapy clients as well as the need for existential meaning reported both in the lay press and academic literature. The study reflected on a life that matters with a group of co-researchers in a participatory action research relationship. The study has been positioned within pastoral theology and invited the theological discourse into a reflection of existential meaning. Adopting a critical relational constructionist epistemology, the research was positioned within a postmodern paradigm. The implications for meaning and research were explored and described. This article tells the story of how spirituality was positioned in the narratives of meaning by my fellow researchers.

  13. Prediction based on mean subset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øjelund, Henrik; Brown, P. J.; Madsen, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    , it is found that the proposed mean subset method has superior prediction performance than prediction based on the best subset method, and in some settings also better than the ridge regression and lasso methods. The conclusions drawn from the Monte Carlo study is corroborated in an example in which prediction......Shrinkage methods have traditionally been applied in prediction problems. In this article we develop a shrinkage method (mean subset) that forms an average of regression coefficients from individual subsets of the explanatory variables. A Bayesian approach is taken to derive an expression of how...... the coefficient vectors from each subset should be weighted. It is not computationally feasible to calculate the mean subset coefficient vector for larger problems, and thus we suggest an algorithm to find an approximation to the mean subset coefficient vector. In a comprehensive Monte Carlo simulation study...

  14. Nonasymptotic mean-field games

    KAUST Repository

    Tembine, Hamidou

    2014-01-01

    a mean-field framework that is suitable not only for large systems but also for a small world with few number of entities. The applicability of the proposed framework is illustrated through various examples including dynamic auction with asymmetric

  15. Means and Variances without Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, John J.

    2005-01-01

    This article gives a method of finding discrete approximations to continuous probability density functions and shows examples of its use, allowing students without calculus access to the calculation of means and variances.

  16. Mobile Health, a Key Factor Enhancing Disease Prevention Campaigns: Looking for Evidences in Kidney Disease Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Roque Matias

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD failure and kidney diseases are increasing at an alarming rate all over the world. However, despite the remarkable advance in health technology, where it has become possible to successfully screen patients and predict kidney progression, a large portion of the world population is still unaware of their disease and risk exposure. Mobile Health (mHealth solutions associated with health campaigns and programs proved to be an effective mean to enhance awareness and behaviour change at individual and social level. Objective: The aim of this survey was to present the results of an environmental scan of what has been happening in the field of kidney disease prevention campaigns in recent years, with a focus on the use of mobile health as a tool to enhance the campaign's effects on targeting people and change their behaviour. Methodology: It was conducted a systematic and comprehensive review, combining experimental studies with theoretical perspectives, to look for evidence regarding the evaluation of kidney disease prevention campaigns. The databases consulted for the present survey were: MEDLINE, PubMed, Google Scholar, PsycINFO, SAGE Journals Online, and Web of Science among other sources, for an analysis period from January 2000 to June 2016. Results: Concerning the 14 analyzed examples with impact on kidney disease prevention campaign evaluation, two main campaigns were referred: The World Kidney Day (WKD campaign, and the Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP. The indicators used in this analisys were in most cases comparable regarding the campaign messages, objectives and interventions tools, although em both cases the use of mHealth or other technologies is residually comparing to other diseases prevention campaigns or programs. Conclusions: This review pointed to the inexistence of behavioural change evidence as a target of the kidney disease prevention campaigns and their evaluation. General

  17. Reducing the risk from radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKenzie, C.

    2006-01-01

    Each year the IAEA receives reports of serious injuries or deaths due to misuse or accidents involving sealed radioactive sources. Sealed radioactive sources are used widely in medicine, industry, and agriculture - by doctors to treat cancer, by radiographers to check welds in pipelines, or by specialists to irradiate food to prevent it from spoiling, for example. If these sources are lost or improperly discarded, a serious accident may result. In addition, the security of sealed sources has become a growing concern, particularly the potential that such a source could be used as a radioactive dispersal device or 'dirty bomb'. Preventing the loss or theft of sealed radioactive sources reduces both the risk of accidents and the risk that such sources could become an instrument of misuse. In most countries, radioactive materials and activities that produce radiation are regulated. Those working with sealed radioactive sources are required not just to have proper credentials, but also the needed training and support to deal with unexpected circumstances that may arise when a source is used. Despite these measures, accidents involving sealed sources continue to be reported to the IAEA. Among its many activities to improve the safety and security of sealed sources, the IAEA has been investigating the root causes of major accidents since the 1980s and publishing the findings so that others can learn from them. This information needs to be in the hands of those whose actions and decisions can reduce accidents by preventing a lost source from making it's way into scrap metal. The IAEA has also developed an international catalogue of sealed radioactive sources, and provides assistance to countries to safely contain sources no longer in use. To raise awareness, a Sealed Radioactive Sources Toolkit was issued that focuses on the long-term issues in safely and securely managing radioactive sealed sources. The target audiences are government agencies, radioactive sealed source

  18. Xylitol and caries prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duane, Brett

    2015-06-01

    Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Web of Science Conference Proceedings, Proquest Dissertations and Theses, US National Institutes of Health Trials Register (http://clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO Clinical Trials Registry Platform for ongoing trials. No language or year restrictions were used. Randomised controlled trials assessing the effects of xylitol products on dental caries in children and adults. Two review authors independently screened the results of the electronic searches, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of the included studies. Authors were contacted where possible for missing data or clarification where feasible. For continuous outcomes, means and standard deviations were used to obtain the mean difference and 95% confidence interval (CI). Continuous data was used to calculate prevented fractions (PF) and 95% CIs to summarise the percentage reduction in caries. For dichotomous outcomes, reported risk ratios (RR) and 95% CIs were used. As there were fewer than four studies included in the meta-analysis, a fixed effect model was used. Ten studies were included with a total of 5903 participants. One study was assessed as being at low risk of bias, two were assessed as unclear risk of bias with seven at high risk of bias. Over 2.5–3 years, low quality evidence demonstrated that with 4216 children analysed, a fluoride toothpaste with 10% xylitol (exact dosage unsure) reduced caries by 13% when compared to a fluoride only toothpaste. (PF −0.13, 95% CI −0.18 to −0.08. Remaining evidence of the use of xylitol in children has risk of bias and uncertainty of effect and was therefore insufficient to determine a benefit from xylitol. Four studies reported that there were no adverse effects from any of the interventions. Two studies reported similar rates of adverse effects between study arms. The remaining studies either mentioned adverse effects

  19. Dante, psychoanalysis, and the (erotic) meaning of meaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, E R

    1990-01-01

    The author observes a resemblance between (1) the "polysemous" technique of imputing meaning to reality practiced in medieval biblical studies and in Dante's writing and (2) the technique of interpretation in contemporary psychoanalysis. She explores the roots of this resemblance in the development of intellectual history and provides examples of polysemous meanings in Dante's Divine Comedy, which is in part an autobiographical journey of self-reflection and self-realization (like psychoanalysis). She then suggests some implications of this resemblance for contemporary psychiatry.

  20. How Ordinary Meaning Underpins the Meaning of Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormell, Christopher

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the meaning of mathematics by looking at its uses in the real world. Offers mathematical modeling as a way to represent mathematical applications in real or potential situations. Presents levels of applicability, modus operandi, relationship to "pure mathematics," and consequences for education for mathematical modeling. (MDH)

  1. Radiation Safety and Orphan Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janzekovic, H.; Krizman, M.

    2006-01-01

    The wide spread use of radioactive and particularly of nuclear materials which started in the last century very quickly also demonstrated negative sides. The external exposure and radiotoxicity of these materials could be easily used in a malevolent act. Due to the fact that these materials could not be detected without special equipment designed for that purpose, severe control over their use in all phases of a life cycle is required. An orphan source is a radioactive source which is not under regulatory control, either because it has never been under regulatory or because it has been abandoned, lost, misplaced, stolen or transferred without proper authorization. In the last ten years a few international conferences were dedicated to the improvement of the safety and security of radioactive sources. Three main tasks are focused, the maintenance of data bases related to events with orphan sources and the publications of such events, the preparation of recommendations and guidelines to national regulatory bodies in order to prevent and detect the events related to orphan sources as well as to develop the response strategies to radiological or nuclear emergency, appraisals of the national strategies of radioactive sources control. Concerning Slovenia, strengthening control over orphan sources in Slovenia started after the adoption of new legislation in 2002. It was carried out through several tasks with the aim to prevent orphan sources, as well as to identify the sources which could be potentially orphan sources. The comprehensive methodology was developed by the Slovenian nuclear safety administration (S.N.S.A.) based on international guidelines as well as on the study of national lesson learned cases. The methodology was developed and used in close cooperation with all parties involved, namely other regulatory authorities, police, customs, agency for radioactive waste management (A.R.A.O.), technical support organisations (T.S.O.), users of source, authorised

  2. Radiation Safety and Orphan Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janzekovic, H.; Krizman, M. [Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2006-07-01

    The wide spread use of radioactive and particularly of nuclear materials which started in the last century very quickly also demonstrated negative sides. The external exposure and radiotoxicity of these materials could be easily used in a malevolent act. Due to the fact that these materials could not be detected without special equipment designed for that purpose, severe control over their use in all phases of a life cycle is required. An orphan source is a radioactive source which is not under regulatory control, either because it has never been under regulatory or because it has been abandoned, lost, misplaced, stolen or transferred without proper authorization. In the last ten years a few international conferences were dedicated to the improvement of the safety and security of radioactive sources. Three main tasks are focused, the maintenance of data bases related to events with orphan sources and the publications of such events, the preparation of recommendations and guidelines to national regulatory bodies in order to prevent and detect the events related to orphan sources as well as to develop the response strategies to radiological or nuclear emergency, appraisals of the national strategies of radioactive sources control. Concerning Slovenia, strengthening control over orphan sources in Slovenia started after the adoption of new legislation in 2002. It was carried out through several tasks with the aim to prevent orphan sources, as well as to identify the sources which could be potentially orphan sources. The comprehensive methodology was developed by the Slovenian nuclear safety administration (S.N.S.A.) based on international guidelines as well as on the study of national lesson learned cases. The methodology was developed and used in close cooperation with all parties involved, namely other regulatory authorities, police, customs, agency for radioactive waste management (A.R.A.O.), technical support organisations (T.S.O.), users of source, authorised

  3. The Two Meanings of Economic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Polanyi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this text Karl Polanyi explains the two meanings of economic: the formal, which springs from the logical character of the means-ends relationship, and from which springs the scarcity definition of economic, and the substantive meaning, which points to the elemental fact that human beings, like all other living things, cannot exist for any length of time without a physical environment that sustains them. The two meanings, the formal and the substantive, have nothing in common. According to the author how solidly the two meanings were joined can be inferred from the ironic fate of the most controversial of modern mythological figures – economic man. Nel testo Karl Polanyi illustra i due significati di economico: il significato formale, che deriva dalla natura logica della relazione mezzi-fini e da cui discende la definizione di economico basata sulla scarsità, e il significato sostanziale, che rinvia al fatto che gli esseri umani, come tutti gli esseri viventi, non possono mantenersi in vita senza un ambiente materiale che li sostenga. I due significati non hanno nulla in comune. Secondo l’autore la solidità della congiunzione dei due termini si può capire dalla sorte ironica della più controversa fra le figure mitologiche moderne: l’uomo economico.

  4. Public attitudes towards prevention of obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Sikorski

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate obesity prevention support in the German general public and to assess determinants of general prevention support as well as support of specific prevention measures. METHODS: This study was a cross-sectional analysis of a telephone based representative German study (3,003 subjects (52.8% women, mean age 51.9, s.d.  = 18.0, range 18-97 years. Likert scale-based questions on general prevention support and support of specific measures were used. Furthermore willingness to take part in preventive programs and willingness to pay were assessed. Stigmatizing attitudes were assessed with the Fat Phobia Scale (FPS. Causation of obesity was differentiated in three dimensions (internal, e.g. lack of exercise; external, e.g. social surroundings; and genetic factors. RESULTS: Obesity prevention was perceived as possible (98.2%, however, almost exclusively lifestyle changes were named. Participants with higher stigmatizing attitudes were less likely to believe obesity prevention is possible. The majority of participants would take part in preventive programs (59.6% and pay at least partially themselves (86.9%. Factor analysis revealed three dimensions of preventive measures: promoting healthy eating, restrictive and financial, governmental prevention efforts. In regard to these, promoting healthy eating was the most supported measure. Higher age, female gender and external causation were associated with higher support for all three dimensions of preventive measures. Only for governmental regulation, higher age was associated with lower support. CONCLUSION: Obesity prevention support in Germany is high. Structural prevention efforts are supported by the majority of the general public in Germany. The vast majority proclaims willingness to pay themselves for programs of weight gain prevention. This could be an indication of higher perceived self-responsibility in the German system but also for risen "fear of fat" in the population due

  5. Communication as Sociocultural Meaning Exchange:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyabode Omolara Akewo Daniel

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Communication is expected to result in meaning exchange. However, when definite meanings could not be established in a communication exchange, an odd situation usually results. Such situations are observed to actually go beyond syntactic and logical misnomer in the communication process. This paper thus examines the semantic oddities in Richard Wright’s Black Boy. It made use of the linkage points of such linguistic approaches like pragmatics, semiotics, presupposition and truth-condition semantics to do a semantic analysis of the novel. It found that sociological factors have a great deal of influence on the odd way of interpreting utterances/communication signals in the text. The paper therefore advocates that there is the need to incorporate co-text sociological elements as being of relevance to meaning analysis.

  6. DESIGN OF ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popa Stefania

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available By energy sources we understand technologies and materials used to obtain various forms of energy necessary for the development of society. These sources must be in adequate quantities and be conveniently exploited in terms of technical, economic and sustainable perspective. Alternative energy uses the inherent power of natural sources like wind, tides, the sun. Alternative energy is a term used for some energy sources and energy storage technologies. Generally it indicates energies that are nontraditional and have low impact to the environment. The alternative energy term is used in contrast with the term fossil fuel according to some sources, while other sources use it with the meaning of renewable energy purposes.

  7. Recent negative ion source developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.

    1978-01-01

    This report describes recent results obtained from studies associated with the development of negative ion sources which utilize sputtering in a diffuse cesium plasma as a means of ion beam generation. Data are presented which relate negative ion yield and important operational parameters such as cesium oven temperature and sputter probe voltage from each of the following sources: (1) A source based in principle according to the University of Aarhus design and (2) an axial geometry source. The important design aspects of the sources are given--along with a list of the negative ion intensities observed to date. Also a qualitative description and interpretation of the negative ion generation mechanism in sources which utilize sputtering in the presence of cesium is given

  8. Tectonics: The meaning of form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Karl; Brandt, Per Aage

    Tectonics – The meaning of form deals with one of the core topics of architecture: the relationship between form and content. In the world of architecture, form is not only made from brick, glass and wood. Form means something. When a material is processed with sufficient technical skill and insi...... perspectives. You can read the chapters in any order you like – from the beginning, end or the middle. There is no correct order. The project is methodologically inductive: the more essays you read, the broader your knowledge of tectonics get....

  9. Psaltic Modes - Meanings and Symbolics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domin Adam

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Universe of Byzantine music is a profound one, that is why every side should be analysed for getting to the essence of psaltical soul of the singing. Every sign has a certain meaning, every mode has a certain composition and every singing genre is interpreted in a certain way. It is important to search and analyse the historical evolution of every of the mentioned categories for being able to form a holistic image about what Byzantine music meant and means.

  10. Evolution of meaning special handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Wöhlbier, Fred H

    2014-01-01

    The Evolution of Meaning is based upon the premise that the Universe consists of information processing events. 'Information' is to be understood here not in the bare mathematical sense, but in the full active life/observation/meaning sense. From this viewpoint, the scientific description of Nature is seen to involve not only the fabric of spacetime, material aggregates and the forces acting between them, but also various equally real and fundamental groups of laws and law-like entities, as well as the concepts of subjectivity and value-oriented essential dimensi

  11. Meaning and the English verb

    CERN Document Server

    Leech, Geoffrey

    2014-01-01

    Every language has its peculiar problems of meaning for the foreign learner. In the English language, some of the biggest yet most fascinating problems are concentrated in the area of the finite verb phrase: in particular, tense, aspect, mood and modality. Meaning and the English Verb describes these fields in detail for teachers and advanced students of English as a foreign or second language. This new third edition uses up-to-date examples to show differences and similarities between American and British english, reflecting a great deal of recent research in this area. It also takes account

  12. Lagrangian averaging with geodesic mean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Marcel

    2017-11-01

    This paper revisits the derivation of the Lagrangian averaged Euler (LAE), or Euler- α equations in the light of an intrinsic definition of the averaged flow map as the geodesic mean on the volume-preserving diffeomorphism group. Under the additional assumption that first-order fluctuations are statistically isotropic and transported by the mean flow as a vector field, averaging of the kinetic energy Lagrangian of an ideal fluid yields the LAE Lagrangian. The derivation presented here assumes a Euclidean spatial domain without boundaries.

  13. Reaching rural women: breast cancer prevention information seeking behaviors and interest in Internet, cell phone, and text use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzke, Cynthia; Wilson, Susan; Vilchis, Hugo

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the breast cancer prevention information seeking behaviors among rural women, the prevalence of Internet, cell, and text use, and interest to receive breast cancer prevention information cell and text messages. While growing literature for breast cancer information sources supports the use of the Internet, little is known about breast cancer prevention information seeking behaviors among rural women and mobile technology. Using a cross-sectional study design, data were collected using a survey. McGuire's Input-Ouput Model was used as the framework. Self-reported data were obtained from a convenience sample of 157 women with a mean age of 60 (SD = 12.12) at a rural New Mexico imaging center. Common interpersonal information sources were doctors, nurses, and friends and common channel information sources were television, magazines, and Internet. Overall, 87% used cell phones, 20% had an interest to receive cell phone breast cancer prevention messages, 47% used text messaging, 36% had an interest to receive text breast cancer prevention messages, and 37% had an interest to receive mammogram reminder text messages. Bivariate analysis revealed significant differences between age, income, and race/ethnicity and use of cell phones or text messaging. There were no differences between age and receiving text messages or text mammogram reminders. Assessment of health information seeking behaviors is important for community health educators to target populations for program development. Future research may identify additional socio-cultural differences.

  14. Development of a clockwork light source to enable cervical inspection by village health workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steventon Richard

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical cancer can often be prevented by screening and may be curable if identified and treated in its early stages. However, 80% of new cases occur in less-developed countries where cervical cancer screening programmes are small-scale or non-existent. This is a human tragedy of great proportion, with many of those affected being young mothers. There is some evidence that cancerous or precancerous lesions may be detected by visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA and field studies indicate that this technique is effective, safe and acceptable to women. However, the provision of a light source for inspection of the cervix presents a major problem in less-developed countries, where candles and torches often provide the only means of illumination. Our objective was to develop a light source based on clockwork technology, that required no batteries or external power source. Methods We adapted the design of a commercially available clockwork torch to provide a light source for cervical inspection. The light source was then tested under laboratory conditions in a comparison with other illumination methods typically used in this application. Results The light source gave illuminance levels greater than those produced by any other method tested, and also had considerable advantages in terms of ease of use and safety. Conclusion This design is small, compact, effective and safe to use and promises a better and more affordable means of visualising the cervix. Further field trials of VIA are now required which incorporate this light source.

  15. Means and ends of control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten

    2004-01-01

    assumptions. Means-end analysis also lacks a proper definition of the control concept. It is proposed that control is defined as a binary relation that assign functional roles to subsystems. This control concept leads to distinct but entangled process and control hierarchies. It is argued that the problems...

  16. The meaning of ordered SOS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mousavi, M.R.; Phillips, I.C.C.; Reniers, M.A.; Ulidowski, I.; Arun-Kumar, S.; Garg, N.

    2006-01-01

    Structured Operational Semantics (SOS) is a popular method for defining semantics by means of deduction rules. An important feature of deduction rules, or simply SOS rules, are negative premises, which are crucial in the definitions of such phenomena as priority mechanisms and time-outs. Orderings

  17. Nonasymptotic mean-field games

    KAUST Repository

    Tembine, Hamidou

    2014-01-01

    propose a mean-field framework that is suitable not only for large systems but also for a small world with few number of entities. The applicability of the proposed framework is illustrated through a dynamic auction with asymmetric valuation distributions.

  18. The Geometric Mean Value Theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Camargo, André Pierro

    2018-01-01

    In a previous article published in the "American Mathematical Monthly," Tucker ("Amer Math Monthly." 1997; 104(3): 231-240) made severe criticism on the Mean Value Theorem and, unfortunately, the majority of calculus textbooks also do not help to improve its reputation. The standard argument for proving it seems to be applying…

  19. Subspace K-means clustering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, Marieke E.; Ceulemans, Eva; De Roover, Kim; Van Leeuwen, Karla

    2013-01-01

    To achieve an insightful clustering of multivariate data, we propose subspace K-means. Its central idea is to model the centroids and cluster residuals in reduced spaces, which allows for dealing with a wide range of cluster types and yields rich interpretations of the clusters. We review the

  20. Geometric mean for subspace selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Dacheng; Li, Xuelong; Wu, Xindong; Maybank, Stephen J

    2009-02-01

    Subspace selection approaches are powerful tools in pattern classification and data visualization. One of the most important subspace approaches is the linear dimensionality reduction step in the Fisher's linear discriminant analysis (FLDA), which has been successfully employed in many fields such as biometrics, bioinformatics, and multimedia information management. However, the linear dimensionality reduction step in FLDA has a critical drawback: for a classification task with c classes, if the dimension of the projected subspace is strictly lower than c - 1, the projection to a subspace tends to merge those classes, which are close together in the original feature space. If separate classes are sampled from Gaussian distributions, all with identical covariance matrices, then the linear dimensionality reduction step in FLDA maximizes the mean value of the Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergences between different classes. Based on this viewpoint, the geometric mean for subspace selection is studied in this paper. Three criteria are analyzed: 1) maximization of the geometric mean of the KL divergences, 2) maximization of the geometric mean of the normalized KL divergences, and 3) the combination of 1 and 2. Preliminary experimental results based on synthetic data, UCI Machine Learning Repository, and handwriting digits show that the third criterion is a potential discriminative subspace selection method, which significantly reduces the class separation problem in comparing with the linear dimensionality reduction step in FLDA and its several representative extensions.

  1. What Do Mental Terms Mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jay

    2010-01-01

    Psychologists and philosophers have long been interested in two questions: (a) What do mental terms mean? and (b) what role do mental terms play in explanations of behavior? In the current sketch I review how mediational neobehaviorism, cognitive psychology, and the radical behaviorism of B. F. Skinner address these questions. In so doing, I seek…

  2. Designing of RF ion source and the power sources system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusdiyanto.

    1978-01-01

    An RF ion source prototype is being developed for the particle accelerator at the Gama Research Centre. Supply of the gas is fed into the plasma chamber by means of neadle valve system. Magnetic field strength of about 500 gauss is applied to the system to improve the ionization efficiency. Components and spare parts of the RF ion source are made based on locally available materials and are discussed in this report. (author)

  3. 水源保护地农业面源污染防治对策探讨——以昆明松花坝水源保护区为例%Discus on the Prevention and Control Countermeasures of Agricultural Non-point Pollution in Water Source Protected Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗婷; 王崇云; 彭明春; 李其阳; 孔维琳; 杨莎; 董磊

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzed the contamination sources,pollutants migration processes and causes,which related to water source protection. Best management practices system (BMPs) and ecologic and clean-type small watersheds approaches were two commonly used methods for abating the non-point source (NPS) pollution. We detailedly reviewed the countermeasures in two methods. Then,we took Kunming Songhuaba water protected area as an example to oudine the framework to fight against the NPS pollution,based on the functional zones of water conservation areas,BMPs and ecologic and clean-type small watersheds approaches were specifically elaborated for water protection implements and for agricultural non-point pollution prevention and control. Finally,the paper probed into the NPS pollution control of the water protected areas in future.%分析了水源保护地的污染物来源和迁移过程、形成原因,对最佳管理措施( BMPs)和生态清洁型小流域建设2种水源保护地常用的污染防治对策进行了详细概述;并以昆明松花坝为例,在其水源地保护功能区划的基础上,具体阐述了BMPs与生态清洁小流域建设在水源保护地农业面源污染防治中的应用.最后,探讨了我国水源保护地污染控制的研究方向.

  4. Preventing dehydration-related hospitalizations: a mixed-methods study of parents, inpatient attendings, and primary care physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanley, Leticia; Mittal, Vineeta; Flores, Glenn

    2013-07-01

    The goal of this study was to identify the proportion of dehydration-related ambulatory care-sensitive condition hospitalizations, the reasons why these hospitalizations were preventable, and factors associated with preventability. A cross-sectional survey of primary care providers (PCPs), inpatient attending physicians, and parents was conducted in a consecutive series of children with ambulatory care-sensitive conditions admitted to an urban hospital over 14 months. Eighty-five children were diagnosed with dehydration. Their mean age was 1.6 years; most had public (74%) or no (17%) insurance, and were nonwhite (91%). The proportion of hospitalizations assessed as preventable varied from 12% for agreement among all 3 sources to 45% for any source. Parents identified inadequate prevention (50%), poor self-education (34%), and poor quality of care (38%) as key factors. PCPs identified parents providing insufficient home rehydration (33%), not visiting the clinic (25%), and not calling earlier (16%) as reasons. Inpatient attending physicians cited home rehydration (40%), delays in seeking care (40%), and lacking a PCP (20%) as contributors. Physicians (PCPs and inpatient attending physicians) were more likely than parents to describe the admission as inappropriate (75% vs 67% vs 0%; P dehydration-related hospitalizations may be preventable. Inadequate parental education by physicians, insufficient home rehydration, deferring clinic visits, insurance and cost barriers, inappropriate admissions, poor quality of care, and parental dissatisfaction with PCPs are the reasons that these hospitalizations might have been prevented.

  5. Primary Prevention of Violence: Stopping Campus Violence before It Starts. Prevention Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Violence is a serious problem on college campuses. The literature on primary prevention of violence does not call for the adoption of specific programs or policies but rather suggests a paradigm shift in the way practitioners approach violence. Primary prevention means asking the question, "Why is violence happening in the first place?" in order…

  6. Osteoporosis knowledge translation for young adults: new directions for prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Alyson

    2017-08-01

    Osteoporosis prevention is heavily reliant on education programs, which are most effective when tailored to their intended audience. Most osteoporosis prevention education is designed for older adults, making application of these programs to younger adults difficult. Designing programs for young adults requires understanding the information-seeking practices of young adults, so that knowledge about osteoporosis can be effectively translated. Individual interviews were conducted with 60 men and women-multiethnic, Canadian young adults-to explore both the sources and types of information they search for when seeking information on nutrition or bone health. The results of this study raised themes related to the sources participants use, to their interests and to ways of engaging young adults. Prevention programs should make use of traditional sources, such as peers, family members and medical professionals, as well as emerging technologies, such as social media. Choice of sources was related to the perceived authority of and trust associated with the source. Messaging should relate to young adult interests, such as fitness and food-topics on which young adults are already seeking information-rather than being embedded within specific osteoporosis awareness materials. Engaging young adults means using relatable messages that are short and encourage small changes. Small gender-based differences were found in the information-seeking interests of participants. Differences related to age were not examined. Creating short, action-oriented messages that are designed to encourage small changes in behaviour and are packaged with information that young adults are actively seeking is more likely to result in active engagement in prevention behaviours.

  7. Osteoporosis knowledge translation for young adults: new directions for prevention programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyson Holland

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Osteoporosis prevention is heavily reliant on education programs, which are most effective when tailored to their intended audience. Most osteoporosis prevention education is designed for older adults, making application of these programs to younger adults difficult. Designing programs for young adults requires understanding the information-seeking practices of young adults, so that knowledge about osteoporosis can be effectively translated. Methods: Individual interviews were conducted with 60 men and women—multiethnic, Canadian young adults—to explore both the sources and types of information they search for when seeking information on nutrition or bone health. Results: The results of this study raised themes related to the sources participants use, to their interests and to ways of engaging young adults. Prevention programs should make use of traditional sources, such as peers, family members and medical professionals, as well as emerging technologies, such as social media. Choice of sources was related to the perceived authority of and trust associated with the source. Messaging should relate to young adult interests, such as fitness and food—topics on which young adults are already seeking information—rather than being embedded within specific osteoporosis awareness materials. Engaging young adults means using relatable messages that are short and encourage small changes. Small gender-based differences were found in the information-seeking interests of participants. Differences related to age were not examined. Conclusion: Creating short, action-oriented messages that are designed to encourage small changes in behaviour and are packaged with information that young adults are actively seeking is more likely to result in active engagement in prevention behaviours.

  8. Learning the Semantics of Structured Data Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheriyan, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Information sources such as relational databases, spreadsheets, XML, JSON, and Web APIs contain a tremendous amount of structured data, however, they rarely provide a semantic model to describe their contents. Semantic models of data sources capture the intended meaning of data sources by mapping them to the concepts and relationships defined by a…

  9. The practice and earnings of preventive medicine physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salive, M E

    1992-01-01

    A shortage of preventive medicine (PM) physicians exists in the United States. Researchers know little about these physicians' earnings and practice characteristics. The American College of Preventive Medicine (ACPM) mailed a survey to all self-identified PM physicians on the American Medical Association (AMA) Physician Masterfile. A total of 3,771 (54%) responded; respondents' sex and region of residence were typical for PM physicians in general, with a slight excess of older physicians and those reporting board certification. A total of 2,664 (71%) were working full time, with median earnings of $85,000 (mean $90,000). Among full-time physicians, relatively higher earnings were associated with the following characteristics: male sex; age 45 to 64 years; major source of income from clinical, business, or industrial sources, rather than governmental or academic; and PM board certification. Full-time PM physicians earned much less than office-based private practitioners in several primary care specialties in 1989. The gap in earnings between PM specialists in government positions and those in the private sector is also substantial. Both disparities may require creative solutions.

  10. Reflections on preventive medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miettinen, Olli S

    2014-10-01

    Having thought much about medicine in my career-long effort to understand it and the research for its advancement, I have come to views rather different form the now-prevailing ones in respect to what preventive medicine is about; what epidemiology is in relation to preventive medicine; what distinguishes preventive medicine in preventive healthcare at large; the relation of preventive medicine to public health; the concept of health promotion; and also the core principles of preventive medicine. All of these views I set forth in this article, for the readers' critical reflection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Contact ionization ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashmi, N.; Van Der Houven Van Oordt, A.J.

    1975-01-01

    An ion source in which an apertured or foraminous electrode having a multiplicity of openings is spaced from one or more active surfaces of an ionisation electrode, the active surfaces comprising a material capable of ionising by contact ionization a substance to be ionized supplied during operation to the active surface or surfaces comprises means for producing during operation a magnetic field which enables a stable plasma to be formed in the space between the active surface or surfaces and the apertured electrode, the field strength of the magnetic field being preferably in the range between 2 and 8 kilogauss. (U.S.)

  12. EFL Learners’ Negotiation of Meaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Saeed Rashid Al Hosni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at investigating EFL learners’ frequency of negotiation of meaning when performing focused and unfocused communication tasks. The sample consists of thirty learners divided into ten groups. Three research instruments were used to collect data; communication tasks, field notes and interviews. Data analysis revealed that there is no significant difference in the frequency of negotiation of meaning between the two task types. This is due to the fact that, learners performed both task types as unfocused tasks and they were able to use some communication strategies to keep communication flowing and to go round the target structure. Amazingly, despite the existence of the trigger of negotiation, the indicator of misunderstanding, an important negotiation phase, was absent in many cases from the conversations in both task types. Subsequently, the research findings suggest providing learners with opportunities that urge them to perform as language users rather than language learners.

  13. What does "mesmo" really mean?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Arthur Pagani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1984-8412.2017v14n2p2008 The aim of this paper is to raise awareness on the meanings of “mesmo” in Brazilian Portuguese (PB, which have not been explored by the literature yet. We noticed that this lexical item can affect the meaning of the sentence in different ways depending on several factors, which will be discussed later on. In addition to the analysis of “mesmo” in PB – based on Ilari (1996 and Guimarães (2010 –, we will also present proposals for “even”, in English – following Horn (1969 and Kartttunen e Peters (1979 –, and for “même”, in French – following Anscombre (1973 and Ducrot (1972, 1981. These analyses may shed light on some issues concerning “mesmo” in PB. We will also examine phenomena related to pressuposition and conventional implicature, by Grice (1975.

  14. Experimental facilities and simulation means

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper and its associated series of slides review the experimental facilities and the simulation means used for the development of nuclear reactors in France. These experimental facilities include installations used for the measurement and qualification of nuclear data (mainly cross-sections) like EOLE reactor and Minerve zero power reactor, installations like material testing reactors, installations dedicated to reactor safety experiments like Cabri reactor, and other installations like accelerators (Jannus accelerator, GANIL for instance) that are complementary to neutron irradiations in experimental reactors. The simulation means rely on a series of advanced computer codes: Tripoli-Apollo for neutron transport, Numodis for irradiation impact on materials, Neptune and Cathare for 2-phase fluid dynamics, Europlexus for mechanical structures, and Pleiades (with Alcyone) for nuclear fuels. (A.C.)

  15. Nonasymptotic mean-field games

    KAUST Repository

    Tembine, Hamidou

    2014-12-01

    Mean-field games have been studied under the assumption of very large number of players. For such large systems, the basic idea consists to approximate large games by a stylized game model with a continuum of players. The approach has been shown to be useful in some applications. However, the stylized game model with continuum of decision-makers is rarely observed in practice and the approximation proposed in the asymptotic regime is meaningless for networked systems with few entities. In this paper we propose a mean-field framework that is suitable not only for large systems but also for a small world with few number of entities. The applicability of the proposed framework is illustrated through a dynamic auction with asymmetric valuation distributions.

  16. Nonasymptotic mean-field games

    KAUST Repository

    Tembine, Hamidou

    2014-12-01

    Mean-field games have been studied under the assumption of very large number of players. For such large systems, the basic idea consists of approximating large games by a stylized game model with a continuum of players. The approach has been shown to be useful in some applications. However, the stylized game model with continuum of decision-makers is rarely observed in practice and the approximation proposed in the asymptotic regime is meaningless for networks with few entities. In this paper, we propose a mean-field framework that is suitable not only for large systems but also for a small world with few number of entities. The applicability of the proposed framework is illustrated through various examples including dynamic auction with asymmetric valuation distributions, and spiteful bidders.

  17. Accident prevention ordinance 2.0 Thermal Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egyptien, H.H.; Fischermann, E.

    This accident prevention ordinance is to cover primarily the very section of a power station where fossil or nuclear energy is converted into thermal energy, e.g. by heating or vaporization of a heat source. In paragraph 1, 40 GJ/h are stipulated as the lower limit of capacity corresponding to about 11 MW. Therefore, the accident prevention ordinance does not only marshal the operation of steam generators in electricity supply utilities but also covers smaller industrial power stations which partly do only meet the company's own requirements. Pipes are only covered as far as they are operated in conjunction with a heat generator. The same applies to coal handling and ash removal facilities. This means that for heat release e.g. in the framework of a district heating grid, the transfer station to the distribution grid is regarded as being a border of the power station and thus a border to the area of application of the accident prevention ordinance. (orig./HP) [de

  18. [Biopiracy: about its legal meanings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez García, Hugo Saúl

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the legal meanings of biopiracy concept, linked to subjects such as intellectual property rights on genetic resources, bioprospecting contracts, right to food, and food security. It overcomes the critical function of biopiracy concept related to world-wide extended tendencies: privatization and technification. Likewise, protectionism shows the opportunity that biopiracy concept represents for the enrichment of the legal interpretation related to the bioethical statue of biotech developments.

  19. On the Fractional Mean Value

    OpenAIRE

    Hosseinabadi, Abdolali Neamaty; Nategh, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    This work, dealt with the classical mean value theorem and took advantage of it in the fractional calculus. The concept of a fractional critical point is introduced. Some sufficient conditions for the existence of a critical point is studied and an illustrative example rele- vant to the concept of the time dilation effect is given. The present paper also includes, some connections between convexity (and monotonicity) with fractional derivative in the Riemann-Liouville sense.

  20. Mean Field Game for Marriage

    KAUST Repository

    Bauso, Dario; Dia, Ben Mansour; Djehiche, Boualem; Tembine, Hamidou; Tempone, Raul

    2014-01-01

    The myth of marriage has been and is still a fascinating historical societal phenomenon. Paradoxically, the empirical divorce rates are at an all-time high. This work describes a unique paradigm for preserving relationships and marital stability from mean-field game theory. We show that optimizing the long-term well-being via effort and society feeling state distribution will help in stabilizing relationships.

  1. On Mean-Variance Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yang; Pirvu, Traian A

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the mean variance portfolio management problem. We examine portfolios which contain both primary and derivative securities. The challenge in this context is due to portfolio's nonlinearities. The delta-gamma approximation is employed to overcome it. Thus, the optimization problem is reduced to a well posed quadratic program. The methodology developed in this paper can be also applied to pricing and hedging in incomplete markets.

  2. Mean Field Game for Marriage

    KAUST Repository

    Bauso, Dario

    2014-01-06

    The myth of marriage has been and is still a fascinating historical societal phenomenon. Paradoxically, the empirical divorce rates are at an all-time high. This work describes a unique paradigm for preserving relationships and marital stability from mean-field game theory. We show that optimizing the long-term well-being via effort and society feeling state distribution will help in stabilizing relationships.

  3. Keep Meaning in Conversational Coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Clare Cuffari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Coordination is a widely employed term across recent quantitative and qualitative approaches to intersubjectivity, particularly approaches that give embodiment and enaction central explanatory roles. With a focus on linguistic and bodily coordination in conversational contexts, I review the operational meaning of coordination in recent empirical research and related theorizing of embodied intersubjectivity. This discussion articulates what must be involved in treating linguistic meaning as dynamic processes of coordination. The coordination approach presents languaging as a set of dynamic self-organizing processes and actions on multiple timescales and across multiple modalities that come about and work in certain domains (those jointly constructed in social, interactive, high-order sense-making. These processes go beyond meaning at the level that is available to first-person experience. I take one crucial consequence of this to be the ubiquitously moral nature of languaging with others. Languaging coordinates experience, among other levels of behavior and event. Ethical effort is called for by the automatic autonomy-influencing forces of languaging as coordination.

  4. Emergence and Evolution of Meaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Díaz Nafría

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The category of meaning is traced forward starting from the origin of the Universe itself as well as its very grounding in pre-geometry. Different from many former approaches in the theories of information and also in biosemiotics, we will show that the forms of meaning emerge simultaneously (alongside with information and energy. Hence, information is always meaningful (in a sense to be explicated rather than its meaning would show up as a later specification of information within social systems only. This perspective taken has two immediate consequences: (1 We follow the GDI as defined by Floridi, though we modify it somehow as to the aspect of truthfulness. (2 We can conceptually solve Capurro’s trilemma. Hence, what we actually do is to follow the strict (i.e. optimistic line of UTI in the sense of Hofkirchner’s. While doing this, we treat energy and information as two different categorial aspects of one and the same underlying primordial structure.

  5. Bronze-mean hexagonal quasicrystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotera, Tomonari; Bekku, Shinichi; Ziherl, Primož

    2017-10-01

    The most striking feature of conventional quasicrystals is their non-traditional symmetry characterized by icosahedral, dodecagonal, decagonal or octagonal axes. The symmetry and the aperiodicity of these materials stem from an irrational ratio of two or more length scales controlling their structure, the best-known examples being the Penrose and the Ammann-Beenker tiling as two-dimensional models related to the golden and the silver mean, respectively. Surprisingly, no other metallic-mean tilings have been discovered so far. Here we propose a self-similar bronze-mean hexagonal pattern, which may be viewed as a projection of a higher-dimensional periodic lattice with a Koch-like snowflake projection window. We use numerical simulations to demonstrate that a disordered variant of this quasicrystal can be materialized in soft polymeric colloidal particles with a core-shell architecture. Moreover, by varying the geometry of the pattern we generate a continuous sequence of structures, which provide an alternative interpretation of quasicrystalline approximants observed in several metal-silicon alloys.

  6. Investigating scintillometer source areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perelet, A. O.; Ward, H. C.; Pardyjak, E.

    2017-12-01

    Scintillometry is an indirect ground-based method for measuring line-averaged surface heat and moisture fluxes on length scales of 0.5 - 10 km. These length scales are relevant to urban and other complex areas where setting up traditional instrumentation like eddy covariance is logistically difficult. In order to take full advantage of scintillometry, a better understanding of the flux source area is needed. The source area for a scintillometer is typically calculated as a convolution of point sources along the path. A weighting function is then applied along the path to compensate for a total signal contribution that is biased towards the center of the beam path, and decreasing near the beam ends. While this method of calculating the source area provides an estimate of the contribution of the total flux along the beam, there are still questions regarding the physical meaning of the weighted source area. These questions are addressed using data from an idealized experiment near the Salt Lake City International Airport in northern Utah, U.S.A. The site is a flat agricultural area consisting of two different land uses. This simple heterogeneity in the land use facilitates hypothesis testing related to source areas. Measurements were made with a two wavelength scintillometer system spanning 740 m along with three standard open-path infrared gas analyzer-based eddy-covariance stations along the beam path. This configuration allows for direct observations of fluxes along the beam and comparisons to the scintillometer average. The scintillometer system employed measures the refractive index structure parameter of air for two wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation, 880 μm and 1.86 cm to simultaneously estimate path-averaged heat and moisture fluxes, respectively. Meteorological structure parameters (CT2, Cq2, and CTq) as well as surface fluxes are compared for various amounts of source area overlap between eddy covariance and scintillometry. Additionally, surface

  7. Pollution prevention program implementation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engel, J.A.

    1996-09-01

    The Pollution Prevention Program Implementation Plan (the Plan) describes the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (PNNL) Pollution Prevention (P2) Program. The Plan also shows how the P2 Program at PNNL will be in support of and in compliance with the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention (WMin/P2) Awareness Program Plan and the Hanford Site Guide for Preparing and Maintaining Generator Group Pollution Prevention Program Documentation. In addition, this plan describes how PNNL will demonstrate compliance with various legal and policy requirements for P2. This plan documents the strategy for implementing the PNNL P2 Program. The scope of the P2 Program includes implementing and helping to implement P2 activities at PNNL. These activities will be implemented according to the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) hierarchy of source reduction, recycling, treatment, and disposal. The PNNL P2 Program covers all wastes generated at the Laboratory. These include hazardous waste, low-level radioactive waste, radioactive mixed waste, radioactive liquid waste system waste, polychlorinated biphenyl waste, transuranic waste, and sanitary waste generated by activities at PNNL. Materials, resource, and energy conservation are also within the scope of the PNNL P2 Program

  8. Dynamical Predictability of Monthly Means.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, J.

    1981-12-01

    We have attempted to determine the theoretical upper limit of dynamical predictability of monthly means for prescribed nonfluctuating external forcings. We have extended the concept of `classical' predictability, which primarily refers to the lack of predictability due mainly to the instabilities of synoptic-scale disturbances, to the predictability of time averages, which are determined by the predictability of low-frequency planetary waves. We have carded out 60-day integrations of a global general circulation model with nine different initial conditions but identical boundary conditions of sea surface temperature, snow, sea ice and soil moisture. Three of these initial conditions are the observed atmospheric conditions on 1 January of 1975, 1976 and 1977. The other six initial conditions are obtained by superimposing over the observed initial conditions a random perturbation comparable to the errors of observation. The root-mean-square (rms) error of random perturbations at all the grid points and all the model levels is 3 m s1 in u and v components of wind. The rms vector wind error between the observed initial conditions is >15 m s1.It is hypothesized that for a given averaging period, if the rms error among the time averages predicted from largely different initial conditions becomes comparable to the rms error among the time averages predicted from randomly perturbed initial conditions, the time averages are dynamically unpredictable. We have carried out the analysis of variance to compare the variability, among the three groups, due to largely different initial conditions, and within each group due to random perturbations.It is found that the variances among the first 30-day means, predicted from largely different initial conditions, are significantly different from the variances due to random perturbations in the initial conditions, whereas the variances among 30-day means for days 31-60 are not distinguishable from the variances due to random initial

  9. Translating Evidence Based Violence and Drug Use Prevention to Obesity Prevention: Development and Construction of the Pathways Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuma, Kari-Lyn K.; Riggs, Nathaniel R.; Pentz, Mary Ann

    2012-01-01

    Effective school-based obesity prevention programs are needed to prevent and reduce the growing obesity risk among youth. Utilizing the evidence-rich areas of violence and substance use prevention, translation science may provide an efficient means for developing curricula across multiple health behaviors. This paper introduces Pathways to Health,…

  10. Respiratory source control using a surgical mask: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rajeev B; Skaria, Shaji D; Mansour, Mohamed M; Smaldone, Gerald C

    2016-07-01

    Cough etiquette and respiratory hygiene are forms of source control encouraged to prevent the spread of respiratory infection. The use of surgical masks as a means of source control has not been quantified in terms of reducing exposure to others. We designed an in vitro model using various facepieces to assess their contribution to exposure reduction when worn at the infectious source (Source) relative to facepieces worn for primary (Receiver) protection, and the factors that contribute to each. In a chamber with various airflows, radiolabeled aerosols were exhaled via a ventilated soft-face manikin head using tidal breathing and cough (Source). Another manikin, containing a filter, quantified recipient exposure (Receiver). The natural fit surgical mask, fitted (SecureFit) surgical mask and an N95-class filtering facepiece respirator (commonly known as an "N95 respirator") with and without a Vaseline-seal were tested. With cough, source control (mask or respirator on Source) was statistically superior to mask or unsealed respirator protection on the Receiver (Receiver protection) in all environments. To equal source control during coughing, the N95 respirator must be Vaseline-sealed. During tidal breathing, source control was comparable or superior to mask or respirator protection on the Receiver. Source control via surgical masks may be an important adjunct defense against the spread of respiratory infections. The fit of the mask or respirator, in combination with the airflow patterns in a given setting, are significant contributors to source control efficacy. Future clinical trials should include a surgical mask source control arm to assess the contribution of source control in overall protection against airborne infection.

  11. Traditional preventive treatment options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longbottom, C; Ekstrand, K; Zero, D

    2009-01-01

    Preventive treatment options can be divided into primary, secondary and tertiary prevention techniques, which can involve patient- or professionally applied methods. These include: oral hygiene (instruction), pit and fissure sealants ('temporary' or 'permanent'), fluoride applications (patient...... options....

  12. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... L Sarah Harrison, OT Anne Bryden, OT The Role of the Social Worker after Spinal Cord Injury ... do to prevent pressure sores? play_arrow What role does diet and hydration play in preventing pressure ...

  13. Colorectal Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Colorectal Cancer Colorectal Cancer Screening Research Colorectal Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Go ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Colorectal Cancer Key Points Colorectal cancer is a disease in ...

  14. Cancer treatment - preventing infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Radiation - preventing infection; Bone marrow transplant - preventing infection; Cancer treatment - immunosuppression ... this is a short-lived side effect of cancer treatment. Your provider may give you medicines to help ...

  15. Research Areas: Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI’s prevention research has a broad focus, from identifying environmental and lifestyle factors that influence cancer risk to studying the biology of how cancer develops and studying ways to disseminate prevention interventions.

  16. Preventing Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sexual, & Bladder Problems Clinical Trials Preventing Type 2 Diabetes Perhaps you have learned that you have a ... I lower my chances of developing type 2 diabetes? Research such as the Diabetes Prevention Program shows ...

  17. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Preventing Pressure Sores Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David Chen, MD Preventing Pressure Sores Mary Zeigler, MS Transition from Hospital to Home ...

  18. Prevention of gravitational collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moffat, J.W.; Taylor, J.G.

    1981-01-01

    We apply a new theory of gravitation to the question of gravitational collapse to show that collapse is prevented in this theory under very reasonable conditions. This result also extends to prevent ultimate collapse of the Universe. (orig.)

  19. Marine Pollution Prevention Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Pollution Prevention Act of 2008 implements the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, including related Protocols (MARPOL)...

  20. Risk Factors and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Risk Factors & Prevention Back to Patient Resources Risk Factors & Prevention Even people who look healthy and ... Blood Pressure , high cholesterol, diabetes, and thyroid disease. Risk Factors For Arrhythmias and Heart Disease The following ...

  1. Preventing Weight Gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Local Programs Related Topics Diabetes Nutrition Preventing Weight Gain Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... cancer. Choosing an Eating Plan to Prevent Weight Gain So, how do you choose a healthful eating ...

  2. Breast Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Go ... from starting. Risk-reducing surgery . General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease in ...

  3. Settings for Suicide Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Suicide Populations Racial/Ethnic Groups Older Adults Adolescents LGBT Military/Veterans Men Effective Prevention Comprehensive Approach Identify ... Based Prevention Settings American Indian/Alaska Native Settings Schools Colleges and Universities Primary Care Emergency Departments Behavioral ...

  4. Prevent Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... professional printing [PDF-1.5MB] Cancer Home “Prevent Cervical Cancer” Infographic Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Prevent Cervical Cancer with the Right Test at the Right Time ...

  5. Strategic management by balanced development: meaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevtushenko Natalya Olexandrivna

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on analyzes of references it was found out the meaning of «management», «strategic management», «development of enterprise», «balanced development» and were proved their connections. It was described authorial interpretation of definition “strategic management by balanced development”. The next descriptions were separated: presence of quantitative and quality changes, adaptation to influence of internal and external environment factors. It was set that a human capital is the main source of the balanced development. On the basis of generalization and systematization of existent interpretations was offered authorial determination of essence of concept «strategic management by balanced development of enterprise».

  6. Error and its meaning in forensic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Angi M; Crowder, Christian M; Ousley, Stephen D; Houck, Max M

    2014-01-01

    The discussion of "error" has gained momentum in forensic science in the wake of the Daubert guidelines and has intensified with the National Academy of Sciences' Report. Error has many different meanings, and too often, forensic practitioners themselves as well as the courts misunderstand scientific error and statistical error rates, often confusing them with practitioner error (or mistakes). Here, we present an overview of these concepts as they pertain to forensic science applications, discussing the difference between practitioner error (including mistakes), instrument error, statistical error, and method error. We urge forensic practitioners to ensure that potential sources of error and method limitations are understood and clearly communicated and advocate that the legal community be informed regarding the differences between interobserver errors, uncertainty, variation, and mistakes. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  7. Effective masses and the nuclear mean field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahaux, C.; Sartor, R.

    1985-01-01

    The effective mass characterizes the energy dependence of the empirical average nuclear potential. This energy dependence has two different sources, namely the nonlocality in space of the microscopic mean field on the one hand, and its true energy dependence on the other hand. Correspondingly it is convenient to divide the effective mass into two components, the k-mass and the ω-mass. The latter is responsible for the existence of a peak in the energy dependence of the effective mass. This peak is located near the Fermi energy in nuclear matter and in nuclei, as well as in the electron gas, the hard sphere Fermi gas and liquid helium 3. A related phenomenon is the existence of a low energy anomaly in the energy dependence of the optical model potential between two heavy ions. (orig.)

  8. Effect of Food Sources of Natural Chemo preventive Agents on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The work attempted to evaluate the potential of natural products containing cancer chemopreventive agents in increasing the level of some endogenous antioxidant enzymes such as Glutathione STransferase (GST), Glutathione reductase (GR), catalase, superoxide dismutase(SOD-1,2) in brain and kidney ...

  9. Preventing Campylobacter at the source: why is it so difficult?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenaar, Jaap A; French, Nigel P; Havelaar, Arie H

    2013-12-01

    Campylobacteriosis in humans, caused by Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, is the most common recognized bacterial zoonosis in the European Union and the United States. The acute phase is characterized by gastrointestinal symptoms. The long-term sequelae (Guillain-Barré syndrome, reactive arthritis, and postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome) contribute considerably to the disease burden. Attribution studies identified poultry as the reservoir responsible for up to 80% of the human Campylobacter infections. In the European Union, an estimated 30% of the human infections are associated with consumption and preparation of poultry meat. Until now, interventions in the poultry meat production chain have not been effectively introduced except for targeted interventions in Iceland and New Zealand. Intervention measures (eg, biosecurity) have limited effect or are hampered by economic aspects or consumer acceptance. In the future, a multilevel approach should be followed, aiming at reducing the level of contamination of consumer products rather than complete absence of Campylobacter.

  10. Preventing Campylobacter at the Source: Why Is It So Difficult?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, J.A.; French, N.P.; Havelaar, A.H.

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis in humans, caused by Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, is the most common recognized bacterial zoonosis in the European Union and the United States. The acute phase is characterized by gastrointestinal symptoms. The long-term sequelae (Guillain-Barre syndrome, reactive

  11. Fall Prevention: Simple Tips to Prevent Falls

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a gentle exercise that involves slow and graceful dance-like movements. Such activities reduce the risk of ... healthy-lifestyle/healthy-aging/in-depth/fall-prevention/art-20047358 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and Terms ...

  12. Cancer risks and prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vessey, M.P.; Gray, M.

    1985-01-01

    A series of essays in honour of Sir Richard Doll is presented. Chapters cover the preventability of cancer, geography, smoking, diet, occupation, radiation, infections and immune impairment, exogenous and endogenous hormones, other drugs, prevention through legislation and by education and cancer risks and prevention in the Third World. The chapter on radiation has been indexed separately. (UK)

  13. Statewide Suicide Prevention Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    State Employees Statewide Suicide Prevention Council DHSS State of Alaska Home Divisions and Agencies National Suicide Prevention Lifeline Alaska Community Mental Health Centers National Survivors of Suicide Meetings Presentations 2010 Alaska Statewide Suicide Prevention Summit: Mending the Net Connect with us on

  14. Prevention IS Care

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-03-26

    This podcast provides an overview of the Prevention IS Care campaign, which provides HIV prevention tools for medical care providers to use on a daily basis with patients who are living with HIV.  Created: 3/26/2009 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 3/26/2009.

  15. Determining Mean Annual Energy Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Folley, Matt

    2016-01-01

    This robust book presents all the information required for numerical modelling of a wave energy converter, together with a comparative review of the different available techniques. The calculation of the mean annual energy production (MAEP) is critical to the assessment of the levelized cost...... of energy for a wave energy converter or wave farm. Fundamentally, the MAEP is equal to the sum of the product of the power capture of a set of sea-states and their average annual occurrence. In general, it is necessary in the calculation of the MAEP to achieve a balance between computational demand...

  16. What Do Monkey Calls Mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Philippe; Chemla, Emmanuel; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2016-12-01

    A field of primate linguistics is gradually emerging. It combines general questions and tools from theoretical linguistics with rich data gathered in experimental primatology. Analyses of several monkey systems have uncovered very simple morphological and syntactic rules and have led to the development of a primate semantics that asks new questions about the division of semantic labor between the literal meaning of monkey calls, additional mechanisms of pragmatic enrichment, and the environmental context. We show that comparative studies across species may validate this program and may in some cases help in reconstructing the evolution of monkey communication over millions of years. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Continuous Tracking of RFID Tagged Radioactive Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broide, A.; Marcus, E.; Gabay, Y.; Miron, E.; Seif, R.; Wengrowicz, U.; Kadmon, Y.; Tirosh, D.

    2008-01-01

    The prevention of radiation hazards due to radioisotopes is one of the concerns of the Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). In a series of international conferences held in the last five years) this issue was discussed thoroughly. One of the conclusions was that strict management of radioactive sources is essential. The management of radioactive sources would help to prevent transference of radioactive materials to unauthorized personal. For this purpose, states should make a concerted effort to follow the principles of the Code of Conduct on the Security of Radioactive Sources(2). In this context, the identification of roles and responsibilities of governments, licensees and international organizations is vital(3). The referred activities are primarily related to control over radioactive sources and enhance the tracking ability of radiation sources . In this paper, a proposed Radioactive Sources Tracking System is presented. This system facilitates real time monitoring capability of fixed and mobile radiation sources. The system provides the location of the source and indication whether the source is inside or outside the shielding container. The information about the sources location and condition can be used to coordinate a fast response in case of any attempt to steal or tamper with a source. These goals are achieved by using GPS (Global Positioning System), RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) and control and management software

  18. Chuanxiong preparations for preventing stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xunzhe; Zeng, Xiaoxi; Wu, Taixiang

    2010-01-20

    Stroke is a major healthcare problem and is one of the leading causes of death and serious long-term disability. Prevention of stroke is considered an important strategy. Chuanxiong is traditionally used in China in the treatment and prevention of stroke. In recent years, Chinese researchers have developed new patented Chuanxiong preparations. To assess the effects and safety of Chuanxiong preparations in preventing stroke in high-risk adults. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2008, Issue 1), MEDLINE (1950 to March 2008), EMBASE (1980 to March 2008), AMED (1985 to March 2008), Chinese Biomedical Database (CBM) (1975 to March 2008), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) (1994 to March 2008), and the VIP Database (1989 to March 2008). Trials registers were searched for ongoing studies. No language restrictions were applied. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) studying the effects of Chuanxiong preparations in preventing stroke were included. Three reviewers independently selected studies for inclusion and two reviewers independently extracted data. Authors of identified RCTs were telephoned to confirm the randomisation procedure. Outcomes assessed included: stroke, composite cardiovascular outcomes, changes in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular haemodynamic indices and adverse events. Peto odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for dichotomous variables and mean differences for continuous outcomes. Three RCTs (5042 participants) were included. One higher quality study (4415 participants) compared Nao-an capsule with aspirin for primary prevention in high-risk stroke populations. Nao-an capsule appeared to reduce the incidence of stroke compared with aspirin (OR 0.56 95% CI 0.33 to 0.96). One study of low methodological quality indicated that a self-prepared Xifenwan tablet reduced the incidence of stroke in people with transient ischaemia attack (TIA) (OR 0.18, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.78). The

  19. Trying to prevent abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromham, D R; Oloto, E J

    1997-06-01

    It is known that, since antiquity, women confronted with an unwanted pregnancy have used abortion as a means of resolving their dilemma. Although undoubtedly widely used in all historical ages, abortion has come to be regarded as an event preferably avoided because of the impact on the women concerned as well as considerations for fetal life. Policies to reduce numbers and rates of abortion must acknowledge certain observations. Criminalization does not prevent abortion but increases maternal risks. A society's 'openness' in discussing sexual matters inversely correlates with abortion rates. Correlation between contraceptive use and abortion is also inverse but relates most closely to the efficacy of contraceptive methods used. 'Revolution' in the range of contraceptive methods used will have an equivalent impact on abortion rates. Secondary or emergency contraceptive methods have a considerable role to play in the reduction of abortion numbers. Good sex (and 'relationships') education programs may delay sexual debut, increase contraceptive usage and be associated with reduced abortion. Finally, interaction between socioeconomic factors and the choice between abortion and ongoing pregnancy are complex. Abortion is not necessarily chosen by those least able to support a child financially.

  20. Osteoporosis and prevention. Assessment of mineral density, geometry and biomechanics of bone by means of peripheral quantitative Computed Tomography (pQCT) in premenopausal women assuming phytoestrogens; Osteoporosi e fitoestrogeni: valutazione della densita' minerale ossea mediante tomografia computerizzata quantitativa periferica nelle donne lattoovovegetariane nella premenopausa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Leo, C; Tarolo, G L; Bestetti, A; Tagliabue, L; Del Sole, A; Alberti, G [Ospedale San Paolo, Milan (Italy). Servizio di Medicina Nucleare; Cestaro, B [Milan Univ., Milan (Italy). Cattedra e Scuola di Specializzazione in Medicina Nucleare; Pepe, L [ACN-L' Accessorio Nucleare, Cerro Maggiore, MI (Italy). Lab. Nucleari

    2000-04-01

    Aim of the work was to describe the noninvasive assessment of bone mineral density, geometrical and biochemical properties in premenopausal women with dietary intake of phytoestrogens and comparison of these parameters with those of age-matched female subjects with Mediterranean dietary intake lacking in these substances. Volumetric cortical, trabecular and total mineral density and bone geometrical properties were evaluated with peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) at the distal radius of the non dominant forearm. pQCT showed higher bone mineral density (total and trabecular) and SSI values in premenopausal with dietary intake of phytoestrogens. Despite the lack of statistical significance, these preliminary results, should further support the few literature findings about the potential role of phytoestrogens consumption in preventing trabecular bone loss. However, further studies are warranted to evaluate definitively postmenopausal osteoporosis. [Italian] Scopo del lavoro e' quello di studiare in modo non-invasivo la densita' minerale, le caratteristiche geometriche e biomeccaniche dell'osso in donne lattoovovegetariane nella premenopausa che assumevano con la dieta fitoestrogeni e confrontare questi dati con quelli di donne anch'esse in premenopausa, con dieta di tipo mediterraneo assolutamente priva di questi elementi con azione simil-ormonale. La densita' minerale, le proprieta' geometriche meccaniche dell'osso sono state valutate a livello del radio ultradistale non dominante mediante tomografia computerizzata (TC) quantitativa periferica, che nelle donne in premenopausa con dieta ricca di fitoestrogeni ha evidenziato valori della densita' minerale ossea totale, trabecolare e di resistenza ossea piu' elevati, anche se in modo non significativo, rispetto a quelli dei controlli con dieta mediterranea. Questi risultati preliminari suggerirebbero come l'assunzione quotidiana di fitoestrogeni attraverso la soia potrebbe accompagnarsi a un maggiore

  1. Osteoporosis and prevention. Assessment of mineral density, geometry and biomechanics of bone by means of peripheral quantitative Computed Tomography (pQCT) in premenopausal women assuming phytoestrogens; Osteoporosi e fitoestrogeni: valutazione della densita' minerale ossea mediante tomografia computerizzata quantitativa periferica nelle donne lattoovovegetariane nella premenopausa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Leo, C.; Tarolo, G.L.; Bestetti, A.; Tagliabue, L.; Del Sole, A.; Alberti, G. [Ospedale San Paolo, Milan (Italy). Servizio di Medicina Nucleare; Cestaro, B. [Milan Univ., Milan (Italy). Cattedra e Scuola di Specializzazione in Medicina Nucleare; Pepe, L. [ACN-L' Accessorio Nucleare, Cerro Maggiore, MI (Italy). Lab. Nucleari

    2000-04-01

    Aim of the work was to describe the noninvasive assessment of bone mineral density, geometrical and biochemical properties in premenopausal women with dietary intake of phytoestrogens and comparison of these parameters with those of age-matched female subjects with Mediterranean dietary intake lacking in these substances. Volumetric cortical, trabecular and total mineral density and bone geometrical properties were evaluated with peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) at the distal radius of the non dominant forearm. pQCT showed higher bone mineral density (total and trabecular) and SSI values in premenopausal with dietary intake of phytoestrogens. Despite the lack of statistical significance, these preliminary results, should further support the few literature findings about the potential role of phytoestrogens consumption in preventing trabecular bone loss. However, further studies are warranted to evaluate definitively postmenopausal osteoporosis. [Italian] Scopo del lavoro e' quello di studiare in modo non-invasivo la densita' minerale, le caratteristiche geometriche e biomeccaniche dell'osso in donne lattoovovegetariane nella premenopausa che assumevano con la dieta fitoestrogeni e confrontare questi dati con quelli di donne anch'esse in premenopausa, con dieta di tipo mediterraneo assolutamente priva di questi elementi con azione simil-ormonale. La densita' minerale, le proprieta' geometriche meccaniche dell'osso sono state valutate a livello del radio ultradistale non dominante mediante tomografia computerizzata (TC) quantitativa periferica, che nelle donne in premenopausa con dieta ricca di fitoestrogeni ha evidenziato valori della densita' minerale ossea totale, trabecolare e di resistenza ossea piu' elevati, anche se in modo non significativo, rispetto a quelli dei controlli con dieta mediterranea. Questi risultati preliminari suggerirebbero come l'assunzione quotidiana di fitoestrogeni

  2. EPA Definition of Pollution Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  3. Combustion means for solid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murase, D.

    1987-09-23

    A combustion device for solid fuel, suitable for coal, coke, charcoal, coal-dust briquettes etc., comprising:- a base stand with an opening therein, an imperforate heat resistant holding board locatable to close said opening; a combustion chamber standing on the base stand with the holding board forming the base of the combustion chamber; a wiper arm pivoted for horizontal wiping movement over the upper surface of the holding board; an inlet means at a lower edge of said chamber above the base stand, and/or in a surrounding wall of said chamber, whereby combustion air may enter as exhaust gases leave the combustion chamber; an exhaust pipe for the exhaust gases; generally tubular gas-flow heat-exchange ducting putting the combustion chamber and exhaust pipe into communication; and means capable of moving the holding board into and out of the opening for removal of ash or other residue. The invention can be used for a heating system in a house or in a greenhouse or for a boiler.

  4. Breastfeeding Education: disagreement of meanings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nydia Stella Caicedo Martínez

    Full Text Available Objective.This work sought to analyze how educational processes have been developed for breastfeeding in a health institution, starting from the meanings mothers, families, and health staff construct thereon. Methods. This was qualitative research of ethnographic approach, which included observations during the group educational activities of the programs, focal groups, and interviews of mothers, their families, and the health staff of a hospital unit in the city of Medellín, Colombia. The analysis was guided by the constant comparison method. Results. The categories emerging from the data were: 1 breast milk is an ideal food. 2 The mothers' experiences influence upon the breastfeeding practice. 3 Family beliefs sometimes operate as cultural barriers. 4 Disagreements are revealed in the educational process. Conclusion. The way educational processes have taken place for breastfeeding reveals a break expressed by the scarce interaction between the meanings professionals have constructed on the topic and those the mothers and their families give to the experience of breastfeeding.

  5. Osteopontin Prevents Monocyte Recirculation and Apoptosis

    OpenAIRE

    Burdo, Tricia H.; Wood, Malcolm R.; Fox, Howard S.

    2007-01-01

    Cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage have been shown to be the principal targets for productive HIV-1 replication within the central nervous system. In addition, HIV-1-associated dementia (HAD) has been shown to correlate with macrophage abundance in the brain. While increased entry of monocytes into the brain is thought to initiate this process, mechanisms that prevent macrophage egress from the brain and means that prevent macrophage death may also contribute to cell accumulation. We hy...

  6. [Prevention of mental disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel-Heller, Steffi; Gühne, Uta

    2013-12-01

    Investment in prevention is a major public health requirement. Mental disorders are common and are associated with severe consequences. They are a major target for prevention. Based on vulnerabilitiy-stress-models the theoretical background for prevention in mental disorders is outlined. Effective strategies for children, adolescents, adults and individuals in old age do exist. Results regarding the prevention of depres-sion and psychoses are outlined and risk groups which require current actions are determined. Current activities towards a national prevention strategy in Germany are discussed. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Inverted magnetron ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, B.; Boyarsky, D.

    1985-01-01

    The present invention provides, in a preferred embodiment, a cylindrical stainless steel cathode with end pieces thereon to form a cathode chamber within. In addition, in a preferred embodiment, there is a stainless steel rod which passes axially through the cathode chamber and which is electrically insulated therefrom at the end pieces. The stainless steel cathode has first and second apertures formed therein with the first to be connected to a source of ionizable gas and the second to act as the opening through which there passes a stream of ions to an ion beam target. A magnetic flux source is coupled to the cathode chamber to pass magnetic flux therethrough and a voltage source is connected between the anode and the cathode to provide an electrostatic field therebetween whereby when ionizable gas is fed into the cathode chamber, it is ionized and a stream of ions emanates from the second aperture. In a preferred embodiment there is further provided an electrostatic ion focusing means to focus the ion stream emanating from the second aperture

  8. Prevention Of Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraja D

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is an important cause for neurological morbidity and mortality. Prevention of ischemic stroke involves identification and prevention of risk factors and optimal use of pharmacotherapy. Risk factors have been classified as modifiable and non-modifiable; control of modifiable factors should prevent stroke occurrence. Stroke prevention has been described at three levels: primary, secondary and tertiary. Prolonged hypertension increases an individual′s risk for developing fatal or nonfatal stroke by three times and its control has been shown to prevent stroke. Diabetes mellitus is an important cause for microangiopathy and predisposes to stroke. Statin trials have shown significant reduction in stroke in those who were treated with statins. Stroke risk can be reduced by avoiding tobacco use, control of obesity and avoiding sedentary life style. Anti platelet medications are effective for secondary prevention of stroke. Educating society regarding modifiable risk factors and optimal use of pharmacotherapy form the cornerstone for the prevention of stroke.

  9. Key issues in the prevention of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, T P

    1997-01-01

    Obesity is a serious, chronic medical condition which is associated with a wide range of debilitating and life-threatening conditions. It imposes huge financial burdens on health care systems and the community at large. Obesity develops over time and once it has done so, is difficult to treat. Therefore, the prevention of weight gain offers the only truly effective means of controlling obesity. Very little research has directly addressed the issue of obesity prevention and previous efforts to prevent obesity amongst individuals, groups or whole communities have had very limited success. However, we have learned sufficient from past preventive activities to realise that the management of obesity will require a comprehensive range of strategies with actions that target those with existing weight problems, those at high risk of developing obesity as well as the community as a whole. The prevention and management of obesity in children should be considered a priority as there is a high risk of persistence into adulthood.

  10. Approximating the minimum cycle mean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnendu Chatterjee

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We consider directed graphs where each edge is labeled with an integer weight and study the fundamental algorithmic question of computing the value of a cycle with minimum mean weight. Our contributions are twofold: (1 First we show that the algorithmic question is reducible in O(n^2 time to the problem of a logarithmic number of min-plus matrix multiplications of n-by-n matrices, where n is the number of vertices of the graph. (2 Second, when the weights are nonnegative, we present the first (1 + ε-approximation algorithm for the problem and the running time of our algorithm is ilde(O(n^ω log^3(nW/ε / ε, where O(n^ω is the time required for the classic n-by-n matrix multiplication and W is the maximum value of the weights.

  11. Nutritional rickets: pathogenesis and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettifor, John M

    2013-06-01

    Nutritional rickets remains a public health concern in many areas of the world despite cheap and effective means of preventing the disease. The roles of vitamin D deficiency, low dietary calcium intakes and the interrelationships between the two in the pathogenesis of the disease are discussed. It is now recognized that vitamin D deficiency in the pregnant and lactating mother predisposes to the development of rickets in the breastfed infant, and that cultural and social factors are important in the pathogenesis of the disease during the adolescent growth spurt. Prevention of rickets is dependent on the awareness of the medical profession and the general public of the need to ensure adequate intakes of vitamin D in at-risk populations, and of the importance of increasing dietary intakes of calcium using locally available and inexpensive foods in communities in which dietary calcium deficiency rickets is prevalent.

  12. Preventive evolutionary medicine of cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochberg, Michael E; Thomas, Frédéric; Assenat, Eric; Hibner, Urszula

    2013-01-01

    Evolutionary theory predicts that once an individual reaches an age of sufficiently low Darwinian fitness, (s)he will have reduced chances of keeping cancerous lesions in check. While we clearly need to better understand the emergence of precursor states and early malignancies as well as their mitigation by the microenvironment and tissue architecture, we argue that lifestyle changes and preventive therapies based in an evolutionary framework, applied to identified high-risk populations before incipient neoplasms become clinically detectable and chemoresistant lineages emerge, are currently the most reliable way to control or eliminate early tumours. Specifically, the relatively low levels of (epi)genetic heterogeneity characteristic of many if not most incipient lesions will mean a relatively limited set of possible adaptive traits and associated costs compared to more advanced cancers, and thus a more complete and predictable understanding of treatment options and outcomes. We propose a conceptual model for preventive treatments and discuss the many associated challenges.

  13. The requirements and challenges in preventing of road traffic injury in Iran. A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laflamme Lucie

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Road traffic injuries (RTIs are a major public health problem, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Among middle-income countries, Iran has one of the highest mortality rates from RTIs. Action is critical to combat this major public health problem. Stakeholders involved in RTI control are of key importance and their perceptions of barriers and facilitators are a vital source of knowledge. The aim of this study was to explore barriers to the prevention of RTIs and provide appropriate suggestions for prevention, based on the perceptions of stakeholders, victims and road-users as regards RTIs. Methods Thirty-eight semi-structured interviews were conducted with informants in the field of RTI prevention including: police officers; public health professionals; experts from the road administrators; representatives from the General Governor, the car industry, firefighters; experts from Emergency Medical Service and the Red Crescent; and some motorcyclists and car drivers as well as victims of RTIs. A qualitative approach using grounded theory method was employed to analyze the material gathered. Results The core variable was identified as "The lack of a system approach to road-user safety". The following barriers in relation to RTI prevention were identified as: human factors; transportation system; and organizational coordination. Suggestions for improvement included education (for the general public and targeted group training, more effective legislation, more rigorous law enforcement, improved engineering in road infrastructure, and an integrated organization to supervise and coordinate preventive activities. Conclusion The major barriers identified in this study were human factors and efforts to change human behaviour were suggested by means of public education campaigns and stricter law enforcement. However, the lack of a system approach to RTI prevention was also an important concern. There is an urgent need for both

  14. The requirements and challenges in preventing of road traffic injury in Iran. A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorasani-Zavareh, Davoud; Mohammadi, Reza; Khankeh, Hamid Reza; Laflamme, Lucie; Bikmoradi, Ali; Haglund, Bo J A

    2009-12-23

    Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are a major public health problem, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Among middle-income countries, Iran has one of the highest mortality rates from RTIs. Action is critical to combat this major public health problem. Stakeholders involved in RTI control are of key importance and their perceptions of barriers and facilitators are a vital source of knowledge. The aim of this study was to explore barriers to the prevention of RTIs and provide appropriate suggestions for prevention, based on the perceptions of stakeholders, victims and road-users as regards RTIs. Thirty-eight semi-structured interviews were conducted with informants in the field of RTI prevention including: police officers; public health professionals; experts from the road administrators; representatives from the General Governor, the car industry, firefighters; experts from Emergency Medical Service and the Red Crescent; and some motorcyclists and car drivers as well as victims of RTIs. A qualitative approach using grounded theory method was employed to analyze the material gathered. The core variable was identified as "The lack of a system approach to road-user safety". The following barriers in relation to RTI prevention were identified as: human factors; transportation system; and organizational coordination. Suggestions for improvement included education (for the general public and targeted group training), more effective legislation, more rigorous law enforcement, improved engineering in road infrastructure, and an integrated organization to supervise and coordinate preventive activities. The major barriers identified in this study were human factors and efforts to change human behaviour were suggested by means of public education campaigns and stricter law enforcement. However, the lack of a system approach to RTI prevention was also an important concern. There is an urgent need for both an integrated system to coordinate RTI activities and prevention

  15. Suicide Prevention Strategies for Improving Population Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Holly C; Wyman, Peter A

    2016-04-01

    Suicide is a public health problem that accounts for more than 1 million deaths annually worldwide. This article addresses evidence-based and promising youth suicide prevention approaches at the primary, secondary, and tertiary levels. Coordinated, developmentally timed, evidence-based suicide prevention approaches at all intervention levels are likely to reduce youth suicide. For most youth who die by suicide, there are opportunities for intervention before imminent risk develops. Current research in suicide prevention points to the value of investing in "upstream" universal interventions that build skills and resilience as well as policies that enable access to care and protection from lethal means. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Primary prevention of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Andrew T; Giovannucci, Edward L

    2010-06-01

    Colorectal cancer has been strongly associated with a Western lifestyle. In the past several decades, much has been learned about the dietary, lifestyle, and medication risk factors for this malignancy. Although there is controversy about the role of specific nutritional factors, consideration of dietary pattern as a whole appears useful for formulating recommendations. For example, several studies have shown that high intake of red and processed meats, highly refined grains and starches, and sugars is related to increased risk of colorectal cancer. Replacing these factors with poultry, fish, and plant sources as the primary source of protein; unsaturated fats as the primary source of fat; and unrefined grains, legumes and fruits as the primary source of carbohydrates is likely to lower risk of colorectal cancer. Although a role for supplements, including vitamin D, folate, and vitamin B6, remains uncertain, calcium supplementation is likely to be at least modestly beneficial. With respect to lifestyle, compelling evidence indicates that avoidance of smoking and heavy alcohol use, prevention of weight gain, and maintenance of a reasonable level of physical activity are associated with markedly lower risks of colorectal cancer. Medications such as aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and postmenopausal hormones for women are associated with substantial reductions in colorectal cancer risk, though their utility is affected by associated risks. Taken together, modifications in diet and lifestyle should substantially reduce the risk of colorectal cancer and could complement screening in reducing colorectal cancer incidence.

  17. Solid sources of krypton-85

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puig, J.R.; Sandier, J.

    1962-01-01

    Krypton-85, a β-emitter with a long half-life and low biological hazard, has considerable industrial potentialities. It is difficult, however, to manufacture sources since the element occurs in gaseous form and cannot be chemically fixed. The authors describe a method of krypton-fixation in a macromolecular matrix formed by mass polymerization of a liquid monomer containing krypton; they also give an account of the preparation of two types of source produced in this way-one enclosed in polystyrene, the other in polyvinyl acetate. Such sources lose krypton; the activity of the first decreases by 8 % daily, that of the second by 3 % daily. These apparent decays enable the diffusion coefficients of krypton in these polymers to be calculated. Diffusion appears to be prevented by the cross-linkages which exist in the polymers. (author) [fr

  18. Neutron generator tube ion source control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridges, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    A system is claimed for controlling the output of a neutron generator tube of the deuterium-tritium accelerator type and having an ion source to produce sharply defined pulses of neutrons for well logging use. It comprises: means for inputting a relatively low voltage input control pulse having a leading edge and a trailing edge; means, responsive to the input control pulse, for producing a relatively high voltage ion source voltage pulse after receipt of the input pulse; and means, responsive to the input control pulse, for quenching, after receipt of the input pulse, the ion source control pulse, thereby providing a sharply time defined neutron output from the generator tube

  19. Mean Field Analysis of Quantum Annealing Correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Shunji; Nishimori, Hidetoshi; Albash, Tameem; Lidar, Daniel A

    2016-06-03

    Quantum annealing correction (QAC) is a method that combines encoding with energy penalties and decoding to suppress and correct errors that degrade the performance of quantum annealers in solving optimization problems. While QAC has been experimentally demonstrated to successfully error correct a range of optimization problems, a clear understanding of its operating mechanism has been lacking. Here we bridge this gap using tools from quantum statistical mechanics. We study analytically tractable models using a mean-field analysis, specifically the p-body ferromagnetic infinite-range transverse-field Ising model as well as the quantum Hopfield model. We demonstrate that for p=2, where the phase transition is of second order, QAC pushes the transition to increasingly larger transverse field strengths. For p≥3, where the phase transition is of first order, QAC softens the closing of the gap for small energy penalty values and prevents its closure for sufficiently large energy penalty values. Thus QAC provides protection from excitations that occur near the quantum critical point. We find similar results for the Hopfield model, thus demonstrating that our conclusions hold in the presence of disorder.

  20. Volatility Mean Reversion and the Market Price of Volatility Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boswijk, H.P.

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyzes sources of derivative pricing errors in a stochastic volatility model estimated on stock return data. It is shown that such pricing errors may reflect the existence of a market price of volatility risk, but also may be caused by estimation errors due to a slow mean reversion in