Littlejohn, Christopher; Holloway, Aisha
Harrington-Dobinson and Blows recently provided a three-part series of articles on alcohol, its consequences for health and wellbeing, and the role of the nurse. Their third article outlined the health education and health promotion role of the nurse. They outlined basic principles for nursing practice in relation to the patient with alcohol dependence in the acute general hospital. The authors of this article believe that much more can, and must, be said in relation to the vital issue of nurses' clinical interventions for alcohol. This article builds on the third article from Harrington-Dobinson and Blows by outlining, in more concrete terms, how nurses in all settings can effectively intervene with patients. It introduces the current evidence-based guidelines in this area and use the 'consensus model' contained within them to describe the process of effective alcohol intervention. Using dialogue examples to illustrate the research, the authors introduce the literature on brief interventions and motivational interviewing to the nursing audience.
Van Der Beek, Allard J.; Dennerlein, Jack T.; Huysmans, Maaike A.
Objectives Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) are highly prevalent and put a large burden on (working) society. Primary prevention of work-related MSD focuses often on physical risk factors (such as manual lifting and awkward postures) but has not been too successful in reducing the MSD...... thereby strengthening the development and implementation of preventive interventions. Our objective was to define and describe such a framework for multi-disciplinary research on work-related MSD prevention. Methods We described a framework for MSD prevention research, partly based on frameworks from......) evaluation, and (vi) implementation of preventive intervention(s). Conclusions In the present framework for optimal work-related MSD prevention, research disciplines are linked. This framework can thereby help to improve theories and strengthen the development and implementation of prevention strategies...
van der Beek, Allard J; Dennerlein, Jack T; Huysmans, Maaike A; Mathiassen, Svend Erik; Burdorf, Alex; van Mechelen, Willem; van Dieën, Jaap H; Frings-Dresen, Monique Hw; Holtermann, Andreas; Janwantanakul, Prawit; van der Molen, Henk F; Rempel, David; Straker, Leon; Walker-Bone, Karen; Coenen, Pieter
Objectives Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) are highly prevalent and put a large burden on (working) society. Primary prevention of work-related MSD focuses often on physical risk factors (such as manual lifting and awkward postures) but has not been too successful in reducing the MSD burden. This may partly be caused by insufficient knowledge of etiological mechanisms and/or a lack of adequately feasible interventions (theory failure and program failure, respectively), possibly due to limited integration of research disciplines. A research framework could link research disciplines thereby strengthening the development and implementation of preventive interventions. Our objective was to define and describe such a framework for multi-disciplinary research on work-related MSD prevention. Methods We described a framework for MSD prevention research, partly based on frameworks from other research fields (ie, sports injury prevention and public health). Results The framework is composed of a repeated sequence of six steps comprising the assessment of (i) incidence and severity of MSD, (ii) risk factors for MSD, and (iii) underlying mechanisms; and the (iv) development, (v) evaluation, and (vi) implementation of preventive intervention(s). Conclusions In the present framework for optimal work-related MSD prevention, research disciplines are linked. This framework can thereby help to improve theories and strengthen the development and implementation of prevention strategies for work-related MSD.
Van Der Beek, Allard J.; Dennerlein, Jack T.; Huysmans, Maaike A.
Objectives Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) are highly prevalent and put a large burden on (working) society. Primary prevention of work-related MSD focuses often on physical risk factors (such as manual lifting and awkward postures) but has not been too successful in reducing the MSD...... thereby strengthening the development and implementation of preventive interventions. Our objective was to define and describe such a framework for multi-disciplinary research on work-related MSD prevention. Methods We described a framework for MSD prevention research, partly based on frameworks from...... other research fields (ie, sports injury prevention and public health). Results The framework is composed of a repeated sequence of six steps comprising the assessment of (i) incidence and severity of MSD, (ii) risk factors for MSD, and (iii) underlying mechanisms; and the (iv) development, (v...
Li, Li; Liang, Li-Jung; Lin, Chunqing; Wu, Zunyou; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane
The National Institute of Mental Health Collaborative HIV/Sexually Transmitted Disease Prevention Trial provided a unique opportunity to test whether, with the community-based diffusion of HIV/sexually transmitted disease prevention information and an elevated understanding of HIV, the level of stigmatizing attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS in the community would be reduced. A total of 4510 market workers in Fuzhou, China, participated in the study, and longitudinal analyses included study samples of 3785 participants in the 12-month follow-up and 3716 participants in the 24-month follow-up. We graphically examined the change in HIV-related stigma indicators over time between control and intervention groups using boxplot and kernel density estimation. A logistic regression analysis with proportional odds model was further used to examine the intervention effect on HIV-related stigmatizing attitudes. Compared with no change over time for the control group, the intervention successfully reduced the level of HIV-related stigmatizing attitudes among the target population at the 12-month follow-up, and the effect increased by two-fold (with respect to odds ratios) at the 24-month follow-up. The intervention demonstrated positive attitude changes associated with HIV-related stigma. Our results show the importance of social norms, rather than simply individual behaviors, in developing and implementing stigma reduction campaigns.
Sultan-Taïeb, Hélène; Parent-Lamarche, Annick; Gaillard, Aurélie; Stock, Susan; Nicolakakis, Nektaria; Hong, Quan Nha; Vezina, Michel; Coulibaly, Youssouph; Vézina, Nicole; Berthelette, Diane
Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSD) represent a major public health problem and economic burden to employers, workers and health insurance systems. This systematic review had two objectives: (1) to analyze the cost-benefit results of organizational-level ergonomic workplace-based interventions aimed at preventing WMSD, (2) to explore factors related to the implementation process of these interventions (obstacles and facilitating factors) in order to identify whether economic results may be due to a successful or unsuccessful implementation. Systematic review. Studies were searched in eight electronic databases and in reference lists of included studies. Companion papers were identified through backward and forward citation tracking. A quality assessment tool was developed following guidelines available in the literature. An integration of quantitative economic results and qualitative implementation data was conducted following an explanatory sequential design. Out of 189 records, nine studies met selection criteria and were included in our review. Out of nine included studies, grouped into four types of interventions, seven yielded positive economic results, one produced a negative result and one mixed results (negative cost-effectiveness and positive net benefit). However, the level of evidence was limited for the four types of interventions given the quality and the limited number of studies identified. Our review shows that among the nine included studies, negative and mixed economic results were observed when the dose delivered and received by participants was low, when the support from top and/or middle management was limited either due to limited participation of supervisors in training sessions or a lack of financial resources and when adequacy of intervention to workers' needs was low. In studies where economic results were positive, implementation data showed strong support from supervisors and a high rate of employee participation. Studies
Sylvia E Kim
Full Text Available Background: Musculoskeletal disorders are one of the most common chronic disorders and can develop from repetitive micro-traumas, which occurs often from one’s occupation. Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSD cost the United States billions of dollars annually. Many traditional therapeutic interventions, like manual therapy. electrical stimulation and hot and cold packs, are being utilized to treat WMSD however there is minimal evidence supporting the use of these interventions to treat WMSD. Therefore, ergonomic interventions (EI has been proposed as a conservative, non-invasive, and cost-effective intervention to treat WMSD as it functions to correct the cause of repetitive micro-traumas due to one’s occupation by adjusting posture, workstations design, and product selection.Aim: The aim of this paper is to (a briefly overview the theories of WMSD and EI (b analyze the efficacy of traditional therapeutic interventions (c establish the practical applications of EI (d analyze the efficacy of EI, (e discuss the contraindications of EI and (f draw conclusions and discuss the future directions of EI in preventing WMSD.Results and Discussion: It was found that traditional therapeutic interventions provides only short-term pain relief for musculoskeletal disorders, prompting the need for a different approach. EI was found to have promising results in treating WMSD, however there is limited evidence in the form of randomizedcontrolled trials (RCTs to truly determine the efficacy of EI in addressing WMSD. Further research is needed to determine the efficacy of EI and the long term effects of this intervention in treating WMSD.
Intervention studies This dissertation describes three trials in which the effectiveness of three preventive interventions for youth were tested in the Netherlands. The interventions aim to improve the social and emotional development of children in elementary school (PATHS), reduce alcohol use and
Cimini, M. Dolores; Rivero, Estela M.
This chapter explores the critical role of crisis intervention and other support after a suicide has occurred as part of a comprehensive suicide prevention response within college and university campuses. The important components of postsuicide intervention campus crisis response and protocols and the identification of key stakeholders to…
Intervention studies This dissertation describes three trials in which the effectiveness of three preventive interventions for youth were tested in the Netherlands. The interventions aim to improve the social and emotional development of children in elementary school (PATHS), reduce alcohol use and mental health problems in students in secondary education (Preventure), and empower adolescent second generation migrants (POWER). The results revealed no effectiveness of the PATHS intervention, w...
Roquelaure, Yves; Petit, Audrey; Fouquet, Bernard; Descatha, Alexis
Upper-limb musculoskeletal disorders (UL-MSDs) are painful conditions related to the overuse of periarticular soft tissues. The main UL-MSDs are rotator cuff tendinopathy, epicondylalgia, carpal tunnel syndrome and non-specific pain UL-MSDs are multifactorial disorders associated with individual and occupational (biomechanical, psychosocial and factors related to work organization) risk factors. Treatments are based on a global assessment of the clinical, social and occupational situations in order to identify cases of good prognosis and those, ess frequent, at high risk of prolonged work disability. The management of complex cases needs a close cooperation, with the agreement of the patient/worker, between the general practtioner and the occupational physician. One or more return to work visits are needed to help workers to keep their job. The prevention of UL-MSDs requires a global and integrated approach focusing on the reduction of the exposure to working constraints, early diagnosis and management and, if necessary, an intervention of stay at work. The new compensation procedures for UL-MSDs are described.
In the last 20 years prostitutes, or sex workers, have formed self-help and advocacy organizations in a number of countries that could have an effect on acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention efforts. It is essential when planning a sex work-related intervention to identify sex workers, clients, or third parties as well as any factors that affect the safety of existing sex and drug use practices. It is important to know where sex workers and clients contact each other, where they go to engage in sex, and the working conditions of sex work establishments. Other considerations include the accessibility of condoms and health care; the impact of laws, regulations, and enforcement practices; and the impact of migration of both sex workers and clients. Many projects have involved members of the target audiences in the assessment as interviewers as well as in the design and implementation of the project. All interventions should include current information, education, and communication consisting of media strategies as well as person-to-person strategies. A combination of sites can help to reach the maximum proportion of the population at risk. Several projects have provided bulk supplies in order to ensure access to condoms at no cost or inexpensively to hotels, bars, brothels and other sex work businesses. Projects have also promoted the use of sterile injection equipment where injecting drug use is common. Functioning outreach and education projects emphasize STD service, such as sensitivity training for health care providers to improve services and diagnostic procedures and to motivate sex workers to utilize the health care system. Voluntary utilization may the boosted by offering STD services in a stationary or mobile clinic in the sex work neighborhoods during the afternoon and early evening and combining them with family planning, primary health care, and child health care.
Van Der Beek, Allard J.; Dennerlein, Jack T.; Huysmans, Maaike A.; Mathiassen, Svend Erik; Burdorf, Alex; Van Mechelen, Willem; Van Dieën, Jaap H.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H.W.; Holtermann, Andreas; Janwantanakul, Prawit; Van Der Molen, Henk F.; Rempel, David; Straker, Leon; Walker-Bone, Karen; Coenen, Pieter
Objectives Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) are highly prevalent and put a large burden on (working) society. Primary prevention of work-related MSD focuses often on physical risk factors (such as manual lifting and awkward postures) but has not been too successful in reducing the MSD
A.J. van der Beek (Allard); Dennerlein, J.T. (Jack T.); Huysmans, M.A. (Maaike A.); S.E. Mathiassen; A. Burdorf (Alex); W. van Mechelen (Willem); J.H. van Dieën (Jaap); M.H.W. Frings-Dresen; A. Holtermann (Andreas); Janwantanakul, P. (Prawit); Van Der Molen, H.F. (Henk F.); Rempel, D. (David); L. Straker (Leon); Walker-Bone, K. (Karen); P. Coenen (Pieter)
textabstractObjectives Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) are highly prevalent and put a large burden on (working) society. Primary prevention of work-related MSD focuses often on physical risk factors (such as manual lifting and awkward postures) but has not been too successful in
De Jong, Joop T V M
Political violence, armed conflicts and human rights violations are produced by a variety of political, economic and socio-cultural factors. Conflicts can be analyzed with an interdisciplinary approach to obtain a global understanding of the relative contribution of risk and protective factors. A public health framework was designed to address these risk factors and protective factors. The framework resulted in a matrix that combined primary, secondary and tertiary interventions with their implementation on the levels of the society-at-large, the community, and the family and individual. Subsequently, the risk and protective factors were translated into multi-sectoral, multi-modal and multi-level preventive interventions involving the economy, governance, diplomacy, the military, human rights, agriculture, health, and education. Then the interventions were slotted in their appropriate place in the matrix. The interventions can be applied in an integrative form by international agencies, governments and non-governmental organizations, and molded to meet the requirements of the historic, political-economic and socio-cultural context. The framework maps the complementary fit among the different actors while engaging themselves in preventive, rehabilitative and reconstructive interventions. The framework shows how the economic, diplomatic, political, criminal justice, human rights, military, health and rural development sectors can collaborate to promote peace or prevent the aggravation or continuation of violence. A deeper understanding of the association between risk and protective factors and the developmental pathways of generic, country-specific and culture-specific factors leading to political violence is needed.
Ipsen, Christine; Poulsen, Signe; Gish, Liv
be addressed and how prevention of work-related stress can be understood. In addition to supporting a new understanding of prevention, the use of the model also results in concrete changes which become solutions to the work-place’s current and specific problems. The use of the PoWRS model thus enables an SME......This paper presents the result of four SMEs’ use of a multi-level participatory self-help intervention model (the PoWRS model – Prevention of Work Related Stress). The model itself supports a new view on prevention of work-related stress in the participating companies besides the concrete...... to explicate tacit knowledge about what creates enthusiasms and stress at the work place, Multi-voting which decided two work-related changes to be initiated, a KickOff session to mark the start-up of the actual changes, continuous interviews of colleagues by the in-house facilitators, and ongoing status...
Klein, Marcus O; Hammerich, Sünje; Eggert, Paul; Ankermann, Tobias
Individual Motivational Interventions after alcohol-related event treated in Hospital - Effective Option for Secondary Prevention in Adolescence? In a prospective, randomized, single-blind study 48 adolescents between 13 and 17 years answered a standardized questionnaire about their behavior of alcohol-consumption after an alcohol-related event with hospitalization. They were divided in 2 groups by randomization: Group A (n=28) took part in an individual motivational intervention (HaLT-Präventionsprojekt), Group B (n=20) did not get any intervention. Six and 12 weeks after the hospitalization the same questionnaire was answered again by telephone-based interviews. The interviewer did not know to which group the interview-partner belonged. 58% (n=28) of all adolescents drank less alcohol or in a lower frequency than before the alcohol-related event. 17% (n=8) did not drink any alcohol in that period of 12 weeks. 54% (n=26) explained, that they had no events of drunkenness in that period. 38% (n=18) did not change their behavior in consumption of alcohol. 6% (n=3) drank more or in higher frequency than before. We could not find any significant difference in the behavior of alcohol-consumption of both groups: 58% (A) resp. 65% (B) drank less than the time before the alcohol-related event (χ²=0,6269; p=0,4285). An influence of the individual motivational intervention could not be shown. Further studies should include interventions for parents and peers. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Klein Hesselink, J.; Jain, A.
Prevention is the cornerstone of the European approach to managing occupational safety and health. Prevention means anticipating and analysing the various aspects of work to identify short and long term risks, and then taking action to eliminate or mitigate those risks; that is identifying and
Watson, Kelly H; Dunbar, Jennifer P; Thigpen, Jennifer; Reising, Michelle M; Hudson, Kelsey; McKee, Laura; Forehand, Rex; Compas, Bruce E
The current study examined concurrent and prospective relations between observed parenting behaviors and children's coping strategies in the context of a preventive intervention designed to change both parenting and children's use of secondary control coping. Questionnaires and direct observations were obtained from parents with a history of depression (N = 180) and their children (ages 9-15 years) at baseline, 6-month (after completion of the intervention), and 18-month follow-up assessments. Cross-sectional analyses indicate that baseline observed parental responsiveness/warmth was significantly associated with composite parent/child reports of children's baseline primary control, secondary control, and disengagement coping. Using a mixed effects model, prospective mediational analyses indicate that intervention-driven improvements in observed parental responsiveness/warmth from baseline to 6 months significantly accounted for increases in children's use of secondary control coping strategies from baseline to the 18-month follow-up assessment. No significant mediation effects emerged for primary control coping or disengagement coping. The present findings suggest that it may be possible to improve children's coping strategies not only through targeted interventions, but also indirectly by improving responsive and warm parenting behaviors. Limitations and strengths are noted and implications for future research are outlined. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Saltz, Robert F; Welker, Lara R; Paschall, Mallie J; Feeney, Maggie A; Fabiano, Patricia M
This article evaluates Western Washington University's Neighborhoods Engaging with Students project-a comprehensive strategy to decrease disruptive off-campus parties by increasing student integration into and accountability to the neighborhoods in which they live. The intervention includes increasing the number of and publicity regarding "party emphasis patrols" and collaboration with the city to develop a regulatory mechanism to reduce repeat problematic party calls to the same address. The enforcement components are complemented by campus-based, late-night expansion programming, as well as neighborhood engagement strategies including an educational Web site designed to increase students' knowledge of and skills in living safely and legally in the community, service-learning projects in the campus-contiguous neighborhoods, and a neighborhood-based conflict-resolution program. The evaluation comprised data from three public universities in Washington. In addition to the Western Washington University site, a second campus created an opportunity for a "natural experiment" because it adopted a very similar intervention in the same time frame, creating two intervention sites and one comparison site. Annual, Web-based student surveys in 2005 and 2006 included measures of alcohol consumption, alcohol-related problems, and student perception of alcohol control and prevention activities. Although statistical power with three campuses was limited, results using hierarchical linear modeling showed that the prevalence of heavy episodic drinking was significantly lower at the intervention schools (odds ratio = 0.73; N = 6,150 students). The results suggest that alcohol control measures can be effective in reducing problematic drinking in college settings. These findings strongly support conducting a replication with greater power and a more rigorous design.
Jayaraj, Rama; Whitty, Megan; Thomas, Mahiban; Kavangh, David; Palmer, Didier; Thomson, Valerie; Griffin, Carolyn; Mayo, Luke; D'Abbs, Peter; Nagel, Tricia
Globally, alcohol-related injuries cause millions of deaths and huge economic loss each year . The incidence of facial (jawbone) fractures in the Northern Territory of Australia is second only to Greenland, due to a strong involvement of alcohol in its aetiology, and high levels of alcohol consumption. The highest incidences of alcohol-related trauma in the Territory are observed amongst patients in the Maxillofacial Surgery Unit of the Royal Darwin Hospital. Accordingly, this project aims to introduce screening and brief interventions into this unit, with the aims of changing health service provider practice, improving access to care, and improving patient outcomes. Establishment of Project Governance: The project governance team includes a project manager, project leader, an Indigenous Reference Group (IRG) and an Expert Reference Group (ERG).Development of a best practice pathway: PACT project researchers collaborate with clinical staff to develop a best practice pathway suited to the setting of the surgical unit. The pathway provides clear guidelines for screening, assessment, intervention and referral. The developed pathway is introduced to the unit through staff training workshops and associate resources and adapted in response to staff feedback. File audits, post workshop questionnaires and semi-structured interviews are administered. This project allows direct transfer of research findings into clinical practice and can inform future hospital-based injury prevention strategies.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Globally, alcohol-related injuries cause millions of deaths and huge economic loss each year . The incidence of facial (jawbone fractures in the Northern Territory of Australia is second only to Greenland, due to a strong involvement of alcohol in its aetiology, and high levels of alcohol consumption. The highest incidences of alcohol-related trauma in the Territory are observed amongst patients in the Maxillofacial Surgery Unit of the Royal Darwin Hospital. Accordingly, this project aims to introduce screening and brief interventions into this unit, with the aims of changing health service provider practice, improving access to care, and improving patient outcomes. Methods Establishment of Project Governance: The project governance team includes a project manager, project leader, an Indigenous Reference Group (IRG and an Expert Reference Group (ERG. Development of a best practice pathway: PACT project researchers collaborate with clinical staff to develop a best practice pathway suited to the setting of the surgical unit. The pathway provides clear guidelines for screening, assessment, intervention and referral. Implementation: The developed pathway is introduced to the unit through staff training workshops and associate resources and adapted in response to staff feedback. Evaluation: File audits, post workshop questionnaires and semi-structured interviews are administered. Discussion This project allows direct transfer of research findings into clinical practice and can inform future hospital-based injury prevention strategies.
Background Globally, alcohol-related injuries cause millions of deaths and huge economic loss each year . The incidence of facial (jawbone) fractures in the Northern Territory of Australia is second only to Greenland, due to a strong involvement of alcohol in its aetiology, and high levels of alcohol consumption. The highest incidences of alcohol-related trauma in the Territory are observed amongst patients in the Maxillofacial Surgery Unit of the Royal Darwin Hospital. Accordingly, this project aims to introduce screening and brief interventions into this unit, with the aims of changing health service provider practice, improving access to care, and improving patient outcomes. Methods Establishment of Project Governance: The project governance team includes a project manager, project leader, an Indigenous Reference Group (IRG) and an Expert Reference Group (ERG). Development of a best practice pathway: PACT project researchers collaborate with clinical staff to develop a best practice pathway suited to the setting of the surgical unit. The pathway provides clear guidelines for screening, assessment, intervention and referral. Implementation: The developed pathway is introduced to the unit through staff training workshops and associate resources and adapted in response to staff feedback. Evaluation: File audits, post workshop questionnaires and semi-structured interviews are administered. Discussion This project allows direct transfer of research findings into clinical practice and can inform future hospital-based injury prevention strategies. PMID:23331868
Full Text Available The accelerating epidemics of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs in India call for a comprehensive public health response which can effectively combat and control them before they peak and inflict severe damage in terms of unaffordable health, economic, and social costs. To synthesize and present recent evidences regarding the effectiveness of several types of public health interventions to reduce NCD burden. Interventions influencing behavioral risk factors (like unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, tobacco and alcohol consumption through policy, public education, or a combination of both have been demonstrated to be effective in reducing the NCD risk in populations as well as in individuals. Policy interventions are also effective in reducing the levels of several major biological risk factors linked to NCDs (high blood pressure; overweight and obesity; diabetes and abnormal blood cholesterol. Secondary prevention along the lines of combination pills and ensuring evidenced based clinical care are also critical. Though the evidence for health promotion and primary prevention are weaker, policy interventions and secondary prevention when combined with these are likely to have a greater impact on reducing national NCD burden. A comprehensive and integrated response to NCDs control and prevention needs a "life course approach." Proven cost-effective interventions need to be integrated in a NCD prevention and control policy framework and implemented through coordinated mechanisms of regulation, environment modification, education, and health care responses.
B., Kilbom , A., et al. (1993). A conceptual model of work-related neck and upper limb musculoskeletal disorders. Scandinavian Journal of Work...Toomingas, A., Torgen, M., & Kilbom , A. (1999). Risk factors for neck and upper limb disorders: Results from 24 years of follow up. Occupational and
Kindermann, Sally; Moessner, Markus; Ozer, Fikret; Bauer, Stephanie
Flexible, individualized interventions allow participants to adjust the intensity of support to their current needs. Between-persons, participants with greater needs can receive more intense support, within-persons, participants can adjust utilization to their current level of symptoms. The purpose of the present study was to analyze associations between ED-related symptoms and utilization of the individualized program ProYouth both between- and within-persons, aiming to investigate whether participants adapt utilization intensity to their current needs. Generalized estimated equations (GEEs) were used to analyze log data on program utilization (monthly page visits, monthly use of chats and forum) assessed via server logs and self-reported data on ED-related symptoms from N = 394 ProYouth participants who provided longitudinal data for at least two months. Between-persons, page visits per month were significantly associated with compensatory behavior, body dissatisfaction, and binge eating. Monthly use of the more intense modules with personal support chat and forum was associated with the frequency of compensatory behavior. Within-persons, unbalanced nutrition and dieting showed the strongest associations with monthly page visits. Monthly use of chats and forum was significantly associated with compensatory behavior and unbalanced nutrition and dieting. Results indicate that program utilization is associated with ED-related symptoms between- as well as within-persons. The individualized, flexible approach of ProYouth thus seems to be a promising way for Internet-based provision of combined prevention and early intervention programs addressing ED. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Holloman, Lillian; LaPoint, Velma; Alleyne, Sylvan I.; Palmer, Ruth J.; Sanders-Phillips, Kathy
Addresses clothing-related behavioral problems for public school children and the increasing use of dress codes and uniform policies as preventive measures. It describes dress-related conflicts for black public school students and parents across socialization and contextual settings. The implications of preventive policies and practices are…
Shamai, S; Coambs, R B
This paper evaluates intervention programs in schools using the theoretical framework of the critical sociology of education, and most specifically, the extent to which schools are autonomous from the larger society. Three different types of intervention programs are reviewed: drug abuse prevention, sex education, and programs to change gender stereotypes, all of which were found to have limited effectiveness. Schools appear unable to change behaviors which are prevalent in a culture because they themselves are strongly influenced by that culture, and because adolescents are influenced by forces outside school. To be effective, such interventions would seem to require governmental agencies, community groups, and the media to work with the schools in order to influence the culture and thus produce behavioral changes in individuals.
Wiezer, N.M.; Bakhuys Roozeboom, M.M.C.; Oprins, E.
Work-related stress is a large occupational risks in the Netherlands but interventions to reduce this risk are not implemented in organizations. The characteristics of a serious game make it a useful training tool for managers to raise awareness on their role in stimulating work engagement and
Awa, Wendy L; Plaumann, Martina; Walter, Ulla
To evaluate the effectiveness of intervention programs at the workplace or elsewhere aimed at preventing burnout, a leading cause of work related mental health impairment. A systematic search of burnout intervention studies was conducted in the databases Medline, PsycINFO and PSYNDEX from 1995 to 2007. Data was also extracted from papers found through a hand search. A total of 25 primary intervention studies were reviewed. Seventeen (68%) were person-directed interventions, 2 (8%) were organization-directed and 6 (24%) were a combination of both interventions types. Eighty percent of all programs led to a reduction in burnout. Person-directed interventions reduced burnout in the short term (6 months or less), while a combination of both person- and organization-directed interventions had longer lasting positive effects (12 months and over). In all cases, positive intervention effects diminished in the course of time. Intervention programs against burnout are beneficial and can be enhanced with refresher courses. Better implemented programs including both person- and organization-directed measures should be offered and evaluated. A combination of both intervention types should be further investigated, optimized and practiced. Institutions should recognize the need for and make burnout intervention programs available to employees. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Robinson, Jo; Cox, Georgina; Malone, Aisling; Williamson, Michelle; Baldwin, Gabriel; Fletcher, Karen; O'Brien, Matt
Suicide, in particular among young people, is a major public health problem, although little is known regarding effective interventions for managing and preventing suicide-related behavior. To review the empirical literature pertaining to suicide postvention, prevention, and early intervention, specifically in school settings. MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CCRCT) as well as citation lists of relevant articles using terms related to suicide and schools were searched in July 2011. School-based programs targeting suicide, attempted suicide, suicidal ideation, and self-harm where intent is not specified were included. No exclusion was placed on trial design. All studies had to include a suicide-related outcome. A total of 412 potentially relevant studies were identified, 43 of which met the inclusion criteria, as well as three secondary publications: 15 universal awareness programs, 23 selective interventions, 3 targeted interventions, and 2 postvention trials. Overall, the evidence was limited and hampered by methodological concerns, particularly a lack of RCTs. The most promising interventions for schools appear to be gatekeeper training and screening programs. However, more research is needed.
Turawa, Eunice B; Musekiwa, Alfred; Rohwer, Anke C
Postpartum constipation, with symptoms such as pain or discomfort, straining, and hard stool, is a common condition affecting mothers. Haemorrhoids, pain at the episiotomy site, effects of pregnancy hormones and haematinics used in pregnancy can increase the risk of postpartum constipation. Eating a high-fibre diet and increasing fluid intake is usually encouraged, although laxatives are commonly used in relieving constipation. The effectiveness and safety of available interventions for preventing postpartum constipation needs to be ascertained. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of interventions for preventing postpartum constipation. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 April 2015), Stellenbosch University database, ProQuest Dissertation and Theses database, World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP), ClinicalTrials.gov (30 April 2015) and reference lists of included studies. All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing any intervention for preventing postpartum constipation versus another intervention, placebo or no intervention. Interventions could include pharmacological (e.g. laxatives) and non-pharmacological interventions (e.g. acupuncture, educational and behavioural interventions).We included quasi-randomised trials. Cluster-RCTs were eligible for inclusion but none were identified. Studies using a cross-over design were not eligible for inclusion in this review. Two review authors independently screened the results of the search to select potentially relevant studies, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Results were pooled in a meta-analysis only where there was no substantial statistical heterogeneity. We included five trials (1208 postpartum mothers); four compared a laxative with placebo and one compared a laxative alone versus the same laxative plus a bulking agent in women who underwent surgical repair of third degree perineal tears. Trials were poorly
This article examines the causes of pressure ulcers and provides an overview of the best advice available in preventing them in the clinical setting. This should enable nurses to provide more effective interventions for preventing patients from developing pressure ulcers.
Lee, Ming-Shinn; Zi-Pei, Wu; Svanström, Leif; Dalal, Koustuv
This study aimed to explore the effectiveness of the cyber bullying prevention WebQuest course implementation. The study adopted the quasi-experimental design with two classes made up of a total of 61 junior high school students of seventh grade. The study subjects comprised of 30 students from the experimental group and 31 students from the control group. The experimental group received eight sessions (total 360 minutes) of the teaching intervention for four consecutive weeks, while the control group did not engage in any related courses. The self-compiled questionnaire for the student's knowledge, attitudes, and intentions toward cyber bullying prevention was adopted. Data were analysed through generalized estimating equations to understand the immediate results on the student's knowledge, attitudes, and intentions after the intervention. The results show that the WebQuest course immediately and effectively enhanced the knowledge of cyber bullying, reduced the intentions, and retained the effects after the learning. But it produced no significant impact on the attitude toward cyber bullying. The intervention through this pilot study was effective and positive for cyber bulling prevention. It was with small number of students. Therefore, studies with large number of students and long experimental times, in different areas and countries are warranted.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study aimed to explore the effectiveness of the cyber bullying prevention WebQuest course implementation. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: The study adopted the quasi-experimental design with two classes made up of a total of 61 junior high school students of seventh grade. The study subjects comprised of 30 students from the experimental group and 31 students from the control group. The experimental group received eight sessions (total 360 minutes of the teaching intervention for four consecutive weeks, while the control group did not engage in any related courses. The self-compiled questionnaire for the student's knowledge, attitudes, and intentions toward cyber bullying prevention was adopted. Data were analysed through generalized estimating equations to understand the immediate results on the student's knowledge, attitudes, and intentions after the intervention. The results show that the WebQuest course immediately and effectively enhanced the knowledge of cyber bullying, reduced the intentions, and retained the effects after the learning. But it produced no significant impact on the attitude toward cyber bullying. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The intervention through this pilot study was effective and positive for cyber bulling prevention. It was with small number of students. Therefore, studies with large number of students and long experimental times, in different areas and countries are warranted.
Tzeng, Huey-Ming; Yin, Chang-Yi
There is an urgent need to prioritize the risk factors for injurious falls and effective interventions in nursing practice. Registered nurses perceived that the most frequently observed risk factors were confusion, gait problems, Alzheimer disease, disorientation, and inability to follow safety instructions. The most effective interventions were keeping hospital bed brakes locked, keeping floor surfaces clean/dry, using appropriate footwear for patients, maintaining a call light within reach, and reducing tripping hazards.
Full Text Available DL Waters1, RN Baumgartner2, PJ Garry3, B Vellas41Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, Dunedin School of Medicine, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand; 2Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky, USA; 3Department of Pathology, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA; 4Department of Internal Medicine and Geriatric Medicine, University Hospital Center of Toulouse, Gerontopole, Toulouse, FranceAbstract: Sarcopenia is the loss of skeletal muscle mass and function with aging. Although the term sarcopenia was first coined in 1989, its etiology is still poorly understood. Moreover, a consensus for defining sarcopenia continues to elude us. Sarcopenic changes in the muscle include losses in muscle fiber quantity and quality, alpha-motor neurons, protein synthesis rates, and anabolic and sex hormone production. Other factors include basal metabolic rate, increased protein dietary requirements, and chronic inflammation secondary to age-related changes in cytokines and oxidative stress. These changes lead to decreased overall physical functioning, increased frailty, falls risk, and ultimately the loss of independent living. Because the intertwining relationships of these factors are complex, effective treatment options are still under investigation. The published data on sarcopenia are vast, and this review is not intended to be exhaustive. The aim of this review is to provide an update on the current knowledge of the definition, etiology, consequences, and current clinical trials that may help address this pressing public health problem for our aging populations.Keywords: aging, muscle loss, nutrition, physical activity
A notable feature of Australian drug policy is the limited public and professional attention given to the financial costs of drug abuse and to the levels and patterns of government expenditures incurred in preventing and responding to this. Since 1991, Collins and Lapsley have published scholarly reports documenting the social costs of drug abuse in Australia and their reports also contain estimates of governments' drug budgets: revenue and expenditures. They show that, in 2004-2005, Australian governments expended at least $5288 million on drug abuse, with 50% of the expenditure directed to preventing and dealing with alcohol-related problems, 45% to illicit drugs and just 5% to tobacco. Some 60% of the expenditure was directed at drug crime and 37% at health interventions. This pattern of resource allocation does not adequately reflect an evidence-informed policy orientation in that it largely fails to focus on the drug types that are the sources of the most harm (tobacco and alcohol rather than illicit drugs), and the sectors for which we have the strongest evidence of the cost-effectiveness of the available interventions (treatment and harm reduction rather than legislation and law enforcement). The 2010-2014 phase of Australia's National Drug Strategy should include incremental changes to the resource allocation mix, and not simply maintain the historical resource allocation formulae. © 2010 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
Oringanje, Chioma; Meremikwu, Martin M; Eko, Hokehe; Esu, Ekpereonne; Meremikwu, Anne; Ehiri, John E
Unintended pregnancy among adolescents represents an important public health challenge in high-income countries, as well as middle- and low-income countries. Numerous prevention strategies such as health education, skills-building and improving accessibility to contraceptives have been employed by countries across the world, in an effort to address this problem. However, there is uncertainty regarding the effects of these interventions, hence the need to review the evidence-base. To assess the effects of primary prevention interventions (school-based, community/home-based, clinic-based, and faith-based) on unintended pregnancies among adolescents. We searched all relevant studies regardless of language or publication status up to November 2015. We searched the Cochrane Fertility Regulation Group Specialised trial register, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2015 Issue 11), MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, Social Science Citation Index and Science Citation Index, Dissertations Abstracts Online, The Gray Literature Network, HealthStar, PsycINFO, CINAHL and POPLINE and the reference lists of articles. We included both individual and cluster randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating any interventions that aimed to increase knowledge and attitudes relating to risk of unintended pregnancies, promote delay in the initiation of sexual intercourse and encourage consistent use of birth control methods to reduce unintended pregnancies in adolescents aged 10 years to 19 years. Two authors independently assessed trial eligibility and risk of bias, and extracted data. Where appropriate, binary outcomes were pooled using a random-effects model with a 95% confidence interval (Cl). Where appropriate, we combined data in meta-analyses and assessed the quality of the evidence using the GRADE approach. We included 53 RCTs that enrolled 105,368 adolescents. Participants were ethnically diverse. Eighteen studies randomised individuals, 32
Implementing prevention interventions for non-communicable diseases within the Primary Health Care system in the Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria. ... Conclusion: The capacity of the PHC system to implement NCDs interventions is weak, necessitating a need to strengthen coordination, partnership and funding for better ...
Baker, Philip R A; Francis, Daniel P; Hairi, Noran N; Othman, Sajaratulnisah; Choo, Wan Yuen
Maltreatment of older people (elder abuse) includes psychological, physical, sexual abuse, neglect and financial exploitation. Evidence suggests that 10% of older adults experience some form of abuse, and only a fraction of cases are actually reported or referred to social services agencies. Elder abuse is associated with significant morbidity and premature mortality. Numerous interventions have been implemented to address the issue of elder maltreatment. It is, however, unclear which interventions best serve to prevent or reduce elder abuse. The objective of this review was to assess the effectiveness of primary, secondary and tertiary intervention programmes used to reduce or prevent abuse of the elderly in their own home, in organisational or institutional and community settings. The secondary objective was to investigate whether intervention effects are modified by types of abuse, types of participants, setting of intervention, or the cognitive status of older people. We searched 19 databases (AgeLine, CINAHL, Psycinfo, MEDLINE, Embase, Proquest Central, Social Services Abstracts, ASSIA, Sociological Abstracts, ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global, Web of Science, LILACS, EPPI, InfoBase, CENTRAL, HMIC, Opengrey and Zetoc) on 12 platforms, including multidisciplinary disciplines covering medical, health, social sciences, social services, legal, finance and education. We also browsed related organisational websites, contacted authors of relevant articles and checked reference lists. Searches of databases were conducted between 30 August 2015 and 16 March 2016 and were not restricted by language. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cluster-randomised trials, and quasi-RCTs, before-and-after studies, and interrupted time series. Only studies with at least 12 weeks of follow-up investigating the effect of interventions in preventing or reducing abuse of elderly people and those who interact with the elderly were included. Two review authors
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prevention of childhood obesity is an international public health priority given the significant impact of obesity on acute and chronic diseases, general health, development and well-being. The international evidence base for strategies that governments, communities and families can implement to prevent obesity, and promote health, has been accumulating but remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: This review primarily aims to update the previous Cochrane review of childhood obesity prevention research and determine the effectiveness of evaluated interventions intended to prevent obesity in children, assessed by change in Body Mass Index (BMI. Secondary aims were to examine the characteristics of the programs and strategies to answer the questions "What works for whom, why and for what cost?" METHODS: Search methods: The searches were re-run in CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO and CINAHL in March 2010 and searched relevant websites. Non-English language papers were included and experts were contacted. Selection criteria: The review includes data from childhood obesity prevention studies that used a controlled study design (with or without randomisation. Studies were included if they evaluated interventions, policies or programs in place for twelve weeks or more. If studies were randomized at a cluster level, six clusters were required. Data collection and analysis: Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of included studies. Data was extracted on intervention implementation, cost, equity and outcomes. Outcome measures were grouped according to whether they measured adiposity, physical activity (PA-related behaviours or diet-related behaviours. Adverse outcomes were recorded. A meta-analysis was conducted using available BMI or standardized BMI (zBMI score data with subgroup analysis by age group (0-5, 6-12, 13-18 years, corresponding to stages of developmental and childhood settings. MAIN RESULTS: This
de Jong, J.T.V.M.
Political violence, armed conflicts and human rights violations are produced by a variety of political, economic and socio-cultural factors. Conflicts can be analyzed with an interdisciplinary approach to obtain a global understanding of the relative contribution of risk and protective factors. A
Bauer, Andrea; Schmitt, Jochen; Bennett, Cathy; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan; Elsner, Peter; English, John; Williams, Hywel C.
Background Occupational irritant hand dermatitis (OIHD) is an important cause of discomfort in the working population. Different preventive measures are in place but it is not clear how effective these are. Objectives To assess the effect of interventions for preventing OIHD in healthy people who
arteries using a sphygmograph and by analysing arteriolar and venular diameters in the retinal microcirculation using a non-mydriatric vessel analyser. A questionnaire is filled out to determine daily physical activity, motivational factors, dietary habits, quality of life (KINDL-R and socio-economic data. Physical fitness is assessed by a six-item test battery. Discussion Our study aims to provide a feasible long-term intervention strategy to re-establish childhood health and to prevent obesity-related cardiovascular dysfunction in children. Trial Registration NCT00988754
Ipsen, Christine; Poulsen, Signe; Gish, Liv
meeting among both managers and employees to evaluate the process. Examples of work-related changes are improved project management, recognition and feedback, well-defined tasks, and improved management. The research data (i.e. surveys, interviews and Chronicle Workshop) and the derived results have made...... it clear that the PoWRS model provides a collective learning process about the work place which supports new insights among both managers and employees. They state that having collective reflections about work, issues and potential solutions and changes is an eye-opener to how change processes can...... development of organizational level changes. By employing the model the companies became capable of developing new work practices in a multi-level participatory process using local in-house resources as facilitators. The PoWRS model was developed as part of the research project:”Productivity and Well...
Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012
Developed in 1993 at the University of Washington, Brief Alcohol Screening and Intervention for College Students (BASICS) is a preventive intervention program to reduce drinking and enhance awareness about alcohol-related issues. BASICS targets college students who are considered at risk because of heavy drinking behaviors. The brief intervention…
Meijel, Berno van
This thesis describes a study into the development and testing of a nursing intervention with a view to preventing psychotic relapses in patients suffering from schizophrenia or a related disorder. The purpose of the intervention is to recognise the early signs of an oncoming psychotic relapse. If
Handoll, Helen Hg; Rowe, Brian H; Quinn, Kathryn M; de Bie, Rob
Some sports, for example basketball and soccer, have a very high incidence of ankle injuries, mainly sprains. Consequently, ankle sprains are one of the most commonly treated injuries in acute care. To assess the effects of interventions used for the prevention of ankle ligament injuries or sprains in physically active individuals from adolescence to middle age. We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauam Group's specialised register, MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, the National Research Register and bibliographies of study reports. We also contacted colleagues and some trialists. The most recent search was conducted in July 2000. Randomised or quasi-randomised trials of interventions for the prevention of ankle sprains in physically active individuals from adolescence to middle age were included provided that ankle sprains were recorded. Interventions included use of modified footwear, external ankle supports, co-ordination training and health education. These could be applied as a supplement to treatment provided that prevention of re-injury was the primary objective. At least two reviewers independently assessed methodological quality and extracted data. Wherever possible, results of outcome measures were pooled and sub-grouped by history of previous sprain. Relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) are reported for individual and pooled data. In this review update, a further nine new trials were included. Overall, 14 randomised trials with data for 8279 participants were included. Twelve trials involved active, predominantly young, adults participating in organised, generally high-risk, activities. The other two trials involved injured patients who had been active in sports before their injury. The prophylactic interventions under test included the application of an external ankle support in the form of a semi-rigid orthosis (three trials), air-cast brace (one trial) or high top shoes (one trial); ankle disk training; taping; muscle
Handoll, H H; Rowe, B H; Quinn, K M; de Bie, R
Some sports, for example basketball and soccer, have a very high incidence of ankle injuries, mainly sprains. Consequently, ankle sprains are one of the most commonly treated injuries in acute care. To assess the effects of interventions used for the prevention of ankle ligament injuries or sprains in physically active individuals from adolescence to middle age. We searched the Cochrane Musculoskeletal Injuries Group's specialised register, MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, the National Research Register and bibliographies of study reports. We also contacted colleagues and some trialists. The most recent search was conducted in July 2000. Randomised or quasi-randomised trials of interventions for the prevention of ankle sprains in physically active individuals from adolescence to middle age were included provided that ankle sprains were recorded. Interventions included use of modified footwear, external ankle supports, co-ordination training and health education. These could be applied as a supplement to treatment provided that prevention of re-injury was the primary objective. At least two reviewers independently assessed methodological quality and extracted data. Wherever possible, results of outcome measures were pooled and sub-grouped by history of previous sprain. Relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) are reported for individual and pooled data. In this review update, a further nine new trials were included. Overall, 14 randomised trials with data for 8279 participants were included. Twelve trials involved active, predominantly young, adults participating in organised, generally high-risk, activities. The other two trials involved injured patients who had been active in sports before their injury. The prophylactic interventions under test included the application of an external ankle support in the form of a semi-rigid orthosis (three trials), air-cast brace (one trial) or high top shoes (one trial); ankle disk training; taping; muscle
Peters, Janne A; Zwerver, Johannes; Diercks, Ronald L; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge
Tendinopathy, the most prevalent tendon disorder which is considered as the clinical diagnosis of pain and dysfunction, is common in sports and its prevalence is ever-increasing. Despite the lack of clarity about risk factors, various preventive interventions for tendinopathy have been investigated. The main objective of this study is to review current preventive interventions for tendinopathy in the major regions: ankle, knee, hip, groin, shoulder and elbow. A systematic literature search was conducted. The PubMed and Embase databases were explored to identify articles that met the inclusion criteria. The included studies were assessed on methodological quality and data was summarized. Ten articles were included that describe a wide variety of preventive interventions. These were divided into three categories: stretch and exercise interventions, shoe adaptations and other interventions. The methodological quality of the studies was moderate to high. Three out of ten studies showed a significant beneficial result. There is limited evidence that a long-term intervention including balance training is effective in the prevention of patellar and Achilles tendinopathy. Shoe adaptations in the form of shock absorbing insoles could have a preventive effect on Achilles tendinopathy. Hormone replacement therapy seems to reduce the risk for structural Achilles tendon changes in active post-menopausal women. No evidence was found for a positive effect of stretching exercises. Prophylactic eccentric training and stretching can increase the risk of injury in asymptomatic players with patellar tendon abnormalities. A limited amount of studies was available and more research is needed on (multifactorial) etiology, risk factors and preventive interventions. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Manuel, Celie; Jørgensen, Anne-Marie Klint
This review centers on evaluations of youth crime prevention interventions published between 2008 and 2012. The aim of the review is to bring forward the newest information to supplement existing knowledge about crime preventive methods targeting youth. The review lists 56 studies, all targeting 12...... produced for TrygFonden and the Danish Crime Prevention Council TrygFonden and The Danish Crime Prevention Council have entered into an ambitious collaboration. The objective of this collaboration is to reduce crime and increase the feeling of security in Denmark by engaging citizens and creating new...
Summerbell, C D; Waters, E; Edmunds, L D; Kelly, S; Brown, T; Campbell, K J
Obesity prevention is an international public health priority. The prevalence of obesity and overweight is increasing in child populations throughout the world, impacting on short and long-term health. Obesity prevention strategies for children can change behaviour but efficacy in terms of preventing obesity remains poorly understood. To assess the effectiveness of interventions designed to prevent obesity in childhood through diet, physical activity and/or lifestyle and social support. MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EMBASE, CINAHL and CENTRAL were searched from 1990 to February 2005. Non-English language papers were included and experts contacted. Randomised controlled trials and controlled clinical trials with minimum duration twelve weeks. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed study quality. Twenty-two studies were included; ten long-term (at least 12 months) and twelve short-term (12 weeks to 12 months). Nineteen were school/preschool-based interventions, one was a community-based intervention targeting low-income families, and two were family-based interventions targeting non-obese children of obese or overweight parents. Six of the ten long-term studies combined dietary education and physical activity interventions; five resulted in no difference in overweight status between groups and one resulted in improvements for girls receiving the intervention, but not boys. Two studies focused on physical activity alone. Of these, a multi-media approach appeared to be effective in preventing obesity. Two studies focused on nutrition education alone, but neither were effective in preventing obesity. Four of the twelve short-term studies focused on interventions to increase physical activity levels, and two of these studies resulted in minor reductions in overweight status in favour of the intervention. The other eight studies combined advice on diet and physical activity, but none had a significant impact. The studies were heterogeneous in terms of study design
JUANITA HENAO ESCOBAR
Full Text Available The article presents a review of different kinds of international early violence prevention-intervention programs,which have shown effectiveness in the reduction of preschooler’s aggression, and in some cases, in the prevention ofviolent behavior during adolescence and youth. The central matter of this article is what we can learn from theexperiences on this field of knowledge around the world. First, the target intervention problem is presented andframed in the colombian context. After presenting the main research findings about aggressive behavior in childrenand the risk factors associated with it, the related intervention modalities will be analyzed and described. Finally, thearticle derives some pragmatic conclusions and recommendations.
Khavjou, Olga A.; Bradley, Christina; Neuwahl, Simon; Hoerger, Thomas J.; Bellard, David; Cash, Amanda J.
Introduction In 2010, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention funded 50 communities to participate in the Communities Putting Prevention to Work (CPPW) program. CPPW supported community-based approaches to prevent or delay chronic disease and promote wellness by reducing tobacco use and obesity. We collected the direct costs of CPPW for the 44 communities funded through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) and analyzed costs per person reached for all CPPW interventions and by intervention category. Methods From 2011 through 2013, we collected quarterly data on costs from the 44 CPPW ARRA-funded communities. We estimated CPPW program costs as spending on labor; consultants; materials, travel, and services; overhead activities; and partners plus the value of in-kind donations. We estimated communities’ costs per person reached for each intervention implemented and compared cost allocations across communities that focused on reducing tobacco use, or obesity, or both. Analyses were conducted in 2014; costs are reported in 2012 dollars. Results The largest share of CPPW total costs of $363 million supported interventions in communities that focused on obesity ($228 million). Average costs per person reached were less than $5 for 84% of tobacco-related interventions, 88% of nutrition interventions, and 89% of physical activity interventions. Costs per person reached were highest for social support and services interventions, almost $3 for tobacco‑use interventions and $1 for obesity prevention interventions. Conclusions CPPW cost estimates are useful for comparing intervention cost per person reached with health outcomes and for addressing how community health intervention costs vary by type of intervention and by community size. PMID:27468157
Benwell, Ann Fenger
A growing body of literature emphasizes the importance of using both quantitative and qualitative methods to investigate the wide range of aspects which hinder or promote the success of health interventions. The pilot phase of this study highlights how mixed-method approaches can be strengthened ...... to investigate factors associated with multi-level obesity prevention....
Peters, Janne A; Zwerver, Johannes; Diercks, Ronald L; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge
Objectives: Tendinopathy, the most prevalent tendon disorder which is considered as the clinical diagnosis of pain and dysfunction, is common in sports and its prevalence is ever-increasing. Despite the lack of clarity about risk factors, various preventive interventions for tendinopathy have been
van Dijken, M.W.; Stams, Geert-Jan; de Winter, M.
Despite the many efforts taken to prevent child maltreatment, this continues to be a significant worldwide problem. Interventions predominantly focus on ‘at risk’ populations and individual characteristics of the victim or abuser, but is that enough? The present review was designed to examine the
Huisman, A.; Pirkis, J; Robinson, J.
Background: Despite the growing strength of the field of suicidology, various commentators have recently noted that insufficient effort is being put into intervention research, and that this is limiting our knowledge of which suicide prevention strategies might be the most effective. Aims: To
Interventions for Violence Prevention among Young Female Hawkers in Motor Parks in South-Western Nigeria: A Review of Effectiveness. ... Findings show that they had greater knowledge of the different types of violence (p < 0.05), were more aware of their vulnerability to violence (99.4% after compared to 82.7% before ...
Poteat, Tonia; Wirtz, Andrea L; Radix, Anita; Borquez, Annick; Silva-Santisteban, Alfonso; Deutsch, Madeline B; Khan, Sharful Islam; Winter, Sam; Operario, Don
Worldwide, transgender women who engage in sex work have a disproportionate risk for HIV compared with natal male and female sex workers. We reviewed recent epidemiological research on HIV in transgender women and show that transgender women sex workers (TSW) face unique structural, interpersonal, and individual vulnerabilities that contribute to risk for HIV. Only six studies of evidence-based prevention interventions were identified, none of which focused exclusively on TSW. We developed a deterministic model based on findings related to HIV risks and interventions. The model examines HIV prevention approaches in TSW in two settings (Lima, Peru and San Francisco, CA, USA) to identify which interventions would probably achieve the UN goal of 50% reduction in HIV incidence in 10 years. A combination of interventions that achieves small changes in behaviour and low coverage of biomedical interventions was promising in both settings, suggesting that the expansion of prevention services in TSW would be highly effective. However, this expansion needs appropriate sustainable interventions to tackle the upstream drivers of HIV risk and successfully reach this population. Case studies of six countries show context-specific issues that should inform development and implementation of key interventions across heterogeneous settings. We summarise the evidence and knowledge gaps that affect the HIV epidemic in TSW, and propose a research agenda to improve HIV services and policies for this population. PMID:25059941
Christensen, Helen; Batterham, Philip J; O'Dea, Bridianne
Many people at risk of suicide do not seek help before an attempt, and do not remain connected to health services following an attempt. E-health interventions are now being considered as a means to identify at-risk individuals, offer self-help through web interventions or to deliver proactive interventions in response to individuals' posts on social media. In this article, we examine research studies which focus on these three aspects of suicide and the internet: the use of online screening for suicide, the effectiveness of e-health interventions aimed to manage suicidal thoughts, and newer studies which aim to proactively intervene when individuals at risk of suicide are identified by their social media postings. We conclude that online screening may have a role, although there is a need for additional robust controlled research to establish whether suicide screening can effectively reduce suicide-related outcomes, and in what settings online screening might be most effective. The effectiveness of Internet interventions may be increased if these interventions are designed to specifically target suicidal thoughts, rather than associated conditions such as depression. The evidence for the use of intervention practices using social media is possible, although validity, feasibility and implementation remains highly uncertain.
van der Molen, Henk F; Basnet, Prativa; Hoonakker, Peter Lt; Lehtola, Marika M; Lappalainen, Jorma; Frings-Dresen, Monique Hw; Haslam, Roger; Verbeek, Jos H
Construction workers are frequently exposed to various types of injury-inducing hazards. There are a number of injury prevention interventions, yet their effectiveness is uncertain. To assess the effects of interventions for preventing injuries in construction workers. We searched the Cochrane Injuries Group's specialised register, CENTRAL (issue 3), MEDLINE, Embase and PsycINFO up to April 2017. The searches were not restricted by language or publication status. We also handsearched the reference lists of relevant papers and reviews. Randomised controlled trials, controlled before-after (CBA) studies and interrupted time-series (ITS) of all types of interventions for preventing fatal and non-fatal injuries among workers at construction sites. Two review authors independently selected studies, extracted data and assessed their risk of bias. For ITS studies, we re-analysed the studies and used an initial effect, measured as the change in injury rate in the year after the intervention, as well as a sustained effect, measured as the change in time trend before and after the intervention. Seventeen studies (14 ITS and 3 CBA studies) met the inclusion criteria in this updated version of the review. The ITS studies evaluated the effects of: introducing or changing regulations that laid down safety and health requirements for the construction sites (nine studies), a safety campaign (two studies), a drug-free workplace programme (one study), a training programme (one study), and safety inspections (one study) on fatal and non-fatal occupational injuries. One CBA study evaluated the introduction of occupational health services such as risk assessment and health surveillance, one evaluated a training programme and one evaluated the effect of a subsidy for upgrading to safer scaffoldings. The overall risk of bias of most of the included studies was high, as it was uncertain for the ITS studies whether the intervention was independent from other changes and thus could be
Verbeek, Jos H.; Kateman, Erik; Morata, Thais C.; Dreschler, Wout; Sorgdrager, Bas
BACKGROUND: Millions of workers worldwide are exposed to noise levels that increase their risk of hearing impairment. Little is known about the effectiveness of hearing loss prevention interventions. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of non-pharmaceutical interventions for preventing
Verbeek, Jos H.; Kateman, Erik; Morata, Thais C.; Dreschler, Wouter A.; Mischke, Christina
Background Millions of workers worldwide are exposed to noise levels that increase their risk of hearing impairment. Little is known about the effectiveness of hearing loss prevention interventions. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of non-pharmaceutical interventions for preventing
White, Wendi E; Carmody, Dianne
Facebook, Twitter, and other social networking sites have changed the way we interact online. Technological advances have also facilitated the emergence of cyberstalking and online harassment, a growing issue on college campuses. This study utilizes focus group data to examine college students' experiences with online harassment and cyberstalking. Students voiced concerns with online tracking, falsifying identities, and harassment. They also noted that incoming first-year students and those negotiating some of their first romantic relationships are especially vulnerable. In addition, students were asked to propose appropriate prevention, education, and intervention strategies at the college level. Surprisingly, many students recommended offline programs to battle this online problem. © The Author(s) 2016.
Becker, Annette; Angerer, Peter; Müller, Andreas
Research shows that psychosocial factors play a significant role on the emergence of musculoskeletal complaints (MSC). The aim of this study was to determine whether a coaching intervention which was focussed on enabling better strategies for coping with work stressors is superior to physiotherapy alone in the reduction of MSC. 68 nurses were randomized to an intervention group (IG, n = 34) or a control group (CG, n = 34). The IG and CG completed a weekly individual physiotherapy unit (10 weeks). Additionally, the IG passed five coaching sessions (fortnightly), plus one opening and one closing session. The primary outcome was MSC, secondary outcomes were work ability and work-related wellbeing. Outcomes were obtained by physical examinations and questionnaires. Data were analyzed by t-test, Chi-Square test, ANOVA with repeated measurements, and multilevel analyzes. In respect of MSC, the IG compared to the CG showed a significant improvement in the pain severity of everyday movements, and trends towards an improvement of movement in the vertebral column as well as a reduction of the pain severity due to maximum degree movements. No effects were observed in respect to muscle strengths, and restrictions of everyday activities. The IG exhibited a significant improvement of work ability in reference to the physical working demands, and work-related wellbeing. Analysis indicates that improvements in the IG increased further in the 12 weeks after the intervention. The results suggest that the coaching, beyond physiotherapy, can support the reduction of MSC, the improvement of work ability and work-related wellbeing.
Podniece, Z.; Heuvel, S. van den; Blatter, B.
Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) can interfere with activities at work and can lead to reduced productivity, sickness absence and chronic occupational disability. The aim of this report is to systematic evaluate the effectiveness of interventions at the workplace since 2002 and to provide practical examples with respect to successful prevention of MSDs. Among the main findings of the literature review was that there is strong evidence that technical ergonomic measures can reduce ...
Prevention of hospital infections by intervention and training (PROHIBIT): results of a pan-European cluster-randomized multicentre study to reduce central venous catheter-related bloodstream infections.
van der Kooi, Tjallie; Sax, Hugo; Pittet, Didier; van Dissel, Jaap; van Benthem, Birgit; Walder, Bernhard; Cartier, Vanessa; Clack, Lauren; de Greeff, Sabine; Wolkewitz, Martin; Hieke, Stefanie; Boshuizen, Hendriek; van de Kassteele, Jan; Van den Abeele, Annemie; Boo, Teck Wee; Diab-Elschahawi, Magda; Dumpis, Uga; Ghita, Camelia; FitzGerald, Susan; Lejko, Tatjana; Leleu, Kris; Martinez, Mercedes Palomar; Paniara, Olga; Patyi, Márta; Schab, Paweł; Raglio, Annibale; Szilágyi, Emese; Ziętkiewicz, Mirosław; Wu, Albert W; Grundmann, Hajo; Zingg, Walter
To test the effectiveness of a central venous catheter (CVC) insertion strategy and a hand hygiene (HH) improvement strategy to prevent central venous catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) in European intensive care units (ICUs), measuring both process and outcome indicators. Adult ICUs from 14 hospitals in 11 European countries participated in this stepped-wedge cluster randomised controlled multicentre intervention study. After a 6 month baseline, three hospitals were randomised to one of three interventions every quarter: (1) CVC insertion strategy (CVCi); (2) HH promotion strategy (HHi); and (3) both interventions combined (COMBi). Primary outcome was prospective CRBSI incidence density. Secondary outcomes were a CVC insertion score and HH compliance. Overall 25,348 patients with 35,831 CVCs were included. CRBSI incidence density decreased from 2.4/1000 CVC-days at baseline to 0.9/1000 (p < 0.0001). When adjusted for patient and CVC characteristics all three interventions significantly reduced CRBSI incidence density. When additionally adjusted for the baseline decreasing trend, the HHi and COMBi arms were still effective. CVC insertion scores and HH compliance increased significantly with all three interventions. This study demonstrates that multimodal prevention strategies aiming at improving CVC insertion practice and HH reduce CRBSI in diverse European ICUs. Compliance explained CRBSI reduction and future quality improvement studies should encourage measuring process indicators.
Coker, Ann L; Bush, Heather M; Fisher, Bonnie S; Swan, Suzanne C; Williams, Corrine M; Clear, Emily R; DeGue, Sarah
The 2013 Campus Sexual Violence Elimination Act requires U.S. colleges to provide bystander-based training to reduce sexual violence, but little is known about the efficacy of such programs for preventing violent behavior. This study provides the first multiyear evaluation of a bystander intervention's campus-level impact on reducing interpersonal violence victimization and perpetration behavior on college campuses. First-year students attending three similarly sized public university campuses were randomly selected and invited to complete online surveys in the spring terms of 2010-2013. On one campus, the Green Dot bystander intervention was implemented in 2008 (Intervention, n=2,979) and two comparison campuses had no bystander programming at baseline (Comparison, n=4,132). Data analyses conducted in 2014-2015 compared violence rates by condition over the four survey periods. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate violence risk on Intervention relative to Comparison campuses, adjusting for demographic factors and time (2010-2013). Interpersonal violence victimization rates (measured in the past academic year) were 17% lower among students attending the Intervention (46.4%) relative to Comparison (55.7%) campuses (adjusted rate ratio=0.83; 95% CI=0.79, 0.88); a similar pattern held for interpersonal violence perpetration (25.5% in Intervention; 32.2% in Comparison; adjusted rate ratio=0.79; 95% CI=0.71, 0.86). Violence rates were lower on Intervention versus Comparison campuses for unwanted sexual victimization, sexual harassment, stalking, and psychological dating violence victimization and perpetration (preduce violence at the community level and meet Campus Sexual Violence Elimination Act bystander training requirements. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.
To determine what secondary schoolchildren in Jordan want from overweight and obesity intervention strategies and prevention programmes. A school-based, cross-sectional study using a quantitative design was carried out during October 2014. The participants were secondary schoolchildren in grades 11 and 12. Data were analysed using SPSS program version 17. Percentages, standard deviations and means were computed. The main suggestions were for programmes at school, during school hours (n=962, 85.4%), followed by one that involved family and friends (n=951, 84.5%), and a programme at a convenient time free of charge (n=919, 81.6%). The students also suggested many strategies to tackle overweight and obesity, such as: taking more physical exercise (n=925, 82.1%), increasing consumption of more fruit and vegetables (n=712, 63.2%) eating less fast food (n=689, 61.2%). Schools, families, health providers and community organisations should encourage students to adopt healthy lifestyles, and facilitate their selection and participation in health programmes.
Sagarra, R; Costa, B; Cabré, J J; Solà-Morales, O; Barrio, F
Transferring the results from clinical trials on type 2 diabetes prevention is the objective of the Diabetes in Europe-Prevention using Lifestyle, Physical Activity and Nutritional intervention (DE-PLAN) project in Catalonia, whose cost-effectiveness analysis is now presented. A prospective cohort study was performed in primary care involving individuals without diagnosed diabetes aged 45-75 years (n=2054) screened using the questionnaire Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC) and a subsequent oral glucose tolerance test. Where feasible, high-risk individuals who were identified (n=552) were allocated sequentially to standard care (n=219), a group-based (n=230) or an individual-level (n=103) intensive (structured programme of six hours using specific teaching techniques) lifestyle intervention (n=333). The primary outcome was the development of diabetes (WHO). We evaluated the cost of resources used with comparison of standard care and the intervention groups in terms of effectiveness and quality of life (15D questionnaire). After 4.2-year median follow-up, the cumulative incidences were 18.3% (14.3-22.9%) in the intensive intervention group and 28.8% (22.9-35.3%) in the standard care group (36.5% relative-risk-reduction). The corresponding 4-year HR was 0.64 (0.47-0.87; P<.004). The incremental cost induced by intensive intervention compared with the standard was 106€ per participant in the individual level and 10€ in the group-based intervention representing 746€ and 108€ per averted case of diabetes, respectively. The estimated incremental cost-utility ratio was 3243€ per quality-adjusted life-years gained. The intensive lifestyle intervention delayed the development of diabetes and was efficient in economic analysis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
A combination of quantitative and qualitative research was used to determine the effectiveness of a cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programme in a cohort of patients referred to the service at a London hospital. Quantitative data analysis provided evidence of effectiveness of participation in CR in reduced hospital readmission rates and use of recognised pharmacological management strategies. Self-reported physical activity levels and quality of life (QOL) in individuals who participated in the cardiac rehabilitation programme were qualitatively measured with questionnaires. Results provided evidence of benefit in continued participation in exercise. However, there was no evidence of benefit to QOL status post participation at 1 year. A p-value of 0.001 provided significant statistical evidence supporting the hypothesis of benefit in continued participation in exercise in participants following attendance at a cardiac rehabilitation programme. QOL status; a statistically significant p-value of 0.001 rejected the hypothesis (H1) of benefit. This would imply that participation CR programmes does not appear to provide sustained benefits in QOL. A number of moderating variables were suggested as explaining the finding such as homogeneity of respondents, age, mood bias and the timeframe of 1 year between participation in rehabilitation and self-reporting. CR appears to be an effective but time-limited intervention in relation to improvements in QOL. Collaborative working partnerships between specialist interventions, such as CR with chronic disease management strategies may provide greater sustainability of benefits gained from participation in cardiac rehabilitation programmes.
Singh, Niharika; Srinivasan, Sangeetha; Muralidharan, Vinata; Roy, Rupak; V, Jayprakash; Raman, Rajiv
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) compromises quality of life. However, the available therapeutic options are limited. This has led to the identification of modifiable risk factors to prevent the development or alter the natural course and prognosis of AMD. The identification and modification of risk factors has the potential for greater public health impact on reducing morbidity from AMD. Likewise, identifying the imaging clues and genetic clues could serve as a guide to recognizing the propensity for progression to severe and end stages of the disease. Several attempts, both successful and unsuccessful, have been made for interventions that could delay the progression of AMD. Of these, pharmacological interventions have shown promising results. The Age-Related Eye Disease Study 1 and 2 have shown the beneficial role of antioxidants in a selected group of patients. Copyright 2017 Asia-Pacific Academy of Ophthalmology.
Esther Quirós Abajo
Full Text Available Eating Disorders are an important health problem of our society because of their rising incidence in the last years, as well as their high cost in terms of Public Health. Nowadays the best option to face this problem is through prevention. The objective of the present work is to evaluate if a Web nursing intervention based on Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy can prevent Eating Disorders by reducing risk factors in 15 to 18 years old women.Methodology: It is a randomized clinical trial in which the experimental group will receive the Web nursing intervention and the control group will not receive any kind of preventive intervention related to Eating Disorders. The study will be developed in six Secondary Education Institutes of the areas 9 and 10 of Madrid Community. Women at risk will be selected by the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ. Risk factors such as body image dissatisfaction, eating and depressive symptoms will be evaluated. Measurements will be, besides BSQ, the Body Attitudes Test (BAT, the Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI, the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI.
This article presents a systematic review of school-based cyberbullying prevention and intervention programs. Research presenting empirical evidence about the effectiveness of a school-based cyberbullying prevention or intervention program published before August 2016 was searched. Seventeen studies were obtained and reviewed. The findings showed…
Hoelzl, C; Bichler, J; Ferk, F; Simic, T; Nersesyan, A; Elbling, L; Ehrlich, V; Chakraborty, A; Knasmüller, S
It is well documented that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in the aetiology of age related diseases. Over the last decades, strong efforts have been made to identify antioxidants in human foods and numerous promising compounds have been detected which are used for the production of supplements and functional foods. The present paper describes the advantages and limitations of methods which are currently used for the identification of antioxidants. Numerous in vitro methods are available which are easy to perform and largely used in screening trials. However, the results of such tests are only partly relevant for humans as certain active compounds (e.g. those with large molecular configuration) are only poorly absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract and/or may undergo metabolic degradation. Therefore experimental models are required which provide information if protective effects take place in humans under realistic conditions. Over the last years, several methods have been developed which are increasingly used in human intervention trials. The most widely used techniques are chemical determinations of oxidised guanosine in peripheral blood cells or urine and single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assays with lymphocytes which are based on the measurement of DNA migration in an electric field. By using of DNA-restriction enzymes (formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase and endonuclease III) it is possible to monitor the endogenous formation of oxidised purines and pyrimidines; recently also protocols have been developed which enable to monitor alterations in the repair of oxidised DNA. Alternatively, also the frequency of micronucleated cells can be monitored with the cytokinesis block method in peripheral human blood cells before and after intervention with putative antioxidants. To obtain information on alterations of the sensitivity towards oxidative damage, the cells can be treated ex vivo with ROS (H(2)O(2) exposure, radiation). The evaluation of
Gillen, Patricia A; Sinclair, Marlene; Kernohan, W George; Begley, Cecily M; Luyben, Ans G
Bullying has been identified as one of the leading workplace stressors, with adverse consequences for the individual employee, groups of employees, and whole organisations. Employees who have been bullied have lower levels of job satisfaction, higher levels of anxiety and depression, and are more likely to leave their place of work. Organisations face increased risk of skill depletion and absenteeism, leading to loss of profit, potential legal fees, and tribunal cases. It is unclear to what extent these risks can be addressed through interventions to prevent bullying. To explore the effectiveness of workplace interventions to prevent bullying in the workplace. We searched: the Cochrane Work Group Trials Register (August 2014); Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; The Cochrane Library 2016, issue 1); PUBMED (1946 to January 2016); EMBASE (1980 to January 2016); PsycINFO (1967 to January 2016); Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL Plus; 1937 to January 2016); International Bibliography of the Social Sciences (IBSS; 1951 to January 2016); Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts (ASSIA; 1987 to January 2016); ABI Global (earliest record to January 2016); Business Source Premier (BSP; earliest record to January 2016); OpenGrey (previously known as OpenSIGLE-System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe; 1980 to December 2014); and reference lists of articles. Randomised and cluster-randomised controlled trials of employee-directed interventions, controlled before and after studies, and interrupted time-series studies of interventions of any type, aimed at preventing bullying in the workplace, targeted at an individual employee, a group of employees, or an organisation. Three authors independently screened and selected studies. We extracted data from included studies on victimisation, perpetration, and absenteeism associated with workplace bullying. We contacted study authors to gather additional data. We used the
Tso, Lai Sze; Tang, Weiming; Li, Haochu; Yan, H Yanna; Tucker, Joseph D
Persistent new HIV infections and risky behaviors underscore the need for enhanced HIV prevention. Social media interventions may promote safe sexual behaviors, increase HIV testing uptake, and promote safe injection behaviors. This review discusses how social media interventions tap into the wisdom of crowds through crowdsourcing, build peer-mentored communities, and deliver interventions through social networks. Social media HIV prevention interventions are constrained by ethical issues, low social media usage among some key populations, and implementation issues. Comprehensive measurement of social media interventions to prevent HIV is necessary, but requires further development of metrics.
Pratt, B M; Woolfenden, S R
/or electronic mail. Randomised controlled trials (RCT) with a major focus on eating disorder prevention programs for children and adolescents, where there is no known DSM-IV diagnosis of an eating disorder, are eligible for inclusion in the review. Trials must include a control group and at least one objective outcome measure (eg. BMI) or a standardised psychological measure used with the intervention and control group, pre- and post-intervention. A total of 1379 titles have been identified through the search to date. 13 studies were located that reported use of a randomised controlled trial methodology and were critically appraised by two independent reviewers. Five (5) studies were excluded as data were not reported in a useable form or useable data could not be obtained from the trial authors, one dissertation could not be obtained, one study had no "true" no-treatment or usual treatment control group, and one study did not use a pre-test outcome measure. Eight (8) studies met the selection criteria outlined above. Only one of eight pooled comparisons of two or more studies using similar outcome measures and similar intervention types demonstrated the statistically significant effect of a particular type of eating disorder prevention program for children and adolescents. Combined data from two eating disorder prevention programs based on a media literacy and advocacy approach indicate a reduction in the internalisation or acceptance of societal ideals relating to appearance at a 3- to 6-month follow-up (Kusel, unpublished; Neumark-Sztainer2000) [SMD -0.28, -0.51 to -0.05, 95% CI]. However, there is insufficient evidence to conclude that this approach also demonstrated a significant impact on awareness of societal standards relating to appearance. There is insufficient evidence to support the effect of four programs designed to address eating attitudes and behaviours and other adolescent issues on body weight, eating disorder symptoms, associated eating disorder
Lemieux, Anthony F; Fisher, Jeffrey D; Pratto, Felicia
This research examines the process of conducting and evaluating a music-based HIV prevention intervention among urban adolescents, and is informed by the information, motivation, behavioral skills (IMB) model. Musically talented opinion leaders were recruited to write, record, and distribute HIV prevention themed music to their peers to increase HIV prevention motivation, behavioral skills, and behaviors. In this 3-month field experiment, participants were 306 students enrolled in health classes at each of three large multiracial urban high schools (one treatment school; two control schools). Measures of HIV prevention information, motivation, behavioral skills, and behaviors, both pre- and postintervention. Results indicate that the intervention influenced several aspects of HIV prevention motivation, behavioral skills, and condom use and HIV testing behaviors. This research demonstrates that the incorporation of music into HIV prevention interventions for adolescents has the potential to be effective.
Schelvis, Roosmarijn M C; Oude Hengel, Karen M; Wiezer, Noortje M; Blatter, Birgitte M; van Genabeek, Joost A G M; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T; van der Beek, Allard J
In the educational sector job demands have intensified, while job resources remained the same. A prolonged disbalance between demands and resources contributes to lowered vitality and heightened need for recovery, eventually resulting in burnout, sickness absence and retention problems. Until now stress management interventions in education focused mostly on strengthening the individual capacity to cope with stress, instead of altering the sources of stress at work at the organizational level. These interventions have been only partly effective in influencing burnout and well-being. Therefore, the "Bottom-up Innovation" project tests a two-phased participatory, primary preventive organizational level intervention (i.e. a participatory action approach) that targets and engages all workers in the primary process of schools. It is hypothesized that participating in the project results in increased occupational self-efficacy and organizational efficacy. The central research question: is an organization focused stress management intervention based on participatory action effective in reducing the need for recovery and enhancing vitality in school employees in comparison to business as usual? The study is designed as a controlled trial with mixed methods and three measurement moments: baseline (quantitative measures), six months and 18 months (quantitative and qualitative measures). At first follow-up short term effects of taking part in the needs assessment (phase 1) will be determined. At second follow-up the long term effects of taking part in the needs assessment will be determined as well as the effects of implemented tailored workplace solutions (phase 2). A process evaluation based on quantitative and qualitative data will shed light on whether, how and why the intervention (does not) work(s). "Bottom-up Innovation" is a combined effort of the educational sector, intervention providers and researchers. Results will provide insight into (1) the relation between
EMMA ELISE ROBERTS
Teachers have a central role in the management and prevention of bullying within schools and are in turn involved in the implementation of anti-bullying interventions (Kochenderfer-Ladd & Pelletier, 2008). Therefore an assessment of teachers’ attitudes towards bullying interventions is needed to determine how helpful they perceived interventions to be. This study investigated teachers’ attitudes towards anti-bullying interventions and the types of bullying they perceived the interventions wou...
What is the effect of a combined physical activity and fall prevention intervention enhanced with health coaching and pedometers on older adults' physical activity levels and mobility-related goals? Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.
Tiedemann, Anne; Paul, Serene; Ramsay, Elisabeth; O'Rourke, Sandra D; Chamberlain, Kathryn; Kirkham, Catherine; Merom, Dafna; Fairhall, Nicola; Oliveira, Juliana S; Hassett, Leanne; Sherrington, Catherine
Physical inactivity and falls in older people are important public health problems. Health conditions that could be ameliorated with physical activity are particularly common in older people. One in three people aged 65 years and over fall at least once annually, often resulting in significant injuries and ongoing disability. These problems need to be urgently addressed as the population proportion of older people is rapidly rising. This trial aims to establish the impact of a combined physical activity and fall prevention intervention compared to an advice brochure on objectively measured physical activity participation and mobility-related goal attainment among people aged 60+. A randomised controlled trial involving 130 consenting community-dwelling older people will be conducted. Participants will be individually randomised to a control group (n = 65) and receive a fall prevention brochure, or to an intervention group (n = 65) and receive the brochure plus physical activity promotion and fall prevention intervention enhanced with health coaching and a pedometer. Primary outcomes will be objectively measured physical activity and mobility-related goal attainment, measured at both six and 12 months post randomisation. Secondary outcomes will include: falls, the proportion of people meeting the physical activity guidelines, quality of life, fear of falling, mood, and mobility limitation. Barriers and enablers to physical activity participation will be measured 6 months after randomisation. General linear models will be used to assess the effect of group allocation on the continuously-scored primary and secondary outcome measures, after adjusting for baseline scores. Between-group differences in goal attainment (primary outcome) will be analysed with ordinal regression. The number of falls per person-year will be analysed using negative binomial regression models to estimate the between-group difference in fall rates after one year (secondary outcome). Modified
Reza Rahimi Moghaddam
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The hamstring muscles have very important role in the stabilization of body posture, movement of the lower extremities and trunk movements in relation to the thigh. Hamstring injuries are common among athletes, especially in sports like soccer with sprinting demands, kicking, and sudden accelerations. Hamstring strains are frustrating for the injured athletes because the symptoms are persistent, healing is slow, and the rate of re-injury is high. This indicates a need to develop prevention strategies for hamstring injuries. The aims of this review are introducing hamstring strains, associated risk factors, and providing rehabilitative ecommendations for injured athletes to prevent re-injury. METHOD: Information was gathered from an online literatures search using the key words hamstring injuries, soccer injuries, injury prevention, hamstring rehabilitation, and stretching exercises. Screening of references and hand searches of relevant journals were also employed. All relevant studies in English were reviewed and abstracted.RESULTS: It has been shown that hamstring strains account for 12-16% of all injuries in athletes with a re-injury rate reported as high as 22-34%. The hamstrings have a tendency to shorten. Tight hamstrings with limited range of motion and flexibility may lead to postural deficiency and deformities. It also makes the hamstring susceptible to re-injury. Risk factors such as age, strength imbalance, previous injury and flexibility should be considered. CONCLUSION: Prevention intervention may minimize the risk factors of hamstring injuries. Training modalities should emphasize on eccentric strength training, and prevention of fatigue. There is wide disagreement about the impact of stretching exercise on prevention/rehabilitation of hamstring injuries.
Edwards, C H
Prevention of hypertension must play a more prominent role in health care, in the education of young people, and in the public policy arena if we are committed to reduce mortality from cardiovascular disease. Some steps individuals can take to lessen the risk of stroke or coronary heart disease include: If you are obese and hypertensive, you should reduce total calories and lose weight. Substitute olive oil or canola oil for vegetable oils to increase your intake of monounsaturated fatty acids. Try the Mediterranean diet. Start a program of aerobic exercise or increase the amount you are currently doing. Reduce salt intake. Reduce alcohol consumption. Stop smoking. If you have hypertension and tend to overrespond to stress, try relaxation and biofeedback techniques, which according to some studies may produce a modest reduction in blood pressure in some individuals with mild hypertension. Increase the amount of fiber in the diet by increasing the amount of grains, fruit, and vegetables. Have your renin level tested. A "population" approach should be incorporated into medical school curricula to encourage and train caregivers to consider social, cultural, and economic factors affecting patients. Historically black colleges, public and private elementary and secondary schools, and churches can provide leadership in this nation for educating African Americans in the prevention and control of high blood pressure. In conclusion, we already have the information we need from research to close the mortality gap between whites and African Americans in cardiovascular disease.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Schelke, Matthew W; Hackett, Katherine; Chen, Jaclyn L; Shih, Chiashin; Shum, Jessica; Montgomery, Mary E; Chiang, Gloria C; Berkowitz, Cara; Seifan, Alon; Krikorian, Robert; Isaacson, Richard Scott
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a major source of morbidity and mortality, with the disease burden expected to rise as the population ages. No disease-modifying agent is currently available, but recent research suggests that nutritional and lifestyle modifications can delay or prevent the onset of AD. However, preventive nutritional interventions are not universally applicable and depend on the clinical profile of the individual patient. This article reviews existing nutritional modalities for AD prevention that act through improvement of insulin resistance, correction of dyslipidemia, and reduction of oxidative stress, and discusses how they may be modified on the basis of individual biomarkers, genetics, and behavior. In addition, we report preliminary results of clinical application of these personalized interventions at the first AD prevention clinic in the United States. The use of these personalized interventions represents an important application of precision medicine techniques for the prevention of AD that can be adopted by clinicians across disciplines. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.
Hoogeveen, Ruben C; Dorresteijn, Johannes A N; Kriegsman, Didi M W; Valk, Gerlof D.
BACKGROUND: Ulceration of the feet, which can lead to the amputation of feet and legs, is a major problem for people with diabetes mellitus, and can cause substantial economic burden. Single preventive strategies have not been shown to reduce the incidence of foot ulceration to a significant extent.
Alcohol dependence is a chronic, debilitating disorder that is an important public health problem worldwide. Combined psychological and pharmacological treatment packages produce best outcomes in its management. In this paper we discuss the three NICE – approved relapse prevention medications used in treatment of ...
Gibbs, Andrew; Jacobson, Jessica; Kerr Wilson, Alice
Intimate partner violence (IPV) and HIV are co-occurring global epidemics, with similar root causes of gender and economic inequalities. Economic interventions have become a central approach to preventing IPV and HIV. We undertook a comprehensive scoping review of published evaluations of economic interventions that sought to prevent IPV and/or HIV risk behaviours. Forty-five separate analyses of interventions met our criteria. Broadly, unconditional cash transfer interventions showed either flat or positive outcomes; economic strengthening interventions had mixed outcomes, with some negative, flat and positive results reported; interventions combining economic strengthening and gender transformative interventions tended to have positive outcomes. The review highlighted a number of gaps. Specifically, there were limited studies evaluating the impact of economic interventions on female sex workers, young women, and men. In addition, there were missed opportunities, with many evaluations only reporting either IPV- or HIV-related outcomes, rather than both, despite overlaps.
Miller-Day, Michelle; Hecht, Michael L.
This paper describes a Narrative Engagement Framework (NEF) for guiding communication-based prevention efforts. This framework suggests that personal narratives have distinctive capabilities in prevention. The paper discusses the concept of narrative, links narrative to prevention, and discusses the central role of youth in developing narrative interventions. As illustration, the authors describe how the NEF is applied in the keepin’ it REAL adolescent drug prevention curriculum, pose theoretical directions, and offer suggestions for future work in prevention communication. PMID:23980613
The purpose of this article was to review international (excluding the United States) school-based interventions for preventing obesity in children published between 1999 and 2005. A total of 21 such interventions were found from Australia (1), Austria (1), Canada (1), Chile (1), France (1), Germany (3), Greece (1), New Zealand (1), Norway (1), Singapore (1) and the United Kingdom (9). The grade range of these interventions was from pre-school to high school with the majority (17) from elementary schools. Nine of these interventions targeted nutrition behaviours followed by seven aiming to modify both physical activity and nutrition behaviours. Only five interventions in international settings were based on any explicit behavioural theory which is different than the interventions developed in the United States. Majority of the interventions (9) were one academic year long. It can be speculated that if the interventions are behavioural theory-based, then the intervention length can be shortened. All interventions that documented parental involvement successfully influenced obesity indices. Most interventions (16) focused on individual-level behaviour change approaches. Most published interventions (16) used experimental designs with at least 1-year follow-up. Recommendations from international settings for enhancing the effectiveness of school-based childhood obesity interventions are presented.
Carson, Kristin V; Ameer, Faisal; Sayehmiri, Kourosh; Hnin, Khin; van Agteren, Joseph Em; Sayehmiri, Fatemeh; Brinn, Malcolm P; Esterman, Adrian J; Chang, Anne B; Smith, Brian J
Mass media interventions can be used as a way of delivering preventive health messages. They have the potential to reach and modify the knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of a large proportion of the community. To assess the effects of mass media interventions on preventing smoking in young people, and whether it can reduce smoking uptake among youth (under 25 years), improve smoking attitudes, intentions and knowledge, improve self-efficacy/self-esteem, and improve perceptions about smoking, including the choice to follow positive role models. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register, with additional searches of MEDLINE and Embase in June 2016. This is an update of a review first published in 1998. Randomized trials, controlled trials without randomization and interrupted time-series studies that assessed the effect of mass media campaigns (defined as channels of communication such as television, radio, newspapers, social media, billboards, posters, leaflets or booklets intended to reach large numbers of people and which are not dependent on person-to-person contact) in influencing the smoking behaviour (either objective or self-reported) of young people under the age of 25 years. We define smoking behaviour as the presence or absence of tobacco smoking or other tobacco use, or both, and the frequency of tobacco use. Eligible comparators included education or no intervention. Two review authors independently extracted information relating to the characteristics and the content of media interventions, participants, outcomes, methods of the study and risks of bias. We combined studies using qualitative narrative synthesis. We assessed the risks of bias for each study using the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool, alongside additional domains to account for the nature of the intervention. We assessed the quality of evidence contributing to outcomes using GRADE. We identified eight eligible studies reporting information about mass media smoking
Arshad, Ahmed; Salam, Rehana A; Lassi, Zohra S; Das, Jai K; Naqvi, Imama; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A
In 2012, an estimated 8.6 million people developed tuberculosis (TB) and 1.3 million died from the disease. With its recent resurgence with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); TB prevention and management has become further challenging. We systematically evaluated the effectiveness of community based interventions (CBI) for the prevention and treatment of TB and a total of 41 studies were identified for inclusion. Findings suggest that CBI for TB prevention and case detection showed significant increase in TB detection rates (RR: 3.1, 95% CI: 2.92, 3.28) with non-significant impact on TB incidence. CBI for treating patients with active TB showed an overall improvement in treatment success rates (RR: 1.09, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.11) and evidence from a single study suggests significant reduction in relapse rate (RR: 0.26, 95% CI: 0.18, 0.39). The results were consistent for various study design and delivery mechanism. Qualitative synthesis suggests that community based TB treatment delivery through community health workers (CHW) not only improved access and service utilization but also contributed to capacity building and improving the routine TB recording and reporting systems. CBI coupled with the DOTS strategy seem to be an effective approach, however there is a need to evaluate various community-based integrated delivery models for relative effectiveness.
This report describes the implementation and short-term results of a peer group intervention for HIV prevention on the HIV-related attitudes, knowledge and behaviours of primary school teachers in Malawi. The intervention, based on the social-cognitive learning model, took place in 2000 at two teacher training colleges ...
Fernandes,Luciana Magnani; Caliri,Maria Helena Larcher; Haas,Vanderlei José
OBJECTIVE: The aim was to evaluate the effect of the educative interventions on nursing staff knowledge about pressure ulcer prevention in Intensive Care Centers (ICC). It is a descriptive-comparative study. METHODS: Data were collected from nursing team members before and after educative interventions using a knowledge test with true-false questions related to pressure ulcer prevention and description as a research instrument. RESULTS: Seven registered nurses participated in the pre-interven...
Full Text Available Doctors are exposed to high levels of stress in the course of their profession and are particularly susceptible to experiencing burnout. Burnout has far-reaching implications on doctors; patients and the healthcare system. Doctors experiencing burnout are reported to be at a higher risk of making poor decisions; display hostile attitude toward patients; make more medical errors; and have difficult relationships with co-workers. Burnout among doctors also increases risk of depression; anxiety; sleep disturbances; fatigue; alcohol and drug misuse; marital dysfunction; premature retirement and perhaps most seriously suicide. Sources of stress in medical practice may range from the emotions arising in the context of patient care to the environment in which doctors practice. The extent of burnout may vary depending on the practice setting; speciality and changing work environment. Understanding dynamic risk factors associated with burnout may help us develop strategies for preventing and treating burnout. Some of these strategies will be reviewed in this paper.
Doctors are exposed to high levels of stress in the course of their profession and are particularly susceptible to experiencing burnout. Burnout has far-reaching implications on doctors; patients and the healthcare system. Doctors experiencing burnout are reported to be at a higher risk of making poor decisions; display hostile attitude toward patients; make more medical errors; and have difficult relationships with co-workers. Burnout among doctors also increases risk of depression; anxiety; sleep disturbances; fatigue; alcohol and drug misuse; marital dysfunction; premature retirement and perhaps most seriously suicide. Sources of stress in medical practice may range from the emotions arising in the context of patient care to the environment in which doctors practice. The extent of burnout may vary depending on the practice setting; speciality and changing work environment. Understanding dynamic risk factors associated with burnout may help us develop strategies for preventing and treating burnout. Some of these strategies will be reviewed in this paper.
A computerized literature search of the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wan Fang, and PubMed databases was conducted to collect related articles published in China. Only self-control intervention studies or studies containing sections regarding self-control interventions wherein the method of intervention was ...
Richardson, G M; Gardner, S; Frantz, R A
To describe pressure ulcer preventive interventions and their cost, and to compare the preventive intervention use and cost with level of risk. Comparative, descriptive design. A large midwestern Veteran's Affairs Medical Center with 260 long-term care beds. Thirty-one chair- or bed-bound residents from 1 long-term care unit comprised the study sample. The outcome variables included demographic information (patient record), Braden Risk Assessment score, institutional risk assessment score (Pressure Ulcer Risk Tool), type and frequency of preventive interventions, and the related costs. Subjects were assessed on a weekly basis for type and frequency of preventive intervention and for the development of a pressure ulcer. Each subject was observed until death, discharge, pressure ulcer formation, or the end of the 3-month study period. The 3-month pressure ulcer incidence rate was 13%. All subjects were at risk for pressure ulcer development according to Braden scores; whereas only 74% were assessed at risk with use of the facility's risk assessment tool. Preventive measures included regular repositioning (87%); 67% were placed on mattress support surfaces. There was no relationship between level of risk (facility risk tool score) and type of prevention used. The total cost of pressure ulcer prevention to the nursing unit was $14,926, representing a mean of $497 per subject, and $5.55 per subject per day. As compared with previous studies, the higher cost of prevention described in this study may be attributed to inadequate linkage of preventive interventions to risk level.
Komiya, Masami; Fujii, Gen; Takahashi, Mami; Iigo, Masaaki; Mutoh, Michihiro
There have been a number of candidates for chemopreventive agents from synthetic drugs and natural compounds suggested to prevent colorectal cancer. However, they have shown modest efficacy in humans. The reason for this could be partly explained by the use of inappropriate models in vitro and in vivo, and the limitation of chemoprevention trials. In Japan, there are no cancer chemopreventive medicines, and few cancer chemoprevention trials to date. In contrast, an increase in the prevalence of colorectal cancer in Japan has forced us to develop more efficient chemopreventive strategies. It is now a good time to review in detail the current status and future prospects for chemoprevention of colorectal cancer with respect to the future development of chemopreventive medicines, particularly using synthetic drugs and natural compounds in Asian populations. The role and mode of action of available synthetic drugs, mainly aspirin and metformin, are reviewed. In addition, the possible impact of natural compounds with anti-inflammatory/immunosuppressive properties, such as ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acid and lactoferrin, are also reviewed.
Moore, Ida M; Hockenberry, Marilyn J; Anhalt, Cynthia; McCarthy, Kathy; Krull, Kevin R
Despite evidence that CNS treatment is associated with cognitive and academic impairment, interventions to prevent or mitigate these problems are limited. The purpose was to determine if early intervention can prevent declines in mathematics abilities. Fifty-seven children with ALL were enrolled and randomized to a Mathematics Intervention or Standard Care. Subjects completed neurocognitive assessments prior to the intervention, post-intervention, and 1 year later. Parents received written results and recommendations for use with their school. The Mathematics Intervention was based on Multiple Representation Theory and delivered individually over 1 year. Thirty-two of 57 subjects completed the study and were included in data analyses. These 32 subjects completed all neurocognitive assessments and, for those in the Intervention Group, 40-50 hours of the Mathematics Intervention. There were no group differences on relevant demographic variables; risk stratification; number of intrathecal methotrexate injections; or high dose systemic methotrexate. Significant improvements in calculation and applied mathematics from Baseline to Post-Intervention (P = 0.003 and 0.002, respectively) and in visual working memory from Baseline to 1 year Follow-up (P = 0.02) were observed in the Intervention but not the Standard Care Group. Results from repeated measures ANOVA demonstrated significant between group differences for applied mathematics [F(2,29) = 12.47, P Mathematics Intervention improved mathematics abilities and visual working memory compared to standard care. Future studies are needed to translate the Mathematics Intervention into a "virtual" delivery method more readily available to parents and children. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Villegas, Natalia; Santisteban, Daniel; Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian; Ambrosia, Todd; Peragallo, Nilda; Lara, Loreto
The incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is high among young Chilean women, and there are no STI or HIV prevention interventions available to them that incorporate technology. The purpose of this study was to investigate the preliminary efficacy of an Internet-based STI and HIV prevention intervention (I-STIPI) for Chilean young women on measures of STI- and HIV-related information, motivation, behavioral skills, and preventive behaviors. This is a pretest-posttest study. Forty young Chilean women between 18 and 24 years of age participated in an investigation of the I-STIPI's preliminary efficacy on STI and HIV prevention-related outcomes between baseline and a postintervention assessment. The intervention consisted of four online modules. Data collection was conducted in Santiago, Chile. Paired-samples t test analysis was used to determine whether there were significant differences in each of the outcome variables. After receiving I-STIPI, women reported a significant increase in levels of STI- and HIV-related knowledge, attitudes toward the use of condoms and perceived self-efficacy, and a reduction of risky sexual behaviors with uncommitted partners. The I-STIPI showed promise as an Internet-based intervention that can reduce barriers to accessing preventive interventions and increase STI and HIV preventive behaviors in young Chilean women. The study provided important information about the ability of an Internet-based intervention to reduce young women's risk factors and to provide positive preliminary efficacy on STI- and HIV-related outcomes. Internet-based interventions can eliminate many barriers to receiving prevention interventions and may prove to be cost effective. © 2014 Sigma Theta Tau International.
Villegas, Natalia; Santisteban, Daniel; Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian; Ambrosia, Todd; Peragallo, Nilda; Lara, Loreto
Purpose The incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is high among young Chilean women, and there are no STI or HIV prevention interventions available to them that incorporate technology. The purpose of this study was to investigate the preliminary efficacy of an Internet-based STI and HIV prevention intervention (I-STIPI) for Chilean young women on measures of STI- and HIV-related information, motivation, behavioral skills, and preventive behaviors. Design This is a pretest-posttest study. Forty young Chilean women between 18 and 24 years of age participated in an investigation of the I-STIPI’s preliminary efficacy on STI and HIV prevention-related outcomes between baseline and a postintervention assessment. The intervention consisted of four online modules. Data collection was conducted in Santiago, Chile. Paired-samples t test analysis was used to determine whether there were significant differences in each of the outcome variables. Findings After receiving I-STIPI, women reported a significant increase in levels of STI- and HIV-related knowledge, attitudes toward the use of condoms and perceived self-efficacy, and a reduction of risky sexual behaviors with uncommitted partners. Conclusions The I-STIPI showed promise as an Internet-based intervention that can reduce barriers to accessing preventive interventions and increase STI and HIV preventive behaviors in young Chilean women. Clinical Relevance The study provided important information about the ability of an Internet-based intervention to reduce young women’s risk factors and to provide positive preliminary efficacy on STI- and HIV-related outcomes. Internet-based interventions can eliminate many barriers to receiving prevention interventions and may prove to be cost effective. PMID:25410132
Muktabhant, Benja; Lumbiganon, Pisake; Ngamjarus, Chetta; Dowswell, Therese
Background Excessive weight gain during pregnancy is associated with multiple maternal and neonatal complications. However, interventions to prevent excessive weight gain during pregnancy have not been adequately evaluated. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of interventions for preventing excessive weight gain during pregnancy and associated pregnancy complications. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (20 October 2011) and MEDLINE (1966 to 20 October 2011). Selection criteria All randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised trials of interventions for preventing excessive weight gain during pregnancy. Data collection and analysis We assessed for inclusion all potential studies we identified as a result of the search strategy. At least two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We resolved discrepancies through discussion. We have presented results using risk ratio (RR) for categorical data and mean difference for continuous data. We analysed data using a fixed-effect model. Main results We included 28 studies involving 3976 women; 27 of these studies with 3964 women contributed data to the analyses. Interventions focused on a broad range of interventions. However, for most outcomes we could not combine data in a meta-analysis, and where we did pool data, no more than two or three studies could be combined for a particular intervention and outcome. Overall, results from this review were mainly not statistically significant, and where there did appear to be differences between intervention and control groups, results were not consistent. For women in general clinic populations one (behavioural counselling versus standard care) of three interventions examined was associated with a reduction in the rate of excessive weight gain (RR 0.72, 95% confidence interval 0.54 to 0.95); for women in high-risk groups no intervention appeared to reduce excess weight gain. There were
The purpose of the present article is to provide a detailed description of the highly successful lifestyle intervention administered to 1,079 participants, which included 45% racial and ethnic minorities and resulted in a 58% reduction in the incidence rate of diabetes (2). The two major goals of the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) lifestyle intervention were a minimum of 7% weight loss/weight maintenance and a minimum of 150 min of physical activity similar in intensity to brisk walking. B...
du Roscoät, E; Beck, F
This review focuses on interventions to prevent suicide. It excludes psychotherapy evaluations and pharmaceutical clinical trials. The aim of this article is to provide useful input to the reflection on and the development of actions for professionals who may be concerned by suicide prevention. This research is based on 41 published evaluation studies presenting results on at least one of the three following outcomes: completed suicides, suicide attempts, and suicidal ideations. These studies have been classified into seven categories of preventive action. According to data from the literature selected for our analysis, the three most efficient categories of intervention seem to be the limitation of access to lethal means, the preservation of contact with the patients hospitalized for a suicide attempt after hospitalization, and the implementation of emergency call centers. The four other categories of intervention examined in this study - the training of general practitioners, the reorganization of care, programs in schools, and information campaigns - have not yet shown sufficient proof of their efficacy. Nevertheless, these interventions, under certain conditions, can also contribute significantly to the prevention of suicide. The majority of effective interventions minister to people already suffering from psychological disorders, but health promotion initiatives prior to situations of psychological disorders also deserve to be considered, in particular the implementation of services for the isolated elderly. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Reilly, John J; Martin, Anne; Hughes, Adrienne R
To critique the evidence from recent and ongoing obesity prevention interventions in the first 1000 days in order to identify evidence gaps and weaknesses, and to make suggestions for more informative future intervention trials. Completed and ongoing intervention trials have had fairly modest effects, have been limited largely to high-income countries, and have used relatively short-term interventions and outcomes. Comparison of the evidence from completed prevention trials with the evidence from systematic reviews of behavioral risk factors shows that some life-course stages have been neglected (pre-conception and toddlerhood), and that interventions have neglected to target some important behavioral risk factors (maternal smoking during pregnancy, infant and child sleep). Finally, while obesity prevention interventions aim to modify body composition, few intervention trials have used body composition measures as outcomes, and this has limited their sensitivity to detect intervention effects. The new WHO Healthy Lifestyles Trajectory (HeLTI) initiative should address some of these weaknesses. Future early obesity prevention trials should be much more ambitious. They should, ideally: extend their interventions over the first 1000 days; have longer-term (childhood) outcomes, and improved outcome measures (body composition measures in addition to proxies for body composition such as the BMI for age); have greater emphasis on maternal smoking and child sleep; be global.
Ames, Genevieve M.; Bennett, Joel B.
The workplace offers advantages as a setting for interventions that result in primary prevention of alcohol abuse. Such programs have the potential to reach broad audiences and populations that would otherwise not receive prevention programs and, thereby, benefit both the employee and employer. Researchers have implemented and evaluated a variety of workplace alcohol problem prevention efforts in recent years, including programs focused on health promotion, social health promotion, brief interventions, and changing the work environment. Although some studies reported significant reductions in alcohol use outcomes, additional research with a stronger and integrated methodological approach is needed. The field of workplace alcohol prevention also might benefit from a guiding framework, such as the one proposed in this article. PMID:22330216
Miovský, Michal; Voňková, Hana; Gabrhelík, Roman; Šťastná, Lenka
This study aims to examine the effect of school-based preventive intervention on cannabis use in Czech adolescents with different levels of risk factors and provide evidence of its universality. A randomized controlled prevention trial with six waves was conducted over a period of 33 months. We used a two-level logistic random-intercept model for panel data; we first looked at the statistical significance of the effect of the intervention on cannabis use, controlling for the characteristics of the children and time dummies. Then we analyzed the effects of the interactions between the intervention and the characteristics of the children on cannabis use and related it to the definition of universal preventive interventions. The setting for the study was in basic schools in the Czech Republic in the years 2007-2010. A total of 1,874 sixth-graders (mean age 11.82 years) who completed the baseline testing. According to our results, the prevention intervention was effective. We found all the selected characteristics of the children to be relevant in relation to cannabis use, except their relationships with their friends. We showed empirically that the intervention is universal in two dimensions for the selected characteristics of the children. First, all adolescents who undergo the intervention are expected to benefit. Second, with respect to the effect of the intervention on cannabis use, the total level of individual risk of cannabis use is superior to the composition of the risk factors in the individual risk profile. We present indicative evidence that the drug prevention intervention may be considered a true universal preventive intervention.
Suzuki, T; Makizako, H; Doi, T; Park, H; Lee, S; Tsutsumimoto, K; Umemura, K; Maki, Y; Shimada, H
Population aging is accelerating, with prolonged life expectancy and a decrease in birth rate. As age is a significant risk factor for dementia, we are confronted with an ever-increasing prevalence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI)/dementia. Thus, the Japanese National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology launched a project to promote community-based research, including the development of an effective screening system for high-risk groups and intervention for dementia prevention. This review introduces the project, the Obu Study of Health Promotion for the Elderly, with the following strategic triad: 1) Identification of the target population by population screening; we regarded patients with MCI as the target population, and developed a screening test battery to identify MCI in a population screening setting. 2) Scientific evaluation of community-based intervention; we developed an interventional method combining exercise and cognitive training ("cognicise"). In practical settings, "cognicise" is programmed into multicomponent exercise intervention, which was reported to have benefits of cognitive improvement and reduction of brain atrophy based on randomized controlled trials. 3) Standardization of the methods of population screening and community-based intervention for evidence-based policy making and widespread implementation. Dementia prevention, or at least delaying the onset of dementia and/or stopping/slowing the progression of dementia, should benefit the whole society as well as individuals. It is our continuing challenge to improve the screening system and community-based intervention for dementia prevention through accumulation of evidence.
Walker, Dilys; Gutierrez, Juan Pablo; Torres, Pilar; Bertozzi, Stefano M
OBJECTIVE: To assess effects on condom use and other sexual behaviour of an HIV prevention programme at school that promotes the use of condoms with and without emergency contraception. DESIGN: Cluster randomised controlled trial. SETTING: 40 public high schools in the state of Morelos, Mexico. PARTICIPANTS: 10 954 first year high school students. INTERVENTION: Schools were randomised to one of three arms: an HIV prevention course that promoted condom use, the same course with emergency contr...
Narváez, Santiago; Tobar, Angela M; López, Diego M
Stress-related disorders have become one of the main problems of public health in many countries and of worldwide organizations, and they are expected to become more common in the forthcoming decades. This article aims at providing a systematic review and a descriptive evaluation of the interventions supported by ICT for the prevention and treatment of occupational stress. A systematic review of five databases (EBSCO, The Cochrane Library, PubMed, ScienceDirect and IEEEXplorer) was carried out. This article provides a quantitative and qualitative description of 21 studies about occupational stress interventions supported by ICT. The following factors were considered for the analysis: impact of the intervention, design of the study, type of intervention, purpose of the intervention, type of instrument for the measurement of occupational stress, and type of ICT used. The systematic review demonstrated that interventions supported by ICT for the prevention and treatment of occupational stress are scarce but effective.
Bourgeois, Nicole; Brauer, Paula; Simpson, Janis Randall; Kim, Susie; Haines, Jess
Preventing childhood obesity is a public health priority, and primary care is an important setting for early intervention. Authors of a recent national guideline have identified a need for effective primary care interventions for obesity prevention and that parent perspectives on interventions are notably absent from the literature. Our objective was to determine the perspectives of primary care clinicians and parents of children 2-5 years of age on the implementation of an obesity prevention intervention within team-based primary care to inform intervention implementation. We conducted focus groups with interprofessional primary care clinicians (n = 40) and interviews with parents (n = 26). Participants were asked about facilitators and barriers to, and recommendations for implementing a prevention program in primary care. Data were recorded and transcribed, and we used directed content analysis to identify major themes. Barriers existed to addressing obesity-related behaviours in this age group and included a gap in well-child primary care between ages 18 months and 4-5 years, lack of time and sensitivity of the topic. Trust and existing relationships with primary care clinicians were facilitators to program implementation. Offering separate programs for parents and children, and addressing both general parenting topics and obesity-related behaviours were identified as desirable. Despite barriers to addressing obesity-related behaviours within well-child primary care, both clinicians and parents expressed interest in interventions in primary care settings. Next steps should include pilot studies to identify feasible strategies for intervention implementation.
Tikka, Christina; Verbeek, Jos H.; Kateman, Erik; Morata, Thais C.; Dreschler, Wouter A.; Ferrite, Silvia
This is the second update of a Cochrane Review originally published in 2009. Millions of workers worldwide are exposed to noise levels that increase their risk of hearing disorders. There is uncertainty about the effectiveness of hearing loss prevention interventions. To assess the effectiveness of
Schneeberger, Caroline; Geerlings, Suzanne E.; Middleton, Philippa; Crowther, Caroline A.
Background Recurrent urinary tract infections (RUTI) are common in women who are pregnant and may cause serious adverse pregnancy outcomes for both mother and child including preterm birth and small-for-gestational-age babies. Interventions used to prevent RUTI in women who are pregnant can be
Schneeberger, Caroline; Geerlings, Suzanne E.; Middleton, Philippa; Crowther, Caroline A.
Recurrent urinary tract infections (RUTI) are common in women who are pregnant and may cause serious adverse pregnancy outcomes for both mother and child including preterm birth and small-for-gestational-age babies. Interventions used to prevent RUTI in women who are pregnant can be pharmacological
Schneeberger, Caroline; Geerlings, Suzanne E.; Middleton, Philippa; Crowther, Caroline A.
Background Recurrent urinary tract infections (RUTI) are common in women who are pregnant and may cause serious adverse pregnancy outcomes for both mother and child including preterm birth and small-for-gestational-age babies. Interventions used to prevent RUTI in women who are pregnant can be
Slavkin, Michael L.
Examines the literature on preventing firesetting behavior in preadolescents and adolescents, suggesting the need for policies and programs designed to help juveniles by providing community support and stability. Alternatives to juvenile justice interventions include making changes in the home environment, acquiring a greater sense of self, and…
Conclusion: This study indicates that the Prevention of. Mother-to- Child Transmission of HIV treatment interventions in reducing transmission of HIV in infants and young children in two Lusaka urban clinics had been effective. Exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months, and use of triple therapy can reduce the transmission of HIV.
Calear, A.L.; Christensen, H.; Freeman, A.; Fenton, K.; Grant, J.B.; van Spijker, B.; Donker, T.
Youth suicide is a significant public health problem. A systematic review was conducted to examine the effectiveness of school, community and healthcare-based interventions in reducing and preventing suicidal ideation, suicide attempts and deliberate self-harm in young people aged 12–25 years.
Ginsburg, Golda S
The article presents the intervention model and primary outcomes of a preventive intervention designed to reduce anxiety symptoms and prevent the onset of anxiety disorders in the offspring of parents with anxiety disorders. Participants were 40 volunteer children (mean age = 8.94 years; 45% girls; 90% Caucasian) whose parents met criteria for a broad range of anxiety disorders. Families were randomly assigned to an 8-week cognitive-behavioral intervention, the Coping and Promoting Strength program (CAPS; n = 20) or a wait list control condition (WL; n = 20). Independent evaluators (IEs) conducted diagnostic interviews, and children and parents completed measures of anxiety symptoms. Assessments were conducted pre- and postintervention and 6 and 12 months after the postintervention assessment. On the basis of intent to treat analyses, 30% of the children in the WL group developed an anxiety disorder by the 1-year follow-up compared with 0% in the CAPS group. IE and parent-reported (but not child-reported) levels of anxiety showed significant decreases from the preintervention assessment to the 1-year follow-up assessment in the CAPS but not the WL group. Parental satisfaction with the intervention was high. Findings suggest that a family-based intervention may prevent the onset of anxiety disorders in the offspring of parents with anxiety disorders. Copyright 2009 APA
Atkinson, Ross A; Cullum, Nicky A
Narrative review. Pressure ulcers are a common complication in people with reduced sensation and limited mobility, occurring frequently in those who have sustained spinal cord injury. This narrative review summarises the evidence relating to interventions for the prevention and treatment of pressure ulcers, in particular from Cochrane systematic reviews. It also aims to highlight the degree to which people with spinal cord injury have been included as participants in randomised controlled trials included in Cochrane reviews of such interventions. Global. The Cochrane library (up to July 2017) was searched for systematic reviews of any type of intervention for the prevention or treatment of pressure ulcers. A search of PubMed (up to July 2017) was undertaken to identify other systematic reviews and additional published trial reports of interventions for pressure ulcer prevention and treatment. The searches revealed 38 published systematic reviews (27 Cochrane and 11 others) and 6 additional published trial reports. An array of interventions is available for clinical use, but few have been evaluated adequately in people with SCI. The effects of most interventions for preventing and treating pressure ulcers in people with spinal cord injury are highly uncertain. Existing evaluations of pressure ulcer interventions include very few participants with spinal cord injury. Subsequently, there is still a need for high-quality randomised trials of such interventions in this patient population.
Haire-Joshu, Debra; Tabak, Rachel
To prevent the intergenerational transfer of obesity and end the current epidemic, interventions are needed across the early life stages, from preconception to prenatal to infancy through the age of 2 years. The foundation for obesity is laid in early life by actions and interactions passed from parent to child that have long-lasting biologic and behavioral consequences. The purpose of this paper is to examine the best evidence about (a) factors in parents and offspring that promote obesity during the early life stages, (b) the social determinants and dimensions of obesity in early life, (c) promising and effective interventions for preventing obesity in early life, and (d) opportunities for future research into strategies to disrupt the intergenerational cycle of obesity that begins early in life. The pathway for halting the intergenerational obesity epidemic requires the discovery and development of evidence-based interventions that can act across multiple dimensions of influence on early life.
Espelage, Dorothy L; Hong, Jun Sung
Bullying is a serious public health concern that is associated with significant negative mental, social, and physical outcomes. Technological advances have increased adolescents' use of social media, and online communication platforms have exposed adolescents to another mode of bullying- cyberbullying. Prevention and intervention materials, from websites and tip sheets to classroom curriculum, have been developed to help youth, parents, and teachers address cyberbullying. While youth and parents are willing to disclose their experiences with bullying to their health care providers, these disclosures need to be taken seriously and handled in a caring manner. Health care providers need to include questions about bullying on intake forms to encourage these disclosures. The aim of this article is to examine the current status of cyberbullying prevention and intervention. Research support for several school-based intervention programs is summarised. Recommendations for future research are provided.
Hong, Jun Sung
Bullying is a serious public health concern that is associated with significant negative mental, social, and physical outcomes. Technological advances have increased adolescents’ use of social media, and online communication platforms have exposed adolescents to another mode of bullying—cyberbullying. Prevention and intervention materials, from websites and tip sheets to classroom curriculum, have been developed to help youth, parents, and teachers address cyberbullying. While youth and parents are willing to disclose their experiences with bullying to their health care providers, these disclosures need to be taken seriously and handled in a caring manner. Health care providers need to include questions about bullying on intake forms to encourage these disclosures. The aim of this article is to examine the current status of cyberbullying prevention and intervention. Research support for several school-based intervention programs is summarised. Recommendations for future research are provided. PMID:28562094
Ma, Xiao-Yuan; Tian, Li-Xing; Liang, Hua-Ping
Trauma still represents one of the major causes of death worldwide. Despite the reduction of post-traumatic sepsis over the past two decades, the mortality of septic trauma inpatients is still high (19.5-23 %). Early prevention of sepsis development can aid in the subsequent treatment of patients and help improve their outcomes. To date, the prevention of trauma-related infection/sepsis has mainly included infection prevention (e.g., surgical management, prophylactic antibiotics, tetanus vaccination, immunomodulatory interventions) and organ dysfunction prevention (e.g., pharmaceuticals, temporary intravascular shunts, lung-protective strategies, enteral immunonutrition, acupuncture). Overall, more efficient ways should be developed to prevent trauma-related infection/sepsis.
Grock, Shira; Ku, Jeong-Hee; Kim, Julie; Moin, Tannaz
The high prevalence of prediabetes and success of the diabetes prevention program (DPP) has led to increasing efforts to provide readily accessible, cost-effective DPP interventions to the general public. Technology-assisted DPP interventions are of particular interest since they may be easier to widely distribute and sustain as compared to traditional in-person DPP. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of currently available technology-assisted DPP interventions. This review focuses on studies that have examined the use of mobile phone text messaging, smartphone/web-based apps, and telehealth programs to help prevent or delay the onset of incident type 2 diabetes. While there is variability in the results of studies focused on technology-assisted DPP and weight loss interventions, there is evidence to suggest that these programs have been associated with clinically meaningful weight loss and can be cost-effective. Patients who are at risk for diabetes can be offered technology-assisted DPP and weight loss interventions to lower their risk of incident diabetes. Further research should determine what specific combination of intervention features would be most successful.
Abstract The rates of paediatric obesity have risen dramatically. Given the challenge of successful weight loss and maintenance, preventive interventions are sorely needed. Furthermore, since a substantial proportion of individuals do not respond to traditional behavioural weight loss therapy, alternative approaches are required. Psychological treatments for binge eating disorder have been generally effective at reducing binge episodes and producing weight maintenance or modest weight loss in obese adults. Given the strong link between loss of control eating and obesity in youths, binge eating disorder treatment may serve as a viable form of excess weight gain prevention. An adapted version of interpersonal psychotherapy for binge eating disorder is one such intervention that we have considered. A description of the theoretical basis and proposed mechanism is described. Adaptations of interpersonal psychotherapy and other established therapies for binge eating disorder may serve as platforms from which to develop and disseminate obesity and eating disorder prevention programs in children and adolescents.
Degarmo, David S; Reid, John B; Fetrow, Becky A; Fisher, Philip A; Antoine, Karla D
This paper evaluated the Pathways Home manualized selective preventive intervention designed to prevent reunification failures once children are returned home to their biological parent(s) after first time stays in foster care ( n = 101). The theoretically based intervention focused on support and parent management practices designed to prevent the development of child behavior problems including internalizing and externalizing problems, and substance use. Intent to treat analyses employed probability growth curve approaches for repeated telephone assessments over 16 weeks of intervention. Findings showed that relative to services as usual reunification families, the Pathways Home families demonstrated better parenting strategies that were in turn associated with reductions in problem behaviors over time. Growth in problem behaviors in turn predicted foster care re-entry. Maternal substance use cravings were a risk factor for growth in problem behaviors that were buffered by participation in the Pathways Home intervention.
DeGarmo, David S.; Reid, John B.; Fetrow, Becky A.; Fisher, Philip A.; Antoine, Karla D.
This paper evaluated the Pathways Home manualized selective preventive intervention designed to prevent reunification failures once children are returned home to their biological parent(s) after first time stays in foster care (n = 101). The theoretically based intervention focused on support and parent management practices designed to prevent the development of child behavior problems including internalizing and externalizing problems, and substance use. Intent to treat analyses employed probability growth curve approaches for repeated telephone assessments over 16 weeks of intervention. Findings showed that relative to services as usual reunification families, the Pathways Home families demonstrated better parenting strategies that were in turn associated with reductions in problem behaviors over time. Growth in problem behaviors in turn predicted foster care re-entry. Maternal substance use cravings were a risk factor for growth in problem behaviors that were buffered by participation in the Pathways Home intervention. PMID:23914130
Full Text Available Decisions to intervene in a foreign country to prevent genocide and mass atrocities are among the most challenging and controversial choices facing national leaders. Drawing on techniques from decision analysis, psychology, and negotiation analysis, we propose a structured approach to these difficult choices that can provide policy makers with additional insight, consistency, efficiency, and defensibility. We propose the use of a values-based framework to clarify the key elements of these complex choices and to provide a consistent structure for comparison of the likely benefits, risks, and tradeoffs associated with alternative intervention strategies. Results from a workshop involving Ambassadors and experienced policy makers provide a first test of this new method for clarifying intervention choices. A decision-aiding framework is shown to improve the clarity and relevance of intervention deliberations, laying the groundwork for a more comprehensive and clearer understanding of the threats and opportunities associated with various intervention options.
Stuart, Elizabeth A; Perry, Deborah F; Le, Huynh-Nhu; Ialongo, Nicholas S
Individuals not fully complying with their assigned treatments is a common problem encountered in randomized evaluations of behavioral interventions. Treatment group members rarely attend all sessions or do all "required" activities; control group members sometimes find ways to participate in aspects of the intervention. As a result, there is often interest in estimating both the effect of being assigned to participate in the intervention, as well as the impact of actually participating and doing all of the required activities. Methods known broadly as "complier average causal effects" (CACE) or "instrumental variables" (IV) methods have been developed to estimate this latter effect, but they are more commonly applied in medical and treatment research. Since the use of these statistical techniques in prevention trials has been less widespread, many prevention scientists may not be familiar with the underlying assumptions and limitations of CACE and IV approaches. This paper provides an introduction to these methods, described in the context of randomized controlled trials of two preventive interventions: one for perinatal depression among at-risk women and the other for aggressive disruptive behavior in children. Through these case studies, the underlying assumptions and limitations of these methods are highlighted.
The increasing prevalence of obesity or overweight at all ages, their associated morbidity and mortality associated, and the increased perception of the problem by the society have generated several hypotheses in response to the scientific and the international community. Investigate the preventive interventions in childhood obesity so far. Integrative review during the study period from April 2013 to November 2014. The MEDLINE international database was used, including PubMed, the Cochrane Library (Issue 4 2002), the national database Isooc (CSIC) national database, as well as the Internet. The review included health articles published in Spanish and English between 1990 and 2014 that focused on or included education, prevention, diagnostic, and treatment of obesity interventions. Of the 726 articles identified, 34 of most relevant (peer reviewed) were selected. It was noted that there is limited generisable evidence on interventions that could be implemented in Primary Care or referral services available, although numerous studies suggest that improvements in the overweight are possible. Despite the abundant literature and that many institutions place childhood obesity as one of the priorities of Public Health, we face the paradox that the evidence on cost-effectiveness of prevention interventions is sparse. Knowing these gaps in knowledge should lead to filling them with rigorous and well-designed studies. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Pigeot, I; Baranowski, T; De Henauw, S
One of the major research dimensions of the Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health EFfects In Children and infantS (IDEFICS) study involved the development, implementation and evaluation of a setting-based community-oriented intervention programme for primary prevention of childhood obesity. In this supplement of Obesity Reviews, a compilation of key results of the IDEFICS intervention is packaged in a series of complementary papers. This paper describes the overall design and methods of the IDEFICS intervention in order to facilitate a comprehensive reading of the supplement. In addition, some 'best practice' examples are described. The IDEFICS intervention trial was conducted to assess whether the IDEFICS intervention prevented obesity in young children aged 2 to 9.9 years. The study was a non-randomized, quasi-experimental trial with one intervention matched to one control region in each of eight participating countries. The intervention was designed following the intervention mapping framework, using a socio-ecological theoretical approach. The intervention was designed to address several key obesity-related behaviours in children, parents, schools and community actors; the primary outcome was the prevalence of overweight/obesity according to the IOTF criteria based on body mass index. The aim was to achieve a reduction of overweight/obesity prevalence in the intervention regions. The intervention was delivered in school and community settings over a 2-year period. Data were collected in the intervention and control cohort regions at baseline and 2 years later. This paper offers an introductory framework for a comprehensive reading of this supplement on IDEFICS intervention key results. © 2015 World Obesity.
Ward, Dianne S; Welker, Emily; Choate, Ashley; Henderson, Kathryn E; Lott, Megan; Tovar, Alison; Wilson, Amanda; Sallis, James F
2010-2015; INTERNATIONAL: Given the high levels of obesity in young children, numbers of children in out-of-home care, and data suggesting a link between early care and education (ECE) participation and overweight/obesity, obesity prevention in ECE settings is critical. As the field has progressed, a number of interventions have been reviewed yet there is a need to summarize the data using more sophisticated analyses to answer questions on the effectiveness of interventions. We conducted a systematic review of obesity prevention interventions in center-based ECE settings published between 2010 and 2015. Our goal was to identify promising intervention characteristics associated with successful behavioral and anthropometric outcomes. A rigorous search strategy resulted in 43 interventions that met inclusion criteria. We developed a coding strategy to assess intervention strength, used a validated study quality assessment tool, and presented detailed descriptive information about interventions (e.g., target behaviors, intervention strategies, and mode of delivery). Intervention strength was positively correlated with reporting of positive anthropometric outcomes for physical activity, diet, and combined interventions, and parent engagement components increased the strength of these relationships. Study quality was modestly related to percent successful healthy eating outcomes. Relationships between intervention strength and behavioral outcomes demonstrated negative relationships for all behavioral outcomes. Specific components of intervention strength (number of intervention strategies, potential impact of strategies, frequency of use, and duration of intervention) were correlated with some of the anthropometric and parent engagement outcomes. The review provided tentative evidence that multi-component, multi-level ECE interventions with parental engagement are most likely to be effective with anthropometric outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights
Han, Claire Jungyoun; Lee, Young Ji; Demiris, George
Regarding cancer awareness, social media effectively promotes health and supports self-management. Given the diverse study designs, methodologies, and approaches of social media interventions in oncology, it is difficult to determine the effects of social media on cancer prevention and management. We aim to systematically review intervention studies using social media for cancer care. A systematic search, using 7 electronic databases (PubMed, Web of Science, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Scopus, EMBASE, and PsycINFO), was conducted to identify surveys and interventions using contemporary social media tools with a focus on cancer. Of the 18 selected studies, 7 were randomized controlled trials. Most studies were conducted for all types of cancer, and some were conducted for breast cancer in the United States, with mostly white female participants. Facebook was the most frequently used platform. Most studies targeted healthy participants providing cancer prevention education. With social media platforms as part of a larger intervention, or the main component of interventions, interventions were overall feasible and showed a significant improvement in cancer prevention and management. Social media tools have the potential to be effective in delivering interventions for cancer prevention and management. However, there was a dearth of studies with rigorous study methodologies to test social media effects on various cancer-related clinical outcomes. Social media use in cancer care will facilitate improved communication and support among patients, caregivers, and clinicians and, ultimately, improved patient care. Clinicians need to carefully harness social media to enhance patient care and clinical outcomes.
Christofferson, Dana E; Hamlett-Berry, Kim; Augustson, Erik
Automated mobile health (mHealth) programs deliver effective smoking cessation interventions through text message platforms. Smoking is an independent risk factor for suicide, so the Department of Veterans Affairs incorporated information about the Veterans Crisis Line into its SmokefreeVET smoking cessation text messaging program. Almost 7% of all SmokefreeVET enrollees have accessed this information. Because of the reach and automated nature of this and similar programs, we recommend including a referral to a suicide prevention hotline for all smoking cessation mHealth interventions.
Izard, Carroll E; Fine, Sarah; Mostow, Allison; Trentacosta, Christopher; Campbell, Jan
We present an analysis of the role of emotions in normal and abnormal development and preventive intervention. The conceptual framework stems from three tenets of differential emotions theory (DET). These principles concern the constructs of emotion utilization; intersystem connections among modular emotion systems, cognition, and action; and the organizational and motivational functions of discrete emotions. Particular emotions and patterns of emotions function differentially in different periods of development and in influencing the cognition and behavior associated with different forms of psychopathology. Established prevention programs have not emphasized the concept of emotion as motivation. It is even more critical that they have generally neglected the idea of modulating emotions, not simply to achieve self-regulation, but also to utilize their inherently adaptive functions as a means of facilitating the development of social competence and preventing psychopathology. The paper includes a brief description of a theory-based prevention program and suggestions for complementary targeted interventions to address specific externalizing and internalizing problems. In the final section, we describe ways in which emotion-centered preventions can provide excellent opportunities for research on the development of normal and abnormal behavior.
Esther Quirós Abajo
Eating Disorders are an important health problem of our society because of their rising incidence in the last years, as well as their high cost in terms of Public Health. Nowadays the best option to face this problem is through prevention. The objective of the present work is to evaluate if a Web nursing intervention based on Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy can prevent Eating Disorders by reducing risk factors in 15 to 18 years old women.Methodology: It is a randomized clinical trial in which t...
Award Number: W81XWH-12-2-0038 TITLE: Prevention of Blast-Related Injuries PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Albert I. King CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION...CONTRACT NUMBER Prevention of Blast-Related Injuries 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-2-0038 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Albert King, John...TR-7340). Army research lab Aberdeen proving ground MD weapons and materials research directorate. (2015) 11. Reneer, D.V., Hisel, R.D., Hoffman
Janssen, Kasper W; van der Zwaard, Babette C; Finch, Caroline F; van Mechelen, Willem; Verhagen, Evert A L M
To describe the association between participants' person-related potential predictor variables and cumulative compliance with interventions for preventing ankle sprains: neuromuscular training, wearing an ankle brace, and a combined training and bracing. Secondary analysis of compliance data from a randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing measures preventing ankle ligament injuries. Ordinal regression with a backward selection method was used to obtain a descriptive statistical model linking participants' person-related potential predictor variables with the monthly cumulative compliance measurements for three interventions preventing ankle ligament injuries. Having had a previous ankle injury was significantly associated with a higher compliance with all of the preventive measures trialed. Overall compliance with bracing and the combined intervention was significantly lower than the compliance with NM training. Per group analysis found that participating in a high-risk sport, like soccer, basketball, and volleyball, was significantly associated with a higher compliance with bracing, or a combined bracing and NM training. In contrast, participating in a high-risk sport was significantly associated with a lower per group compliance with NM training. Future studies should include at least registration of previous ankle sprains, sport participation (high- or low-risk), experience in NM training, and hours of sport exposure as possible predictors of compliance with interventions preventing ankle sprains. Practitioners should take into account these variables when prescribing preventive neuromuscular training or bracing. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available “The Fire is Coming” film is an innovative HIV-prevention intervention contextualized to the Maasai people of Tanzania through use of a traditional Maasai story. The intervention was developed and implemented in partnership with Maasai Pastoralists for Education and Development (MAPED. Although there have been numerous Knowledge-Attitude-Practice (KAP surveys conducted among the Maasai, this is the first control-group comparison study designed to measure the effectiveness of an HIV-prevention intervention contextualized specifically to the Maasai people of Tanzania. We will first discuss the background and context in which the intervention was developed and methods used to develop the intervention. We will then discuss the evaluation methods, results, and implications of a retrospective Knowledge, Attitudes, Practices (KAP two-village comparison survey (n=200 for “The Fire is Coming” HIV-prevention intervention among Maasai people. There was a significant effect for HIV-related attitudes, t(16 = 2.77, p 0.05. Implications: Belief in one’s ability to do something is often the pivotal point for behavior change. The results of the survey denote a highly effective intervention in changing HIV-related attitudes and behaviors. It is promising for replication among other Maasai communities and for adaptation with indigenous people groups in other regions.
JHON J. SANABRIA
Full Text Available In this paper, I review the prevention and intervention efforts addressing youth homelessness in the fieldof psychology between 1994 and 2004. Analyses of the literature revealed that the majority of papersincluding homeless youth as a population for study have focused on issues other than homelessness.These issues include HIV/AIDS and substance abuse prevention. Eleven journal articles addressing youthhomelessness were reviewed. These articles focused on outcomes, interventions, and recommendationsfor clinical practice. Literature findings revealed that demographic variables did not predict outcomesfor homeless youth; youth returning home with their parents have more positive outcomes than youthmoving into other locations, emergency shelter services improve youth’s mental health and social condition,and services should be comprehensive and move beyond the individuals. Implications for communitypsychology, policy makers, and shelters are discussed.
The aim of this study is to evaluate HIV/AIDS/STD prevention intervention messages on a rural adult (25-49 years) sample in South Africa over a period of 15 months. A representative community sample of 398 adults at time 1 and 382 at time 2 (25-49 years) participated in the study using a three-stage cluster sampling ...
Tonani,Marcela; Carvalho,Emilia Campos de
The effectiveness of interventions for health promotion, protection, and early diagnosis may include the process of persuasion employed. This study aims to evaluate the risk level of developing cancer, considering the pertinent risk factors, and the presence of persuasion and characteristics in communication regarding cancer prevention and early detection. It is an observational study, conducted among 110 inhabitants of a neighborhood in Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo, Brazil. It was confirmed tha...
Elsman, Ellen B M; Leerlooijer, Joanne N; Ter Beek, Josien; Duijzer, Geerke; Jansen, Sophia C; Hiddink, Gerrit J; Feskens, Edith J M; Haveman-Nies, Annemien
Although lifestyle interventions have shown to be effective in reducing the risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus, maintenance of achieved results is difficult, as participants often experience relapse after the intervention has ended. This paper describes the systematic development of a maintenance programme for the extensive SLIMMER intervention, an existing diabetes prevention intervention for high-risk individuals, implemented in a real-life setting in the Netherlands. The maintenance programme was developed using the Intervention Mapping protocol. Programme development was informed by a literature study supplemented by various focus group discussions and feedback from implementers of the extensive SLIMMER intervention. The maintenance programme was designed to sustain a healthy diet and physical activity pattern by targeting knowledge, attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control of the SLIMMER participants. Practical applications were clustered into nine programme components, including sports clinics at local sports clubs, a concluding meeting with the physiotherapist and dietician, and a return session with the physiotherapist, dietician and physical activity group. Manuals were developed for the implementers and included a detailed time table and step-by-step instructions on how to implement the maintenance programme. The Intervention Mapping protocol provided a useful framework to systematically plan a maintenance programme for the extensive SLIMMER intervention. The study showed that planning a maintenance programme can build on existing implementation structures of the extensive programme. Future research is needed to determine to what extent the maintenance programme contributes to sustained effects in participants of lifestyle interventions.
Navarro, A M; Senn, K L; Kaplan, R M; McNicholas, L; Campo, M C; Roppe, B
Our goal was to describe the development and implementation of an intervention on cancer prevention for Latinas in San Diego, Calif. Thirty-six lay community workers ("consejeras") were recruited and trained to conduct educational group sessions. Each consejera recruited approximately 14 peers from the community to participate in the program (total number = 512). Half of the consejeras were randomly assigned to a control group, in which they participated in an equally engaging program entitled "Community Living Skills." Implementation of the intervention was assessed by qualitative and quantitative methods. Preintervention and postintervention self-report information was obtained from project participants on access to health care services, cancer knowledge, preventive measures, and previous cancer-screening examinations. Base-line data suggest that lack of knowledge, costs of cancer-screening tests, and the lack of a regular health care provider are the major obstacles against obtaining cancer-screening tests. Predisposing factors, such as fear and embarrassment, also constitute barriers to getting regular cervical cancer screening. Preliminary analysis indicates that the Por La Vida intervention increases use of cancer-screening tests in comparison to a community living skills control group. Universal access to health care would remove some of the major financial barriers to cancer screening. The Por La Vida program attempts to overcome the substantial barriers by reaching out to low-income Latinas and by providing information regarding the availability, acceptability, and preventive nature of cancer-screening tests.
Hyder, Adnan A; Alonge, Olakunle; He, Siran; Wadhwaniya, Shirin; Rahman, Fazlur; El Arifeen, Shams
Drowning is the commonest cause of injury-related deaths among under-five children worldwide, and 95% of deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) where there are implementation gaps in the drowning prevention interventions. This article reviews common interventions for drowning prevention, introduces a framework for effective implementation of such interventions, and describes the Saving of Lives from Drowning (SoLiD) Project in Bangladesh, which is based on this framework. A review of the systematic reviews on drowning interventions was conducted, and original research articles were pulled and summarized into broad prevention categories. The implementation framework builds upon two existing frameworks and categorizes the implementing process for drowning prevention interventions into four phases: planning, engaging, executing, and evaluating. Eleven key characteristics are mapped in these phases. The framework was applied to drowning prevention projects that have been undertaken in some LMICs to illustrate major challenges to implementation. The implementation process for the SoLiD Project in Bangladesh is used as an example to illustrate the practical utilization of the framework. Drowning interventions, such as pool fencing and covering of water hazards, are effective in high-income countries; however, most of these interventions have not been tested in LMICs. The critical components of the four phases of implementing drowning prevention interventions may include: (i) planning-global funding, political will, scale, sustainability, and capacity building; (ii) engaging-coordination, involvement of appropriate individuals; (iii) executing-focused action, multisectoral actions, quality of execution; and (iv) evaluating-rigorous monitoring and evaluation. Some of the challenges to implementing drowning prevention interventions in LMICs include insufficient funds, lack of technical capacity, and limited coordination among stakeholders and implementers
Dryfoos, Joy G.
This report presents an overview of programs that may have a potential for prevention of teenage pregnancy. The report starts with a summary of expert opinions on the dimensions of and solutions to the problem and then describes several relatively successful programs. Following this is an overview of interventions with an analysis of program…
Walker, Dilys; Gutierrez, Juan Pablo; Torres, Pilar; Bertozzi, Stefano M
To assess effects on condom use and other sexual behaviour of an HIV prevention programme at school that promotes the use of condoms with and without emergency contraception. Cluster randomised controlled trial. 40 public high schools in the state of Morelos, Mexico. 10 954 first year high school students. Schools were randomised to one of three arms: an HIV prevention course that promoted condom use, the same course with emergency contraception as back-up, or the existing sex education course. Self administered anonymous questionnaires were completed at baseline, four months, and 16 months. Students at intervention schools received a 30 hour course (over 15 weeks) on HIV prevention and life skills, designed in accordance with guidelines of the joint United Nations programme on HIV/AIDS. Two extra hours of education on emergency contraception were given to students in the condom promotion with contraception arm. Primary outcome measure was reported condom use. Other outcomes were reported sexual activity; knowledge and attitudes about HIV and emergency contraception; and attitudes and confidence about condom use. Intervention did not affect reported condom use. Knowledge of HIV improved in both intervention arms and knowledge of emergency contraception improved in the condom promotion with contraception arm. Reported sexual behaviour was similar in the intervention arms and the control group. A rigorously designed, implemented, and evaluated HIV education course based in public high schools did not reduce risk behaviour, so such courses need to be redesigned and evaluated. Addition of emergency contraception did not decrease reported condom use or increase risky sexual behaviour but did increase reported use of emergency contraception.
Full Text Available Background: Prevalence rates in breast cancer have now reached epidemic levels. One of the main reasons behind onset of breast cancer is poor preventive beliefs and behavior of women towards cancer prevention. We examined the effectiveness of health education intervention in two communities of South Greece.Objective: The study investigates the effectiveness of a brief health education intervention on women’s beliefs and behaviour changes concerning breast cancer prevention.Methodology: A 90-minute, one-off encounter, health education study was designed for 300 women from Peloponissos, South Greece. A Health Belief Model questionnaire, was used before the intervention, immediately after and 6-months after the intervention.Results: Despite certain perception-related barriers (embarrassment, anxiety, ect women’s overall beliefs towards breast cancer prevention (perceived susceptibility, perceived benefits and perceived barriers changed positively after the health education intervention and this change was sustained at 6-month follow up. However, specific barriers (embarrassment, fear of pain, anxiety when anticipating tests’ results were not maintained at the same level of post-intervention during the same follow up. During the follow up period, women performed breast self-examination every month (73% and 55.10% had breast examination by a clinician and underwent a mammography.Conclusions: Short, low cost, health education interventions for breast cancer prevention to women can be effective in changing beliefs and behaviour. Tailored interventions are necessary to overcome relapsing of specific barriers. Emphasis should be given on the importance of doctor/nurse role in breast screening.
Bacchieri, Giancarlo; Barros, Aluísio J D; Santos, Janaína V dos; Gonçalves, Helen; Gigante, Denise P
To evaluate an educational intervention designed to prevent traffic accidents among workers that use the bicycle for commuting. A longitudinal intervention study with a stepped wedge implementation was carried out between January 2006 and May 2007. Five neighborhoods with distinct geographic characteristics were selected in the city of Pelotas, Brazil, and 42 census tracts were randomly selected from these neighborhoods. All households were screened for male bicycle commuters, resulting in a sample of 1,133 individuals. The outcomes analyzed were "traffic accidents" and "near accidents". The cyclists were interviewed monthly by phone to record traffic accidents and "near accidents". Every 15 days, from the second month of study, a group of about 60 cyclists was invited to attend the intervention meeting that included an educational component (a talk and a video presentation), distribution of a safety kit (reflective belt & sash, reflective tape and an educational booklet) and a bicycle breaks check-up (maintenance performed if necessary). Poisson regression adjusted for time effect was used to assess the intervention effect. Nearly 45% of the cyclists did not attend the intervention. During the study period, 9% of the study individuals reported a traffic accident and 88% reported a "near accident". In total there were 106 accidents and 1,091 near accidents. There was no effect observed from the intervention on either of the outcomes. The intervention tested was not capable of reducing traffic accidents among bicycle commuters. Lack of interest in safety by commuters and external factors, such as road design and motorist behavior, may have together influenced this result.
Alves, Vanessa Cristina; Freitas, Weslen Carlos Junior de; Ramos, Jeferson Silva; Chagas, Samantha Rodrigues Garbis; Azevedo, Cissa; Mata, Luciana Regina Ferreira da
to analyze the correspondence between the actions contained in the fall prevention protocol of the Ministry of Health and the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) by a cross-mapping. this is a descriptive study carried out in four stages: protocol survey, identification of NIC interventions related to nursing diagnosis, the risk of falls, cross-mapping, and validation of the mapping from the Delphi technique. there were 51 actions identified in the protocol and 42 interventions in the NIC. Two rounds of mapping evaluation were carried out by the experts. There were 47 protocol actions corresponding to 25 NIC interventions. The NIC interventions that presented the highest correspondence with protocol actions were: fall prevention, environmental-safety control, and risk identification. Regarding the classification of similarity and comprehensiveness of the 47 actions of the protocol mapped, 44.7% were considered more detailed and specific than the NIC, 29.8% less specific than the NIC and 25.5% were classified as similar in significance to the NIC. most of the actions contained in the protocol are more specific and detailed, however, the NIC contemplates a greater diversity of interventions and may base a review of the protocol to increase actions related to falls prevention..
Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian; Norr, Kathleen F; Miner, Sarah; Irarrazabal, Lisette; Bernales, Margarita; Peragallo, Nilda; Levy, Judith; Norr, James L; McElmurry, Beverly
The impact of a professionally facilitated peer group intervention for HIV prevention among 400 low-income Chilean women was examined using a quasiexperimental design. At 3 months postintervention, the intervention group had higher HIV-related knowledge, more positive attitudes toward people living with HIV, fewer perceived condom use barriers, greater self- efficacy, higher HIV reduction behavioral intentions, more communication with partners about safer sex, and decreased depression symptoms. They did not, however, have increased condom use or self-esteem. More attention to gender barriers is needed. This intervention offers a model for reducing HIV for women in Chile and other Latin American countries.
Morales, Eduardo S
Translation from research to practice faces numerous problems that include replicating effectiveness, fidelity to the protocol and processes, and adaptations to different types of target populations. Working collaboratively with existing service providers can speed up the time for development and can ease the implementation of empirical randomized trials. Contextual community prevention theory is an innovative approach that focuses on changing behaviors of community members by creating a visible institutional presence that draws and pulls the targeted population into the organization's activities and interventions. The result is an institution or organization within the community that provides a new active and dynamic context, engaging its community members into its activities, interventions, and functions. An HIV prevention program developed collaboratively from the ground up for Latino gay/bisexual men is presented. Results from the program evaluation efforts across the years suggest promise for testing its efficacy through a randomized trial. HIV prevention efforts need to develop dynamic support systems within communities where these men have ownership, have control, and feel safe; otherwise HIV infection rates in this population will increase. Copyright 2009 by the American Psychological Association
Podniece, Z.; Heuvel, S. van den; Blatter, B.
Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) can interfere with activities at work and can lead to reduced productivity, sickness absence and chronic occupational disability. The aim of this report is to systematic evaluate the effectiveness of interventions at the workplace since 2002 and to
Raw, M; McNeill, A
The key components of a strategy to prevent tobacco-related disease are outlined. These measures aim to increase the cessation of tobacco use and reduce its uptake. Components are wide-ranging, including a taxation policy, a ban on advertising and promotion, a comprehensive health promotion programme including advice from primary health care professionals and the development of campaigning skills, particularly by the medical profession. The prevention of tobacco-related disease has moved into the domain of campaigners and lobbyists at political, economic and international levels. The key target is countering the activities, especially the unethical trade practices, of the wealthy and powerful tobacco industry.
Vermunt, P.W.A.; Milder, I.E.J.; Wielaard, F.; Baan, C.A.; Schelfhout, J.D.M.; Westert, G.P.; van Oers, J.A.M.
Background Despite the favorable effects of behavior change interventions on diabetes risk, lifestyle modification is a complicated process. In this study we therefore investigated opportunities for refining a lifestyle intervention for type 2 diabetes prevention, based on participant perceptions of
Vind, Ane B; Andersen, Hanne E; Pedersen, Kirsten D
, mean age 74, 73.7%women, who had visited the emergency department or had been hospitalized due to a fall. INTERVENTION: Identification of general medical, cardiovascular, and physical risk factors for falls and individual intervention in the intervention group. Participants in the control group....... Followup exceeded 90.0%. A total of 422 falls were registered in the intervention group, 398 in the control group. Intention-to-treat analysis revealed no effect of the intervention on fall rates (relative risk=1.06, 95%confidence interval (CI)=0.75 -1.51), proportion with falls (odds ratio (OR)=1.20, 95......OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of multifactorial fall prevention in community-dwelling people aged 65 and older in Denmark. DESIGN: Randomized, controlled clinical trial. SETTING: Geriatric outpatient clinic at Glostrup University Hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Three hundred ninety-two elderly people...
Shepard, Stephanie A; Dickstein, Susan
The purpose of this article is to highlight the importance of preventive interventions targeting parents when addressing early childhood behavior problems. The authors briefly review evidence-based parent management training programs, focusing on one particular program, the Incredible Years (IY) Series. Next, the authors discuss the barriers to embedding evidence-based practice such as IY in community contexts and demonstrate how early childhood mental health consultation can be used to enhance community capacity to adopt evidence-based practice and improve outcomes for the large number of young children and their families in need.
Mary V. Seeman
Full Text Available Depending on jurisdiction, time period studied, and specifics of the population, approximately 50 percent of mothers who suffer from schizophrenia lose custody of their children. The aim of this paper is to recommend interventions aimed at preventing unnecessary custody loss. This paper reviews the social work, nursing, psychology, psychiatry, and law literature on mental illness and custody loss, 2000–2011. Recommendations to mothers are to (a ensure family health (b prevent psychotic relapse, (c prepare in advance for crisis, (d document daily parenting activities, (e take advantage of available parenting resources, and f become knowledgeable about legal issues that pertain to mental health and custody. From a policy perspective, child protection and adult mental health agencies need to dissolve administrative barriers and collaborate. Access to appropriate services will help mothers with schizophrenia to care appropriately for their children and allow these children to grow and develop within their family and community.
Frerichs, Leah M; Araz, Ozgur M; Huang, Terry T-K
Research evidence indicates that obesity has spread through social networks, but lever points for interventions based on overlapping networks are not well studied. The objective of our research was to construct and parameterize a system dynamics model of the social transmission of behaviors through adult and youth influence in order to explore hypotheses and identify plausible lever points for future childhood obesity intervention research. Our objectives were: (1) to assess the sensitivity of childhood overweight and obesity prevalence to peer and adult social transmission rates, and (2) to test the effect of combinations of prevention and treatment interventions on the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity. To address the first objective, we conducted two-way sensitivity analyses of adult-to-child and child-to-child social transmission in relation to childhood overweight and obesity prevalence. For the second objective, alternative combinations of prevention and treatment interventions were tested by varying model parameters of social transmission and weight loss behavior rates. Our results indicated child overweight and obesity prevalence might be slightly more sensitive to the same relative change in the adult-to-child compared to the child-to-child social transmission rate. In our simulations, alternatives with treatment alone, compared to prevention alone, reduced the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity more after 10 years (1.2-1.8% and 0.2-1.0% greater reduction when targeted at children and adults respectively). Also, as the impact of adult interventions on children was increased, the rank of six alternatives that included adults became better (i.e., resulting in lower 10 year childhood overweight and obesity prevalence) than alternatives that only involved children. The findings imply that social transmission dynamics should be considered when designing both prevention and treatment intervention approaches. Finally, targeting adults may
Leah M Frerichs
Full Text Available Research evidence indicates that obesity has spread through social networks, but lever points for interventions based on overlapping networks are not well studied. The objective of our research was to construct and parameterize a system dynamics model of the social transmission of behaviors through adult and youth influence in order to explore hypotheses and identify plausible lever points for future childhood obesity intervention research. Our objectives were: (1 to assess the sensitivity of childhood overweight and obesity prevalence to peer and adult social transmission rates, and (2 to test the effect of combinations of prevention and treatment interventions on the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity. To address the first objective, we conducted two-way sensitivity analyses of adult-to-child and child-to-child social transmission in relation to childhood overweight and obesity prevalence. For the second objective, alternative combinations of prevention and treatment interventions were tested by varying model parameters of social transmission and weight loss behavior rates. Our results indicated child overweight and obesity prevalence might be slightly more sensitive to the same relative change in the adult-to-child compared to the child-to-child social transmission rate. In our simulations, alternatives with treatment alone, compared to prevention alone, reduced the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity more after 10 years (1.2-1.8% and 0.2-1.0% greater reduction when targeted at children and adults respectively. Also, as the impact of adult interventions on children was increased, the rank of six alternatives that included adults became better (i.e., resulting in lower 10 year childhood overweight and obesity prevalence than alternatives that only involved children. The findings imply that social transmission dynamics should be considered when designing both prevention and treatment intervention approaches. Finally
Full Text Available This article examines how the field of adolescent sexual health came to embrace evidence-based interventions (EBIs; whether or not this approach is effective in meeting the needs of adolescents, especially those at high risk for teen pregnancy; concerns related to the scaling up of EBIs; and identifies issues which must be resolved as we move forward.
The aim of the study was to evaluate a motivation-based HIV risk reduction intervention for economically disadvantaged urban women in South Africa. Women were recruited through radio and information pamphlets. At baseline 119 women completed a survey regarding HIV-related knowledge, risk perceptions, ...
Jahanfar, Shayesteh; Howard, Louise M; Medley, Nancy
Domestic violence during pregnancy is a major public health concern. This preventable risk factor threatens both the mother and baby. Routine perinatal care visits offer opportunities for healthcare professionals to screen and refer abused women for effective interventions. It is, however, not clear which interventions best serve mothers during pregnancy and postpartum to ensure their safety. To examine the effectiveness and safety of interventions in preventing or reducing domestic violence against pregnant women. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 July 2014), scanned bibliographies of published studies and corresponded with investigators. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) including cluster-randomised trials, and quasi-randomised controlled trials (e.g. where there was alternate allocation) investigating the effect of interventions in preventing or reducing domestic violence during pregnancy. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. We included 10 trials with a total of 3417 women randomised. Seven of these trials, recruiting 2629 women, contributed data to the review. However, results for all outcomes were based on single studies. There was limited evidence for the primary outcomes of reduction of episodes of violence (physical, sexual, and/or psychological) and prevention of violence during and up to one year after pregnancy (as defined by the authors of trials). In one study, women who received the intervention reported fewer episodes of partner violence during pregnancy and in the postpartum period (risk ratio (RR) 0.62, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.43 to 0.88, 306 women, moderate quality). Groups did not differ for Conflict Tactics Score - the mean partner abuse scores in the first three months postpartum (mean difference (MD) 4.20 higher, 95% CI -10.74 to 19.14, one study, 46 women, very low quality). The Current
Lodi, Giovanni; Franchini, Roberto; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Varoni, Elena Maria; Sardella, Andrea; Kerr, Alexander R; Carrassi, Antonio; MacDonald, L C I; Worthington, Helen V
Oral leukoplakia is a relatively common oral lesion that, in a small proportion of people, precedes the development of oral cancer. Most leukoplakias are asymptomatic; therefore, the primary objective of treatment should be to prevent onset of cancer. This review updates our previous review, published in 2006. To assess the effectiveness, safety and acceptability of treatments for leukoplakia in preventing oral cancer. We searched the following electronic databases: Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (to 16 May 2016), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (the Cochrane Library, 2016, Issue 4), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 16 May 2016), Embase Ovid (1980 to 16 May 2016) and CancerLit via PubMed (1950 to 16 May 2016). We searched the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (to 10 February 2015), ClinicalTrials.gov (to 16 May 2016) and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for ongoing trials (to 16 May 2016). We placed no restrictions on the language or date of publication when searching electronic databases. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that enrolled people with a diagnosis of oral leukoplakia and compared any treatment versus placebo or no treatment. We collected data using a data extraction form. Oral cancer development, demonstrated by histopathological examination, was our primary outcome. Secondary outcomes were clinical resolution of the lesion, improvement of histological features and adverse events. We contacted trial authors for further details when information was unclear. When valid and relevant data were available, we conducted a meta-analysis of the data using a fixed-effect model when we identified fewer than four studies with no heterogeneity. For dichotomous outcomes, we calculated risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We assessed risk of bias in studies by using the Cochrane tool. We assessed the overall quality of the evidence by using standardised
Brotman, Laurie Miller; Dawson-McClure, Spring; Huang, Keng-Yen; Theise, Rachelle; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Wang, Jing; Petkova, Eva; Ogedegbe, Gbenga
To test the hypothesis that family intervention to promote effective parenting in early childhood affects obesity in preadolescence. Participants were 186 minority youth at risk for behavior problems who enrolled in long-term follow-up studies after random assignment to family intervention or control condition at age 4. Follow-up Study 1 included 40 girls at familial risk for behavior problems; Follow-up Study 2 included 146 boys and girls at risk for behavior problems based on teacher ratings. Family intervention aimed to promote effective parenting and prevent behavior problems during early childhood; it did not focus on physical health. BMI and health behaviors were measured an average of 5 years after intervention in Study 1 and 3 years after intervention in Study 2. Youth randomized to intervention had significantly lower BMI at follow-up relative to controls (Study 1 P = .05; Study 2 P = .006). Clinical impact is evidenced by lower rates of obesity (BMI ≥95th percentile) among intervention girls and boys relative to controls (Study 2: 24% vs 54%, P = .002). There were significant intervention-control group differences on physical and sedentary activity, blood pressure, and diet. Two long-term follow-up studies of randomized trials show that relative to controls, youth at risk for behavior problems who received family intervention at age 4 had lower BMI and improved health behaviors as they approached adolescence. Efforts to promote effective parenting and prevent behavior problems early in life may contribute to the reduction of obesity and health disparities.
White, Adrian R; Rampes, Hagen; Liu, Jian Ping; Stead, Lindsay F; Campbell, John
Acupuncture and related techniques are promoted as a treatment for smoking cessation in the belief that they may reduce nicotine withdrawal symptoms. The objectives of this review are to determine the effectiveness of acupuncture and the related interventions of acupressure, laser therapy and electrostimulation in smoking cessation, in comparison with no intervention, sham treatment, or other interventions. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register (which includes trials of smoking cessation interventions identified from the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO) and AMED in October 2013. We also searched four Chinese databases in September 2013: Sino-Med, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Data and VIP. Randomized trials comparing a form of acupuncture, acupressure, laser therapy or electrostimulation with either no intervention, sham treatment or another intervention for smoking cessation. We extracted data in duplicate on the type of smokers recruited, the nature of the intervention and control procedures, the outcome measures, method of randomization, and completeness of follow-up.We assessed abstinence from smoking at the earliest time-point (before six weeks) and at the last measurement point between six months and one year. We used the most rigorous definition of abstinence for each trial, and biochemically validated rates if available. Those lost to follow-up were counted as continuing smokers. Where appropriate, we performed meta-analysis pooling risk ratios using a fixed-effect model. We included 38 studies. Based on three studies, acupuncture was not shown to be more effective than a waiting list control for long-term abstinence, with wide confidence intervals and evidence of heterogeneity (n = 393, risk ratio [RR] 1.79, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.98 to 3.28, I² = 57%). Compared with sham acupuncture, the RR for the short-term effect of acupuncture was 1
van Reijen, Miriam; Vriend, Ingrid; van Mechelen, Willem; Finch, Caroline F; Verhagen, Evert A
Sport injury prevention studies vary in the way compliance with an intervention is defined, measured and adjusted for. The objective of this systematic review was to assess the extent to which sport injury prevention randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have defined, measured and adjusted results for compliance with an injury prevention intervention. An electronic search was performed in MEDLINE, PubMed, the Cochrane Center of Controlled Trials, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), PEDro (Physiotherapy Evidence Database) and SPORTDiscus. English RCTs, quasi-RCTs and cluster-RCTs were considered eligible. Trials that involved physically active individuals or examined the effects of an intervention aimed at the prevention of sport- or physical activity-related injuries were included. Of the total of 100 studies included, 71.6 % mentioned compliance or a related term, 68.8 % provided details on compliance measurement and 51.4 % provided compliance data. Only 19.3 % analysed the effect of compliance rates on study outcomes. While studies used heterogeneous methods, pooled effects could not be presented. Studies that account for compliance demonstrated that compliance significant affects study outcomes. The way compliance is dealt with in preventions studies is subject to a large degree of heterogeneity. Valid and reliable tools to measure and report compliance are needed and should be matched to a uniform definition of compliance.
Figueira, Inês; Fernandes, Adelaide; Mladenovic Djordjevic, Aleksandra
Over 60% of people aged over 65 are affected by multiple morbidities, which are more difficult to treat, generate increased healthcare costs and lead to poor quality of life compared to individual diseases. With the number of older people steadily increasing this presents a societal challenge. Age...... is the major risk factor for age-related diseases and recent research developments have led to the proposal that pharmacological interventions targeting common mechanisms of ageing may be able to delay the onset of multimorbidity. Here we review the state of the knowledge of multimorbidity, appraise...... the available evidence supporting the role of mechanisms of ageing in the development of the most common age-related diseases and assess potential molecules that may successfully target those key mechanisms....
Vercruysse, Sien; Haerens, Leen; Verhagen, Evert; Goossens, Lennert; De Clercq, Dirk
Physical education (PE) teachers are at a high risk of musculoskeletal sports or work-related injuries because of the physical activity as inherent part of their profession. Such injuries have a negative impact on work and leisure time activities, and effective injury prevention interventions are needed. The present study aimed at testing the effectiveness of an injury prevention intervention that was developed and optimized according to PE teachers' wishes and values. Fifty-five PE teachers were randomly assigned to intervention or control group. Intervention group teachers engaged in two days of training during which they familiarized with eight injury prevention strategies (seven intrinsic and one extrinsic). A special feature of the intervention was that the way of delivery was based on the self-determination theory in order to stimulate participants' motivation to adhere to the proposed strategies. Prospective registrations during one school year were conducted concerning injuries and preventive behaviours. Results showed that the intervention group teachers had a lower number of injuries per 1000 h time of exposure (TOE) than the controls (INT: 0.49, CON: 1.14 injuries/1000 h TOE, OR: 2.32, 95% CI: 1.06-5.07), and applied a broader variety of strategies including dynamic and static stretching, core stability, balance and strength training, when compared to the controls who mainly engaged in warming-up. In conclusion, with the same amount of time, an injury reduction was found in PE teachers through a more balanced use of provided preventive strategies.
Shepherd, Emily; Gomersall, Judith C; Tieu, Joanna; Han, Shanshan; Crowther, Caroline A; Middleton, Philippa
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with a wide range of adverse health consequences for women and their infants in the short and long term. With an increasing prevalence of GDM worldwide, there is an urgent need to assess strategies for GDM prevention, such as combined diet and exercise interventions. This is an update of a Cochrane review that was first published in 2015. To assess the effects of diet interventions in combination with exercise interventions for pregnant women for preventing GDM, and associated adverse health consequences for the mother and her infant/child. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (27 November 2016) and reference lists of retrieved studies. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and cluster-RCTs, comparing combined diet and exercise interventions with no intervention (i.e. standard care), that reported on GDM diagnosis as an outcome. Quasi-RCTs were excluded. Cross-over trials were not eligible for inclusion. We planned to include RCTs comparing two or more different diet/exercise interventions, however none were identified. Two review authors independently assessed study eligibility, extracted data, assessed the risk of bias of the included trials and assessed quality of evidence for selected maternal and infant/child outcomes using the GRADE approach. We checked data for accuracy. In this update, we included 23 RCTs (involving 8918 women and 8709 infants) that compared combined diet and exercise interventions with no intervention (standard care). The studies varied in the diet and exercise programs evaluated and health outcomes reported. None reported receiving funding from a drug manufacturer or agency with interests in the results. Overall risk of bias was judged to be unclear due to the lack of methodological detail reported. Most studies were undertaken in high-income countries.For our primary review outcomes, there was a possible reduced risk of GDM in the diet and
Caldwell, Linda L; Bradley, Stephanie; Coffman, Donna
This manuscript focuses on how individualized components may be embedded within a universal preventive intervention (TimeWise: Taking Charge of Leisure Time) to make program delivery more effective. Leisure related variables (motivation, boredom/interest and peer and parental influence) were used to suggest ways to individualize the program. Latent Class Analysis was used to develop individualized risk and strength profiles of adolescents (N = 617). Comparisons were made between a treatment and control group. Four classes were identified: undifferentiated high, intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation/amotivation, undifferentiated low. These classes were related to substance use. Membership in the intrinsic class was associated with intervention group while the extrinsic class was related to the control group. Results were useful in suggesting ways to tailor a universal prevention program.
Pérez Morente, Ma Angeles; Sánchez Ocón, Ma Teresa; Mingorance Ruiz, Ma Visitación; Pérez Robles, Angustias; Munoz de la Fuente, José Manuel; Sánchez De Arias, Celia
To determine the current epidemiological situation, prevention and management of child and youth obesity based on the best scientific evidence available. Literature search in PubMed, Cochrane, Science Direct, ENFISPO, Lilacs and SciELO, selecting articles about child and youth obesity, its prevention and treatment. Child and youth obesity is a multifactorial chronic disease that it has been increasing, tending to stay in adolescence and adulthood with greater intensity than more early starts. The data vary from country to country, although most articles are governed by body mass index (BMI). Pediatric overweight is defined by a BMI percentiles located between 91-98 and obesity by a percentile equal or greater than 99. Its prevalence varies according to time, geography, age, gender and race. The prevalence rates of obesity in Spain are one of the highest around the world. The overweight prevalence is lower slightly and there is no difference in gender. Its implications include the metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus II. Unanimously, the combination of interventions on life and dietary habits and physical activity is important for the management of obesity and overweight. Currently, the obesity management requires a generalized approach, with changes in lifestyle, diet and physical activity. The best solution for reducing this epidemic lies in prevention rather than treatment.
Niakan, Sharareh; Mehraeen, Esmaeil; Noori, Tayebeh; Gozali, Elahe
With the increasing growth of HIV positive people the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) can play an important role in controlling the spread of the AIDS. Web and Mobile are the new technologies that young people take advantage from them. In this study a review to investigate the web and mobile based HIV prevention and intervention programs was carried out. A scoping review was conducted including PubMed, Science direct, Web of Science and Proquest to find relevant sources that published in 2009 to 2016. To identify published, original research that reported the web and mobile-based HIV prevention and intervention programs, an organized search was conducted with the following search keywords in combination: HIV, AIDS, m-Health, Mobile phone, Cell phone, Smartphone, Mobile health, internet, and web. Using the employed strategies, 173 references retrieved. Searched articles were compared based on their titles and abstracts. To identify duplicated articles, the title and abstracts were considered and 101 duplicated references were excluded. By going through the full text of related papers, 35 articles were found to be more related to the questions of this paper from which 72 final included. The advantages of web and mobile-based interventions include the possibility to provide constancy in the delivery of an intervention, impending low cost, and the ability to spread the intervention to an extensive community. Online programs such as Chat room-based Education program, Web-based therapeutic education system, and Online seek information can use for HIV/AIDS prevention. To use of mobile for HIV/AIDS prevention and intervention, programs including in: Health system focused applications, Population health focused applications, and Health messaging can be used.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite massive anti-malaria campaigns across the subcontinent, effective access to intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp and insecticide-treated nets (ITNs among pregnant women remain low in large parts of sub-Saharan Africa. The slow uptake of malaria prevention products appears to reflect lack of knowledge and resistance to behavioural change, as well as poor access to resources, and limited support of programmes by local communities and authorities. Methods A recent community-based programme in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria, is analysed to determine the degree to which community-directed interventions can improve access to malaria prevention in pregnancy. Six local government areas in Southern Nigeria were selected for a malaria in pregnancy prevention intervention. Three of these local government areas were selected for a complementary community-directed intervention (CDI programme. Under the CDI programme, volunteer community-directed distributors (CDDs were appointed by each village and kindred in the treatment areas and trained to deliver ITNs and IPTp drugs as well as basic counseling services to pregnant women. Findings Relative to women in the control area, an additional 7.4 percent of women slept under a net during pregnancy in the treatment areas (95% CI [0.035, 0.115], p-value Conclusion The presented results suggest that the inclusion of community-based programmes can substantially increase effective access to malaria prevention, and also increase access to formal health care access in general, and antenatal care attendance in particular in combination with supply side interventions. Given the relatively modest financial commitments they require, community-directed programmes appear to be a cost-effective way to improve malaria prevention; the participatory approach underlying CDI programmes also promises to strengthen ties between the formal health sector and local communities.
Jacobson, Therese M; Thompson, Susan L; Halvorson, Anna M; Zeitler, Kristine
Prevention of hospital-acquired pressure ulcers requires the implementation of evidence-based interventions. A quality improvement project was conducted to provide nurses with data on the frequency with which pressure ulcer prevention interventions were performed as measured by documentation. Documentation reports provided feedback to stakeholders, triggering reminders and reeducation. Intervention reports and modifications to the documentation system were effective both in increasing the documentation of pressure ulcer prevention interventions and in decreasing the number of avoidable hospital-acquired pressure ulcers.
Zhang, Xin-Yi; Shuai, Jian; Li, Li-Ping
Our study objective was to determine the effect of vision intervention and combinations of different intervention components on preventing falls and fall-related injuries among older people. Six electronic databases were searched to identify seven articles published before May, 2014. We conducted a systematic review of data from seven randomized controlled trails and identified eight regimens: vision intervention alone (V), vision plus exercise (referred to as physical exercise) interventions (V + E), vision plus home hazard interventions (V + HH), vision plus exercise plus home hazard interventions (V + E + HH), vision plus exercise plus sensation interventions (V + E + S), vision plus hearing interventions (V + H), vision plus various risk factor assessment and interventions (V + VRF), and the control group (C, no intervention group). The main outcome was the incidence of falls during the follow-up period. Seven papers included 2723 participants. Network meta-analysis of seven trials, using pairwise comparisons between each intervention, indicated there was no significant difference. However, there was a trend in which intervention incorporating V + VRF had more advantages than any other combination of interventions. In conclusion, V + VRF proves to be more effective than other V combination interventions in preventing falls in older people (≥65 years of age). V alone appears less effective in our network meta-analysis.
El-Jardali, Fadi; Akl, Elie A; Fadlallah, Racha; Oliver, Sandy; Saleh, Nadine; El-Bawab, Lamya; Rizk, Rana; Farha, Aida; Hamra, Rasha
Drug counterfeiting has serious public health and safety implications. The objective of this study was to systematically review the evidence on the effectiveness of interventions to combat or prevent drug counterfeiting. We searched multiple electronic databases and the grey literature up to March 2014. Two reviewers completed, in duplicate and independently, the study selection, data abstraction and risk of bias assessment. We included randomised trials, non-randomised studies, and case studies examining any intervention at the health system-level to combat or prevent drug counterfeiting. Outcomes of interest included changes in failure rates of tested drugs and changes in prevalence of counterfeit medicines. We excluded studies that focused exclusively on substandard, degraded or expired drugs, or that focused on medication errors. We assessed the risk of bias in each included study. We reported the results narratively and, where applicable, we conducted meta-analyses. We included 21 studies representing 25 units of analysis. Overall, we found low quality evidence suggesting positive effects of drug registration (OR=0.23; 95% CI 0.08 to 0.67), and WHO-prequalification of drugs (OR=0.06; 95% CI 0.01 to 0.35) in reducing the prevalence of counterfeit and substandard drugs. Low quality evidence suggests that licensing of drug outlets is probably ineffective (OR=0.66; 95% CI 0.41 to 1.05). For multifaceted interventions (including a mix of regulations, training of inspectors, public-private collaborations and legal actions), low quality evidence suggest they may be effective. The single RCT provided moderate quality evidence of no effect of 'two extra inspections' in improving drug quality. Policymakers and stakeholders would benefit from registration and WHO-prequalification of drugs and may also consider multifaceted interventions. Future effectiveness studies should address the methodological limitations of the available evidence. PROSPERO CRD42014009269
Clasen, Thomas F; Alexander, Kelly T; Sinclair, David; Boisson, Sophie; Peletz, Rachel; Chang, Howard H; Majorin, Fiona; Cairncross, Sandy
Background Diarrhoea is a major cause of death and disease, especially among young children in low-income countries. In these settings, many infectious agents associated with diarrhoea are spread through water contaminated with faeces. In remote and low-income settings, source-based water quality improvement includes providing protected groundwater (springs, wells, and bore holes), or harvested rainwater as an alternative to surface sources (rivers and lakes). Point-of-use water quality improvement interventions include boiling, chlorination, flocculation, filtration, or solar disinfection, mainly conducted at home. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of interventions to improve water quality for preventing diarrhoea. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register (11 November 2014), CENTRAL (the Cochrane Library, 7 November 2014), MEDLINE (1966 to 10 November 2014), EMBASE (1974 to 10 November 2014), and LILACS (1982 to 7 November 2014). We also handsearched relevant conference proceedings, contacted researchers and organizations working in the field, and checked references from identified studies through 11 November 2014. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-RCTs, and controlled before-and-after studies (CBA) comparing interventions aimed at improving the microbiological quality of drinking water with no intervention in children and adults. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We used meta-analyses to estimate pooled measures of effect, where appropriate, and investigated potential sources of heterogeneity using subgroup analyses. We assessed the quality of evidence using the GRADE approach. Main results Forty-five cluster-RCTs, two quasi-RCTs, and eight CBA studies, including over 84,000 participants, met the inclusion criteria. Most included studies were conducted in low- or middle-income countries (LMICs) (50 studies) with
Kjøbli, John; Sørlie, Mari-Anne
The Early Intervention for Children at Risk for Developing Behavioral Problems (EICR) is a community-wide intervention model preventing and treating problem behavior and promoting social competence in children. The aim of the study was to test whether EICR would result in fewer incidences of problem behavior and improved learning climate in elementary schools in a Norwegian municipality. The municipality was divided in two, each section having equal chance of being assigned to the intervention condition. Participants were principals and school staff. One year after the initiation of EICR, the prevalence of student problem behavior was significantly lower, and student relations were significantly better for schools located in the intervention area than for schools located in the comparison area. The findings support further development, implementation and research on the EICR model.
Langer, Gero; Fink, Astrid
ulcer development (pooled RR 0.86; 95% CI 0.73 to 1.00; P value 0.05; I(2) = 13%, random effects). This outcome is at unclear or high risk of bias.Fourteen trials evaluated the effects of nutritional supplements on the healing of existing pressure ulcers: seven trials examined mixed nutritional supplements, three the effects of proteins, two trials examined zinc, and two studies examined ascorbic acid. The included trials were heterogeneous with regard to participants, interventions, comparisons and outcomes and meta-analysis was not appropriate. There was no clear evidence of an improvement in pressure ulcer healing from the nutritional supplements evaluated in any of these individual studies. There is currently no clear evidence of a benefit associated with nutritional interventions for either the prevention or treatment of pressure ulcers. Further trials of high methodological quality are necessary.
Lennon, Olive; Galvin, Rose; Smith, Kathryn; Doody, Catherine; Blake, Catherine
Secondary prevention in ischaemic stroke and transient ischaemic attack (TIA) is dominated by pharmacological interventions with evidence for non-pharmacological interventions being less robust. This systematic review and meta-analysis examines the impact of lifestyle interventions on secondary prevention in stroke or TIA. A systematic literature search was performed. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) examining the effectiveness of intervention packages incorporating any key component of health education/promotion/counselling on lifestyle and/or aerobic exercise compared to usual care ± a sham intervention in participants with ischaemic stroke or TIA were included. Outcomes of interest were mortality, cardiovascular disease (CVD) event rates, cardiovascular risk factors including blood pressure, lipid profiles and physical activity participation. Methodological quality was assessed. Statistical analyses determining treatment effect were conducted using Cochrane Review Manager Software. Seventeen RCTs were included. Data pooled from eight studies with a total of 2478 patients, demonstrated no effect in favour of lifestyle interventions compared to routine or sham interventions on mortality (risk ratio (RR) = 1.13 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.85-1.52), I(2) = 0%). Data relating to CVD events were pooled from four studies (1013 patients), demonstrated non-significant findings (RR = 1.16 (95% CI, 0.80--1.71), I(2) = 0%). Similar results were reported for total cholesterol. Physical activity participation demonstrated significant improvement [SMD 0.24 (95% CI, 0.08-0.41), l (2) = 47%]. Blood pressure reductions were noted but were non-significant when corrected for multimodal packages including enhanced pharmacotherapy compliance. There is currently insufficient high quality research to support lifestyle interventions post-stroke or TIA on mortality, CVD event rates and cardio-metabolic risk factor profiles. Promising blood pressure reductions were noted in
Benjamin Neelon, S E; Østbye, T; Hales, D; Vaughn, A; Ward, D S
Obesity prevention in young children is a public health priority. In the USA, nearly 10% of children less than 5 years of age are obese, and most attend some form of out-of-home child care. While a number of interventions have been conducted in early care and education settings, few have targeted the youngest children in care or the less formal types of child care like family child care homes. Additionally, only two previous studies provided recommendations to help inform future interventions. This paper presents lessons learned from two distinct intervention studies in early care and education settings to help guide researchers and public health professionals interested in implementing and evaluating similar interventions. We highlight two studies: one targeting children ages 4 to 24 months in child care centres and the other intervening in children 18 months to 4 years in family child care homes. We include lessons from our pilot studies and the ongoing larger trials. To date, our experiences suggest that an intervention should have a firm basis in behaviour change theory; an advisory group should help evaluate intervention materials and plan for delivery; and realistic recruitment goals should recognize economic challenges of the business of child care. A flexible data collection approach and realistic sample size calculations are needed because of high rates of child (and sometimes facility) turnover. An intervention that is relatively easy to implement is more likely to appeal to a wide variety of early care and education providers. Interventions to prevent obesity in early care and education have the potential to reach large numbers of children. It is important to consider the unique features and similarities of centres and family child care homes and take advantage of lessons learned from current studies in order to develop effective, evidence-based interventions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Pérez Fernández, María Reyes; Almazán Ortega, Raquel; Martínez Portela, José María; Alves Pérez, M Teresa; Segura Iglesias, M Carmen; Pérez Fernández, Román
The aim of this study is to determine whether an educational intervention in perimenopausal women in rural environments achieves significant changes in risk behaviors related to osteoporosis. Randomized clinical trials of parallel groups: 216 women (45-54 years old) of a rural Primary Healthcare service. Pre- and post- intervention were covered: body mass index (BMI), densitometry and blood test (calcium [Ca], parathormone [PTH]). Intervention group (n1=110): 2 interactive workshops on the prevention of osteoporosis. Control group (n2=106): information by post. After the educational intervention, the intervention group maintained its BMI, increased its bone mineral density (BMD) (P<.001) and decreased the Ca (P ≤.048) and PTH (P<.001) levels. The control group increased its BMI (P<.001) and its BMD (P ≤.048), maintained its Ca levels and decreased the PTH values (P=.01). The improvement in the objective parameters related to osteoporosis indicates the importance of health education as a preventive measure in this group of women. It would be interesting to analyze the repercussions of this improvement on a long-term basis in terms of reducing the incidence of osteoporosis and fractures. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Blair, Clancy; Raver, C Cybele
We review some of the growing evidence of the costs of poverty to children's neuroendocrine function, early brain development, and cognitive ability. We underscore the importance of addressing the negative consequences of poverty-related adversity early in children's lives, given evidence supporting the plasticity of executive functions and associated physiologic processes in response to early intervention and the importance of higher order cognitive functions for success in school and in life. Finally, we highlight some new directions for prevention and intervention that are rapidly emerging at the intersection of developmental science, pediatrics, child psychology and psychiatry, and public policy. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Okamoto, Scott K; Kulis, Stephen; Marsiglia, Flavio F; Steiker, Lori K Holleran; Dustman, Patricia
The purpose of this article is to describe a conceptual model of methods used to develop culturally focused interventions. We describe a continuum of approaches ranging from non-adapted/surface-structure adapted programs to culturally grounded programs, and present recent examples of interventions resulting from the application of each of these approaches. The model has implications for categorizing culturally focused prevention efforts more accurately, and for gauging the time, resources, and level of community engagement necessary to develop programs using each of the different methods. The model also has implications for funding decisions related to the development and evaluation of programs, and for planning of participatory research approaches with community members.
Leka, S.; Jain, A.; Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.; Cox, T.
There exists a substantial degree of diversity across strategies to prevent and manage work- related psychosocial risks and their associated health effects. Whereas it is common to distinguish between organizational and individual interventions, the important level of policy- level interventions has
Tikka, Christina; Verbeek, Jos H; Kateman, Erik; Morata, Thais C; Dreschler, Wouter A; Ferrite, Silvia
This is the second update of a Cochrane Review originally published in 2009. Millions of workers worldwide are exposed to noise levels that increase their risk of hearing disorders. There is uncertainty about the effectiveness of hearing loss prevention interventions. To assess the effectiveness of non-pharmaceutical interventions for preventing occupational noise exposure or occupational hearing loss compared to no intervention or alternative interventions. We searched the CENTRAL; PubMed; Embase; CINAHL; Web of Science; BIOSIS Previews; Cambridge Scientific Abstracts; and OSH UPDATE to 3 October 2016. We included randomised controlled trials (RCT), controlled before-after studies (CBA) and interrupted time-series (ITS) of non-clinical interventions under field conditions among workers to prevent or reduce noise exposure and hearing loss. We also collected uncontrolled case studies of engineering controls about the effect on noise exposure. Two authors independently assessed study eligibility and risk of bias and extracted data. We categorised interventions as engineering controls, administrative controls, personal hearing protection devices, and hearing surveillance. We included 29 studies. One study evaluated legislation to reduce noise exposure in a 12-year time-series analysis but there were no controlled studies on engineering controls for noise exposure. Eleven studies with 3725 participants evaluated effects of personal hearing protection devices and 17 studies with 84,028 participants evaluated effects of hearing loss prevention programmes (HLPPs). Effects on noise exposure Engineering interventions following legislationOne ITS study found that new legislation in the mining industry reduced the median personal noise exposure dose in underground coal mining by 27.7 percentage points (95% confidence interval (CI) -36.1 to -19.3 percentage points) immediately after the implementation of stricter legislation. This roughly translates to a 4.5 dB(A) decrease in
Filiatrault, Johanne; Richard, Lucie
Community occupational therapy practice challenges therapists in their health educator role and incites them to implement preventive strategies with their clients. Working in the community also provides an interesting context for the implementation of strategies targeting health promotion at the community level. This article describes some of the theories that are used in the public health and health promotion fields to explain health-related behaviour change. It also highlights their potential for community practice in occupational therapy. The theories presented in this paper are the health belief model, social cognitive theory, theory of reasoned action and theory of planned behavior. They are among the most widely used for health-related behaviour analysis and intervention. Since these theories emphasize a set of factors that influence health behaviours, reviewing these theories could contribute to enhance the effectiveness of educational interventions with regards to clients'adherence to their prevention and health promotion recommendations.
Full Text Available Wendy W Harrison, Vladimir YevseyenkovArizona College of Optometry, Midwestern University, Glendale, AZ, USAAbstract: Diabetic eye disease is a public health concern in all areas of the world as a leading cause of blindness in the working aged to elderly populations. Diabetes damages the lining of the microvasculature throughout the body through prolonged exposure to hyperglycemic conditions. The ocular changes are progressive with very little recourse for improvement once damage begins. Current treatments for the eye focus mainly on the late stages of the disease when neovascularization or edema threatens sight. Early interventions for diabetic vasculopathy involve metabolic therapy to improve blood glucose and blood pressure control. Technology improvements have a large part to play in advancing diagnosis of diabetic eye disease. These new technologies offer both structural and functional means for assessment of retinal health. This review focuses on current treatments for diabetic eye disease at all stages with an emphasis on new and early interventions. It also details established and emerging technologies used for earlier detection of diabetic eye disease, which is vital to the development and approval of much needed treatments targeted at earlier stages of diabetic retinopathy. Possible future treatments should be aimed to prevent retinal vasculopathy from progressing. This review will explore current research on this topic and what is needed moving forward.Keywords: diabetes, diabetic retinopathy, vascular disease
Lerch, C; Meissner, T
Nutritional rickets is a disease of growing children leading to bone deformities, bone pain, convulsions or delayed motor development. Today, high-incidence of nutritional rickets is mainly found in low-income countries. To assess the effects of various interventions on the prevention of nutritional rickets in term born children. Studies were obtained from computerised searches of The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS and reference lists of relevant articles. We contacted authors of studies or reviews to obtain further studies. Studies were included if they were randomised controlled clinical trials, controlled clinical trials or prospective cohort studies comparing any intervention for the prevention of nutritional rickets in term born children with placebo or no intervention. Minimum duration of the intervention was three months for children under 12 months or six months for children over 12 months. Two authors independently extracted data and assessed study quality. Authors of studies were contacted to obtain missing information. Four studies enrolled approximately 1700 participants. Trials lasted between nine months to two years. Three studies were randomised controlled trials, two of which showed a cluster randomised design; one trial probably was a controlled trial with researcher controlled group assignment. In children up to three years of age in Turkey, Vitamin D compared to no intervention showed a relative risk of 0.04 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0 to 0.71). Despite a marked non-compliance, a Chinese trial in children up to three years of age comparing a combined intervention of supplementation of vitamin D, calcium and nutritional counseling showed a relative risk of 0.76 (95% CI 0.61 to 0.95) compared to no intervention. In two studies conducted in older children in China and in France no rickets occurred in both the intervention and control group. There a only few studies on the prevention of nutritional rickets in term born children. Until
Riley, Therese; Hawe, Penelope
Traditional methods of process evaluation encompass what components were delivered, but rarely uncover how practitioners position themselves and act relative to an intervention being tested. This could be crucial for expanding our understanding of implementation and its contribution to intervention effectiveness. We undertook a narrative analysis of in-depth, unstructured field diaries kept by nine community development practitioners for two years. The practitioners were responsible for implementing a multi-component, preventive, community-level intervention for mothers of new babies in eight communities, as part of a cluster randomised community intervention trial. We constructed a narrative typology of approaches to practice, drawing on the phenomenology of Alfred Schutz and Max Weber's Ideal Type theory. Five types of practice emerged, from a highly 'technology-based' type that was faithful to intervention specifications, through to a 'romantic' type that held relationships to be central to daily operations, with intact relationships being the final arbiter of intervention success. The five types also differed in terms of how others involved in the intervention were characterized, the narrative form (e.g., tragedy, satire) and where and how transformative change in communities was best created. This meant that different types traded-off or managed the priorities of the intervention differently, according to the deeply held values of their type. The data set constructed for this analysis is unique. It revealed that practitioners not only exercise their agency within interventions, they do so systematically, that is, according to a pattern. The typology is the first of its kind and, if verified through replication, may have value for anticipating intervention dynamics and explaining implementation variation in community interventions.
Background Traditional methods of process evaluation encompass what components were delivered, but rarely uncover how practitioners position themselves and act relative to an intervention being tested. This could be crucial for expanding our understanding of implementation and its contribution to intervention effectiveness. Methods We undertook a narrative analysis of in-depth, unstructured field diaries kept by nine community development practitioners for two years. The practitioners were responsible for implementing a multi-component, preventive, community-level intervention for mothers of new babies in eight communities, as part of a cluster randomised community intervention trial. We constructed a narrative typology of approaches to practice, drawing on the phenomenology of Alfred Schutz and Max Weber's Ideal Type theory. Results Five types of practice emerged, from a highly 'technology-based' type that was faithful to intervention specifications, through to a 'romantic' type that held relationships to be central to daily operations, with intact relationships being the final arbiter of intervention success. The five types also differed in terms of how others involved in the intervention were characterized, the narrative form (e.g., tragedy, satire) and where and how transformative change in communities was best created. This meant that different types traded-off or managed the priorities of the intervention differently, according to the deeply held values of their type. Conclusions The data set constructed for this analysis is unique. It revealed that practitioners not only exercise their agency within interventions, they do so systematically, that is, according to a pattern. The typology is the first of its kind and, if verified through replication, may have value for anticipating intervention dynamics and explaining implementation variation in community interventions. PMID:20003399
Loeber, S; Klein, O; Mann, K; Croissant, B
Although several companies are requesting interventions for substance abuse prevention at the workplace and a wide variety of interventions is successfully introduced into practice, empirical studies investigating the efficacy of such interventions are rare. In the present study 100 executive managers of a German chemical company, who had participated in an intervention to prevent substance consumption at the workplace one year before, were applied a questionnaire to assess effects of the intervention. Data from 22 managers, who had so far not received such an intervention, were collected to serve as a control condition. The intervention itself was designed as a theory oriented half a day course and was conducted in groups of 10 to 12 executive managers of the company. By comparing participants and non-participants, we found significant differences with respect to the knowledge how to deal with substance-related problems of staff members. For example, participants reported more frequently to know the company agreement about addiction. Further, participants reported less frequently to wait until such problems were solved anyway. However, we found no evidence for transfer of theoretical knowledge into practice. For example, we detected no significant group differences with respect to the number of appraisal interviews conducted because of substance-related problems. Taken together, the results of our study indicate, that the implementation of a company agreement about addiction and its introduction into practice based on theoretical courses is not sufficient to produce considerable effects. As an alternative, based on previous experiences we propose a series of workshops with role-plays and feedback to establish expertise in interviewing techniques with substance-related problems.
Herbst, Jeffrey H; Painter, Thomas M; Tomlinson, Hank L; Alvarez, Maria E
This report summarizes published findings of a community-based organization in New York City that evaluated and demonstrated the efficacy of the Many Men, Many Voices (3MV) human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention intervention in reducing sexual risk behaviors and increasing protective behaviors among black men who have sex with men (MSM). The intervention addressed social determinants of health (e.g., stigma, discrimination, and homophobia) that can influence the health and well-being of black MSM at high risk for HIV infection. This report also highlights efforts by CDC to disseminate this evidence-based behavioral intervention throughout the United States. CDC's Office of Minority Health and Health Equity selected the intervention analysis and discussion to provide an example of a program that might be effective for reducing HIV infection- and STD-related disparities in the United States. 3MV uses small group education and interaction to increase knowledge and change attitudes and behaviors related to HIV/STD risk among black MSM. Since its dissemination by CDC in 2004, 3MV has been used in many settings, including health department- and community-based organization programs. The 3MV intervention is an important component of a comprehensive HIV and STD prevention portfolio for at-risk black MSM. As CDC continues to support HIV prevention programming consistent with the National HIV/AIDS Strategy and its high-impact HIV prevention approach, 3MV will remain an important tool for addressing the needs of black MSM at high risk for HIV infection and other STDs.
Janssen, Meriam M; Mathijssen, Jolanda J P; van Bon-Martens, Marja J H; van Oers, Hans A M; Garretsen, Henk F L
Alcohol education aims to increase knowledge on the harm related to alcohol, and to change attitudes and drinking behaviour. However, little (lasting) evidence has been found for alcohol education, in changing alcohol-related attitudes and behaviour. Social marketing uses marketing techniques to achieve a social or healthy goal, and can be used in alcohol education. Social marketing consists of eight principles: customer orientation, insight, segmentation, behavioural goals, exchange, competition, methods mix, and is theory based. This review investigates the application of social marketing in alcohol prevention interventions, and whether application of social marketing influences alcohol-related attitudes or behaviour. A literature search was conducted in PubMed, PsychInfo, Cochrane and Scopus. Inclusion criteria were that original papers had to describe the effects of an alcohol prevention intervention developed according to one or more principles of social marketing. No limits were set on the age of the participants or on the kind of alcohol prevention intervention. The abstracts of the 274 retrieved studies were reviewed and the full texts of potentially relevant studies were screened. Six studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in this review. These six studies showed associations for the application of social marketing techniques on alcohol-related attitudes or behaviour; one study relates to participation in a drinking event, four to alcohol drinking behaviour, two to driving a car while under the influence of alcohol, two to recognition of campaign messages or campaign logo, and one to awareness of the campaign. However, no associations were also found. In addition, the studies had several limitations related to a control group, response rate and study methodology. Based on this review, the effect of applying the principles of social marketing in alcohol prevention in changing alcohol-related attitudes or behaviour could not be assessed. More
Grais, Rebecca F.; Isanaka, I; Langendorf, C; Roederer, T
Full text: Blanket interventions for MAM prevention (Blanket supplementary feeding programming (BSFP)) provide a supplementary food ration often accompanied by a basic medical treatment and prevention package to a vulnerable population for a defined period in a defined geographic location. There is little strong evidence on the impact of BSFP on rates of malnutrition and mortality, and scare guidance on program monitoring and evaluation to improve the implementation of specific programs. Assessing the impact of BSFP has been fraught with difficulty. Their isolated impact is difficult, if not often impossible to disentangle from larger care and prevention packages, the objectives of BSFP may vary by context, implementing agency, time and geography. Various and often multiple co-morbidities among children in the targeted group complicate matters further with respect to impact assessment. This leads to difficulties in generalizing results from one context to another and the need for more complex metrics to guide operational decision-making. Ideally, impact or effectiveness of BSFP should be addressed in a research framework where appropriate and complete data is collected in order to address specific questions. The gold standard is the conduct of randomized studies including a control group. These studies have been scarce as they may be perceived as either rarely feasible or not ethical or both. However, as generating evidence on impact of BSFP is essential to provide operational guidance, these studies should be encouraged through a diversity of robust, yet creative and pragmatic, methodological approaches. As a case study, a series of studies conducted over the past decade are reviewed in the same location in Niger highlighting the lessons learned. (author)
Shamliyan, Tatyana A; Wyman, Jean F; Ping, Ryan; Wilt, Timothy J; Kane, Robert L
Urinary incontinence (UI) in community-dwelling men affects quality of life and increases the risk of institutionalization. Observational studies and randomized, controlled trials published in English from 1990 to November 2007 on the epidemiology and prevention of UI were identified in several databases to abstract rates and adjusted odds ratios (OR) of incontinence, calculate absolute risk difference (ARD) after clinical interventions, and synthesize evidence with random-effects models. Of 1083 articles identified, 126 were eligible for analysis. Pooled prevalence of UI increased with age to 21% to 32% in elderly men. Poor general health, comorbidities, severe physical limitations, cognitive impairment, stroke (pooled OR 1.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14-2.1), urinary tract infections (pooled OR 3.49; 95% CI, 2.33-5.23), prostate diseases, and diabetes (pooled OR 1.36; 95% CI, 1.14-1.61) were associated with UI. Treatment with tolterodine alone (ARD 0.17; 95% CI, 0.02-0.32) or combined with tamsulosin (ARD 0.17; 95% CI, 0.08-0.25) resulted in greater self-reported benefit compared with placebo. Radical prostatectomy or radiotherapy for prostate cancer compared with watchful waiting increased UI. Short-term prevention of UI with pelvic floor muscle rehabilitation after prostatectomy was not consistently seen across randomized, controlled trials. The prevalence of incontinence increased with age and functional dependency. Stroke, diabetes, poor general health, radiation, and surgery for prostate cancer were associated with UI in community-dwelling men. Men reported overall benefit from drug treatments. Limited evidence of preventive effects of pelvic floor rehabilitation requires future investigation.
Amos, Taryn; Stein, Dan J; Ipser, Jonathan C
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating disorder which, after a sufficient delay, may be diagnosed amongst individuals who respond with intense fear, helplessness or horror to traumatic events. There is some evidence that the use of pharmacological interventions immediately after exposure to trauma may reduce the risk of developing of PTSD. To assess the effects of pharmacological interventions for the prevention of PTSD in adults following exposure to a traumatic event. We searched the Cochrane Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Controlled Trials Register (CCDANCTR-Studies and CCDANCTR-References) (to 14 February 2014). This register contains relevant reports of randomised controlled trials from the following bibliographic databases: CENTRAL (all years); EMBASE (1974 to date); MEDLINE (1950 to date) and PsycINFO (1967 to date). We identified unpublished trials by searching the National Institute of Health (NIH) Reporter, the metaRegister of Controlled Trials database (mRCT) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (to December 2013). We scanned the reference lists of articles for additional studies. We placed no constraints on language and setting. We restricted studies to randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of pharmacological interventions compared with placebo for the prevention of PTSD in adults. Two authors (TA and JI) independently assessed trials for eligibility and inclusion based on the review selection criteria. We independently extracted sample, methodological, outcome and 'Risk of bias' data, as well as the number of side effects, from each trial and entered these into a customised data extraction form. We contacted investigators for missing information. We calculated summary statistics for continuous and dichotomous variables (if provided). We did not undertake subgroup analyses due to the small number of included studies. We included nine short-term RCTs (duration 12 weeks or less) in the analysis (345 participants
Peñalba, Valentina; McGuire, Hugh; Leite, Jose R
Psychosocial interventions are widely used for the prevention of psychological disorders in law enforcement officers. To assess the effectiveness and comparative effectiveness of psychosocial interventions for the prevention of psychological disorders in law enforcement officers. CCDANCTR-References was searched on 12/5/2008, electronic databases were searched, reference lists of review articles and included studies were checked, a specialist journal was handsearched, specialist books were checked and we contacted experts and trialists. Randomised and quasi randomised controlled trials were eligible. The types of participants were people employed directly in law enforcement, including police officers and military police, regardless of gender, age and country of origin, and whether or not they had experienced some psychological trauma. All types of psychosocial intervention were eligible. The relevant outcome measures were psychological symptoms, adverse events and acceptability of interventions. Data was entered into Review Manager 4.2 for analysis, but this review was converted to RevMan 5.0 for publication. Quality assessments were performed. Two authors independently selected studies, extracted data and assessed the quality of studies. Summary effects were to be calculated using RevMan but no meta-analyses were possible. For individual studies, dichotomous outcome data are presented using relative risk, and continuous outcome data are presented using the weighted mean difference. These results are given with their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Ten studies were included in the review but only five reported data that could be used. Three of the ten studies were related to exercise-based psychological interventions. Seven were related to psychological interventions. No meta-analyses were possible due to diversity of participants, interventions and outcomes. Two studies compared a psychosocial intervention versus another intervention. Three studies compared a
van Zoonen, Kim; Buntrock, Claudia; Ebert, David Daniel; Smit, Filip; Reynolds, Charles F; Beekman, Aartjan T F; Cuijpers, Pim
Depressive disorders are highly prevalent, have a detrimental impact on the quality of life of patients and their relatives and are associated with increased mortality rates, high levels of service use and substantial economic costs. Current treatments are estimated to only reduce about one-third of the disease burden of depressive disorders. Prevention may be an alternative strategy to further reduce the disease burden of depression. We conducted a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials examining the effects of preventive interventions in participants with no diagnosed depression at baseline on the incidence of diagnosed depressive disorders at follow-up. We identified 32 studies that met our inclusion criteria. We found that the relative risk of developing a depressive disorder was incidence rate ratio = 0.79 (95% confidence interval: 0.69-0.91), indicating a 21% decrease in incidence in prevention groups in comparison with control groups. Heterogeneity was low (I(2) = 24%). The number needed to treat (NNT) to prevent one new case of depressive disorder was 20. Sensitivity analyses revealed no differences between type of prevention (e.g. selective, indicated or universal) nor between type of intervention (e.g. cognitive behavioural therapy, interpersonal psychotherapy or other). However, data on NNT did show differences. Prevention of depression seems feasible and may, in addition to treatment, be an effective way to delay or prevent the onset of depressive disorders. Preventing or delaying these disorders may contribute to the further reduction of the disease burden and the economic costs associated with depressive disorders.
Schwinn, Traci Marie; Thom, Bridgette; Schinke, Steven Paul; Hopkins, Jessica
Rates of drug use among sexual-minority youths are disproportionately high. Yet, expressly designed prevention programs targeting this population are absent. This study developed and tested a web-based drug abuse prevention program for sexual-minority youths. A sample (N = 236) of sexual-minority youths was recruited via Facebook. Online, all youths completed pretests; youths randomly assigned to the intervention received a 3-session prevention program; and all youths completed posttest and 3-month follow-up measurements. At 3-month follow-up and compared to youths in the control arm, intervention-arm youths reported less stress, reduced peer drug use, lower rates of past 30-day other drug use, and higher coping, problem solving, and drug-use refusal skills. Outcome data suggest the potential of tailored intervention content to address sexual-minority youths' drug use rates and related risk factors. Moreover, study procedures lend support to the feasibility of using the Internet to recruit sexual-minority youths, collect data, and deliver intervention. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Teo, Alan R; Andrea, Sarah B; Sakakibara, Rae; Motohara, Satoko; Matthieu, Monica M; Fetters, Michael D
Suicide is a critical public health problem around the globe. Asian populations are characterized by elevated suicide rates and a tendency to seek social support from family and friends over mental health professionals. Gatekeeper training programs have been developed to train frontline individuals in behaviors that assist at-risk individuals in obtaining mental health treatment. The purpose of this study is to assess the efficacy of a brief, multi-component gatekeeper intervention in promoting suicide prevention in a high-risk Asian community in the United States. We adapted an evidence-based gatekeeper training into a two-hour, multi-modal and interactive event for Japanese-Americans and related stakeholders. Then we evaluated the intervention compared to an attention control using mixed methods. A sample of 106 community members participated in the study. Intervention participants (n = 85) showed significant increases in all three types of intended gatekeeper behavior, all four measures of self-efficacy, and both measures of social norms relevant to suicide prevention, while the control group (n = 48) showed no significant improvements. Additional results showed significantly higher satisfaction and no adverse experiences associated with the gatekeeper training. The separate collection of qualitative data, and integration with the quantitative survey constructs confirmed and expanded understanding about the benefits of the intervention. A brief, multi-modal gatekeeper training is efficacious in promoting positive gatekeeper behaviors and self-efficacy for suicide prevention in an at-risk ethnic minority population of Japanese Americans.
Woo Baidal, Jennifer A; Price, Sarah N; Gonzalez-Suarez, Elizabeth; Gillman, Matthew W; Mitchell, Kathleen; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Horan, Christine M; Gortmaker, Steven L; Taveras, Elsie M
Motivational interviewing (MI) shows promise for pediatric obesity prevention, but few studies address parental perceptions of MI. The aim of this study was to identify correlates of parental perceptions of helpfulness of and satisfaction with a MI-based pediatric obesity prevention intervention. We studied 253 children 2 to 6 years of age in the intervention arm of High Five for Kids, a primary care-based randomized controlled trial. In multivariable models, parents born outside the United States (odds ratio [OR] = 8.81; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.44, 31.8), with lower household income (OR = 3.60; 95% CI = 1.03, 12.55), and with higher BMI (OR = 2.86; 95% CI = 1.07, 7.65) were more likely to perceive MI-based visits as helpful in improving children's obesity-related behaviors after the first year of the intervention. Parents of female (vs male), black (vs white), and Latino (vs white) children had lower intervention satisfaction. Our findings underscore the importance of tailoring pediatric obesity prevention efforts to target populations.
Vind, Ane B; Andersen, Hanne E; Pedersen, Kirsten D; Jørgensen, Torben; Schwarz, Peter
To evaluate the effect of multifactorial fall prevention in community-dwelling people aged 65 and older in Denmark. Randomized, controlled clinical trial. Geriatric outpatient clinic at Glostrup University Hospital. Three hundred ninety-two elderly people, mean age 74, 73.7%women, who had visited the emergency department or had been hospitalized due to a fall. Identification of general medical, cardiovascular, and physical risk factors for falls and individual intervention in the intervention group. Participants in the control group received usual care. Falls were registered prospectively in falls diaries, with monthly telephone calls for collection of data. Outcomes were fall rates and proportion of participants with falls, frequent falls, and injurious falls in 12 months. Groups were comparable at baseline. Followup exceeded 90.0%. A total of 422 falls were registered in the intervention group, 398 in the control group. Intention-to-treat analysis revealed no effect of the intervention on fall rates (relative risk=1.06, 95%confidence interval (CI)=0.75 -1.51), proportion with falls (odds ratio (OR)=1.20, 95% CI 0.81-1.79), frequent falls (OR=0.97, 95% CI=0.60-1.56), or injurious falls (OR=0.97, 95% CI=0.57-1.62). A program of multifactorial fall prevention aimed at elderly Danish people experiencing at least one injurious fall was not effective in preventing further falls.
Mouthaan, Joanne; Sijbrandij, Marit; de Vries, Giel-Jan; Reitsma, Johannes B; van de Schoot, Rens; Goslings, J Carel; Luitse, Jan S K; Bakker, Fred C; Gersons, Berthold P R; Olff, Miranda
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) develops in 10-20% of injury patients. We developed a novel, self-guided Internet-based intervention (called Trauma TIPS) based on techniques from cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) to prevent the onset of PTSD symptoms. To determine whether Trauma TIPS is effective in preventing the onset of PTSD symptoms in injury patients. Adult, level 1 trauma center patients were randomly assigned to receive the fully automated Trauma TIPS Internet intervention (n=151) or to receive no early intervention (n=149). Trauma TIPS consisted of psychoeducation, in vivo exposure, and stress management techniques. Both groups were free to use care as usual (nonprotocolized talks with hospital staff). PTSD symptom severity was assessed at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months post injury with a clinical interview (Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale) by blinded trained interviewers and self-report instrument (Impact of Event Scale-Revised). Secondary outcomes were acute anxiety and arousal (assessed online), self-reported depressive and anxiety symptoms (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), and mental health care utilization. Intervention usage was documented. The mean number of intervention logins was 1.7, SD 2.5, median 1, interquartile range (IQR) 1-2. Thirty-four patients in the intervention group did not log in (22.5%), 63 (41.7%) logged in once, and 54 (35.8%) logged in multiple times (mean 3.6, SD 3.5, median 3, IQR 2-4). On clinician-assessed and self-reported PTSD symptoms, both the intervention and control group showed a significant decrease over time (PInternet-based early intervention in the prevention of PTSD symptoms for an unselected population of injury patients. Moreover, uptake was relatively low since one-fifth of individuals did not log in to the intervention. Future research should therefore focus on innovative strategies to increase intervention usage, for example, adding gameplay, embedding it in a blended care context, and targeting high
Spink, Martin J; Fotoohabadi, Mohammad R; Wee, Elin; Landorf, Karl B; Hill, Keith D; Lord, Stephen R; Menz, Hylton B
Despite emerging evidence that foot problems and inappropriate footwear increase the risk of falls, there is little evidence as to whether foot-related intervention strategies can be successfully implemented. The aim of this study was to evaluate adherence rates, barriers to adherence, and the predictors of adherence to a multifaceted podiatry intervention for the prevention of falls in older people. The intervention group (n = 153, mean age 74.2 years) of a randomised trial that investigated the effectiveness of a multifaceted podiatry intervention to prevent falls was assessed for adherence to the three components of the intervention: (i) foot orthoses, (ii) footwear advice and footwear cost subsidy, and (iii) a home-based foot and ankle exercise program. Adherence to each component and the barriers to adherence were documented, and separate discriminant function analyses were undertaken to identify factors that were significantly and independently associated with adherence to the three intervention components. Adherence to the three components of the intervention was as follows: foot orthoses (69%), footwear (54%) and home-based exercise (72%). Discriminant function analyses identified that being younger was the best predictor of orthoses use, higher physical health status and lower fear of falling were independent predictors of footwear adherence, and higher physical health status was the best predictor of exercise adherence. The predictive accuracy of these models was only modest, with 62 to 71% of participants correctly classified. Adherence to a multifaceted podiatry intervention in this trial ranged from 54 to 72%. People with better physical health, less fear of falling and a younger age exhibited greater adherence, suggesting that strategies need to be developed to enhance adherence in frailer older people who are most at risk of falling. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12608000065392.
school-based suicide prevention programs. Five other reviews were found again of youth , adolescent and school-based programs, while 45 clinical...Health Organizations Health Evidence Network identified only one report of strategies for suicide prevention, again for youth and adolescents . The...Coping and Support Training) Columbia University TeenScreen Emergency Room Intervention for Adolescent Females PROSPECT (Prevention of Suicide
Uijtdewilligen, L; Waters, C N; Müller-Riemenschneider, F; Lim, Y W
The rapid economic growth in Asia in the past few decades has contributed to the global increase in childhood obesity prevalence. Yet, little is known about obesity prevention efforts in this region. This systematic review provides an overview of child obesity prevention programmes in Asia. Searches were performed in six electronic databases. Out of 4,234 studies, 17 were included, among them 11 controlled trials (of which five were randomized). Only one study was published before 2007. Identified studies were predominantly conducted in China and Thailand and targeted primary school children in a school setting. Most studies implemented different programmes, frequently targeting behavioural modification through nutrition/health education lectures and/or physical activity sessions. Programme effects related to obesity outcome measures were mixed. Most substantial effects were found for outcomes such as improved health knowledge and/or favourable lifestyle practices. The relatively small number of relevant publications in Asia highlights the need for scientific evaluations of existing and future programmes. This will help ensure the implementation and dissemination of evidence-based approaches that have been proven to be effective in the Asian context. Targeting preschool settings and applying a comprehensive multisectoral approach may increase the effectiveness and sustainability of childhood obesity prevention programmes. © 2016 World Obesity.
Ramey, C T; Yeates, K O; Short, E J
Debates regarding the plasticity of intelligence are often fired by a confusion between 2 distinct realms of development, that is, between developmental functions (e.g., a group's average IQ over time) and individual differences (e.g., the relative rank ordering of individual IQs within a group). Questions concerning the stability of these 2 realms are statistically independent. Thus there are 2 kinds of intellectual plasticity, and there may be no developmental convergences between them. In the present study, data from an early intervention program were used to investigate the 2 kinds of plasticity separately and to examine certain possible convergences between them. The program involved children at risk for developmental retardation who were randomly assigned at birth to 2 rearing conditions (i.e., educational daycare vs. no educational intervention) and whose intellectual development was then studied longitudinally to 4 years of age. Our findings indicate that developmental functions are moderately alterable through systemic early education, particularly after infancy, whereas individual differences are moderately stable, again particularly after infancy. They also indicate that the 2 kinds of plasticity are independent; the alteration of developmental functions through daycare affects neither the stability nor the determinants of individual differences. We discuss the implications that these findings have for current models of mental development, for the nature-nurture debate, and for arguments concerning the efficacy of early intervention programs.
Cavallo, David N; Chou, Wen-Ying Sylvia; McQueen, Amy; Ramirez, Amelie; Riley, William T
Social media are now used by a majority of American internet users. Social media platforms encourage participants to share information with their online social connections and exchange user-generated content. Significant numbers of people are already using social media to share health-related information. As such, social media provide an opportunity for "user-generated" cancer control and prevention interventions that employ users' behavior, knowledge, and existing social networks for the creation and dissemination of interventions. These interventions also enable novel data collection techniques and research designs that will allow investigators to examine real-time behavioral responses to interventions. Emerging social media-based interventions for modifying cancer-related behaviors have been applied to such domains as tobacco use, diet, physical activity, and sexual practices, and several examples are discussed for illustration purposes. Despite some promising early findings, challenges including inadequate user engagement, privacy concerns, and lack of internet access among some groups need to be addressed in future research. Recommendations for advancing the field include stronger partnerships with commercial technology companies, utilization of rapid and adaptive designs to identify successful strategies for user engagement, rigorous and iterative efficacy testing of these strategies, and inclusive methods for intervention dissemination. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.
Stronach, Erin Pickreign; Toth, Sheree L.; Rogosch, Fred; Cicchetti, Dante
Thirteen-month-old maltreated infants (n = 137) and their mothers were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: child-parent psychotherapy (CPP), psychoeducational parenting intervention (PPI), and community standard (CS). A fourth group of nonmaltreated infants (n =52) and their mothers served as a normative comparison (NC) group. A prior investigation found that the CPP and PPI groups demonstrated substantial increases in secure attachment at post-intervention, whereas this change was not found in the CS and NC groups. The current investigation involved the analysis of data obtained at a follow-up assessment that occurred 12-months after the completion of treatment. At follow-up, children in the CPP group had higher rates of secure and lower rates of disorganized attachment than did children in the PPI or CS groups. Rates of disorganized attachment did not differ between the CPP and NC groups. Intention-to-treat analyses (ITT) also showed higher rates of secure attachment at follow-up in the CPP group relative to the PPI and CS groups. However, groups did not differ on disorganized attachment. Both primary and ITT analyses demonstrated that maternal reported child behavior problems did not differ among the four groups at the follow-up assessment. This is the first investigation to demonstrate sustained attachment security in maltreated children 12 months after the completion of an attachment theory-informed intervention. Findings also suggest that, while effective in the short term, parenting interventions alone may not be effective in maintaining secure attachment in children over time. PMID:24229539
Norr, Kathleen F; Ferrer, Lilian; Cianelli, Rosina; Crittenden, Kathleen S; Irarrázabal, Lisette; Cabieses, Báltica; Araya, Alejandra; Bernales, Margarita
We tested the impacts of a professionally assisted peer-group intervention on Chilean health workers' HIV-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors using a quasi-experimental design with a pretest and 3-month posttest. Two Santiago suburbs were randomly assigned to the intervention or delayed intervention control condition. Five community clinics per suburb participated. Interested workers at the intervention (n = 262) and control (n = 293) clinics participated and completed both evaluations. At posttest, intervention clinic workers had higher knowledge and more positive attitudes regarding HIV, condoms, stigmatization, and self-efficacy for prevention. They reported more partner discussion about safer sex, less unprotected sex, and more involvement in HIV prevention activities in the clinic and the community, but they did not report fewer sexual partners or more standard precautions behaviors. Because of these positive impacts, the program will become a regular continuing education unit that can be used to meet health-worker licensing requirements. Copyright © 2012 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Haughtigan, Kara; Main, Eve; Bragg-Underwood, Tonya; Watkins, Cecilia
Cosmetologists frequently develop occupational skin disease related to workplace exposures. The purpose of this study was to evaluate an educational intervention to increase cosmetology students' occupational skin disease knowledge and use of preventive practices. A quasi-experimental design was used to evaluate students' knowledge, behaviors, intentions, expectancies, and expectations. A 20-minute verbal presentation and printed two-page educational handout were provided for participants. Statistically significant increases in knowledge, frequency of glove use, and frequency of moisturizer use were found, but the frequency of handwashing did not increase. In addition, the Behavioral Strategies subscale, the Intention subscale, and the Expectancies subscale showed statistically significant improvements. The results of this study suggest an educational intervention can increase cosmetology students' knowledge of occupational skin diseases and their use of preventive strategies.
Conclusion: This systematic yet pragmatic and iterative intervention development process is potentially applicable to any injury prevention topic across all sports settings and levels. It will guide researchers wishing to undertake intervention development.
Kivipelto, Miia; Solomon, Alina; Ahtiluoto, Satu; Ngandu, Tiia; Lehtisalo, Jenni; Antikainen, Riitta; Bäckman, Lars; Hänninen, Tuomo; Jula, Antti; Laatikainen, Tiina; Lindström, Jaana; Mangialasche, Francesca; Nissinen, Aulikki; Paajanen, Teemu; Pajala, Satu; Peltonen, Markku; Rauramaa, Rainer; Stigsdotter-Neely, Anna; Strandberg, Timo; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Soininen, Hilkka
Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER) is a multi-center, randomized, controlled trial ongoing in Finland. Participants (1200 individuals at risk of cognitive decline) are recruited from previous population-based non-intervention studies. Inclusion criteria are CAIDE Dementia Risk Score ≥6 and cognitive performance at the mean level or slightly lower than expected for age (but not substantial impairment) assessed with the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) neuropsychological battery. The 2-year multidomain intervention consists of: nutritional guidance; exercise; cognitive training and social activity; and management of metabolic and vascular risk factors. Persons in the control group receive regular health advice. The primary outcome is cognitive performance as measured by the modified Neuropsychological Test Battery, Stroop test, and Trail Making Test. Main secondary outcomes are: dementia (after extended follow-up); disability; depressive symptoms; vascular risk factors and outcomes; quality of life; utilization of health resources; and neuroimaging measures. Screening began in September 2009 and was completed in December 2011. All 1200 persons are enrolled and the intervention is ongoing as planned. Baseline clinical characteristics indicate that several vascular risk factors and unhealthy lifestyle-related factors are present, creating a window of opportunity for prevention. The intervention will be completed during 2014. The FINGER is at the forefront of international collaborative efforts to solve the clinical and public health problems of early identification of individuals at increased risk of late-life cognitive impairment, and of developing intervention strategies to prevent or delay the onset of cognitive impairment and dementia. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Full Text Available Jyu-Lin Chen,1 Mary Ellen Wilkosz2 1Department of Family Health Care Nursing, School of Nursing, University of California, San Francisco, CA, 2Nursing Department, Sonoma State University, Rohnert Park, CA, USA Abstract: About one third of adolescents in the USA are overweight and/or obese. Obesity during the adolescent years is associated with many adverse health consequences, including type 2 diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and psychosocial problems. Because of substantial advances in technologies and wide acceptance by adolescents, it is now possible to use technology for healthy weight management and prevention of obesity. This systematic review used Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines and aimed to evaluate the existing literature reported on the effectiveness of technology-based intervention (web-based, e-learning, and active video games in preventing obesity in adolescents. The primary aim of this review was to explore if components of specific interventions were associated with a reduction in body mass index. Research articles obtained from CINAHL, Embase, PubMed, PsycInfo, and the Cochrane database from1990 to 2014 were reviewed. A total of 131 published articles were identified, and 14 met the inclusion criteria of a randomized or nonrandomized clinical study with body mass index as primary outcome and/or secondary outcomes of diet/physical activity and/or psychosocial function, tested lifestyle interventions to prevent obesity, used technology, and studied adolescents (aged 12–18 years. The results indicated that six of 14 studies found body mass index and/or body fat decreased at short-term (less than 12 months follow-up. Six of eleven studies that examined physical activity or physical activity-related outcomes found an improved physical activity outcome (time playing active video games and increase in physical activity time, while five of seven studies which assessed dietary
Weber-Gasparoni, Karin; Reeve, Johnmarshall; Ghosheh, Natalie; Warren, Joh J.; Drake, David R.; Kramer, Katherine W.O.; Dawson, Deborah V.
Purpose The purpose was to compare whether mothers exposed to an autonomy-supportive psychoeducational videotaped message, informed by the self-determination theory (SDT), demonstrated greater changes in oral health knowledge and behavioral intentions as a preventive means for early childhood caries (ECC) than mothers exposed to a neutral message delivered by brochure. Methods Data were collected at baseline, one-, and six-month follow-ups from 415 12- to 49-month-old WIC-enrolled children and their mothers: 283 in the video intervention group and 132 in the brochure control group. Mothers completed questionnaires on maternal knowledge and behavioral intentions for oral health care. Chi-square, Wilcoxon rank-sum, and Mann-Whitney tests were used to analyze data (P<.05). Results Relative to their baseline scores, the intervention group showed a greater increase in knowledge than the control group, both at one-month (P=.002) and six-month follow-ups (P<.001). The video group also demonstrated a greater increase in behavioral intentions than controls, both at one-month (P<.05) and six-month follow-ups (P<.001). Knowledge and behavioral intention levels at six-month follow-up did not differ significantly from those at one-month follow-up, indicating that intervention-based increases in these measures were maintained over time. Conclusions Data provided evidence of the effectiveness of the autonomy-supportive psychoeducational intervention for ECC prevention relative to a neutral brochure. PMID:23756308
Dehdari, Tahereh; Dehdari, Laleh; Jazayeri, Shima
Background: Stomach cancer is one of the five most common cancers in Iran. This study examined the effectiveness of a mobile telephone short-message service (SMS) based-education intervention using Health Belief Model (HBM) variables in improving dietary behavior in terms of stomach cancer prevention among a sample of Iranian female college students. Materials and Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 124 female college students in the dormitories of Yazd University, Yazd, Iran were randomly selected and assigned to either the intervention (n=62) or the control group (n=62). Information (data) regarding HBM variables and dietary behavior related to stomach cancer prevention was collected by a self-administrated questionnaire. Forty eight messages were designed and sent to the participants’ phones in the intervention group during the 48-day intervention period. Two groups were followed-up one month after the intervention delivered via SMS. Results: There were significant differences in HBM variables (except for the perceived severity) and the preventive dietary behaviors for stomach cancer in the intervention group compared to the comparison group following the education intervention delivered via SMS. Conclusions: SMS-delivered nutrition education intervention can be a practical strategy to improve dietary behavior related to stomach cancer prevention. Creative Commons Attribution License
Maiwald, Karin; de Rijk, Angelique; Guzman, Jaime; Schonstein, Eva; Yassi, Annalee
Introduction Workplace disability prevention is important, but stakeholders can differ in their appreciation of such interventions. We present a responsive evaluation of a workplace disability prevention intervention in a Canadian healthcare organization. Three groups of stakeholders were included: designers of the intervention, deliverers, and workers. The aim was to examine the appreciation of this intervention by analyzing the discrepancies with respect to what these various stakeholders s...
Clasen, Thomas F; Alexander, Kelly T; Sinclair, David; Boisson, Sophie; Peletz, Rachel; Chang, Howard H; Majorin, Fiona; Cairncross, Sandy
Diarrhoea is a major cause of death and disease, especially among young children in low-income countries. In these settings, many infectious agents associated with diarrhoea are spread through water contaminated with faeces.In remote and low-income settings, source-based water quality improvement includes providing protected groundwater (springs, wells, and bore holes), or harvested rainwater as an alternative to surface sources (rivers and lakes). Point-of-use water quality improvement interventions include boiling, chlorination, flocculation, filtration, or solar disinfection, mainly conducted at home. To assess the effectiveness of interventions to improve water quality for preventing diarrhoea. We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register (11 November 2014), CENTRAL (the Cochrane Library, 7 November 2014), MEDLINE (1966 to 10 November 2014), EMBASE (1974 to 10 November 2014), and LILACS (1982 to 7 November 2014). We also handsearched relevant conference proceedings, contacted researchers and organizations working in the field, and checked references from identified studies through 11 November 2014. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-RCTs, and controlled before-and-after studies (CBA) comparing interventions aimed at improving the microbiological quality of drinking water with no intervention in children and adults. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We used meta-analyses to estimate pooled measures of effect, where appropriate, and investigated potential sources of heterogeneity using subgroup analyses. We assessed the quality of evidence using the GRADE approach. Forty-five cluster-RCTs, two quasi-RCTs, and eight CBA studies, including over 84,000 participants, met the inclusion criteria. Most included studies were conducted in low- or middle-income countries (LMICs) (50 studies) with unimproved water sources (30 studies) and unimproved or unclear sanitation (34 studies). The primary
Croker, Helen; Beeken, Rebecca J
Obesity presents a challenge for practitioners, policy makers, researchers and for those with obesity themselves. This review focuses on psychological approaches to its management and prevention in children and adults. Through exploring the work of the late Professor Jane Wardle, we look at the earliest behavioural treatment approaches and how psychological theory has been used to develop more contemporary approaches, for example incorporating genetic feedback and habit formation theory into interventions. We also explore how Jane has challenged thinking about the causal pathways of obesity in relation to eating behaviour. Beyond academic work, Jane was an advocate of developing interventions which had real-world applications. Therefore, we discuss how she not only developed new interventions but also made these widely available and the charity that she established.
Stok, F Marijn; de Ridder, Denise T D; de Vet, Emely; Nureeva, Liliya; Luszczynska, Aleksandra; Wardle, Jane; Gaspar, Tania; de Wit, John B F
BACKGROUND: Effective interventions promoting healthier eating behavior among adolescents are urgently needed. One factor that has been shown to impact effectiveness is whether the target population accepts the intervention. While previous research has assessed adults' acceptance of eating-related
van Rossum Erik
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an interest for intervention studies aiming at the prevention of disability in community-dwelling physically frail older persons, though an overview on their content, methodological quality and effectiveness is lacking. Methods A search for clinical trials involved databases PubMed, CINAHL and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and manually hand searching. Trials that included community-dwelling frail older persons based on physical frailty indicators and used disability measures for outcome evaluation were included. The selection of papers and data-extraction was performed by two independent reviewers. Out of 4602 titles, 10 papers remained that met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 9 were of sufficient methodological quality and concerned 2 nutritional interventions and 8 physical exercise interventions. Results No evidence was found for the effect of nutritional interventions on disability measures. The physical exercise interventions involved 2 single-component programs focusing on lower extremity strength and 6 multi-component programs addressing a variety of physical parameters. Out of 8 physical exercise interventions, three reported positive outcomes for disability. There was no evidence for the effect of single lower extremity strength training on disability. Differences between the multi-component interventions in e.g. individualization, duration, intensity and setting hamper the interpretation of the elements that consistently produced successful outcomes. Conclusion There is an indication that relatively long-lasting and high-intensive multicomponent exercise programs have a positive effect on ADL and IADL disability for community-living moderate physically frail older persons. Future research into disability prevention in physical frail older persons could be directed to more individualized and comprehensive programs.
Reilly, John J
Prevention of obesity in childhood and adolescence remains a worthwhile and realistic goal, but preventive efforts have been beset by a number of problems, which are the subject of this review. The review draws on recent systematic reviews and evidence appraisals and has a United Kingdom (UK) perspective because there is a rich evidence base in the United Kingdom that may be helpful to obesity prevention researchers elsewhere. Recent evidence of a leveling off in child and adolescent obesity prevalence in some Western nations should not encourage the belief that the obesity prevention problem has been solved, although a better understanding of recent secular trends might be helpful for prevention strategy in future. An adequate body of evidence provides behavioral targets of preventive interventions, and there are frameworks for prioritizing these targets logically and models for translating them into generalizable interventions with a wide reach (e.g., school-based prevention interventions such as Planet Health). An improved understanding of the "energy gap" that children and adolescents experience would be helpful to the design of preventive interventions and to their tailoring to particular groups. In the United Kingdom, some recent etiological evidence has been taken as indicative of the need for paradigm shifts in obesity prevention, but this evidence from single studies has not been replicated, and paradigm shifts probably occur only rarely. Ensuring that the evidence base on etiology and prevention influences policy effectively remains one of the greatest challenges for childhood obesity researchers.
Reilly, John J.
Prevention of obesity in childhood and adolescence remains a worthwhile and realistic goal, but preventive efforts have been beset by a number of problems, which are the subject of this review. The review draws on recent systematic reviews and evidence appraisals and has a United Kingdom (UK) perspective because there is a rich evidence base in the United Kingdom that may be helpful to obesity prevention researchers elsewhere. Recent evidence of a leveling off in child and adolescent obesity prevalence in some Western nations should not encourage the belief that the obesity prevention problem has been solved, although a better understanding of recent secular trends might be helpful for prevention strategy in future. An adequate body of evidence provides behavioral targets of preventive interventions, and there are frameworks for prioritizing these targets logically and models for translating them into generalizable interventions with a wide reach (e.g., school-based prevention interventions such as Planet Health). An improved understanding of the “energy gap” that children and adolescents experience would be helpful to the design of preventive interventions and to their tailoring to particular groups. In the United Kingdom, some recent etiological evidence has been taken as indicative of the need for paradigm shifts in obesity prevention, but this evidence from single studies has not been replicated, and paradigm shifts probably occur only rarely. Ensuring that the evidence base on etiology and prevention influences policy effectively remains one of the greatest challenges for childhood obesity researchers. PMID:22798005
Thomas, Roger E; Baker, Philip R A; Thomas, Bennett C
Tobacco is the main preventable cause of death and disease worldwide. Adolescent smoking is increasing in many countries with poorer countries following the earlier experiences of affluent countries. Preventing adolescents from starting smoking is crucial to decreasing tobacco-related illness. To assess effectiveness of family-based interventions alone and combined with school-based interventions to prevent children and adolescents from initiating tobacco use. Fourteen bibliographic databases and the Internet, journals hand-searched, and experts consulted. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with children or adolescents and families, interventions to prevent starting tobacco use, and follow-up ≥6 months. Abstracts/titles independently assessed and data independently entered by 2 authors. Risk of bias was assessed with the Cochrane Risk-of-Bias tool. Twenty-seven RCTs were included. Nine trials of never-smokers compared with a control provided data for meta-analysis. Family intervention trials had significantly fewer students who started smoking. Meta-analysis of 2 RCTs of combined family and school interventions compared with school only, showed additional significant benefit. The common feature of effective high-intensity interventions was encouraging authoritative parenting. Only 14 RCTs provided data for meta-analysis (approximately a third of participants). Of the 13 RCTs that did not provide data for meta-analysis 8 compared a family intervention with no intervention and 1 reported significant effects, and 5 compared a family combined with school intervention with a school intervention only and none reported additional significant effects. There is moderate-quality evidence that family-based interventions prevent children and adolescents from starting to smoke. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Krishnaratne, Shari; Hensen, Bernadette; Cordes, Jillian; Enstone, Joanne; Hargreaves, James R
Much progress has been made in interventions to prevent HIV infection. However, development of evidence-informed prevention programmes that translate the efficacy of these strategies into population effect remain a challenge. In this systematic review, we map current evidence for HIV prevention against a new classification system, the HIV prevention cascade. We searched for systematic reviews on the effectiveness of HIV prevention interventions published in English from Jan 1, 1995, to July, 2015. From eligible reviews, we identified primary studies that assessed at least one of: HIV incidence, HIV prevalence, condom use, and uptake of HIV testing. We categorised interventions as those seeking to increase demand for HIV prevention, improve supply of HIV prevention methods, support adherence to prevention behaviours, or directly prevent HIV. For each specific intervention, we assigned a rating based on the number of randomised trials and the strength of evidence. From 88 eligible reviews, we identified 1964 primary studies, of which 292 were eligible for inclusion. Primary studies of direct prevention mechanisms showed strong evidence for the efficacy of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and voluntary medical male circumcision. Evidence suggests that interventions to increase supply of prevention methods such as condoms or clean needles can be effective. Evidence arising from demand-side interventions and interventions to promote use of or adherence to prevention tools was less clear, with some strategies likely to be effective and others showing no effect. The quality of the evidence varied across categories. There is growing evidence to support a number of efficacious HIV prevention behaviours, products, and procedures. Translating this evidence into population impact will require interventions that strengthen demand for HIV prevention, supply of HIV prevention technologies, and use of and adherence to HIV prevention methods. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
Kennedy, Caitlin E; Fonner, Virginia A; O'Reilly, Kevin R; Sweat, Michael D
Income generation interventions, such as microfinance or vocational skills training, address structural factors associated with HIV risk. However, the effectiveness of these interventions on HIV-related outcomes in low- and middle-income countries has not been synthesized. The authors conducted a systematic review by searching electronic databases from 1990 to 2012, examining secondary references, and hand-searching key journals. Peer-reviewed studies were included in the analysis if they evaluated income generation interventions in low- or middle-income countries and provided pre-post or multi-arm measures on behavioral, psychological, social, care, or biological outcomes related to HIV prevention. Standardized forms were used to abstract study data in duplicate and study rigor was assessed. Of the 5218 unique citations identified, 12 studies met criteria for inclusion. Studies were geographically diverse, with six conducted in sub-Saharan Africa, three in South or Southeast Asia, and three in Latin America and the Caribbean. Target populations included adult women (N = 6), female sex workers/bar workers (N = 3), and youth/orphans (N = 3). All studies targeted females except two among youth/orphans. Study rigor was moderate, with two group-randomized trials and two individual-randomized trials. All interventions except three included some form of microfinance. Only a minority of studies found significant intervention effects on condom use, number of sexual partners, or other HIV-related behavioral outcomes; most studies showed no significant change, although some may have had inadequate statistical power. One trial showed a 55% reduction in intimate partner violence (adjusted risk ratio 0.45, 95% confidence interval 0.23-0.91). No studies measured incidence/prevalence of HIV or sexually transmitted infections among intervention recipients. The evidence that income generation interventions influence HIV-related behaviors and outcomes is inconclusive. However, these
Towards effective interventions for transgender people and their clients to prevent HIV infection and transmission : A study of the psychological determinants, sexual behavior s, and socio-demographic characteristics related to condom use and health care use
In Indonesia, transgender people (waria) have the second highest HIV prevalence (21.9%), the first being people who inject drugs (36.4%). To reduce HIV incidence among transgender people and prevent HIV transmission, they should have access to all prevention services including education, prevention
Bak, Jesper; Brandt-Christensen, Anne Mette; Sestoft, Dorte Maria
PURPOSE: To identify interventions preventing mechanical restraints. DESIGN AND METHODS: Systematic review of international research papers dealing with mechanical restraint. The review combines qualitative and quantitative research in a new way, describing the quality of evidence and the effect...... of intervention. FINDINGS: Implementation of cognitive milieu therapy, combined interventions, and patient-centered care were the three interventions most likely to reduce the number of mechanical restraints. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: There is a lack of high-quality and effective intervention studies. This leaves...... patients and metal health professionals with uncertainty when choosing interventions in an attempt to prevent mechanical restraints....
Dalal, Adam; Eskin-Schwartz, Marina; Mimouni, Daniel; Ray, Sujoy; Days, Walford; Hodak, Emmilia; Leibovici, Leonard; Paul, Mical
Erysipelas and cellulitis (hereafter referred to as 'cellulitis') are common bacterial skin infections usually affecting the lower extremities. Despite their burden of morbidity, the evidence for different prevention strategies is unclear. To assess the beneficial and adverse effects of antibiotic prophylaxis or other prophylactic interventions for the prevention of recurrent episodes of cellulitis in adults aged over 16. We searched the following databases up to June 2016: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, and LILACS. We also searched five trials registry databases, and checked reference lists of included studies and reviews for further references to relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs). We searched two sets of dermatology conference proceedings, and BIOSIS Previews. Randomised controlled trials evaluating any therapy for the prevention of recurrent cellulitis. Two authors independently carried out study selection, data extraction, assessment of risks of bias, and analyses. Our primary prespecified outcome was recurrence of cellulitis when on treatment and after treatment. Our secondary outcomes included incidence rate, time to next episode, hospitalisation, quality of life, development of resistance to antibiotics, adverse reactions and mortality. We included six trials, with a total of 573 evaluable participants, who were aged on average between 50 and 70. There were few previous episodes of cellulitis in those recruited to the trials, ranging between one and four episodes per study.Five of the six included trials assessed prevention with antibiotics in participants with cellulitis of the legs, and one assessed selenium in participants with cellulitis of the arms. Among the studies assessing antibiotics, one study evaluated oral erythromycin (n = 32) and four studies assessed penicillin (n = 481). Treatment duration varied from six to 18 months, and two studies
Full Text Available Abstract Background To respond to the rapid surge in the incidence of suicide in Japan, which appears to be an ongoing trend, the Japanese Multimodal Intervention Trials for Suicide Prevention (J-MISP have launched a multimodal community-based suicide prevention program, NOCOMIT-J. The primary aim of this study is to examine whether NOCOMIT-J is effective in reducing suicidal behavior in the community. Methods/DesignThis study is a community intervention trial involving seven intervention regions with accompanying control regions, all with populations of statistically sufficient size. The program focuses on building social support networks in the public health system for suicide prevention and mental health promotion, intending to reinforce human relationships in the community. The intervention program components includes a primary prevention measures of awareness campaign for the public and key personnel, secondary prevention measures for screening of, and assisting, high-risk individuals, after-care for individuals bereaved by suicide, and other measures. The intervention started in July 2006, and will continue for 3.5 years. Participants are Japanese and foreign residents living in the intervention and control regions (a total of population of 2,120,000 individuals. Discussion The present study is designed to evaluate the effectiveness of the community-based suicide prevention program in the seven participating areas. Trial registration UMIN Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN-CTR UMIN000000460.
Murray, N; Kelder, S; Parcel, G; Orpinas, P
This paper describes development of Padres Trabajando por la Paz, a violence prevention intervention for Hispanic parents to increase parental monitoring. The intervention was developed using an innovative new program planning process: intervention mapping. Theory and empirical evidence broadly defined performance objectives and determinants of parental monitoring. These objectives were further refined through group and individual interviews with the target parent group. Learning objectives for the intervention guided the content of the intervention that used modeling as the primary method and role model stories as a strategy delivered through newsletters. Stage-matching members of the target population for their readiness to implement the parental monitoring behaviors further refined the social cognitive message design strategies. Intervention mapping provides an explicit theory- and data-driven guide for intervention development that maximizes intervention impact for a specific target population.
Wilson, Deleise S; Montie, Mary; Conlon, Paul; Reynolds, Margaret; Ripley, Robert; Titler, Marita G
Evidence-based (EB) fall prevention interventions to mitigate patient-specific fall risk factors are readily available but not routinely used in practice. Few studies have examined nurses' perceptions about both the use of these EB interventions and implementation strategies designed to promote their adoption. This article reports qualitative findings of nurses' perceptions about use of EB fall prevention interventions to mitigate patient-specific fall risks, and implementation strategies to promote use of these interventions. The findings revealed five major themes: before-study fall prevention practices, use of EB fall prevention interventions tailored to patient-specific fall risk factors, beneficial implementation strategies, overall impact on approach to fall prevention, and challenges These findings are useful to guide nurses' engagement and use of EB fall prevention practices tailored to patient-specific fall risk factors. © The Author(s) 2016.
Luchsinger, José A
This manuscript provides a comprehensive review of the epidemiologic evidence linking type 2 diabetes (T2D) and its precursor conditions, elevated adiposity and hyperinsulinemia, to dementia. The mechanisms relating these conditions to dementia may be vascular and non-vascular. Elevated adiposity in middle age is related to a higher risk of dementia but the data on this association in old age is conflicting. Several studies have shown that hyperinsulinemia, a consequence of higher adiposity and insulin resistance, is also related to a higher risk of dementia, including late onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD). Studies have consistently shown a relation of T2D with higher dementia risk, but the associations are stronger for vascular dementia compared to LOAD. A large proportion of the world population may be at increased risk of dementia given the trends for increasing prevalence of overweight, obesity, hyperinsulinemia, and T2D. However, these associations may present a unique opportunity for prevention and treatment of dementia. There are several known modalities that are effective in the prevention and T2D and the reduction of hyperinsulinemia including lifestyle interventions, metformin, thiazolideniodones, and acarbose. Several studies in the prevention and treatment of T2D are currently measuring cognitive outcomes and will provide information on whether T2D treatment and prevention can prevent cognitive decline and dementia.
Full Text Available Cardiometabolic risk (CMR, also known as metabolic syndrome or insulin resistance syndrome, comprises obesity (particularly central or abdominal obesity, high triglycerides, low HDL, elevated blood pressure, and elevated plasma glucose. Leading to death from diabetes, heart disease, and stroke, the root cause of CMR is inadequate physical activity, a Western diet identified primarily by low intake of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, and high in saturated fat, as well as a number of yet-to-be-identified genetic factors. While the pathophysiological pathways related to CMR are complex, the universal need for adequate physical activity and a diet that emphasizes fruits and vegetables and whole grains, while minimizing food high in added sugars and saturated fat suggests that these behaviors are the appropriate focus of intervention.
Koffman, Stephen; Ray, Alice; Berg, Sarah; Covington, Larry; Albarran, Nadine M.; Vasquez, Max
Youths in gang-ridden neighborhoods are at risk for trauma-related mental health disorders, which are early indicators of likely school failure and delinquency. Such youths rarely seek out services for these problems. The Juvenile Intervention and Prevention Program (JIPP), a school-based gang intervention and prevention program in Los Angeles,…
Grossman, Cynthia I; Forsyth, Andrew; Purcell, David W; Allison, Susannah; Toledo, Carlos; Gordon, Christopher M
HIV continues to exact an enormous toll on society and to disproportionately affect gay and bisexual men and other men who have sex with men (MSM). Innovative prevention interventions are needed to reverse this trend. In August 2009, the U.S. National Institute of Mental Health and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention convened a meeting of scientists, community representatives, advocates, and federal partners to discuss innovative prevention-intervention science. The meeting was structured to maximize discussion of (1) healthy sex interventions, (2) community and structural interventions, (3) integrated biomedical and behavioral interventions, and (4) interventions to improve uptake of HIV testing. Presentations and discussion focused on research gaps in designing risk-reducing and sexual health-promoting interventions for MSM, including interventions to address mental health, substance use, disclosure, and stigma. This article summarizes the meeting proceedings, highlights key points, and outlines future directions.
assistant . In all of our interventions, one to one patient counseling was performed. Consultation with the physician was performed by 48 %, while intervention was carried out with the patients and patients' relatives and the physician was contacted in the ratio of 2 %. In the study performed by Rahbi et al, interventions.
Lombard, Catherine B; Harrison, Cheryce L; Kozica, Samantha L; Zoungas, Sophia; Keating, Catherine; Teede, Helena J
To impact on the obesity epidemic, interventions that prevent weight gain across populations are urgently needed. However, even the most efficacious interventions will have little impact on obesity prevention unless they are successfully implemented in diverse populations and settings. Implementation research takes isolated efficacy studies into practice and policy and is particularly important in obesity prevention where there is an urgent need to accelerate the evidence to practice cycle. Despite the recognised need, few obesity prevention interventions have been implemented in real life settings and to our knowledge rarely target rural communities. Here we describe the rationale, design and implementation of a Healthy Lifestyle Program for women living in small rural communities (HeLP-her Rural). The primary goal of HeLP-her Rural is to prevent weight gain using a low intensity, self-management intervention. Six hundred women from 42 small rural communities in Australia will be randomised as clusters (n-21 control towns and n = 21 intervention towns). A pragmatic randomised controlled trial methodology will test efficacy and a comprehensive mixed methods community evaluation and cost analysis will inform effectiveness and implementation of this novel prevention program. Implementing population interventions to prevent obesity is complex, costly and challenging. To address these barriers, evidence based interventions need to move beyond isolated efficacy trials and report outcomes related to effectiveness and implementation. Large pragmatic trials provide an opportunity to inform both effectiveness and implementation leading to potential for greater impact at the population level. Pragmatic trials should incorporate both effectiveness and implementation outcomes and a multidimensional methodology to inform scale-up to population level. The learnings from this trial will impact on the design and implementation of population obesity prevention strategies
Huedo-Medina, Tania B; Boynton, Marcy H; Warren, Michelle R; Lacroix, Jessica M; Carey, Michael P; Johnson, Blair T
This meta-analysis synthesized 37 HIV prevention interventions (from 28 studies) that were evaluated in Latin American and Caribbean nations. These studies were obtained through systematic searches of English, Spanish, and Portuguese-language databases available as of January 2009. Overall, interventions significantly increased knowledge (d = 0.40) and condom use (d = 0.25) but the effects varied widely. Interventions produced more condom use when they focused on high-risk individuals, distributed condoms, and explicitly addressed social-cultural components. The best-fitting models utilized factors related to geography, especially indices of a nations' human development index (HDI) and income inequality (i.e., Gini index). Interventions that provided at least 3 h of content succeeded better when HDI and income inequality were lower, suggesting that intensive HIV prevention activities succeed best where the need is greatest. Implications for HIV intervention development in Latin America and the Caribbean are discussed.
Elliot, D; Goldberg, L
Athletes with a higher intent to use anabolic steroids were similar to students who indicated no predisposition to use steroids on economic, academic, and physical measures. They had similar understandings of anabolic steroid effects, and their self-rated understandings of how to weight train and of sports nutrition were similar. In addition, the influence of the coaches and the media and the perceived prevalence of anabolic steroid use were not different between the higher- and lower-intent students. These results demonstrated several significant differences. Higher-intent students had higher levels of alcohol and marijuana use, which suggest that those items might be tackled concurrently. These athletes had higher hostility, impulsivity, and a win-at-all-costs attitude. Despite similar physical measures, they had a high body image, but were less satisfied with their current weight. These findings underscored the importance of using nutrition and appropriate training as effective alternatives to anabolic steroids. Higher-intent students had greater peer tolerance of drug use and less parental influence not to use drugs, which implies that a peer-led small group format might be important to dispel the perceived peer tolerance. Including a parent-based component, one that emphasizes a disapproval of drug use also could be effective. Higher-intent athletes had less ability to refuse an offer of steroids. The dynamics of turning down steroids may differ from that of other illicit substances so that training in refusal skills specific to steroids is needed. These differences provide a needs assessment to identify curricular components for an intervention to permit anabolic steroid use. The sports team may be a unique educational setting because it can capitalize on peer ties, the coach's influence, and an athletes' motivation to improve, to prevent drug use, and to promote healthy behaviors.
Crittenden, Kathleen S; Kaponda, Chrissie P N; Jere, Diana L; McCreary, Linda L; Norr, Kathleen F
This paper examines whether a peer group intervention that reduced self-reported risky behaviors for rural adults in Malawi also had impacts on non-participants in the same communities. We randomly assigned two districts to the intervention and control conditions, and conducted surveys at baseline and 18 months post-intervention using unmatched independent random samples of intervention and control communities in 2003-2006. The six-session peer group intervention was offered to same-gender groups by trained volunteers. In this analysis, we divided the post-intervention sample into three exposure groups: 243 participants and 170 non-participants from the intervention district (total n = 415) and 413 control individuals. Controlling for demographics and participation, there were significant favorable diffusion effects on five partially overlapping behavioral outcomes: partner communication, ever used condoms, unprotected sex, recent HIV test, and a community HIV prevention index. Non-participants in the intervention district had more favorable outcomes on these behaviors than survey respondents in the control district. One behavioral outcome, community HIV prevention, showed both participation and diffusion effects. Participating in the intervention had a significant effect on six psychosocial outcomes: HIV knowledge (two measures), hope, condom attitudes, and self-efficacy for community HIV prevention and for safer sex; there were no diffusion effects. This pattern of results suggests that the behavioral changes promoted in the intervention spread to others in the same community, most likely through direct contact between participants and non-participants. These findings support the idea that diffusion of HIV-related behavior changes can occur for peer group interventions in communities, adding to the body of research supporting diffusion of innovations theory as a robust approach to accelerating change. If diffusion occurs, peer group intervention may be more
Jorm, Anthony Francis; Mackinnon, Andrew James
Background Recruiting participants to randomized controlled trials of health interventions can be very difficult. Internet-based recruitment is becoming an increasingly important mode of recruitment, yet there are few detailed accounts of experiences recruiting participants to mental health interventions. Objective To report on our experience with Internet-based recruitment to an online depression prevention intervention and pass on lessons we learned. Methods Participants were recruited to the Mood Memos study, an online preventive depression intervention, purely through Internet-based sources. The study was targeted to adults with subthreshold depression symptoms from several English-speaking countries. A variety of online recruitment sources were trialed, including search engine advertising (Google, Yahoo!, Bing), Facebook advertising, posts in forums and online noticeboards, and promotion through relevant websites and email newsletters of mental health organizations. Results The study website received visits from 94,808 individuals over the 14-month recruitment period. The recruitment target was reached with 1699 individuals signing up to the randomized controlled trial and 1326 fully enrolling. Most visitors arrived via Google advertising, which promoted a depression-screening questionnaire. Google advertising accounted for nearly half of the total participants who signed up to the study, at an average cost of AUD $12 per participant. Promoting the study through trustworthy organizations and websites known to participants was also effective. Recruitment techniques that were less effective were contacting forums, email groups, and community noticeboards. Conclusions Several techniques, including Google advertising, were successful in recruiting participants to a trial evaluating an online depression intervention. Results suggest that Internet-based recruitment to mental health interventions is feasible and can be relatively affordable. Trial Registration ACTRN
Morgan, Amy Joanna; Jorm, Anthony Francis; Mackinnon, Andrew James
Recruiting participants to randomized controlled trials of health interventions can be very difficult. Internet-based recruitment is becoming an increasingly important mode of recruitment, yet there are few detailed accounts of experiences recruiting participants to mental health interventions. To report on our experience with Internet-based recruitment to an online depression prevention intervention and pass on lessons we learned. Participants were recruited to the Mood Memos study, an online preventive depression intervention, purely through Internet-based sources. The study was targeted to adults with subthreshold depression symptoms from several English-speaking countries. A variety of online recruitment sources were trialed, including search engine advertising (Google, Yahoo!, Bing), Facebook advertising, posts in forums and online noticeboards, and promotion through relevant websites and email newsletters of mental health organizations. The study website received visits from 94,808 individuals over the 14-month recruitment period. The recruitment target was reached with 1699 individuals signing up to the randomized controlled trial and 1326 fully enrolling. Most visitors arrived via Google advertising, which promoted a depression-screening questionnaire. Google advertising accounted for nearly half of the total participants who signed up to the study, at an average cost of AUD $12 per participant. Promoting the study through trustworthy organizations and websites known to participants was also effective. Recruitment techniques that were less effective were contacting forums, email groups, and community noticeboards. Several techniques, including Google advertising, were successful in recruiting participants to a trial evaluating an online depression intervention. Results suggest that Internet-based recruitment to mental health interventions is feasible and can be relatively affordable. ACTRN12609000925246.
Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Seeley, John R.; Gau, Jeff M.
Objective: Evaluate a new 5-step method for testing mediators hypothesized to account for the effects of depression prevention programs. Method: In this indicated prevention trial, at-risk teens with elevated depressive symptoms were randomized to a group cognitive-behavioral (CB) intervention, group supportive expressive intervention, CB…
Kelders, Saskia Marion; Oskam, Maarten-Jan; Bohlmeijer, Ernst Thomas; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E.W.C.
Web-based preventive interventions have shown to be effective for the prevention of depression, but high rates of non-use and drop-out, less than optimal implementation in the care organization and low acceptance rates cause interventions to be less effective in practice than in theory and research.
Ecker-Lyster, Meghan; Niileksela, Christopher
This article reviews the literature on dropout trends, prevention, and intervention initiatives for school-aged children. Theoretical and consequential trends are highlighted to offer educators a perspective in which to view the dropout problem. This article also examines current trends in prevention and intervention initiatives aimed at reducing…
Owczarzak, Jill; Dickson-Gomez, Julia
Since 1999, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have trained over 10,000 service providers from more than 5,000 agencies to implement evidence-based HIV prevention interventions through its Diffusion of Effective Behavioral Interventions DEBI) program. Based on in-depth, semistructured interviews with a convenience sample of 22 HIV…
Tinoco, Rui; Paiva, Isabel
The eating habits modification is a clinical challenge, both on therapeutic and preventive levels, which requires tools from various areas of health, such as psychology and nutrition. In the structured work in these areas, that includes the referral to specialist consultants, there is a need of a first intervention in Primary Health Care, in clinical and community levels. In this paper, we attempt to systematize useful information for intervention. We will start by reviewing some important interviewing skills, some models of motivational interviewing, and we will make a brief reflection about the client. Then we will analyse an individual case structured in two complementary levels of interpretation: a closer look in general factors and another that reflect the antecedents, consequences and the description of the behaviour problem. We will also tackle issues related to the context in which the individual moves. We will analyse some group intervention programs within a clinical and preventive perspectives. Finally, we will discuss some concepts related to therapeutic adherence.
Glassman, Tavis J; Castor, Tom; Karmakar, Monita; Blavos, Alexis; Dagenhard, Paige; Domigan, Julianne; Sweeney, Erin; Diehr, Aaron; Kucharewski, Ruthie
Water-related injuries and fatalities pose serious public health issues, especially to African American youth, a demographic group that drowns at disproportionately high rates. The purpose of this study was to determine if a social marketing intervention targeting the parents and guardians of inner-city youth (U.S. Midwest) could positively influence their perceptions concerning water safety. Researchers employed a quasi-experimental design using matched pairs to evaluate the intervention. Participants consisted of parents who enrolled their children in a six-session survival-swimming course. Guided by the Health Belief Model, the researchers disseminated six prevention messages using six different channels (brochure, e-mail, SMS text message, postcard, Facebook, and window cling). The findings from a two-way analysis of covariance revealed that treatment group participants' knowledge and perceptions of water-related threat all changed favorably. Additionally, all participants planned to reenroll their children in swim lessons. A social marketing campaign using the Health Belief Model improved inner-city parents' knowledge regarding water safety and enhanced their self-efficacy. This study provides practitioners with feasible strategies (prevention messages) to supplement swim lessons, with the ultimate goal of preventing drowning among at-risk youth.
Harrod, Curtis S; Goss, Cynthia W; Stallones, Lorann; DiGuiseppi, Carolyn
Suicide is a leading cause of death among post-secondary students worldwide. Suicidal thoughts and planning are common among post-secondary students. Previous reviews have examined the effectiveness of interventions for symptomatic individuals; however, many students at high risk of suicide are undiagnosed and untreated. We evaluated the effect on suicide and suicide-related outcomes of primary suicide prevention interventions that targeted students within the post-secondary setting. We searched the following sources up to June 2011: Specialised Registers of two Cochrane Groups, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and nine other databases, trial registers, conference proceedings, and websites of national and international organizations. We screened reference lists and contacted authors of included studies to identify additional studies. We updated the search in November 2013; we will include these results in the review's next update. We included studies that tested an intervention for the primary prevention of suicide using a randomized controlled trial (RCT), controlled before-and-after (CBA), controlled interrupted time series (CITS), or interrupted time series (ITS) study design. Interventions targeted students within the post-secondary setting (i.e. college, university, academy, vocational, or any other post-secondary educational institution) without known mental illness, previous suicide attempt or self-harm, or suicidal ideation. Outcomes included suicides, suicide attempts, suicidal ideation, changes in suicide-related knowledge, attitudes and behavior, and availability of means of suicide. We used standardized electronic forms for data extraction, risk of bias and quality of evidence determination, and analysis. We estimated standardised mean differences (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We analysed studies by intervention type and study design. We summarized RCT effect sizes using random-effects models meta-analyses; and analysed
Yuri Arnold Domínguez
Full Text Available Background: Healthy lifestyles incorporated in early ages could influence the most important behaviours and risk factors for atherosclerotic vascular disease in order to reduce the incidence of this condition during adulthood. Objective: To assess the effectiveness of the educational-participatory intervention on students' knowledge as to cardiovascular risk factors. Material: An educational intervention with a quasi-experimental design was conducted from April 2007 to October 2008 in eighth grade junior high school students from Old Havana (the intervention group and Center Havana (the control group. The nonparametric Chi square tests from McNemar and Mantel-Haenszel were used. Results: There were significant statistical associations with a confidence limit of 95% between initial and final state of knowledge in relation to cardiovascular risk factors in the intervention group (p = 0.0001, in the control group (p = 0.035 and between the study group versus the control group after the intervention (p = 0.0001. Conclusions: An educational-participatory program for health promotion and prevention of major risk factors of cardiovascular disease (inadequate dietary habits, smoking and physical inactivity among adolescents, contributes to increase their knowledge and encourages the adoption of healthy daily habits and lifestyles.
Verbeek, Jos H.; Kateman, Erik; Morata, Thais C.; Dreschler, Wouter A.; Mischke, Christina
To assess the effectiveness of interventions for preventing occupational noise exposure or hearing loss compared to no intervention or alternative interventions. We searched biomedical databases up to 25 January 2012 for randomized controlled trials (RCT), controlled before-after studies and
Karki, Suyen; Pietila, Anna-Maija; Lansimies-Antikainen, Helena; Varjoranta, Pirjo; Pirskanen, Marjatta; Laukkanen, Eila
The aim of this systematic review is to describe and evaluate the effects of interventions used for preventing or reducing substance use among adolescents under 18 years of age. Studies (N = 27) available in CINAHL and PubMed from 2007 to 2010 were included. Results showed that family-based interventions and combined interventions have significant…
Owczarzak, Jill; Phillips, Sarah D.; Filippova, Olga; Alpatova, Polina; Mazhnaya, Alyona; Zub, Tatyana; Aleksanyan, Ruzanna
The current dominant model of HIV prevention intervention dissemination involves packaging interventions developed in one context, training providers to implement that specific intervention, and evaluating the extent to which providers implement it with fidelity. Research shows that providers rarely implement these programs with fidelity due to…
Medley, Amy; Bachanas, Pamela; Grillo, Michael; Hasen, Nina; Amanyeiwe, Ugochukwu
Introduction This review assesses the impact of prevention interventions for people living with HIV on HIV-related mortality, morbidity, retention in care, quality of life, and prevention of ongoing HIV transmission in resource-limited settings (RLSs). Methods We conducted a systematic review of studies reporting the results of prevention interventions for people living with HIV in RLS published between January 2000 and August 2014. Standardized methods of searching and data abstraction were used. Results Ninety-two studies met the eligibility criteria: 24 articles related to adherence counseling and support, 13 on risk reduction education and condom provision, 19 on partner HIV testing and counseling, 14 on provision of family planning services, and 22 on assessment and treatment of other sexually transmitted infections. Findings indicate good evidence that adherence counseling and sexually transmitted infection treatment can have a high impact on morbidity, whereas risk reduction education, partner HIV testing and counseling, and family planning counseling can prevent transmission of HIV. More limited evidence was found to support the impact of these interventions on retention in care and quality of life. Most studies did not report cost information, making it difficult to draw conclusions about the cost-effectiveness of these interventions. Conclusions This evidence suggests that these prevention interventions, if brought to sufficient scale and coverage, can help support and optimize the impact of core treatment and prevention interventions in RLS. Further operational research with more rigorous study designs, and ideally with biomarkers and costing information, is needed to determine the best model for providing these interventions in RLS. PMID:25768868
Daley, E; Dodd, V; DeBate, R; Vamos, C; Wheldon, C; Kline, N; Smith, S; Chandler, R; Dyer, K; Helmy, H; Driscoll, A
Epidemiological research indicates an association between the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) with a subset of oral cancers (OC). Dentists may play a role in primary prevention of HPV-related OC by discussing the HPV vaccine with patients. This study assessed dentists' readiness to discuss the HPV vaccine with female patients. Cross-sectional web-based survey. A web-based survey based on the Transtheoretical Model was administered among Florida dentists (n = 210). The majority of participants (97%) fell into the precontemplation and contemplation stages of readiness to discuss the HPV vaccine with patients. Perceived role and liability were determined to be predictive of dentists in contemplation stage as opposed to those in precontemplation (P HPV-related OC despite high levels of knowledge. As public awareness of HPV-related OC increases, dentists may become more involved in primary prevention. Results of the current study may assist in developing intervention strategies for engaging dentists in discussing the HPV vaccine with patients. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Okolie, Chukwudi; Evans, Bridie Angela; John, Ann; Moore, Chris; Russell, Daphne; Snooks, Helen
Drug overdose is the most frequent cause of death among people who misuse illegal drugs. People who inject these drugs are 14-17 times more likely to die than their non-drug using peers. Various strategies to reduce drug-related deaths have failed to meet target reductions. Research into community-based interventions for preventing drug overdose deaths is promising. This review seeks to identify published studies describing community-based interventions and to evaluate their effectiveness at reducing drug overdose deaths. We will systematically search key electronic databases using a search strategy which groups terms into four facets: (1) Overdose event, (2) Drug classification, (3) Intervention and (4) Setting. Searches will be limited where possible to international literature published in English between 1998 and 2014. Data will be extracted by two independent reviewers using a predefined table adapted from the Cochrane Collaboration handbook. The quality of included studies will be evaluated using the Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias. We will conduct a meta-analysis for variables which can be compared across studies, using statistical methods to control for heterogeneity where appropriate. Where clinical or statistical heterogeneity prevents a valid numerical synthesis, we will employ a narrative synthesis to describe community-based interventions, their delivery and use and how effectively they prevent fatal overdoses. We will publish findings from this systematic review in a peer-reviewed scientific journal and present results at national and international conferences. It will be disseminated electronically and in print. PROSPERO CRD42015017833. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
... can be significantly improved in rural areas, if the caregivers are adequately empowered through appropriate health education intervention though change in attitude and belief may require a longer and persistent effort. Keywords: Health education intervention, knowledge, malaria, nursing mothers, practice, rural Nigeria
Whaley, Shannon E.; McGregor, Samar; Jiang, Lu; Gomez, Judy; Harrison, Gail; Jenks, Eloise
Objective: To evaluate the impact of a Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC)-based intervention on the food and beverage intake, physical activity, and television watching of children ages 1-5. Design: Longitudinal surveys of intervention and control participants at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months.…
The Ububele Baby Mat Service is a community-based, parent–infant mental health intervention offered at five primary health care clinics in Alexandra Township, in Johannesburg. The aim of the intervention is to promote healthy caregiver-infant attachments. There has been a steady increase in the number of mother-baby ...
Jepsen, Jørgen Riis; Zhao, Zhiwei; Pekcan, Claire
The consequences of fatigue for the health and safety of seafarers have caused concern in the industry and among academics, and indicates the importance of further research into risk factors and preventive interventions at sea. This chapter gives an overview of the key issues relating to seafarer...... fatigue. A literature study was conducted aimed at collecting publications that address risk factors for fatigue, short-term and long-term consequences for health and safety, and options for fatigue mitigation at sea. Due to the limited number of publications that deal with seafarers, experiences from...
Boccia, Delia; Pedrazzoli, Debora; Wingfield, Tom; Jaramillo, Ernesto; Lönnroth, Knut; Lewis, James; Hargreaves, James; Evans, Carlton A
Cash transfer interventions are forms of social protection based on the provision of cash to vulnerable households with the aim of reduce risk, vulnerability, chronic poverty and improve human capital. Such interventions are already an integral part of the response to HIV/AIDS in some settings and have recently been identified as a core element of World Health Organization's End TB Strategy. However, limited impact evaluations and operational evidence are currently available to inform this policy transition. This paper aims to assist national tuberculosis (TB) programs with this new policy direction by providing them with an overview of concepts and definitions used in the social protection sector and by reviewing some of the most critical operational aspects associated with the implementation of cash transfer interventions. These include: 1) the various implementation models that can be used depending on the context and the public health goal of the intervention; 2) the main challenges associated with the use of conditionalities and how they influence the impact of cash transfer interventions on health-related outcomes; 3) the implication of targeting diseases-affected households and or individuals versus the general population; and 4) the financial sustainability of including health-related objectives within existing cash transfer programmes. We aimed to appraise these issues in the light of TB epidemiology, care and prevention. For our appraisal we draw extensively from the literature on cash transfers and build upon the lessons learnt so far from other health outcomes and mainly HIV/AIDS. The implementation of cash transfer interventions in the context of TB is still hampered by important knowledge gaps. Initial directions can be certainly derived from the literature on cash transfers schemes and other public health challenges such as HIV/AIDS. However, the development of a solid research agenda to address persisting unknowns on the impact of cash transfers on
Sewry, Nicola; Verhagen, Evert; Lambert, Mike; van Mechelen, Willem; Viljoen, Wayne; Readhead, Clint; Brown, James
The injury burden in collision sports is relatively high compared to other team sports. Therefore, participants in these sports would benefit by having effective injury prevention programs. Exercise-based interventions have successfully reduced injuries in soccer, but evidence on exercise-based interventions in tackle collision sports is limited. The objective of this review is to systematically examine the evidence of exercise-based intervention programs reducing injuries in tackle collision sports. PubMed, EBSCOHost, and Web of Science were searched for articles published between January 1995 and December 2015. The methodological quality was assessed using an adapted Cochrane Bone Joint and Muscle Trauma Group quality assessment tool. The inclusion criteria were (1) (randomized) control trials and observational studies; (2) sporting codes: American, Australian and Gaelic Football, rugby union, and rugby league; (3) participants of any age or sex; (4) exercise-based, prehabilitative intervention; and (5) primary outcome was injury rate or incidence (injury risk). The exclusion criteria were (1) unavailability of full-text; and (2) article unavailable in English. Nine studies with a total of 3517 participants were included in this review. Seven of these studies showed a significant decrease in injury risk. These studies included three sporting codes and various age groups, making it difficult to make inferences. The two highest methodological quality studies found no effect of an exercise-based intervention on injury risk. There is evidence that exercise-based injury preventions can be beneficial in reducing injury risk in collision sports, but more studies of high methodological quality are required.
Sara A. Freedman
Full Text Available Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD develops in approximately 20% of people exposed to a traumatic event, and studies have shown that cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT is effective as a treatment for chronic PTSD. It has also been shown to prevent PTSD when delivered early after a traumatic event. However, studies have shown that uptake of early treatment is generally low, and therefore, the need to provide interventions through other mediums has been identified. The use of technology may overcome barriers to treatment. Objective: This paper describes a randomized controlled trial that will examine an early CBT intervention for PTSD. The treatment incorporates virtual reality (VR as a method for delivering exposure-based elements of the treatment. The intervention is Internet based, such that the therapist and patient will “meet” in a secure online site. This site will also include multi-media components of the treatment (such as videos, audios, VR that can be accessed by the patient between sessions. Method: Two hundred patients arriving to a Level 1 emergency department following a motor vehicle accident will be randomly assigned to either treatment or control groups. Inclusion criteria are age 18–65, PTSD symptoms 2 weeks posttrauma related to current trauma, no suicidality, no psychosis. Patients will be assessed by telephone by a team blind to the study group, on four occasions: before and after treatment, and 6 and 12 months posttreatment. The primary outcome is PTSD symptoms at follow up. Secondary outcomes include depression and cost effectiveness. Analyses will be on an intention-to-treat basis. Discussion: The results will provide more insight into the effects of preventive interventions, in general, and Internet-based early interventions, in particular, on PTSD, in an injured population, during the acute phase after trauma. We will discuss possible strengths and limitations.
Gheorghe, Maria; Brouwer, Werner B F; van Baal, Pieter H M
This article explores the implications of the relation between quality of life (QoL) and time to death (TTD) for economic evaluations of preventive interventions. By using health survey data on QoL for the general Dutch population linked to the mortality registry, we quantify the magnitude of this relationship. For addressing specific features of the nonstandard QoL distribution such as boundness, skewness, and heteroscedasticity, we modeled QoL using a generalized additive model for location, scale, and shape (GAMLSS) with a β inflated outcome distribution. Our empirical results indicate that QoL decreases when approaching death, suggesting that there is a strong relationship between TTD and QoL. Predictions of different regression models revealed that ignoring this relationship results in an underestimation of the quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gains for preventive interventions. The underestimation ranged between 3% and 7% and depended on age, the number of years gained from the intervention, and the discount rate used. © The Author(s) 2014.
Frye, Victoria; Bonner, Sebastian; Williams, Kim; Henny, Kirk; Bond, Keosha; Lucy, Debbie; Cupid, Malik; Smith, Stephen; Koblin, Beryl A
In the United States, racial disparities in HIV/AIDS are stark. Although African Americans comprise an estimated 14% of the U.S. population, they made up 52% of new HIV cases among adults and adolescents diagnosed in 2009. Heterosexual transmission is now the second leading cause of HIV in the United States. African Americans made up a full two-thirds of all heterosexually acquired HIV/AIDS cases between 2005 and 2008. Few demonstrated efficacious HIV prevention interventions designed specifically for adult, African-American heterosexual men exist. Here, we describe the process used to design a theory-based HIV prevention intervention to increase condom use, reduce concurrent partnering, and increase HIV testing among heterosexually active African-American men living in high HIV prevalence areas of New York City. The intervention integrated empowerment, social identity, and rational choices theories and focused on four major content areas: HIV/AIDS testing and education; condom skills training; key relational and behavioral turning points; and masculinity and fatherhood.
Brown, Emma J; Smith, Frances B
Preventing HIV transmission is a major world health goal. The international nursing shortage and the cost of educational and healthcare require innovative approaches to meet this goal. The initiative described provided HIV education at three levels: to students in an R.N. to BSN program, lay health advisors (LHA's), and participants in a high-risk community. Students completed the traditional community needs assessment and teaching plans. Additionally, they contributed to funding proposals, implemented and evaluated their plan. They prepared LHA's as peer group educators. This was cost-effective and increased credibility in an African-American community. Using tested materials tailored to this population, six LHA's conducted 24 sessions in two months. Of the 168 community participants, 151 completed the pre-and post-test of HIV knowledge. Correct responses increased significantly overall from 81.9% to 88.3 (t = 4.88, df = 150; p = .001). The three items with the greatest change in correct responses related to African American HIV exposure, female condoms, and lubricants. Rationale for the project and recommendations for improvement are included.
Stauffer, Sterling; Heath, Melissa Allen; Coyne, Sarah Marie; Ferrin, Scott
Recent meta-analyses indicate that bully prevention programs produce minimal change in student behavior. This study examined 66 high school teachers' perceptions regarding the effect of cyberbullying on students, which intervening strategies teachers would use when dealing with cyberbullying, and which prevention strategies would assist in…
Lauersen, Jeppe Bo; Bertelsen, Ditte Marie; Andersen, Lars Bo
Physical activity is important in both prevention and treatment of many common diseases, but sports injuries can pose serious problems.......Physical activity is important in both prevention and treatment of many common diseases, but sports injuries can pose serious problems....
Fedewa, Allison; Moran, Margaret; O’Brien, Matthew; Ackermann, Ronald; Kullgren, Jeffrey T.
Purpose of review This study aims to summarize the recent peer-reviewed literature on workplace interventions for prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), including studies that translate the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) curriculum to workplace settings (n = 10) and those that use different intervention approaches to achieve the specific objective of T2DM prevention among employees (n = 3). Recent findings Weight reduction was achieved through workplace interventions to prevent T2DM, though such interventions varied substantially in their effectiveness. The greatest weight loss was reported among intensive lifestyle interventions (i.e., at least 4 months in duration) that implemented the structured DPP curriculum (n = 3). Weight reduction was minimal among less intensive interventions, including those that substantially modified the DPP curriculum (n = 2) and those that used non-DPP intervention approaches to prevent T2DM (n = 3). Most studies (n = 12) reported increased levels of physical activity following the intervention. Summary Implementation of the DPP in workplaces may be an effective strategy to prevent T2DM among employees. PMID:28150162
Belgrave, Faye Z.; Corneille, Maya; Hood, Kristina; Foster-Woodson, Julia; Fitzgerald, Angela
The enormous HIV/AIDS disparity among African American women and women in other ethnic groups dictates the need to implement the most effective HIV prevention interventions. This study examined the impact of perceived group support on HIV protective behaviors (i.e., attitudes and behaviors related to condom use, alcohol, and drugs) of African…
Despite the widespread implementation of sports-based crime prevention programs, there is little known about the effectiveness of these interventions and the validity of underlying theoretical assumptions. This dissertation consists of four studies. First, a meta-analysis on the relation between
Nădăşan, Valentin; Chirvăsuţă, Radu; Ábrám, Zoltan; Mihăicuţă, Ştefan
Smoking among children and adolescents is a pressing public health issue that demands the development, improvement and implementation of programmes aimed at the prevention and cessation of smoking on a global scale. The objective of our article is to review the main types of interventions for smoking prevention and cessation among children and adolescents. These interventions are based on a wide variety of approaches and include school-based programmes, primary and secondary care-based interventions, programmes targeting parents and family, community-based programmes, social marketing programmes and media campaigns, legislative interventions and computer and other IT-based interventions. Generally, there is still a paucity of low level evidence regarding the efficacy of most smoking prevention and cessation programmes for children and adolescents except for a few particular types of interventions that are reasonably well documented.
Bourdel-Marchasson, Isabelle; Rondeau, Virginie
The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of nutritional supplementation on dietary intake and on pressure ulcer development in critically ill older patients. The multi-center trial involved 19 wards stratified according to specialty and recruitment for critically ill older patients; 9 wards were randomly selected for nutritional intervention (nutritional intervention group), consisting of the daily distribution of two oral supplements, with each supplement containg 200 kcal, for 15 ...
Otero, Patricia; Vázquez, Fernando L; Hermida, Elisabet; Díaz, Olga; Torres, Ángela
Activities designed to be performed outside of the intervention are considered an essential aspect of the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy. However, these have received little attention in interventions aimed at individuals with subclinical depressive symptoms who do not yet meet diagnostic criteria for depression (indicated prevention). In this study, the completion of tasks given as homework and their relationship with post-treatment depressive symptoms was with relation to an indicated prevention of depression intervention. Eighty-nine female non-professional caregivers recruited from an official registry completed an intervention involving 11 homework tasks. Tasks performed were recorded and depressive symptoms were assessed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Among caregivers, 80.9% completed 9-11 tasks. The number of tasks performed was associated with post-treatment depressive symptoms, with 9 being optimal for clinically significant improvement. These findings highlight the relationship between homework and post-treatment depressive symptoms.
Full Text Available Abstract Background UK NHS Stop Smoking Services provide cost effective smoking cessation interventions but, as yet, there has been no assessment of their provision of relapse prevention interventions. Methods Electronic questionnaire survey of 185 UK Stop Smoking Services Managers. Results Ninety six Stop Smoking Service managers returned completed questionnaires (52% response rate. Of these, 58.3% (n = 56 ran NHS Stop Smoking Services which provided relapse prevention interventions for clients with the most commonly provided interventions being behavioural support: telephone (77%, group (73%, and individual (54%. Just under half (48%, n = 27 offered nicotine replacement therapy (NRT, 21.4% (n = 12 bupropion; 19.6% (n = 11 varenicline. Over 80% of those providing relapse prevention interventions do so for over six months. Nearly two thirds of all respondents thought it was likely that they would either continue to provide or commence provision of relapse prevention interventions in their services. Of the remaining respondents, 66.7% (n = 22 believed that the government focus on four-week quit rates, and 42.9% (14 services believed that inadequate funding for provision of relapse prevention interventions, were major barriers to introducing these interventions into routine care. Conclusions Just over half of UK managers of NHS Stop Smoking Services who responded to the questionnaire reported that, in their services, relapse prevention interventions were currently provided for clients, despite, at that time, there being a weak evidence base for their effectiveness. The most commonly provided relapse prevention interventions were those for which there was least evidence. If these interventions are found to be effective, barriers would need to be removed before they would become part of routine care.
Gill, John; Golding, David
A systems model of industrial relations is tried out on some practitioners and some basic deficiencies are uncovered. Suggests an approach to industrial training which may be helpful in clarifying, improving, and changing practices. (Author)
O'Rourke, Holly P; MacKinnon, David P
Mediation models are used in prevention and intervention research to assess the mechanisms by which interventions influence outcomes. However, researchers may not investigate mediators in the absence of intervention effects on the primary outcome variable. There is emerging evidence that in some situations, tests of mediated effects can be statistically significant when the total intervention effect is not statistically significant. In addition, there are important conceptual and practical reasons for investigating mediation when the intervention effect is nonsignificant. This article discusses the conditions under which mediation may be present when an intervention effect does not have a statistically significant effect and why mediation should always be considered important. Mediation may be present in the following conditions: when the total and mediated effects are equal in value, when the mediated and direct effects have opposing signs, when mediated effects are equal across single and multiple-mediator models, and when specific mediated effects have opposing signs. Mediation should be conducted in every study because it provides the opportunity to test known and replicable mediators, to use mediators as an intervention manipulation check, and to address action and conceptual theory in intervention models. Mediators are central to intervention programs, and mediators should be investigated for the valuable information they provide about the success or failure of interventions.
Ilesanmi, Rose Ekama; Olabisi, Prisca
We examined the interventions used by nurses to prevent pressure ulcers in 3 hospitals in south west Nigeria and perceived barriers to effective nursing pressure ulcer prevention interventions. One hundred ninety-three nurses were purposively selected from neurological, orthopedic, intensive care, and accident and emergency units of participating hospitals. Study sites were 3 teaching hospitals in south west Nigeria (Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Lagos; University College Hospital, Ibadan; and Obafemi Awolowo Teaching Hospital Ile-Ife). Data were collected via a structured questionnaire designed for this study. It included 3 sections: demographic information, practices used for pressure ulcer prevention, and perceived barriers to prevention. Sections of the questionnaire that queried interventions and perceived barriers to pressure ulcer prevention were evaluated for face and content validity. Reliability was evaluated via internal consistency; the split half reliability was 0.82. Similar practices regarding pressure ulcer prevention were found across the 3 hospitals. The most commonly used intervention was patient repositioning every 2 hours; the least used intervention was completion of a validated pressure ulcer risk scale. Nurses described using interventions that have not proved effective for pressure ulcer prevention such as massaging bony prominences and application of talcum powder. Nurses identified 2 principal factors that act as barriers to successful prevention of pressure ulcers: inadequate manpower and inadequate supply of linens on the wards. Nurses use a combination of evidence-based interventions, along with interventions that have not proved effective for pressure ulcer prevention. We recommend development of national standards for pressure ulcer prevention in Nigeria that are based on current best evidence and consistent with current international guidelines.
Yu, Jun; Zhang, Yi; Jiang, Junjun; Lu, Qinglin; Liang, Bingyu; Liu, Deping; Fang, Keyong; Huang, Jiegang; He, Yang; Ning, Chuanyi; Liao, Yanyan; Lai, Jingzhen; Wei, Wudi; Qin, Fengxiang; Ye, Li; Geng, Wenkui; Liang, Hao
In China, rural areas are a weak link of HIV/AIDS prevention and control. From September 2011, an innovative "county-township-village" allied intervention was implemented in Longzhou County, Guangxi, which assigned the tasks of HIV/AIDS prevention and control to the county Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), township hospitals, and village clinics, respectively, instead of traditional intervention in which the county CDC undertook the entire work. A 6-year consecutive cross-sectional survey, including 3-year traditional intervention (2009-2011) and 3-year innovative intervention (2012-2014), was conducted to evaluate the effects of the new intervention. Compared to traditional intervention, the innovative intervention achieved positive effects in decreasing risky behaviors. Among female sex workers, condom use rate in the last month increased from 72.06% to 96.82% (p risk ratio of HIV infection during innovative intervention was 0.631 (95% confidence interval 0.549-0.726) compared with traditional one. Cost-effectiveness analysis indicates that innovative intervention restores each disability-adjusted life year costing an average of $124.26. Taken together, Longzhou's innovative intervention has achieved good effects on HIV/AIDS prevention and control and provides a good reference for rural China.
The purpose of this thesis is to educate and provide information to promote nursing students to take action in Low Back Pain (LBP) prevention. LBP is a high risk in nursing and prevention measures are recommended prior to starting the work. LBP is a debilitating musculoskeletal condition which affects all parts of the world. Prevention measures are many and this thesis aims to promote the Kettlebell training as one of them. The Kettlebell is a cast-iron ball with a handle. It has become incre...
analysis, SAHARA-J: Journal of ... In China, migrants with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) have become a serious problem in the field of AIDS prevention. ...... Investigation on the knowledge, attitude and practice.
Lemola, Sakari; Meyer-Leu, Yvonne; Samochowiec, Jakub; Grob, Alexander
Smoking during pregnancy is one of the most important avoidable health risks for the unborn child. Gynaecologists and midwives play a fundamental role in the prevention of smoking during pregnancy. However, a large number of health care practitioners still do not address smoking in pregnant patients. We examined whether gynaecologists and midwives engage in screening and counselling of pregnant women and conducting interventions to prevent smoking during pregnancy. Further, we examined the role of gynaecologists' and midwives' control beliefs. Control beliefs involve efficacy expectations--the practitioner's confidence in his capacity to conduct prevention efforts adequately--and outcome expectations--the practitioner's expectation that such prevention efforts are successful in general. A total of 486 gynaecologists and 366 midwives completed a questionnaire on screening of smoking, counselling and other interventions they conduct to prevent smoking during pregnancy. Moreover, gynaecologists and midwives rated their control beliefs regarding their influence on pregnant patients' smoking habits. The majority of gynaecologists and midwives reported screening all pregnant patients regarding smoking, explaining the risks and recommending smoking cessation. By contrast, only a minority engages in more extensive prevention efforts. Strong control beliefs were predictive of a higher likelihood of screening and counselling, as well as of engaging in more extensive interventions. The findings point to the importance of strengthening gynaecologists' and midwives' control beliefs by professional education and training on smoking prevention. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
David Daniel Ebert
Full Text Available Although psychological interventions might have a tremendous potential for the prevention of mental health disorders (MHD, their current impact on the reduction of disease burden is questionable. Possible reasons include that it is not practical to deliver those interventions to the community en masse due to limited health care resources and the limited availability of evidence-based interventions and clinicians in routine practice, especially in rural areas. Therefore, new approaches are needed to maximize the impact of psychological preventive interventions. Limitations of traditional prevention programs could potentially be overcome by providing Internet- and mobile-based interventions (IMIs. This relatively new medium for promoting mental health and preventing MHD introduces a fresh array of possibilities, including the provision of evidence-based psychological interventions that are free from the restraints of travel and time and allow reaching participants for whom traditional opportunities are not an option. This article provides an introduction to the subject and narratively reviews the available evidence for the effectiveness of IMIs with regard to the prevention of MHD onsets. The number of randomized controlled trials that have been conducted to date is very limited and so far it is not possible to draw definite conclusions about the potential of IMIs for the prevention of MHD for specific disorders. Only for the indicated prevention of depression there is consistent evidence across four different randomized trial trials. The only trial on the prevention of general anxiety did not result in positive findings in terms of eating disorders (EDs, effects were only found in post hoc subgroup analyses, indicating that it might be possible to prevent ED onset for subpopulations of people at risk of developing EDs. Future studies need to identify those subpopulations likely to profit from preventive. Disorders not examined so far include
Thompson, Elizabeth; Berry, Diane; Nasir, Laura
The purpose of this literature review was to examine the utilization of church-based interventions designed for African-Americans in the community for the management of overweight and obesity and prevention of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. PubMed, CINAHL, and Google scholar were searched using the following key search terms: type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, prevention, management, African-Americans, Blacks, weight loss, weight management, church-based interventions, community interventions, faith-based interventions, and prayer. Sixteen primary studies were located and six met inclusion criteria. The studies were separated into two categories: faith-placed interventions or collaborative interventions. The overall results demonstrated significant weight loss ranging from 2.3 (SD = 4.1) pounds to 10.1 (SD = 10.3) pounds post-intervention. Further research is needed to understand interventions that are church-based and culturally sensitive for African-Americans. Weight management is important in order to decrease the morbidity and mortality related to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in the African-American population.
O'Brien, Liam M.; Polacsek, Michele; MacDonald, Pamela B.; Ellis, Jacqueline; Berry, Susan; Martin, Maurice
Background: Health-related, school-based interventions may serve to prevent disease and improve academic performance. The Healthy Maine Partnerships (HMP) initiative funded local school health coordinators (SHCs) as a part of Maine's Coordinated School Health Program (CSHP) beginning in January 2001. SHCs established school health leadership teams…
Kline, Nolan; Vamos, Cheryl; Thompson, Erika; Catalanotto, Frank; Petrila, John; DeBate, Rita; Griner, Stacey; Vázquez-Otero, Coralia; Merrell, Laura; Daley, Ellen
The rise in HPV-related oropharyngeal cancer incidence necessitates novel prevention efforts including multiple provider types. Although dental providers screen for HPV-related oropharyngeal cancers, little is known about their needs to advance "primordial prevention," or interventions at the earliest possible stage, to prevent HPV-related cancers. This study assessed dentists' and dental hygienists' perceived roles and needs regarding HPV-related primordial prevention. We conducted a mixed-method study with data from focus groups with dentists (n= 33) and dental hygienists (n= 48) and surveys from both provider types (n= 203) among providers from a diverse set of practice settings and geographic communities. Data were analyzed using qualitative thematic analysis and chi square tests. Participants affirmed dental professionals' roles in preventing HPV-related cancers and identified needs to overcome barriers to fulfilling prevention objectives. Barriers included: (1) practice environment and patient characteristics, and (2) the sensitive topic of HPV. Further, participants identified needs to improve HPV-related cancer prevention. Findings from this study suggest that dental providers may become the next line of prevention for HPV-related cancers. Dental providers' professional associations have provided guidance on HPV and oropharyngeal cancers, but our study reveals dental providers' needs for following professional organizations' guidance to advance prevention efforts and reduce HPV-related cancer incidence. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Grau, Lauretta E; Green, Traci C; Singer, Merrill; Bluthenthal, Ricky N; Marshall, Patricia A; Heimer, Robert
To redress gaps in injection drug users' (IDUs) knowledge about hepatitis risk and prevention, we developed a brief intervention to be delivered to IDUs at syringe exchange programs (SEPs) in three US cities. Following a month-long campaign in which intervention packets containing novel injection hygiene supplies and written materials were distributed to every client at each visit, intervention effectiveness was evaluated by comparing exposed and unexposed participants' self-reported injection practices. Over one-quarter of the exposed group began using the novel hygiene supplies which included an absorbent pad ("Safety Square") to stanch blood flow post-injection. Compared to those unexposed to the intervention, a smaller but still substantial number of exposed participants continued to inappropriately use alcohol pads post-injection despite exposure to written messages to the contrary (22.8% vs. 30.0%). It should also be noted that for those exposed to the intervention, 8% may have misused Safety Squares as part of pre-injection preparation of their injection site; attention should be paid to providing explicit and accurate instruction on the use of any health promotion materials being distributed. While this study indicates that passive introduction of risk reduction materials in injection drug users through syringe exchange programs can be an economical and relatively simple method of changing behaviors, discussions with SEP clients regarding explicit instructions about injection hygiene and appropriate use of novel risk reduction materials is also needed in order to optimize the potential for adoption of health promotion behaviors. The study results suggest that SEP staff should provide their clients with brief, frequent verbal reminders about the appropriate use when distributing risk reduction materials. Issues related to format and language of written materials are discussed.
Beth-Tasdogan, Natalie H; Mayer, Benjamin; Hussein, Heba; Zolk, Oliver
Medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) is a severe adverse reaction experienced by some individuals to certain medicines commonly used in the treatment of cancer and osteoporosis (e.g. bisphosphonates, denosumab and antiangiogenic agents) and involves the progressive destruction of bone in the mandible or maxilla. Depending on the drug, its dosage, and the duration of exposure, the occurrence of this adverse drug reaction may be rare (e.g. following the oral administration of bisphosphonate or denosumab treatments for osteoporosis, or antiangiogenic agent-targeted cancer treatment) or common (e.g. following intravenous bisphosphonate for cancer treatment). MRONJ is associated with significant morbidity, adversely affects quality of life (QoL), and is challenging to treat. To assess the effects of interventions versus no treatment, placebo, or an active control for the prophylaxis of MRONJ in people exposed to antiresorptive or antiangiogenic drugs.To assess the effects of non-surgical or surgical interventions (either singly or in combination) versus no treatment, placebo, or an active control for the treatment of people with manifest MRONJ. Cochrane Oral Health's Information Specialist searched the following databases: Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (to 23 November 2016), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (the Cochrane Library, 2016, Issue 10), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 23 November 2016), and Embase Ovid (23 May 2016 to 23 November 2016). The US National Institutes of Health Trials Registry (ClinicalTrials.gov) and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform were searched for ongoing trials. No restrictions were placed on language or publication status when searching the electronic databases; however, the search of Embase was restricted to the last six months due to the Cochrane Embase Project to identify all clinical trials and add them to CENTRAL. We included randomised controlled
Kaufman, Z A; Spencer, T S; Ross, D A
Interest in sport as a tool for behavioral HIV prevention has grown substantially in the past decade. With dozens of organisations now using sport-based HIV prevention (SBHP) approaches and upcoming randomized controlled trials in South Africa and Zimbabwe, there is a pressing need to synthesize previous evaluation findings and identify gaps in existing research. A systematic review on the effectiveness of SBHP interventions was carried out, identifying both published and unpublished studies on SBHP interventions that measured effectiveness quantitatively. Study quality was scored using an adapted Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Random-effects meta-analyses were carried out across studies for effects on six categories of HIV-related outcomes. The review identified 952 publications, 21 of which met inclusion criteria. No randomised controlled trials on SBHP interventions and no studies assessing biological outcomes were identified. Mean study quality score was 5.1 (SD 3.1) out of 20 points. Overall strong evidence was observed for positive effects on HIV-related knowledge (RR = 1.26, 95 % CI = 1.15-1.37), stigma (RR = 1.13, 95 % CI = 1.02-1.24), self-efficacy (RR = 1.22, 95 % CI = 1.02-1.41), reported communication (RR = 1.24, 95 % CI = 1.06-1.41), and reported recent condom use (RR = 1.29, 95 % CI = 1.00-1.59). Generally, the review found encouraging evidence for some short-term effects but relied predominantly on low-quality studies. More rigorous research on SBHP is needed to objectively assess effectiveness. Randomised controlled trials could play an important role in guiding policies, strategies, and funding related to SBHP.
Goossens, L; Cardon, G; Witvrouw, E; Steyaert, A; De Clercq, D
Physical Education Teacher Education (PETE) students are at considerable risk for non-contact sports injuries of the lower extremities. Multifactorial injury prevention interventions including exercises have been successful in sports populations, but no such study has ever been performed in PETE students. This study investigated the efficacy of a multifactorial injury prevention intervention on injury incidence reduction in PETE students. PETE students in the intervention group (n = 154) and in the control group (n = 189) registered sports injuries prospectively. The intervention lasted one academic year and consisted of an injury awareness programme and preventive strategies, implemented by the PETE sports lecturers. Differences in injury incidence between the intervention and control group were tested by Poisson regression Wald tests. There was a trend towards significantly lower incidence rate (2.18 vs. 2.73; p = 0.061) in the intervention group compared with the control group. Students in the intervention group had significantly less acute, first-time and extracurricular injuries. The largest reduction was observed for injuries during unsupervised practice sessions. A multifactorial injury prevention intervention embedded into a regular PETE programme is a promising and feasible strategy to prevent injuries in PETE students. Further research is needed to investigate whether the results may be generalised to other PETE programmes.
Gow, Rachel W.; Trace, Sara E.; Mazzeo, Suzanne E.
The transition to college has been identified as a critical period for increases in overweight status. Overweight college students are at-risk of becoming obese adults, and, thus prevention efforts targeting college age individuals are key to reducing adult obesity rates. The current study evaluated an Internet intervention with first year college students (N = 170) randomly assigned to one of four treatment conditions: 1) no treatment, 2) 6-week online intervention 3) 6-week weight and calor...
Carroll, Allison J; Labarthe, Darwin R; Huffman, Mark D; Hitsman, Brian
The purpose of this review is to emphasize the role of tobacco prevention and control in cardiovascular health (CVH) promotion and cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention, including the importance of these endpoints for measuring the full impact of tobacco-related policies, programs, and practices. In this review, we describe an overview of tobacco control interventions that have led to substantial declines in tobacco use and the relationship between these declines with CVH and CVD. We review interventions that have had success in high-income countries (HICs) as well as those that are gaining traction in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We emphasize the challenges to comprehensive tobacco prevention and control strategies faced by LMICs, and highlight the special role of cardiovascular health professionals in achieving CVH promotion and CVD prevention endpoints through tobacco control. Tobacco prevention and control strategies have a strong scientific basis, yet a distinct gap remains between this evidence and implementation of tobacco control policies, particularly in LMICs. Health professionals can contribute to tobacco control efforts, especially through patient-level clinical interventions, when supported by a health care system and government that recognize and support tobacco control as a critical strategy for CVH promotion and CVD prevention. Understanding, supporting, and applying current and evolving policies, programs, and practices in tobacco prevention and control is the province of all health professionals, especially those concerned with CVH promotion and CVD prevention. A new tobacco control roadmap from the World Heart Federation provides a strong impetus to the needed interdisciplinary collaboration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sun Gang; Yuang Cheng; Huang Deqing; Dong Zhengjun
Objective: To assess the role of antibiotic and interventional radiology in prevention and treatment of discitis and analyze the imaging manifestations of discitis. Methods: 24 rabbits were used to make discitis models, and were classified into 4 groups randomly, 6 cases per group: non-treatment group, prophylactic antibiotic group, therapeutic antibiotic group and interventional treatment group. In prophylactic antibiotics group, intravenous clindamycin was administered 3 day before inoculation of bacteria to disc. In therapeutic antibiotics group, 4-week course of intravenous antibiotics was commenced 1 week after the bacterial inoculation. In interventional treatment group, PLD were performed 1 week after the inoculation, with simultaneous intravenous antibiotics for a period of 1 week, 2 or 4 weeks after inoculation. The lumbar spines of all rabbits were examined by X-ray, CT, and MRI respectively. Needle biopsy of nuclear pulpous was obtained and experimental region of lumbar spine were removed for pathological examination. Results: In non-treatment group and therapeutic antibiotics group, all of the discs inoculated with bacteria developed radiographic and pathological evidence of discitis, including intervertebral space narrowing, inflammatory changes of disc tissue, and destruction of end-plates. In prophylactic antibiotics group, none of the discs developed radiographic and pathological evidences of discitis, the bacterial culture was negative. In interventional treatment group, disc narrowing was observed in medical image and fibrosis was found in nucleus region. There was no evidence of destruction of end-plate, the bacteria culture was negative. Conclusion: MRI is a relative sensitive method to detect discitis. Prophylactic antibiotics is a key measure to prevent discitis. The PLD treatment could hold back the pathological process of discitis. Once developed, intravenous antibiotic is unable to affect the course of discitis
Selph, Shelley S; Bougatsos, Christina; Blazina, Ian; Nelson, Heidi D
In 2004, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force determined that evidence was insufficient to recommend behavioral interventions and counseling to prevent child abuse and neglect. To review new evidence on the effectiveness of behavioral interventions and counseling in health care settings for reducing child abuse and neglect and related health outcomes, as well as adverse effects of interventions. MEDLINE and PsycINFO (January 2002 to June 2012), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (through the second quarter of 2012), Scopus, and reference lists. English-language trials of the effectiveness of behavioral interventions and counseling and studies of any design about adverse effects. Investigators extracted data about study populations, designs, and outcomes and rated study quality using established criteria. Eleven fair-quality randomized trials of interventions and no studies of adverse effects met inclusion criteria. A trial of risk assessment and interventions for abuse and neglect in pediatric clinics for families with children aged 5 years or younger indicated reduced physical assault, Child Protective Services (CPS) reports, nonadherence to medical care, and immunization delay among screened children. Ten trials of early childhood home visitation reported reduced CPS reports, emergency department visits, hospitalizations, and self-reports of abuse and improved adherence to immunizations and well-child care, although results were inconsistent. Trials were limited by heterogeneity, low adherence, high loss to follow-up, and lack of standardized measures. Risk assessment and behavioral interventions in pediatric clinics reduced abuse and neglect outcomes for young children. Early childhood home visitation also reduced abuse and neglect, but results were inconsistent. Additional research on interventions to prevent child abuse and neglect is needed. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.
Ritchie, Craig W; Molinuevo, José Luis; Truyen, Luc; Satlin, Andrew; Van der Geyten, Serge; Lovestone, Simon
Alzheimer's dementia affects more than 40 million people worldwide with substantial increases in prevalence anticipated. Interventions that either modify risk or reduce the development of early disease could delay the onset of dementia or reduce the rate of cognitive and functional decline. The European Prevention of Alzheimer's Dementia (EPAD) is a public-private consortium, funded by the Innovative Medicines Initiative, designed to increase the likelihood of successful development of new treatments for the secondary prevention of Alzheimer's dementia. EPAD will help with testing of different agents in this pre-dementia population through four components: improvement of access to existing cohorts and registries, development of the EPAD Registry of approximately 24,000 people who might be at increased risk of developing Alzheimer's dementia, establishment of the EPAD Longitudinal Cohort Study of 6000 people at any one time, and establishment of an adaptive, proof-of-concept trial including 1500 participants at any given time. The need for EPAD and its key design elements are described, and we discuss EPAD in relation to similar projects in progress. These parallel efforts reflect the need for a coordinated, worldwide battle against dementia, in which EPAD will play a crucial role. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Reavley, Nicola; Jorm, Anthony F
The age at which most young people are in higher education is also the age of peak onset for mental and substance use disorders, with these having their first onset before age 24 in 75% of cases. In most developed countries, over 50% of young people are in higher education. To review the evidence for prevention and early intervention in mental health problems in higher education students. The review was limited to interventions targeted to anxiety, depression and alcohol misuse. Interventions to review were identified by searching PubMed, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Interventions were included if they were designed to specifically prevent or intervene early in the general (non-health professional) higher education student population, in one or more of the following areas: anxiety, depression or alcohol misuse symptoms, mental health literacy, stigma and one or more behavioural outcomes. For interventions to prevent or intervene early for alcohol misuse, evidence of effectiveness is strongest for brief motivational interventions and for personalized normative interventions delivered using computers or in individual face-to-face sessions. Few interventions to prevent or intervene early with depression or anxiety were identified. These were mostly face-to-face, cognitive-behavioural/skill-based interventions. One social marketing intervention to raise awareness of depression and treatments showed some evidence of effectiveness. There is very limited evidence that interventions are effective in preventing or intervening early with depression and anxiety disorders in higher education students. Further studies, possibly involving interventions that have shown promise in other populations, are needed.
It will build on the success of Ecohealth-based interventions developed in Guatemala to control Triatoma dimidiata (101812), a blood-sucking insect that is now the main vector of the disease in Central America. This earlier work showed that it was possible to reduce disease transmission through improved housing and ...
Worksites are increasingly being used as locations for implementing healthy diet and weight loss interventions. Hence, there is an urgent need to identify programs that are both successful and sustainable. We conducted a 6-month pilot randomized controlled trial in overweight and obese employees a...
Pillhofer, M.; Schoellhorn, A.; Jungmann, T.; Eickhorst, A.; Schuengel, C.
In Germany early intervention has not been systematically implemented in the regular service delivery and the existing programs have not been profoundly evaluated. Due to serious child protection cases the German Federal Ministry for Family Affairs, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth participated in a
Geboy, Michael J.; Fried, Jacquelyn L.
Proposes a curriculum for dental/dental hygiene schools that would teach oral health care providers how to routinely assess tobacco use, advise cessation, and provide assistance and follow-up for tobacco-using patients. The article emphasizes the importance of making tobacco interventions routine components of schools' clinical teaching programs.…
This project will test the insect control program in selected border areas in the three countries where T. dimidiata is highly prevalent - Copan (Honduras), Chiquimula (Guatemala) and Santa Ana (El Salvador) - with a view to scaling it up further. Researchers will carry out baseline and post-intervention studies at 15 sites in ...
As part of the National Clinical Programme on healthcare-associated infection prevention, a Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (RCSI) and Royal College of Physicians of Ireland (RCPI) working group developed a quality improvement tool for prevention of surgical site infection (SS). We aimed to validate the effectiveness of an educational campaign, which utilises this quality improvement tool to prevent SSI in a tertiary hospital. Prior to the SSI educational campaign, surgical patients were prospectively audited and details of antibiotic administration recorded. Prophylactic antibiotic administration recommendations were delivered via poster and educational presentations. Post-intervention, the audit was repeated. 50 patients were audited pre-intervention, 45 post-intervention. Post-intervention, prophylaxis within 60 minutes prior to incision increased from 54% to 68% (p = 0.266). Appropriate postoperative prescribing improved from 71% to 92% (p = 0.075). A multifaceted educational program may be effective in changing SSI prevention practices.
Reed, Monique; Wilbur, JoEllen; Schoeny, Michael
In the U.S., overweight/obesity among African American (AA) girls has become epidemic. Since parental factors may be associated with improved weight status, it is important to understand the empirical evidence for including parents in obesity prevention interventions with AA girls. The purpose of this integrative review was to identify effectiveness and characteristics of obesity prevention interventions for AA girls (6-17 years) and their parent. Included interventions addressed physical activity (PA), dietary/eating behaviors, and body composition. Of 708 studies published through March 2014, eight met inclusion criteria. Though effects were in the intended direction for most, statistically significant effects were found only for dietary intake and eating behavior. Interventions were characterized by exclusion of girls ages 13-17, failure to link parent involvement to child outcomes, the absence of family systems theory, and modest effects. Further research is needed to ascertain the effectiveness of daughter/parent obesity prevention interventions.
Gil, Maria I; Selma, Maria V; Suslow, Trevor; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Uyttendaele, Mieke; Allende, Ana
This review includes an overview of the most important preventive measures along the farm to fork chain to prevent microbial contamination of leafy greens. It also includes the technological and managerial interventions related to primary production, postharvest handling, processing practices, distribution, and consumer handling to eliminate pathogens in leafy greens. When the microbiological risk is already present, preventive measures to limit actual contamination events or pathogen survival are considered intervention strategies. In codes of practice the focus is mainly put on explaining preventive measures. However, it is also important to establish more focused intervention strategies. This review is centered mainly on leafy vegetables as the commodity identified as the highest priority in terms of fresh produce microbial safety from a global perspective. There is no unique preventive measure or intervention strategy that could be applied at one point of the food chain. We should encourage growers of leafy greens to establish procedures based on the HACCP principles at the level of primary production. The traceability of leafy vegetables along the chain is an essential element in ensuring food safety. Thus, in dealing with the food safety issues associated with fresh produce it is clear that a multidisciplinary farm to fork strategy is required.
Cogan, Alison M; Blanchard, Jeanine; Garber, Susan L; Vigen, Cheryl Lp; Carlson, Mike; Clark, Florence A
To investigate the efficacy of behavioral or educational interventions in preventing pressure ulcers in community-dwelling adults with spinal cord injury (SCI). Cochrane, Clinical Trials, PubMed, and Web of Science were searched in June 2016. The search combined related terms for pressure ulcers, spinal cord injury, and behavioral intervention. Each database was searched from its inception with no restrictions on year of publication. Inclusion criteria required that articles were (a) published in a peer-reviewed journal in English, (b) evaluated a behavioral or educational intervention for pressure ulcer prevention, (c) included community-dwelling adult participants aged 18 years and older with SCI, (d) measured pressure ulcer occurrence, recurrence, or skin breakdown as an outcome, and (e) had a minimum of 10 participants. All study designs were considered. Two reviewers independently screened titles and abstracts. Extracted information included study design, sample size, description of the intervention and control condition, pressure ulcer outcome measures, and corresponding results. The search strategy yielded 444 unique articles of which five met inclusion criteria. Three were randomized trials and two were quasi-experimental designs. A total of 513 participants were represented. The method of pressure ulcer or skin breakdown measurement varied widely among studies. Results on pressure ulcer outcomes were null in all studies. Considerable methodological problems with recruitment, intervention fidelity, and participant adherence were reported. At present, there is no positive evidence to support the efficacy of behavioral or educational interventions in preventing pressure ulcer occurrence in adults with SCI.
Sreevatsava, Meghana; Narayan, K M Venkat; Cunningham, Solveig A
Childhood obesity is on the rise worldwide and its increasing prevalence in low and middle income countries is well-known. Obesity interventions have the potential to prevent adverse health outcomes; however, large gaps in research and knowledge about the efficacy and sustainability of such interventions remain. The objectives of this article were to review the evidence for interventions to prevent and control obesity among children and adolescents, evaluate their applicability in India, and discuss the challenges to sustain such interventions. The authors reviewed published research focusing on childhood obesity interventions, especially in India and other lower-resource countries. Nine observational and 10 interventional studies were reviewed. Most studies identified were from developed countries and took place at day-care settings, schools, and after school programs. Nineteen reported studies were grouped into categories: diet (2), physical activity (4), childcare programs (2), media-based programs (2), parental involvement (2), multi-component studies (1), and screen time (6). Most interventions were effective in reducing BMI, decreasing sedentary behaviors, and increasing physical activity. Sustainability of these interventions was not evaluated. While there is no one method or simple intervention to address obesity, multi-component approaches involving home and school environments are promising and warrant evaluation in India. Literature on obesity prevention and control in India and in lower-resource countries, however, is sparse. Existing gaps in knowledge about obesity should be addressed by conducting research in India and carrying out interventions to determine what strategies will be successful and sustainable locally.
Full Text Available ABSTRACTIntroduction:Scientific evidence supports the sinergy between biomedical and behavioral interventions aimed at preventing the transmission of HIV as a strategy to eradicate AIDS.Objective:To characterize comparatively the benefits from biomedical and behavioral interventions to prevent HIV transmission.Methods:Narrative review. We performed a comparative analysis of the benefits of studied interventions by means of estimating the number needed to treat (NNT. Evaluated interventions: counseling activities for behavior change to prevent exposure to HIV; antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP and antiretroviral post-exposure prophylasis (PEP for HIV and treatment of serodiscordant couples as a strategy for prevention of HIV transmission (TasP.Results:counseling interventions and TasP have smaller NNTs, equal to, respectively, 11 (95%CI 9 - 18 at 12 months and 34 (95%CI 23 - 54 in 42 months comparatively to PrEP interventions, that resulted in 41 (95%CI 28 - 67 individuals receiving antiretrovirals in order to prevent one case of HIV infection at 36 months for men and serodiscordant couples. PEP interventions are associated with protective effects estimated at 81%. Lack of trials evaluating PEP prevents estimate of NNT.Conclusion:The estimate of the NNT can be a helpful parameter in the comparison between the effectiveness of different behavioral and biomedical HIV prevention strategies. Studies evaluating the benefit and safety of combined behavioral and biomedical interventions are needed, especially considering the attributable fraction of each component. Integration of behavioral and biomedical interventions is required to achieve complete suppression of the virus, and thus reducing viral replication, infectivity and the number of cases.
Bates, Geoff; Begley, Emma; Tod, David; Jones, Lisa; Leavey, Conan; McVeigh, Jim
We examined intervention effectiveness of strategies to prevent image- and performance-enhancing drug use. Comprehensive searches identified 14 interventions that met review inclusion criteria. Interventions were predominantly educational and delivered within school sport settings, but targeted a wide range of mediating factors. Identification of effective components was limited across studies by brief or imprecise descriptions of intervention content, lack of behavioural outcome measures and short-term follow-up times. However, studies with components in addition to information provision may be more promising. Interventions outside of sport settings are required to reflect the transition of this form of substance use to the general population.
Depression is one of the most common psychological disorders experienced by adolescents. Research has shown depression rates are higher in Asian-American adolescents when compared to their European-American counterparts. This paper will investigate possible programs for preventing and responding to Asian-American youths' depression through a…
Skouteris, Helen; Hill, Briony; McCabe, Marita; Swinburn, Boyd; Sacher, Paul; Chadwick, Paul
The aim of this paper was to compare the recruitment strategies of two recent studies that focused on the parental influences on childhood obesity during the preschool years. The first study was a randomised controlled trial (RCT) of the Mind, Exercise, Nutrition?…?Do It! 2-4 obesity prevention programme and the second was a longitudinal cohort…
Bardick, Angela D.; Bernes, Kerry B.; McCulloch, Ariana R. M.; Witko, Kim D.; Spriddle, Jennifer W.; Roest, Allison R.
School counselors are in daily contact with the highest risk group for developing eating disorders--children and adolescents. School counselors are in a position to identify at-risk individuals, implement effective school-based prevention programs, make appropriate referrals, and provide support for recovering individuals. An overview of a theory…
King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.
Teen depression and suicidal behaviors are intricately intertwined, with untreated depression being a leading cause of adolescent suicide. Most depressed or suicidal teens tend to show warning signs and possess specific risk factors. A key component to preventing teen depression is for adults to remain aware of such warning signs and risk factors…
This had the effect of preventing reinfestation and modifying the insects' feeding practices such that they switched from human to chicken blood meals (chickens do not transmit the disease). This project will test the insect control program in selected border areas in the three countries where T. dimidiata is highly prevalent ...
Statement of the problem Preventive interventions aims at improving the psychosocial work environment within organizations. The nature of preventive interventions are therefore that it affects the context in which it is implemented. We will claim that the context also affects the implementation...... environment from the employee satisfaction survey in 2011 to the survey in 2014. We choose four worksites, where we do interviews with the managers and facilitate a chronicle workshop (Limborg & Hvenegaard, 2011; Poulsen, Ipsen, & Gish, 2014) with employees. The interviews seeks to investigate which...... of the intervention. When the context affects the intervention the current approach is to consider to which extent the intervention program was followed (implementation fidelity, (Carroll et al., 2007)). Implementation fidelity implies two underlying logics, one that intervention models always are applicable, and two...
Allyson L. Dir
Full Text Available Alcohol use, particularly binge drinking (BD, is a major public health concern among adolescents. Recent national data show that the gender gap in alcohol use is lessening, and BD among girls is rising. Considering the increase in BD among adolescent girls, as well as females’ increased risk of experiencing more severe biopsychosocial negative effects and consequences from BD, the current review sought to examine gender differences in risk factors for BD. The review highlights gender differences in (1 developmental-related neurobiological vulnerability to BD, (2 psychiatric comorbidity and risk phenotypes for BD, and (3 social-related risk factors for BD among adolescents, as well as considerations for BD prevention and intervention. Most of the information gleaned thus far has come from preclinical research. However, it is expected that, with recent advances in clinical imaging technology, neurobiological effects observed in lower mammals will be confirmed in humans and vice versa. A synthesis of the literature highlights that males and females experience unique neurobiological paths of development, and although there is debate regarding the specific nature of these differences, literature suggests that these differences in turn influence gender differences in psychiatric comorbidity and risk for BD. For one, girls are more susceptible to stress, depression, and other internalizing behaviors and, in turn, these symptoms contribute to their risk for BD. On the other hand, males, given gender differences across the lifespan as well as gender differences in development, are driven by an externalizing phenotype for risk of BD, in part, due to unique paths of neurobiological development that occur across adolescence. With respect to social domains, although social and peer influences are important for both adolescent males and females, there are gender differences. For example, girls may be more sensitive to pressure from peers to fit in and
Dir, Allyson L.; Bell, Richard L.; Adams, Zachary W.; Hulvershorn, Leslie A.
Alcohol use, particularly binge drinking (BD), is a major public health concern among adolescents. Recent national data show that the gender gap in alcohol use is lessening, and BD among girls is rising. Considering the increase in BD among adolescent girls, as well as females’ increased risk of experiencing more severe biopsychosocial negative effects and consequences from BD, the current review sought to examine gender differences in risk factors for BD. The review highlights gender differences in (1) developmental-related neurobiological vulnerability to BD, (2) psychiatric comorbidity and risk phenotypes for BD, and (3) social-related risk factors for BD among adolescents, as well as considerations for BD prevention and intervention. Most of the information gleaned thus far has come from preclinical research. However, it is expected that, with recent advances in clinical imaging technology, neurobiological effects observed in lower mammals will be confirmed in humans and vice versa. A synthesis of the literature highlights that males and females experience unique neurobiological paths of development, and although there is debate regarding the specific nature of these differences, literature suggests that these differences in turn influence gender differences in psychiatric comorbidity and risk for BD. For one, girls are more susceptible to stress, depression, and other internalizing behaviors and, in turn, these symptoms contribute to their risk for BD. On the other hand, males, given gender differences across the lifespan as well as gender differences in development, are driven by an externalizing phenotype for risk of BD, in part, due to unique paths of neurobiological development that occur across adolescence. With respect to social domains, although social and peer influences are important for both adolescent males and females, there are gender differences. For example, girls may be more sensitive to pressure from peers to fit in and impress others, while
Larimer, Mary E; Neighbors, Clayton; Lostutter, Ty W; Whiteside, Ursula; Cronce, Jessica M; Kaysen, Debra; Walker, Denise D
The purpose of the current study was to evaluate feasibility and efficacy of two promising approaches to indicated prevention of disordered gambling in a college population. Randomized clinical trial with assignment to a personalized feedback intervention (PFI), cognitive-behavioral intervention (CBI) or assessment-only control (AOC). PFI was delivered individually in a single session and included feedback regarding gambling behavior, norms, consequences and risk-reduction tips, delivered in a motivational interviewing style. CBI was delivered in small groups over four to six sessions and included functional analysis and brief cognitive correction, as well as identification of and alternatives for responding to gambling triggers. College campus. At-risk or probable pathological gamblers (n = 147; 65.3% male; group assignment: PFI, n = 52; CBI, n = 44; AOC, n = 51). Self-reported gambling quantity, frequency, consequences, psychopathology, normative perceptions and beliefs. Relative to control, results at 6-month follow-up indicated reductions in both interventions for gambling consequences (PFI d = 0.48; CBI d = 0.39) and DSM-IV criteria (PFI d = 0.60; CBI d = 0.48), reductions in frequency for PFI (d = 0.48). CBI was associated with reduced illusions of control, whereas PFI was associated with reduced perceptions of gambling frequency norms. Reductions in perceived gambling frequency norms mediated effects of PFI on gambling frequency. A single-session personalized feedback intervention and a multi-session cognitive-behavioral intervention may be helpful in reducing disordered gambling in US college students. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Anne M. Dattilo
Full Text Available Childhood obesity is currently one of the most prevailing and challenging public health issues among industrialized countries and of international priority. The global prevalence of obesity poses such a serious concern that the World Health Organization (WHO has described it as a “global epidemic.” Recent literature suggests that the genesis of the problem occurs in the first years of life as feeding patterns, dietary habits, and parental feeding practices are established. Obesity prevention evidence points to specific dietary factors, such as the promotion of breastfeeding and appropriate introduction of nutritious complementary foods, but also calls for attention to parental feeding practices, awareness of appropriate responses to infant hunger and satiety cues, physical activity/inactivity behaviors, infant sleep duration, and family meals. Interventions that begin at birth, targeting multiple factors related to healthy growth, have not been adequately studied. Due to the overwhelming importance and global significance of excess weight within pediatric populations, this narrative review was undertaken to summarize factors associated with overweight and obesity among infants and toddlers, with focus on potentially modifiable risk factors beginning at birth, and to address the need for early intervention prevention.
Dattilo, Anne M; Birch, Leann; Krebs, Nancy F; Lake, Alan; Taveras, Elsie M; Saavedra, Jose M
Childhood obesity is currently one of the most prevailing and challenging public health issues among industrialized countries and of international priority. The global prevalence of obesity poses such a serious concern that the World Health Organization (WHO) has described it as a "global epidemic." Recent literature suggests that the genesis of the problem occurs in the first years of life as feeding patterns, dietary habits, and parental feeding practices are established. Obesity prevention evidence points to specific dietary factors, such as the promotion of breastfeeding and appropriate introduction of nutritious complementary foods, but also calls for attention to parental feeding practices, awareness of appropriate responses to infant hunger and satiety cues, physical activity/inactivity behaviors, infant sleep duration, and family meals. Interventions that begin at birth, targeting multiple factors related to healthy growth, have not been adequately studied. Due to the overwhelming importance and global significance of excess weight within pediatric populations, this narrative review was undertaken to summarize factors associated with overweight and obesity among infants and toddlers, with focus on potentially modifiable risk factors beginning at birth, and to address the need for early intervention prevention.
Prevention-Plus interventions for primary care offer a venue to intervene with both children and parents for child obesity treatment. Such interventions can promote effective parenting practices that encourage healthy eating, physical activity (PA), and lower TV use among children. Test for feasibil...
... who did recommended physical activity in the same group. Conclusion: The present work showed that interventions promoting healthy lifestyles should be maintained. Developing countries should be encouraged and supported to design, conduct, and evaluate robust preventive interventions. Keywords: Schools, lifestyle, ...
Schinke, Steven P.; Schwinn, Traci M.; Hursh, Hilary A.
Intervention research is essential to help Hispanic American adolescents avoid drug use. This article describes an intervention research program aimed at preventing drug use among these youths. Grounded in salient epidemiological data, the program is informed by bicultural competence, social learning, and motivational interviewing theories. The…
Fawole, Olufunmilayo I.; Ajuwon, Ademola J.; Osungbade, Kayode O.
Purpose: This intervention project targeted one vulnerable group, female apprentices in Ibadan, Nigeria, to evaluate the effectiveness of multiple interventions aimed at preventing violence against women (VAW). Design/methodology/approach: A baseline survey was conducted through face-to-face interviews with 350 young women recruited from…
Crone, M; Reijneveld, S; Willemsen, M; van Leerdam, F J M; Spruijt, R; Sing, R
Objective: To assess the effect of an antismoking intervention focusing on adolescents in lower education. Students with lower education smoke more often and perceive more positive norms, and social pressure to smoke, than higher educated students. An intervention based on peer group pressure and social influence may therefore be useful to prevent smoking among these students.
Lakerveld, J.; Bot, S.D.M.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.; van Tulder, M.W.; Kingo, L.; Nijpels, G.
Effective, cost-effective, safe, and feasible interventions to improve lifestyle behavior in at-risk populations are needed in primary care. In the Hoorn Prevention Study, the authors implemented a theory-based lifestyle intervention in which trained practice nurses used an innovative combination of
Berkowitz, Steven J.; Stover, Carla Smith; Marans, Steven R.
Objective: This pilot study evaluated the effectiveness of a four-session, caregiver-child Intervention, the Child and Family Traumatic Stress Intervention (CFTSI), to prevent the development of chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) provided within 30 days of exposure to a potentially traumatic event (PTE). Method: One-hundred seventy-six 7…
Kaponda, Chrissie P. N.; Norr, Kathleen F.; Crittenden, Kathleen S.; Norr, James L.; McCreary, Linda L.; Kachingwe, Sitingawawo I.; Mbeba, Mary M.; Jere, Diana L. N.; Dancy, Barbara L.
This study used a quasi-experimental design to evaluate a six-session peer group intervention for HIV prevention among rural adults in Malawi. Two rural districts were randomly assigned to intervention and control conditions. Independent random samples of community adults compared the districts at baseline and at 6 and 18 months postintervention.…
Kapungu, Chisina T.; Nappi, Carla N.; Thakral, Charu; Miller, Steven A.; Devlin, Catharine; McBride, Cami; Hasselquist, Emily; Coleman, Gloria; Drozd, Derek; Barve, Chinmayee; Donenberg, Geri; DiClemente, Ralph; Brown, Larry
The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of evidence-based recruitment and retention strategies for a longitudinal, family-based HIV prevention intervention study targeting adolescents in psychiatric care by (1) determining consent rate (recruitment), rate of participation at the first intervention session (retention), and…
Nguyen, Vu H.; Wang, Ze; Waigandt, Alexander C.
Background: Osteoporosis prevention education interventions have been found to be ineffective. Purpose: To determine the effectiveness of a developed intervention based on the health belief model, which emphasized its visible severity and proximal time of onset. Method: A sample of 109 college women were randomly assigned to either a treatment or…
Black, Amanda M; Patton, Declan A; Eliason, Paul H; Emery, Carolyn A
There is evidence that eye protection, mouth guards, helmets, and face guards are effective in reducing the risk of facial injury; however, such safety practices are not adopted universally by all athletes playing high-risk sports. Underlying beliefs about risk perception, comfort, ineffectiveness, utility, and a lack of awareness or enforcement have been identified as reasons people may not adopt preventive measures. There are several high-risk sports that have not mandated or do not enforce use of protective equipment. Valid evidence can assist with addressing the resistance caused by prevailing beliefs and could be essential in influencing rule changes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Elsman, E.B.M.; Leerlooijer, J.N.; Beek, ter J.; Duijzer, G.; Jansen, S.C.; Hiddink, G.J.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Haveman-Nies, A.
Background Although lifestyle interventions have shown to be effective in reducing the risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus, maintenance of achieved results is difficult, as participants often experience relapse after the intervention has ended. This paper describes the systematic development of a
Full Text Available Mohamed A Hendaus,1,2 Fatima A Jomha,3 Mohammad Ehlayel2,4 1Department of Pediatrics, Section of Academic General Pediatrics, Hamad Medical Corporation, 2Weill Cornell Medical College, Doha, Qatar; 3School of Pharmacy, Lebanese International University, Khiara, Lebanon; 4Department of Pediatrics, Section of Pediatric Allergy-Immunology, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar Abstract: Allergic diseases comprise a genetically heterogeneous group of chronic, immunomediated diseases. It has been clearly reported that the prevalence of these diseases has been on the rise for the last few decades, but at different rates, in various areas of the world. This paper discusses the epidemiology of allergic diseases among children and their negative impact on affected patients, their families, and societies. These effects include the adverse effects on quality of life and economic costs. Medical interest has shifted from tertiary or secondary prevention to primary prevention of these chronic diseases among high-risk infants in early life. Being simple, practical, and cost-effective are mandatory features for any candidate methods delivering these strategies. Dietary therapy fits this model well, as it is simple, practical, and cost-effective, and involves diverse methods. The highest priority strategy is feeding these infants breast milk. For those who are not breast-fed, there should be a strategy to maintain beneficial gut flora that positively influences intestinal immunity. We review the current use of probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics, and safety and adverse effects. Other dietary modalities of possible potential in achieving this primary prevention, such as a Mediterranean diet, use of milk formula with modified (hydrolyzed proteins, and the role of micronutrients, are also explored. Breast-feeding is effective in reducing the risk of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic eczema among children. In addition, breast milk constitutes a major source
Hart, Laura M; Cornell, Chelsea; Damiano, Stephanie R; Paxton, Susan J
To systematically review the literature on interventions involving parents that aim to prevent body dissatisfaction or eating disorders in children, and provide directions for future research by highlighting current gaps. The literature was searched for articles using key concepts: parents, prevention and eating disorders or disordered eating or body dissatisfaction. All English language publications between 1992 and 2013 were searched across a range of academic databases. Studies were reviewed if they: (i) delivered an intervention designed to reduce eating disorders or body dissatisfaction or their risk factors, in children or adolescents; (ii) provided some intervention component for parents; and (iii) included some outcome measure of intervention effectiveness on disordered eating or body dissatisfaction. A scoring matrix based on the Critical Appraisal Skills Program (CASP) screening questions was used to assess each study's sample representativeness, relevance and data quality. From 647 novel records uncovered by the search, 20 separate studies met inclusion criteria. The CASP scoring matrix revealed eight studies provided no relevant data, four relevant and eight highly relevant data on the effects of involving parents in prevention programs. Two of four high-quality studies reported that parental involvement significantly improved child outcomes on measures of body dissatisfaction or disordered eating. Although a greater focus on engaging and retaining parents is needed, this review demonstrates that a small number of prevention studies with parents have led to significant reductions in risk of body image and eating problems, and future research is indicated. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Weaver, Nancy L; Marshall, Stephen W; Miller, Mark D
Participation in youth sports has steadily grown over the past 30 years and continues to rise. During the 1998-1999 school year over 360,000 collegiate athletes and almost 6.5 million high school athletes participated in sports. This expansion has been accompanied by an increased awareness of the injury problem associated with participation in youth sports. Estimates are that one-third of high school athletes will sustain an injury during a sports season serious enough to result in time lost from participation. While there may always be some risk associated with sports participation, health professionals can actively encourage injury prevention. In this paper, we describe the benefits of sport participation, the injury problem associated with sports, injury prevention frameworks, and conclude by discussing the changing role of the team physician in youth sports.
Kumar G Anil
Full Text Available Abstract Background Information on cost-effectiveness of the range of HIV prevention interventions is a useful contributor to decisions on the best use of resources to prevent HIV. We conducted this assessment for the state of Andhra Pradesh that has the highest HIV burden in India. Methods Based on data from a representative sample of 128 public-funded HIV prevention programs of 14 types in Andhra Pradesh, we have recently reported the number of HIV infections averted by each type of HIV prevention intervention and their cost. Using estimates of the age of onset of HIV infection, we used standard methods to calculate the cost per Disability Adjusted Life Year (DALY saved as a measure of cost-effectiveness of each type of HIV prevention intervention. Results The point estimates of the cost per DALY saved were less than US $50 for blood banks, men who have sex with men programmes, voluntary counselling and testing centres, prevention of parent to child transmission clinics, sexually transmitted infection clinics, and women sex worker programmes; between US $50 and 100 for truckers and migrant labourer programmes; more than US $100 and up to US $410 for composite, street children, condom promotion, prisoners and workplace programmes and mass media campaign for the general public. The uncertainty range around these estimates was very wide for several interventions, with the ratio of the high to the low estimates infinite for five interventions. Conclusions The point estimates for the cost per DALY saved from the averted HIV infections for all interventions was much lower than the per capita gross domestic product in this Indian state. While these indicative cost-effectiveness estimates can inform HIV control planning currently, the wide uncertainty range around estimates for several interventions suggest the need for more firm data for estimating cost-effectiveness of HIV prevention interventions in India.
Peltonen, Kirsi; Punamäki, Raija-Leena
Increasing research is available on the preconditions for child mental health and optimal development in traumatic conditions, whereas less is known how to translate the findings into effective interventions to help traumatized children. This literature review analyses the effectiveness of psychosocial preventive interventions and treatments and their theoretical bases among children traumatized in the context of armed conflicts (war, military violence, terrorism and refugee). The first aim is to evaluate the effectiveness of preventive interventions in preventing emotional distress and impairment and promoting optimal emotional-cognitive and social development. The second task is to analyze the nature of the underlying mechanisms for the success of preventive interventions, and the theoretical premises of the choice of intervention techniques, procedures and tools. We found 16 relevant published studies, but an examination of them revealed that only four of them had experimental designs strong enough that they could be included in the meta-analysis. While the subjective reports of the researchers suggested that systematic preventive interventions were effective in decreasing PTSD and depressive symptoms among children traumatized due to armed conflict, the more objective results of the meta-analysis and the weaknesses in designs uncovered during the meta-analysis undermine such a conclusion. Additionally, a majority of the reported preventive interventions focused only on children's biased cognitive processes and negative emotions, while only a few aimed at influencing multiple domains of child development and improving developmental functioning on emotional, social and psychophysiological levels. It is concluded that substantial additional work needs to be done in developing effective preventive interventions and treatments for children traumatized by exposure to war and violence. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Giles, Michelle; Hass, Michael
Eating disorders are among the most frequently seen chronic illnesses found in adolescent females. In this paper, we discuss school-based prevention and intervention efforts that seek to reduce the impact of this serious illness. School counselors play a key role in the prevention of eating disorders and can provide support even when not directly…
The purpose of this paper is to explore the child/youth homelessness including its preventive care.This paper explores the housing support program implemented across Australia in brief at first, and then profile child/youth homelessness and housing policy. Based on that, it discusses early intervention and preventive methods followed by the conclusion.
Shih, Sophy T F; Davis-Lameloise, Nathalie; Janus, Edward D.
Background: The Mothers After Gestational Diabetes in Australia Diabetes Prevention Program (MAGDA-DPP) is a randomized controlled trial (RCT) that aims to assess the effectiveness of a structured diabetes prevention intervention for women who had gestational diabetes.Methods/Design: The original...
Vega, Miriam Y.; Spieldenner, Andrew R.; DeLeon, Dennis; Nieto, Bolivar X.; Stroman, Carolyn A.
Latino gay men face multiple barriers to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention, in particular a lack of intervention programs that integrate prevention messages with cultural norms and address issues of social marginalization from multiple communities (gay community and Latino community), homophobia and racism. In order to address these…
Kersten, L.E.; Hosman, C.M.H.; Riksen-Walraven, J.M.A.; Doesum, K.T.M. van; Hoefnagels, C.C.J.
Improving depressed mothers' sensitivity is assumed to be a key element in preventing adverse outcomes for children of such mothers. This meta-analysis examines the short-term effectiveness of preventive interventions in terms of enhancing depressed mothers' sensitivity toward their child and
Thrun, Mark; Cook, Paul F.; Bradley-Springer, Lucy A.; Gardner, Lytt; Marks, Gary; Wright, Julie; Wilson, Tracey E.; Quinlivan, E. Byrd; O'Daniels, Christine; Raffanti, Stephen; Thompson, Melanie; Golin, Carol
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have recommended that HIV care clinics incorporate prevention into clinical practice. This report summarizes HIV care providers' attitudes and counseling practices before and after they received training to deliver a counseling intervention to patients. Providers at seven HIV clinics received training…
Keller, Sarah N; Wilkinson, Tim
This study examined whether a community-based suicide prevention project could increase willingness to seek professional help for suicidal ideation among eastern Montana youth. Online surveys were administered at baseline (N = 224) and six months post-test (N = 217) consisting of the Risk Behavior Diagnosis Scale (RBD), self-report questions on suicidality, willingness to engage with suicide prevention resources, and willingness to communicate with peers, family members, teachers or counselors about suicide. A comparison of means within groups from pre- to post-test showed increases in self-efficacy for communicating about suicidal concerns with a teacher, school counselor or social worker; increases in self-efficacy for helping others; and increases in response-efficacy of interpersonal communication about suicide with a teacher, school counselor or social worker. Young adults need to be willing and able to intervene in life-threatening situations affecting their peers. In step with narrative empowerment education, personal experiences can be used to communicatively reduce peer resistance to behavior change. Health communicators tend to rely on overly didactic education and awareness-raising when addressing suicide prevention. This research shows the importance of direct and personal forms of influence advocated by social marketing professionals.
Herdegen, Matthias; Universidad de Bonn
The allied invasion in Iraq and its aftermath highlight considerable discrepancies in the attitude towards the use of force between the current US administration and most EU member States. Still, both sides of the Atlantic are firmly committed to the UN Charter and the binding force of public international law. There is considerable unity in the possible justification of humanitarian intervention. The main point of contention lies in the different perception of preventive self-defense. Togeth...
Tarvonen, P-L; Sipilä, K; Yang, G S; Kim, J K; Lamidi, M-L; Suominen, A L
The aim was to compare the change in dental caries status in two different intervention groups of the Children's Oral Health Promotion Programme (COHPP). A longitudinal study among 500 children who had participated into the COHPP for 6 years was conducted in Pyongyang, Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK). Children in Group I received intensified school-based intervention and were clinically examined at the age of 7 years in 2007 (n = 250), 10 years in 2010 (n = 250) and 13 years in 2013 (n = 242). Children in Group II (n = 250) joined the programme at the age of 4 years in kindergarten in 2007, were provided with early preschool-based intervention and were clinically examined at the age of 7 years in 2010 and 10 years in 2013. Both the prevalence and the mean number of dt + DT decreased significantly in both groups during the follow-up. This was due to decrease in the number of dt, whereas the number of DT remained relatively constant. Poisson regression showed that the association between the group status and the change in the number of dt + DT was statistically significant when adjusted for gender but disappeared when the school was included in the analysis. The decrease in dental caries may be partly due to the exfoliation of deciduous teeth and dental treatment received. However, the study gave some reference emphasizing the early starting of the prevention. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Arson, the second leading cause of residential fire-associated deaths in the United States, accounts for approximately 700 deaths annually, destroys homes, and destabilizes neighborhoods. In Detroit, Michigan (1990 population: 1,027,974), arson accounted for nearly half (46.3%) of all fire-related deaths since 1984. During the late 1970s, pre-Halloween pranks traditionally associated in some parts of the United States with the night of October 30 turned destructive in Detroit, with hundreds of fires set throughout the city. By 1984, October 30 became known as "Devil's Night" and had evolved to 3 consecutive nights of arson on October 29-31; in that year, a record 810 fires were reported. In 1985, Detroit began a citywide intervention campaign against arson and vandalism during the 3-day Halloween period using data from an ongoing fire surveillance system maintained by the Detroit Fire Department (DFD) to target areas at high risk for arson. This report describes the intervention implemented by the city of Detroit from 1985 through 1996 and the impact of the intervention in preventing Halloween arson; approximately 34,000 volunteers participated in 1996, and the number of fires during this 3-day period decreased to the average number of fires for any other 3-day period during the remainder of the year.
Moulos, Ioannis; Maramis, Christos; Mourouzis, Alexandros; Maglaveras, Nicos
The recent immense diffusion of smartphones has significantly upgraded the role of mobile user interfaces in interventions that build and/or maintain healthier lifestyles. Indeed, high-quality, user-centered smartphone applications are able to serve as advanced front-ends to such interventions. These smartphone applications, coupled with portable or wearable sensors, are being employed for monitoring day to day health-related behaviors, including eating and physical activity. Some of them take one step forward by identifying unhealthy behaviors and contributing towards their modification. This work presents the design as well as the preliminary implementation of the mobile user interface of SPLENDID, a novel, sensor-oriented intervention for preventing obesity and eating disorders in young populations. This is implemented by means of an Android application, which is able to monitor the eating and physical activity behaviors of young individuals at risk for obesity and/or eating disorders, subsequently guiding them towards the modification of those behaviors that put them at risk. Behavior monitoring is based on multiple data provided by a set of communicating sensors and self-reported information, while guidance is facilitated through a feedback/encouragement provision and goal setting mechanism.
Padula, William V; Mishra, Manish K; Makic, Mary Beth F; Valuck, Robert J
To enhance the learner's competence with knowledge about a framework of quality improvement (QI) interventions to implement evidence-based practices for pressure ulcer (PrU) prevention. This continuing education activity is intended for physicians and nurses with an interest in skin and wound care. After participating in this educational activity, the participant should be better able to:1. Summarize the process of creating and initiating the best-practice framework of QI for PrU prevention.2. Identify the domains and QI interventions for the best-practice framework of QI for PrU prevention. Pressure ulcer (PrU) prevention is a priority issue in US hospitals. The National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel endorses an evidence-based practice (EBP) protocol to help prevent PrUs. Effective implementation of EBPs requires systematic change of existing care units. Quality improvement interventions offer a mechanism of change to existing structures in order to effectively implement EBPs for PrU prevention. The best-practice framework developed by Nelson et al is a useful model of quality improvement interventions that targets process improvement in 4 domains: leadership, staff, information and information technology, and performance and improvement. At 2 academic medical centers, the best-practice framework was shown to physicians, nurses, and health services researchers. Their insight was used to modify the best-practice framework as a reference tool for quality improvement interventions in PrU prevention. The revised framework includes 25 elements across 4 domains. Many of these elements support EBPs for PrU prevention, such as updates in PrU staging and risk assessment. The best-practice framework offers a reference point to initiating a bundle of quality improvement interventions in support of EBPs. Hospitals and clinicians tasked with quality improvement efforts can use this framework to problem-solve PrU prevention and other critical issues.
Shao Mingfeng; Su Jingrong
Objective: To study the prevention and treatment of vascular vagovagal reflexes (VVRs) in patients with cardiovascular disease during intervention. Methods: The causes and results in 61 patients with VVRs during intervention of 2100 patients were analysed. Results: In 61 patients with VVRs, there were 12 cases having vascular restriction, 7 cases with heart restriction, 42 cases with mixed type. All patients were recovered after treatment, no adverse reaction happened. Conclusions: The major causes of VVRs during interventional treatment were mental tension, pain, low blood volume and expansive stimulation of hollow organs. Preventive measure and prompt treatment are necessary
Hagel, L M; Pickett, W; Pahwa, P; Day, L; Brison, R J; Marlenga, B; Crowe, T; Snodgrass, P; Ulmer, K; Dosman, J A
To evaluate the effectiveness of an agricultural health and safety program in reducing risks of injury. Cross-sectional survey. 50 rural municipalities in the Province of Saskatchewan, Canada. The Agricultural Health and Safety Network (AHSN), a mainly educational program that administered 112 farm safety interventions over 19 years. 5292 farm people associated with 2392 Saskatchewan farms. Farms and associated farm people were categorized into three groups according to years of participation in the AHSN. self-reported prevalence of: (1) farm safety practices; (2) physical farm hazards. (1) self-reported agricultural injuries. After adjustment for group imbalances and clustering at the rural municipality level, the prevalence of all impact and outcome measures was not significantly different on farms grouped according to years of AHSN participation. To illustrate, the adjusted relative risk of reporting no rollover protection on tractors among farms with none (0 years) versus high (>8 years) levels of AHSN participation was 0.95 (95% CI 0.69 to 1.30). The adjusted relative risk for agricultural injuries (all types) reported for the year before the survey was 0.99 (95% CI 0.74 to 1.32). Educational interventions delivered via the AHSN program were not associated with observable differences in farm safety practices, physical farm hazards, or farm-related injury outcomes. There is a need for the agricultural sector to extend the scope of its injury prevention initiatives to include the full public health model of education, engineering, and regulation.
Ciucă, Andrada; Băban, Adriana
The present paper is aimed at briefly presenting psychological factors involved in cancer related pain and what psychosocial interventions are efficient in reducing it. Cancer related pain is a complex experience and the most integrative and recommended approach is the biopsychosocial model. It has been proved that chronic pain is more strongly related to psychological factors than to treatment or illness related factors. Psychological factors influencing pain experience can be intuitively grouped starting with awareness of pain (i.e., attentional factor), then with evaluation of pain (i.e., cognitive factors) which is leading to feelings (i.e., emotional factors), and behaviours (i.e., coping strategies) regarding pain. Psychosocial interventions (i.e., skill based and education based interventions) have strong evidence that is effective in reducing cancer related pain.
Full Text Available A set of mediation analyses were carried out in this study using data from It’s Your Game. . .Keep It Real (IYG, a successful HIV/STI/pregnancy prevention program. The IYG study evaluated a skill and normbased. HIV/STI/pregnancy prevention program that was implemented from 2004 to 2007 among 907 urban low-income middle school youth in Houston, TX, USA. Analyses were carried out to investigate the degree to which a set of proposed psychosocial measures of behavioral knowledge, perceived self-efficacy, behavioral, and normative beliefs, and perceived risky situations, all targeted by the intervention, mediated the intervention’s effectiveness in reducing initiation of sex. The mediation process was assessed by examining the significance and size of the estimated effects from the mediating pathways. The findings from this study provide evidence that the majority of the psychosocial mediators targeted by the IYG intervention are indeed related to the desired behavior and provide evidence that the conceptual theory underlying the targeted psychosocial mediators in the intervention is appropriate. Two of the psychosocial mediators significantly mediated the intervention effect, knowledge of STI signs and symptoms and refusal self-efficacy. This study suggests that the underlying causal mechanisms of action of these interventions are complex and warrant further analyses.
Vogl, Laura; Teesson, Maree; Andrews, Gavin; Bird, Kevin; Steadman, Bronwyn; Dillon, Paul
Hazardous alcohol use is a leading cause of death among adolescents and young adults world-wide, yet few effective prevention interventions exist. This study was the first to examine a computerized harm minimization intervention to reduce alcohol misuse and related harms in adolescents. Cluster randomized controlled trial of a six-session curriculum-integrated harm minimization prevention program. The intervention was delivered by computer in the form of a teenage drama, which provided education through alcohol-related scenarios to which young people could relate. Schools in Australia. A total of 1466 year 8 students (13 years) from 16 high schools in Australia were allocated randomly to a computerized prevention program (n = 611, eight schools) or usual classes (n = 855, eight schools). Change in knowledge, alcohol use, alcohol-related harms and alcohol expectancies. A computerized prevention program was more effective than usual classes in increasing alcohol-related knowledge of facts that would inform safer drinking choices and decreasing the positive social expectations which students believed alcohol may afford. For females it was effective in decreasing average alcohol consumption, alcohol-related harms and the frequency of drinking to excess (more than four standard drinks; 10 g ethanol). For males the behavioural effects were not significant. A harm minimization approach is effective in educating young people about alcohol-related risks and is effective in reducing risky drinking and harms among girls. Reduction of problems among boys remains a challenge.
Tewary, Kishor; Narchi, Hassib
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common childhood infections. Permanent renal cortical scarring may occur in affected children, especially with recurrent UTIs, leading to long-term complications such as hypertension and chronic renal failure. To prevent such damage, several interventions to prevent UTI recurrences have been tried. The most established and accepted prevention at present is low dose long-term antibiotic prophylaxis. However it has a risk of break through infecti...
Beauchamp, A; Backholer, K; Magliano, D; Peeters, A
Obesity prevention is a major public health priority. It is important that all groups benefit from measures to prevent obesity, but we know little about the differential effectiveness of such interventions within particular population subgroups. This review aimed to identify interventions for obesity prevention that evaluated a change in adiposity according to socioeconomic position (SEP) and to determine the effectiveness of these interventions across different socioeconomic groups. A systematic search of published and grey literature was conducted. Studies that described an obesity prevention intervention and reported anthropometric outcomes according to a measure of SEP were included. Evidence was synthesized using narrative analysis. A total of 14 studies were analysed, representing a range of study designs and settings. All studies were from developed countries, with eight conducted among children. Three studies were shown to have no effect on anthropometric outcomes and were not further analysed. Interventions shown to be ineffective in lower SEP participants were primarily based on information provision directed at individual behaviour change. Studies that were shown to be effective in lower SEP participants primarily included community-based strategies or policies aimed at structural changes to the environment. Interventions targeting individual-level behaviour change may be less successful in lower SEP populations. It is essential that our efforts to prevent obesity do not leave behind the most disadvantaged members of society. © 2014 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2014 International Association for the Study of Obesity.
Howe, George W.; Beach, Steven R. H.; Brody, Gene H.; Wyman, Peter A.
In this paper we present and discuss a novel research approach, the baseline target moderated mediation (BTMM) design, that holds substantial promise for advancing our understanding of how genetic research can inform prevention research. We first discuss how genetically informed research on developmental psychopathology can be used to identify potential intervention targets. We then describe the BTMM design, which employs moderated mediation within a longitudinal study to test whether baseline levels of intervention targets moderate the impact of the intervention on change in that target, and whether change in those targets mediates causal impact of preventive or treatment interventions on distal health outcomes. We next discuss how genetically informed BTMM designs can be applied to both microtrials and full-scale prevention trials. We use simulated data to illustrate a BTMM, and end with a discussion of some of the advantages and limitations of this approach. PMID:26779062
George W. Howe
Full Text Available In this paper we present and discuss a novel research approach, the baseline target moderated mediation (BTMM design, that holds substantial promise for advancing our understanding of how genetic research can inform prevention research. We first discuss how genetically informed research on developmental psychopathology can be used to identify potential intervention targets. We then describe the BTMM design, which employs moderated mediation within a longitudinal study to test whether baseline levels of intervention targets moderate the impact of the intervention on change in that target, and whether change in those targets mediates causal impact of preventive or treatment interventions on distal health outcomes. We next discuss how genetically informed BTMM designs can be applied to both microtrials and full-scale prevention trials. We end with a discussion of some of the advantages and limitations of this approach.
Hegelstad, Wenche Ten Velden; Bronnick, Kolbjorn S; Barder, Helene Eidsmo
OBJECTIVE: This study tested the hypothesis that early detection of psychosis improves long-term vocational functioning through the prevention of negative symptom development. METHODS: Generalized estimating equations and mediation analysis were conducted to examine the association between...... employment and negative symptoms over ten years among patients in geographic areas characterized by usual detection (N=140) or early detection (N=141) of psychosis. RESULTS: Improved vocational outcome after ten years among patients in the early-detection area was mediated by lower levels of negative...
Fitzgibbon, M. L.; Stolley, M. R.; Schiffer, L.; Braunschweig, C. L.; Gomez, S. L.; Van Horn, L.; Dyer, A.
The preschool years offer an opportunity to interrupt the trajectory toward obesity in black children. The Hip-Hop to Health Jr. Obesity Prevention Effectiveness Trial was a group-randomized controlled trial assessing the feasibility and effectiveness of a teacher-delivered weight control intervention for black preschool children. The 618 participating children were enrolled in 18 schools administered by the Chicago Public Schools. Children enrolled in the 9 schools randomized to the intervention group received a 14-week weight control intervention delivered by their classroom teachers. Children in the 9 control schools received a general health intervention. Height and weight, physical activity, screen time, and diet data were collected at baseline and post-intervention. At post-intervention, children in the intervention schools engaged in more moderate-to vigorous physical activity than children in the control schools (difference between adjusted group means=7.46 min/day, p=.02). Also, children in the intervention group had less total screen time (−27.8 min/day, p=.05). There were no significant differences in BMI, BMI Z score, or dietary intake. It is feasible to adapt an obesity prevention program to be taught by classroom teachers. The intervention showed positive influences on physical activity and screen time, but not diet. Measuring diet and physical activity in preschool children remains a challenge, and interventions delivered by classroom teachers require both intensive initial training and ongoing individualized supervision. PMID:21193852
Rice, Simon; Robinson, Jo; Bendall, Sarah; Hetrick, Sarah; Cox, Georgina; Bailey, Eleanor; Gleeson, John; Alvarez-Jimenez, Mario
Suicide remains a major global public health issue for young people. The reach and accessibility of online and social media-based interventions herald a unique opportunity for suicide prevention. To date, the large body of research into suicide prevention has been undertaken atheoretically. This paper provides a rationale and theoretical framework (based on the interpersonal theory of suicide), and draws on our experiences of developing and testing online and social media-based interventions. The implementation of three distinct online and social media-based intervention studies, undertaken with young people at risk of suicide, are discussed. We highlight the ways that these interventions can serve to bolster social connectedness in young people, and outline key aspects of intervention implementation and moderation. Insights regarding the implementation of these studies include careful protocol development mindful of risk and ethical issues, establishment of suitably qualified teams to oversee development and delivery of the intervention, and utilisation of key aspects of human support (i.e., moderation) to encourage longer-term intervention engagement. Online and social media-based interventions provide an opportunity to enhance feelings of connectedness in young people, a key component of the interpersonal theory of suicide. Our experience has shown that such interventions can be feasibly and safely conducted with young people at risk of suicide. Further studies, with controlled designs, are required to demonstrate intervention efficacy.
Christensen, Helen; Batterham, Philip; Mackinnon, Andrew; Griffiths, Kathleen M; Kalia Hehir, Kanupriya; Kenardy, Justin; Gosling, John; Bennett, Kylie
Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) is a high prevalence, chronic disorder. Web-based interventions are acceptable, engaging, and can be delivered at scale. Few randomized controlled trials evaluate the effectiveness of prevention programs for anxiety, or the factors that improve effectiveness and engagement. The intent of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a Web-based program in preventing GAD symptoms in young adults, and to determine the role of telephone and email reminders. A 5-arm randomized controlled trial with 558 Internet users in the community, recruited via the Australian Electoral Roll, was conducted with 6- and 12-month follow-up. Five interventions were offered over a 10-week period. Group 1 (Active website) received a combined intervention of psycho-education, Internet-delivered Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (ICBT) for anxiety, physical activity promotion, and relaxation. Group 2 (Active website with telephone) received the identical Web program plus weekly telephone reminder calls. Group 3 (Active website with email) received the identical Web program plus weekly email reminders. Group 4 (Control) received a placebo website. Group 5 (Control with telephone) received the placebo website plus telephone calls. Main outcome measures were severity of anxiety symptoms as measured by the GAD 7-item scale (GAD-7) (at post-test, 6, and 12 months). Secondary measures were GAD caseness, measured by the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) at 6 months, Centre for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale (CES-D), Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI), Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ), and Days out of Role. GAD-7 symptoms reduced over post-test, 6-month, and 12-month follow-up. There were no significant differences between Group 4 (Control) and Groups 1 (Active website), 2 (Active website with telephone), 3 (Active website with email), or 5 (Control with telephone) at any follow-up. A total of 16 cases of GAD were identified at 6 months
Van Eerd, D; Munhall, C; Irvin, E; Rempel, D; Brewer, S; van der Beek, A J; Dennerlein, J T; Tullar, J; Skivington, K; Pinion, C; Amick, B
The burden of disabling musculoskeletal pain and injuries (musculoskeletal disorders, MSDs) arising from work-related causes in many workplaces remains substantial. There is little consensus on the most appropriate interventions for MSDs. Our objective was to update a systematic review of workplace-based interventions for preventing and managing upper extremity MSD (UEMSD). We followed a systematic review process developed by the Institute for Work & Health and an adapted best evidence synthesis. 6 electronic databases were searched (January 2008 until April 2013 inclusive) yielding 9909 non-duplicate references. 26 high-quality and medium-quality studies relevant to our research question were combined with 35 from the original review to synthesise the evidence on 30 different intervention categories. There was strong evidence for one intervention category, resistance training, leading to the recommendation: Implementing a workplace-based resistance training exercise programme can help prevent and manage UEMSD and symptoms. The synthesis also revealed moderate evidence for stretching programmes, mouse use feedback and forearm supports in preventing UEMSD or symptoms. There was also moderate evidence for no benefit for EMG biofeedback, job stress management training, and office workstation adjustment for UEMSD and symptoms. Messages are proposed for both these and other intervention categories. PMID:26552695
Jaycox, Lisa H; Stein, Bradley D; Wong, Marleen
Schools are well positioned to facilitate recovery for students exposed to community or school violence or other traumatic life events affecting populations of youth. This article describes how schools can circumvent several key barriers to mental health service provision, outcomes that school interventions target, and the role of the family in school-based services. It includes a description of the history of schools in facilitating recovery for students exposed to traumatic events, particularly related to crisis intervention, and the current status of early intervention and strategies for long-term recovery in the school setting. Challenges and future directions are also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Shepherd, Emily; Salam, Rehana A; Middleton, Philippa; Makrides, Maria; McIntyre, Sarah; Badawi, Nadia; Crowther, Caroline A
approximately one in 500 children. To date, only a small proportion of Cochrane reviews assessing antenatal and intrapartum interventions have been able to report on this outcome. There is an urgent need for long-term follow-up of RCTs of interventions addressing risk factors for cerebral palsy, and consideration of the use of relatively new interim assessments (including the General Movements Assessment). Such RCTs must be rigorous in their design, and aim for consistency in cerebral palsy outcome measurement and reporting to facilitate pooling of data, to focus research efforts on prevention.
Full Text Available Background: Women’s beliefs are one of the main reasons for not undergoing Pap-test for cervical cancer prevention. Health education programs could help change these beliefs and motivate women to adopt a preventive health behavior.Objectives: This study aims to assess the modification in women’s beliefs and behavior about cervical cancer prevention after the implementation of a health education intervention.Methodology: A health education intervention for cervical cancer prevention was implemented to 300 women in two prefectures of southern Greece. The experimental group received a 120-minute health education intervention, based on the Health Beliefs Model (HBM including a lecture, discussion and leaflets. The hypotheses were a will this brief intervention change women’s beliefs (perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer, benefits and barriers ofundergoing the Pap-test? b will this change in beliefs sustain in six months follow-up period? and c will women undergo pap-test in six months period? The women filled in an anonymous questionnaire, based on the Health Belief Model (HBM, before, immediately after and six months after the program.Results: The health education intervention significantly modified women’s beliefs and behaviors towards pap-test. The greater changes in women’s beliefs were observed in their sense of susceptibility towards the disease and the benefits of prevention which were sustained or improved after six months. Perceived barriers to undergo the Paptest, pain, embarrassment, and worry for the results decreased immediately after the program but started relapsingin the six month follow up period. Moreover, 88.1% of the women answered that they had underwent a Pap-test during the following six months.Conclusions: This health education intervention modified women’s beliefs and behavior about cervical cancer prevention. Short, low cost, health education interventions for breast cancer prevention to women can be
Noar, Seth M; Black, Hulda G; Pierce, Larson B
To conduct a meta-analysis of computer technology-based HIV prevention behavioral interventions aimed at increasing condom use among a variety of at-risk populations. Systematic review and meta-analysis of existing published and unpublished studies testing computer-based interventions. Meta-analytic techniques were used to compute and aggregate effect sizes for 12 randomized controlled trials that met inclusion criteria. Variables that had the potential to moderate intervention efficacy were also tested. The overall mean weighted effect size for condom use was d = 0.259 (95% confidence interval = 0.201, 0.317; Z = 8.74, P partners, and incident sexually transmitted diseases. In addition, interventions were significantly more efficacious when they were directed at men or women (versus mixed sex groups), utilized individualized tailoring, used a Stages of Change model, and had more intervention sessions. Computer technology-based HIV prevention interventions have similar efficacy to more traditional human-delivered interventions. Given their low cost to deliver, ability to customize intervention content, and flexible dissemination channels, they hold much promise for the future of HIV prevention.
Zhou, Yuan E; Emerson, Janice S; Levine, Robert S; Kihlberg, Courtney J; Hull, Pamela C
Childcare settings are an opportune location for early intervention programs seeking to prevent childhood obesity. This article reports on a systematic review of controlled trials of obesity prevention interventions in childcare settings. The review was limited to English language articles published in PubMed, Web of Science, and Education Resources Information Center (ERIC) between January 2000 and April 2012. childhood obesity prevention interventions in childcare settings using controlled designs that reported adiposity and behavior outcomes. no interventions, non-childcare settings, clinical weight loss programs, non-English publications. Publications were identified by key word search. Two authors reviewed eligible studies to extract study information and study results. Qualitative synthesis was conducted, including tabulation of information and a narrative summary. Fifteen studies met the eligibility criteria. Seven studies reported improvements in adiposity. Six of the 13 interventions with dietary components reported improved intake or eating behaviors. Eight of the 12 interventions with physical activity components reported improved activity levels or physical fitness. Evidence was mixed for all outcomes. Results should be interpreted cautiously given the high variability in study designs and interventions. Further research needs long-term follow-up, multistrategy interventions that include changes in the nutrition and physical activity environment, reporting of cost data, and consideration of sustainability.
Fernandez, Isabel Diana; Becerra, Adan; Chin, Nancy P
Worksites provide multiple advantages to prevent and treat obesity and to test environmental interventions to tackle its multiple causal factors. We present a literature review of group-randomized and non-randomized trials that tested worksite environmental, multiple component interventions for obesity prevention and control paying particular attention to the conduct of formative research prior to intervention development. The evidence on environmental interventions on measures of obesity appears to be strong since most of the studies have a low (4/8) and unclear (2/8) risk of bias. Among the studies reviewed whose potential risk of bias was low, the magnitude of the effect was modest and sometimes in the unexpected direction. None of the four studies describing an explicit formative research stage with clear integration of findings into the intervention was able to demonstrate an effect on the main outcome of interest. We present alternative explanation for the findings and recommendations for future research.
Sharifah Intan Zainun Sharif Ishak
Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity, eating disorders and unhealthy weight-loss practices have been associated with diminished growth in adolescents worldwide. Interventions that address relevant behavioural dimensions have been lacking in Malaysia. This paper describes the protocol of an integrated health education intervention namely ‘Eat Right, Be Positive About Your Body and Live Actively’ (EPaL, a primary prevention which aimed to promote healthy lifestyle in preventing overweight and disordered eating among secondary school adolescents aged 13–14 years old. Methods/Design Following quasi-experimental design, the intervention is conducted in two secondary schools located in the district of Hulu Langat, Selangor, Malaysia. Adolescents aged 13–14 years will be included in the study. A peer-education strategy is adopted to convey knowledge and teach skills relevant to achieving a healthy lifestyle. The intervention mainly promoted: healthy eating, positive body image and active lifestyle. The following parameters will be assessed: body weight, disordered eating status, stages of change (for healthy diet, breakfast, food portion size, screen viewing and physical activity, body image, health-related quality of life, self-esteem, eating and physical activity behaviours; and knowledge, attitude and practice towards a healthy lifestyle. Assessment will be conducted at three time points: baseline, post-intervention and 3-month follow-up. Discussion It is hypothesized that EPaL intervention will contribute in preventing overweight and disordered eating by giving the positive effects on body weight status, healthy lifestyle behaviour, as well as health-related quality of life of peer educators and participants. It may serve as a model for similar future interventions designed for the Malaysian community, specifically adolescents. Trial registration UMIN Clinical Trial Registration UMIN000024349 (Date of registration: 11th. October 2016
Sharif Ishak, Sharifah Intan Zainun; Chin, Yit Siew; Mohd Taib, Mohd Nasir; Mohd Shariff, Zalilah
Obesity, eating disorders and unhealthy weight-loss practices have been associated with diminished growth in adolescents worldwide. Interventions that address relevant behavioural dimensions have been lacking in Malaysia. This paper describes the protocol of an integrated health education intervention namely 'Eat Right, Be Positive About Your Body and Live Actively' (EPaL), a primary prevention which aimed to promote healthy lifestyle in preventing overweight and disordered eating among secondary school adolescents aged 13-14 years old. Following quasi-experimental design, the intervention is conducted in two secondary schools located in the district of Hulu Langat, Selangor, Malaysia. Adolescents aged 13-14 years will be included in the study. A peer-education strategy is adopted to convey knowledge and teach skills relevant to achieving a healthy lifestyle. The intervention mainly promoted: healthy eating, positive body image and active lifestyle. The following parameters will be assessed: body weight, disordered eating status, stages of change (for healthy diet, breakfast, food portion size, screen viewing and physical activity), body image, health-related quality of life, self-esteem, eating and physical activity behaviours; and knowledge, attitude and practice towards a healthy lifestyle. Assessment will be conducted at three time points: baseline, post-intervention and 3-month follow-up. It is hypothesized that EPaL intervention will contribute in preventing overweight and disordered eating by giving the positive effects on body weight status, healthy lifestyle behaviour, as well as health-related quality of life of peer educators and participants. It may serve as a model for similar future interventions designed for the Malaysian community, specifically adolescents. UMIN Clinical Trial Registration UMIN000024349 (Date of registration: 11th. October 2016, retrospectively registered).
Cox, Georgina R; Fisher, Caroline A; De Silva, Stefanie; Phelan, Mark; Akinwale, Olaoluwa P; Simmons, Magenta B; Hetrick, Sarah E
unclear. In the majority of trials, participants were either not blind to their intervention condition, or it was unclear whether they were or not. Allocation concealment was also unclear in the majority of trials. Although all trials treated participants in an outpatient setting, the designs implemented in trials was diverse, which limits the generalisability of the results. Three trials indicated participants treated with antidepressant medication had lower relapse-recurrence rates (40.9%) compared to those treated with placebo (66.6%) during a relapse prevention phase (odds ratio (OR) 0.34; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.18 to 0.64, P = 0.02). One trial that compared a combination of psychological therapy and medication to medication alone favoured a combination approach over medication alone, however this result did not reach statistical significance (OR 0.26; 95% CI 0.06 to 1.15). The majority of trials that involved antidepressant medication reported adverse events including suicide-related behaviours. However, there were not enough data to show which treatment approach results in the most favourable adverse event profile. Currently, there is little evidence to conclude which type of treatment approach is most effective in preventing relapse or recurrence of depressive episodes in children and adolescents. Limited trials found that antidepressant medication reduces the chance of relapse-recurrence in the future, however, there is considerable diversity in the design of trials, making it difficult to compare outcomes across studies. Some of the research involving psychological therapies is encouraging, however at present more trials with larger sample sizes need to be conducted in order to explore this treatment approach further.
Pfefferbaum, Betty; Varma, Vandana; Nitiéma, Pascal; Newman, Elana
This review addresses universal disaster and terrorism services and preventive interventions delivered to children before and after an event. The article describes the organization and structure of services used to meet the needs of children in the general population (practice applications), examines screening and intervention approaches (tools for practice), and suggests future directions for the field. A literature search identified 17 empirical studies that were analyzed to examine the timing and setting of intervention delivery, providers, conditions addressed and outcomes, and intervention approaches and components. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Maiwald, Karin; de Rijk, Angelique; Guzman, Jaime; Schonstein, Eva; Yassi, Annalee
INTRODUCTION Workplace disability prevention is important, but stakeholders can differ in their appreciation of such interventions. We present a responsive evaluation of a workplace disability prevention intervention in a Canadian healthcare organization. Three groups of stakeholders were included: designers of the intervention, deliverers, and workers. The aim was to examine the appreciation of this intervention by analyzing the discrepancies with respect to what these various stakeholders see as the causes of work disability, what the intervention should aim at to address this problem, and to what extent the intervention works in practice. METHODS A qualitative research method was used, including data-triangulation: (a) documentary materials; (b) semi-structured interviews with the deliverers and workers (n = 14); (c) participatory observations of group meetings (n = 6); (d) member-checking meetings (n = 3); (e) focus-group meetings (n = 2). A grounded theory approach, including some ethnographic methodology, was used for the data-analysis. RESULTS Stakeholders' perceptions of causes for work disability differ, as do preferred strategies for prevention. Designers proposed work-directed measures to change the workplace and work organizations, and individual-directed measures to change workers' behaviour. Deliverers targeted individual-directed measures, however, workers were mostly seeking work-directed measures. To assess how the intervention was working, designers sought a wide range of outcome measures. Deliverers focused on measurable outcomes targeted at reducing work time-loss. Workers perceived that this intervention offered short-term benefits yet fell short in ensuring sustainable return-to-work. CONCLUSION This study provides understanding of where discrepancies between stakeholders' perceptions about interventions come from. Our findings have implications for workplace disability prevention intervention development, implementation and evaluation
Chandler, Rasheeta; Anstey, Erica H; Ross, Henry; Morrison-Beedy, Dianne
HIV prevention interventions can help college students engage in safe sexual behaviors. We used the Information, Motivation, Behavioral Skills model to frame four focus group discussions with Black women (n = 32) attending a historically Black college/university or a traditional university to understand their HIV prevention needs. Participants wanted clear information about sexually transmitted infections/HIV and access to contraception. Motivators for practicing safe sex were related to cultural and religious expectations, desire to avoid pregnancy, and conscious efforts to defy racial stereotypes. Barriers to practicing safe sex included issues of accountability, stigma associated with accessing HIV testing/prevention services, and media influences. We found general consensus about the need to develop skill-building HIV prevention interventions focused on communication skills, condom negotiation, access to services, and empowerment. We offer insight into culture- and age-appropriate HIV prevention for Black college women to guide the development of future interventions. Copyright © 2016 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Simón Quetzalcoatl Rodríguez-Lara
Full Text Available Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R lesions are a phenomenon that occurs in multiple pathological states and results in a series of events that end in irreparable damage that severely affects the recovery and health of patients. The principal therapeutic approaches include preconditioning, postconditioning, and remote ischemic preconditioning, which when used separately do not have a great impact on patient mortality or prognosis. Oxidative stress is known to contribute to the damage caused by I/R; however, there are no pharmacological approaches to limit or prevent this. Here, we explain the relationship between I/R and the oxidative stress process and describe some pharmacological options that may target oxidative stress-states.
Full Text Available Extra cranial carotid artery stenosis is an important cause of stroke, which often needs treatment with carotid revascularization. To prevent stroke recurrence, carotid endarterectomy (CEA has been well-established for several decades for symptomatic high and moderate grade stenosis. Carotid stenting is a less invasive alternative to CEA and several recent trials have compared the efficacy of the 2 procedures in patients with carotid stenosis. Carotid artery stenting has emerged as a potential mode of therapy for high surgical risk patients with symptomatic high-grade stenosis. This review focuses on the current data available that will enable the clinician to decide optimal treatment strategies for patients with carotid stenosis.
cell bodies that may be related to impaired axoplasmic transport and its ultimate release into the surrounding extracellular matrix , which in turn...the expression of phosphorylated neurofilament heavy chain (pNF-H Elisa Kit, Encor Biotechnology , Gainesville, FL), glial fibrillary acidic protein...samples were assessed for temporal changes in the expression of phosphorylated neurofilament heavy chain (pNF-H Elisa Kit, Encor Biotechnology
Stanger, Michael A.
The incidence of injury related to various sports is reviewed according to sport, area of injury, number of participants and hours per week spent at the sport. Organized sports accounted for fewer injuries than unsupervised recreational activities like tree climbing, skateboarding and running. The knee is the most commonly injured site. Sensitivity to patients' commitment to their sport is necessary: sometimes instead of rest, they can substitute a less hazardous form of exercise. Principles ...
Ruiz-Perez, Isabel; Murphy, Matthew; Pastor-Moreno, Guadalupe; Rojas-García, Antonio; Rodríguez-Barranco, Miguel
Surveys in the United States and Europe have shown a plateau of new HIV cases, with certain regions and populations disproportionately affected by the disease. Ethnic minority women and socioeconomically disadvantaged groups are disproportionately affected by HIV. Previous reviews have focused on prevention interventions targeting ethnic minority men who have sex with men, have not accounted for socioeconomic status, or have included only interventions carried out in clinical settings. To review and assess the effectiveness of HIV prevention interventions targeting socioeconomically disadvantaged ethnic minority women in member states of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). On March 31, 2014, we executed a search using a strategy designed for the MEDLINE (Ovid), CINAHL, Embase, Scopus, and Web of Knowledge databases. Additional searches were conducted through the Cochrane Library, CRD Databases, metaRegister of Controlled Trials, EURONHEED, CEA Registry, and the European Action Program for Health Inequities as well as in gray literature sources. No language or date restrictions were applied. We selected studies assessing the effectiveness of interventions to prevent HIV among ethnic minority women of low socioeconomic status in which at least 80% of participants were reported to belong to an ethnic minority group and to have a low income or be unemployed. We included only studies that were conducted in OECD member states and were randomized controlled trials or quasi-experimental investigations with a comparison group. A data extraction form was developed for the review and used to collect relevant information from each study. We summarized results both qualitatively and quantitatively. The main outcomes were categorized into 3 groups: improved knowledge regarding transmission of HIV, behavior changes related to HIV transmission, and reductions in the incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We then performed meta
Devi, Reena; Singh, Sally J; Powell, John; Fulton, Emily A; Igbinedion, Ewemade; Rees, Karen
The Internet could provide a means of delivering secondary prevention programmes to people with coronary heart disease (CHD). To determine the effectiveness of Internet-based interventions targeting lifestyle changes and medicines management for the secondary prevention of CHD. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, in December 2014. We also searched six other databases in October 2014, and three trials registers in January 2015 together with reference checking and handsearching to identify additional studies. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating Internet-delivered secondary prevention interventions aimed at people with CHD. Two review authors independently assessed risk of bias and extracted data according to the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. We assessed evidence quality using the GRADE approach and presented this in a 'Summary of findings' table. Eighteen trials met our inclusion criteria. Eleven studies are complete (1392 participants), and seven are ongoing. Of the completed studies, seven interventions are broad, targeting the lifestyle management of CHD, and four focused on physical activity promotion. The comparison group in trials was usual care (n = 6), minimal intervention (n = 3), or traditional cardiac rehabilitation (n = 2).We found no effects of Internet-based interventions for all-cause mortality (odds ratio (OR) 0.27, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.04 to 1.63; participants = 895; studies = 6; low-quality evidence). There was only one case of cardiovascular mortality in a control group (participants = 895; studies = 6). No incidences of non-fatal re-infarction were reported across any of the studies. We found no effects for revascularisation (OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.37 to 1.27; participants = 895; studies = 6; low-quality evidence).We found no effects for total cholesterol (mean difference (MD) 0.00, 95% CI -0.27 to 0.28; participants = 439; studies = 4; low
Vriend, Ingrid; Gouttebarge, Vincent; Finch, Caroline F; van Mechelen, Willem; Verhagen, Evert A L M
Prevention of sport injuries is crucial to maximise the health and societal benefits of a physically active lifestyle. To strengthen the translation and implementation of the available evidence base on effective preventive measures, a range of potentially relevant strategies should be considered. Our aim was to identify and categorise intervention strategies for the prevention of acute sport injuries evaluated in the scientific literature, applying the Haddon matrix, and identify potential knowledge gaps. Five electronic databases were searched (PubMed, EMBASE, SPORTDiscus, CINAHL, Cochrane) for studies that evaluated the effect of interventions on the occurrence of acute sport injuries. Studies were required to include a control group/condition, prospective data collection, and a quantitative injury outcome measure. A total of 155 studies were included, mostly randomised controlled trials (43%). The majority of studies (55%) focussed on strategies requiring a behavioural change on the part of athletes. Studies predominantly evaluated the preventive effect of various training programmes targeted at the 'pre-event' phase (n = 73) and the use of equipment to avoid injury in the 'event phase' (n = 29). A limited number of studies evaluated the preventive effect of strategies geared at rules and regulations (n = 14), and contextual modifications (n = 18). Studies specifically aimed at preventing re-injuries were a minority (n = 8), and were mostly related to ankle sprains (n = 5). Valuable insight into the extent of the evidence base of sport injury prevention studies was obtained for 20 potential intervention strategies. This approach can be used to monitor potential gaps in the knowledge base on sport injury prevention.
Laver, S M; Van Den Borne, B; Kok, G; Woelk, G
End-point evaluations are still the most commonly used method of assessing the success or failure of interventions. This article describes how a process evaluation was used to measure "what happened" during an HIV/AIDS prevention program for farm workers in Zimbabwe. The intervention was developed according to the Paulo Freirian theory of Social Change and the Ecological Model for health promotion. The stages of the intervention were cyclical; in the first stage innovative methods were used to encourage appraisal of vulnerability to HIV/AIDS through activities which raised critical thinking and dialogue. In the next phase, emphasis was placed on developing cognitive and attitude change in the target group. Self-protective behavior was encouraged through condom use and an increase in self-efficacy with respect to negotiating safe sex, especially among women. In the last stage of the intervention, efforts were made to create a climate for maintenance of behavior and socially responsible action within the community. The process evaluation provided valuable insight into factors which, when aggregated, provided an overview of a program whose successes and failures may well have been determined by issues outside the scope of the intervention. The effect of seasonal fluctuations of labor, income, and farming activity on program activity, patterns of STD, and condom demand were marked. This leads back to the researchers' initial question: "Was the intervention implemented as planned?" and the answer-only partially.
Spence, Susan H.; Shortt, Alison L.
This review examines the evidence concerning the efficacy and effectiveness of universal, school-based interventions designed to prevent the development of depression in children and adolescents. It evaluates the outcomes of research in relation to standards of evidence specified by the Society for Prevention Research (Flay et al., 2005). The…
Cintrón-Bou, Francheska; Varas-Díaz, Nelson; Marzán-Rodríguez, Melissa; Neilands, Torsten B
HIV-related stigma exists. People with HIV/AIDS have their rights violated and mental/ physical wellbeing hindered. Health professionals (HP) are a primary source of support, however these can also be sources of stigma. Therefore, it is useful to train HP on the consequences of social stigma. We implemented an intervention to reduce stigma related towards HIV/AIDS with 507 medical students. It proved to be an efficacious intervention with reduction in the levels of stigma in our intervention group and significant differences with the control group (p stigma associated with HIV / AIDS is relevant to community psychology because we collaborate in changing attitudes that can adversely affect the prevention of new infection, adherence to antiretroviral treatment and quality of life.
Pénibilité du travail en hôpital psychiatrique Orientations for the evaluation of interventions for work-related musculoskeletal disorder prevention Orientaciones para la evaluación de las intervenciones sobre prevención de lesiones músculo esqueléticas (LMS
Full Text Available L’amélioration des pratiques d’intervention constitue aujourd’hui un enjeu certain dans le champ de la prévention des Troubles Musculo-Squelettiques (TMS liés au travail. Le développement des connaissances concernant l’intervention en milieu de travail est donc un enjeu de recherche, qui convoque la thématique de l’évaluation des interventions. La recherche internationale dans le champ des TMS concentre largement ses travaux et recommandations sur l’évaluation des effets des interventions par l’évolution de l’état des symptômes des travailleurs concernés et/ou l’évolution des expositions.Dans ce texte, nous montrons tout d’abord que cette orientation suppose de réunir un certain nombre de conditions importantes, souvent difficiles à réunir et généralement sous-estimées. Nous proposons la prise en compte d’indicateurs relatifs à l’activité de travail et aux marges de manœuvre des salariés, comme critères complémentaires de l’évaluation, tout en soulignant la nécessité d’un travail à réaliser pour les rendre opérationnels.Dans un deuxième temps, nous rappelons que l’évaluation des effets de l’intervention est insuffisante au développement de connaissances sur l’intervention : celui-ci suppose nécessairement la description précise du processus de l’intervention et la prise en compte du contexte de son déroulement.Enfin, la discussion souligne le fait que, dans notre perspective, l’évaluation des interventions constitue un projet en soi, qui contribue directement à la transformation du travail.The improvement of intervention practices is today an undeniable issue in the field of work-related musculoskeletal disorder (MSD prevention. The development of knowledge about workplace interventions is therefore a research issue, which deals with the theme of intervention evaluation. International research in the MSD field focuses its work and recommendations mainly on the
Boardman, Kerry; Al-Jawad, Muna; Briggs, Louise; Kendrick, Damien
Falls are a common and important clinical problem, and with ageing populations worldwide it is important for health care professionals to learn about falls management. The multidisciplinary nature of falls teams also provides an ideal opportunity for interprofessional collaboration in teaching. In this article, we describe a pilot multidisciplinary falls assessment and prevention workshop for second-year medical students at a London medical school. An interprofessional team worked together to design and deliver this workshop. During a 90-minute clinical skills session, students rotated through medical, occupational therapy and physiotherapy areas. They worked in small groups, using brainstorming, discussion and practical exercises to learn about multiple risk factors contributing to falls, and how professionals work together in the management of patients at risk of falling. Evaluation was carried out using a combination of quantitative Likert ratings and qualitative free-text comments. The session was well received, with identified strengths and areas for improvement helping to confirm the importance of this workshop in the curriculum, and leading to improvements in the design for future sessions. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2010.
Pittas, Anastassios G
Type 2 diabetes is a chronic disease associated with significant morbidity and mortality that is increasing in prevalence worldwide. Although our current methods for treating type 2 diabetes and its complications have improved, prevention of the disease is preferable, Epidemiologic data suggest that most cases of type 2 diabetes could be attributed to habits and forms of modifiable behavior. Recent evidence from randomized controlled trials has confirmed that lifestyle plays a central role in diabetes prevention. However, the optimal prevention strategy remains to be determined. This review presents the evidence for dietary components that may modify diabetes risk and suggests nutritional interventions that may be of benefit in preventing the disease.
Choi, Sang D; Guo, Liangjie; Kang, Donghun; Xiong, Shuping
Training balance and promoting physical activities in the elderly can contribute to fall-prevention. Due to the low adherence of conventional physical therapy, fall interventions through exergame technologies are emerging. The purpose of this review study is to synthesize the available research reported on exergame technology and interactive interventions for fall prevention in the older population. Twenty-five relevant papers retrieved from five major databases were critically reviewed and analyzed. Results showed that the most common exergaming device for fall intervention was Nintendo Wii, followed by Xbox Kinect. Even though the exergame intervention protocols and outcome measures for assessing intervention effectiveness varied, the accumulated evidences revealed that exergame interventions improved physical or cognitive functions in the elderly. However, it remains inconclusive whether or not the exergame-based intervention for the elderly fall prevention is superior to conventional physical therapy and the effect mechanism of the exergaming on elderly's balance ability is still unclear. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kim, Min Jeong; Sung, Eunju; Choi, Eun Young; Ju, Young-Su; Park, Eal-Whan; Cheong, Yoo-Seock; Yoo, Sunmi; Park, Kyung Hee; Choi, Hyung Jin; Kim, Seolhye
The prevalence of childhood obesity in South Korea has increased owing to economic improvement and the prevailing Westernized dietary pattern. As the incidence of chronic diseases caused by obesity is also expected to increase, effective interventions to prevent childhood obesity are needed. Therefore, we conducted a Delphi study to determine the priorities of a potential intervention research on childhood obesity prevention and its adequacy and feasibility. The two-round Delphi technique was used with a panel of 10 childhood obesity experts. The panelists were asked to rate "priority populations," "methods of intervention," "measurement of outcomes," "future intervention settings," and "duration of intervention" by using a structured questionnaire. Finally, a portfolio analysis was performed with the adequacy and feasibility indexes as the two axes. For priority populations, the panel favored "elementary," "preschool," and "middle and high school" students in this order. Regarding intervention settings, the panelists assigned high adequacy and feasibility to "childcare centers" and "home" for preschool children, "school" and "home" for elementary school children, and "school" for adolescents in middle and high school. As the age of the target population increased, the panelists scored increasing numbers of anthropometric, clinical, and intermediate outcomes as highly adequate and feasible for assessing the effectiveness of the intervention. According to the results of the Delphi survey, the highest-priority population for the research on childhood obesity prevention was that of elementary school students. Various settings, methods, outcome measures, and durations for the different age groups were also suggested.
Bastos, Maria Helena; Furuta, Marie; Small, Rhonda; McKenzie-McHarg, Kirstie; Bick, Debra
Childbirth is a complex life event that can be associated with both positive and negative psychological responses. When giving birth is experienced as particularly traumatic this can have a negative impact on a woman's postnatal emotional well-being. There has been an increasing focus on women's psychological trauma symptoms following childbirth, including the relatively rare phenomenon of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and the benefit of debriefing interventions to prevent this. In this review we examined the evidence for debriefing as a preventative intervention for psychological trauma following childbirth. To assess the effects of debriefing interventions compared with standard postnatal care for the prevention of psychological trauma in women following childbirth. The trials registers of the Cochrane Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Group (CCDANCTR-References and CCDANCTR-Studies) and the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group were searched up to 4 March 2015. These registers include relevant randomised controlled trials from the following bibliographic databases: the Cochrane Library (all years to date), MEDLINE (1950 to date), EMBASE (1974 to date), and PsycINFO (1967 to date). Additional searches were conducted in CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and Maternity and Infant Care. The reference lists of all included studies were checked for additional published reports and citations of unpublished research. Experts in the field were contacted. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-randomised trials comparing postnatal debriefing interventions with standard postnatal care for the prevention of psychological trauma of women following childbirth. The intervention consisted of at least one debriefing intervention session, which had the purpose of allowing women to describe their experience and to normalise their emotional reaction to that experience. Three authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Meta
Ettema, Roelof G A; Van Koeven, Heleen; Peelen, Linda M; Kalkman, Cor J; Schuurmans, Marieke J
The literature on postoperative complications in cardiac surgery patients shows high incidences of postoperative complications such as delirium, depression, pressure ulcer, infection, pulmonary complications and atrial fibrillation. These complications are associated with functional and cognitive decline and a decrease in the quality of life after discharge. Several studies attempted to prevent one or more postoperative complications by preoperative interventions. Here we provide a comprehensive overview of both single and multiple component preadmission interventions designed to prevent postoperative complications. We systematically reviewed the literature following the PRISMA statement guidelines. Of 1335 initial citations, 31 were subjected to critical appraisal. Finally, 23 studies were included, of which we derived a list of interventions that can be applied in the preadmission period to effectively reduce postoperative depression, infection, pulmonary complications, atrial fibrillation, prolonged intensive care unit stay and hospital stay in older elective cardiac surgery patients. No high quality studies were found describing effective interventions to prevent postoperative delirium. We did not find studies specifically targeting the prevention of pressure ulcers in this patient population. Multi-component approaches that include different single interventions have the strongest effect in preventing postoperative depression, pulmonary complications, prolonged intensive care unit stay and hospital stay. Postoperative infection can be best prevented by disinfection with chlorhexidine combined with immune-enhancing nutritional supplements. Atrial fibrillation might be prevented by ingestion of N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. High quality studies are urgently needed to evaluate preadmission preventive strategies to reduce postoperative delirium or pressure ulcers in older elective cardiac surgery patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Liu, Zhenmi; Dumville, Jo C; Norman, Gill; Westby, Maggie J; Blazeby, Jane; McFarlane, Emma; Welton, Nicky J; O'Connor, Louise; Cawthorne, Julie; George, Ryan P; Crosbie, Emma J; Rithalia, Amber D; Cheng, Hung-Yuan
treatment (17 trials, 7843 participants; RR 0.67, 95% CI 0.54 to 0.84; moderate-certainty evidence; downgraded once for risk of bias - assessed by overview authors); (5) There is currently no clear difference in the risk of SSI between iodine-impregnated adhesive drapes compared with no adhesive drapes (2 trials, 1113 participants; RR 1.03, 95% CI 0.66 to 1.60; moderate-certainty evidence; downgraded once for imprecision - assessed by review authors); (6) There is currently no clear difference in SSI risk between short-term compared with long-term duration antibiotics in colorectal surgery (7 trials; 1484 participants; RR 1.05 95% CI 0.78 to 1.40; moderate-certainty evidence; downgraded once for imprecision - assessed by overview authors). There was only one comparison showing negative effects associated with the intervention: adhesive drapes increase the risk of SSI compared with no drapes (5 trials; 3082 participants; RR 1.23, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.48; high-certainty evidence - rated by review authors). This overview provides the most up-to-date evidence on use of intraoperative treatments for the prevention of SSIs from all currently published Cochrane Reviews. There is evidence that some interventions are useful in reducing SSI risk for people undergoing surgery, such as antibiotic prophylaxis for caesarean section and hernia repair, and also the timing of prophylactic intravenous antibiotics administered before caesarean incision. Also, there is evidence that adhesive drapes increase SSI risk. Evidence for the many other treatment choices is largely of low or very low certainty and no quality-of-life or cost-effectiveness data were reported. Future trials should elucidate the relative effects of some treatments. These studies should focus on increasing participant numbers, using robust methodology and being of sufficient duration to adequately assess SSI. Assessment of other outcomes such as mortality might also be investigated as part of non-experimental prospective follow
Chithambo, Taona P; Huey, Stanley J
The current study evaluated two web-based programs for eating disorder prevention in high-risk, predominantly ethnic minority women. Two hundred and seventy-one women with elevated weight concerns were randomized to Internet dissonance-based intervention (DBI-I), Internet cognitive-behavioral intervention (CBI-I), or no intervention (NI). Both interventions consisted of four weekly online sessions. Participants were assessed at pre- and post intervention. Outcome measures included eating pathology, body dissatisfaction, dieting, thin-ideal internalization, and depression. At postintervention, DBI-I and CBI-I led to greater reductions in body dissatisfaction, thin-ideal internalization, and depression than NI. In addition, CBI-I was effective at reducing dieting and composite eating pathology relative to NI. No outcome differences were found between the active conditions. Moderation analyses suggested that both active conditions were more effective for ethnic minorities than Whites relative to NI. Results suggest that both DBI-I and CBI-I are effective at reducing eating disorder risk factors in a high-risk, predominantly minority population relative to no intervention. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Thangaratinam, S; Rogozińska, E; Jolly, K; Glinkowski, S; Duda, W; Borowiack, E; Roseboom, T; Tomlinson, J; Walczak, J; Kunz, R; Mol, B W; Coomarasamy, A; Khan, K S
Around 50% of women of childbearing age are either overweight [body mass index (BMI) 25-29.9 kg/m(2)] or obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)). The antenatal period provides an opportunity to manage weight in pregnancy. This has the potential to reduce maternal and fetal complications associated with excess weight gain and obesity. To evaluate the effectiveness of dietary and lifestyle interventions in reducing or preventing obesity in pregnancy and to assess the beneficial and adverse effects of the interventions on obstetric, fetal and neonatal outcomes. Major electronic databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, BIOSIS and Science Citation Index were searched (1950 until March 2011) to identify relevant citations. Language restrictions were not applied. Systematic reviews of the effectiveness and harm of the interventions were carried out using a methodology in line with current recommendations. Studies that evaluated any dietary, physical activity or mixed approach intervention with the potential to influence weight change in pregnancy were included. The quality of the studies was assessed using accepted contemporary standards. Results were summarised as pooled relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for dichotomous data. Continuous data were summarised as mean difference (MD) with standard deviation. The quality of the overall evidence synthesised for each outcome was summarised using GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) methodology and reported graphically as a two-dimensional chart. A total of 88 studies (40 randomised and 48 non-randomised and observational studies, involving 182,139 women) evaluated the effect of weight management interventions in pregnancy on maternal and fetal outcomes. Twenty-six studies involving 468,858 women reported the adverse effect of the interventions. Meta-analysis of 30 RCTs (4503 women) showed a reduction in weight gain in the intervention group of 0.97 kg compared with the control group
Matthey, Stephen; Kavanagh, David J; Howie, Pauline; Barnett, Bryanne; Charles, Margaret
control conditions. There were no main or interaction effects by 6 months postpartum. The beneficial effect at 6 weeks was related to partners of these women being more aware of how the mother was feeling, and with women reporting greater satisfaction with the sharing of home and baby tasks. There were no significant main or interaction effects for men at either time point, other than men with low self-esteem reporting poorer adjustment. This brief and inexpensive intervention was effective in reducing postpartum distress in some first-time mothers at 6 weeks postpartum. The effectiveness of this intervention was related to an increased level of awareness in the men as to how their partners were experiencing the early postpartum weeks. That the effect was only evident for women who, antenatally, reported being low in self-esteem, is an important advance in our knowledge of the effectiveness of such prevention programs. No previous studies have investigated the differential effectiveness of such programs depending upon the woman's level of self-esteem, and this finding indicates that future work should measure this variable. These findings should be understood in the context that the population sampled were those attending preparation for parenthood classes, and thus different interventions will be needed for couples who do not attend such classes. This brief psychosocial intervention can be readily applied to antenatal classes routinely conducted in hospitals or the community.
Black, Beverly M.; Hawley, Alicia; Hoefer, Richard; Barnett, Tracey M.
The Children's Safety Network has identified teenage dating violence (TDV) as a public health problem and called for effective prevention programs to address the issue. This study used resource dependence theory to examine factors that relate to domestic violence shelters' in-school efforts to prevent TDV. A national survey was sent to domestic…
Badawy, Sherif M; Kuhns, Lisa M
Many preventable behaviors contribute to adolescent mortality and morbidity. Non-adherence to preventive measures represents a challenge and has been associated with worse health outcomes in this population. The widespread use of electronic communication technologies by adolescents, particularly the use of text messaging (short message service, SMS) and mobile phones, presents new opportunities to intervene on risk and preventive risk behavior, but little is known about their efficacy. This study aimed to systematically evaluate evidence for the efficacy of text messaging and mobile phone app interventions to improve adherence to preventive behavior among adolescents and describe intervention approaches to inform intervention development. This review covers literature published between 1995 and 2015. Searches included PubMed, Embase, CENTRAL, PsycINFO, CINAHL, INSPEC, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and additional databases. The search strategy sought articles on text messaging and mobile phone apps combined with adherence or compliance, and adolescents and youth. An additional hand search of related themes in the Journal of Medical Internet Research was also conducted. Two reviewers independently screened titles and abstracts, assessed full-text articles, and extracted data from articles that met inclusion criteria. Included studies reflect original research-experimental or preexperimental designs with text messaging or mobile phone app interventions-targeting adherence to preventive behavior among adolescents (12-24 years old). The preferred reporting items of systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed for reporting results, and findings were critically appraised against the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine criteria. Of 1454 records, 19 met inclusion criteria, including text messaging (n=15) and mobile phone apps (n=4). Studies targeted clinic attendance, contraceptive use, oral health, physical activity and weight management
Shih, Sophy T.F.; Davis-Lameloise, Nathalie; Janus, Edward D.
Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as glucose intolerance with its onset or first recognition during pregnancy. Post-GDM women have a life-time risk exceeding 70% of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Lifestyle modifications reduce the incidence of T2DM by up to 58......% for high-risk individuals. Methods/Design: The Mothers After Gestational Diabetes in Australia Diabetes Prevention Program (MAGDA-DPP) is a randomized controlled trial aiming to assess the effectiveness of a structured diabetes prevention intervention for post-GDM women. This trial has an intervention...... group participating in a diabetes prevention program (DPP), and a control group receiving usual care from their general practitioners during the same time period. The 12-month intervention comprises an individual session followed by five group sessions at two-week intervals, and two follow-up telephone...
Nathanielsz, Peter W; Ford, Stephen P; Long, Nathan M; Vega, Claudia C; Reyes-Castro, Luis A; Zambrano, Elena
Maternal obesity is a global epidemic affecting both developed and developing countries. Human and animal studies indicate that maternal obesity adversely programs the development of offspring, predisposing them to chronic diseases later in life. Several mechanisms act together to produce these adverse health effects. There is a consequent need for effective interventions that can be used in the management of human pregnancy to prevent these outcomes. The present review analyzes the dietary and exercise intervention studies performed to date in both altricial and precocial animals, rats and sheep, with the aim of preventing adverse offspring outcomes. The results of these interventions present exciting opportunities to prevent, at least in part, adverse metabolic and other outcomes in obese mothers and their offspring. © 2013 International Life Sciences Institute.
Martin, William Hal; Griest, Susan E; Sobel, Judith L; Howarth, Linda C
To evaluate the effectiveness of four NIHL prevention interventions at improving knowledge, attitudes, and intended behaviors regarding sound exposure and appropriate use of hearing protective strategies in children. A randomized trial of the four interventions with a non-intervention comparison group. Questionnaires were completed prior to, immediately after, and three months after each intervention. Interventions included: (1) A classroom presentation by older-peer educators, (2) A classroom presentation by health professionals, (3). Exploration of a museum exhibition, and (4). Exploration of an internet-based virtual museum. A comparison group received no intervention. Fifty-three fourth grade classrooms (1120 students) participated in the study. All interventions produced significant improvements but the number of improvements decreased over time. In terms of effectiveness, the classroom programs were more effective than the internet-based virtual exhibit, which was more effective than the visit to the museum exhibition. Self-reported exposures indicated that as many as 94.5% of participants were at risk for NIHL. Interpersonal, interactive educational interventions such as the classroom program are more effective and have longer impact than self-directed learning experiences for NIHL and tinnitus prevention, however each may have an important role in promoting hearing health in elementary school students.
Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the effectiveness of a 12-month multicomponent obesity prevention intervention. Setting. 9 elementary schools in Santiago, Chile. Subjects. 6–8 y old low-income children (N=1474. Design. Randomized controlled study; 5 intervention/4 control schools. We trained teachers to deliver nutrition contents and improve the quality of PE classes. We determined % healthy snacks brought from home, children’s nutrition knowledge, nutritional status, duration of PE classes, and % time in moderate/vigorous activity (MVA. Effectiveness was determined by comparing Δ BMI Z between intervention and control children using PROCMIXED. Results. % obesity increased in boys from both types of schools and in girls from control schools, while decreasing in girls from intervention schools (all nonsignificant. % class time in MVA declined (24.5–16.2 while remaining unchanged (24.8–23.7% in classes conducted by untrained and trained teachers, respectively. In boys, BMI Z declined (1.33–1.24 and increased (1.22–1.35 in intervention and control schools, respectively. In girls, BMI Z remained unchanged in intervention schools, while increasing significantly in control schools (0.91–1.06, P=0.024. Interaction group * time was significant for boys (P<0.0001 and girls (P=0.004. Conclusions. This intervention was effective in controlling obesity, but not preventing it. Even though impact was small, results showed that when no intervention is implemented, obesity increases.
Lauridsen, Susanne Vahr; Thomsen, Thordis; Kaldan, Gudrun
BACKGROUND: Despite smoking and risky alcohol drinking being modifiable risk factors for cancer as well as postoperative complications, perioperative cessation counselling is often ignored. Little is known about how cancer patients experience smoking and alcohol interventions in relation to surgery....... Therefore the aim of this study was to explore how bladder cancer patients experience a perioperative smoking and alcohol cessation intervention in relation to radical cystectomy. METHODS: A qualitative study was conducted in two urology out-patient clinics. We conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews...... with 11 purposively sampled persons who had received the smoking and alcohol cessation intervention. The analysis followed the steps contained in the thematic network analysis. RESULTS: Two global themes emerged: "smoking and alcohol cessation was experienced as an integral part of bladder cancer surgery...
Mangion, Kenneth; Carrick, David; Hennigan, Barry W; Payne, Alexander R; McClure, John; Mason, Maureen; Das, Rajiv; Wilson, Rebecca; Edwards, Richard J; Petrie, Mark C; McEntegart, Margaret; Eteiba, Hany; Oldroyd, Keith G; Berry, Colin
Objective We hypothesised that, compared with culprit-only primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), additional preventive PCI in selected patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction with multivessel disease would not be associated with iatrogenic myocardial infarction, and would be associated with reductions in left ventricular (LV) volumes in the longer term. Methods In the preventive angioplasty in myocardial infarction trial (PRAMI; ISRCTN73028481), cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) was prespecified in two centres and performed (median, IQR) 3 (1, 5) and 209 (189, 957) days after primary PCI. Results From 219 enrolled patients in two sites, 84% underwent CMR. 42 (50%) were randomised to culprit-artery-only PCI and 42 (50%) were randomised to preventive PCI. Follow-up CMR scans were available in 72 (86%) patients. There were two (4.8%) cases of procedure-related myocardial infarction in the preventive PCI group. The culprit-artery-only group had a higher proportion of anterior myocardial infarctions (MIs) (55% vs 24%). Infarct sizes (% LV mass) at baseline and follow-up were similar. At follow-up, there was no difference in LV ejection fraction (%, median (IQR), (culprit-artery-only PCI vs preventive PCI) 51.7 (42.9, 60.2) vs 54.4 (49.3, 62.8), p=0.23), LV end-diastolic volume (mL/m2, 69.3 (59.4, 79.9) vs 66.1 (54.7, 73.7), p=0.48) and LV end-systolic volume (mL/m2, 31.8 (24.4, 43.0) vs 30.7 (23.0, 36.3), p=0.20). Non-culprit angiographic lesions had low-risk Syntax scores and 47% had non-complex characteristics. Conclusions Compared with culprit-only PCI, non-infarct-artery MI in the preventive PCI strategy was uncommon and LV volumes and ejection fraction were similar. PMID:27504003
Branscum, Paul; Sharma, Manoj
The purpose of this article was to review primary prevention interventions targeting childhood obesity implemented in the after school environment from 2006 and 2011. A total of 20 interventions were found from 25 studies. Children in the interventions ranged from kindergarten to middle schoolers, however a majority was in the 4th and 5th grades. Most of the interventions targeted both physical activity and dietary behaviors. Among those that focused on only one dimension, physical activity was targeted more than diet. The duration of the interventions greatly varied, but many were short-term or brief. Many interventions were also based on some behavioral theory, with social cognitive theory as the most widely used. Most of the interventions focused on short-term changes, and rarely did any perform a follow-up evaluation. A major limitation among after school interventions was an inadequate use of process evaluations. Overall, interventions resulted in modest changes in behaviors and behavioral antecedents, and results were mixed and generally unfavorable with regards to indicators of obesity. Recommendations for enhancing the effectiveness of after school based childhood obesity interventions are presented.
Full Text Available The purpose of this article was to review primary prevention interventions targeting childhood obesity implemented in the after school environment from 2006 and 2011. A total of 20 interventions were found from 25 studies. Children in the interventions ranged from kindergarten to middle schoolers, however a majority was in the 4th and 5th grades. Most of the interventions targeted both physical activity and dietary behaviors. Among those that focused on only one dimension, physical activity was targeted more than diet. The duration of the interventions greatly varied, but many were short-term or brief. Many interventions were also based on some behavioral theory, with social cognitive theory as the most widely used. Most of the interventions focused on short-term changes, and rarely did any perform a follow-up evaluation. A major limitation among after school interventions was an inadequate use of process evaluations. Overall, interventions resulted in modest changes in behaviors and behavioral antecedents, and results were mixed and generally unfavorable with regards to indicators of obesity. Recommendations for enhancing the effectiveness of after school based childhood obesity interventions are presented.
Prado, Guillermo; Huang, Shi; Cordova, David; Malcolm, Shandey; Estrada, Yannine; Cano, Nicole; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred; Bacio, Guadalupe; Rosen, Alexa; Pantin, Hilda; Brown, C. Hendricks
Hispanic adolescents are disproportionately affected by externalizing disorders, substance use and HIV infection. Despite these health inequities, few interventions have been found to be efficacious for this population, and even fewer studies have examined whether the effects of such interventions vary as a function of ecodevelopmental and intrapersonal risk subgroups. The aim of this study was to determine whether and to what extent the effects of Familias Unidas, an evidence-based preventive intervention, vary by ecodevelopmental and intrapersonal risk subgroups. Data from 213 Hispanic adolescents (mean age = 13.8, SD = 0.76) who were enrolled in a randomized clinical trial evaluating the relative efficacy of Familias Unidas on externalizing disorders, substance use, and unprotected sexual behavior were analyzed. The results showed that Familias Unidas was efficacious over time, in terms of both externalizing disorders and substance use, for Hispanic youth with high family ecodevelopmental risk (e.g., poor parent-adolescent communication), but not with youth with moderate ecodevelopmental or low ecodevelopmental risk. The results suggest that classifying adolescents based on their family ecodevelopmental risk may be an especially effective strategy for examining moderators of family-based preventive interventions such as Familias Unidas. Moreover, these results suggest that Familias Unidas should potentially be targeted towards youth with high family ecodevelopmental risk. The utility of the methods presented in this article to other prevention scientists, including genetic, neurobiological and environmental scientists, is discussed. PMID:23408280
Ash, Tayla; Agaronov, Alen; Young, Ta'Loria; Aftosmes-Tobio, Alyssa; Davison, Kirsten K
A wide range of interventions has been implemented and tested to prevent obesity in children. Given parents' influence and control over children's energy-balance behaviors, including diet, physical activity, media use, and sleep, family interventions are a key strategy in this effort. The objective of this study was to profile the field of recent family-based childhood obesity prevention interventions by employing systematic review and quantitative content analysis methods to identify gaps in the knowledge base. Using a comprehensive search strategy, we searched the PubMed, PsycIFO, and CINAHL databases to identify eligible interventions aimed at preventing childhood obesity with an active family component published between 2008 and 2015. Characteristics of study design, behavioral domains targeted, and sample demographics were extracted from eligible articles using a comprehensive codebook. More than 90% of the 119 eligible interventions were based in the United States, Europe, or Australia. Most interventions targeted children 2-5 years of age (43%) or 6-10 years of age (35%), with few studies targeting the prenatal period (8%) or children 14-17 years of age (7%). The home (28%), primary health care (27%), and community (33%) were the most common intervention settings. Diet (90%) and physical activity (82%) were more frequently targeted in interventions than media use (55%) and sleep (20%). Only 16% of interventions targeted all four behavioral domains. In addition to studies in developing countries, racial minorities and non-traditional families were also underrepresented. Hispanic/Latino and families of low socioeconomic status were highly represented. The limited number of interventions targeting diverse populations and obesity risk behaviors beyond diet and physical activity inhibit the development of comprehensive, tailored interventions. To ensure a broad evidence base, more interventions implemented in developing countries and targeting racial
Davoudi-Kiakalayeh, Ali; Mohammadi, Reza; Yousefzadeh-Chabok, Shahrokh
Background Drowning is a serious but neglected health problem in low-and middle-income countries. Objectives To describe the effectiveness of drowning prevention program on the reduction of drowning mortality rates in rural settings at the north of Iran, and guide its replication elsewhere. Patients and Methods This interventional design included pre- and post-intervention observations in the rural area of the Caspian Sea coastline without a comparison community. Cross-sectional data were col...
Jalilian, Farzad; Allahverdipour, Hamid; Moeini, Babak; Moghimbeigi, Abbas
Background: Use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has been associated with adversephysical and psychiatric effects and it is known as rising problem among youth people. Thisstudy was conducted to evaluate anabolic steroids preventative intervention efficiency amonggym users in Iran and theory of planned behaviour was applied as theoretical framework.Methods: Overall, 120 male gym users participated in this study as intervention and controlgroup. This was a longitudinal randomized pretest ...
Opsahl, Angela G; Ebright, Patricia; Cangany, Marty; Lowder, Melissa; Scott, Dawn; Shaner, Tamara
Nurses strive to reduce risk and ensure patient safety from falls in health care systems. Patients and their families are able to take a more active role in reducing falls. The focus of this article is on the use of bundled fall prevention interventions highlighted by a patient/family engagement educational video. The implementation of this quality improvement intervention across 2 different patient populations was successful in achieving unit benchmarks.
Cremers, Henricus-Paul; Mercken, Liesbeth; Crutzen, Rik; Willems, Paul; de Vries, Hein; Oenema, Anke
Improving the use (eg, initial visit and revisits) of Internet-delivered interventions to promote healthy lifestyles such as non-smoking is one of the largest challenges in the field of eHealth. Prompts have shown to be effective in stimulating reuse of Internet-delivered interventions among adults and adolescents. However, evidence concerning effectiveness of prompts to promote reuse of a website among children is still scarce. The aim of this study is to investigate (1) whether prompts are effective in promoting reuse of an intervention website containing information on smoking prevention for children, (2) whether the content of the prompt is associated with its effect in terms of reuse, and (3) whether there are differences between children who do or do not respond to prompts. The sample of this cluster-randomized study consisted of 1124 children (aged 10-11 years) from 108 Dutch primary schools, who were assigned to the experimental group of an Internet-delivered smoking prevention intervention study. All participants completed a Web-based questionnaire on factors related to (non-)smoking. Schools were randomized to a no-prompt group (n=50) or a prompt group (n=58). All children could revisit the intervention website, but only the children in the prompt group received email and SMS prompts to revisit the website. Those prompt messages functioned as a teaser to stimulate reuse of the intervention website. Reuse of the website was objectively tracked by means of a server registration system. Repeated measures analysis of variance and linear regression analysis were performed to assess the effects of prompts on website reuse and to identify individual characteristics of participants who reuse the intervention website. Children in the prompt group reused the intervention website significantly more often compared to children in the no-prompt group (B=1.56, Pchildren with a low socioeconomic status (SES) reused the intervention website more often (B=2.19, Pchildren
Bérubé, Mélanie; Gélinas, Céline; Choinière, Manon; Feeley, Nancy; Martorella, Géraldine; Parent, Stefan; Streiner, David L
Numerous psychological risk and protective factors have been identified as contributing to or preventing the development of the prevalent issue of chronic pain. Systematic reviews of studies on psychological interventions that tackle these factors have shown limited effects on chronic pain. Therefore, implementing psychological interventions before pain becomes chronic has been put forward. However, the efficacy of such interventions in preventing the transition from acute to chronic pain has not yet been systematically assessed. The aims of this systematic review are to assess the effects of psychological interventions applied in the acute pain phase on pain severity as well as on physical, psychological, and social functions at 3 months and beyond. Randomized controlled trials including psychological intervention as a treatment of primary interest and participants with pain of less than 3 months duration will be considered. The following comparisons will be undertaken: psychological interventions with (1) standard treatment, (2) information, (3) waiting-list, and (4) active treatment. The primary outcome will be pain severity using indicators such the presence or absence of pain and self-report measures such as the numeric pain intensity rating scale. Secondary outcomes will include pain-related disability, mood, coping with pain, quality of life, health care utilization, and work capability. A systematic review of English and French articles in MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials will be conducted without date restriction. Extracted data will include demographics and clinical characteristics, sample size, intervention and control group types, assessment tools used, time interval of measurement, fidelity of the intervention, and attrition rate. Standardized mean differences (SMD) and risk ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CI) will be used to assess treatment effects. This systematic review is the first
Sharp, Veronica; Giorgi, Sara; Wilson, David C
This paper presents one strand of the findings from a comprehensive synthesis review of policy-relevant evidence on household waste prevention. Understanding what is achievable in terms of local household waste prevention intervention campaigns enables policy makers, local authorities and practitioners to identify optimum approaches to deliver effective behaviour change. The results of the evidence have been assembled and are discussed in two contexts: (1) the delivery of intervention campaigns as a package of measures used to 'enable', 'engage' and 'encourage' householders to change their behaviour; and (2) the impact of local household waste prevention intervention campaigns in terms of tonnage data. Waste prevention measures adopted include home composting, reducing food waste, smart shopping, donating items for reuse, small changes in the home, reducing junk mail and using cloth/reusable nappies. In terms of diverting biodegradable municipal waste from landfill, the biggest impacts can be attributed to food waste prevention (1.5 kg household(- 1) week(-1)) and home composting (2.9 kg household( -1) week(-1)). Projects providing a package of other waste prevention interventions have shown a very wide range of impacts: a broad indication is that such a package could achieve around 0.5 to 1 kg household(-1) week(- 1) reduction at source. Disaggregating which waste prevention measures influenced uptake is generally not possible, but the evidence suggests that this does not matter: behaviour change has been supported by integrating a range of intervention tools and campaign promotions which have made a collective rather than isolated difference: it is a collection and an accumulation of measures that will have impact.
Hanefeld, Johanna; Bond, Virginia; Seeley, Janet; Lees, Shelley; Desmond, Nicola
Increasing attention is being paid to the potential of anti-retroviral treatment (ART) for HIV prevention. The possibility of eliminating HIV from a population through a universal test and treat intervention, where all people within a population are tested for HIV and all positive people immediately initiated on ART, as part of a wider prevention intervention, was first proposed in 2009. Several clinical trials testing this idea are now in inception phase. An intervention which relies on universally testing the entire population for HIV will pose challenges to human rights, including obtaining genuine consent to testing and treatment. It also requires a context in which people can live free from fear of stigma, discrimination and violence, and can access services they require. These challenges are distinct from the field of medical ethics which has traditionally governed clinical trials and focuses primarily on patient researcher relationship. This paper sets out the potential impact of a population wide treatment as prevention intervention on human rights. It identifies five human right principles of particular relevance: participation, accountability, the right to health, non-discrimination and equality, and consent and confidentiality. The paper proposes that explicit attention to human rights can strengthen a treatment as prevention intervention, contribute to mediating likely health systems challenges and offer insights on how to reach all sections of the population. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Werb, Dan; Buxton, Jane; Shoveller, Jeannie; Richardson, Chris; Rowell, Greg; Wood, Evan
Injection drug use has been identified as a key source of morbidity and mortality, primarily from overdose and the transmission of blood-borne diseases such as HIV. Experts have therefore called for the prioritization of resources toward the prevention of injection drug use. However, these strategies have not been systematically assessed. PRISMA guidelines were used to systematically review and extract findings from the peer-reviewed literature evaluating the effectiveness of interventions to prevent injecting initiation. We searched 10 English language electronic databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, Cochrane CENTRAL, CINAHL, Web of Science, TOXNET, AIDSLINE, AMED and ERIC), the Internet (Google, Google Scholar), and article reference lists, from database inception to June 1st, 2012. Overall, out of 384 studies identified in the initial search, eight met the inclusion criteria. Studies evaluated four different types of interventions: social marketing, peer-based behavior modification, treatment, and drug law enforcement. Four studies observed a significant effect of the intervention on reducing rates of injecting initiation. Peer-based behavior modification and addiction treatment interventions were found to be most effective. Two of three studies assessing the impact of drug law enforcement on patterns of injecting initiation found no impact on injecting initiation, while one study reported inconclusive results. There exists a limited scientific literature on strategies to prevent injecting initiation. Resources should be allocated toward increased research and development of effective interventions to prevent this phenomenon. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Perry, Jennifer L; Joseph, Jane E; Jiang, Yang; Zimmerman, Rick S; Kelly, Thomas H; Darna, Mahesh; Huettl, Peter; Dwoskin, Linda P; Bardo, Michael T
Vulnerability to drug abuse is related to both reward seeking and impulsivity, two constructs thought to have a biological basis in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). This review addresses similarities and differences in neuroanatomy, neurochemistry and behavior associated with PFC function in rodents and humans. Emphasis is placed on monoamine and amino acid neurotransmitter systems located in anatomically distinct subregions: medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC); lateral prefrontal cortex (lPFC); anterior cingulate cortex (ACC); and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). While there are complex interconnections and overlapping functions among these regions, each is thought to be involved in various functions related to health-related risk behaviors and drug abuse vulnerability. Among the various functions implicated, evidence suggests that mPFC is involved in reward processing, attention and drug reinstatement; lPFC is involved in decision-making, behavioral inhibition and attentional gating; ACC is involved in attention, emotional processing and self-monitoring; and OFC is involved in behavioral inhibition, signaling of expected outcomes and reward/punishment sensitivity. Individual differences (e.g., age and sex) influence functioning of these regions, which, in turn, impacts drug abuse vulnerability. Implications for the development of drug abuse prevention and treatment strategies aimed at engaging PFC inhibitory processes that may reduce risk-related behaviors are discussed, including the design of effective public service announcements, cognitive exercises, physical activity, direct current stimulation, feedback control training and pharmacotherapies. A major challenge in drug abuse prevention and treatment rests with improving intervention strategies aimed at strengthening PFC inhibitory systems among at-risk individuals. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Preventing Heat-related Illness or Death of Outdoor Workers Summary Outdoor workers in agricul- ture, construction, and other industries ... a great deal of exertional and environ- mental heat stress that may lead to severe illness or ...
Nutrient intake and dietary changes during a 2-year multi-domain lifestyle intervention among older adults: secondary analysis of the Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER) randomised controlled trial.
Lehtisalo, Jenni; Ngandu, Tiia; Valve, Päivi; Antikainen, Riitta; Laatikainen, Tiina; Strandberg, Timo; Soininen, Hilkka; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Kivipelto, Miia; Lindström, Jaana
Advancing age increases the risk for diseases and health concerns like cognitive decline, constituting a major public health challenge. Lifestyle, especially healthy diet, affects many risk factors related to chronic diseases, and thus lifestyle interventions among older adults may be beneficial in promoting successful ageing. We completed a randomised 2-year multi-domain lifestyle intervention trial aiming at prevention of cognitive decline among 631 participants in the intervention and 629 in the control group, aged 60-77 years at baseline. Dietary counselling was one of the intervention domains together with strength exercise, cognitive training and management of CVD risk factors. The aim of this paper was to describe success of the intervention - that is, how an intervention based on national dietary recommendations affected dietary habits as a part of multi-intervention. Composite dietary intervention adherence score comprising nine distinct goals (range 0-9 points from none to achieving all goals) was 5·0 at baseline, and increased in the intervention group after the 1st (Pintervention group during the 2 years. Well-targeted dietary counselling may prevent age-related decline in diet quality and help in preventing cognitive decline.
Kutcher, Stan; Wei, Yifeng; Behzadi, Pegah
Suicide in young people is a significant health concern, with numerous community- and school-based interventions promising to prevent suicide currently being applied across Canada. Before widespread application of any one of these, it is essential to determine its effectiveness and safety. We systematically reviewed the global literature on one of the most common community suicide prevention interventions in Canada and summarized data on 2 commonly applied school-based suicide prevention programmes. None of these has demonstrated effectiveness in preventing youth suicide or safety in application. Concurrently with their widespread distribution in Canada, the suicide rate in young women has increased-the first time in over 3 decades. Policy and regulatory implications of these findings are discussed.
Senore, Carlo; Giordano, Livia; Bellisario, Cristina; Di Stefano, Francesca; Segnan, Nereo
Background and aim: Unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, and smoking are key risk factors for the major non-communicable diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes. The screening procedure may represent an ideal setting for promoting healthy lifestyles as it represents a time when subjects are probably more inclined to consider a relationship between their own habits and their effects on health. The aim of this study is to review available evidence concerning interventions combining screening and primary prevention interventions, aimed at promoting the adoption of healthy lifestyles. Methods: We searched the MEDLINE and Cochrane library electronic databases for intervention studies of primary prevention interventions implemented in the context of established screening programmes, or of pilot screening projects, where the study design included a comparison group. Results: Comprehensive interventions are acceptable for asymptomatic subjects targeted for cancer screening, can result in improvements and may be cost–effective. A positive impact of these interventions in favoring the adoption of cancer protective dietary behaviors was observed in all studies. Conflicting results were instead reported with respect to physical activity, while no impact could be observed for interventions aimed to favor smoking cessation. Conclusions: The retrieved studies suggest that the screening setting may offer valuable opportunities to provide credible, potentially persuasive life style advice, reaching a wide audience. A multiple risk factor approach may maximize the benefit of behavioral change, as the same health related habits are associated not only with cancers targeted by screening interventions, but also with other cancers, coronary artery disease, and other chronic conditions, while unhealthy behaviors may be mutually reinforcing. In order to cover a maximum number of possibilities, health education programmes should include multiple strategies
Kaufman, Z A; Welsch, R L; Erickson, J D; Craig, S; Adams, L V; Ross, D A
Previous observational and quasi-experimental studies in sub-Saharan Africa have suggested the effectiveness of youth-targeted HIV prevention interventions using sport as an educational tool. No studies have yet assessed the effect of similar programs in the Caribbean. A quasi-experimental trial was conducted to assess the effectiveness of a sports-based intervention in six migrant settlements in the Puerto Plata Province of the Dominican Republic. A total of 397 structured interviews were conducted with 140 adolescents prior to, immediately following, and four months following 10-hour interventions using the Grassroot Soccer curriculum. Interview responses were coded, aggregated into composite scores, and analyzed using logistic regression, adjusting for baseline differences as well as age, sex, community, and descent. At post-intervention, significant differences were observed between groups in HIV-related knowledge (adjOR = 13.02, 95% CI = 8.26, 20.52), reported attitudes (adjOR = 12.01, 95% CI = 7.61, 18.94), and reported communication (adjOR = 3.13, 95% CI = 1.91, 5.12). These differences remained significant at four-month follow-up, though declines in post-intervention knowledge were observed in the Intervention group while gains in knowledge and reported attitudes were observed in the Control group. Results suggest that this sports-based intervention could play a valuable role in HIV prevention efforts in the Caribbean, particularly those targeting early adolescents. Further evaluation of sports-based interventions should include indicators assessing behavioral and biological outcomes, longer-term follow-up, a larger sample, randomization of study participants, and strenuous efforts to minimize loss-to-follow-up.
Balfour, Julie; Abdulcadir, Jasmine; Say, Lale; Hindin, Michelle J
Studies on healthcare providers' awareness, knowledge and attitudes regarding female genital mutilation (FGM) have shown a lack of awareness of the prevalence, diagnosis, and management of FGM. Our objective was to systematically review the literature on interventions improving healthcare providers' capacities of prevention and treatment of FGM. Systematic review of the published and grey literature on interventions aimed at improving healthcare providers' capacities of prevention and treatment of FGM (1995-2015). Outcomes observed were knowledge and attitudes about FGM, medicalization, and prevention. Only two studies met our inclusion criteria. They reported on educational interventions aimed at increasing caregivers' knowledge on FGM. One was conducted with 59 providers, in Mali; the other one with 11 certified nurse-midwives in the United States. The studies report basic statistics regarding the improvement of healthcare professionals' knowledge, attitude on FGM and medicalization of the practice. Neither conducted multivariable analysis nor evaluated the training effects on the quality of the care offered, the clinical outcomes and the satisfaction of women attended, and prevention. As health care providers are essential in prevention and treatment of FGM, developing effective interventions is crucial.
Mugisa, Margaret; Muzoora, Abel
Malaria is a leading killer disease in Uganda and it accounts for significant morbidity in pregnant women and children. Pregnant women are more susceptible to malaria, which causes adverse effects including abortion, low birth weight and maternal anaemia. Children with severe malaria frequently develop one of these symptoms including: severe anaemia, respiratory distress, Prostration, convulsions and cerebral malaria. Due to the severity of the disease there is need for multiple interventions to reduce the disease burden. African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF) adopted community based approaches to improve malaria prevention. Behavioral change communication (BCC) was fundamental at every process of Project implementation. This paper shares AMREF's experience in using BCC strategies amidst other interventions in malaria prevention approaches involving use of insecticide treated nets and environment management. AMREF through a Malaria project (2007-2010) in Nakasongola district supported BCC activities through training, community mobilization, mass media, health promotion and advocacy. Program performance was measured through baseline and evaluation surveys in 2007 and 2010. The final project evaluation indicated improvement from baseline values as follows: knowledge on prevention of malaria among school children from 76.6% to 90%, under five children sleeping under bed net the previous night from 51% to 74.7%, and from 24% to 78% among pregnant women. Mobilization of malaria prevention interventions can be successful once BCC approaches are adequately planned and coordinated. Malaria prevention through BCC strategies are likely to be more effective with integration of other malaria interventions, and involvement of community based structures.
Hamm, Julian; Money, Arthur G; Atwal, Anita; Paraskevopoulos, Ioannis
In recent years, an ever increasing range of technology-based applications have been developed with the goal of assisting in the delivery of more effective and efficient fall prevention interventions. Whilst there have been a number of studies that have surveyed technologies for a particular sub-domain of fall prevention, there is no existing research which surveys the full spectrum of falls prevention interventions and characterises the range of technologies that have augmented this landscape. This study presents a conceptual framework and survey of the state of the art of technology-based fall prevention systems which is derived from a systematic template analysis of studies presented in contemporary research literature. The framework proposes four broad categories of fall prevention intervention system: Pre-fall prevention; Post-fall prevention; Fall injury prevention; Cross-fall prevention. Other categories include, Application type, Technology deployment platform, Information sources, Deployment environment, User interface type, and Collaborative function. After presenting the conceptual framework, a detailed survey of the state of the art is presented as a function of the proposed framework. A number of research challenges emerge as a result of surveying the research literature, which include a need for: new systems that focus on overcoming extrinsic falls risk factors; systems that support the environmental risk assessment process; systems that enable patients and practitioners to develop more collaborative relationships and engage in shared decision making during falls risk assessment and prevention activities. In response to these challenges, recommendations and future research directions are proposed to overcome each respective challenge. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Grapp, Miriam; Hutter, Elisabeth; Argstatter, Heike; Plinkert, Peter K; Bolay, Hans V
In the present study a music therapeutic intervention according to the ‘Heidelberg Model’ was evaluated as a complementary treatment option for patients with acute tinnitus whom medical treatment only brought minimal or no improvement. The central question was if music therapy in an early phase of tinnitus was able to reduce tinnitus symptoms and to prevent them from becoming chronical. 23 patients with acute tinnitus (6-12 weeks) were included in this study and took part in our manualized short term music therapeutic treatment which lasted ten consecutive 50-minutes sessions of individualized therapy. Tinnitus severity and individual tinnitus related distress were assessed by the Tinnitus Beeinträchtigungs-Fragebogen (i.e. Tinnitus Impairment Questionnaire, TBF-12) at baseline, start of treatment, and end of treatment. Score changes in TBF-12 from start to end of the treatment showed significant improvements in tinnitus impairment. This indicates that this music therapy approach applied in an initial stage of tinnitus can make an important contribution towards preventing tinnitus from becoming a chronic condition. PMID:23936599
Bachanas, Pamela J; Morris, Mary K; Lewis-Gess, Jennifer K; Sarett-Cuasay, Eileen J; Sirl, Kimberly; Ries, Julie K; Sawyer, Mary K
To describe empirically the risky sexual behavior of an at-risk sample of adolescent girls, to assess psychosocial correlates of risky behavior, and to examine the utility of applying a risk and protective model to predicting teens' risky sexual behavior. Participants included 158 African American girls, ages 12 to 19, who were receiving medical care in an adolescent primary care clinic. Teens completed measures of depression, conduct problems, substance use, peer norms, social support, HIV knowledge, sexual self-efficacy, and sexual behavior. Teens in this sample reported high rates of risky sexual behaviors, including early sexual debuts and frequent unprotected sexual encounters with multiple partners. African American girls who reported high rates of substance use and who reported that their peers engaged in risky behaviors also reported engaging in high rates of risky sexual behaviors. Little support was obtained for protective factors (HIV knowledge, social support, sexual self-efficacy) moderating the relations between risk factors and adolescents' risky sexual behavior in this sample. Teens presenting in primary care settings in urban environments seem to be at high risk for HIV, STDs, and substance abuse, and risk reduction strategies should be introduced during the preteen years. An interdisciplinary model of care in primary care settings serving adolescents is clearly indicated, and prevention-oriented interventions aimed at reducing risky behaviors and preventing the development of more significant health, mental health, or substance abuse disorders are needed.
Nissen, Nina Konstantin; Madsen, Mette; Olsen Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe
systematically reviewed to clarify what the health services do for relatives of heart patients and to assess the effects of interventions. We searched Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL database, CSA and the Cochrane Library from January 2000 to March 2006. RESULTS: Only six scientific articles reported...
... the efficacy of exercise interventions in the treatment of vestibular-related deficits in hearing-impaired children. Sources: Extensive search of computerized bibliographic databases (MEDLINE, CINHAL, EMBASE, SCOPUS, ISI of web science, Cochrane Library, and AMED) was performed from earliest to February 7, 2011.
Cianelli, Rosina; Lara, Loreto; Villegas, Natalia; Bernales, Margarita; Ferrer, Lilian; Kaelber, Lorena; Peragallo, Nilda
Background Worldwide, an in Chile, the number of women living with HIV is increasing. Depression is considered a factor that interferes with HIV prevention. Depression may reach 41% among low income Chilean women. Depressed people are less willing to participate in behaviors that protect them against HIV. Objectives To analyze the impact of Mano a Mano-Mujer (MM-M) on depressive symptoms among Chilean women. Methods A quasi-experimental design was used to test the impact of MM-M, an HIV prevention intervention. The research was conducted in Santiago- Chile, a total of 400 women participated in the study (intervention group, n = 182; control group, n = 218). The intervention was guided by the social-cognitive model and the primary health model. The intervention consists of six two-hour sessions delivered in small groups. Sessions covered: HIV prevention, depression, partner's communication, and substance abuse. Face to face interviews were conducted at baseline and at 3 months follow-up Results At 3 months post-intervention, Chilean women who participated in MM-M significantly decreased their reported depressive symptoms. Conclusions MM-M provided significant benefits for women's depression symptoms. This study offers a model that address depression, a risk factor for HIV. It uses nurses as leaders for the screening of depressive symptoms and as facilitators of community interventions. PMID:22452388
Toth, Sheree L; Sturge-Apple, Melissa L; Rogosch, Fred A; Cicchetti, Dante
The present study applies a multilevel approach to an examination of the effect of two randomized preventive interventions with mothers in neglectful families who are also contending with elevated levels of impoverishment and ecological risk. Specifically, we examined how participation in either child-parent psychotherapy (CPP) or psychoeducational parenting intervention (PPI) was associated with reductions in maternal psychological parenting stress and in turn physiological stress system functioning when compared to mothers involved in standard community services as well as a demographic comparison group of nonmaltreating mothers. The resulting group sizes in the current investigation were 44 for CPP, 34 for PPI, 27 for community services, and 52 for nonmaltreating mothers. Mothers and their 13-month-old infants were randomly assigned to intervention group at baseline. Mothers completed assessments on stress within the parenting role at baseline and postintervention. Basal cortisol was sampled at postintervention and 1-year follow-up. Latent difference score analyses examined change in these constructs over time. Results suggested that mothers within the CPP intervention experienced significant declines in child-related parenting stress, while mothers in the PPI intervention reported declines in parent-related parenting stress. In turn, significant decreases in stress within the CPP mothers were further associated with adaptive basal cortisol functioning at 1-year postintervention. The results highlight the value of delineating how participation in preventive interventions aimed at ameliorating child maltreatment in neglectful families within the context of poverty may operate through improvements in psychological and physiological stress functioning. Findings are discussed with respect to the importance of multilevel assessments of intervention process and outcome.
Bradshaw, Catherine P.
Although bullying continues to be a growing public health concern in schools across the United States, there are considerable gaps in the American understanding of effective prevention approaches for addressing this seemingly intractable issue. This article applies a public health approach to addressing bullying through the multitiered Positive…
Chen, Chia-Chi; Hsiao, Fei-Yuan; Shen, Li-Jiuan; Wu, Chien-Chih
Medication errors may lead to adverse drug events (ADEs), which endangers patient safety and increases healthcare-related costs. The on-ward deployment of clinical pharmacists has been shown to reduce preventable ADEs, and save costs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ADEs prevention and cost-saving effects by clinical pharmacist deployment in a nephrology ward.This was a retrospective study, which compared the number of pharmacist interventions 1 year before and after a clinical pharmacist was deployed in a nephrology ward. The clinical pharmacist attended ward rounds, reviewed and revised all medication orders, and gave active recommendations of medication use. For intervention analysis, the numbers and types of the pharmacist's interventions in medication orders and the active recommendations were compared. For cost analysis, both estimated cost saving and avoidance were calculated and compared.The total numbers of pharmacist interventions in medication orders were 824 in 2012 (preintervention), and 1977 in 2013 (postintervention). The numbers of active recommendation were 40 in 2012, and 253 in 2013. The estimated cost savings in 2012 and 2013 were NT$52,072 and NT$144,138, respectively. The estimated cost avoidances of preventable ADEs in 2012 and 2013 were NT$3,383,700 and NT$7,342,200, respectively. The benefit/cost ratio increased from 4.29 to 9.36, and average admission days decreased by 2 days after the on-ward deployment of a clinical pharmacist.The number of pharmacist's interventions increased dramatically after her on-ward deployment. This service could reduce medication errors, preventable ADEs, and costs of both medications and potential ADEs.
Vamos, Szonja; Mumbi, Miriam; Cook, Ryan; Chitalu, Ndashi; Weiss, Stephen Marshall; Jones, Deborah Lynne
The scale-up of HIV treatment programs in sub-Saharan Africa necessitates creative solutions that do not further burden the health system to meet global initiatives in prevention and care. This study assessed the work environment and impact of providing a behavioral risk reduction intervention in six community health centers (CHCs) in Lusaka, Zambia; opportunities and challenges to long-term program sustainability were identified. CHC staff participants (n = 82) were assessed on perceived clinic burden, job satisfaction, and burnout before and after implementation of the intervention. High levels of clinic burden were identified; however, no increase in perceived clinic burden or staff burnout was associated with providing the intervention. The intervention was sustained at the majority of CHCs and also adopted at additional clinics. Behavioral interventions can be successfully implemented and maintained in resource-poor settings. Creative strategies to overcome structural and economic challenges should be applied to enhance translation research.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although most patients with low back pain (LBP recover within a few weeks a significant proportion has recurrent episodes or will develop chronic low back pain. Several mainly psychosocial risk factors for developing chronic LBP have been identified. However, effects of preventive interventions aiming at behavioural risk factors and unfavourable cognitions have yielded inconsistent results. Risk tailored interventions may provide a cost efficient and effective means to take systematic account of the individual risk factors but evidence is lacking. Methods/Design This study will be a cluster-randomised controlled trial comparing screening and a subsequent risk tailored intervention for patients with low back pain to prevent chronic low back pain compared to treatment as usual in primary care. A total of 600 patients from 20 practices in each study arm will be recruited in Berlin and Goettingen. The intervention comprises the following elements: Patients will be assigned to one of four risk groups based on a screening questionnaire. Subsequently they receive an educational intervention including information and counselling tailored to the risk group. A telephone/email consulting service for back pain related problems are offered independent of risk group assignment. The primary outcomes will be functional capacity and sick leave. Discussion This trial will evaluate the effectiveness of screening for risk factors for chronic low back pain followed by a risk tailored intervention to prevent chronic low back pain. This trial will contribute new evidence regarding the flexible use of individual physical and psychosocial risk factors in general practice. Trial registration ISRCTN 68205910
Hoare, Erin; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Skouteris, Helen; Millar, Lynne; Nichols, Melanie; Allender, Steven
Objectives This paper aimed to systematically evaluate the mental health and well-being outcomes observed in previous community-based obesity prevention interventions in adolescent populations. Setting Systematic review of literature from database inception to October 2014. Articles were sourced from CINAHL, Global Health, Health Source: Nursing and Academic Edition, MEDLINE, PsycARTICLES and PsycINFO, all of which were accessed through EBSCOhost. The Cochrane Database was also searched to identify all eligible articles. PRISMA guidelines were followed and search terms and search strategy ensured all possible studies were identified for review. Participants Intervention studies were eligible for inclusion if they were: focused on overweight or obesity prevention, community-based, targeted adolescents (aged 10–19 years), reported a mental health or well-being measure, and included a comparison or control group. Studies that focused on specific adolescent groups or were treatment interventions were excluded from review. Quality of evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) guidelines. Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary outcomes were measures of mental health and well-being, including diagnostic and symptomatic measures. Secondary outcomes included adiposity or weight-related measures. Results Seven studies met the inclusion criteria; one reported anxiety/depressive outcomes, two reported on self-perception well-being measures such as self-esteem and self-efficacy, and four studies reported outcomes of quality of life. Positive mental health outcomes demonstrated that following obesity prevention, interventions included a decrease in anxiety and improved health-related quality of life. Quality of evidence was graded as very low. Conclusions Although positive outcomes for mental health and well-being do exist, controlled evaluations of community-based obesity prevention interventions have
Bian, Rachel R; Piatt, Gretchen A; Sen, Ananda; Plegue, Melissa A; De Michele, Mariana L; Hafez, Dina; Czuhajewski, Christina M; Buis, Lorraine R; Kaufman, Neal; Richardson, Caroline R
Lifestyle interventions targeting weight loss, such as those delivered through the Diabetes Prevention Program, reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Technology-mediated interventions may be an option to help overcome barriers to program delivery, and to disseminate diabetes prevention programs on a larger scale. We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of such technology-mediated interventions on weight loss. In this meta-analysis, six databases were searched to identify studies reporting weight change that used technology to mediate diet and exercise interventions, and targeted individuals at high risk for developing type 2 diabetes. Studies published between January 1, 2002 and August 4, 2016 were included. The search identified 1196 citations. Of those, 15 studies met the inclusion criteria and evaluated 18 technology-mediated intervention arms delivered to a total of 2774 participants. Study duration ranged from 12 weeks to 2 years. A random-effects meta-analysis showed a pooled weight loss effect of 3.76 kilograms (95% CI 2.8-4.7; Ptechnology-mediated intervention method was most efficacious. Technology-mediated diabetes prevention programs can result in clinically significant amounts of weight loss, as well as improvements in glycaemia in patients with prediabetes. Due to their potential for large-scale implementation, these interventions will play an important role in the dissemination of diabetes prevention programs. ©Rachel R Bian, Gretchen A Piatt, Ananda Sen, Melissa A Plegue, Mariana L De Michele, Dina Hafez, Christina M Czuhajewski, Lorraine R Buis, Neal Kaufman, Caroline R Richardson. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 27.03.2017.
Full Text Available Childhood obesity has been increasing rapidly worldwide. There is limited evidence for effective lifestyle interventions to prevent childhood obesity worldwide, especially in developing countries like China. The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a school-based multi-component lifestyle childhood obesity prevention program (the CLICK-Obesity study in Mainland China.A cluster randomized controlled trial was developed among grade 4 students from 8 urban primary schools (638 students in intervention, 544 as control in Nanjing City, China. Students were randomly allocated to the control or intervention group at school-level. A one-year multi-component intervention program (classroom curriculum, school environment support, family involvement and fun programs/events together with routine health education was provided to the intervention group, while the control group received routine health education only. The main outcome variables assessed were changes in body mass index, obesity occurrence, obesity-related lifestyle behaviors and knowledge.Overall, 1108 (93.7% of the 1182 enrolled students completed the intervention study. The intervention group had a larger marginal reduction than did the control group in overall mean BMI value (-0.32±1.36 vs. -0.29±1.40, p = 0.09, although this was not significant. Compared with the control group, the intervention group was more likely to decrease their BMI (OR = 1.44, 95%CI = 1.10, 1.87 by 0.5 kg/m2 or above, increase the frequency of jogging/running (OR = 1.55, 95%CI = 1.18, 2.02, decrease the frequency of TV/computer use (OR = 1.41, 95%CI = 1.09, 1.84 and of red meat consumption (OR = 1.50, 95%CI = 1.15, 1.95, change commuting mode to/from school from sedentary to active mode (OR = 2.24, 95%CI = 1.47, 3.40, and be aware of the harm of selected obesity risk factors.The school-based lifestyle intervention program was practical and effective in improving health behaviors and obesity-related
Clark, Florence; Pyatak, Elizabeth A.; Carlson, Mike; Blanche, Erna Imperatore; Vigen, Cheryl; Hay, Joel; Mallinson, Trudy; Blanchard, Jeanine; Unger, Jennifer B.; Garber, Susan L.; Diaz, Jesus; Florindez, Lucia I.; Atkins, Michal; Rubayi, Salah; Azen, Stanley Paul
Background Randomized trials of complex, non-pharmacologic interventions implemented in home and community settings, such as the University of Southern California (USC)–Rancho Los Amigos National Rehabilitation Center (RLANRC) Pressure Ulcer Prevention Study (PUPS), present unique challenges with respect to: (a) participant recruitment and retention, (b) intervention delivery and fidelity, (c) randomization and assessment, and (d) potential inadvertent treatment effects. Purpose We describe the methods employed to address the challenges confronted in implementing PUPS. In this randomized controlled trial, we are assessing the efficacy of a complex, preventive intervention in reducing the incidence of, and costs associated with, the development of medically serious pressure ulcers in people with spinal cord injury. Method Individuals with spinal cord injury recruited from RLANRC were assigned to either a 12-month preventive intervention group or a standard care control group. The primary outcome is the incidence of serious pressure ulcers with secondary endpoints including ulcer-related surgeries, medical treatment costs, and quality of life. These outcomes are assessed at 12 and 24 months after randomization. Additionally, we are studying the mediating mechanisms that account for intervention outcomes. Results PUPS has been successfully implemented, including recruitment of the target sample size of 170 participants, assurance of the integrity of intervention protocol delivery with an average 90% treatment adherence rate, and enactment of the assessment plan. However, implementation has been replete with challenges. To meet recruitment goals, we instituted a five-pronged approach customized for an underserved, ethnically diverse population. In intervention delivery, we increased staff time to overcome economic and cultural barriers to retention and adherence. To ensure treatment fidelity and replicability, we monitored intervention protocol delivery in accord
Clark, Florence; Pyatak, Elizabeth A; Carlson, Mike; Blanche, Erna Imperatore; Vigen, Cheryl; Hay, Joel; Mallinson, Trudy; Blanchard, Jeanine; Unger, Jennifer B; Garber, Susan L; Diaz, Jesus; Florindez, Lucia I; Atkins, Michal; Rubayi, Salah; Azen, Stanley Paul
Randomized trials of complex, non-pharmacologic interventions implemented in home and community settings, such as the University of Southern California (USC)-Rancho Los Amigos National Rehabilitation Center (RLANRC) Pressure Ulcer Prevention Study (PUPS), present unique challenges with respect to (1) participant recruitment and retention, (2) intervention delivery and fidelity, (3) randomization and assessment, and (4) potential inadvertent treatment effects. We describe the methods employed to address the challenges confronted in implementing PUPS. In this randomized controlled trial, we are assessing the efficacy of a complex, preventive intervention in reducing the incidence of, and costs associated with, the development of medically serious pressure ulcers in people with spinal cord injury. Individuals with spinal cord injury recruited from RLANRC were assigned to either a 12-month preventive intervention group or a standard care control group. The primary outcome is the incidence of serious pressure ulcers with secondary endpoints including ulcer-related surgeries, medical treatment costs, and quality of life. These outcomes are assessed at 12 and 24 months after randomization. Additionally, we are studying the mediating mechanisms that account for intervention outcomes. PUPS has been successfully implemented, including recruitment of the target sample size of 170 participants, assurance of the integrity of intervention protocol delivery with an average 90% treatment adherence rate, and enactment of the assessment plan. However, implementation has been replete with challenges. To meet recruitment goals, we instituted a five-pronged approach customized for an underserved, ethnically diverse population. In intervention delivery, we increased staff time to overcome economic and cultural barriers to retention and adherence. To ensure treatment fidelity and replicability, we monitored intervention protocol delivery in accordance with a rigorous plan. Finally, we
Shaban, R; Kassim, S; Sabbah, W
Aim To assess socioeconomic inequality regarding specific preventive interventions (fissure sealants or any treatment to prevent caries) and dental visits among UK children.Method Data were from the Children's Dental Health Survey 2003, which included participants from England, Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland. The number of children in the analysis was 2,286. Variables were sex, age, area of residency (for example, England), mother's education, family social class, and deprivation level. Descriptive and regression analyses were performed.Results There were no significant socioeconomic differences in the use of preventive services. Deprivation and family social class (for example, intermediate and manual) were significantly associated with less regular dental visits (odd ratio 0.41, 95% CI [0.28, 0.63]; odd ratio 0.53, 95% CI [0.31, 0.89]; odd ratio 0.37, 95% CI [0.24, 0.58], respectively). Regular dental visits were associated with reporting preventive care for caries (odds ratio 2.25, 95% CI [1.45, 3.49]) and with the number of sealed tooth surfaces (rate ratio 1.73, 95% CI [1.16, 2.60]).Conclusion Despite apparent socioeconomic inequalities in regular dental visits, there was no significant inequality in using specific preventive interventions by children in the UK. This finding should be interpreted with caution considering the relatively small subsample included in this analysis.
Gómez-Gascón, Tomás; Martín-Fernández, Jesús; Gálvez-Herrer, Macarena; Tapias-Merino, Ester; Beamud-Lagos, Milagros; Mingote-Adán, José Carlos
Burnout syndrome is an important health problem that affects many professionals and must be addressed globally, with both organizational measures and personal interventions. Burnout of health professionals can be prevented in order to avoid personal, familial, and social consequences, as well as repercussions for patients. This work describes a protocol for a controlled, pragmatic, randomized clinical trial in 2 parallel groups: intervention and control. All health professionals from 7 health care centers will form the intervention group, and all health professionals from 7 different health care centers will form the control group. The intervention group will receive 16 hours of training at their work place. The Maslach's burnout inventory, the Cuestionario de Desgaste Profesional Médico or the Cuestionario de Desgaste Profesional de Enfermería, and the 28-item Goldberg's General Health Questionnaire, validated for our setting, will be used as measurement tools. Change in the average scores from the Maslach's burnout inventory emotional exhaustion scale will be compared between the intervention and control groups, measured as intention-to-treat, and the intervention will be considered effective if a minimum decrease of 20% is achieved. Due to the deleterious consequences of burnout syndrome for people suffering from it and for the organization where they work, it is necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of certain interventions for its prevention. Organizational measures are important for preventing burnout syndrome, but so is providing professionals with coping strategies, as this group intervention intends to do. ClinicalTrials.gov processed this record on June 10, 2013. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01870154.
Purpose: To investigate the role of the community pharmacist in identifying, preventing and resolving drug related problems (DRPs) encountered by patients, with particular emphasis on cardiovascular drugs in community pharmacies in Northern Cyprus, Turkey. Methods: A prospective observational study for the ...
Jaime, Patricia Constante; Bandoni, Daniel Henrique; Sarno, Flávio
To evaluate the impact of a worksite intervention to prevent weight gain among adult workers. A controlled community trial was performed by dividing the workers into two groups: intervention group (IG) and control group (CG). The theoretical framework applied was Intervention Mapping Protocol and the intervention was implemented through interactive software for weight self-monitoring. To evaluate the impact of the intervention, the differences in weight, BMI and waist circumference between the IG and CG were assessed before and 6 months after the intervention by regression models. Additionally, the sustainability of the intervention was evaluated at 12 months after the intervention. Settings São Paulo, Brazil. Four companies; 281 workers for the analysis of effectiveness and 427 for the analysis of sustainability. The intervention resulted in significant reductions in weight, BMI and waist circumference in the IG compared with the CG. The impact of the intervention on IG individuals' body weight was -0·73 kg, while the weight of CG individuals increased. IG individuals with adequate initial weights did not show significant variations, while those who were overweight demonstrated a significant reduction in body weight. The intervention resulted in a reduction of 0·26 kg/m2 in BMI and 0·99 cm in waist circumference, and the sustainability analysis after 12 months showed a continued reduction in body weight (-0·72 kg). The behavioural intervention was effective, resulting in weight maintenance among participants with adequate initial weight and in significant reductions among those who were overweight. More research on longer-term weight maintenance is needed.
Jonathan M. Platt
Full Text Available Maximizing both efficiency and equity are core considerations for population health. These considerations can result in tension in population health science as we seek to improve overall population health while achieving equitable health distributions within populations. Limited work has explored empirically the consequences of different population health intervention strategies on the burden of disease and on within- and between-group differences in disease. To address this gap, we compared the impact of four simulated interventions using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. In particular, we focus on assessing how population and high-risk primary prevention and population and high-risk secondary interventions efforts to reduce smoking behavior influence systolic blood pressure (SBP and hypertension, and how such strategies influence inequalities in SBP by income. The greatest reductions in SBP mean and standard deviation resulted from the population secondary prevention. High-risk primary and secondary prevention and population secondary prevention programs all yielded substantial reductions in hypertension prevalence. The effect of population primary prevention did little to decrease population SBP mean and standard deviation, as well as hypertension prevalence. Both high-risk strategies had a larger impact in the low-income population, leading to the greatest narrowing the income-related gap in disease. The population prevention strategies had a larger impact in the high-income population. Population health approaches must consider the potential impact on both the whole population and also on those with different levels of risk for disease within a population, including those in under-represented or under-served groups.
Lein, Donald H., Jr.; Clark, Diane; Turner, Lori W.; Kohler, Connie L.; Snyder, Scott; Morgan, Sarah L.; Schoenberger, Yu-Mei M.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a theory-based computer-tailored osteoporosis prevention program on calcium and vitamin D intake and osteoporosis health beliefs in young women. Additionally, this study tested whether adding bone density testing to the intervention improved the outcomes. Methods: One hundred…
McAdams, Charles; Shillingford, M. Ann; Trice-Black, Shannon
This article reports the findings of a national survey of practicing school counselors regarding their knowledge of current research in school violence prevention and intervention. The authors describe four active areas of youth violence research over the past two decades and present findings that suggest that a potentially dangerous gap may exist…
Polanin, Joshua R.; Espelage, Dorothy L.; Pigott, Therese D.
This meta-analysis synthesized bullying prevention programs' effectiveness at increasing bystander intervention in bullying situations. Evidence from 12 school-based programs, involving 12,874 students, indicated that overall the programs were successful (Hedges's g = 0.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.11 to 0.29, p = 0.001), with larger…
N.H.J. van Veen (Natasja); P. McNamee (McNamee); J.H. Richardus (Jan Hendrik); W.C.S. Smith (Cairns)
textabstractBackground: Prevention of disability (POD) is one of the key objectives of leprosy programmes. Recently, coverage and access have been identified as the priority issues in POD. Assessing the cost-effectiveness of POD interventions is highly relevant to understanding the barriers and
Le, Huynh-Nhu; Perry, Deborah F.; Stuart, Elizabeth A.
Objective: A randomized controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral (CBT) intervention to prevent perinatal depression in high-risk Latinas. Method: A sample of 217 participants, predominantly low-income Central American immigrants who met demographic and depression risk criteria, were randomized into usual…
Mauriello, Leanne M.; Driskell, Mary Margaret H.; Sherman, Karen J.; Johnson, Sara S.; Prochaska, Janice M.; Prochaska, James O.
This article describes the development and pilot testing of a computer-based, multiple-behavior obesity prevention program for adolescents. Using the Transtheoretical Model as a framework, this intervention offers individualized feedback based on readiness to engage in physical activity, to consume fruits and vegetables, and to limit television…
Nader, Kathleen, Ed.
Together, "School Rampage Shootings and Other Youth Disturbances" and its accompanying CD provide a complete toolkit for using early preventative interventions with elementary-school age children. In ten thoughtful, clearly written chapters, both new and experienced practitioners will find a wealth of research- and evidence-based…
Harper, Gary W.; Dolcini, M. Margaret; Benhorin, Shira; Watson, Susan E.; Boyer, Cherrie B.
This article presents findings from a qualitative evaluation of an HIV/STI (sexually transmitted infection) prevention intervention for urban African American youth (Project ÒRÉ), which was delivered to groups of 3 to 8 adolescents who were members of the same friendship network. Sixteen focus groups (N = 63) were conducted with youth following…
Gouttebarge, Vincent; van Sluis, Marije; Verhagen, Evert; Zwerver, Johannes
A scientific research project has started in the Netherlands with the aim of developing and implementing an evidence-based intervention to prevent the occurrence of musculoskeletal injuries among young and adult recreational volleyball players. This article describes (i) the systematic development
Full Text Available Objective. To summarize key findings of economic evaluations of lifestyle interventions for the primary prevention of type 2 diabetes (T2D in high-risk subjects. Methods. We conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed original studies published since January 2009 in English, French, and Spanish. Eligible studies were identified through relevant databases including PubMed, Medline, National Health Services Economic Evaluation, CINHAL, EconLit, Web of sciences, EMBASE, and the Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature. Studies targeting obesity were also included. Data were extracted using a standardized method. The BMJ checklist was used to assess study quality. The heterogeneity of lifestyle interventions precluded a meta-analysis. Results. Overall, 20 studies were retained, including six focusing on obesity control. Seven were conducted within trials and 13 using modeling techniques. T2D prevention by physical activity or diet or both proved cost-effective according to accepted thresholds, except for five inconclusive studies, three on diabetes prevention and two on obesity control. Most studies exhibited limitations in reporting results, primarily with regard to generalizability and justification of selected sensitivity parameters. Conclusion. This confirms that lifestyle interventions for the primary prevention of diabetes are cost-effective. Such interventions should be further promoted as sound investment in the fight against diabetes.
Bosch, Joop; Stradmeijer, Margreet; Seidell, Jaap
A profile will be given of the psychosocial characteristics of obese children and youngsters, as well as those of their families. Then several attempts of (particularly) preventive interventions will be sketched. Differences found between clinical and non-clinical groups of obese children and
Fellmeth, Gracia; Heffernan, Catherine; Nurse, Joanna; Habibula, Shakiba; Sethi, Dinesh
Objectives: To assess the efficacy of educational and skills-based interventions to prevent relationship and dating violence in adolescents and young adults. Methods: We searched Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and other databases for randomized, cluster-randomized, and quasi-randomized…
Whitley, Jessica; Smith, J. David; Vaillancourt, Tracy
Teachers and other school staff play key roles as partners in the prevention, identification, and intervention of mental health difficulties among children and youth. However, it is essential that teachers are equipped with sufficient mental health literacy to engender effective practices in these areas. This article reviews the literature related…
Morris, Heather; Skouteris, Helen; Edwards, Susan; Rutherford, Leonie
Partnering early childhood education and care (ECEC) and the home together may be more effective in combating obesogenic risk factors in preschool children. Thus, an evaluation of ECEC obesity prevention interventions with a parental component was conducted, exploring parental engagement and its effect on obesity and healthy lifestyle outcomes. A…
Gouttebarge, Vincent; van Sluis, Marije; Verhagen, Evert; Zwerver, Johannes
Background: A scientific research project has started in the Netherlands with the aim of developing and implementing an evidence-based intervention to prevent the occurrence of musculoskeletal injuries among young and adult recreational volleyball players. This article describes (i) the systematic
Buser, Juleen K.; Saponara, Erin
Children who witness intimate partner violence (IPV) often suffer a range of physical, behavioral, emotional, and familial consequences (Holt, Buckley, & Whelan, 2008). School counselors may be in a key position to implement prevention programs around this issue, identify children who have witnessed IPV, and to engage in intervention efforts.…
Stewart, Clarence, M., Jr.
This article deals with a service-learning program focused on human sexuality and HIV/AIDS prevention and intervention at the Howard University Department of Health, Human Performance and Leisure Studies. Topics discussed include how this program was created, an overview of peer education, HIV/AIDS peer education training, and services provided to…
Posthumus, Jocelyne A.; Raaijmakers, Maartje A. J.; Maassen, Gerard H.; van Engeland, Herman; Matthys, Walter
The present study evaluated preventive effects of the Incredible Years program for parents of preschool children who were at risk for a chronic pattern of conduct problems, in the Netherlands. In a matched control design, 72 parents of children with conduct problems received the Incredible Years program. These families (intervention group) were…
Mouthaan, Joanne; Sijbrandij, Marit; de Vries, Giel-Jan; Reitsma, Johannes B.; van de Schoot, Rens; Goslings, J. Carel; Luitse, Jan S. K.; Bakker, Fred C.; Gersons, Berthold P. R.; Olff, Miranda
Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) develops in 10-20% of injury patients. We developed a novel, self-guided Internet-based intervention (called Trauma TIPS) based on techniques from cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) to prevent the onset of PTSD symptoms. Objective: To determine
Mouthaan, J.; Sijbrandij, M.; de Vries, G.J.; Reitsma, J.B.; van de Schoot, R.; Goslings, J.C.; Luitse, J.S.K.; Bakker, F.C.; Gersons, B.P.R.; Olff, M.
Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) develops in 10-20% of injury patients. We developed a novel, self-guided Internet-based intervention (called Trauma TIPS) based on techniques from cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) to prevent the onset of PTSD symptoms. Objective: To determine
Garber, Judy; Korelitz, Katherine; Samanez-Larkin, Silvia
This article highlights how the many important contributions of John R. Z. Abela's research program can inform the development and implementation of interventions for preventing depression in youth. Abela provided evidence of multiple vulnerabilities to depression including cognitive (e.g., inferential style, dysfunctional attitudes, ruminative…
Schwinn, Traci Marie; Hopkins, Jessica Elizabeth; Schinke, Steven Paul
Objectives: Girls' rates of drug use have met up with and, in some instances, surpassed boys' rates. Although girls and boys share risk and protective factors associated with drug use, girls also have gender-specific risks. Interventions to prevent girls' drug use must be tailored to address the dynamics of female adolescence. Methods: One such…
Lofton, Saria; Julion, Wrenetha A.; McNaughton, Diane B.; Bergren, Martha Dewey; Keim, Kathryn S.
Obesity and overweight prevalence in African American (AA) youth continues to be one of the highest of all major ethnic groups, which has led researchers to pursue culturally based approaches as a means to improve obesity prevention interventions. The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate culturally adapted obesity prevention…
Glassman, Jill R.; Franks, Heather M.; Baumler, Elizabeth R.; Coyle, Karin K.
Most interventions designed to prevent HIV/STI/pregnancy risk behaviours in young people have multiple components based on psychosocial theories (e.g. social cognitive theory) dictating sets of mediating variables to influence to achieve desired changes in behaviours. Mediation analysis is a method for investigating the extent to which a variable…
Wolmer, Leo; Hamiel, Daniel; Laor, Nathaniel
Objective: The psychological outcomes that the exposure to mass trauma has on children have been amply documented in the past decades. The objective of this study is to describe the effects of a universal, teacher-based preventive intervention implemented with Israeli students before the rocket attacks that occurred during Operation Cast Lead,…
Hoving, Jan L.; Lacaille, Diane; Urquhart, Donna M.; Hannu, Timo J.; Sluiter, Judith K.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.
Work participation of patients with inflammatory arthritis (IA) is important not only economically but also for physical and psychological health. There is no Cochrane Review to date on studies of non-pharmacological interventions specifically aimed at preventing job loss in people with IA. To
Gouttebarge, Vincent; van Sluis, Marije; Verhagen, Evert; Zwerver, Johannes
BACKGROUND: A scientific research project has started in the Netherlands with the aim of developing and implementing an evidence-based intervention to prevent the occurrence of musculoskeletal injuries among young and adult recreational volleyball players. This article describes (i) the systematic
Oostdam, N.; Poppel, M.N.M. van; Wouters, M.G.A.J.; Mechelen, W. van
Background: The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is increasing worldwide. GDM is associated with increased risks for mother and child during pregnancy and in later life. The aim of this article is to systematically review literature on the effectiveness of interventions to prevent
Oostdam, N.; van Poppel, M.N.M.; Wouters, M.G.A.J.; van Mechelen, W.
Background: The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is increasing worldwide. GDM is associated with increased risks for mother and child during pregnancy and in later life. The aim of this article is to systematically review literature on the effectiveness of interventions to prevent
Mason, W. Alex; Kosterman, Rick; Hawkins, J. David; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Spoth, Richard L.; Redmond, Cleve
Preparing for the Drug Free Years (PDFY) is a preventive intervention that targets parenting behaviors, family interaction patterns, and adolescent substance use, factors that have been shown to predict depression among teenagers. Effects of PDFY on trajectories of self-reported adolescent depressive symptoms from 6th through 12th grade were…
Philip J. Morgan
Full Text Available Internationally, childhood obesity is a major public health concern. Given the established difficulties in treating obesity, designing and evaluating effective obesity prevention interventions are research priorities. As parents play a crucial role in establishing positive health behaviours in children, they are a key target for child obesity prevention programs. However, recruiting and engaging parents in such interventions can be a considerable challenge for researchers and practitioners. Members of the ‘Parenting, Child Behaviour and Well-being’ stream of the Australasian Child and Adolescent Obesity Research Network (ACAORN have considerable and varied expertise in conducting such interventions and can provide insights into addressing these challenges. This paper aims to highlight considerations regarding the design, implementation, and evaluation of obesity prevention interventions with families and provide practical insights and recommendations for researchers and practitioners conducting family-based research in this area. Case studies of three family-based interventions conducted by ACAORN members are highlighted to provide examples and contextualise the recommendations proposed.
Full Text Available Background Unfortunately, gestational diabetes with its demanding health cares and increasing economic costs is globally prevailing. Therefore, preventive measures against this difficulty are highly significant. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of training interventions on behaviors of pregnant women for prevention of gestational diabetes. Materials and Methods This quasi-experimental study was conducted on 91 pregnant women (n=45 in intervention group, n=46 in control group, whom were chosen through multi-stage random sampling, and three training sessions with weekly intervals were offered for the intervention group. The data was collected in two stages including before the intervention and three months after intervention through interview as well as filling in questionnaire forms. The collected data was analyzed through independent sample t-test and paired t-test by considering 0.05 confidence level using SPSS software (version19.0. Results The results of present study showed a direct and significant correlation between age and preventive behaviors (r=0.22, P
Pennick, V E; Young, G
More than two-thirds of pregnant women experience back pain and almost one-fifth experience pelvic pain. The pain increases with advancing pregnancy and interferes with work, daily activities and sleep. To assess the effects of interventions for preventing and treating back and pelvic pain in pregnancy. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Review Group's Trials Register (February 2006). Randomised controlled trials of any treatment to prevent or reduce the incidence or severity of back or pelvic pain in pregnancy. Two authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We found no studies dealing specifically with prevention of back or pelvic pain. We included eight studies (1305 participants) that examined the effects of adding various pregnancy-specific exercises, physiotherapy, acupuncture and pillows to usual prenatal care. For women with low-back pain, participating in strengthening exercises, sitting pelvic tilt exercises (standardised mean difference (SMD) -5.34; 95% confidence interval (CI) -6.40 to -4.27), and water gymnastics reduced pain intensity and back pain-related sick leave (relative risk (RR) 0.40; 95% CI 0.17 to 0.92) better than usual prenatal care alone. The specially-designed Ozzlo pillow was more effective than a regular one in relieving back pain (RR 1.84; 95% CI 1.32 to 2.55), but is no longer commercially available. Both acupuncture and stabilising exercises relieved pelvic pain more than usual prenatal care. Acupuncture gave more relief from evening pain than exercises. For women with both pelvic and back pain, in one study, acupuncture was more effective than physiotherapy in reducing the intensity of their pain; stretching exercises resulted in more total pain relief (60%) than usual care (11%); and 60% of those who received acupuncture reported less intense pain, compared to 14% of those receiving usual prenatal care. Women who received usual prenatal care reported more use of analgesics, physical modalities
Byrnes, Matthew C; Coopersmith, Craig M
Catheter-related blood stream infections are a morbid complication of central venous catheters. This review will highlight a comprehensive approach demonstrated to prevent catheter-related blood stream infections. Elements of prevention important to inserting a central venous catheter include proper hand hygiene, use of full barrier precautions, appropriate skin preparation with 2% chlorhexidine, and using the subclavian vein as the preferred anatomic site. Rigorous attention needs to be given to dressing care, and there should be daily assessment of the need for central venous catheters, with prompt removal as soon as is practicable. Healthcare workers should be educated routinely on methods to prevent catheter-related blood stream infections. If rates remain higher than benchmark levels despite proper bedside practice, antiseptic or antibiotic-impregnated catheters can also prevent infections effectively. A recent program utilizing these practices in 103 ICUs in Michigan resulted in a 66% decrease in infection rates. There is increasing recognition that a comprehensive strategy to prevent catheter-related blood stream infections can prevent most infections, if not all. This suggests that thousands of infections can potentially be averted if the simple practices outlined herein are followed.
Anderson, Sarah-Jane; Ghys, Peter D; Ombam, Regina; Hallett, Timothy B
A strategic approach to the application of HIV prevention interventions is a core component of the UNAIDS Fast Track strategy to end the HIV epidemic by 2030. Central to these plans is a focus on high-prevalence geographies, in a bid to target resources to those in greatest need and maximize the reduction in new infections. Whilst this idea of geographical prioritization has the potential to improve efficiency, it is unclear how it should be implemented in practice. There are a range of prevention interventions which can be applied differentially across risk groups and locations, making allocation decisions complex. Here, we use mathematical modelling to compare the impact (infections averted) of a number of different approaches to the implementation of geographical prioritization of prevention interventions, similar to those emerging in policy and practice, across a range of prevention budgets. We use geographically specific mathematical models of the epidemic and response in 48 counties and major cities of Kenya to project the impact of the different geographical prioritization approaches. We compare the geographical allocation strategies with a nationally uniform approach under which the same interventions must be applied across all modelled locations. We find that the most extreme geographical prioritization strategy, which focuses resources exclusively to high-prevalence locations, may substantially restrict impact (41% fewer infections averted) compared to a nationally uniform approach, as opportunities for highly effective interventions for high-risk populations in lower-prevalence areas are missed. Other geographical allocation approaches, which intensify efforts in higher-prevalence areas whilst maintaining a minimum package of cost-effective interventions everywhere, consistently improve impact at all budget levels. Such strategies balance the need for greater investment in locations with the largest epidemics whilst ensuring higher-risk groups in lower
Spoth, Richard; Trudeau, Linda; Redmond, Cleve; Shin, Chungyeol
This brief report summarizes a replication and extension of a developmental outcome modeling study, by examining whether delayed substance initiation during adolescence, resulting from universal middle school preventive interventions, reduces problematic use in young adults Ages 25 and 27, up to 14.5 years after baseline. Participants were middle school students from 36 Iowa schools randomly assigned to the Strengthening Families Program plus Life Skills Training (SFP 10-14 + LST), LST-only, or a control condition. Self-report questionnaires originally were collected at 11 time points, through Age 22. A subsequent grant allowed for assessments at Ages 25 and 27, including measures of drunkenness, alcohol-related problems, cigarette use, illicit drug use (lifetime and frequency), marijuana use and prescription drug misuse. These outcomes were modeled as variables influenced by growth factors describing substance initiation during adolescence. Models included the effects of baseline risk, intervention condition assignment, and their interaction; risk-related moderation effects were examined and relative reduction rates were calculated for dichotomous variables. Model fits were good. Analyses showed significant or marginally significant indirect intervention effects on all outcomes, through effects on adolescent substance initiation growth factors. Intervention × Risk interaction effects favored the higher risk subsample, replicating earlier findings. Additional direct effects on young adult use were observed only for cigarette frequency. Relative reduction rates were larger for the higher risk subsamples, ranging from 3.9% to 36.2%. Universal preventive interventions implemented during early adolescence have the potential to decrease the rates of substance misuse and associated problems into young adulthood. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Gouttebarge, Vincent; van Sluis, Marije; Verhagen, Evert; Zwerver, Johannes
A scientific research project has started in the Netherlands with the aim of developing and implementing an evidence-based intervention to prevent the occurrence of musculoskeletal injuries among young and adult recreational volleyball players. This article describes (i) the systematic development of the intervention; and (ii) the assessment of its feasibility in terms of relevancy, suitability and usability. The development of the intervention was based on the Intervention Mapping structured and systematic process. First, the needs assessment conducted among the main actors within recreational volleyball revealed that an intervention was needed for injury prevention, ideally embedded prior to a volleyball activity (training or match) within the warm-up, delivered by trainers/coaches, and available in an application for smartphone/tablet or website. Second, the objective and target groups of the intervention were defined, namely to prevent or reduce the occurrence of finger/wrist, shoulder, knee and ankle injuries among both young and adult recreational volleyball players. Third, preventive measures and strategies (e.g