WorldWideScience

Sample records for prevention information clearinghouse

  1. DOE's Pollution Prevention Information Clearinghouse (EPIC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otis, P.T.

    1994-05-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Pollution Prevention Information Clearinghouse (EPIC) is a computer system intended for the exchange of pollution prevention information DOE-wide. EPIC is being developed as a distributed system that will allow access to other databases and applications. The first prototype of EPIC (Prototype I) was put on-line in January 1994. Prototype I contains information on EM-funded pollution prevention projects; relevant laws, regulations, guidance, and policy; facility and DOE contacts; and meetings and conferences. Prototype I also gives users access to the INEL Hazardous Solvent Substitution Data System (HSSDS) and to information contained on the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPNS) Pollution Prevention Infbrmation Exchange System (PIES) as a test of the distributed system concept. An initial user group of about 35 is testing and providing feedback on Prototype I. Prototype II, with a Graphical User Interface (GUI), is planned for the end of CY94. This paper describes the current state of EPIC in terms of architecture, user interface, and information content. Plans for Prototype II and the final system are then discussed. The EPIC development effort is being coordinated with EPA and US Department of Defense (DoD) efforts to develop or upgrade their pollution prevention information exchange systems

  2. Mercury Information Clearinghouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chad A. Wocken; Michael J. Holmes; Dennis L. Laudal; Debra F. Pflughoeft-Hassett; Greg F. Weber; Nicholas V. C. Ralston; Stanley J. Miller; Grant E. Dunham; Edwin S. Olson; Laura J. Raymond; John H. Pavlish; Everett A. Sondreal; Steven A. Benson

    2006-03-31

    The Canadian Electricity Association (CEA) identified a need and contracted the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) to create and maintain an information clearinghouse on global research and development activities related to mercury emissions from coal-fired electric utilities. With the support of CEA, the Center for Air Toxic Metals{reg_sign} (CATM{reg_sign}) Affiliates, and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the EERC developed comprehensive quarterly information updates that provide a detailed assessment of developments in the various areas of mercury monitoring, control, policy, and research. A total of eight topical reports were completed and are summarized and updated in this final CEA quarterly report. The original quarterly reports can be viewed at the CEA Web site (www.ceamercuryprogram.ca). In addition to a comprehensive update of previous mercury-related topics, a review of results from the CEA Mercury Program is provided. Members of Canada's coal-fired electricity generation sector (ATCO Power, EPCOR, Manitoba Hydro, New Brunswick Power, Nova Scotia Power Inc., Ontario Power Generation, SaskPower, and TransAlta) and CEA, have compiled an extensive database of information from stack-, coal-, and ash-sampling activities. Data from this effort are also available at the CEA Web site and have provided critical information for establishing and reviewing a mercury standard for Canada that is protective of environment and public health and is cost-effective. Specific goals outlined for the CEA mercury program included the following: (1) Improve emission inventories and develop management options through an intensive 2-year coal-, ash-, and stack-sampling program; (2) Promote effective stack testing through the development of guidance material and the support of on-site training on the Ontario Hydro method for employees, government representatives, and contractors on an as-needed basis; (3) Strengthen laboratory analytical capabilities through

  3. Smart Grid Information Clearinghouse (SGIC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Saifur [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2014-08-31

    Since the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 was enacted, there has been a large number of websites that discusses smart grid and relevant information, including those from government, academia, industry, private sector and regulatory. These websites collect information independently. Therefore, smart grid information was quite scattered and dispersed. The objective of this work was to develop, populate, manage and maintain the public Smart Grid Information Clearinghouse (SGIC) web portal. The information in the SGIC website is comprehensive that includes smart grid information, research & development, demonstration projects, technical standards, costs & benefit analyses, business cases, legislation, policy & regulation, and other information on lesson learned and best practices. The content in the SGIC website is logically grouped to allow easily browse, search and sort. In addition to providing the browse and search feature, the SGIC web portal also allow users to share their smart grid information with others though our online content submission platform. The Clearinghouse web portal, therefore, serves as the first stop shop for smart grid information that collects smart grid information in a non-bias, non-promotional manner and can provide a missing link from information sources to end users and better serve users’ needs. The web portal is available at www.sgiclearinghouse.org. This report summarizes the work performed during the course of the project (September 2009 – August 2014). Section 2.0 lists SGIC Advisory Committee and User Group members. Section 3.0 discusses SGIC information architecture and web-based database application functionalities. Section 4.0 summarizes SGIC features and functionalities, including its search, browse and sort capabilities, web portal social networking, online content submission platform and security measures implemented. Section 5.0 discusses SGIC web portal contents, including smart grid 101, smart grid projects

  4. Making Your Web Site an Information Clearinghouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houchin, Kevin

    2000-01-01

    University Web sites now offer a wide range of information, from up-to-date course catalogs and informational brochures to class notes for alumni. This article gives an array of ideas for enhancing the usefulness of a university's Web site. A sidebar discusses the pros and cons of linking the student newspaper to the university Web site. (JM)

  5. Promising Prevention Strategies for the 90s. Clearinghouse Fact Sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Thomas; Svendsen, Roger

    Alcohol, tobacco, and drug use prevention is a goal shared by many. Prevention strategies aim to both reduce specific problems resulting from substance abuse and promote healthy development. Past efforts at prevention have included a variety of approaches: (1) prohibition; (2) scare tactics; (3) presenting factual information; (4) affective…

  6. 76 FR 34740 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Automated Clearinghouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    .... Abstract: The Automated Clearinghouse (ACH) allows participants in the Automated Broker Interface (ABI) to... directly to a CBP account. ACH debit allows the payer to exercise more control over the payment process. In order to participate in ACH debit, companies must complete CBP Form 400, ACH Application. Participants...

  7. USAID Colombia - Clearinghouse Monitor

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) Clearinghouse-Monitor is a web-based Information System that provides the Mission with information about the status and...

  8. Requirements of a web-based geographic information system clearinghouse

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.Inf. Users of geographic information systems (GIS) are often faced with a challenge with regard to identification, location and overall access to digital data used in the application of GIS. The selection of the appropriate data from the large volumes available, also gaining access to available data and the establishment of the distribution of data from one central source are necessary tasks in order to improve the dissemination of GIS data. However, these are difficult tasks due to many...

  9. FFCAct Clearinghouse, Directory of abstracts. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harwood, T.

    1994-05-01

    The Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCAct) Clearinghouse is a card catalog of information about the FFCAct and its requirements for developing Site Treatment Plans (STP). The information available in the clearinghouse includes abstracts describing computer applications, technical reports, and a list of technical experts. Information can be accessed for use in responding to FFCAct requirements, and the clearinghouse provides search capabilities on particular topics and issues related to STP development. Appendix A includes: contacts from each site, for which contact has been made, who are developing STPs; the FFCAct Clearinghouse Fact Sheet and; additional hard copy forms to be used to populate the database. This report contains 50 abstracts related to the Radioactive Waste Technical Support Program

  10. A comparison of primary care information content in UpToDate and the National Guideline Clearinghouse*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Susan H.; Badgett, Robert G.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: The study sought to determine if two major resources for primary care questions have significant differences in information content and whether the number of documents found differs by disease category, patient age, or patient gender. Methods: Seven hundred fifty-two questions were randomly selected from the Clinical Questions Collection of the National Library of Medicine. UpToDate and the National Guidelines Clearinghouse (NGC) were searched utilizing keywords from the questions. The number of documents retrieved for each question in the resources was recorded. Chi-squared analysis was used to compare differences in retrieval between the resources. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the effect of patient age, patient gender, or disease category on the ability to find content. Results: UpToDate returned 1 or more documents for 580 questions, while NGC returned at least 1 document for 493 questions (77.1% versus 65.5% of question sampled, P = 0.001). In combination, the 2 resources returned content for 91% of searches (n = 685). NGC retrieved a mean of 16.3 documents per question versus 8.7 documents from UpToDate. Disease category was the only variable having a significant impact on the presence of online resource content. Conclusions: UpToDate had greater breadth of content than NGC, while neither resource provided complete coverage. Current practice guidelines, as reflected by those in the NGC, addressed at most two-thirds of the selected clinical questions. PMID:17641755

  11. A comparison of primary care information content in UpToDate and the National Guideline Clearinghouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Susan H; Badgett, Robert G

    2007-07-01

    The study sought to determine if two major resources for primary care questions have significant differences in information content and whether the number of documents found differs by disease category, patient age, or patient gender. Seven hundred fifty-two questions were randomly selected from the Clinical Questions Collection of the National Library of Medicine. UpToDate and the National Guidelines Clearinghouse (NGC) were searched utilizing keywords from the questions. The number of documents retrieved for each question in the resources was recorded. Chi-squared analysis was used to compare differences in retrieval between the resources. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the effect of patient age, patient gender, or disease category on the ability to find content. UpToDate returned 1 or more documents for 580 questions, while NGC returned at least 1 document for 493 questions (77.1% versus 65.5% of question sampled, P = 0.001). In combination, the 2 resources returned content for 91% of searches (n = 685). NGC retrieved a mean of 16.3 documents per question versus 8.7 documents from UpToDate. Disease category was the only variable having a significant impact on the presence of online resource content. UpToDate had greater breadth of content than NGC, while neither resource provided complete coverage. Current practice guidelines, as reflected by those in the NGC, addressed at most two-thirds of the selected clinical questions.

  12. What Works Clearinghouse[TM] Reporting Guide for Study Authors

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This document provides guidance about how to describe studies and report their findings in a way that is clear, complete, and transparent. This document does not include information about how studies are judged against What Works Clearinghouse evidence standards. For information about What Works Clearinghouse evidence standards, please refer to…

  13. California Earthquake Clearinghouse Crisis Information-Sharing Strategy in Support of Situational Awareness, Understanding Interdependencies of Critical Infrastructure, Regional Resilience, Preparedness, Risk Assessment/mitigation, Decision-Making and Everyday Operational Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosinski, A.; Morentz, J.; Beilin, P.

    2017-12-01

    The principal function of the California Earthquake Clearinghouse is to provide State and Federal disaster response managers, and the scientific and engineering communities, with prompt information on ground failure, structural damage, and other consequences from significant seismic events such as earthquakes and tsunamis. The overarching problem highlighted in discussions with Clearinghouse partners is the confusion and frustration of many of the Operational Area representatives, and some regional utilities throughout the state on what software applications they should be using and maintaining to meet State, Federal, and Local, requirements, and for what purposes, and how to deal with the limitations of these applications. This problem is getting in the way of making meaningful progress on developing multi-application interoperability and the necessary supporting cross-sector information-sharing procedures and dialogue on essential common operational information that entities need to share for different all hazards missions and related operational activities associated with continuity, security, and resilience. The XchangeCore based system the Clearinghouse is evolving helps deal with this problem, and does not compound it by introducing yet another end-user application; there is no end-user interface with which one views XchangeCore, all viewing of data provided through XchangeCore occurs in and on existing, third-party operational applications. The Clearinghouse efforts with XchangeCore are compatible with FEMA, which is currently using XchangeCore-provided data for regional and National Business Emergency Operations Center (source of business information sharing during emergencies) response. Also important, and should be emphasized, is that information-sharing is not just for response, but for preparedness, risk assessment/mitigation decision-making, and everyday operational needs for situational awareness. In other words, the benefits of the Clearinghouse

  14. Emissions Modeling Clearinghouse

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Emissions Modeling Clearinghouse (EMCH) supports and promotes emissions modeling activities both internal and external to the EPA. Through this site, the EPA...

  15. Preventing Informal Urban Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; McLaren, Robin

    2008-01-01

    . This is directly linked to citizen participation in the process of land use control. Decentralisation should aim to combine responsibility for decision making with accountability for financial, social, and environmental consequences. Decentralisation requires access to appropriate quality of land information......, addresses the main issue of how to prevent informal urban development, especially through the use of adequate and sustainable means of land use control and good governance. Three key means are addressed: Decentralisation: There is a need to separate central policy/regulation making and local decision making......The issue of informal development was discussed in details at the joint FIG Com 3 and UNECE/WPLA workshop in Sounio, Greece, March 2007. Emphasis was given to the scale of the problem in Southern and Eastern Europe and to means of legalising such informal urban development. This paper, instead...

  16. A Report of Progress. Annual Report of the NFE Network Project: Operating a Clearinghouse on NFE Information (September 1981-August 1982) and Semi-Annual Reports of the NFE Network Project: Providing Technical Assistance in Creating LDC National/Regional Information Centers (September 1981-February 1982; March 1982-August 1982).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigozzi, Mary Joy

    This report describes the clearinghouse activities of the Non-Formal Education (NFE) Information Center from September 1981 through August 1982 and details efforts to strengthen the capacity of selected NFE resource centers in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. It first addresses the decision to extend the NFE Network Project, and then turns to the…

  17. The Social Construction of Public Infrastructure: The Case of the Dutch National Geo-information Clearinghouse Project.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koerten, Henk; Veenswijk, Marcel

    2010-01-01

    Disclosure of governmental map related information is increasingly being conceptualized as management of inter-organizational National Spatial Data Infrastructures (NSDIs). Until now, studies have been published on how NSDI projects should be designed, set up and monitored. While these approaches

  18. Clearinghouse Goes beyond Foundation Walls to Link Youth Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quill and Scroll, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Recounts how the Newspaper Association of America Foundation is setting up a clearinghouse to conduct research with those to be served (young people), is designing a site, and is implementing the project. States that the Foundation sent questionnaires to leaders in youth service areas asking for 13 different kinds of information and that response…

  19. A Clearinghouse for Astronomy Librarians: the PAM Web Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, A. Kathleen

    The advent of the World Wide Web has enabled librarians to create and publish web sites that function as specialized reference tools, virtual clearinghouses. This paper will review how the PAM web site has evolved, and survey current developments in information architecture and web applications that may provide future site enhancements.

  20. 78 FR 41694 - Final Priority and Requirements; Education Facilities Clearinghouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-11

    ... Facilities Clearinghouse program is to provide technical assistance and training on the planning, design... site, and influencing decision makers. Discussion: We appreciate the importance of the EFC provider... commenter emphasized that it is important for school staff to be able to make informed choices about school...

  1. Information Security - Data Loss Prevention Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this procedure is to extend and provide specificity to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Information Security Policy regarding data loss prevention and digital rights management.

  2. Asbestos information clearinghouse. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Commerce, Transportation, and Tourism, Committee on Energy and Commerce, House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session on H. R. 5078, July 17, 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    Representatives of US Gypsum Co., Pfizer Inc., and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) testified on the Asbestos Information Clearinghouse Act of 1986 (H.R. 5078), which calls for an information center with samples of materials containing asbestos to simplify the task of identifying their characteristics. The goal of the bill is to make judiciary processes more efficient. EPA opposes the bill on the grounds that the rulemaking and collection of samples from building owners and asbestos manufacturers and processors for analysis would shift the inefficiency from the judiciary arena to EPA. EPA argued that the identification of defendants is a private-sector issue, and that the activities that would be assigned to EPA would be outside its mission. Pfizer supported the legislation, while the spokesman for US Gypsum pointed out that if the purpose is to remove those defendants from litigation who are not involved, extensive sampling would be a waste of time. Additional material submitted for the record follows the text of H.R. 5078 and the testimony of four witnesses.

  3. Establishing a national clearinghouse on international medical education programs: an idea whose time has finally come.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David A

    2008-03-01

    In 2006, a special committee appointed by the Federation of State Medical Boards (FSMB) issued a report that evaluated undergraduate medical education in the United States and abroad. With accreditation systems that can provide reasonable and adequate assurance for the quality of medical education in this country, the committee focused its attention on international medical school programs. Because international medical graduates (IMG) comprise a quarter of the physician workforce, U.S. medical licensing boards continue to seek useful and appropriate information on the medical schools of their licensees. Among the report's recommendations is one calling for the establishment of a national clearinghouse of information and data on international medical schools. A workgroup with representation from the FSMB, the Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates, and state medical boards has been formed to establish this clearinghouse. The clearinghouse workgroup is considering various quality indicators suggested by the special committee report such as admission requirements, policies relative to advanced standing, and aggregate performance data on the United States Medical Licensing Examination. The challenges facing the clearinghouse are significant (e.g., gaining cooperation from multiple parties in the United States and abroad, prioritizing data collection efforts). One likely means for facilitating success may be to concentrate data-collection efforts primarily on the 8 to 10 schools currently supplying the largest number of IMGs seeking medical licensure in the United States. In this way, the clearinghouse will provide licensing boards with a resource for standardized information on those medical schools commonly presented by their IMG licensees.

  4. OEM Emergency Prevention and Mitigation Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Office of Emergency Management maintains information relevant to preventing emergencies before they occur, and/or mitigating the effects of emergency when they...

  5. Informal sector shops and AIDS prevention

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-04-20

    Apr 20, 1991 ... of AIDS prevention information and condoms through social marketing programmes. The existence of a variety of ... A relationship was found between the degree to which a shop exhibited aspects of ... by media and interpersonal commUnications, and whether shopkeepers exhibit characteristics of opinion ...

  6. The European Union Clearinghouse on Operating Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escrig, D.

    2015-07-01

    In the European Union, a regional network has been established to enhance nuclear safety through improvement of the use of lessons learned from Operating Experience. This network’s hub is located at the European Commission Joint Research Centre (JRC) in Petten, the Netherlands. This organisation is known as the European Clearinghouse on Operating Experience Feedback for Nuclear Power Plants. The ‘Clearinghouse’ is comprised of dedicated staff from JRC and member states that have joined the organisation. Membership is mainly composed of nuclear safety regulatory authorities and their Technical Support Organizations within the EU region. Its Centralised Office gathers nuclear safety experts performing the following technical tasks in support to the EU Member States: “Topical Studies” providing in-depth assessment of either articularly significant events or either families of events. Trend analysis of events in order to identify priority areas.Improvement of the quality of event reports submitted by the EU Member States to the International Reporting System jointly operated by the OECD-NEA and the IAEA.Reporting every three months the main events having occurred in NPPs. Database: a European central OE repository being developed in order to ensure long term storage of OE and to facilitate information retrieval. (Author.

  7. Evidence Clearinghouses and Registries: Methods for Locating and Including Studies in Evidence Syntheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Lisa; LaSota, Robin; Yeide, Martha

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to report about study identification practices across evidence-based registries and clearinghouses in social policy fields, which serve as a resource for scientific, evidence-based decision-making about practices about desired outcomes in these social policy fields. The information retrieval procedures of the…

  8. FFCAct Clearinghouse, directory of abstracts: Radioactive waste technical support program. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    The Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCAct) Clearinghouse is a card catalog of information about the FFCAct and its requirements for developing Site Treatment Plans (STP). The information available in the clearinghouse includes abstracts describing computer applications, technical reports, and a list of technical experts. This report contains 61 abstracts from the database relating to radioactive waste management. The clearinghouse includes information on characterization, retrieval, treatment, storage, and disposal elements of waste management as they relate to the FFCAct and the treatment of mixed wastes. Subject areas of information being compiled include: commercial treatment capabilities; listings of technical experts for assistance in selecting and evaluating treatment options and technologies; mixed waste data and treatability groups; guidance on STP development; life-cycle costs planning estimates for facilities; references to documentation on available technologies and technology development activities; Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) for treatment facilities; regulatory, health and safety issues associated with treatment facilities and technologies; and computer databases, applications, and models for identifying and evaluating treatment facilities and technologies. Access to the FFCAct clearinghouse is available to the DOE and its DOE contractors involved in STP development and other FFCAct activities

  9. Prevention of Methamphetamine Abuse: Can Existing Evidence Inform Community Prevention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birckmayer, Johanna; Fisher, Deborah A.; Holder, Harold D.; Yacoubian, George S.

    2008-01-01

    Little research exists on effective strategies to prevent methamphetamine production, distribution, sales, use, and harm. As a result, prevention practitioners (especially at the local level) have little guidance in selecting potentially effective strategies. This article presents a general causal model of methamphetamine use and harms that…

  10. Geoportal "READY:Prepare, Prevent, Stay Informed"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sole, Aurelia; Albano, Raffaele; Giuzio, Luciana; Manfreda, Salvatore; Maggio, Massimo; Presta, Aldo; Albano, Giovanni

    2014-05-01

    Information, communication, and training at all levels of a hydrogeological risk prevention culture is useful and necessary to develop the awareness among the people; this awareness can only lead to the correct application of the rules and correct behaviours that reduce the risk. A territorial system is more vulnerable to a calamitous event if there is little risk knowledge, in terms of knowledge of phenomenology of the event itself, of its own way to manifest and of the actions needed to mitigate their harmful effects. So, the Geoportal "READY: Prepare, Prevent, Stay Informed," developed by the School of Engineering at the University of Basilicata in collaboration with Paesit srl and Wat-TUBE, a spin-off of University of Basilicata, aims to inform people in an easy and correct way. This can improve the knowledge of the territory in order to promote the consciousness and awareness of the risks affecting the territory, in geo-localized form, even through using the memory of past disasters and precise directions on what to do for a tangible reduction of the risk. The Geoportal stores and dynamically integrates a series of layers that, individually, have a lower utility, but integrated into the web-based platform represent, for the prevention of the risks of the citizens, the anatomy for medicine. In fact, it makes the data not only available but concretely accessible. It is created on the "MapServer" platform, an open source web mapping suggested by the European Directives in the field of geographic database publication, and covers the Italian territory. It is designed to increase the knowledge of the areas at potential flood and landslide risk, delineated by the Authorities in the "P.A.I. (Piano di Assetto Idrogeologico"), and the elements which could possibly be involved in potential events with a particular attention to the critical infrastructures, such as bridges, railways and so on, and relevant structures, such as schools and hospitals. It permits the

  11. Preventing Terrorism Using Information Sharing Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    France, Paul

    2006-01-01

    .... Wisconsin in addition to many states lacks a central hub for information exchange and currently has no system in place that allows the variety of technologies to gain access to a common database...

  12. An Intelligent Threat Prevention Framework with Heterogeneous Information

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, WenJun; Liu, Weiru

    2014-01-01

    Three issues usually are associated with threat prevention intelligent surveillance systems. First, the fusion and interpretation of large scale incomplete heterogeneous information; second, the demand of effectively predicting suspects’ intention and ranking the potential threats posed by each suspect; third, strategies of allocating limited security resources (e.g., the dispatch of security team) to prevent a suspect’s further actions towards critical assets. However, in the literature, the...

  13. [Information system of heat-disorders and prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Masaji

    2012-06-01

    In Japan several services for providing information on heat-disorders and its prevention are available. For the information on patients of heat-disorders, National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) and Fire and Disaster Management Agency(FDMA) have systems for providing the information of the patients transported by ambulance cars from heat-disorders. NIES deals the data from major cities and FDMA deals the data of all Japan by prefecture. For the information on preventing heat-disorders, Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) and NIES have systems for providing the weather information. JMA alarms when the daily maximum temperature reached or will reach to extremely high (> or = 35 degrees C) and NIES provides the WBGT(wet-bulb globe temperature) forecast for coming three days for all around Japan.

  14. Knowledge Is Power Program (KIPP). What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2018

    2018-01-01

    The "Knowledge Is Power Program" ("KIPP") is a nonprofit network of more than 200 public charter schools educating early childhood, elementary, middle, and high school students. The What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) identified four studies of "KIPP" that fall within the scope of the Charter Schools topic area and meet…

  15. Pivotal Response Training. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2016

    2016-01-01

    This intervention report presents findings from a systematic review of "pivotal response training" conducted using the What Works Clearinghouse Procedures and Standards Handbook (version 3.0) and the Children and Students with an Autism Spectrum Disorder review protocol (version 3.0). "Pivotal response training"…

  16. Academy of READING®. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2014

    2014-01-01

    "Academy of READING"® is an online program that aims to improve students' reading skills using a structured and sequential approach to learning in five core areas--phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension. The What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) identified 38 studies of "Academy of READING"® for adolescent…

  17. Teach for America. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2016

    2016-01-01

    "Teach For America" ("TFA") is a highly selective route to teacher certification that aims to place non-traditionally trained teachers in high-need public schools. The What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) identified seven studies of teachers trained through "TFA" that both fall within the scope of the Teacher Training,…

  18. Dream Box Learning. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "DreamBox Learning" is a supplemental online mathematics program that provides adaptive instruction for students in grades K-5 and focuses on number and operations, place value, and number sense. The What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) identified one study of "DreamBox Learning" that both falls within the scope of the Elementary…

  19. Supporting Informed Decision Making in Prevention of Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantino MARTINS

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Identifying and making the correct decision on the best health treatment or screening test option can become a difficult task. Therefore is important that the patients get all types of information appropriate to manage their health. Decision aids can be very useful when there is more than one reasonable option about a treatment or uncertain associated with screening tests. The decision aids tools help people to understand their clinical condition, through the description of the different options available. The purpose of this paper is to present the project “Supporting Informed Decision Making In Prevention of Prostate Cancer” (SIDEMP. This project is focused on the creation of a Web-based decision platform specifically directed to screening prostate cancer, that will support the patient in the process of making an informed decision

  20. [Determinants of information-seeking about crime and crime prevention: information-seeking on the Internet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Takashi; Fuji, Kei; Yoshida, Fujio

    2013-06-01

    This study explores determinants of information-seeking about crime and crime prevention on the Internet, including how it was influenced by personal conversations with others. An analysis of a web survey of mothers (N = 1,040) of 3-12 years old children in Japan indicated that many mothers briefly saw basic information about crime on the Internet, while only a few mothers sought further details. Structural equation modeling indicated the following results. Overall, an increased frequency of conversations about children's safety with family and friends made mothers realize their own responsibility for crime prevention. It also encouraged mothers to seek more information about crime prevention by increasing their willingness to cooperate with neighbors. However, when individuals' realization of responsibility for crime prevention strengthened their attitudes toward the responsibility of the police and government for crime problems, then these attitudes decreased mothers' information-seeking. Finally, while a heightened frequency of conversations about news contents directly increased information-seeking about crime, such conversations could indirectly weaken mothers' information-seeking when mothers emphasized the responsibility of the police and government.

  1. Information System Model as a Mobbing Prevention: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersin Karaman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it is aimed to detect mobbing issues in Atatürk University, Economics and Administrative Science Facultyand provide an information system model to prevent mobbing and reduce the risk. The study consists of two parts;i detect mobbing situation via questionnaire and ii design an information system based on the findings of the first part. The questionnaire was applied to research assistants in the faculty. Five factors were analyzed and it is concluded that research assistants have not been exposed to mobbing except the fact that they have mobbing perception about task assignment process. Results show that task operational difficulty, task time and task period are the common mobbing issues.  In order to develop an information system to cope with these issues,   assignment of exam proctor process is addressed. Exam time, instructor location, classroom location and exam duration are the considered as decision variables to developed linear programming (LP model. Coefficients of these variables and constraints about the LP model are specified in accordance with the findings. It is recommended that research assistants entrusting process should be conducted by using this method to prevent and reduce the risk of mobbing perception in the organization.

  2. 77 FR 31592 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests; Institute of Education Sciences; What Works...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests; Institute of Education Sciences; What Works Clearinghouse SUMMARY: The What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) was established to develop...., LBJ, Washington, DC 20202-4537. Copies of the proposed information collection request may be accessed...

  3. California Earthquake Clearinghouse Activation for August 24, 2014, M6.0 South Napa Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosinski, A.; Parrish, J.; Mccrink, T. P.; Tremayne, H.; Ortiz, M.; Greene, M.; Berger, J.; Blair, J. L.; Johnson, M.; Miller, K.; Seigel, J.; Long, K.; Turner, F.

    2014-12-01

    The Clearinghouse's principal functions are to 1) coordinate field investigations of earth scientists, engineers, and other participating researchers; 2) facilitate sharing of observations through regular meetings and through the Clearinghouse website; and 3) notify disaster responders of crucial observations or results. Shortly after 3:20 a.m., on August 24, 2014, Clearinghouse management committee organizations, the California Geological Survey (CGS), the Earthquake Engineering Research Institute (EERI), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the California Office of Emergency Services (CalOES), and the California Seismic Safety Commission (CSSC), authorized activation of a virtual Clearinghouse and a physical Clearinghouse location. The California Geological Survey, which serves as the permanent, lead coordination organization for the Clearinghouse, provided all coordination with the state for all resources required for Clearinghouse activation. The Clearinghouse physical location, including mobile satellite communications truck, was opened at a Caltrans maintenance facility located at 3161 Jefferson Street, in Napa. This location remained active through August 26, 2014, during which time it drew the participation of over 100 experts from more than 40 different organizations, and over 1730 remote visitors via the Virtual Clearinghouse and online data compilation map. The Clearinghouse conducted three briefing calls each day with the State Operations Center (SOC) and Clearinghouse partners, and also conducted nightly briefings, accessible to remote participants via webex, with field personnel. Data collected by field researchers was compiled into a map through the efforts of EERI and USGS volunteers in the Napa Clearinghouse. EERI personnel continued to provide updates to the compilation map over an extended period of time following de-activation of the Clearinghouse. In addition, EERI managed the Clearinghouse website. Two overflights were conducted, for

  4. Procedures and Standards Handbook. Version 3.0. What Works Clearinghouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This "What Works Clearinghouse Procedures and Standards Handbook (Version 3.0)" provides a detailed description of the standards and procedures of the What Works Clearinghouse (WWC). The remaining chapters of this Handbook are organized to take the reader through the basic steps that the WWC uses to develop a review protocol, identify…

  5. Development of Information Security-Focused Incident Prevention Measures for Critical Information Infrastructure in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hideaki; Watanabe, Kenji; Watanabe, Takahito; Nagayasu, Yukinobu

    In recent years, the dilemma of cyber attacks by malicious third parties targeting security vulnerabilities in information and communication systems has emerged, resulting in security incidents. This situation suggests that the establishment of proactive efforts and recurrence prevention measures are becoming imperative, especially in critical infrastructure sectors.This paper provides an analysis of 58 security incident cases, which occurred in critical infrastructures worldwide and were published in media. The purpose of the analysis is to conclude to a valid list of recurrence prevention measures that constitute good practices.

  6. Natural disasters and the media in Colombia: Information for prevention?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermelin, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    The relation between society and the treatment given by media to natural disasters have scarcely been studied in Colombia. This topic concerns the field of research called science communication. Interdisciplinary focus is needed in order to understand the conditions in which information is produced and the media construction of situation and more precisely public perception and appropriation. Some studies have shown that a tendency exists in media to dwell on the detailed description of success and to pass over explanations on causes and consequences given by scientists and experts. These explanations, when they exist, are limited and are even mixed with those of supernatural character. A closer comprehension of the way information is received is necessary, in order to understand that treatments of this type of information area not simple manipulations carried on by the media. It has been demonstrated that people are able to choose, as far as their imaginations are close to those proposed by media on the topic of natural disasters. Taking into account government and civil society responsibilities on this respect, the present paper, instead of avoiding it, invites to discuss the Colombian media responsibility on the topic of natural disaster prevention

  7. Analysis of consumer information brochures on osteoporosis prevention and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mühlhauser, Ingrid

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Evidence-based consumer information is a prerequisite for informed decision making. So far, there are no reports on the quality of consumer information brochures on osteoporosis. In the present study we analysed brochures on osteoporosis available in Germany. Method: All printed brochures from patient and consumer advocacy groups, physician and governmental organisations, health insurances, and pharmaceutical companies were initially collected in 2001, and updated in December 2004. Brochures were analysed by two independent researchers using 37 internationally proposed criteria addressing evidence-based content, risk communication, transparency of the development process, and layout and design. Results: A total of 165 brochures were identified; 59 were included as they specifically targeted osteoporosis prevention and treatment. Most brochures were provided by pharmaceutical companies (n=25, followed by health insurances (n=11 and patient and consumer advocacy groups (n=11. Quality of brochures did not differ between providers. Only 1 brochure presented lifetime risk estimate; 4 mentioned natural course of osteoporosis. A balanced report on benefit versus lack of benefit was presented in 2 brochures and on benefit versus adverse effects in 8 brochures. Four brochures mentioned relative risk reduction, 1 reported absolute risk reduction through hormone replacement therapy (HRT. Out of 28 brochures accessed in 2004 10 still recommended HRT without discussing adverse effects. Transparency of the development process was limited: 25 brochures reported publication date, 26 cited author and only 1 references. In contrast, readability and design was generally good. Conclusion: The quality of consumer brochures on osteoporosis in Germany is utterly inadequate. They fail to give evidence-based data on diagnosis and treatment options. Therefore, the material is not useful to enhance informed consumer choice.

  8. AEGIS: a wildfire prevention and management information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalabokidis, Kostas; Ager, Alan; Finney, Mark; Athanasis, Nikos; Palaiologou, Palaiologos; Vasilakos, Christos

    2016-03-01

    We describe a Web-GIS wildfire prevention and management platform (AEGIS) developed as an integrated and easy-to-use decision support tool to manage wildland fire hazards in Greece (http://aegis.aegean.gr). The AEGIS platform assists with early fire warning, fire planning, fire control and coordination of firefighting forces by providing online access to information that is essential for wildfire management. The system uses a number of spatial and non-spatial data sources to support key system functionalities. Land use/land cover maps were produced by combining field inventory data with high-resolution multispectral satellite images (RapidEye). These data support wildfire simulation tools that allow the users to examine potential fire behavior and hazard with the Minimum Travel Time fire spread algorithm. End-users provide a minimum number of inputs such as fire duration, ignition point and weather information to conduct a fire simulation. AEGIS offers three types of simulations, i.e., single-fire propagation, point-scale calculation of potential fire behavior, and burn probability analysis, similar to the FlamMap fire behavior modeling software. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) were utilized for wildfire ignition risk assessment based on various parameters, training methods, activation functions, pre-processing methods and network structures. The combination of ANNs and expected burned area maps are used to generate integrated output map of fire hazard prediction. The system also incorporates weather information obtained from remote automatic weather stations and weather forecast maps. The system and associated computation algorithms leverage parallel processing techniques (i.e., High Performance Computing and Cloud Computing) that ensure computational power required for real-time application. All AEGIS functionalities are accessible to authorized end-users through a web-based graphical user interface. An innovative smartphone application, AEGIS App, also

  9. INIS strategic planning and INIS Clearinghouse document delivery: from four weeks to four minutes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, Emil; St-Pierre, Germain

    2015-01-01

    I joined INIS in May 1994 as a consultant to create a Strategic Plan for 1995–2000. I had left a US Department of Justice contractor, Aspen Corporation, which operated the National Criminal Justice Reference Service (NCJRS), as chief of two libraries and manager of a clearinghouse for the world’s criminal justice literature. NCJRS collected this literature, created a bibliographic on-line database and converted non-copyrighted literature to microfiche. The government contract had to be renewed every five years and the Aspen proposal was basically a five year strategic plan, to which I contributed. Thus, when I came to INIS, I had an understanding of the process. The next six months were devoted to preparing STRATEGIC GUIDELINES FOR INIS DEVELOPMENTS 1995–2000 with the caveat: Notice: The guidelines proposed in this report are those of the Information Consultant. They represent a wide range of options that are being presented for further refinement by Peer Reviewers, INIS Consultants and finally the Advisory Committee for INIS. Forwarding of these guidelines does not represent concurrence or nonconcurrence by the INIS Secretariat. 30 September 1994. Member States are now collecting and submitting most of their NCL in electronic format. It is sent to INIS for quality control and consolidation. Consequently, INIS staff has been gradually reduced. The amount of NCL disseminated has remained constant, and an ongoing process to digitize the entire INIS collection on microfiche will be completed in 2016, a process I started in 1999. Before leaving INIS in 1999, I realized that the future would provide a reduced requirement for INIS imaging and recommended the Clearinghouse become a resource for all of the IAEA. Today it serves that purpose

  10. Early Risers. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

    2012-01-01

    "Early Risers" is a multi-year prevention program for elementary school children demonstrating early aggressive and disruptive behavior. The intervention model includes two child-focused components and two parent/family components. The Child Skills component is designed to teach skills that enhance children's emotional and behavioral…

  11. 76 FR 81959 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request; Homelessness Prevention Study Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... Information Collection: Comment Request; Homelessness Prevention Study Site Visits AGENCY: Office of the Chief.... This Notice also lists the following information: Title of Proposal: Homelessness Prevention Study Site... of the Paperwork Reduction Act requirements associated with HUD's Homelessness Prevention Study Site...

  12. 76 FR 64368 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB Homelessness Prevention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-18

    ... Proposed Information Collection to OMB Homelessness Prevention Study AGENCY: Office of Policy Development... Homelessness Prevention Study. The proposed information collection was approved under emergency review (OMB...) has submitted to OMB a request to extend approval for information collection for the Homelessness...

  13. Notification: Audit of EPA Customer Service Help Desks, Hotlines, and Clearinghouses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project #OA-FY12-0570, November 29, 2012. The EPA Office of Inspector General (OIG) plans to begin the fieldwork phase of our audit of EPA’s customer service help desks, hotlines, and clearinghouses (customer service lines).

  14. Notification: Audit of EPA Customer Service Help Desks, Hotlines, and Clearinghouses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project #OA-FY12-0570, July 12, 2012. The EPA Office of Inspector General (OIG) plans to begin preliminary research on EPA’s customer service help desks, hotlines, and clearinghouses (contact centers).

  15. Commercial Drivers License Information System - Gateway: (CDLIS - Gateway) -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — CDLIS - Gateway is the clearinghouse for CDL information collected by all states, and provides a gateway for enforcement users to access CDL data. CDLIS Gateway was...

  16. 14 CFR 1213.106 - Preventing release of classified information to the media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... information to the media. 1213.106 Section 1213.106 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION RELEASE OF INFORMATION TO NEWS AND INFORMATION MEDIA § 1213.106 Preventing release of classified information to the media. (a) Release of classified information in any form (e.g., documents, through...

  17. Information to Include in Curriculum Vitae | Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applicants are encouraged to use their current curriculum vitae and to add any necessary information. Please include your name and a page number on each page of the curriculum vitae. Some of the information requested below will not be applicable to all individuals. Please do not print or type your information on this page. Personal Information Name (First middle last) Gender (optional) Race (optional) Date of birth Place of birth (city,

  18. Improving Reliability of Information Leakage Detection and Prevention Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Mamaev

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The problem of protection from deliberate leaks of information is one of the most difficult. Integrated systems of information protection against insider have a serious drawback. Using this disadvantage the offender receives the possibility of unauthorized theft of information from working machine.

  19. 78 FR 13366 - Information Collection Request: Technical Resource for Incident Prevention (TRIPwire) User...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ...: Technical Resource for Incident Prevention (TRIPwire) User Registration AGENCY: National Protection and..., e.g., permitting electronic submissions of responses. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Technical..., citizenship, job title, employer name, professional address and contact information, as well as an Employment...

  20. Mathematical modelling informs HIV prevention policy in China ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-27

    Apr 27, 2016 ... IDRC-funded research is using mathematical modelling to influence local and national policies in China to reduce HIV transmission. Treatment as prevention Earlier research conducted under Modelling and controlling infectious diseases project showed that providing antiretroviral therapy (ART) to ...

  1. AEGIS: a wildfire prevention and management information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostas Kalabokidis; Alan Ager; Mark Finney; Nikos Athanasis; Palaiologos Palaiologou; Christos Vasilakos

    2016-01-01

    We describe a Web-GIS wildfire prevention and management platform (AEGIS) developed as an integrated and easy-to-use decision support tool to manage wildland fire hazards in Greece (http://aegis.aegean.gr). The AEGIS platform assists with early fire warning, fire planning, fire control and coordination of firefighting forces by providing online access to...

  2. "It's Crazy Being a Black, Gay Youth." Getting Information about HIV Prevention: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voisin, Dexter R.; Bird, Jason D. P.; Shiu, Chen-Shi; Krieger, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    Background: Access and adoption of HIV prevention information are important criteria for reducing HIV infection rates among men who have sex with men. Methods: Using focus group data, researchers sought to identify sources of HIV prevention information and barriers to adopting protective behaviors among young African American men who have sex with…

  3. Information management in Malawi's prevention of Mother-to-Child ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition, some believed lack of feedback, information sharing, and poor attitude toward information management tasks were challenges. Conclusion: Based on the study findings, there is need to find ways of motivating data quality improvement practises in the health facilities, as health workers view this as a tangential, ...

  4. European Clearinghouse. Incidents related to reactivity management. Contributing factors, failure modes and corrective actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruynooghe, Christiane; Noel, Marc

    2009-01-01

    This work is part of the European Clearinghouse on Nuclear Power Plant Operational Experience Feedback (NPP-OEF) activity carried out at the Joint Research Centre/Institute for Energy (JRC/IE) with the participation of nine EU Regulatory Authorities. It investigates the 1999 Shika-1 criticality event together with other shortcomings in reactivity management reported to the IAE4 Incident Reporting System in the period 1981-2008. The aim of the work was to identify reactivity control failure modes, reactor status and corrective actions. Initiating factors and associated root causes were also analysed. Five of the 7 factors identified for all events were present in the 1999 Shika-1 event where criticality has been unexpectedly reached and maintained during 15 minutes. Most of the events resulted in changes in procedures, material or staff and management training. The analysis carried out put in evidence that in several instances appropriate communication based on operational experience feedback would have prevented incident to occur. This paper also summarises the action taken at power plants and by the regulatory bodies in different countries to avoid repetition of similar events. It identifies insights that might be useful to reduce the likelihood of operational events caused by shortcomings in reactivity management. (orig.)

  5. An Authentication Middleware for Prevention of Information Theft

    OpenAIRE

    S. Kami Makki; Md. Sadekur Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Information theft or data leakage is a growing concern for companies, as well as, individual users. Intruders can easily copy a huge amount of confidential data using hand-held devices such as USB flash drives, iPods, digital cameras or any other external storage devices. Data theft can simply occur through both insiders and outsiders of a corporation. It is becoming the biggest challenge for companies, since the storage devices are becoming smaller in size, easier to use, have higher capacit...

  6. Is information about eating disorders experienced as harmful? A consumer perspective on primary prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenvinge, Jan H; Westjordet, Marthe Ø

    2004-01-01

    Empirical studies showing harmful side effects such as symptom learning have led to the abandoning of symptom information in school-based prevention programs on eating disorders. However, little is known about how students themselves experience information about eating disorders, and how they believe information about eating disorders may affect students in general. A positive experience may be expected because information may reduce student's worry and concern about an eating disorder for themselves and their peers. This survey of 107 15-16-year-old students in a junior high school showed that students, and girls in particular, found information about eating disorders provided in school-based prevention programs useful, meaningful, and interesting. Also, they believed that information may help students in general better understand the nature of eating disorders in order to support peers and friends. Interviews still showed that information was poorly related to their own situation as many reported dieting to be thinner to acquire prefection, and that they could diet without loosing control. Interviews also showed that students wanted more interactive classroom discussions about eating disorders. Discussion may facilitate elaboration and a better personal integration of information. It is suggested that integrated information based social support, and not information per se might be the preventive agent,and that the provision of information can then be defendable within a health promotion paradigm. Replacing the school teacher with a specialist prevention team to improve the credibility of information could be a useful strategy that needs further investigation.

  7. Factors Influencing Trust in Agencies That Disseminate Tobacco Prevention Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranney, Leah M; Jarman, Kristen L; Baker, Hannah M; Vu, Maihan; Noar, Seth M; Goldstein, Adam O

    2018-04-01

    Several health-related agencies administer national and targeted public education campaigns to provide health information and change health-related behaviors. The trust the public has in these agencies as the source of the message impacts the effectiveness of their communication campaigns. In this study, we explore the perceived trust of agencies that communicate health messages in the tobacco control field. As part of a larger tobacco regulatory science study, we conducted six 90-min focus groups comprising 41 participants. Five main themes emerged pertinent to the agency: (1) its integrity, (2) its competence, (3) its motives, (4) how it is portrayed in the media, and (5) skepticism and mistrust about it. Given the significant resources spent on health messaging to the public and potential benefits offered by this communication, an understanding of public trust in the agencies as the source of health messages is important. Findings suggest health information may be ignored or discounted when there is mistrust in the agency sending those messages.

  8. Effects of high treatability information on preventative intention of bowel cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Yingqiu; Dijkstra, Arie; Dalley, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Background: The information that indicates a disease is highly treatable is called ‘high treatability information’ (HTI). This HTI may decrease people’s preventative intention of the disease. The current study examined the effects of HTI on preventative intention of bowel cancer. Procedure of

  9. Access to information and decision making on teenage pregnancy prevention by females in Tshwane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masemola-Yende, J P F; Mataboge, Sanah M

    2015-11-05

    The increase in the number of teenage pregnancies and its negative consequences has encouraged various researchers to explore the possible causes of teenage pregnancy. Findings from previously-conducted research have indicated different preventable factors that predispose female teenagers to pregnancy, such as staff attitudes and the lack of information resulting from poor access to health facilities. To explore and describe access to information and decision making on teenage pregnancy prevention by females using a primary healthcare clinic in Tshwane, South Africa. In this study, the researchers used a descriptive qualitative and exploratory research design to explore and describe the verbal reports regarding prevention of teenage pregnancy by females using a primary healthcare clinic in Tshwane, South Africa. Face-to-face semistructured interviews were conducted with 15 female participants aged between 15 and 26, who had been pregnant once or more during their teens. Two themes emerged, namely, access to information and decision making by female teenagers. Five categories that emerged were: access to information on pregnancy prevention; ignoring of provided information; the use of alternative medicine with hormonal contraception; personal reasons for use and non-use of contraception; and decisions made by teenagers to not fall pregnant. Females in this study fell pregnant in their teens, even though they had access to information. Given the complexity of this problem, female teenagers should use their families as primary sources of information for reproductive health promotion and educational institutions should build on this to aid the prevention of teenage pregnancy.

  10. EarthSpace: The Higher Education Clearinghouse for Earth and Space Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, H.; Cobabe-Ammann, E. A.; Shipp, S. S.

    2012-12-01

    EarthSpace is a searchable database of undergraduate classroom materials designed specifically for faculty teaching planetary sciences, Earth sciences, astrophysics, and solar and space physics at the introductory and upper division levels. Modeled after the highly successful SERC clearinghouse for geosciences assets, EarthSpace was designed for easy submission of classroom assets, from homework and computer interactives to laboratory exercises, lectures, and demonstrations. The site capabilities are being expanded to allow assignment of a unique Digital Object Identifier (DOI) to submitted materials, which will provide material developers a way to identify their submitted materials as publications on their CVs. EarthSpace materials are automatically cross-posted to other digital libraries (e.g., ComPADRE) and virtual higher education communities (e.g., Connexions), providing a wider distribution of the resources. In addition to classroom materials, EarthSpace provides the latest news and information about educational research and best practices, funding opportunities, and ongoing efforts and collaborations for undergraduate education. This information is emailed monthly in a newsletter to faculty members via the community mailing list, HENews. HENews is a place for the higher education community to share and receive news and information about higher education, teaching, and Earth and space science. EarthSpace also has an RSS feed to notify members when items are added. EarthSpace is a community-driven effort; higher education faculty members contribute and review materials and thus influence the content provided on the site. All materials are peer-reviewed before posting, and authors adhere to the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY 3.0). You are invited to visit EarthSpace to search for teaching resources, submit your materials, or volunteer to review submitted resources in your discipline with a frequency designed to fit your schedule.

  11. 78 FR 27129 - Proposed Priority and Requirements-Education Facilities Clearinghouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ..., art rooms, music rooms, and gymnasiums between schools in low- income areas and schools in more... facilities. The major goals we seek to address with this priority are: First, to highlight the role that... preserve the role of the Clearinghouse in helping schools retrofit their facilities to increase security...

  12. 45 CFR 2518.110 - What are the functions of a Service-Learning Clearinghouse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., and technical assistance relating to planning and operation of service-learning programs, to States... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the functions of a Service-Learning...) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE SERVICE-LEARNING CLEARINGHOUSE § 2518.110 What are the...

  13. Acardia : Epidemiologic Findings and Literature Review From the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botto, Lorenzo D.; Feldkamp, Marcia L.; Amar, Emmanuelle; Carey, John C.; Castilla, Eduardo E.; Clementi, Maurizio; Cocchi, Guido; de Walle, Hermien E. K.; Halliday, Jane; Leoncini, Emanuele; Li, Zhu; Lowry, R. Brian; Marengo, Lisa K.; Martinez-Frias, Maria-Luisa; Merlob, Paul; Morgan, Margery; Luna Munoz, Leonora; Rissmann, Anke; Ritvanen, Annukka; Scarano, Gioacchino; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo

    2011-01-01

    Acardia is a severe, complex malformation of monozygotic twinning, but beyond clinical case series, very few epidemiologic data are available. The goals of this study were to assess the epidemiologic characteristics of acardia from birth defect registries in the International Clearinghouse for Birth

  14. 77 FR 48506 - Notice of Submission for OMB Review; Institute of Education Sciences; What Works Clearinghouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Notice of Submission for OMB Review; Institute of Education Sciences; What... request to continue a currently approved collection under OMB Control Number 1850-0788 for the What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) [ED-07-CO-0062]. The U.S. Department of Education (ED) established the WWC to develop...

  15. Scott Foresman-Addison Wesley Elementary Mathematics. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2010

    2010-01-01

    "Scott Foresman-Addison Wesley Elementary Mathematics" is a core curriculum for students at all ability levels in prekindergarten through grade 6. The program supports students' understanding of key math concepts and skills and covers a range of mathematical content across grades. The What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) reviewed 12 studies on…

  16. Harlem Children's Zone (HCZ) Promise Academy Charter Schools. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2018

    2018-01-01

    This intervention report presents findings from a systematic review of the "Harlem Children's Zone (HCZ) Promise Academy Charter Schools" conducted using the What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) Procedures and Standards Handbook (version 3.0) and the Charter Schools review protocol (version 3.0). No studies of the "HCZ Promise Academy…

  17. Successmaker®. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report. Updated November 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) has updated its 2009 intervention report for SuccessMaker®, a set of computer-based courses designed to supplement regular K-8 reading instruction. The program is designed to improve skills in areas such as concepts of print, phonological awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, comprehension, grammar, and…

  18. Informal Caregiver Disability and Access to Preventive Care in Care Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Joshua M; Thorpe, Carolyn T; Schulz, Richard; Van Houtven, Courtney H; Schleiden, Loren

    2015-09-01

    Many informal caregivers of dependent midlife and older adults suffer from their own functional limitations. The impact of caregiver functional limitations on care recipient receipt of preventive services is unknown. The purpose of this study is to examine the association between caregiver functional limitations and decreased access to recommended preventive services in dependent care recipients. Dependent adults (those receiving assistance with activities of daily living or instrumental activities of daily living) and their primary informal caregiver were identified from pooled alternate years (2000-2008) of the nationally representative Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (data analyzed February-October 2014). The impact of caregiver limitations (cognitive, mobility, sensory, emotional health) on care recipient's receipt of up to seven different preventive services was assessed via survey-weighted linear and logistic regression. Of the 5-year weighted estimate of 14.2 million caregiver-care recipient dyads, 38.0% of caregivers reported at least one functional limitation. The percentage of recommended preventive services received by care recipients was significantly lower if the caregiver had cognitive, mobility, or emotional health limitations. Each type of caregiver functional limitation was negatively associated with at least four different preventive services. Informal caregivers burdened by their own functional impairments may face challenges in facilitating access to preventive care in dependent midlife and older adults. Policies and interventions designed to prevent or mitigate the impact of caregiver functional impairments are critical to the success of community-based models of care for dependent adults. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Access to information and decision making on teenage pregnancy prevention by females in Tshwane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P.F. Masemola-Yende

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increase in the number of teenage pregnancies and its negative consequences has encouraged various researchers to explore the possible causes of teenage pregnancy. Findings from previously-conducted research have indicated different preventable factors that predispose female teenagers to pregnancy, such as staff attitudes and the lack of information resulting from poor access to health facilities. Objective: To explore and describe access to information and decision making on teenage pregnancy prevention by females using a primary healthcare clinic in Tshwane, South Africa. Method: In this study, the researchers used a descriptive qualitative and exploratory research design to explore and describe the verbal reports regarding prevention of teenage pregnancy by females using a primary healthcare clinic in Tshwane, South Africa. Face-to-face semistructured interviews were conducted with 15 female participants aged between 15 and 26, who had been pregnant once or more during their teens. Results: Two themes emerged, namely, access to information and decision making by female teenagers. Five categories that emerged were: access to information on pregnancy prevention; ignoring of provided information; the use of alternative medicine with hormonal contraception; personal reasons for use and non-use of contraception; and decisions made by teenagers to not fall pregnant. Females in this study fell pregnant in their teens, even though they had access to information. Conclusion: Given the complexity of this problem, female teenagers should use their families as primary sources of information for reproductive health promotion and educational institutions should build on this to aid the prevention of teenage pregnancy.

  20. Using first nations children's perceptions of food and activity to inform an obesity prevention strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigford, Ashlee-Ann E; Willows, Noreen D; Holt, Nicholas L; Newton, Amanda S; Ball, Geoff D C

    2012-07-01

    Obesity and associated health risks disproportionately affect Aboriginal (First Nations) children in Canada. The purpose of this research study was to elicit First Nations children's perceptions of food, activity, and health to inform a community-based obesity prevention strategy. Fifteen 4th- and 5th-Grade students participated in one of three focus group interviews that utilized drawing and pile-sorting activities. We used an ecological lens to structure our findings. Analyses revealed that a variety of interdependent sociocultural factors influenced children's perceptions. Embedded within a cultural/traditional worldview, children indicated a preference for foods and activities from both contemporary Western and traditional cultures, highlighted family members as their main sources of health information, and described information gaps in their health education. Informed by children's perspectives, these findings offer guidance for developing an obesity prevention strategy for First Nations children in this community.

  1. Access to information and decision making on teenage pregnancy prevention by females in Tshwane

    OpenAIRE

    J.P.F. Masemola-Yende; Sanah M. Mataboge

    2015-01-01

    Background: The increase in the number of teenage pregnancies and its negative consequences has encouraged various researchers to explore the possible causes of teenage pregnancy. Findings from previously-conducted research have indicated different preventable factors that predispose female teenagers to pregnancy, such as staff attitudes and the lack of information resulting from poor access to health facilities. Objective: To explore and describe access to information and decision making...

  2. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Error processing SSI file About Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Heart disease and stroke are an epidemic in ... secondhand smoke. Barriers to Effective Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Many people with key risk factors for heart ...

  3. Using risk-informed asset management for feedwater system preventative maintenance optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kee, Ernest; Sun, Alice; Richards, Andrew; Grantom, Rick; Liming, James; Salter, James

    2004-01-01

    The initial development of a South Texas Project Nuclear Operating Company process for supporting preventative maintenance optimization by applying the Balance-Of-Plant model and Risk-Informed Asset Management alpha-level software applications is presented. Preventative maintenance activities are evaluated in the South Texas Project Risk-Informed Asset Management software while the plant maintains or improves upon high levels of nuclear safety. In the Balance-Of-Plant availability application, the level of detail in the feedwater system is enhanced to support plant decision-making at the component failure mode and human error mode level of indenture by elaborating on the current model at the super-component level of indenture. The enhanced model and modeling techniques are presented. Results of case studies in feedwater system preventative maintenance optimization sing plant-specific data are also presented. (author)

  4. Effects of high treatability information on preventative intention of bowel cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Yingqiu; Dijkstra, Arie; Dalley, Simon E.

    2017-01-01

    The information that indicates a disease is highly treatable is called ‘high treatability information’ (HTI). This study examined the effects of HTI on preventative intention of bowel cancer. Self-affirmation was used to reduce the defensive responses to HTI. We employed a 3(control versus low

  5. [Do media reports and public brochures facilitate informed decision making about cervical cancer prevention?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumeyer-Gromen, A; Bodemer, N; Müller, S M; Gigerenzer, G

    2011-11-01

    With the introduction and recommendation of the new HPV (human papillomavirus) vaccination in 2007, cervical cancer prevention has evoked large public interest. Is the public able to make informed decisions on the basis of media reports and brochures? To answer this question, an analysis of media coverage of HPV vaccination (Gardasil®) and Pap (Papanicolaou) screening was conducted from 2007-2009, which investigated the minimum requirement of completeness (pros and cons), transparency (absolute numbers), and correctness (references concerning outcome, uncertainty, magnitude) of the information. As a bench mark, facts boxes with concise data on epidemiology, etiology, benefits, harms, and costs were compiled in advance. Although all vaccination reports and brochures covered the impact of prevention, only 41% provided concrete numbers on effectiveness (90/220) and 2% on absolute risk reductions for the cancer surrogate dysplasia (5/220), whereby none of the latter numbers was correct. The prevention potential was correctly presented once. Only 48% (105/220) mentioned pros and cons. With regard to screening, 20% (4/20) provided explicit data on test quality and one expressed these in absolute numbers, while 25% (5/20) reported the prevention potential; all given numbers were correct. Finally, 25% (5/20) mentioned the possibility of false positive results. Minimum requirements were fulfilled by 1/220 vaccination and 1/20 screening reports. At present, informed decision making based on media coverage is hardly possible.

  6. Trust Ecologies and Channel Complementarity for Information Seeking in Cancer Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seow Ting; Dutta, Mohan J; Lin, Julian; Luk, Pauline; Kaur-Gill, Satveer

    2018-01-01

    Our paper extends channel complementarity theory, which has focused on evidence of complementarity and patterns of channel use, by elucidating the notion of trust complementarity. We examined trust, an information-carrier characteristic and a core construct in health-focused decision-making to understand cancer information seeking, based on data from two nationally representative surveys in Singapore. Trust is found to be differential, relational, and ecological, with implications for individuals' access to and reliance on doctors, family/friends, newspapers/magazines, radio, TV, and the Internet for cancer prevention information. In an ideal trust complementarity environment, an individual should be able to traverse a range of communication channels seamlessly. Our findings however suggest that although individuals trust different channels complementarily, their trust patterns are limited and fettered. We identified two types of trust ecologies shaped by dual-channel and polymorphic complementarity patterns that suggest that health information seekers are trapped within specific trust ecologies that prevent them from navigating a broader range of communication channels for cancer prevention.

  7. Using incident reports to inform the prevention of medication administration errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härkänen, Marja; Saano, Susanna; Vehviläinen-Julkunen, Katri

    2017-11-01

    To describe ways of preventing medication administration errors based on reporters' views expressed in medication administration incident reports. Medication administration errors are very common, and nurses play important roles in committing and in preventing such errors. Thus far, incident reporters' perceptions of how to prevent medication administration errors have rarely been analysed. This is a qualitative, descriptive study using an inductive content analysis of the incident reports related to medication administration errors (n = 1012). These free-text descriptions include reporters' views on preventing the reoccurrence of medication administration errors. The data were collected from two hospitals in Finland and pertain to incidents that were reported between 1 January 2013 and 31 December 2014. Reporters' views on preventing medication administration errors were divided into three main categories related to individuals (health professionals), teams and organisations. The following categories related to individuals in preventing medication administration errors were identified: (1) accuracy and preciseness; (2) verification; and (3) following the guidelines, responsibility and attitude towards work. The team categories were as follows: (1) distribution of work; (2) flow of information and cooperation; and (3) documenting and marking the drug information. The categories related to organisation were as follows: (1) work environment; (2) resources; (3) training; (4) guidelines; and (5) development of the work. Health professionals should administer medication with a high moral awareness and an attempt to concentrate on the task. Nonetheless, the system should support health professionals by providing a reasonable work environment and encouraging collaboration among the providers to facilitate the safe administration of medication. Although there are numerous approaches to supporting medication safety, approaches that support the ability of individual health

  8. Electronic Information Standards to Support Obesity Prevention and Bridge Services Across Systems, 2010-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltz, Jennifer L; Blanck, Heidi M; Lee, Brian; Kocot, S Lawrence; Seeff, Laura; McGuire, Lisa C; Collins, Janet

    2017-10-26

    Electronic information technology standards facilitate high-quality, uniform collection of data for improved delivery and measurement of health care services. Electronic information standards also aid information exchange between secure systems that link health care and public health for better coordination of patient care and better-informed population health improvement activities. We developed international data standards for healthy weight that provide common definitions for electronic information technology. The standards capture healthy weight data on the "ABCDs" of a visit to a health care provider that addresses initial obesity prevention and care: assessment, behaviors, continuity, identify resources, and set goals. The process of creating healthy weight standards consisted of identifying needs and priorities, developing and harmonizing standards, testing the exchange of data messages, and demonstrating use-cases. Healthy weight products include 2 message standards, 5 use-cases, 31 LOINC (Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes) question codes, 7 healthy weight value sets, 15 public-private engagements with health information technology implementers, and 2 technical guides. A logic model and action steps outline activities toward better data capture, interoperable systems, and information use. Sharing experiences and leveraging this work in the context of broader priorities can inform the development of electronic information standards for similar core conditions and guide strategic activities in electronic systems.

  9. Information exchange within the U.S. Department of Energy pollution prevention community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thuot, J.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Management Operations

    1995-07-01

    Improving Pollution Prevention and Waste Minimization Program (PP/WMIN) technologies, actions, and culture could be an important cost-cutting step for the US Department of Energy (DOE). Communicating ideas, concepts, process changes, and achievements is essential for the success of this program. The need to openly communicate ideas and concepts in a cost-effective manner is essential in an organization that has such diverse components as research and development, weapons production, and power generation. This approach is in contrast to the historic DOE culture developed within the cold war period in which compartmentalization, independence, and secrecy were stressed. DOE has now recognized that for any pollution prevention program to be successful, the many diverse elements of the organization must share information. Avenues for such information exchange are examined in this report.

  10. A Qualitative Study to Inform the Development of a Videogame for Adolescent Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Hieftje, Kimberly; Rosenthal, Marjorie S.; Camenga, Deepa R.; Edelman, E. Jennifer; Fiellin, Lynn E.

    2012-01-01

    We used qualitative methods to inform the development of an interactive videogame focused on behavior change to reduce risk and promote human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention in young minority adolescents. Guided by community-partnered research principles, we conducted and analyzed 16 individual interviews and six focus groups with 10–15 year-old boys and girls (36 unique participants) at a neighborhood-based nonprofit organization serving youth from low-resource neighborhoods. Three r...

  11. Iranian key informants' perspectives towards gender sensitive STIs/HIV/AIDS prevention service delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Rahmanian

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available More than 340 million new cases of sexually transmitted infections occur throughout the world every year. The average annual STIs growth rate was 17%from 1998 to 2006 in Iran. As this epidemic has progressed, relevant literatures shown that, gender has a critical element in implementation and impact of these programs. Most reproductive health programs haven’t integrated gender mainstreaming to their service deliveries. In order to explore key informants perspectives towards gender sensitive STIs/HIV/AIDS prevention service delivery, this study was done. Participants including health managers, health policy makers and reproductive health providers were selected purposefully and continued by snow ball sampling. 43 semi-structured in depth interviews with 37 key informants analyzed according to content analysis. Main categories were generated after processing and organizing the codes. Key informants clearly explained the gender sensitive STIs/HIV/AIDS prevention structure in three domains: training gender sensitive providers, facilities and management. In our country, transforming gender neural to more complete gender sensitive STIs/HIV/AIDS prevention services needs structural reforms that make these interventions more effective.

  12. Military Parents' Personal Technology Usage and Interest in e-Health Information for Obesity Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jai, Tun-Min; McCool, Barent N; Reed, Debra B

    2016-03-01

    U.S. military families are experiencing high obesity rates similar to the civilian population. The Department of Defense's Military Health System (MHS) is one of the largest healthcare providers in the United States, serving approximately 9.2 million active duty service members, retirees, spouses, and children. The annual cost to the MHS for morbidities associated with being overweight exceeds $1 billion. The preschool age has been suggested as an opportune time to intervene for the prevention of obesity. Thus, this study investigated the current level of technology usage by military service member families and assessed their needs and interests in health/nutrition information. This needs assessment is crucial for researchers/educators to design further studies and intervention programs for obesity prevention in military families with young children. In total, 288 military parents (233 Army and 55 Air Force) at two military bases whose children were enrolled in military childcare centers in the southwestern United States participated in a Technology Usage in Military Family (TUMF) survey in 2013. Overall, both bases presented similar technology usage patterns in terms of computer and mobile device usage on the Internet. Air Force base parents had a slightly higher knowledge level of nutrition/health information than Army base parents. The TUMF survey suggested practical ways such as mobile applications/Web sites, social networks, games, etc., that health educators can use to disseminate nutrition/health information for obesity prevention among military families with young children.

  13. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Aging & Health A to Z Find a Geriatrics Healthcare Professional Medications & Older Adults Making Your Wishes ... Prevention Hearing Loss Heart Attack High Blood Pressure Nutrition Osteoporosis Shingles Skin Cancer Related News Quitting Smoking, ...

  14. [Perceived satisfaction and usefulness of suicide prevention information for patients and relatives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triñanes, Y; Senra-Rivera, C; Seoane-Pesqueira, G; González-García, A; Álvarez-Ariza, M; de-Las-Heras-Liñero, E; Atienza, G

    2014-01-01

    To assess the satisfaction of persons with suicidal behaviour and their relatives using patient information material included in the Clinical Practice Guidelines on Prevention and Treatment of Suicidal Behaviour. The sample was made up of 57 patients with suicidal ideation or behaviour, and 52 relatives. The participants were recruited through a suicide prevention programme (Programa de intervención intensiva en conducta suicida [PII] - Suicidal Behaviour Intensive Intervention Programme) and a family association (Federación de Asociaciones de Familiares y Personas con enfermedad mental de Galicia [FEAFES] - Galician Federation of Associations of Relatives and Persons with mental diseases). An ad-hoc questionnaire was designed to ascertain the degree of perceived satisfaction and usefulness of using the information included in the guidelines. The descriptive data of the sample is presented, along with an exploratory factorial analysis of the questionnaire that yielded two dimensions, i.e., format and usefulness. Patients scored significantly lower than the relatives in two dimensions; nevertheless, no significant differences were found between the two groups in the level of general satisfaction. The socio-demographic variables did not influence the results. Similarly, no differences were observed between patients with and without history of suicidal behaviour. Participants stressed that Primary Care was the setting best suited for dissemination of this type of information. In general, both patients and relatives displayed a high level of satisfaction with the patient information material assessed. Furnishing information of this type to patients with suicidal ideation and/or behaviour could act as a preventive-educational tool. Copyright © 2013 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. How change management can prevent the failure of information systems implementation among Malaysian government hospitals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ChePa, Noraziah; Jasin, Noorhayati Md; Bakar, Nur Azzah Abu

    2017-10-01

    Fail to prevent or control challenges of Information System (IS) implementation have led to the failure of its implementation. Successful implementation of IS has been a challenging task to any organization including government hospitals. Government has invested a big amount of money on information system (IS) projects to improve service delivery in healthcare. However, several of them failed to be implemented successfully due to several factors. This article proposes a prevention model which incorporated Change Management (CM) concepts to avoid the failure of IS implementation, hence ensuring the success of it. Challenges of IS implementation in government hospitals have been discovered. Extensive literature review and deep interview approaches were employed to discover these challenges. A prevention model has been designed to cater the challenges. The model caters three main phases of implementation; pre-implementation, during implementation, and post-implementation by adopting CM practices of Lewin's, Kotter's and Prosci's CM model. Six elements of CM comprising thirteen sub-elements adopted from the three CM models have been used to handle CFFs of Human and Support issues; guiding team, resistance avoidance, IS adoption, enforcement, monitoring, and IS sustainability. Successful practice of the proposed mapping is expected to prevent CFFs to occur, hence ensuring a successful implementation of IS in the hospitals. The proposed model has been presented and successfully evaluated by the domain experts from the selected hospitals. The proposed model is believed to be beneficial for top management, IT practitioners and medical practitioners in preventing IS implementation failure among government hospitals towards ensuring the success implementation.

  16. Greater access to information on how to prevent oral cancer among elderly using primary health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Andréa Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; dos Santos-Neto, Pedro Eleutério; de Sá, Maria Aparecida Barbosa; Souza, João Gabriel Silva; Haikal, Desireé Sant'Ana; Ferreira e Ferreira, Efigenia; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida

    2015-07-01

    Educative actions are an important component of health promotion in Brazil's primary healthcare program, the Family Health Strategy (FHS). The efficacy of these actions is evidenced by compliance with healthy behaviors and in the reduction of rates of mortality and morbidity. The objective of this study was to identify whether access to information regarding the prevention of oral cancer is greater among elders whose residences are registered with the FHS. SPSS® was utilized to obtain estimates that were corrected for sample design, considering the magnitude of the associations between access to such information with personal determinants, the use and cost of healthcare, health-related behaviors and health outcomes. 58.9% of the 492 participating elders reported having access to such information. We verified that there was a greater chance for access among residents of houses registered by the FHS; those with greater per capita income (2.01/1.183.43); non-smokers (2.00/1.16-3.46); those that realized oral self-examination (6.35/3.46-11.64); and those that did not perceive discomfort in the mouth, head or neck (2.06/1.02-4.17). Access was greater among residents of homes registered by the FHS. Personal determinants of health, health-related behaviors and health outcomes are influenced or influence access to information regarding the prevention and management of oral diseases.

  17. Access to health information may improve behavior in preventing Avian influenza among women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajeng T. Endarti

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Improving human behavior toward Avian influenza may lessen the chance to be infected by Avian influenza. This study aimed to identify several factors influencing behavior in the community.Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted in July 2008. Behavior regarding Avian influenza was measured by scoring the variables of knowledge, attitude, and practice. Subjects were obtained from the sub district of Limo, in Depok, West Java, which was considered a high risk area for Avian influenza. The heads of household as the sample unit were chosen by multi-stage sampling.Results: Among 387 subjects, 29.5% of them was had good behavior toward Avian influenza. The final model revealed that gender and access to health information were two dominant factors for good behavior in preventing Avian influenza. Compared with men, women had 67% higher risk to have good behavior [adjusted relative risk (RRa = 1.67; 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.92-3.04; P = 0.092]. Compared to those with no access to health information, subjects with access to health information had 3.4 fold increase to good behavior (RRa = 3.40; 95% CI =  0.84-13.76; P = 0.087.Conclusion: Acces to health information concerning Avian influenza was more effective among women in promoting good behavior toward preventing Avian influenza. (Med J Indones 2011; 20:56-61Keywords: avian influenza, behavior, gender, health promotion

  18. Leveraging school-based research to inform bullying prevention and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espelage, Dorothy L

    2016-11-01

    School-based bullying and other forms of school violence have been the topic of over 40 years of research in the U.S. and internationally. Within the last 2 decades, research has increasingly informed bullying prevention, policy, and legislative efforts. The purpose of this article is to highlight several critical research areas on bullying and other forms of school violence that have shaped prevention efforts and policy over the last 2 decades. As the recipient of the 2016 Award for Distinguished Contributions to Research in Public Policy , the discussion here will focus largely on research findings from The Espelage Lab and collaborators, but these studies and findings will be situated in the larger literature. Topics covered include conceptualization of bullying from a social-ecological framework, developmental considerations of bullying and associated forms of aggression, identification of populations at heightened risk for bullying, and efficacy of bullying prevention programs. Recommendations are provided for the next generation of scholars, practitioners, and policymakers focused on bullying prevention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Human Genome Epidemiology : A scientific foundation for using genetic information to improve health and prevent disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Boccia

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Human health is determined by the interplay of genetic factors and the environment. In this context the recent advances in human genomics are expected to play a central role in medicine and public health by providing genetic information for disease prediction and prevention.

    After the completion of the human genome sequencing, a fundamental step will be represented by the translation of these discoveries into meaningful actions to improve health and prevent diseases, and the field of epidemiology plays a central role in this effort. These are some of the issues addressed by Human Genome Epidemiology –A scientific foundation for using genetic information to improve health and prevent disease, a volume edited by Prof. M. Khoury, Prof. J. Little, Prof.W. Burke and published by Oxford university Press 2004.

    This book describes the important role that epidemiological methods play in the continuum from gene discovery to the development and application of genetic tests. The Authors calls this continuum human genome epidemiology (HuGE to denote an evolving field of inquiry that uses systematic applications of epidemiological methods to assess the impact of human genetic variation on health and disease.

    The book is divided into four sections and it is structured to allow readers to proceed systematically from the fundamentals of genome technology and discovery, to the epidemiological approaches, to gene characterisation, to the evaluation of genetic tests and their use in health services and public health.

  20. Location Authentication based on Wireless Access Point Information to Prevent Wormhole Attack in Samsung Pay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RYU, G.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a location authentication method to prevent wormhole payment attack in Samsung Pay. The primary feature of this method is comparing wireless Access Point (AP information collected by the current Samsung Pay user and a wireless AP model (WM that was created from wireless AP information (WI sent by previous Samsung Pay users. To create the WM, an autoencoder is used. Unlike the existing location authentication techniques that use WI, our method does not require additional hardware, modification of the Point of Sale (POS software, or any pre-requisite information such as the location coordinates of the POS. We show that the proposed location authentication technique exhibits the minimum Equal Error Rate (EER of 2.4% in real payment environments.

  1. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A

    2001-01-01

    , breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....

  2. Oral health information systems--towards measuring progress in oral health promotion and disease prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Poul Erik; Bourgeois, Denis; Bratthall, Douglas

    2005-01-01

    programmes oriented towards disease prevention and health promotion. The WHO Oral Health Country/Area Profile Programme (CAPP) provides data on oral health from countries, as well as programme experiences and ideas targeted to oral health professionals, policy-makers, health planners, researchers...... systems are being developed within the framework of the WHO STEPwise approach to surveillance of noncommunicable, chronic disease, and data stored in the WHO Global InfoBase may allow advanced health systems research. Sound knowledge about progress made in prevention of oral and chronic disease......This article describes the essential components of oral health information systems for the analysis of trends in oral disease and the evaluation of oral health programmes at the country, regional and global levels. Standard methodology for the collection of epidemiological data on oral health has...

  3. Celebrity Health Announcements and Online Health Information Seeking: An Analysis of Angelina Jolie's Preventative Health Decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Marleah

    2016-01-01

    On May 14, 2013, Angelina Jolie disclosed she carries BRCA1, which means she has an 87% risk of developing breast cancer during her lifetime. Jolie decided to undergo a preventative bilateral mastectomy (PBM), reducing her risk to 5%. The purpose of this study was to analyze the type of information individuals are exposed to when using the Internet to search health information regarding Jolie's decision. Qualitative content analysis revealed four main themes--information about genetics, information about a PBM, information about health care, and information about Jolie's gender identity. Broadly, the identified websites mention Jolie's high risk for developing cancer due to the genetic mutation BRCA1, describe a PBM occasionally noting reasons why she had this surgery and providing alternatives to the surgery, discuss issues related to health care services, costs, and insurances about Jolie's health decision, and portray Jolie as a sexual icon, a partner to Brad Pitt, a mother of six children, and an inspirational humanitarian. The websites also depict Jolie's health decision in positive, negative, and/or both ways. Discussion centers on how this actress' health decision impacts the public.

  4. European information on climate change impacts, vulnerability and adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jol, A.; Isoard, S.

    2010-09-01

    development in 2010 and is likely to manage the system after 2011. The European Commission in its Communication in 2009 on disaster risk prevention also calls for improving and better sharing of data on disasters, disaster risk mapping and disaster risk management, in the context of the EU civil protection mechanism. Such information might also be linked to the planned EU Clearinghouse on climate change adaptation. The activities of EEA on climate change impacts, vulnerability and adaptation (including disaster risk reduction) include indicators of the impacts of climate change; a regularly updated overview of national assessments and adaptation plans on the EEA web site and specific focused reports, e.g. on adaptation to the challenges of changing water resources in the Alps (2009) and on analysis of past trends in natural disasters (due in 2010) and regular expert meetings and workshops with EEA member countries. The ECAC presentation will include the latest developments in the EU Clearinghouse on adaptation and progress in relevant EEA activities.

  5. The prevention of diabetic foot ulceration: how biomechanical research informs clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank E. DiLiberto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background Implementation of interprofessional clinical guidelines for the prevention of neuropathic diabetic foot ulceration has demonstrated positive effects regarding ulceration and amputation rates. Current foot care recommendations are primarily based on research regarding the prevention of ulcer recurrence and focused on reducing the magnitude of plantar stress (pressure overload. Yet, foot ulceration remains to be a prevalent and debilitating consequence of Diabetes Mellitus. There is limited evidence targeting the prevention of first-time ulceration, and there is a need to consider additional factors of plantar stress to supplement current guidelines. Objectives The first purpose of this article is to discuss the biomechanical theory underpinning diabetic foot ulcerations and illustrate how plantar tissue underloading may precede overloading and breakdown. The second purpose of this commentary is to discuss how advances in biomechanical foot modeling can inform clinical practice in the prevention of first-time ulceration. Discussion Research demonstrates that progressive weight-bearing activity programs to address the frequency of plantar stress and avoid underloading do not increase ulceration risk. Multi-segment foot modeling studies indicate that dynamic foot function of the midfoot and forefoot is compromised in people with diabetes. Emerging research demonstrates that implementation of foot-specific exercises may positively influence dynamic foot function and improve plantar stress in people with diabetes. Conclusion Continued work is needed to determine how to best design and integrate activity recommendations and foot-specific exercise programs into the current interprofessional paradigm for the prevention of first-time ulceration in people with Diabetes Mellitus.

  6. A Randomized Controlled Trial to Increase HIV Preventive Information, Motivation, and Behavioral Skills in Ugandan Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ybarra, Michele L; Korchmaros, Josephine D; Prescott, Tonya L; Birungi, Ruth

    2015-06-01

    One in 25 Ugandan adolescents is HIV positive. The aim of this study is to examine the impact of an Internet-based HIV prevention program on Information-Motivation-Behavioral skills (IMB) Model-related constructs. Three hundred and sixty-six sexually experienced and inexperienced students 13-18+years old in Mbarara, Uganda, were randomly assigned to the five-lesson CyberSenga program or the treatment-as-usual control group. Half of the intervention participants were further randomized to a booster session. Assessments were collected at 3 and 6 months post-baseline. Participants' HIV-related information improved over time at a greater rate for the intervention groups compared to the control group. Motivation for condom use changed to a greater degree over time for the intervention group--especially those in the intervention+booster group--compared to the control group. Behavioral skills for condom use, and motivation and behavioral skills for abstinence were statistically similar over time for both groups. CyberSenga improves HIV preventive information and motivation to use condoms.

  7. Optimal information dissemination strategy to promote preventive behaviors in multilayer epidemic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeri, Heman; Sahneh, Faryad Darabi; Scoglio, Caterina; Poggi-Corradini, Pietro; Preciado, Victor M

    2015-06-01

    Launching a prevention campaign to contain the spread of infection requires substantial financial investments; therefore, a trade-off exists between suppressing the epidemic and containing costs. Information exchange among individuals can occur as physical contacts (e.g., word of mouth, gatherings), which provide inherent possibilities of disease transmission, and non-physical contacts (e.g., email, social networks), through which information can be transmitted but the infection cannot be transmitted. Contact network (CN) incorporates physical contacts, and the information dissemination network (IDN) represents non-physical contacts, thereby generating a multilayer network structure. Inherent differences between these two layers cause alerting through CN to be more effective but more expensive than IDN. The constraint for an epidemic to die out derived from a nonlinear Perron-Frobenius problem that was transformed into a semi-definite matrix inequality and served as a constraint for a convex optimization problem. This method guarantees a dying-out epidemic by choosing the best nodes for adopting preventive behaviors with minimum monetary resources. Various numerical simulations with network models and a real-world social network validate our method.

  8. Using focus group results to inform preschool childhood obesity prevention programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarvey, Elizabeth L; Collie, Kate R; Fraser, Gertrude; Shufflebarger, Cindy; Lloyd, Bronwyn; Norman Oliver, M

    2006-08-01

    This study about maternal feeding practices and beliefs was conducted as background for the development of a childhood obesity prevention program for multi-ethnic parents in the USA receiving services from a federal government supplemental nutrition program for low-income mothers. Using a grounded theory approach, focus groups were conducted with low-income African American, white non-Hispanic (i.e. the majority Caucasian American population), Hispanic and Vietnamese parents to collect cross-cultural perspectives on: (a) infant and child feeding practices, (b) childhood overweight, (c) healthy dietary intake, (d) physical activity and inactivity, and (e) infant feeding information sources. A content analysis of the data yielded three main themes common to all four groups: (a) lack of awareness of the relationship between increased physical activity and health, (b) the use of food to influence behavior, and (c) the loss of parental control over feeding when a child starts child care or school, and revealed perspectives on age-appropriate food, infant satiety, overweight and information sources that were specific to each group. Interventions that enhance parent self-efficacy that build on themes that are specific to ethnic groups toward preventing childhood obesity are needed. There is also a need for culturally appropriate information for governmental nutrition programs that is in the client's own language and takes into account ethnic differences in beliefs and traditions.

  9. OPTIMAL PREVENTION OF HOSPITAL VENOUS THROMBOEMBOLISM WITH THE HELP OF MEDICAL INFORMATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. I. Nazarenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism are an important medical and social problem, contributing to the structure of morbidity and mortality in the developed countries. Despite the availability of clinical guidelines for the prevention of venous thromboembolic complications there is a gap between scientific knowledge and clinical practice. Clinical decision support systems (CDSS are confirmed to be effective tool for the implementation of clinical guidelines in daily practice. CDSS should be based on national and international clinical guidelines; their effectiveness depends upon successful integration with other health information systems and care flow processes.

  10. American Association for the Surgery of Trauma Prevention Committee topical overview: National Trauma Data Bank, geographic information systems, and teaching injury prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, Marie; Zarzaur, Ben; Tinkoff, Glen

    2013-11-01

    Injury is the leading cause of death for all Americans aged 1 to 35 years, and injury-related costs exceed $100 billion per year in the United States. Trauma centers can be important resources for risk identification and prevention strategies. The authors review 3 important resources for injury prevention education and research: the National Trauma Data Bank, geographic information systems, and an overview of injury prevention education. The National Trauma Data Bank and the Trauma Quality Improvement Program are available through the Web site of the American College of Surgeons. Links to research examples using geographic information systems software and the National Trauma Data Bank are provided in the text. Finally, resources for surgical educators in the area of injury prevention are summarized and examples provided. Database research, geographic information systems, and injury prevention education are important tools in the field of injury prevention. This article provides an overview of current research and education strategies and resources. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Value of information analysis from a societal perspective: a case study in prevention of major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohseninejad, Leyla; van Baal, Pieter H M; van den Berg, Matthijs; Buskens, Erik; Feenstra, Talitha

    2013-06-01

    Productivity losses usually have a considerable impact on cost-effectiveness estimates while their estimated values are often relatively uncertain. Therefore, parameters related to these indirect costs play a role in setting priorities for future research from a societal perspective. Until now, however, value of information analyses have usually applied a health care perspective for economic evaluations. Hence, the effect of productivity losses has rarely been investigated in such analyses. The aim of the current study therefore was to investigate the effects of including or excluding productivity costs in value of information analyses. Expected value of information analysis (EVPI) was performed in cost-effectiveness evaluation of prevention from both societal and health care perspectives, to give us the opportunity to compare different perspectives. Priorities for future research were determined by partial EVPI. The program to prevent major depression in patients with subthreshold depression was opportunistic screening followed by minimal contact psychotherapy. The EVPI indicated that regardless of perspective, further research is potentially worthwhile. Partial EVPI results underlined the importance of productivity losses when a societal perspective was considered. Furthermore, priority setting for future research differed according to perspective. The results illustrated that advise for future research will differ for a health care versus a societal perspective and hence the value of information analysis should be adjusted to the perspective that is relevant for the decision makers involved. The outcomes underlined the need for carefully choosing the suitable perspective for the decision problem at hand. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Does information overload prevent chronic patients from reading self-management educational materials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chung-Feng; Kuo, Kuang-Ming

    2016-05-01

    Self-care management is becoming an important part of care for chronic patients. However, various kinds of self-management educational materials which government or healthcare institutions provide for patients may not achieve the expected outcome. One of the critical reasons affecting patients' use intention could be patients' perceived information overload regarding the self-management educational materials. This study proposed an extended model of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), which incorporated perceived information overload, to explore if information overload will prevent chronic patients from reading educational materials for self-care management. The independent variables are attitude, subject norm, perceived behavior control and perceived information overload while the dependent variable is behavior intention to use the self-management educational materials. Perceived information overload is also referred to as an antecedent variable which may has impacts on attitude and perceived behavior control. The cross-sectional study interviewed newly diagnosed chronic patients with coronary artery disease, who are the potential users of the self-management educational materials, in a medical center in Taiwan. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics of the basic information distribution of the respondents, and structural equation modeling to study the reliability and validity for testing hypotheses. A total of 110 respondents were enrolled in this study and successful interview data were collected from 106 respondents. The result indicates that the patients' perceived information overload of self-management educational materials was validated to have impacts on attitude and perceived behavioral control constructs of the TPB as well as contributing a direct impact on patients' intentions to use self-management educational materials. Besides, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control constructs were validated to have significant impacts on

  13. A Qualitative Study to Inform the Development of a Videogame for Adolescent Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Marjorie S.; Camenga, Deepa R.; Edelman, E. Jennifer; Fiellin, Lynn E.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract We used qualitative methods to inform the development of an interactive videogame focused on behavior change to reduce risk and promote human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention in young minority adolescents. Guided by community-partnered research principles, we conducted and analyzed 16 individual interviews and six focus groups with 10–15 year-old boys and girls (36 unique participants) at a neighborhood-based nonprofit organization serving youth from low-resource neighborhoods. Three recurrent themes lent themselves to translation into a videogame-based intervention. Adolescents reported protective factors and facilitators to engaging in risk behaviors, including (1) their personal ability to balance the tension between individuation and group membership, (2) the presence of stable mentor figures in their life, and (3) the neighborhood in which they live. We used these themes to inform the design of our videogame intervention with the goal that these methods may increase the intervention's efficacy at promoting HIV prevention by making them more tailored and relevant to a specific population. Our qualitative study provides a practical understanding of how important elements identified by minority youth regarding negotiating around risk behaviors can be integrated into a videogame intervention. These findings offer valuable insights to researchers whose goal is to design effective and tailored interventions to affect behavior change. PMID:24078897

  14. Informing comprehensive HIV prevention: a situational analysis of the HIV prevention and care context, North West Province South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheri A Lippman

    Full Text Available Building a successful combination prevention program requires understanding the community's local epidemiological profile, the social community norms that shape vulnerability to HIV and access to care, and the available community resources. We carried out a situational analysis in order to shape a comprehensive HIV prevention program that address local barriers to care at multiple contextual levels in the North West Province of South Africa.The situational analysis was conducted in two sub-districts in 2012 and guided by an adaptation of WHO's Strategic Approach, a predominantly qualitative method, including observation of service delivery points and in-depth interviews and focus groups with local leaders, providers, and community members, in order to recommend context-specific HIV prevention strategies. Analysis began during fieldwork with nightly discussions of findings and continued with coding original textual data from the fieldwork notebooks and a select number of recorded interviews.We conducted over 200 individual and group interviews and gleaned four principal social barriers to HIV prevention and care, including: HIV fatalism, traditional gender norms, HIV-related stigma, and challenges with communication around HIV, all of which fuel the HIV epidemic. At the different levels of response needed to stem the epidemic, we found evidence of national policies and programs that are mitigating the social risk factors but little community-based responses that address social risk factors to HIV.Understanding social and structural barriers to care helped shape our comprehensive HIV prevention program, which address the four 'themes' identified into each component of the program. Activities are underway to engage communities, offer community-based testing in high transmission areas, community stigma reduction, and a positive health, dignity and prevention program for stigma reduction and improve communication skills. The situational analysis

  15. Career Academies. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report. Updated September 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2015

    2015-01-01

    "Career Academies" is a dropout prevention strategy for youth considered most at risk of dropping out of high school. Students in the program take both career-related and academic courses and acquire work experience through partnerships with local employers. "Career Academies" integrate rigorous academic curricula with career…

  16. The Development of Standards-Based Services Oriented Architectures at EDAC, Lessons Learned From Three Applications Contexts: Environmental Public Health, Hydrologic Modeling and ET Measurement, and a Geospatial Data Clearinghouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, K. K.

    2008-05-01

    has been developed as a distributed system with separate public health or environmental parameter data providers contributing to the system through a standardized SOAP interface. These data are integrated into a component-based system that uses a collection of SOAP services for functions including authentication, data discovery, tabular data extraction, data fusion for common geographic features, A master workflow SOAP service handles all incoming requests to the system and executes pre-defined processing chains to accomplish the required service calls. In addition to SOAP, the system uses WMS as the standard mapping service interface for the delivery of background data into the mapping client provided as part of the web-based user interface. This component-based SOAP architecture has proven very flexible and robust and represents a useful model for the development of an end-to-end data management, processing, and presentation solution. EDAC maintains the NM Resource Geographic Information System, a clearinghouse for geospatial data for the state of New Mexico. As RGIS evolves towards the next version of the online clearinghouse, SOAP and WMS are key standards that enable data discovery, delivery, and visualization functions. These services have proven quite robust in supporting a system that delivers approximately 1.5-2 TB of data per year to end users.

  17. Reaching rural women: breast cancer prevention information seeking behaviors and interest in Internet, cell phone, and text use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzke, Cynthia; Wilson, Susan; Vilchis, Hugo

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the breast cancer prevention information seeking behaviors among rural women, the prevalence of Internet, cell, and text use, and interest to receive breast cancer prevention information cell and text messages. While growing literature for breast cancer information sources supports the use of the Internet, little is known about breast cancer prevention information seeking behaviors among rural women and mobile technology. Using a cross-sectional study design, data were collected using a survey. McGuire's Input-Ouput Model was used as the framework. Self-reported data were obtained from a convenience sample of 157 women with a mean age of 60 (SD = 12.12) at a rural New Mexico imaging center. Common interpersonal information sources were doctors, nurses, and friends and common channel information sources were television, magazines, and Internet. Overall, 87% used cell phones, 20% had an interest to receive cell phone breast cancer prevention messages, 47% used text messaging, 36% had an interest to receive text breast cancer prevention messages, and 37% had an interest to receive mammogram reminder text messages. Bivariate analysis revealed significant differences between age, income, and race/ethnicity and use of cell phones or text messaging. There were no differences between age and receiving text messages or text mammogram reminders. Assessment of health information seeking behaviors is important for community health educators to target populations for program development. Future research may identify additional socio-cultural differences.

  18. Preventing shoulder-surfing attack with the concept of concealing the password objects' information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Peng Foong; Kam, Yvonne Hwei-Syn; Wee, Mee Chin; Chong, Yu Nam; Por, Lip Yee

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, picture-based password systems employ password objects (pictures/icons/symbols) as input during an authentication session, thus making them vulnerable to "shoulder-surfing" attack because the visual interface by function is easily observed by others. Recent software-based approaches attempt to minimize this threat by requiring users to enter their passwords indirectly by performing certain mental tasks to derive the indirect password, thus concealing the user's actual password. However, weaknesses in the positioning of distracter and password objects introduce usability and security issues. In this paper, a new method, which conceals information about the password objects as much as possible, is proposed. Besides concealing the password objects and the number of password objects, the proposed method allows both password and distracter objects to be used as the challenge set's input. The correctly entered password appears to be random and can only be derived with the knowledge of the full set of password objects. Therefore, it would be difficult for a shoulder-surfing adversary to identify the user's actual password. Simulation results indicate that the correct input object and its location are random for each challenge set, thus preventing frequency of occurrence analysis attack. User study results show that the proposed method is able to prevent shoulder-surfing attack.

  19. Recognizing and Preventing Overexposure to Methylmercury from Fish and Seafood Consumption: Information for Physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M. Silbernagel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish is a valuable source of nutrition, and many people would benefit from eating fish regularly. But some people eat a lot of fish, every day or several meals per week, and thus can run a significant risk of overexposure to methylmercury. Current advice regarding methylmercury from fish consumption is targeted to protect the developing brain and nervous system but adverse health effects are increasingly associated with adult chronic low-level methylmercury exposure. Manifestations of methylmercury poisoning are variable and may be difficult to detect unless one considers this specific diagnosis and does an appropriate test (blood or hair analysis. We provide information to physicians to recognize and prevent overexposure to methylmercury from fish and seafood consumption. Physicians are urged to ask patients if they eat fish: how often, how much, and what kinds. People who eat fish frequently (once a week or more often and pregnant women are advised to choose low mercury fish.

  20. Oral health information systems--towards measuring progress in oral health promotion and disease prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Poul Erik; Bourgeois, Denis; Bratthall, Douglas

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the essential components of oral health information systems for the analysis of trends in oral disease and the evaluation of oral health programmes at the country, regional and global levels. Standard methodology for the collection of epidemiological data on oral health has...... been designed by WHO and used by countries worldwide for the surveillance of oral disease and health. Global, regional and national oral health databanks have highlighted the changing patterns of oral disease which primarily reflect changing risk profiles and the implementation of oral health...... programmes oriented towards disease prevention and health promotion. The WHO Oral Health Country/Area Profile Programme (CAPP) provides data on oral health from countries, as well as programme experiences and ideas targeted to oral health professionals, policy-makers, health planners, researchers...

  1. Limb defects associated with major congenital anomalies : Clinical and epidemiological study from the international clearinghouse for birth defects monitoring systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosano, A; Botto, LD; Olney, RS; Khoury, MJ; Ritvanen, A; Goujard, J; Stoll, C; Cocchi, G; Merlob, P; Mutchinick, O; Cornel, MC; Castilla, EE; Martinez-Frias, ML; Zampino, G; Erickson, JD; Mastroiacovo, P

    2000-01-01

    Although limb defects associated with other congenital anomalies are rarely studied, they may provide insights into limb development that may be useful for etiologic studies and public health monitoring, me pooled data from II birth defect registries that are part of the International Clearinghouse

  2. What Works Clearinghouse Study Review Guide Instructions for Reviewing Randomized Controlled Trials and Quasi-Experimental Designs. Updated

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2014

    2014-01-01

    For every What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) review, reviewers will be asked to complete a Study Review Guide (SRG). A completed SRG should be a reviewer's independent assessment of the study, relative to the criteria specified in the review protocol and the WWC Procedures and Standards Handbook (Handbook). At the end of the review process, a Master…

  3. 'With the best of reasons': cervical cancer prevention policy and the suppression of sexual risk factor information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, V; Gavey, N

    1999-05-01

    Cervical cancer is a very common but largely preventable cancer. Despite considerable medical knowledge of risk and even causal factors, possible social-behavioural strategies for the primary prevention of cervical cancer have rarely been explored as a viable addition to cervical screening. We examine key policy documents and interview 18 key informants on cervical cancer prevention in New Zealand. Using a discourse analytic approach we identify and discuss two discourses (which we have labelled 'protectionism' and 'right to know') which inform positions on whether or not women should be provided with information regarding sexual risk factors for cervical cancer. Cervical cancer prevention policy in New Zealand, which largely reflects a protectionist discourse, suppresses sexual risk factor information and focuses exclusively on cervical screening. The right to know discourse informs an alternative position, which contends that women have a right to be informed about risk factors. We discuss these positions in relation to questions about women's rights, the principle of informed choice, and attempts to judge what is in women's 'best interests.'

  4. 75 FR 14443 - Proposed Information Collection Activity; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ... better understand the kind and quality of services customers want, as well as customers' level of... Customer Satisfaction Evaluation of Child Welfare Information Gateway. OMB No.: 0970-0303. Description: The... Clearinghouse (NAIC) received OMB approval to collect data for a customer satisfaction evaluation under OMB...

  5. Diphtheria and the Vaccine (Shot) to Prevent It: Information for Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PARENTS | DISEASES and the VACCINES THAT PREVENT THEM | Diphtheria and the Vaccine (Shot) to Prevent It Last ... April 2017 The best way to protect against diphtheria is by getting the diphther ia-tet anus- ...

  6. Information Technology: The Preventive Health Care Application and an Associated Upgrade

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    The Preventive Health Care Application was a tool designed to enable clinicians to deliver and track appropriate and timely preventive services provided to all enrolled military health system members...

  7. Cognitive Tutor®. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2016

    2016-01-01

    "Cognitive Tutor"® is a secondary mathematics curriculum developed by Carnegie Learning that focuses on how students think about and learn mathematics. Teachers facilitate student learning as students acquire and apply new information and discuss their work. The curriculum can be implemented using a textbook, adaptive software, or…

  8. 76 FR 27384 - Agency Information Collection Activity (Veteran Suicide Prevention Online Quantitative Surveys...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ... Collection Activity (Veteran Suicide Prevention Online Quantitative Surveys) Under OMB Review AGENCY.... Abstract: VA's top priority is the prevention of Veterans suicide. It is imperative to reach these at-risk... families' awareness of VA's suicide prevention and mental health support services. In addition, the surveys...

  9. 76 FR 9637 - Proposed Information Collection (Veteran Suicide Prevention Online Quantitative Surveys) Activity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    ... Collection (Veteran Suicide Prevention Online Quantitative Surveys) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY... prevention of suicide among Veterans and their families. DATES: Written comments and recommendations on the.... Abstract: VA's top priority is the prevention of Veterans suicide. It is imperative to reach these at-risk...

  10. Assessment of Web-based education resources informing patients about stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, E; Bajorek, B V

    2016-12-01

    risk and/or bleeding risk within the decision-making. At the 'latent-level' analysis, three overarching themes emerged: (i) The practical ease of managing NOACs over warfarin; (ii) Unbalanced explanation about stroke risk versus bleeding risk; and (iii) Individualized antithrombotic therapy selection. In general, the benefit of stroke prevention with anticoagulant use was emphasized less compared to the risk of bleeding. Overall, one in four resources had an implied preference for either warfarin or the NOACs. The implied inclination of some resources towards particular anticoagulant therapies and imbalanced information about the importance of anticoagulation in AF might misinform and confuse patients. Patients' engagement in shared decision-making and adherence to medicines may be undermined by the suboptimal quality of information provided in the resources. Health professionals have an important role to play in referring patients to appropriate resources to enable patient engagement in shared decision-making when selecting treatment. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The Impact of Information and Communication Technology on Internal Control’s Prevention and Detection of Fraud

    OpenAIRE

    Abiola, James

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the Impact of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) on internal control effectiveness in preventing and detecting fraud within the financial sector of a developing economy – Nigeria. Using a triangulation of questionnaire and interview techniques to investigate the internal control activities of Nigerian Internal Auditors in relation to their use of ICT in fraud prevention and detection, the study made use of cross-tabulations, correlation coefficients and one-way...

  12. Lessons from reproductive health to inform multipurpose prevention technologies: don't reinvent the wheel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Martha; Manning, Judy

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents the public health rationale for multipurpose prevention technologies (MPTs) for sexual and reproductive health (SRH) based on regional trends in demographic and SRH indicators. It then distils important lessons gleaned from the introduction of contraceptive and reproductive health products over the past several decades in order to inform the development and future introduction of MPTs for SRH. A comparison of current demographic and public health regional data clearly revealed that the greatest confluence of women's SRH concerns occurs in sub-Saharan Africa and South/West Asia. These regional overlaps of SRH risks and outcomes present a strong rationale for developing MPTs designed to simultaneously protect against unintended pregnancy, HIV and other STIs. Information from acceptability, marketing, and operations research on the female condom, emergency contraception, pills and intravaginal rings identified key product characteristics and socio-behavioral issues to be considered in the development and introduction of MPTs. Product characteristics such as formulation, duration of action, presence and magnitude of side effects, prescription status (over-the-counter vs. prescribed), provider type and training and user perspectives, all contributed in varying degrees to both provider and user bias, and subsequent uptake of these family planning methods. Underlying socio-behavioral issues, including risk perception, ambivalence, and social costs also contributed to demand and use. Early identification of target populations will be critical to market shaping, demand creation and defining appropriate service delivery channels for MPTs. Ultimately, knowledge, attitudes, perceptions and practices of users (and their partners) will drive the success- or failure- of product introduction. MPTs provide a compelling response to the multiple and reinforcing SRH risks faced by women in key regions of the world, but specific product characteristics and their

  13. Diabetes prevention information in Japanese magazines with the largest print runs. Content analysis using clinical guidelines as a standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Emi; Mifune, Taka; Nakayama, Takeo

    2013-01-01

    To characterize information on diabetes prevention appearing in Japanese general health magazines and to examine the agreement of the content with that in clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of diabetes in Japan. We used the Japanese magazines' databases provided by the Media Research Center and selected magazines with large print runs published in 2006. Two medical professionals independently conducted content analysis based on items in the diabetes prevention guidelines. The number of pages for each item and agreement with the information in the guidelines were determined. We found 63 issues of magazines amounting to 8,982 pages; 484 pages included diabetes prevention related content. For 23 items included in the diabetes prevention guidelines, overall agreement of information printed in the magazines with that in the guidelines was 64.5% (471 out of 730). The number of times these items were referred to in the magazines varied widely, from 247 times for food items to 0 times for items on screening for pregnancy-induced diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Among the 20 items that were referred to at least once, 18 items showed more than 90% agreement with the guidelines. However, there was poor agreement for information on vegetable oil (2/14, 14%) and for specific foods (5/247, 2%). For the fatty acids category, "fat" was not mentioned in the guidelines; however, the term frequently appeared in magazines. "Uncertainty" was never mentioned in magazines for specific food items. The diabetes prevention related content in the health magazines differed from that defined in clinical practice guidelines. Most information in the magazines agreed with the guidelines, however some items were referred to inappropriately. To disseminate correct information to the public on diabetes prevention, health professionals and the media must collaborate.

  14. Systematic review to inform prevention and management of chronic disease for Indigenous Australians: overview and priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomersall, Judith Streak; Canuto, Karla; Aromataris, Edoardo; Braunack-Mayer, Annette; Brown, Alex

    2016-02-01

    To describe the main characteristics of systematic reviews addressing questions of chronic disease and related risk factors for Indigenous Australians. We searched databases for systematic reviews meeting inclusion criteria. Two reviewers assessed quality and extracted characteristics using pre-defined tools. We identified 14 systematic reviews. Seven synthesised evidence about health intervention effectiveness; four addressed chronic disease or risk factor prevalence; and six conducted critical appraisal as per current best practice. Only three reported steps to align the review with standards for ethical research with Indigenous Australians and/or capture Indigenous-specific knowledge. Most called for more high-quality research. Systematic review is an under-utilised method for gathering evidence to inform chronic disease prevention and management for Indigenous Australians. Relevance of future systematic reviews could be improved by: 1) aligning questions with community priorities as well as decision maker needs; 2) involvement of, and leadership by, Indigenous researchers with relevant cultural and contextual knowledge; iii) use of critical appraisal tools that include traditional risk of bias assessment criteria and criteria that reflect Indigenous standards of appropriate research. Systematic review method guidance, tools and reporting standards are required to ensure alignment with ethical obligations and promote rigor and relevance. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  15. Modeling the Movement of Homicide by Type to Inform Public Health Prevention Efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeoli, April M; Grady, Sue; Pizarro, Jesenia M; Melde, Chris

    2015-10-01

    We modeled the spatiotemporal movement of hotspot clusters of homicide by motive in Newark, New Jersey, to investigate whether different homicide types have different patterns of clustering and movement. We obtained homicide data from the Newark Police Department Homicide Unit's investigative files from 1997 through 2007 (n = 560). We geocoded the address at which each homicide victim was found and recorded the date of and the motive for the homicide. We used cluster detection software to model the spatiotemporal movement of statistically significant homicide clusters by motive, using census tract and month of occurrence as the spatial and temporal units of analysis. Gang-motivated homicides showed evidence of clustering and diffusion through Newark. Additionally, gang-motivated homicide clusters overlapped to a degree with revenge and drug-motivated homicide clusters. Escalating dispute and nonintimate familial homicides clustered; however, there was no evidence of diffusion. Intimate partner and robbery homicides did not cluster. By tracking how homicide types diffuse through communities and determining which places have ongoing or emerging homicide problems by type, we can better inform the deployment of prevention and intervention efforts.

  16. Information Security Analysis: A Study to Analyze the Extent to Which Information Security Systems Can Be Utilized to Prevent Intoxicated Individuals from Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Joseph D.

    2011-01-01

    Information security systems (ISS) have been designed to protect assets from damages and from unauthorized access internally as well as externally. This research is promising similar protection from ISS methods that could prevent intoxicated individuals under the influence of alcohol from driving. However, previous research has shown significant…

  17. Effect on attendance by including focused information on spirometry in preventive health checks: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ørts, Lene Maria; Løkke, Anders; Bjerregaard, Anne-Louise; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen; Sandbæk, Annelli

    2016-12-01

    Early detection of lung diseases can help to reduce their severity. Lung diseases are among the most frequently occurring and serious diseases worldwide; nonetheless, many patients remain undiagnosed. Preventive health checks including spirometry can detect lung diseases at early stages; however, recruitment for health checks remains a challenge, and little is known about what motivates the attendance. The aim of the study is to examine whether focused information on spirometry in the invitation compared to general information will impact the attendance rate in preventive health checks. This randomized, controlled trial tests the effect of information on spirometry embedded in the Check your Health Preventive Program (CHPP). The CHPP is an open-label, household cluster-randomized, controlled trial offering a preventive health check to 30- to -49-year-olds in a Danish municipality from 2012 to 2017 (n = 26,216). During 2015-2016, 4356 citizens aged 30-49 years will be randomized into two groups. The intervention group receives an invitation which highlights the value and contents of spirometry as part of a health check and information about lung diseases. The comparison group receives a standard invitation containing practical information and specifies the contents of the general health check. Outcomes are (1) differences in attendance rates measured by the proportion of citizens attending each of the two study groups and (2) proportion of persons at risk defined by smoking status and self-reported lung symptoms in the study groups. The proportion of participants with abnormal spirometry assessed at the preventive health check will be compared between the two study groups. The results from the present study will inform future recruitment strategies to health checks. The developed material on content, value, and information about lung disease is feasible and transferable to other populations, making it easy to implement if effective. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT

  18. Breast cancer prevention knowledge, beliefs, and information sources between non-Hispanic and Hispanic college women for risk reduction focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzke, Cynthia; Amatya, Anup; Vilchis, Hugo

    2015-02-01

    Although growing research focuses on breast cancer screenings, little is known about breast cancer prevention with risk reduction awareness for ethnic differences among college-age women. This study examined breast cancer prevention knowledge, beliefs, and information sources between non-Hispanic and Hispanic college women. Using a cross-sectional study, women at a university in the Southwest completed a 51-item survey about breast cancer risk factors, beliefs, and media and interpersonal information sources. The study was guided by McGuire's Input Output Persuasion Model. Of the 546 participants, non-Hispanic college women (n = 277) and Hispanic college women (n = 269) reported similar basic knowledge levels of modifiable breast cancer risk factors for alcohol consumption (52 %), obesity (72 %), childbearing after age 35 (63 %), and menopausal hormone therapy (68 %) using bivariate analyses. Most common information sources were Internet (75 %), magazines (69 %), provider (76 %) and friends (61 %). Least common sources were radio (44 %), newspapers (34 %), and mothers (36 %). Non-Hispanic college women with breast cancer family history were more likely to receive information from providers, friends, and mothers. Hispanic college women with a breast cancer family history were more likely to receive information from their mothers. Breast cancer prevention education for college women is needed to include risk reduction for modifiable health behavior changes as a new focus. Health professionals may target college women with more information sources including the Internet or apps.

  19. Improving quality of fall prevention and management in elderly patients using information technology: The impact of computerized decision support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Askari, M.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis explores the role of information technology (IT) for prevention and management of falls in both general practice and hospital settings. Specifically, we address the question of how disease management concepts, process modeling, prognostic models and computerized decision support systems

  20. The Use of Low-frequency Active Channel Signals in an Information Leakage Detection and Prevention Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Mamaev

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a solution for the protection of the temporary lifting of control over the target machine, while using information leakage detection and prevention systems. It is proposed to use a specially designed channel for alert’s signals through the computer’s power supply.

  1. 77 FR 74193 - Request for Information on Edel-Kindwall Caisson Tables for Preventing Decompression Illness in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    ...-0012; NIOSH-254] Request for Information on Edel-Kindwall Caisson Tables for Preventing Decompression... on decompression tables used for protecting tunneling (caisson) workers from developing decompression... stabilize unstable soil conditions. Caisson work (a water-tight structure that allows underwater...

  2. 75 FR 34441 - Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools; Overview Information; Educational Facilities Clearinghouse...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ..., maintenance, renovation, and deconstruction. This practice expands and complements the classical building...: The Department is not bound by any estimates in this notice. Project Period: Up to 36 months. III... time, on the application deadline date; or (b) E-Application is unavailable for any period of time...

  3. Mercury Information Clearinghouse. Quarterly 1: sorbent injection technologies for mercury control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Sorbent injection technologies for mercury control in coal-fired power plants and, in particular, the injection of activated carbon sorbents are examined. The retrofit technology that has been demonstrated to have the widest application for the control of mercury in plants without flue gas desulphurization scrubbers is discussed. The report covers mercury control requirements, laboratory studies on factors that affect sorbent capacity, pilot scale tests of the capture performance of different coals, research on sorbent properties, and full scale demonstration of sorbent control technologies. 34 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Mercury Information Clearinghouse. Quarterly 3: advanced and developmental mercury control technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Advanced mercury control technologies for coal-fired electric utilities are reviewed. The technologies evaluated are at various stages of development and most have been tested under limited operational conditions. The following technologies are described: K-Fuel and K-Fuel Plus pre-combustion technology, combustion modification and in situ generation of sorbents, new sorbent developments, direct bromine injection, MerCAP{sup {trademark}} (Mercury Control via Adsorption Process, Gore felt filter bag inserts, EnviroScrub Pahlman{sup {trademark}} process, combined oxidation of NO{sub x} and mercury, and mercury control with the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter. 36 refs., 1 fig.

  5. General practice and the Internet revolution. Use of an Internet social network to communicate information on prevention in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veuillotte, Isabelle; Morel, Gilles; Pitois, Stephane; Haler, Renaud; Mercier, Patricia; Aubry, Catherine; Cannet, Didier

    2015-03-01

    The popularity of social networks and the huge number of exchanges have made them immensely important for the communication of information. This French study explored prevention in hereditary breast cancer using a social Internet network to communicate information. The principal objective was to inform French women aged from 20 to 50 years, using the social network Facebook, about the warning signs of breast cancer in cases of a predisposition to the disease due to a genetic mutation. The secondary objectives were to inform people about screening. An information page entitled "hereditary breast cancer: and if I was concerned?" was distributed in 3 different ways: from friend to friend, via groups of persons, and by targeted advertising. Four articles and 11 messages were distributed over 27 days. The total number of visits for this period amounted to 1019. A total of 81 percent of the Internauts were women and 55 percent of the visitors were aged between 25 and 44 years. Other information campaigns concerning public health issues could be conducted using this tool. A legal framework is necessary to preserve the quality of the medical information provided. This new means of communication, used for prevention purposes, will add to other frequently used methods of communication. © The Author(s) 2013.

  6. YouTube as a source of health information: Analysis of sun protection and skin cancer prevention related issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Linda; Køster, Brian; Siegert, Anna Maria; Cop, Christian; Boyers, Lindsay; Karimkhani, Chante; Winston, Helena; Mounessa, Jessica; Dellavalle, Robert P; Reinau, Daphne; Diepgen, Thomas; Surber, Christian

    2017-01-15

    Although social media ubiquitously supplementstraditional information sources such as newspapers,magazines, radio, and television, investigation of onlinehealth information related to sun protection and skincancer prevention has been scarce and largely limitedto English language sources. Using the search terms"sun protection," "sunscreen," "skin cancer prevention,"tanning bed" and "vitamin D," we investigated 281YouTube videos presented in 6 languages: English,German, French, Spanish, Swedish, and Danish. Foreach video, we used a four-sectioned checklist toassess general information, popularity, expert drivenmeasures, and heuristic driven measures. Differencesbetween languages were detected: English languagevideos were most frequently viewed (median numberof views: 5488 compared to 248 -1591 in otherlanguages). Approximately 60% of videos revealednegative effects of solar ultraviolet (UV)-exposure.The majority of videos (75%) targeted adults. Videoson tanning beds and sunscreen contained false ormisleading information 40% and 20% of the time,respectively. We confirm observations made withrespect to other medical disciplines that the generalquality of YouTube contributions is often inferiorand does not deliver sustainable information. Othersources of information should be included whensearching for health information online.

  7. Seeking sexual health information? Professionals' novel experiences of the barriers that prevent female adolescents seeking sexual health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKellar, Kerry; Little, Linda; Smith, Michael A; Sillence, Elizabeth

    2017-07-21

    Objective Sexual health professionals are key stakeholders in implementing sexual health intervention programmes, yet their views are largely absent from the literature. Sexual health professionals provide a unique perspective on teen sexual health issues as they engage in confidential discussions with a wide range of teenagers. This study aimed to provide an in-depth exploration of professionals' perceptions of teenagers' sexual health information seeking practices and barriers. Furthermore, the research provided a unique re-examination of key predictors of risky sexual behaviours, which have been highlighted by previous research. Methods Nine semi-structured interviews were undertaken with sexual health professionals to explore their perceptions of teenagers' sexual health information seeking practises and barriers. Subsequently the professionals rank ordered the 57 factors identified in previous research in terms of their perceived importance in predicting risky sexual behaviours. Results Four themes emerged: "society and media"; "environment and family"; "peer influences"; and "the self". The rank order task confirmed that 33 of the 57 factors were perceived as highly important by sexual health professionals. Conclusion Society, peers, environment and family are perceived as barriers to teenagers seeking reliable sexual health information, but these are dependent on the individual person. An individual with higher self-esteem is more confident in seeking sexual health information and applying this knowledge appropriately. Self-esteem was also identified as a key perceived predictor of risky sexual behaviours. Therefore, there is scope for intervention programmes targeting self-esteem and knowledge, so teenagers have the confidence to seek out sexual health information and to make their own informed sexual health decisions.

  8. [Access to information about how to prevent oral problems among school children in the public school network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Rodrigo Caldeira Nunes; Souza, João Gabriel Silva; Oliveira, Carolina de Castro; De Oliveira, Lorenna Fonseca Braga; Pelino, José Eduardo Pelizon; Martins, Andréa Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima; De Almeida, Eliete Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    The scope of this study is to identify the prevalence of access to information about how to prevent oral problems among schoolchildren in the public school network, as well as the factors associated with such access. This is a cross-sectional and analytical study conducted among 12-year-old schoolchildren in a Brazilian municipality with a large population. The examinations were performed by 24 trained dentists and calibrated with the aid of 24 recorders. Data collection occurred in 36 public schools selected from the 89 public schools of the city. Descriptive, univariate and multiple analyses were conducted. Of the 2510 schoolchildren included in the study, 2211 reported having received information about how to prevent oral problems. Access to such information was greater among those who used private dental services; and lower among those who used the service for treatment, who evaluated the service as regular or bad/awful. The latter use toothbrush only or toothbrush and tongue scrubbing as a means of oral hygiene and who reported not being satisfied with the appearance of their teeth. The conclusion drawn is that the majority of schoolchildren had access to information about how to prevent oral problems, though access was associated with the characteristics of health services, health behavior and outcomes.

  9. 76 FR 76713 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collections; Comment Request; Prevention of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-08

    ...-ROM you submit. If the EPA cannot read your comment due to technical difficulties and cannot contact... federal entities must collect information themselves, hire consultants to collect the information, or...

  10. 76 FR 72700 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collections; Comment Request; Prevention of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    .... If the EPA cannot read your comment due to technical difficulties and cannot contact you for... Federal entities must collect information themselves, hire consultants to collect the information, or...

  11. Formative research to inform intervention development for diabetes prevention in the Republic of the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, L M; Gittelsohn, J; Alfred, J; Palafox, N A

    2001-12-01

    Formative research was conducted in the Republic of the Marshall Islands to help develop a diabetes prevention intervention. Methods included in-depth interviews, semistructured interviews, and direct observation of household behaviors in urban and remote settings. Foods were classified into two main conceptual spheres: foods from the islands/Marshallese foods and imported/American foods. Diabetes (nanimij in tonal) is a highly salient illness and is believed to be caused by foods high in fat and sugar, consumption of imported/American foods, family background, and the atomic bomb testing. Physical activity and eating a traditional diet were viewed as important for preventing diabetes. The traditional belief system links a large body with health, and a thin body with illness; however, perceptions are changing with increased acculturation and education about the health risks of obesity. These findings were used to develop a diabetes prevention home visit intervention currently being implemented and evaluated in Marshallese households.

  12. Workshop on Systems Interconnexions: Standardization, Uniformity and Co-ordination in Population/Family Planning Information Network (Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, April 12-16, 1976).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. East-West Center.

    The "information explosion" in the field of population has created a need for proper identification, systematization, dissemination, and utilization of population information. To help meet these needs in the Asian and Pacific regions, the Clearinghouse and Information Section of the Population Division of ESCAP (Economic and Social…

  13. Information Vaccine: Using Graphic Novels as an HIV/AIDS Prevention Resource for Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Kendra S.; Gavigan, Karen

    2014-01-01

    HIV/AIDS infections are growing at an alarming rate for young adults. In 2009, youth, ages 13-29, accounted for 39% of all new HIV infections in the U.S. (Division of HIV/ AIDS Prevention, Centers for Disease Control (CDC), 2011). South Carolina ranks eighth in the nation for new HIV cases, while the capital city of Columbia ranks seventh…

  14. Information processing to determine waste minimization/pollution prevention strategies in the petroleum industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falcon, Mariali F. de [CORPOVEN, S.A. (Venezuela)

    1993-12-31

    With the passage of the 1984 Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act in the United States, industries, and particularly the petroleum industry, have become more interested in their waste management practices. This works aims to present a methodology to organize the collected data concerning waste minimization and, or, pollution prevention in the petroleum industry into a bibliographic database

  15. Bad news. Analysis of the quality of information on influenza prevention returned by Google in English and Italian.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali eMaki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Information available to the public influences the approach of the population towards vaccination against influenza compared with other preventative approaches. In this study we have analyzed the first 200 websites returned by searching Google on two topics (prevention of influenza and influenza vaccine, in English and Italian. For all the four searches above, websites were classified according to their typology (government, commercial, professional, portals etc. and for their trustworthiness as defined by the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA score which assesses whether they provide some basic elements of information quality (IQ: authorship, currency, disclosure and references. The type of information described was also assessed to add another dimension of IQ. Websites on influenza prevention were classified according to the type of preventative approach mentioned (vaccine, lifestyle, hygiene, complementary medicine etc., whether the approaches were in agreement with evidence based medicine (EBM or not. Websites on influenza vaccination were classified as pro- or anti-vaccine, or neutral. The great majority of websites described EBM approaches to influenza prevention and had a pro-vaccine orientation. Government websites mainly pointed at EBM preventative approaches and had a pro-vaccine orientation, while there was a higher proportion of commercial websites among those which promote non-EBM approaches. Although the JAMA score was lower in commercial websites, it did not correlate with the preventative approaches suggested or the orientation toward vaccines. For each of the four search engine result pages (SERP, only one website displayed the health-of-the-net (HON seal.In the SERP on vaccines, journalistic websites were the most abundant category and ranked higher than average in both languages. Analysis using natural language processing showed that journalistic websites were mostly reporting news about two specific topics

  16. Invasive species information networks: Collaboration at multiple scales for prevention, early detection, and rapid response to invasive alien species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Annie; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Madsen, John; Westbrooks, Randy G.; Fournier, Christine; Mehrhoff, Les; Browne, Michael; Graham, Jim; Sellers, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    Accurate analysis of present distributions and effective modeling of future distributions of invasive alien species (IAS) are both highly dependent on the availability and accessibility of occurrence data and natural history information about the species. Invasive alien species monitoring and detection networks (such as the Invasive Plant Atlas of New England and the Invasive Plant Atlas of the MidSouth) generate occurrence data at local and regional levels within the United States, which are shared through the US National Institute of Invasive Species Science. The Inter-American Biodiversity Information Network's Invasives Information Network (I3N), facilitates cooperation on sharing invasive species occurrence data throughout the Western Hemisphere. The I3N and other national and regional networks expose their data globally via the Global Invasive Species Information Network (GISIN). International and interdisciplinary cooperation on data sharing strengthens cooperation on strategies and responses to invasions. However, limitations to effective collaboration among invasive species networks leading to successful early detection and rapid response to invasive species include: lack of interoperability; data accessibility; funding; and technical expertise. This paper proposes various solutions to these obstacles at different geographic levels and briefly describes success stories from the invasive species information networks mentioned above. Using biological informatics to facilitate global information sharing is especially critical in invasive species science, as research has shown that one of the best indicators of the invasiveness of a species is whether it has been invasive elsewhere. Data must also be shared across disciplines because natural history information (e.g. diet, predators, habitat requirements, etc.) about a species in its native range is vital for effective prevention, detection, and rapid response to an invasion. Finally, it has been our

  17. Mining User spatiotemporal Behavior in Geospatial Cyberinfrastructure --using GEOSS Clearinghouse as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    XIA, J.; Yang, C.; Liu, K.; Huang, Q.; Li, Z.

    2013-12-01

    Big Data becomes increasingly important in almost all scientific domains, especially in geoscience where hundreds to millions of sensors are collecting data of the Earth continuously (Whitehouse News 2012). With the explosive growth of data, various Geospatial Cyberinfrastructure (GCI) (Yang et al. 2010) components are developed to manage geospatial resources and provide data access for the public. These GCIs are accessed by different users intensively on a daily basis. However, little research has been done to analyze the spatiotemporal patterns of user behavior, which could be critical to the management of Big Data and the operation of GCIs (Yang et al. 2011). For example, the spatiotemporal distribution of end users helps us better arrange and locate GCI computing facilities. A better indexing and caching mechanism could be developed based on the spatiotemporal pattern of user queries. In this paper, we use GEOSS Clearinghouse as an example to investigate spatiotemporal patterns of user behavior in GCIs. The investigation results show that user behaviors are heterogeneous but with patterns across space and time. Identified patterns include (1) the high access frequency regions; (2) local interests; (3) periodical accesses and rush hours; (4) spiking access. Based on identified patterns, this presentation reports several solutions to better support the operation of the GEOSS Clearinghouse and other GCIs. Keywords: Big Data, EarthCube, CyberGIS, Spatiotemporal Thinking and Computing, Data Mining, User Behavior Reference: Fayyad, U. M., Piatetsky-Shapiro, G., Smyth, P., & Uthurusamy, R. 1996. Advances in knowledge discovery and data mining. Whitehouse. 2012. Obama administration unveils 'BIG DATA' initiative: announces $200 million in new R&D investments. Whitehouse. Retrieved from http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/microsites/ostp/big_data_press_release_final_2.pdf [Accessed 14 June 2013] Yang, C., Wu, H., Huang, Q., Li, Z., & Li, J. 2011. Using spatial

  18. Using web-based familial risk information for diabetes prevention: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijl, M.; Henneman, L.; Qureshi, N.; Kostense, P.J.; Cornel, M.C.; Timmermans, D.R.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: It has been suggested that family history information may be effective in motivating people to adopt health promoting behaviour. The aim was to determine if diabetic familial risk information by using a web-based tool leads to improved self-reported risk-reducing behaviour among

  19. Information-seeking among chronic disease prevention staff in state health departments: use of academic journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jenine K; Allen, Peg; Jacob, Rebekah R; Elliott, Lindsay; Brownson, Ross C

    2014-08-14

    Use of scientific evidence aids in ensuring that public health interventions have the best possible health and economic return on investment. We describe use of academic journals by state health department chronic disease prevention staff to find public health evidence. We surveyed more than 900 state health department staff from all states and the District of Columbia. Participants identified top journals or barriers to journal use. We used descriptive statistics to examine individual and aggregate state health department responses. On average, 45.7% of staff per state health department use journals. Common barriers to use included lack of time, lack of access, and expense. Strategies for increasing journal use are provided.

  20. Marine Genomics: A clearing-house for genomic and transcriptomic data of marine organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trent Harold F

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Marine Genomics project is a functional genomics initiative developed to provide a pipeline for the curation of Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs and gene expression microarray data for marine organisms. It provides a unique clearing-house for marine specific EST and microarray data and is currently available at http://www.marinegenomics.org. Description The Marine Genomics pipeline automates the processing, maintenance, storage and analysis of EST and microarray data for an increasing number of marine species. It currently contains 19 species databases (over 46,000 EST sequences that are maintained by registered users from local and remote locations in Europe and South America in addition to the USA. A collection of analysis tools are implemented. These include a pipeline upload tool for EST FASTA file, sequence trace file and microarray data, an annotative text search, automated sequence trimming, sequence quality control (QA/QC editing, sequence BLAST capabilities and a tool for interactive submission to GenBank. Another feature of this resource is the integration with a scientific computing analysis environment implemented by MATLAB. Conclusion The conglomeration of multiple marine organisms with integrated analysis tools enables users to focus on the comprehensive descriptions of transcriptomic responses to typical marine stresses. This cross species data comparison and integration enables users to contain their research within a marine-oriented data management and analysis environment.

  1. A decision-support tool to inform Australian strategies for preventing suicide and suicidal behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Page

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic simulation modelling is increasingly being recognised as a valuable decision-support tool to help guide investments and actions to address complex public health issues such as suicide. In particular, participatory system dynamics (SD modelling provides a useful tool for asking high-level ‘what if’ questions, and testing the likely impacts of different combinations of policies and interventions at an aggregate level before they are implemented in the real world. We developed an SD model for suicide prevention in Australia, and investigated the hypothesised impacts over the next 10 years (2015–2025 of a combination of current intervention strategies proposed for population interventions in Australia: 1 general practitioner (GP training, 2 coordinated aftercare in those who have attempted suicide, 3 school-based mental health literacy programs, 4 brief-contact interventions in hospital settings, and 5 psychosocial treatment approaches. Findings suggest that the largest reductions in suicide were associated with GP training (6% and coordinated aftercare approaches (4%, with total reductions of 12% for all interventions combined. This paper highlights the value of dynamic modelling methods for managing complexity and uncertainty, and demonstrates their potential use as a decision-support tool for policy makers and program planners for community suicide prevention actions.

  2. Perceptibility and the "Choice Experience": User Sensory Perceptions and Experiences Inform Vaginal Prevention Product Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Kate Morrow; Dunsiger, Shira; Vargas, Sara E; Fava, Joseph L; Shaw, Julia G; Rosen, Rochelle K; Kiser, Patrick F; Kojic, E Milu; Friend, David R; Katz, David F

    The development of pericoital (on demand) vaginal HIV prevention technologies remains a global health priority. Clinical trials to date have been challenged by nonadherence, leading to an inability to demonstrate product efficacy. The work here provides new methodology and results to begin to address this limitation. We created validated scales that allow users to characterize sensory perceptions and experiences when using vaginal gel formulations. In this study, we sought to understand the user sensory perceptions and experiences (USPEs) that characterize the preferred product experience for each participant. Two hundred four women evaluated four semisolid vaginal formulations using the USPE scales at four randomly ordered formulation evaluation visits. Women were asked to select their preferred formulation experience for HIV prevention among the four formulations evaluated. The scale scores on the Sex-associated USPE scales (e.g., Initial Penetration and Leakage) for each participant's selected formulation were used in a latent class model analysis. Four classes of preferred formulation experiences were identified. Sociodemographic and sexual history variables did not predict class membership; however, four specific scales were significantly related to class: Initial Penetration, Perceived Wetness, Messiness, and Leakage. The range of preferred user experiences represented by the scale scores creates a potential target range for product development, such that products that elicit scale scores that fall within the preferred range may be more acceptable, or tolerable, to the population under study. It is recommended that similar analyses should be conducted with other semisolid vaginal formulations, and in other cultures, to determine product property and development targets.

  3. [Measures to prevent patient identification errors in blood collection/physiological function testing utilizing a laboratory information system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazu, Chisato; Hoshino, Satoshi; Furukawa, Taiji

    2013-08-01

    We constructed an integrated personal identification workflow chart using both bar code reading and an all in-one laboratory information system. The information system not only handles test data but also the information needed for patient guidance in the laboratory department. The reception terminals at the entrance, displays for patient guidance and patient identification tools at blood-sampling booths are all controlled by the information system. The number of patient identification errors was greatly reduced by the system. However, identification errors have not been abolished in the ultrasound department. After re-evaluation of the patient identification process in this department, we recognized that the major reason for the errors came from excessive identification workflow. Ordinarily, an ultrasound test requires patient identification 3 times, because 3 different systems are required during the entire test process, i.e. ultrasound modality system, laboratory information system and a system for producing reports. We are trying to connect the 3 different systems to develop a one-time identification workflow, but it is not a simple task and has not been completed yet. Utilization of the laboratory information system is effective, but is not yet perfect for patient identification. The most fundamental procedure for patient identification is to ask a person's name even today. Everyday checks in the ordinary workflow and everyone's participation in safety-management activity are important for the prevention of patient identification errors.

  4. Use of geographic information systems for planning HIV prevention interventions for high-risk youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geanuracos, Catherine G; Cunningham, Shayna D; Weiss, George; Forte, Draco; Reid, Lisa M Henry; Ellen, Jonathan M

    2007-11-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) analysis is an emerging tool for public health intervention planning. Connect to Protect, a researcher-community collaboration working in 15 cities to reduce HIV infection among youths, developed GIS databases of local health, crime, and demographic data to evaluate the geographic epidemiology of sexually transmitted infections and HIV risk among adolescents. We describe the process and problems of data acquisition, analysis, and mapping in the development of structural interventions, demonstrating how program planners can use this technology to inform and improve planning decisions. The Connect to Protect project's experience suggests strategies for incorporating public data and GIS technology into the next generation of public health interventions.

  5. Using community readiness key informant assessments in a randomized group prevention trial: impact of a participatory community-media intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Michael D; Edwards, Ruth W; Plested, Barbara A; Thurman, Pamela J; Kelly, Kathleen J; Comello, Maria Leonora G; Keefe, Thomas J

    2005-02-01

    This study examines the role of key informant community readiness assessments in a randomized group trial testing the impact of a participatory community-media intervention (which was also complemented by in-school efforts). These assessments were used to help match communities in random assignment, as a source of formative data about the community, as the basis for a coalition-building workshop, and as an evaluation tool, with a follow-up set of surveys approximately 2 years after the baseline survey. Results of the nested, random effects analysis indicated that the intervention influenced community knowledge of efforts and (at marginally significant levels) improved prevention leadership quality and community climate supportive of prevention efforts. There was evidence that the professional affiliation of informants in some cases had an effect on their assessments, which could be controlled in the analysis. The authors conclude that key informant community readiness assessments can usefully serve to supplement aggregated measures of individual attitudes and behavior (reported elsewhere for this study) in evaluating community-based interventions.

  6. [Evaluation on application of China Disease Prevention and Control Information System of Hydatid Disease II System integration and simulation tests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Yu; Shuai, Han; Qiang, Wang; Jing-Bo, Xue

    2017-06-08

    To report the integrated progress of the hydatid disease information management system, and to provide the reference for further system improvements by analysis of results on simulation test feedback. The work of institutional code matching by collecting fundamental and integrated information of the system in epidemic areas of hydatid disease was carried out, and professional control agencies were selected to carry out the simulation test. The results of agencies code matching at stage indicated the average completion rate was 94.30% on administrative agencies, 69.94% on registered professional agencies and 56.40% on professional institutions matching related to hydatid disease prevention and control implements in seven provinces (autonomous regions) and Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps. Meanwhile, the response rate of open-ended proposals was 93.33% on fifteen feedbacks, and the statistics showed 21.43% believed the system was low fluency, 64.29% considered the system was inconvenience for data inputs and 42.86% considered it would be improved on system statistics functions, of which 27.78% were provincial users, 22.22% were the city users and 50.00% were the county users. The hydatid disease prevention information management system meets the fundamental needs of the majority agencies in hyperendemic areas of echinococcosis, it needs to develop the further test with more agencies joining after the work of the institutional code matching completion and the system service improvement in the next stage.

  7. Snakes of the Savannah River Plant with Information About Snakebite Prevention and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Whit

    This booklet is intended to provide information on the snakes of South Carolina, to point out the necessary steps to avoid a snakebite, and to indicate the current medical treatment for poisonous snakebite. It includes a checklist of South Carolina reptiles and a taxonomic key for the identification of snakes in the Savannah River Plant. Three…

  8. Information and communication technologies, a tool for risk prevention and accident management on sea ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Lépy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Marine ice melting topic is a repetitive phenomenon in alarmist speeches on climate change. The present positive evolution of air temperatures has in all probability many impacts on the environment and more or less directly on societies. Face to the temperature elevation, the ice pack is undergone to an important temporal variability of ice growth and melting. Human populations can be exposed to meteorological and ice hazards engendering a societal risk. The purpose of this paper is to better understand how ICT get integrated into the risk question through the example of the Bay of Bothnia in the northern extremity of the Baltic Sea. The study deals with the way that Finnish society, advanced in the ICT field, faces to new technology use in risk prevention and accident management on sea ice.

  9. Childhood drowning in South Africa: local data should inform prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joanknecht, L; Argent, A C; van Dijk, M; van As, A B

    2015-02-01

    Drowning is an important cause of childhood injury, however, little is known about drowning in Africa. The aim of this study is to investigate submersion incidents in Cape Town, South Africa and provide specific prognostic factors as well as to develop age-appropriate prevention strategies. A retrospective chart review performed at the Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital in Cape Town, South Africa. Patients admitted because of 'drowning' or 'near-drowning' between January 2007 and April 2013 were included. 75 children were included. 63 (84 %) survived without complications, 8 (10.7 %) died and 4 (5.3 %) had permanent neurological sequelae. The median age was 2.2 years (range 0.1-12.4). 46 (60.5 %) incidents happened in or around the home, only 14 (18.7 %) were witnessed. 42 (56 %) took place in a pool (29 private, 13 public). Significant predictors of the outcome were: estimated submersion time, duration of apnea, unresponsive and dilated pupils, intubation and use of inotropes. On arrival at the ER we found these significant predictors of the outcome: CPR, a GCS drowning in the home environment. While bathing in baths or buckets, children should never be left alone and parents should be made aware of the dangers. In our study, the majority of incidents occurred in swimming pools and limiting access to these could prevent many incidents of drowning among older children. Although children of all language groups are at risk for drowning, English- or Afrikaans-speaking children were particularly at risk for drowning in private pools while Xhosa-speaking children mostly drowned in baths or buckets. We also report multiple prognostic factors for the outcome, but none of them were absolute predictive of the outcome, indicating that each victim of submersion deserves full resuscitative treatment.

  10. Measuring Sexual Behavior Stigma to Inform Effective HIV Prevention and Treatment Programs for Key Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahlman, Shauna; Hargreaves, James R; Sprague, Laurel; Stangl, Anne L; Baral, Stefan D

    2017-04-26

    The levels of coverage of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment and prevention services needed to change the trajectory of the HIV epidemic among key populations, including gay men and other men who have sex with men (MSM) and sex workers, have consistently been shown to be limited by stigma. The aim of this study was to propose an agenda for the goals and approaches of a sexual behavior stigma surveillance effort for key populations, with a focus on collecting surveillance data from 4 groups: (1) members of key population groups themselves (regardless of HIV status), (2) people living with HIV (PLHIV) who are also members of key populations, (3) members of nonkey populations, and (4) health workers. We discuss strengths and weaknesses of measuring multiple different types of stigma including perceived, anticipated, experienced, perpetrated, internalized, and intersecting stigma as measured among key populations themselves, as well as attitudes or beliefs about key populations as measured among other groups. With the increasing recognition of the importance of stigma, consistent and validated stigma metrics for key populations are needed to monitor trends and guide immediate action. Evidence-based stigma interventions may ultimately be the key to overcoming the barriers to coverage and retention in life-saving antiretroviral-based HIV prevention and treatment programs for key populations. Moving forward necessitates the integration of validated stigma scales in routine HIV surveillance efforts, as well as HIV epidemiologic and intervention studies focused on key populations, as a means of tracking progress toward a more efficient and impactful HIV response. ©Shauna Stahlman, James R Hargreaves, Laurel Sprague, Anne L Stangl, Stefan D Baral. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 26.04.2017.

  11. Sealed Radioactive Sources. Information, Resources, and Advice for Key Groups about Preventing the Loss of Control over Sealed Radioactive Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-10-01

    Among its many activities to improve the safety and security of sealed sources, the IAEA has been investigating the root causes of major accidents and incidents since the 1980's and publishes findings so that others can learn from them. There are growing concerns today about the possibility that an improperly stored source could be stolen and used for malicious purposes. To improve both safety and security, information needs to be in the hands of those whose actions and decisions can prevent a source from being lost or stolen in the first place. The IAEA developed this booklet to help improve communication with key groups about hazards that may result from the loss of control over sealed radioactive sources and measures that should be implemented to prevent such loss of control. Many people may benefit from the information contained in this booklet, particularly those working with sources and those likely to be involved if control over a source is lost; especially: officials in government agencies, first responders, medical users, industrial users and the metal recycling industry. The general public may also benefit from an understanding of the fundamentals of radiation safety. This booklet is comprised of several stand-alone chapters intended to communicate with these key groups. Various accidents that are described and information that is provided are relevant to more than one key group and therefore, some information is repeated throughout the booklet. This booklet seeks to raise awareness of the importance of the safety and security of sealed radioactive sources. However, it is not intended to be a comprehensive 'how to' guide for implementing safety and security measures for sealed radioactive sources. For more information on these measures, readers are encouraged to consult the key IAEA safety and security-related publications identified in this booklet

  12. Use of Geographic Information Systems for Planning HIV Prevention Interventions for High-Risk Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geanuracos, Catherine G.; Cunningham, Shayna D.; Weiss, George; Forte, Draco; Henry Reid, Lisa M.; Ellen, Jonathan M.

    2007-01-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) analysis is an emerging tool for public health intervention planning. Connect to Protect, a researcher–community collaboration working in 15 cities to reduce HIV infection among youths, developed GIS databases of local health, crime, and demographic data to evaluate the geographic epidemiology of sexually transmitted infections and HIV risk among adolescents. We describe the process and problems of data acquisition, analysis, and mapping in the development of structural interventions, demonstrating how program planners can use this technology to inform and improve planning decisions. The Connect to Protect project’s experience suggests strategies for incorporating public data and GIS technology into the next generation of public health interventions. PMID:17901452

  13. Oral health information systems--towards measuring progress in oral health promotion and disease prevention.

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Poul Erik; Bourgeois, Denis; Bratthall, Douglas; Ogawa, Hiroshi

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the essential components of oral health information systems for the analysis of trends in oral disease and the evaluation of oral health programmes at the country, regional and global levels. Standard methodology for the collection of epidemiological data on oral health has been designed by WHO and used by countries worldwide for the surveillance of oral disease and health. Global, regional and national oral health databanks have highlighted the changing patterns of ora...

  14. Information to the public on risk prevention arising from energy production in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannangeli, C.A.; Bermudez, L.A.; Sanchez, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The lack of knowledge about ionizing radiation and the fear connected with their pacific applications, is a matchless fact, which is relevant in our society, promoting and important controversy. Several origin lines meet in this point: non pacific uses of nuclear energy, Chernobyl accident, final disposal of radioactive wastes, and manipulation of information against nuclear power. They are based on emotional strategies, producing a detriment in the value of impartial information, which lays in a secondary place. The aim of this paper is to analyze the conditions of a communication process, to transmit objective information about radiation, in different levels of reception, and present guide lines to socially relevant institutions, including physicians and health stations as well as public in general, in terms of training and contacts with groups closely related with radiation knowledge. To do this, a survey in a radius of 50 km around the nuclear stations to determine the factors affecting the perception of radiation risks was carried out. The results showed three outstanding factors: 'fear', 'ignorance' and 'exposed population' with different points of view related to the social context and individual characteristics of surveyed people. Within this framework, a health system for radiological events in three level of organization, as well as training programs and evaluation of the systems to face such events, is published. (author) [es

  15. Information sources for obesity prevention policy research: a review of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanneke, Rosie; Young, Sabrina K

    2017-08-08

    Systematic identification of evidence in health policy can be time-consuming and challenging. This study examines three questions pertaining to systematic reviews on obesity prevention policy, in order to identify the most efficient search methods: (1) What percentage of the primary studies selected for inclusion in the reviews originated in scholarly as opposed to gray literature? (2) How much of the primary scholarly literature in this topic area is indexed in PubMed/MEDLINE? (3) Which databases index the greatest number of primary studies not indexed in PubMed, and are these databases searched consistently across systematic reviews? We identified systematic reviews on obesity prevention policy and explored their search methods and citations. We determined the percentage of scholarly vs. gray literature cited, the most frequently cited journals, and whether each primary study was indexed in PubMed. We searched 21 databases for all primary study articles not indexed in PubMed to determine which database(s) indexed the highest number of these relevant articles. In total, 21 systematic reviews were identified. Ten of the 21 systematic reviews reported searching gray literature, and 12 reviews ultimately included gray literature in their analyses. Scholarly articles accounted for 577 of the 649 total primary study papers. Of these, 495 (76%) were indexed in PubMed. Google Scholar retrieved the highest number of the remaining 82 non-PubMed scholarly articles, followed by Scopus and EconLit. The Journal of the American Dietetic Association was the most-cited journal. Researchers can maximize search efficiency by searching a small yet targeted selection of both scholarly and gray literature resources. A highly sensitive search of PubMed and those databases that index the greatest number of relevant articles not indexed in PubMed, namely multidisciplinary and economics databases, could save considerable time and effort. When combined with a gray literature search and

  16. A situational analysis methodology to inform comprehensive HIV prevention and treatment programming, applied in rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treves-Kagan, Sarah; Naidoo, Evasen; Gilvydis, Jennifer M; Raphela, Elsie; Barnhart, Scott; Lippman, Sheri A

    2017-09-01

    Successful HIV prevention programming requires engaging communities in the planning process and responding to the social environmental factors that shape health and behaviour in a specific local context. We conducted two community-based situational analyses to inform a large, comprehensive HIV prevention programme in two rural districts of North West Province South Africa in 2012. The methodology includes: initial partnership building, goal setting and background research; 1 week of field work; in-field and subsequent data analysis; and community dissemination and programmatic incorporation of results. We describe the methodology and a case study of the approach in rural South Africa; assess if the methodology generated data with sufficient saturation, breadth and utility for programming purposes; and evaluate if this process successfully engaged the community. Between the two sites, 87 men and 105 women consented to in-depth interviews; 17 focus groups were conducted; and 13 health facilities and 7 NGOs were assessed. The methodology succeeded in quickly collecting high-quality data relevant to tailoring a comprehensive HIV programme and created a strong foundation for community engagement and integration with local health services. This methodology can be an accessible tool in guiding community engagement and tailoring future combination HIV prevention and care programmes.

  17. Health literacy demands of written health information materials: an assessment of cervical cancer prevention materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helitzer, Deborah; Hollis, Christine; Cotner, Jane; Oestreicher, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Health literacy requires reading and writing skills as well as knowledge of health topics and health systems. Materials written at high reading levels with ambiguous, technical, or dense text, often place great comprehension demands on consumers with lower literacy skills. This study developed and used an instrument to analyze cervical cancer prevention materials for readability, comprehensibility, suitability, and message design. The Suitability Assessment of Materials (SAM) was amended for ease of use, inclusivity, and objectivity with the encouragement of the original developers. Other novel contributions were specifically related to "comprehensibility" (CAM). The resulting SAM + CAM was used to score 69 materials for content, literacy demand, numeric literacy, graphics, layout/typography, and learning stimulation variables. Expert reviewers provided content validation. Inter-rater reliability was "substantial" (kappa = .77). The mean reading level of materials was 11th grade. Most materials (68%) scored as "adequate" for comprehensibility, suitability, and message design; health education brochures scored better than other materials. Only one-fifth were ranked "superior" for ease of use and comprehensibility. Most written materials have a readability level that is too high and require improvement in ease of use and comprehensibility for the majority of readers.

  18. Market analyses of livestock trade networks to inform the prevention of joint economic and epidemiological risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilligan, Christopher A.; Belloc, Catherine; Filipe, João A. N.; Vergu, Elisabeta

    2016-01-01

    Conventional epidemiological studies of infections spreading through trade networks, e.g. via livestock movements, generally show that central large-size holdings (hubs) should be preferentially surveyed and controlled in order to reduce epidemic spread. However, epidemiological strategies alone may not be economically optimal when costs of control are factored in together with risks of market disruption from targeting core holdings in a supply chain. Using extensive data on animal movements in supply chains for cattle and swine in France, we introduce a method to identify effective strategies for preventing outbreaks with limited budgets while minimizing the risk of market disruptions. Our method involves the categorization of holdings based on position along the supply chain and degree of market share. Our analyses suggest that trade has a higher risk of propagating epidemics through cattle networks, which are dominated by exchanges involving wholesalers, than for swine. We assess the effectiveness of contrasting interventions from the perspectives of regulators and the market, using percolation analysis. We show that preferentially targeting minor, non-central agents can outperform targeting of hubs when the costs to stakeholders and the risks of market disturbance are considered. Our study highlights the importance of assessing joint economic–epidemiological risks in networks underlying pathogen propagation and trade. PMID:26984191

  19. Market analyses of livestock trade networks to inform the prevention of joint economic and epidemiological risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moslonka-Lefebvre, Mathieu; Gilligan, Christopher A; Monod, Hervé; Belloc, Catherine; Ezanno, Pauline; Filipe, João A N; Vergu, Elisabeta

    2016-03-01

    Conventional epidemiological studies of infections spreading through trade networks, e.g., via livestock movements, generally show that central large-size holdings (hubs) should be preferentially surveyed and controlled in order to reduce epidemic spread. However, epidemiological strategies alone may not be economically optimal when costs of control are factored in together with risks of market disruption from targeting core holdings in a supply chain. Using extensive data on animal movements in supply chains for cattle and swine in France, we introduce a method to identify effective strategies for preventing outbreaks with limited budgets while minimizing the risk of market disruptions. Our method involves the categorization of holdings based on position along the supply chain and degree of market share. Our analyses suggest that trade has a higher risk of propagating epidemics through cattle networks, which are dominated by exchanges involving wholesalers, than for swine. We assess the effectiveness of contrasting interventions from the perspectives of regulators and the market, using percolation analysis. We show that preferentially targeting minor, non-central agents can outperform targeting of hubs when the costs to stakeholders and the risks of market disturbance are considered. Our study highlights the importance of assessing joint economic-epidemiological risks in networks underlying pathogen propagation and trade. © 2016 The Authors.

  20. Assessing informed consent in an opioid relapse prevention study with adults under current or recent criminal justice supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Ashleigh A; Chen, Donna T; Bonnie, Richard J; Ko, Tomohiro M; Suratt, Colleen E; Lee, Joshua D; Friedmann, Peter D; Gordon, Michael; McDonald, Ryan; Murphy, Sean M; Boney, Tamara Y; Nunes, Edward V; O'Brien, Charles P

    2017-10-01

    Concerns persist that individuals with substance use disorders who are under community criminal justice supervision experience circumstances that might compromise their provision of valid, informed consent for research participation. These concerns include the possibilities that desire to obtain access to treatment might lead individuals to ignore important information about research participation, including information about risks, or that cognitive impairment associated with substance use might interfere with attending to important information. We report results from a consent quiz (CQ) administered in a multisite randomized clinical trial of long-acting naltrexone to prevent relapse to opioid use disorder among adults under community criminal justice supervision-a treatment option difficult to access by this population of individuals. Participants were required to answer all 11 items correctly before randomization. On average, participants answered 9.8 items correctly (89%) at baseline first attempt (n=306). At week 21 (n=212), participants scored 87% (9.5 items correct) without review. Performance was equivalent to, or better than, published results from other populations on a basic consent quiz instrument across multiple content domains. The consent quiz is an efficient method to screen for adequate knowledge of consent information as part of the informed consent process. Clinical researchers who are concerned about these issues should consider using a consent quiz with corrected feedback to enhance the informed consent process. Overall, while primarily useful as an educational tool, employing a CQ as part of the gateway to participation in research may be particularly important as the field continues to advance and tests novel experimental treatments with significant risks and uncertain potential for benefit. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Evaluation of a large healthy lifestyle program: informing program implementation and scale-up in the prevention of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozica, S L; Lombard, C B; Harrison, C L; Teede, H J

    2016-11-24

    The Healthy Lifestyle Program for women (HeLP-her) is a low-intensity, self-management program which has demonstrated efficacy in preventing excess weight gain in women. However, little is known about the implementation, reach, and sustainability of low-intensity prevention programs in rural settings, where risk for obesity in women is higher than urban settings. We aimed to evaluate a low-intensity healthy lifestyle program delivered to women in a rural setting to inform development of effective community prevention programs. A mixed method hybrid implementation and evaluation study, guided by the RE-AIM framework (addressing the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance), was undertaken. Data collection tools included anthropometric measures, program checklists, questionnaires, and semi-structured interviews with participants and local stakeholders. The RE-AIM self-audit tool was applied to assess evaluation rigor. Six hundred and forty-nine women from 41 relatively socio-economic disadvantaged communities in Australia participated: mean age 39.6 years (±SD 6.7) and body mass index of 28.8 kg/m 2 (±SD 6.9). A between-group weight difference of -0.92 kg (95% CI -1.67 to -0.16) showed program effectiveness. Reach was broad across 41 towns with 62% of participants reporting influencing some of the health behaviors of their families. Strong implementation fidelity was achieved with good retention rates at 1 year (76%) and high participant satisfaction (82% of participants willing to recommend this program). Over 300 multi-level community partnerships were established supporting high adoption. Stakeholders reported potential capacity to implement and sustain the prevention program in resource poor rural settings, due to the low-intensity design and minimal resources required. Our comprehensive RE-AIM evaluation demonstrates that an evidence-based obesity prevention program can be successfully implemented in real-world settings. The program

  2. Using geographic information systems and decision support systems for the prediction, prevention, and control of vector-borne diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Lars; Eisen, Rebecca J

    2011-01-01

    Emerging and resurging vector-borne diseases cause significant morbidity and mortality, especially in the developing world. We focus on how advances in mapping, Geographic Information System, and Decision Support System technologies, and progress in spatial and space-time modeling, can be harnessed to prevent and control these diseases. Major themes, which are addressed using examples from tick-borne Lyme borreliosis; flea-borne plague; and mosquito-borne dengue, malaria, and West Nile virus disease, include (a) selection of spatial and space-time modeling techniques, (b) importance of using high-quality and biologically or epidemiologically relevant data, (c) incorporation of new technologies into operational vector and disease control programs, (d) transfer of map-based information to stakeholders, and (e) adaptation of technology solutions for use in resource-poor environments. We see great potential for the use of new technologies and approaches to more effectively target limited surveillance, prevention, and control resources and to reduce vector-borne and other infectious diseases.

  3. Disease prevention versus data privacy: using landcover maps to inform spatial epidemic models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Tildesley

    Full Text Available The availability of epidemiological data in the early stages of an outbreak of an infectious disease is vital for modelers to make accurate predictions regarding the likely spread of disease and preferred intervention strategies. However, in some countries, the necessary demographic data are only available at an aggregate scale. We investigated the ability of models of livestock infectious diseases to predict epidemic spread and obtain optimal control policies in the event of imperfect, aggregated data. Taking a geographic information approach, we used land cover data to predict UK farm locations and investigated the influence of using these synthetic location data sets upon epidemiological predictions in the event of an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease. When broadly classified land cover data were used to create synthetic farm locations, model predictions deviated significantly from those simulated on true data. However, when more resolved subclass land use data were used, moderate to highly accurate predictions of epidemic size, duration and optimal vaccination and ring culling strategies were obtained. This suggests that a geographic information approach may be useful where individual farm-level data are not available, to allow predictive analyses to be carried out regarding the likely spread of disease. This method can also be used for contingency planning in collaboration with policy makers to determine preferred control strategies in the event of a future outbreak of infectious disease in livestock.

  4. Preventing sexual violence: can examination of offense location inform sex crime policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombino, Nicole; Mercado, Cynthia Calkins; Levenson, Jill; Jeglic, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Recently, legislative initiatives to prevent sex crime recidivism include the passage of child safety zones (also called loitering zones) that prohibit sex offenders from lingering near places where children congregate. The ability of policies such as these or residence restrictions to curb sexual recidivism depends on the empirical reality of sex offender perpetration patterns. As such, the current study sought to examine locations where sex offenders first come into contact with their victims and whether sex crime locations differ among those who perpetrate offenses against children as compared to those who perpetrate offenses against adults. Further, this study examined actuarial risk scores and recidivism rates among offenders who met victims in child-dense public locations to determine if these offenders are more at risk of re-offense. Descriptive analyses, based on archival sex offender file review (N=1557), revealed that offenders primarily cultivated their offenses in private residential locations (67.0%); relatively few offenders (4.4%) met their victims in child-dense public locations. Further, offenders who perpetrated crimes against children were more likely to meet victims within a residence, while those who perpetrate crimes against adults were more likely to encounter victims in a more public type of location (e.g., bar, workplace). Though only 3.7% of all offenders in this sample sexually recidivated, those who recidivated were more likely to have met their victim in a child-dense public location than those who did not recidivate. Current sex crime policies that focus only on where offenders live may fail to focus on where offenders go and, further, may misdirect efforts away from the place where sex crimes most often occur, namely, in the home. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Teaching Strategies for Improving Algebra Knowledge in Middle and High School Students. Educator's Practice Guide. What Works Clearinghouse.™ NCEE 2015-4010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Star, Jon R.; Foegen, Anne; Larson, Matthew R.; McCallum, William G.; Porath, Jane; Zbiek, Rose Mary; Caronongan, Pia; Furgeson, Joshua,; Keating, Betsy; Lyskawa, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Mastering algebra is important for future math and postsecondary success. Educators will find practical recommendations for how to improve algebra instruction in the What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) practice guide, "Teaching Strategies for Improving Algebra Knowledge in Middle and High School Students". The methods and examples included in…

  6. 78 FR 66948 - Request for Information on the Office of Disease Prevention Draft Strategic Plan for Fiscal Years...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ..., training, knowledge translation, and public education as they relate to prevention. Prevention research at... and regulations. Prevention research includes studies for: Identification and assessment of risk and... evaluation of interventions to reduce risk; Translation, implementation, and dissemination of effective...

  7. Lessons learnt from implementing an empirically informed recruitment approach for FEM-PrEP, a large HIV prevention clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parker C

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Caleb Parker,1 Amy Corneli,1 Kawango Agot,2 Jacob Odhiambo,2 Jesse Asewe,2 Khatija Ahmed,3 Joseph Skhosana,3 Malebo Ratlhagana,3 Michele Lanham,1 Christina Wong,1 Jennifer Deese,1 Rachel Manongi,4 Lut Van Damme,1On behalf of the FEM-PrEP recruitment group 1FHI 360, Global Health, Population and Nutrition, Durham, NC, USA; 2Impact Research and Development Organization, Kisumu, Kenya; 3Setshaba Research Centre, Soshanguve, Pretoria, South Africa; 4Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre, Moshi, Tanzania Abstract: We implemented an empirically informed, geographically based recruitment approach for FEM-PrEP, a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV prevention clinical trial of daily oral emtricitabine (FTC and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF for HIV prevention. During the formative research phase, we conducted a modification of the Priorities for Local AIDS Control Efforts (PLACE method and used those data and staff experiences to identify and prioritize for recruitment geographic areas where HIV incidence might be high. During the clinical trial, we implemented a routinely monitored and flexible recruitment plan in the geographical areas identified in the formative research. We describe three lessons learnt from implementing this approach: 1 the PLACE data were critical in identifying places presumed to be high risk; 2 staff experiences, in combination with PLACE data, were needed to inform a practical recruitment strategy; and 3 recruiting in establishments in priority areas identified by the PLACE data led to screening many HIV-positive women at the Bondo site (Kenya, placing additional burden on clinic staff. These lessons learnt highlight the critical importance of having a flexible and monitored recruitment strategy. Although we successfully recruited a study population at higher risk for HIV, FEM-PrEP was unable to determine the effectiveness of FTC/TDF for HIV prevention, due to low adherence to the study product among participants. We must

  8. Monitoring techniques: “StegoGIS: a geographical information system for knowing and preventing infestation risks in cultural heritage”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Baslé

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Since 2004, the Cicrp: “Centre Interrégional de Conservation et Restauration du Patrimoine”, located in Marseilles has been involved in an interdisciplinary research program dealing with infestation and re-infestation, on lining pastes used in painting conservation, by the Stegobium paniceum through a GIS system : a geographical information system called “StegoGIS”. The GIS helps understand the insects ethology in its environmental context, mainly in flour and semolina millings in order to determine analysis criteria to prevent, mitigate and fight infestation in the cultural property environment. Our approach is based on three main lines: 1- A transverse approach of infestation in any type of cultural heritage institution: archives, libraries, museums, historic buildings where organic material collections and environment are attractive on an “insect point of view”. 2 –An IPM strategy (Integrated Pest Management including conservation and management of collections and buildings also based on an infestation survey with actual or potential risks. 3- A “decision- making tool” in diagnosis, preventing methods and treatments for professional conservation staff.

  9. Amelia: A Multi-Center Descriptive Epidemiologic Study in a Large Dataset from the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research, and Overview of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    BERMEJO-SÁNCHEZ, EVA; CUEVAS, LOURDES; AMAR, EMMANUELLE; BAKKER, MARIAN K.; BIANCA, SEBASTIANO; BIANCHI, FABRIZIO; CANFIELD, MARK A.; CASTILLA, EDUARDO E.; CLEMENTI, MAURIZIO; COCCHI, GUIDO; FELDKAMP, MARCIA L.; LANDAU, DANIELLE; LEONCINI, EMANUELE; LI, ZHU; LOWRY, R. BRIAN; MASTROIACOVO, PIERPAOLO; MUTCHINICK, OSVALDO M.; RISSMANN, ANKE; RITVANEN, ANNUKKA; SCARANO, GIOACCHINO; SIFFEL, CSABA; SZABOVA, ELENA; MARTÍNEZ-FRÍAS, MARÍA-LUISA

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the epidemiology of congenital amelia (absence of limb/s), using the largest series of cases known to date. Data were gathered by 20 surveillance programs on congenital anomalies, all International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research members, from all continents but Africa, from 1968 to 2006, depending on the program. Reported clinical information on cases was thoroughly reviewed to identify those strictly meeting the definition of amelia. Those with amniotic bands or limb-body wall complex were excluded. The primary epidemiological analyses focused on isolated cases and those with multiple congenital anomalies (MCA). A total of 326 amelia cases were ascertained among 23,110,591 live births, stillbirths and (for some programs) elective terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomalies. The overall total prevalence was 1.41 per 100,000 (95% confidence interval: 1.26–1.57). Only China Beijing and Mexico RYVEMCE had total prevalences, which were significantly higher than this overall total prevalence. Some under-registration could influence the total prevalence in some programs. Liveborn cases represented 54.6% of total. Among monomelic cases (representing 65.2% of nonsyndromic amelia cases), both sides were equally involved, and the upper limbs (53.9%) were slightly more frequently affected. One of the most interesting findings was a higher prevalence of amelia among offspring of mothers younger than 20 years. Sixty-nine percent of the cases had MCA or syndromes. The most frequent defects associated with amelia were other types of musculoskeletal defects, intestinal, some renal and genital defects, oral clefts, defects of cardiac septa, and anencephaly. PMID:22002956

  10. Awareness, use and information sources of folic acid supplementation to prevent neural tube defects in pregnant Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Shumi; Wada, Yoshinao

    2018-03-01

    Folic acid supplementation and folate-rich diets are recommended for women of childbearing age worldwide to prevent congenital anomalies. We aimed to determine the current status of folic acid supplementation among pregnant Japanese women and identify means to increase the intake of these supplements. Cross-sectional study. A total of 1862 pregnant women who consulted the perinatal centre from September 2014 to December 2015 completed a questionnaire concerning knowledge about folic acid, sources of information and the use of folic acid supplements. Osaka Medical Center and Research Institute for Maternal and Child Health (Japan). In our study population, only 20·5 % of pregnant women took folic acid supplements periconceptionally even though 70·4 % knew about the protective effect of folic acid. A multivariate analysis demonstrated that age ≥35 years (OR=2·80; 95 % CI 1·24, 6·29) and knowledge of the benefits of folic acid (OR=2·64; 95 % CI 1·92, 3·62) were associated with periconceptional folic acid use, and multiparity was negatively associated with such use. Compared with those who took folic acid supplements periconceptionally, women who did not take supplements received information through passive and less interactive media. Although folic acid awareness was relatively high among pregnant Japanese women, folic acid supplementation before conception was insufficient. To increase the intake of folic acid supplements in countries in which foods are not fortified with folic acid, an effective public health approach promoting behavioural change is necessary for women of reproductive age.

  11. Cloacal exstrophy: an epidemiologic study from the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldkamp, Marcia L; Botto, Lorenzo D; Amar, Emmanuelle; Bakker, Marian K; Bermejo-Sánchez, Eva; Bianca, Sebastiano; Canfield, Mark A; Castilla, Eduardo E; Clementi, Maurizio; Csaky-Szunyogh, Melinda; Leoncini, Emanuele; Li, Zhu; Lowry, R Brian; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo; Merlob, Paul; Morgan, Margery; Mutchinick, Osvaldo M; Rissmann, Anke; Ritvanen, Annukka; Siffel, Csaba; Carey, John C

    2011-11-15

    Cloacal exstrophy presents as a complex abdominal wall defect thought to result from a mesodermal abnormality. Anatomically, its main components are Omphalocele, bladder Exstrophy and Imperforate anus. Other associated malformations include renal malformations and Spine defects (OEIS complex). Historically, the prevalence ranges from 1 in 200,000 to 400,000 births, with higher rates in females. Cloacal exstrophy is likely etiologically heterogeneous as suggested by its recurrence in families and occurrence in monozygotic twins. The defect has been described in infants with limb-body wall, with trisomy 18, and in one pregnancy exposed to Dilantin and diazepam. Due to its rarity, the use of a nonspecific diagnostic code for case identification, and lack of validation of the clinical findings, cloacal exstrophy remains an epidemiologic challenge. The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence, associated anomalies and maternal characteristics among infants born with cloacal exstrophy. We used data from the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research submitted from 18 birth defect surveillance programs representing 24 countries. Cases were clinically evaluated locally and reviewed centrally by two authors. Cases of persistent cloaca were excluded. A total of 186 cases of cloacal exstrophy were identified. Overall prevalence was 1 in 131,579 births: ranging from 1 in 44,444 births in Wales to 1 in 269,464 births in South America. Live birth prevalence was 1 in 184,195 births. Prevalence ratios did not vary by maternal age. Forty-two (22.6%) cases met the criteria for the OEIS complex, whereas 60 (32.3%) were classified as OEI and 18 (9.7%) as EIS (one with suspected VATER (0.5%)). Other findings included two cases with trisomy 13 (one without a karyotype confirmation), one with mosaic trisomy 12 (0.5%), one with mosaic 45,X (0.5%) and one classified as having amnion band sequence (0.5%). Twenty-seven (14.5%) infants had other

  12. [A proposal for the prevention of ethical problems related to drug promotion: a national network for drug information].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civaner, Murat

    2008-01-01

    The promotional activities of pharmaceutical companies are becoming an increasingly hot topic among healthcare workers and the general public. There are many studies in the literature claiming that drug promotion may lead to ethical problems, irrational use of medication, and increased costs, as well as negative effects on the patient-physician relationship and the medical profession. When considering that healthcare workers generally acquire their knowledge from the pharmaceutical industry, the problems mentioned, which are indeed of paramount importance, and the need for effective and sustainable interventions are clearly revealed. Many kinds of interventions have been recommended by various authorities and studies in order to prevent the kinds of problems mentioned above, including training healthcare workers, publishing professional codes to serve as guidelines about which professional values should be protected and how to cope with different situations in relationship to the pharmaceutical industry, or applying the business ethics codes of the pharmaceutical companies. Studies that assessed the effectiveness of different interventions, however, revealed that educating healthcare workers about marketing methods and state regulations are the only effective interventions. In this article, after defining the problem, a proposed national network for drug information is to decrease the negative effects of drug promotion and to promote the rational choice of medicines is described. According to the World Health Organization, rational use of medicine is the most effective, safe, applicable/suitable, and, lastly, the most cost effective option. A national network that will gather drug information by compiling evidence-based knowledge and taking rational use of medicine measures into account should be established. It should transmit information to all healthcare workers in a fast, equal, up to date, easily accessible, and free way. The network should also support

  13. Predictors of Online Cancer Prevention Information Seeking Among Patients and Caregivers Across the Digital Divide: A Cross-Sectional, Correlational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginossar, Tamar

    2016-03-09

    The digital divide is a recognized public health problem caused by social determinants that exacerbate health disparities. Despite the "tectonic shift" in how most of the public obtains cancer information, underserved communities are at increased risk of being digitally marginalized. However, research that examines factors underlying eHealth information seeking in diverse health contexts is lacking. The aim of this paper is to explore preferences and use of eHealth cancer prevention information (CPI) among patients and caregivers attending a minority-serving oncology clinic using the comprehensive model of information seeking as a theoretical framework. Specifically, the study examined the role of social determinants and prevention orientation in differences in preference and use of the Internet for CPI seeking among this diverse sample. Survey methodology was used to identify social determinants and behavioral factors, including prevention orientation as correlates and predictors of respondents' (n=252) preferences and use of eHealth for CPI seeking. Less than half (112/252, 44.4%) of respondents said that if faced with the need to seek CPI, they would seek this information online. In the final logistic regression model, education, ethnicity, age, and prevention orientation made significant contributions to the model (Pdigitally underserved racial/ethnic group. Finally, additional factors underlying these differences should be explored to better tailor CPI eHealth information to diverse communities' information needs. ©Tamar Ginossar. Originally published in JMIR Cancer (http://cancer.jmir.org), 09.03.2016.

  14. Gender-informed, psychoeducational programme for couples to prevent postnatal common mental disorders among primiparous women: cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jane; Rowe, Heather; Wynter, Karen; Tran, Thach; Lorgelly, Paula; Amir, Lisa H; Proimos, Jenny; Ranasinha, Sanjeeva; Hiscock, Harriet; Bayer, Jordana; Cann, Warren

    2016-03-07

    Interventions to prevent postpartum common mental disorders (PCMD) among unselected populations of women have had limited success. The aim was to determine whether What Were We Thinking (WWWT) a gender-informed, psychoeducational programme for couples and babies can prevent PCMD among primiparous women 6 months postpartum. Cluster-randomised controlled trial. 48 Maternal and Child Health Centres (MCHCs) from 6 Local Government Areas in Melbourne, Australia were allocated randomly to usual care (24) or usual care plus WWWT (24). English-speaking primiparous women receiving primary care at trial MCHCs were recruited to the intervention (204) and control (196) conditions. Of these, 187 (91.7%) and 177 (90.3%) provided complete data. WWWT is a manualised programme comprising primary care from a trained nurse, print materials and a face-to-face seminar. Data sources were standardised and study-specific measures collected in blinded computer-assisted telephone interviews at 6 and 26 weeks postpartum. The primary outcome was PCMD assessed by Composite International Diagnostic Interviews and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) Depression and Generalised Anxiety Disorder modules. In intention-to-treat analyses the adjusted OR (AOR) of PCMD in the intervention compared to the usual care group was 0.78 (95% CI 0.38 to 1.63, ns), but mild to moderate anxiety symptoms (AOR 0.58, 95% CI 0.35 to 0.97) and poor self-rated health (AOR 0.46, 95% CI 0.22 to 0.97) were significantly lower. In a per protocol analysis, comparing the full (three component) intervention and usual care groups, the AOR of PCMD was 0.36, (95% CI 0.14 to 0.95). The WWWT seminar was appraised as salient, comprehensible and useful by >85% participants. No harms were detected. WWWT is readily integrated into primary care, enables inclusion of fathers and addresses modifiable risks for PCMD directly. The full intervention appears a promising programme for preventing PCMD, optimising family functioning, and as the

  15. Examining the online approaches used by hospitals in Sydney, Australia to inform patients about healthcare associated infections and infection prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J; Seale, H

    2017-12-21

    Provision of information plays a critical role in supporting patients to be engaged or empowered to be involved with infection prevention measures in hospitals. This explorative study evaluated the suitability, readability and accessibility of information on healthcare associated infections (HCAIs) and infection prevention strategies targeted at patients from the websites of 19 acute care public hospitals in Sydney, Australia. We included hospitals with greater than 200 beds in the sample. We examined online information targeted at patients on HCAIs and infection prevention and compared it using the Suitability Assessment of Material (SAM) and Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG) readability formulas for suitability, readability and accessibility. Thirty-six webpages were identified as being relevant and containing information about HCAIs or infection prevention. Based on the SAM/SMOG scores, only three webpages were found to be 'superior'. Many of the webpages scored poorly in content, literacy, graphics, learning stimulation and cultural appropriateness. In comparison, most of the webpages scored well in the layout and typography. The majority (97%) of the materials were written at a level higher than the recommended reading grade level. Lastly, the websites scored poorly on the ability to locate the information easily, as messages about HCAIs/infection prevention were usually embedded into other topics. While providing information online is only one approach to delivering messages about infection prevention, it is becoming increasingly important in today's technology society. Hospitals are neglecting to use best practices when designing their online resources and current websites are difficult to navigate. The findings point to the need to review patient information on HCAIs regarding suitability, readability and accessibility.

  16. Conjoined Twins: A Worldwide Collaborative Epidemiological Study of the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    MUTCHINICK, OSVALDO M.; LUNA-MUÑOZ, LEONORA; AMAR, EMMANUELLE; BAKKER, MARIAN K.; CLEMENTI, MAURIZIO; COCCHI, GUIDO; DUTRA, MARIA DA GRAÇA; FELDKAMP, MARCIA L.; LANDAU, DANIELLE; LEONCINI, EMANUELE; LI, ZHU; LOWRY, BRIAN; MARENGO, LISA K.; MARTÍNEZ-FRÍAS, MARÍA-LUISA; MASTROIACOVO, PIERPAOLO; MÉTNEKI, JULIA; MORGAN, MARGERY; PIERINI, ANNA; RISSMAN, ANKE; RITVANEN, ANNUKKA; SCARANO, GIOACCHINO; SIFFEL, CSABA; SZABOVA, ELENA; ARTEAGA-VÁZQUEZ, JAZMÍN

    2015-01-01

    Conjoined twins (CT) are a very rare developmental accident of uncertain etiology. Prevalence has been previously estimated to be 1 in 50,000 to 1 in 100,000 births. The process by which monozygotic twins do not fully separate but form CT is not well understood. The purpose of the present study was to analyze diverse epidemiological aspects of CT, including the different variables listed in the Introduction Section of this issue of the Journal. The study was made possible using the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research (ICBDSR) structure. This multicenter worldwide research includes the largest sample of CT ever studied. A total of 383 carefully reviewed sets of CT obtained from 26,138,837 births reported by 21 Clearinghouse Surveillance Programs (SP) were included in the analysis. Total prevalence was 1.47 per 100,000 births (95% CI: 1.32–1.62). Salient findings including an evident variation in prevalence among SPs: a marked variation in the type of pregnancy outcome, a similarity in the proportion of CT types among programs: a significant female predominance in CT: particularly of the thoracopagus type and a significant male predominance in parapagus and parasitic types: significant differences in prevalence by ethnicity and an apparent increasing prevalence trend in South American countries. No genetic, environmental or demographic significant associated factors were identified. Further work in epidemiology and molecular research is necessary to understand the etiology and pathogenesis involved in the development of this fascinating phenomenon of nature. PMID:22002822

  17. Sustainability of donor programs: evaluating and informing the transition of a large HIV prevention program in India to local ownership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Bennett

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is the holy grail of many development projects, yet there is limited evidence about strategies that effectively support transition of programs from donor funding to national governments. The first phase of Avahan, the India AIDS Initiative supported by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (2003–2009, aimed to demonstrate an HIV/AIDS prevention program at scale, primarily targeted at high-risk groups. During the second phase (2009–2013, this large-scale program will be transitioned to its natural owners: the Government of India and local communities. This paper describes the evaluation design for the Avahan transition strategy.A detailed logic model for the transition was developed. The Avahan transition strategy focuses on three activities: 1 enhancing capacities among communities, non-governmental organizations (NGOs, and government entities, in line with India's national AIDS control strategy; 2 aligning technical and managerial aspects of Avahan programs with government norms and standards; and 3 promoting and sustaining commitment to services for most-at-risk populations. It is anticipated that programs will then transfer smoothly to government and community ownership, become institutionalized within the government system, and support a sustained HIV/AIDS response.The research design evaluates the implementation and effectiveness of 1 activities undertaken by the program; 2 intermediate effects including the process of institutionalization and the extent to which key Avahan organizational procedures and behaviors are integrated into government systems; and 3 overarching effects namely the impact of the transition process on the sustained delivery of HIV/AIDS prevention services to high-risk groups. Both qualitative and quantitative research approaches are employed so that the evaluation will both assess outcomes and explain why they have occurred.It is unusual for donor-supported projects in low- and middle

  18. 41 CFR 105-68.340 - If I disclose unfavorable information required under § 105-68.335, will I be prevented from...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Management Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION Regional Offices-General Services... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false If I disclose unfavorable information required under § 105-68.335, will I be prevented from participating in the...

  19. Using the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills Model to Guide the Development of an HIV Prevention Smartphone Application for High-Risk MSM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliabadi, Negar; Carballo-Dieguez, Alex; Bakken, Suzanne; Rojas, Marlene; Brown, William; Carry, Monique; Mosley, Jocelyn Patterson; Gelaude, Deborah; Schnall, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    HIV remains a significant public health problem among men who have sex with men (MSM). MSM comprise 2% of the U.S. population, but constitute 56% of persons living with HIV. Mobile health technology is a promising tool for HIV prevention. The purpose of this study was to identify the desired content, features and functions of a mobile application (app) for HIV prevention in high-risk MSM. We conducted five focus group sessions with 33 MSM. Focus group recordings were transcribed and coded using themes informed by the information-motivation-behavioral (IMB) skills model. Participants identified information needs related to HIV prevention: HIV testing and prophylaxis distribution centers, support groups/peers, and HIV/STI disease/treatment information. Areas of motivation to target for the app included: attitudes and intentions. Participants identified behavioral skills to address with an app: using condoms correctly, negotiating safer sex, recognizing signs of HIV/STI. Findings from this work provide insight into the desired content of a mobile app for HIV prevention in high-risk MSM. PMID:26595265

  20. Breast cancer prevention information seeking behavior and interest on cell phone and text use: a cross-sectional study in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtari-Zavare, Mehrnoosh; Ghanbari-Baghestan, Abbas; Latiff, Latiffah A; Khaniki, Hadi

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer and the second principal cause of cancer deaths among women worldwide, including Malaysia. This study focused on media choice and attempted to determine the communication channels mostly used and preferred by women in seeking information and knowledge about breast cancer. A cross sectional study was carried out to examine the breast cancer prevention information seeking behavior among 450 students at one private university in Malaysia. The mean age of respondents was 25±4.3 years. Common interpersonal information sources were doctors, friends, and nurses and common channel information sources were television, brochure, and internet. Overall, 89.9% used cell phones, 46.1% had an interest in receiving cell phone breast cancer prevention messages, 73.9% used text messaging, and 36.7% had an interest in receiving text breast cancer prevention messages. Bivariate analysis revealed significant differences among age, eduation, nationality and use of cell phones. Assessment of health information seeking behavior is important for community health educators to target populations for program development.

  1. Estimating the Economic Value of Information for Screening in Disseminating and Targeting Effective School-based Preventive Interventions: An Illustrative Example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Stephen S; Salkever, David S; Ialongo, Nicholas S; Slade, Eric P; Stuart, Elizabeth A

    2017-11-01

    When candidates for school-based preventive interventions are heterogeneous in their risk of poor outcomes, an intervention's expected economic net benefits may be maximized by targeting candidates for whom the intervention is most likely to yield benefits, such as those at high risk of poor outcomes. Although increasing amounts of information about candidates may facilitate more accurate targeting, collecting information can be costly. We present an illustrative example to show how cost-benefit analysis results from effective intervention demonstrations can help us to assess whether improved targeting accuracy justifies the cost of collecting additional information needed to make this improvement.

  2. Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyard, Pierre.

    1981-01-01

    The fear for nuclear energy and more particularly for radioactive wastes is analyzed in the sociological context. Everybody agree on the information need, information is available but there is a problem for their diffusion. Reactions of the public are analyzed and journalists, scientists and teachers have a role to play [fr

  3. Assessing Capacity to Promote Science-Based Programs: A Key Informant Study of State Teen Pregnancy Prevention Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Edward; Sabri, Bushra; Huberman, Barbara; Klaus, T. W.; Davis, Laura

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to identify significant external and internal challenges that state organization leaders face in promoting science-based teen pregnancy prevention programs within their states. The state organization administrators were chosen because their organizations were funded by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control…

  4. 78 FR 15960 - Request for Information on the FY 2013-2018 Strategic Plan for the Office of Disease Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ... preventive interventions into practice. Development of research methods to support this work. The Office was... perspectives can include, but are not limited to, the following topics as they relate to the six draft... for gauging progress toward each recommended objective. Strategic Priority #1: Systematically monitor...

  5. The effects of information about AIDS risk and self-efficacy on women's intentions to engage in AIDS preventive behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yzer, MC; Fisher, JD; Bakker, AB; Siero, FW; Misovich, SJ

    1998-01-01

    Female college students' perceived vulnerability to AIDS and their perceived self-efficacy regarding AIDS preventive behavior (APB), were manipulated in a 2 x 2 design. Consistent with protection motivation theory (e.g.. Rogers, 1983), the results showed that intention to engage in APE was highest

  6. Environmental remediation and waste management information systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrington, M.W.; Harlan, C.P.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to document a few of the many environmental information systems that currently exist worldwide. The paper is not meant to be a comprehensive list; merely a discussion of a few of the more technical environmental database systems that are available. Regulatory databases such as US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) RODS (Records of Decision System) database [EPA, 1993] and cost databases such as EPA's CORA (Cost of Remedial Action) database [EPA, 1993] are not included in this paper. Section 2 describes several US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) information systems and databases. Section 3 discusses several US EPA information systems on waste sites and technologies. Section 4 summarizes a few of the European Community environmental information systems, networks, and clearinghouses. And finally, Section 5 provides a brief overview of Geographical Information Systems. Section 6 contains the references, and the Appendices contain supporting information

  7. Chiropractic wellness on the web: the content and quality of information related to wellness and primary prevention on the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Marion

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Internet has become a common source of information for patients wishing to learn about health information. Previous studies found information related to back pain poor and often contradictory to current guidelines. Wellness has become a common topic in the field of chiropractic and accrediting agencies have standards on delivery of wellness-based content in college curricula as well as directives for clinical applications. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the quality of the information on the Internet using the terms "chiropractic wellness," or "wellness chiropractic". Methods Five commonly used search engines were selected and the first 10 sites found using the strategy above were evaluated by two raters. Demographic assessments of the sites were made along with whether they were Health on the Net Foundation (HON certified, contained standard wellness content, mentioned any Healthy People Focus Areas, and other chiropractic topics. Kappa statistics compared inter-rater agreement. Results Potential patients appeared to be the audience 87% of the time and a private doctor of chiropractic appeared to be the typical site owner. The sites usually promoted the provider. No sites displayed HON certification logo nor did any appear to meet the HON certification criteria. Twenty-six sites (55% promoted regular physical activity in some manner and 18 (38% had information on health risks of tobacco. Four (9% had mental health or stress-reduction content but none had information supportive of vaccination. Some had information contradictory to common public health measures. Conclusions Patients searching the Internet for chiropractic wellness information will often find useless information that will not help them maintain health or become well. Most simply market the chiropractic practice or allow for a patients to provide personal information in exchange for more 'wellness' information. More research should be done on how

  8. Predicting health literacy among English-as-a-second-Language older Chinese immigrant women to Canada: comprehension of colon cancer prevention information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Laura; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie

    2011-06-01

    Inadequate health literacy has been identified as a barrier to the utilization of health-care services, including cancer screening. This study examined predictors of health literacy among 106 older Chinese immigrant women to Canada and how colon cancer information presented in their first versus second language affected health literacy skill. Only 38.7% of the women had adequate health literacy based on Short Test of Functional Health Literacy for Adults, and 54.3% had adequate comprehension of the colon cancer information. Comprehension of the cancer information was significantly lower among women who received the information in English compared with those who received the information in Chinese. Age, acculturation, self-reported proficiency reading English, and education were significant predictors of health literacy but varied depending on the measure of health literacy used and language of the information. Presentation of cancer prevention information in one's first rather than second language improves health literacy but does not eliminate comprehension difficulties for older ESL Chinese immigrants.

  9. The experiences of clients and healthcare providers regarding the provision of reproductive health services including the prevention of HIV and AIDS in an informal settlement in Tshwane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L.S. Mataboge

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Globally challenges regarding healthcare provision are sometimes related to a failure to estimate client numbers in peri-urban areas due to rapid population growth. About one-sixth of the world's population live in informal settlements which are mostly characterised by poor healthcare service provision. Poor access to primary healthcare may expose residents of informal settlement more to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS than their rural and urban counterparts due to a lack of access to information on prevention, early diagnosis and treatment. The objective of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of both the reproductive health services' clients and the healthcare providers with regard to the provision of reproductive health services including the prevention of HIV and AIDS in a primary healthcare setting in Tshwane. A qualitative, exploratory and contextual design using a phenomenological approach to enquire about the participants' experiences was implemented. Purposive sampling resulted in the selection of 23 clients who used the reproductive healthcare services and ten healthcare providers who were interviewed during individual and focus group interviews respectively. Tesch's method for qualitative data analysis was used. Ethical principles guided the study, and certain strategies were followed to ensure trustworthiness. The findings revealed that females who lived in informal settlements were aware of the inability of the PHC setting to provide adequate reproductive healthcare to meet their needs. The HCPs acknowledged that healthcare provision was negatively affected by policies. It was found that the community members could be taught how to coach teenagers and support each other in order to bridge staff shortages and increase health outcomes including HIV/AIDS prevention.

  10. The experiences of clients and healthcare providers regarding the provision of reproductive health services including the prevention of HIV and AIDS in an informal settlement in Tshwane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L.S. Mataboge

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Globally challenges regarding healthcare provision are sometimes related to a failure to estimate client numbers in peri-urban areas due to rapid population growth. About one-sixth of the world's population live in informal settlements which are mostly characterised by poor healthcare service provision. Poor access to primary healthcare may expose residents of informal settlement more to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS than their rural and urban counterparts due to a lack of access to information on prevention, early diagnosis and treatment. The objective of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of both the reproductive health services' clients and the healthcare providers with regard to the provision of reproductive health services including the prevention of HIV and AIDS in a primary healthcare setting in Tshwane. A qualitative, exploratory and contextual design using a phenomenological approach to enquire about the participants' experiences was implemented. Purposive sampling resulted in the selection of 23 clients who used the reproductive healthcare services and ten healthcare providers who were interviewed during individual and focus group interviews respectively. Tesch's method for qualitative data analysis was used. Ethical principles guided the study, and certain strategies were followed to ensure trustworthiness. The findings revealed that females who lived in informal settlements were aware of the inability of the PHC setting to provide adequate reproductive healthcare to meet their needs. The HCPs acknowledged that healthcare provision was negatively affected by policies. It was found that the community members could be taught how to coach teenagers and support each other in order to bridge staff shortages and increase health outcomes including HIV/AIDS prevention.

  11. Pressure ulcer prevention: utilizing unlicensed assistive personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker Sewill, Danielle K; Van Sell, Sharon; Kindred, Chris

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide education to the RN regarding pressure ulcer prevention and best practice interventions. This investigation focuses on the definition of a pressure ulcer, risk factors for pressure ulcers, and the benefits and importance of using unlicensed assistive personnel to help prevent pressure ulcers. A comprehensive literature review was completed using the Texas Woman's University Library, the Texas Christian University Library, and the World Wide Web. The search engine used was Google. The databases included were CINAHL, Academic Search Complete, Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, and ProQuest Nursing & Allied Health Source. The literature was current, defined as from the last 10 years, and the primary language searched was English. Full-text articles from these databases were included as well as print publications from the university collections. The key search terms from the literature review included (a) pressure ulcer, (b) prevention, (c) unlicensed assistive personnel, (d) nursing assistant, (e) theory of nursing knowledge, (f) incidence, (g) prevalence, (h) Braden scale, (i) moisture, and (j) repositioning. Best practice guidelines were reviewed via the Joanna Briggs database, National Guideline Clearinghouse, Cochrane Library, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, and the National Institutes of Health. Literature was synthesized to define evidence-based practices that would justify the use of unlicensed assistive personnel for the prevention and care of pressure ulcers.

  12. Critical research gaps and recommendations to inform research prioritisation for more effective prevention and improved outcomes in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Mark; Alsina, Deborah; Adams, Richard A; Anderson, Annie S; Brown, Gina; Fearnhead, Nicola S; Fenwick, Stephen W; Halloran, Stephen P; Hochhauser, Daniel; Hull, Mark A; Koelzer, Viktor H; McNair, Angus G K; Monahan, Kevin J; Näthke, Inke; Norton, Christine; Novelli, Marco R; Steele, Robert J C; Thomas, Anne L; Wilde, Lisa M; Wilson, Richard H; Tomlinson, Ian

    2018-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) leads to significant morbidity/mortality worldwide. Defining critical research gaps (RG), their prioritisation and resolution, could improve patient outcomes. RG analysis was conducted by a multidisciplinary panel of patients, clinicians and researchers (n=71). Eight working groups (WG) were constituted: discovery science; risk; prevention; early diagnosis and screening; pathology; curative treatment; stage IV disease; and living with and beyond CRC. A series of discussions led to development of draft papers by each WG, which were evaluated by a 20-strong patient panel. A final list of RGs and research recommendations (RR) was endorsed by all participants. Fifteen critical RGs are summarised below: RG1 : Lack of realistic models that recapitulate tumour/tumour micro/macroenvironment; RG2 : Insufficient evidence on precise contributions of genetic/environmental/lifestyle factors to CRC risk; RG3 : Pressing need for prevention trials; RG4 : Lack of integration of different prevention approaches; RG5 : Lack of optimal strategies for CRC screening; RG6 : Lack of effective triage systems for invasive investigations; RG7 : Imprecise pathological assessment of CRC; RG8 : Lack of qualified personnel in genomics, data sciences and digital pathology; RG9 : Inadequate assessment/communication of risk, benefit and uncertainty of treatment choices; RG10 : Need for novel technologies/interventions to improve curative outcomes; RG11 : Lack of approaches that recognise molecular interplay between metastasising tumours and their microenvironment; RG12 : Lack of reliable biomarkers to guide stage IV treatment; RG13 : Need to increase understanding of health related quality of life (HRQOL) and promote residual symptom resolution; RG14 : Lack of coordination of CRC research/funding; RG15 : Lack of effective communication between relevant stakeholders. Prioritising research activity and funding could have a significant impact on reducing CRC disease burden over

  13. Critical research gaps and recommendations to inform research prioritisation for more effective prevention and improved outcomes in colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Mark; Alsina, Deborah; Adams, Richard A; Anderson, Annie S; Brown, Gina; Fearnhead, Nicola S; Fenwick, Stephen W; Hochhauser, Daniel; Koelzer, Viktor H; McNair, Angus G K; Norton, Christine; Novelli, Marco R; Steele, Robert J C; Thomas, Anne L; Wilde, Lisa M; Wilson, Richard H

    2018-01-01

    Objective Colorectal cancer (CRC) leads to significant morbidity/mortality worldwide. Defining critical research gaps (RG), their prioritisation and resolution, could improve patient outcomes. Design RG analysis was conducted by a multidisciplinary panel of patients, clinicians and researchers (n=71). Eight working groups (WG) were constituted: discovery science; risk; prevention; early diagnosis and screening; pathology; curative treatment; stage IV disease; and living with and beyond CRC. A series of discussions led to development of draft papers by each WG, which were evaluated by a 20-strong patient panel. A final list of RGs and research recommendations (RR) was endorsed by all participants. Results Fifteen critical RGs are summarised below: RG1: Lack of realistic models that recapitulate tumour/tumour micro/macroenvironment; RG2: Insufficient evidence on precise contributions of genetic/environmental/lifestyle factors to CRC risk; RG3: Pressing need for prevention trials; RG4: Lack of integration of different prevention approaches; RG5: Lack of optimal strategies for CRC screening; RG6: Lack of effective triage systems for invasive investigations; RG7: Imprecise pathological assessment of CRC; RG8: Lack of qualified personnel in genomics, data sciences and digital pathology; RG9: Inadequate assessment/communication of risk, benefit and uncertainty of treatment choices; RG10: Need for novel technologies/interventions to improve curative outcomes; RG11: Lack of approaches that recognise molecular interplay between metastasising tumours and their microenvironment; RG12: Lack of reliable biomarkers to guide stage IV treatment; RG13: Need to increase understanding of health related quality of life (HRQOL) and promote residual symptom resolution; RG14: Lack of coordination of CRC research/funding; RG15: Lack of effective communication between relevant stakeholders. Conclusion Prioritising research activity and funding could have a significant impact on reducing CRC

  14. Vaginal film for prevention of HIV: using visual and tactile evaluations among potential users to inform product design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, K M; Rohan, L; Rosen, R K; Vargas, S E; Shaw, J G; Katz, D; Kojic, E M; Ham, A S; Friend, D; Buckheit, K W; Buckheit, R W

    2018-03-01

    Topical prevention of HIV and other STIs is a global health priority. To provide options for users, developers have worked to design safe, effective and acceptable vaginal dissolving film formulations. We aimed to characterize user experiences of vaginal film size, texture and color, and their role in product-elicited sensory perceptions (i.e. perceptibility), acceptability and willingness to use. In the context of a user-centered product evaluation study, we elicited users' 'first impressions' of various vaginal film formulation designs via visual and tactile prototype inspection during a qualitative user evaluation interview. Twenty-four women evaluated prototypes. Participants considered size and texture to be important for easy insertion. Color was more important following dissolution than prior to insertion. When asked to combine and balance all properties to arrive at an ideal film, previously stated priorities for individual characteristics sometimes shifted, with the salience of some individual characteristics lessening when multiple characteristics were weighted in combination. While first impressions alone may not drive product uptake, users' willingness to initially try a product is likely impacted by such impressions. Developers should consider potential users' experiences and preferences in vaginal film design. This user-focused approach is useful for characterizing user sensory perceptions and experiences relevant to early design of prevention technologies.

  15. Fusion of cooperative localization data with dynamic object information using data communication for preventative vehicle safety applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloeden, H.; Schwarz, D.; Rasshofer, R. H.; Biebl, E. M.

    2013-07-01

    Cooperative sensors allow for reliable detection, classification and localization of objects in the vehicle's surroundings - even without a line-of-sight contact to the object. The sensor principle is based on a communication signal between the vehicle and a transponder attached to the object of interest - a pedestrian, for example. Thereby, localization information is gathered by measuring the round-trip time-of-flight (RTOF) and evaluating the angle-of-arrival (AOA) of the incident signal. After that, tracking algorithms are used to recover the kinematic state of the object providing a basis for situation assessment. This paper investigates possibilities and benefits of extending this principle by the communication of information from inertial sensors which are locally attached to the transponder. Furthermore, this paper presents a robust approach for fusing the localization data with dynamic object information using the Dempster-Shafer theory. The approach is evaluated by performing real-world experiments for the analysis of pedestrian accidents.

  16. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Information Feature Articles Patient Q&A Success Stories Definitions Anatomy of the Spine Definitions A-Z Spine Specialists Videos 9 for Spine Epidural Steroid Injections Exercise: The Backbone of Spine Treatment Spondylolisthesis BLOG FIND A SPECIALIST Prevention ...

  17. Media Reporting on Suicide: Evaluating the Effects of Including Preventative Resources and Psychoeducational Information on Suicide Risk, Attitudes, Knowledge, and Help-Seeking Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Caitlin L; Witte, Tracy K

    2017-05-15

    We evaluated the effects of exposure to a suicide news article on a variety of outcome variables and whether adhering to one specific media guideline (i.e., including psychoeducational information and preventative resources) buffered any of the negative effects of exposure. Participants were randomly assigned to read one of three articles and then asked to complete a battery of self-report questionnaires. Overall, we found no effect of exposure to a suicide news article, regardless of the inclusion of resources and information, with a few minor exceptions. Although researchers have demonstrated the effectiveness of media guidelines in the aggregate at reducing imitative suicidal behavior, it remains unclear which guidelines in particular are responsible for this effect. © 2017 The American Association of Suicidology.

  18. Research priorities and infrastructure needs of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act: science to inform FDA policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leischow, Scott J; Zeller, Mitch; Backinger, Cathy L

    2012-01-01

    A new law in the United States gives the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) wide latitude to regulate tobacco products for the first time. Given the need for science to serve as a foundation for FDA actions, it is critical that a scientific review of the literature relevant to the proposed legislation be undertaken by experts in the field of nicotine and tobacco research in order to develop research priorities. This paper describes an initiative that was implemented to identify research opportunities under "The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act" and summarizes the conclusions and future directions derived from that initiative. Multiple research and surveillance needs were identified, such as characterization of biomarkers and increased analysis of risk perception. It was also recognized that science will play a critical role in policy determinations such as what constitutes "substantial equivalence" and that there will be considerable infrastructure needs (e.g., laboratories for product testing). Science must drive FDA's decision making regarding tobacco regulation. This article provides a summary of research opportunities identified through literature reviews related to various provisions of the new law. However, the science required by the law requires a transdisciplinary approach because of its complexity, so one of the challenges facing the FDA will be to connect the silos of research in recognition that the "system" of tobacco regulation is greater than the sum of its parts.

  19. Prohibiting and Preventing Nuclear Explosions: Background Information for Parliamentarians on the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-07-01

    The object and purpose of the CTBT is to ban comprehensively nuclear weapon test explosions and any other nuclear explosion in any environment in an effectively verifiable manner. The CTBT aims at eliminating nuclear weapons by constraining the development and qualitative improvement of new or more advanced nuclear weapons. It plays a crucial role in the prevention of nuclear proliferation and in nuclear disarmament, thus contributing to a safer and more secure world. When the Treaty enters into force it will establish a treaty-implementing body (the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO)), including an on-site inspection mechanism and confidence-building measures as well as an International Monitoring System (IMS) and International Data Centre (IDC). The IMS and IDC are already being created and are being provisionally operated during the preparatory phase by the Preparatory Commission for the CTBTO and its Provisional Technical Secretariat in Vienna. Seismic, hydroacoustic, infrasound and radionuclide data are collected through the stations of the IMS and transmitted to Member States via the IDC. The IDC also processes the raw data received from the stations to derive objective products and services which will support the Treaty verification responsibilities. If the collected and analysed data indicate an ambiguous event, States may address concerns about possible noncompliance with the Treaty through a consultation and clarification process after it enters into force and may request an on-site inspection by the CTBTO.

  20. Tobacco-prevention messages online: social marketing via the Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Carolyn A; Hullman, Gwen A

    2005-01-01

    Antitobacco groups have joined millions of other commercial or noncommercial entities in developing a presence on the Web. These groups primarily represent the following different sponsorship categories: grassroots, medical, government, and corporate. To obtain a better understanding of the strengths and weaknesses in the message design of antitobacco Web sites, this project analyzed 100 antitobacco Web sites ranging across these four sponsorship categories. The results show that the tobacco industry sites posted just enough antismoking information to appease the antismoking publics. Medical organizations designed their Web sites as specialty sites and offered mostly scientific information. While the government sites resembled a clearinghouse for antitobacco related information, the grassroots sites represented the true advocacy outlets. In general, the industry sites provided the weakest persuasive messages and medical sites fared only slightly better. Government and grassroots sites rated most highly in presenting their antitobacco campaign messages on the Web.

  1. Information to prevent human exposure to disease agents associated with wildlife—U.S. Geological Survey circulars on zoonotic disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meteyer, Carol U.; Moede Rogall, Gail

    2018-03-05

    The U.S. Geological Survey in collaboration with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and others have published reports with information about geographic distribution, specific pathogens, disease ecology, and strategies to avoid exposure and infection for a selection of zoonotic diseases. Zoonotic diseases are diseases that can be passed from animals to humans, such as rabies and plague. This summary factsheet highlights the reports on plague, bat rabies, and raccoon roundworm with links to all seven zoonotic diseases covered in this series.

  2. Analysis of Qualitative Interviews about the Impact of Information Technology on Pressure Ulcer Prevention Programs: Implications for the Wound Ostomy Continence Nurse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Marilyn Murphy; Wipke-Tevis, Deidre D.; Alexander, Gregory L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to compare pressure ulcer prevention programs in 2 long term care facilities (LTC) with diverse Information Technology Sophistication (ITS), one with high sophistication and one with low sophistication, and to identify implications for the Wound Ostomy Continence Nurse (WOC Nurse) Design Secondary analysis of narrative data obtained from a mixed methods study. Subjects and Setting The study setting was 2 LTC facilities in the Midwestern United States. The sample comprised 39 staff from 2 facilities, including 26 from a high ITS facility and 13 from the low ITS facility. Respondents included Certified Nurse Assistants,, Certified Medical Technicians, Restorative Medical Technicians, Social Workers, Registered Nurses, Licensed Practical Nurses, Information Technology staff, Administrators, and Directors. Methods This study is a secondary analysis of interviews regarding communication and education strategies in two longterm care agencies. This analysis focused on focus group interviews, which included both direct and non-direct care providers. Results Eight themes (codes) were identified in the analysis. Three themes are presented individually with exemplars of communication and education strategies. The analysis revealed specific differences between the high ITS and low ITS facility in regards to education and communication involving pressure ulcer prevention. These differences have direct implications for WOC nurses consulting in the LTC setting. Conclusions Findings from this study suggest that effective strategies for staff education and communication regarding PU prevention differ based on the level of ITS within a given facility. Specific strategies for education and communication are suggested for agencies with high ITS and agencies with low ITS sophistication. PMID:25945822

  3. Tracking the evolution of HIV/AIDS in China from 1989-2009 to inform future prevention and control efforts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongwei Jia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To determine policy implications, this analysis tracks the evolution of HIV/AIDS infection across China to understand current trends and potential risk factors. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A retrospective study with spatial analytical model and multilevel spatial models was conducted among 326,157 HIV/AIDS cases reported from 1989-2009. The results indicate that the distribution of HIV/AIDS was clustered at the county level with different directional distributions across China from 2003 to 2009. Compared to 2003, by 2009 there was a 122% increase in HIV cases among rural residents, 294% increase among urban residents, 211% increase among migrants, and 237% increase among permanent residents. The overall proportion of HIV by different routes of transmission showed dramatic changes with a 504% increase in sexual transmission of HIV, 90% decrease in blood/plasma transmission, and 35% decrease in injecting drug user transmission. Sexual transmission was the major transmission route among women (44% and the elderly (59% in men, 44% in women as well as among permanent (36% and urban residents (33%. Among those <65 years old, women increased more than men, but among those ≥ 65 years, men increased more than women. Migrants contributed to the variance of HIV infection between counties but not within counties. The length of highway and urbanization combined with illiteracy were risk factors for HIV/AIDS. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Rates of HIV/AIDS among permanent urban residents, particularly women and elderly men, have increased significantly in recent years. To prevent HIV from spreading further among the general population, additional attention should be paid to these populations as well as to migrants.

  4. Teaching Math to Young Children. Educator's Practice Guide. What Works Clearinghouse. NCEE 2014-4005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Douglas; Baroody, Arthur J.; Burchinal, Margaret; Carver, Sharon M.; Jordan, Nancy C.; McDowell, Judy

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this practice guide is to offer educators specific, evidence-based recommendations that address the challenge of teaching early math to children ages 3 to 6. The guide provides practical, clear information on critical topics related to teaching early math and is based on the best available evidence as judged by the authors. The guide…

  5. Intimidation and Violence: Racial and Religious Bigotry in America. Clearinghouse Publication 77.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commission on Civil Rights, Washington, DC.

    This is a study of recent acts of violence perpetrated against racial, ethnic, and religious minorities in the United States, based upon information provided by State civil rights advisory committees and data from publications, reports, and the news media. At the outset, it is noted that the Ku Klux Klan, neo-Nazi, and other extremist groups which…

  6. Risk estimation and value-of-information analysis for three proposed genetic screening programs for chronic beryllium disease prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartell, S.M.; Ponce, R.A.; Takaro, T.K.; Zerbe, R.O.; Omenn, G.S.; Faustman, E.M.

    2000-02-01

    Genetic differences (polymorphisms) among members of a population are thought to influence susceptibility to various environmental exposures. In practice, however, this information is rarely incorporated into quantitative risk assessment and risk management. The authors describe an analytic framework for predicting the risk reduction and value-of-information (VOI) resulting from specific risk management applications of genetic biomarkers, and they apply the framework to the example of occupational chronic beryllium disease (CBD), an immune-mediated pulmonary granulomatous disease. One described Human Leukocyte Antigen gene variant, HLA-DP{beta}1*0201, contains a substitution of glutamate for lysine at position 69 that appears to have high sensitivity ({approximately}94%) but low specificity ({approximately}70%) with respect to CBD among individuals occupationally exposed to respirable beryllium. The expected postintervention CBD prevalence rates for using the genetic variant (1) as a required job placement screen, (2) as a medical screen for semiannual in place of annual lymphocyte proliferation testing, or (3) as a voluntary job placement screen are 0.08%, 0.8%, and 0.6%, respectively, in a hypothetical cohort with 1% baseline CBD prevalence. VOI analysis is used to examine the reduction in total social cost, calculated as the net value of disease reduction and financial expenditures, expected for proposed CBD intervention programs based on the genetic susceptibility test. For the example cohort the expected net VOI per beryllium worker for genetically based testing and intervention is $13,000, $1,800, and $5,100, respectively, based on a health valuation of $1.45 million per CBD case avoided. VOI results for alternative CBD valuations are also presented. Despite large parameter uncertainty, probabilistic analysis predicts generally positive utility for each of the three evaluated programs when avoidance of a CBD case is valued at $1 million or higher. Although

  7. Breast Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Go ... from starting. Risk-reducing surgery . General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease in ...

  8. Application of risk analysis and geographic information system technologies to the prevention of diarrheal diseases in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njemanze, P C; Anozie, J; Ihenacho, J O; Russell, M J; Uwaeziozi, A B

    1999-09-01

    Among the poor in developing countries, up to 20% of an infant's life experience may include diarrhea. This problem is spatially related to the lack of potable water at different sites. This project used risk analysis (RA) methods and geographic information system (GIS) technologies to evaluate the health impact of water source. Maps of Imo State, Nigeria were converted into digital form using ARC/INFO GIS software, and the resulting coverages included geology, hydrology, towns, and villages. A total of 11,537 diarrheal cases were reported. Thirty-nine water sources were evaluated. A computer modeling approach called probabilistic layer analysis (PLA) spatially displayed the water source at layers of geology, hydrology, population, environmental pollution, and electricity according to a color-coded five-point ranking. The water sources were categorized into A, B, and C based on the cumulative scores 19 for C. T-test showed revealed significant differences in diarrheal disease incidence between categories A, B, and C with mean +/- SEM values of 1.612 +/- 0.325, 6.257 +/- 0.408, and 15.608 +/- 2.151, respectively. The differences were significant between categories A and B (P = 0.0000022), A and C (P = 0.0000188), and B and C (P = 0.0011348). The PLA enabled estimation of the probability of the risk of diarrheal diseases occurring at each layer and solutions to eliminate these risks.

  9. Mapping the spatial variability of HIV infection in Sub-Saharan Africa: Effective information for localized HIV prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadros, Diego F; Li, Jingjing; Branscum, Adam J; Akullian, Adam; Jia, Peng; Mziray, Elizabeth N; Tanser, Frank

    2017-08-22

    Under the premise that in a resource-constrained environment such as Sub-Saharan Africa it is not possible to do everything, to everyone, everywhere, detailed geographical knowledge about the HIV epidemic becomes essential to tailor programmatic responses to specific local needs. However, the design and evaluation of national HIV programs often rely on aggregated national level data. Against this background, here we proposed a model to produce high-resolution maps of intranational estimates of HIV prevalence in Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique and Tanzania based on spatial variables. The HIV prevalence maps generated highlight the stark spatial disparities in the epidemic within a country, and localize areas where both the burden and drivers of the HIV epidemic are concentrated. Under an era focused on optimal allocation of evidence-based interventions for populations at greatest risk in areas of greatest HIV burden, as proposed by the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and the United States President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), such maps provide essential information that strategically targets geographic areas and populations where resources can achieve the greatest impact.

  10. The geo-spatial information infrastructure at the Centre for Control and Prevention of Zoonoses, University of Ibadan, Nigeria: an emerging sustainable One-Health pavilion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olugasa, B O

    2014-12-01

    The World-Wide-Web as a contemporary means of information sharing offers a platform for geo-spatial information dissemination to improve education about spatio-temporal patterns of disease spread at the human-animal-environment interface in developing countries of West Africa. In assessing the quality of exposure to geospatial information applications among students in five purposively selected institutions in West Africa, this study reviewed course contents and postgraduate programmes in zoonoses surveillance. Geospatial information content and associated practical exercises in zoonoses surveillance were scored.. Seven criteria were used to categorize and score capability, namely, spatial data capture; thematic map design and interpretation; spatio-temporal analysis; remote sensing of data; statistical modelling; the management of spatial data-profile; and web-based map sharing operation within an organization. These criteria were used to compute weighted exposure during training at the institutions. A categorical description of institution with highest-scoring of computed Cumulative Exposure Point Average (CEPA) was based on an illustration with retrospective records of rabies cases, using data from humans, animals and the environment, that were sourced from Grand Bassa County, Liberia to create and share maps and information with faculty, staff, students and the neighbourhood about animal bite injury surveillance and spatial distribution of rabies-like illness. Uniformly low CEPA values (0-1.3) were observed across academic departments. The highest (3.8) was observed at the Centre for Control and Prevention of Zoonoses (CCPZ), University of Ibadan, Nigeria, where geospatial techniques were systematically taught, and thematic and predictive maps were produced and shared online with other institutions in West Africa. In addition, a short course in zoonosis surveillance, which offers inclusive learning in geospatial applications, is taught at CCPZ. The paper

  11. When it comes to securing patient health information from breaches, your best medicine is a dose of prevention: A cybersecurity risk assessment checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanke, Sandra J; McGrady, Elizabeth

    2016-07-01

    Health care stakeholders are concerned about the growing risk of protecting sensitive patient health information from breaches. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) has identified cyber attacks as an emerging concern, and regulations such as the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) and the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act (HITECH) have increased security requirements and are enforcing compliance through stiff financial penalties. The purpose of this study is to describe health care breaches of protected information, analyze the hazards and vulnerabilities of reported breach cases, and prescribe best practices of managing risk through security controls and countermeasures. Prescriptive findings were used to construct a checklist tool to assess and monitor common risks. This research uses a case methodology to describe specific examples of the 3 major types of cyber breach hazards: portable device, insider, and physical breaches. We utilize a risk management framework to prescribe preventative actions that organizations can take to assess, analyze, and mitigate these risks. The health care sector has the largest number of reported breaches, with 3 major types: portable device, insider, and physical breaches. Analysis of actual cases indicates security gaps requiring prescriptive fixes based on "best practices." Our research culminates in a 25-item checklist that organizations can use to assess existing practices and identify security gaps requiring improvement. © 2016 American Society for Healthcare Risk Management of the American Hospital Association.

  12. Where and how to search for information on the effectiveness of public health interventions--a case study for prevention of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, Susan E; Davenport, Clare F; Pennant, Mary E

    2014-12-01

    This case study documents the experience of searching for information on the effectiveness of population-level multi-factor interventions for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) to inform guidance from NICE (National Institute for Health and Care Excellence). To compare suitability of different databases for searches on a medical public health topic and performance of sensitive versus specific strategies. A sensitive search strategy identified 34 CVD programmes (reference standard) and sensitivity, precision and number needed to read (NNTR) were compared across seven databases. Two alternative strategies were developed to improve precision while minimising the impact on sensitivity. MEDLINE alone retrieved 91% (31/34) relevant programme citations. Four databases (MEDLINE, CENTRAL, ASSIA and PsycINFO) were required to identify all 34 programmes. In the alternative strategies, greater use of MeSH rather than text and focus on terms directed at population-level interventions resulted in a more precise search on MEDLINE. MEDLINE alone provided a better yield than anticipated. Additional databases improved sensitivity by 9% but to the detriment of precision. Retrospective searching would provide additional insight into the performance of both databases and strategies. How the medical nature of this public health topic affected yield across databases also requires further investigation. © 2014 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2014 Health Libraries Journal.

  13. In their own words: racial/ethnic and gender differences in sources and preferences for HIV prevention information among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voisin, Dexter; Shiu, Cheng-Shi; Chan Tack, Anjanette; Krieger, Cathy; Sekulska, Dominika; Johnson, Lauren

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine where young adults were obtaining their HIV prevention information, and determine if there were consumption preferences based on gender and race/ethnicity. We conducted a series of race/ethnic and gender-concordant 2-hour focus groups, and qualitative analyses identified common domains. Sixty adolescents attended 6 focus groups. Findings revealed that primary informational sources were television and advertisements, educational settings, community health care centers, and family and friends. However, television commercials and advertisements were viewed as an ineffective approach, with mistrust of the "mainstream" media being very high for Black males. Recommendations centered on the need for more realistic scenarios related to living with HIV by other adolescents, greater parental involvement with HIV education, especially for minority youth, and the use of social media. Special attention should be given to the importance of social media for adolescents, and how the fear of HIV-related stigma influences HIV information consumption patterns among males.

  14. Typhoid fever: hurdles to adequate hand washing for disease prevention among the population of a peri-urban informal settlement in Fiji

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosese Salusalu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem/context: The Pacific island nation of Fiji Islands has high rates of endemic typhoid fever which is difficult to diagnose and often underreported. However, the majority of cases are preventable through use of safe water; adequate sanitation; vaccination; and, most sustainable of all, simple hygienic behaviour, such as hand washing with soap (HWWS. Despite many attempts by public health authorities, little progress has been made in the area of environmental adaptation and behaviour change. Action: To explore perceptions of typhoid fever risk among urban squatters and behavioural determinants surrounding HWWS, indigenous Fijians living in informal settlements with high typhoid fever incidence were invited to participate in focus group discussions. In-depth interviews were conducted with community leaders. Outcome: Perceptions of typhoid fever suggest confusion about risk factors, symptoms and communicability. Environmental barriers for hand washing were related to water and soap access. Standard social marketing approaches have been trialled with little clear evidence of impact. Despite this, we continue to advocate for the social and cultural determinants of typhoid prevention to remain central to future public health strategies. Discussion: Despite behaviour change being notoriously difficult, we argue that community-driven behaviour adaptation initiatives based on sound epidemiological evidence and health communication theory are likely to have significant impact and greater likelihood of sustainability.

  15. A Methodology for Validating Safety Heuristics Using Clinical Simulations: Identifying and Preventing Possible Technology-Induced Errors Related to Using Health Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borycki, Elizabeth; Kushniruk, Andre; Carvalho, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Internationally, health information systems (HIS) safety has emerged as a significant concern for governments. Recently, research has emerged that has documented the ability of HIS to be implicated in the harm and death of patients. Researchers have attempted to develop methods that can be used to prevent or reduce technology-induced errors. Some researchers are developing methods that can be employed prior to systems release. These methods include the development of safety heuristics and clinical simulations. In this paper, we outline our methodology for developing safety heuristics specific to identifying the features or functions of a HIS user interface design that may lead to technology-induced errors. We follow this with a description of a methodological approach to validate these heuristics using clinical simulations. PMID:23606902

  16. Development of tailored nutrition information messages based on the transtheoretical model for smartphone application of an obesity prevention and management program for elementary-school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Eun; Lee, Da Eun; Kim, Kirang; Shim, Jae Eun; Sung, Eunju; Kang, Jae-Heon; Hwang, Ji-Yun

    2017-06-01

    Easy access to intervention and support for certain behaviors is important for obesity prevention and management. The available technology such as smartphone applications can be used for intervention regarding healthy food choices for obesity prevention and management in elementary-school students. The transtheoretical model (TTM) is comprised of stages and processes of change and can be adopted to tailored education for behavioral change. This study aims to develop TTM-based nutrition contents for mobile applications intended to change eating behaviors related to weight gain in young children. A synthesized algorithm for tailored nutrition messages was developed according to the intake status of six food groups (vegetables, fruits, sugar-sweetened beverages, fast food and instant food, snacks, and late-night snacks), decision to make dietary behavioral changes, and self-confidence in dietary behavioral changes. The messages in this study were developed from December 2014 to April 2015. After the validity evaluation of the contents through expert consultation, tailored nutrition information messages and educational contents were developed based on the TTM. Based on the TTM, stages of subjects are determined by their current intake status, decision to make dietary behavioral changes, and self-confidence in dietary behavioral changes. Three versions of tailored nutrition messages at each TTM stage were developed so as to not send the same messages for three weeks at most, and visual materials such as figures and tables were developed to provide additional nutritional information. Finally, 3,276 tailored nutrition messages and 60 nutrition contents for applications were developed. Smartphone applications may be an innovative medium to deliver interventions for eating behavior changes directly to individuals with favorable cost-effectiveness. In addition, using the TTM for tailored nutrition education for healthy eating is an effective approach.

  17. Development of tailored nutrition information messages based on the transtheoretical model for smartphone application of an obesity prevention and management program for elementary-school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Eun; Lee, Da Eun; Kim, Kirang; Shim, Jae Eun; Sung, Eunju; Kang, Jae-Heon

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Easy access to intervention and support for certain behaviors is important for obesity prevention and management. The available technology such as smartphone applications can be used for intervention regarding healthy food choices for obesity prevention and management in elementary-school students. The transtheoretical model (TTM) is comprised of stages and processes of change and can be adopted to tailored education for behavioral change. This study aims to develop TTM-based nutrition contents for mobile applications intended to change eating behaviors related to weight gain in young children. SUBJECTS/METHODS A synthesized algorithm for tailored nutrition messages was developed according to the intake status of six food groups (vegetables, fruits, sugar-sweetened beverages, fast food and instant food, snacks, and late-night snacks), decision to make dietary behavioral changes, and self-confidence in dietary behavioral changes. The messages in this study were developed from December 2014 to April 2015. After the validity evaluation of the contents through expert consultation, tailored nutrition information messages and educational contents were developed based on the TTM. RESULTS Based on the TTM, stages of subjects are determined by their current intake status, decision to make dietary behavioral changes, and self-confidence in dietary behavioral changes. Three versions of tailored nutrition messages at each TTM stage were developed so as to not send the same messages for three weeks at most, and visual materials such as figures and tables were developed to provide additional nutritional information. Finally, 3,276 tailored nutrition messages and 60 nutrition contents for applications were developed. CONCLUSIONS Smartphone applications may be an innovative medium to deliver interventions for eating behavior changes directly to individuals with favorable cost-effectiveness. In addition, using the TTM for tailored nutrition education for

  18. Cost-effectiveness and value of information analysis of nutritional support for preventing pressure ulcers in high-risk patients: implement now, research later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuffaha, Haitham W; Roberts, Shelley; Chaboyer, Wendy; Gordon, Louisa G; Scuffham, Paul A

    2015-04-01

    Pressure ulcers are a major cause of mortality, morbidity, and increased healthcare cost. Nutritional support may reduce the incidence of pressure ulcers in hospitalised patients who are at risk of pressure ulcer and malnutrition. To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of nutritional support in preventing pressure ulcers in high-risk hospitalised patients, and to assess the value of further research to inform the decision to implement this intervention using value of information analysis (VOI). The analysis was from the perspective of Queensland Health, Australia using a decision model with evidence derived from a systematic review and meta-analysis. Resources were valued using 2014 prices and the time horizon of the analysis was one year. Monte Carlo simulation was used to estimate net monetary benefits (NB) and to calculate VOI measures. Compared with standard hospital diet, nutritional support was cost saving at AU$425 per patient, and more effective with an average 0.005 quality-adjusted life years (QALY) gained. At a willingness-to-pay of AU$50,000 per QALY, the incremental NB was AU$675 per patient, with a probability of 87 % that nutritional support is cost-effective. The expected value of perfect information was AU$5 million and the expected value of perfect parameter information was highest for the relative risk of developing a pressure ulcer at AU$2.5 million. For a future trial investigating the relative effectiveness of the interventions, the expected net benefit of research would be maximised at AU$100,000 with 1,200 patients in each arm if nutritional support was perfectly implemented. The opportunity cost of withholding the decision to implement the intervention until the results of the future study are available would be AU$14 million. Nutritional support is cost-effective in preventing pressure ulcers in high-risk hospitalised patients compared with standard diet. Future research to reduce decision uncertainty is worthwhile; however, given the

  19. Information sources, awareness and preventive health behaviors in a population at risk of Arsenic exposure: The role of gender and social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Frédéric; Távora, Renata; Nakano, Eduardo Yoshio; Castilhos, Zuleica Carmen

    2017-01-01

    The population of Paracatu is at risk of Arsenic (As) exposure associated with long-term exploration of the largest open pit gold mine in Brazil. As part of the interdisciplinary research "The Paracatu project: Arsenic environmental contamination and human health risks assessment in Paracatu-MG", carried out between 2011 and 2013, we used data disaggregated by gender to identify the sources of As-related information being accessed by inhabitants of Paracatu and to examine if access to these sources was correlated to awareness of As health effects and adoption of behaviors to reduce risk of As exposure. Semi-structured, face-to-face interviews were carried out with 460 participants (294 women and 166 men) to collect data on respondent's socio-demographic characteristics, use of mass media and social communication networks as sources of information on As issues, the trustworthiness of these information sources, awareness of As health effects, and adoption of behaviors to reduce As exposure. For both men and women, interpersonal communication was used and trusted more frequently than mass media to obtain information on As. Discussion of As issues occurred preferentially among individuals of the same gender and was associated with awareness of As health risks. There are marked differences in variables correlated with the adoption of behaviors to reduce the risk of As exposure between men and women. Discussing As issues with women was associated with adoption of risk-reduction practices for both genders. In contrast, men who discuss As issues with other men were less likely to adopt As exposure prevention behaviors. Finally, adoption was associated with awareness of As health effects for women, but this was not the case for men. Policy implications for decision makers, practitioners and researchers are discussed, based on concrete examples of how gender-specific approaches can effectively guide the formulation and implementation of health promotion campaigns and

  20. An optimised patient information sheet did not significantly increase recruitment or retention in a falls prevention study: an embedded randomised recruitment trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockayne, Sarah; Fairhurst, Caroline; Adamson, Joy; Hewitt, Catherine; Hull, Robin; Hicks, Kate; Keenan, Anne-Maree; Lamb, Sarah E; Green, Lorraine; McIntosh, Caroline; Menz, Hylton B; Redmond, Anthony C; Rodgers, Sara; Torgerson, David J; Vernon, Wesley; Watson, Judith; Knapp, Peter; Rick, Jo; Bower, Peter; Eldridge, Sandra; Madurasinghe, Vichithranie W; Graffy, Jonathan

    2017-03-28

    Randomised controlled trials are generally regarded as the 'gold standard' experimental design to determine the effectiveness of an intervention. Unfortunately, many trials either fail to recruit sufficient numbers of participants, or recruitment takes longer than anticipated. The current embedded trial evaluates the effectiveness of optimised patient information sheets on recruitment of participants in a falls prevention trial. A three-arm, embedded randomised methodology trial was conducted within the National Institute for Health Research-funded REducing Falls with ORthoses and a Multifaceted podiatry intervention (REFORM) cohort randomised controlled trial. Routine National Health Service podiatry patients over the age of 65 were randomised to receive either the control patient information sheet (PIS) for the host trial or one of two optimised versions, a bespoke user-tested PIS or a template-developed PIS. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients in each group who went on to be randomised to the host trial. Six thousand and nine hundred patients were randomised 1:1:1 into the embedded trial. A total of 193 (2.8%) went on to be randomised into the main REFORM trial (control n = 62, template-developed n = 68; bespoke user-tested n = 63). Information sheet allocation did not improve recruitment to the trial (odds ratios for the three pairwise comparisons: template vs control 1.10 (95% CI 0.77-1.56, p = 0.60); user-tested vs control 1.01 (95% CI 0.71-1.45, p = 0.94); and user-tested vs template 0.92 (95% CI 0.65-1.31, p = 0.65)). This embedded methodology trial has demonstrated limited evidence as to the benefit of using optimised information materials on recruitment and retention rates in the REFORM study. International Standard Randomised Controlled Trials Number registry, ISRCTN68240461 . Registered on 01 July 2011.

  1. Information sources, awareness and preventive health behaviors in a population at risk of Arsenic exposure: The role of gender and social networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Mertens

    Full Text Available The population of Paracatu is at risk of Arsenic (As exposure associated with long-term exploration of the largest open pit gold mine in Brazil. As part of the interdisciplinary research "The Paracatu project: Arsenic environmental contamination and human health risks assessment in Paracatu-MG", carried out between 2011 and 2013, we used data disaggregated by gender to identify the sources of As-related information being accessed by inhabitants of Paracatu and to examine if access to these sources was correlated to awareness of As health effects and adoption of behaviors to reduce risk of As exposure. Semi-structured, face-to-face interviews were carried out with 460 participants (294 women and 166 men to collect data on respondent's socio-demographic characteristics, use of mass media and social communication networks as sources of information on As issues, the trustworthiness of these information sources, awareness of As health effects, and adoption of behaviors to reduce As exposure. For both men and women, interpersonal communication was used and trusted more frequently than mass media to obtain information on As. Discussion of As issues occurred preferentially among individuals of the same gender and was associated with awareness of As health risks. There are marked differences in variables correlated with the adoption of behaviors to reduce the risk of As exposure between men and women. Discussing As issues with women was associated with adoption of risk-reduction practices for both genders. In contrast, men who discuss As issues with other men were less likely to adopt As exposure prevention behaviors. Finally, adoption was associated with awareness of As health effects for women, but this was not the case for men. Policy implications for decision makers, practitioners and researchers are discussed, based on concrete examples of how gender-specific approaches can effectively guide the formulation and implementation of health promotion

  2. Evaluation and refinement of a handheld health information technology tool to support the timely update of bedside visual cues to prevent falls in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Ruth C-A; Visvanathan, Renuka; Ranasinghe, Damith; Wilson, Anne

    2017-11-27

    To evaluate clinicians' perspectives, before and after clinical implementation (i.e. trial) of a handheld health information technology (HIT) tool, incorporating an iPad device and automatically generated visual cues for bedside display, for falls risk assessment and prevention in hospital. This pilot study utilized mixed-methods research with focus group discussions and Likert-scale surveys to elicit clinicians' attitudes. The study was conducted across three phases within two medical wards of the Queen Elizabeth Hospital. Phase 1 (pretrial) involved focus group discussion (five staff) and surveys (48 staff) to elicit preliminary perspectives on tool use, benefits and barriers to use and recommendations for improvement. Phase 2 (tool trial) involved HIT tool implementation on two hospital wards over consecutive 12-week periods. Phase 3 (post-trial) involved focus group discussion (five staff) and surveys (29 staff) following tool implementation, with similar themes as in Phase 1. Qualitative data were evaluated using content analysis, and quantitative data using descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis, with subgroup analyses on user status (P ≤ 0.05). Four findings emerged on clinicians' experience, positive perceptions, negative perceptions and recommendations for improvement of the tool. Pretrial, clinicians were familiar with using visual cues in hospital falls prevention. They identified potential benefits of the HIT tool in obtaining timely, useful falls risk assessment to improve patient care. During the trial, the wards differed in methods of tool implementation, resulting in lower uptake by clinicians on the subacute ward. Post-trial, clinicians remained supportive for incorporating the tool into clinical practice; however, there were issues with usability and lack of time for tool use. Staff who had not used the tool had less appreciation for it improving their understanding of patients' falls risk factors (odds ratio 0.12), or

  3. Alignment of single-case design (SCD) research with individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing with the what Works Clearinghouse standards for SCD research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, Erica; Cawthon, Stephanie W; Ge, Jin Jin; Beretvas, S Natasha

    2015-04-01

    The authors assessed the quality of single-case design (SCD) studies that assess the impact of interventions on outcomes for individuals who are deaf or hard-of-hearing (DHH). More specifically, the What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) standards for SCD research were used to assess design quality and the strength of evidence of peer-reviewed studies available in the peer-reviewed, published literature. The analysis yielded four studies that met the WWC standards for design quality, of which two demonstrated moderate to strong evidence for efficacy of the studied intervention. Results of this review are discussed in light of the benefits and the challenges to applying the WWC design standards to research with DHH individuals and other diverse, low-incidence populations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Southeast Regional Clearinghouse(SERCH)Mini-grants:Big Impacts on Future Explorers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runyon, C.; Guimond, K.

    2004-12-01

    SERCH is one of seven regional Broker/Facilitator programs funded by NASA's Space Science Mission Directorate. Our purpose is to promote space science awareness and to enhance interest in science, math, and technology through the use of NASA's mission data, information, and educational products. We work closely with educators and NASA-funded scientists in 14 states (AL, AR, DC, FL, GA, KY, LA, MD, MS, NC, PR, SC/VI, TN, and VA) throughout the southeastern U.S. to share what NASA is doing in space science. Every year SERCH dedicates money from its budget to support education/outreach initiatives that increase the awareness and understanding of the four major scientific themes, or forums from NASA's space science program: 1) Sun-Earth Connection, 2) Solar System Exploration, 3) Structure and Evolution of the Universe, and 4) Astronomical Search for Origins and Planetary Systems. SERCH is particularly interested in proposals for education/outreach efforts that establish strong and lasting partnerships between the space science and education communities and that support the NASA's education mission. We encourage innovative, inter-disciplinary teams involving both scientists and educators to apply. These peer-reviewed grants are awarded for a period of one year in amounts usually ranging from 5,000 to 10,000. Three examples of highly successful previous grant awards include: 1) Teaching Astronomy and Space Science in Kentucky (KY): Designed to improve knowledge of science core concepts and teaching skills in astronomy and space science and increased expertise in achieving current Kentucky academic expectations; 2) Development of Multi-media Space Science Education/Tutorial Modules (MD): The objective is the production of three "turn-key" internet-based multi-media student tutorial modules to enable the mostly part-time professors/instructors teaching introductory astronomy in community colleges to add exciting and cutting-edge topics to their existing astronomy courses

  5. Influenza Prevention: Information for Travelers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What are Flu Antiviral Drugs Antiviral Drug Resistance Mixing Oseltamivir Capsules For Children What to do if ... PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel file Audio/Video file Apple Quicktime file RealPlayer file Text ...

  6. Benchmarking of Percutaneous Injuries at the Ministry of Health Hospitals of Saudi Arabia in Comparison with the United States Hospitals Participating in Exposure Prevention Information Network (EPINet™

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZA Memish

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exposure to blood-borne pathogens from needle-stick and sharp injuries continues to pose a significant risk to health care workers. These events are of concern because of the risk to transmit blood-borne diseases such as hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and the human immunodeficiency virus. Objective: To benchmark different risk factors associated with needle-stick incidents among health care workers in the Ministry of Health hospitals in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia compared to the US hospitals participating in Exposure Prevention Information Network (EPINet ™. Methods: Prospective surveillance of needle-stick and sharp incidents carried out during the year 2012 using EPINet™ ver 1.5 that provides uniform needle stick and sharp injury report form. Results: The annual percutaneous incidents (PIs rate per 100 occupied beds was 3.2 at the studied MOH hospitals. Nurses were the most affected job category by PIs (59.4%. Most PIs happened in patients' wards in the Ministry of Health hospitals (34.6%. Disposable syringes were the most common cause of PIs (47.20%. Most PIs occurred during use of the syringes (36.4%. Conclusion: Among health care workers, nurses and physicians appear especially at risk of exposure to PIs. Important risk factors of injuries include working in patient room, using disposable syringes, devices without safety features. Preventive strategies such as continuous training of health care workers with special emphasis on nurses and physicians, encouragement of reporting of such incidents, observation of sharp handling, their use and implementation of safety devices are warranted.

  7. Choking Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Living Healthy Living Healthy Living Nutrition Fitness Sports Oral Health Emotional Wellness Growing Healthy Sleep Safety & Prevention Safety & Prevention Safety and Prevention Immunizations At Home ...

  8. Big Five personality traits may inform public health policy and preventive medicine: Evidence from a cross-sectional and a prospective longitudinal epidemiologic study in a Swiss community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengartner, Michael P; Kawohl, Wolfram; Haker, Helene; Rössler, Wulf; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta

    2016-05-01

    Some evidence documents the importance of personality assessments for health research and practise. However, no study has opted to test whether a short self-report personality inventory may comprehensively inform health policy. Data were taken from a population-based epidemiologic survey in Zurich, Switzerland, conducted from 2010-2012. A short form of the Big Five Inventory was completed by n=1155 participants (54.4% women; mean age=29.6 years), while health-related outcomes were taken from a comprehensive semi-structured clinical interview. A convenience subsample averaging n=171 participants additionally provided laboratory measures and n=133 were subsequently followed-up at least once over a maximal period of 6 months. Personality traits, in particular high neuroticism and low conscientiousness, related significantly to poor environmental resources such as low social support (R(2)=0.071), health-impairing behaviours such as cannabis use (R(2)=0.071), and psychopathology, including negative affect (R(2)=0.269) and various mental disorders (R(2)=0.060-0.195). The proportion of total variance explained was R(2)=0.339 in persons with three or more mental disorders. Personality significantly related to some laboratory measures including total cholesterol (R(2)=0.095) and C-Reactive Protein (R(2)=0.062). Finally, personality prospectively predicted global psychopathological distress and vegetative symptoms over a 6-month observation period. Personality relates consistently to poor socio-environmental resources, health-impairing behaviours and psychopathology. We also found some evidence for an association with metabolic and immune functions that are assumed to influence health. A short personality inventory could provide valuable information for preventive medicine when used as a means to screen entire populations for distinct risk exposure, in particular with respect to psychopathology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Owned and Unowned Dog Population Estimation, Dog Management and Dog Bites to Inform Rabies Prevention and Response on Lombok Island, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustiana, Ana; Toribio, Jenny-Ann; Abdurrahman, Muktasam; Suadnya, I. Wayan; Hernandez-Jover, Marta; Putra, Anak Agung Gde; Ward, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Although Indonesia has been rabies-infected since at least the 1880s, some islands remain rabies-free, such as Lombok. However, due to its adjacency to rabies-infected islands such as Bali and Flores, there is considerable risk of a rabies incursion. As part of a rabies risk assessment project, surveys were conducted to estimate the size of the dog population and to describe dog management practices of households belonging to different ethnic groups. A photographic-recapture method was employed and the number of unowned dogs was estimated. A total of 400 dog owning households were interviewed, 300 at an urban site and 100 at a rural site. The majority of the interviewed households belonged to the Balinese ethnic group. Owned dogs were more likely male, and non-pedigree or local breed. These households kept their dogs either fully restricted, semi-free roaming or free-roaming but full restriction was reported only at the urban site. Dog bite cases were reported to be higher at the urban site, and commonly affected children/young adults to 20 years old and males. A higher number of unowned dogs was observed at the urban site than at the rural site. Data generated within these surveys can inform rabies risk assessment models to quantify the probability of rabies being released into Lombok and resulting in the infection of the local dog population. The information gained is critical for efforts to educate dog owners about rabies, as a component of preparedness to prevent the establishment of rabies should an incursion occur. PMID:25932916

  10. Are national policies and programs for prevention and management of postpartum hemorrhage and preeclampsia adequate? A key informant survey in 37 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeffrey Michael; Currie, Sheena; Cannon, Tirza; Armbruster, Deborah; Perri, Julia

    2014-08-01

    Although maternal mortality has declined substantially in recent years, efforts to address postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) and preeclampsia/eclampsia (PE/E) must be systematically scaled up in order for further reduction to take place. In 2012, a key informant survey was conducted to identify both national and global gaps in PPH and PE/E program priorities and to highlight focus areas for future national and global programming. Between January and March 2012, national program teams in 37 countries completed a 44-item survey, consisting mostly of dichotomous yes/no responses and addressing 6 core programmatic areas: policy, training, medication distribution and logistics, national reporting of key indicators, programming, and challenges to and opportunities for scale up. An in-country focal person led the process to gather the necessary information from key local stakeholders. Some countries also provided national essential medicines lists and service delivery guidelines for comparison and further analysis. Most surveyed countries have many elements in place to address PPH and PE/E, but notable gaps remain in both policy and practice. Oxytocin and magnesium sulfate were reported to be regularly available in facilities in 89% and 76% of countries, respectively. Only 27% of countries, however, noted regular availability of misoprostol in health facilities. Midwife scope of practice regarding PPH and PE/E is inconsistent with global norms in a number of countries: 22% of countries do not allow midwives to administer magnesium sulfate and 30% do not allow them to perform manual removal of the placenta. Most countries surveyed have many of the essential policies and program elements to prevent/manage PPH and PE/E, but absence of commodities (especially misoprostol), limitations in scope of practice for midwives, and gaps in inclusion of maternal health indicators in the national data systems have impeded efforts to scale up programs nationally.

  11. Strategic transportation finance clearinghouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Between now and 2030, there will be a significant gap, well in excess of $100 million, between : the amount of revenue needed to funded infrastructure projects and the amount of revenue : available to fund those projects in Texas. At the same time, t...

  12. International Nuclear Information System. 1988-2002. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-08-01

    This catalogue lists all sales publications and products of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with the International Nuclear Information System (INIS), and issued during the period 1 January 1990 - 31 July 2002. Most publications are issued in English, though some are also available in other languages. This is noted as E for English, F for French, G for German, R for Russian and S for Spanish before the relevant ISBN number. Some INIS Reference Series publications are available in electronic form from the INIS Clearinghouse. For more details on the INIS publications programme, please visit the INIS web site mentioned above

  13. Does Digital Ad Exposure Influence Information-Seeking Behavior Online? Evidence From the 2012 Tips From Former Smokers National Tobacco Prevention Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Annice; Hansen, Heather; Duke, Jennifer; Davis, Kevin; Alexander, Robert; Rowland, Amy; Mitchko, Jane

    2016-03-16

    Measuring the impact of online health campaigns is challenging. Ad click-through rates are traditionally used to measure campaign reach, but few Internet users ever click on ads. Alternatively, self-reported exposure to digital ads would be prone to recall bias. Furthermore, there may be latency effects whereby people do not click on ads when exposed but visit the promoted website or conduct campaign-related searches later. Online panels that unobtrusively collect panelists' Web behavior data and link ad exposure to website visits and searches can more reliably assess the impact of digital ad exposure. From March to June 2012, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention aired the national Tips From Former Smokers (Tips 2012) media campaign designed to encourage current smokers to quit. Advertisements ran across media channels, and the digital ads directed users to the Tips 2012 campaign website. Our aim was to examine whether exposure to Tips 2012 digital ads influenced information-seeking behaviors online. ComScore mined its panelists' Web behavior data for unique codes that would indicate exposure to Tips 2012 ads, regardless of whether panelists clicked the ad or not. A total of 15,319 US adults were identified as having been exposed to a Tips 2012 campaign ad. An equal number of unexposed adults (N=15,319) were identified and matched on demographics and Internet use behavior to the exposed group. Panelists' Web behavior data were mined for up to 4 weeks after initial Tips 2012 ad exposure to determine whether they visited the Tips 2012 campaign website or other cessation-related websites (eg, nicotine replacement therapy site) or conducted searches for campaign-related topics (eg, quit smoking). The proportion of exposed adults visiting the Tips 2012 sites increased from 0.4% in Week 1 to 0.9% 4 weeks after ad exposure, and these rates were significantly higher than in the unexposed group (0.1% in Week 1 to 0.4% in Week 4, Pcampaign-related topics between

  14. Rape prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Date rape - prevention; Sexual assault - prevention ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Sexual assault and abuse and STDs. In: 2015 sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines 2015. www.cdc.gov/std/tg2015/sexual- ...

  15. Dengue Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir This photograph ... medications to treat a dengue infection. This makes prevention the most important step, and prevention means avoiding ...

  16. Bladder Exstrophy: An Epidemiologic Study From the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research, and an Overview of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    SIFFEL, CSABA; CORREA, ADOLFO; AMAR, EMMANUELLE; BAKKER, MARIAN K.; BERMEJO-SÁNCHEZ, EVA; BIANCA, SEBASTIANO; CASTILLA, EDUARDO E.; CLEMENTI, MAURIZIO; COCCHI, GUIDO; CSÁKY-SZUNYOGH, MELINDA; FELDKAMP, MARCIA L.; LANDAU, DANIELLE; LEONCINI, EMANUELE; LI, ZHU; LOWRY, R. BRIAN; MARENGO, LISA K.; MASTROIACOVO, PIERPAOLO; MORGAN, MARGERY; MUTCHINICK, OSVALDO M.; PIERINI, ANNA; RISSMANN, ANKE; RITVANEN, ANNUKKA; SCARANO, GIOACCHINO; SZABOVA, ELENA; OLNEY, RICHARD S.

    2015-01-01

    Bladder exstrophy (BE) is a complex congenital anomaly characterized by a defect in the closure of the lower abdominal wall and bladder. We aimed to provide an overview of the literature and conduct an epidemiologic study to describe the prevalence, and maternal and case characteristics of BE. We used data from 22 participating member programs of the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research (ICBDSR). All cases were reviewed and classified as isolated, syndrome, and multiple congenital anomalies. We estimated the total prevalence of BE and calculated the frequency and odds ratios for various maternal and case characteristics. A total of 546 cases with BE were identified among 26,355,094 births. The total prevalence of BE was 2.07 per 100,000 births (95% CI: 1.90–2.25) and varied between 0.52 and 4.63 among surveillance programs participating in the study. BE was nearly twice as common among male as among female cases. The proportion of isolated cases was 71%. Prevalence appeared to increase with increasing categories of maternal age, particularly among isolated cases. The total prevalence of BE showed some variations by geographical region, which is most likely attributable to differences in registration of cases. The higher total prevalence among male cases and older mothers, especially among isolated cases, warrants further attention. PMID:22002949

  17. Plague Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthcare Professionals Clinicians Public Health Officials Veterinarians Prevention History of Plague Resources FAQ Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Reduce rodent habitat around your ...

  18. Tanzania Health Information Technology (T-HIT) System: Pilot Test of a Tablet-Based System to Improve Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Sheana; Thomas, Deborah Sk; Nyanza, Elias C; Ngallaba, Sospatro E

    2018-01-15

    The prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV requires innovative solutions. Although routine monitoring is effective in some areas, standardized and easy-to-scale solutions to identify and monitor pregnant women, test them for HIV, and treat them and their children is still lacking. Mobile health (mHealth) offers opportunities for surveillance and reporting in rural areas of low- and middle-income countries. The aim of this study was to document the preliminary impacts of the Tanzania Health Information Technology (T-HIT) system mHealth intervention aimed at health workers for PMTCT care delivery and capacity building in a rural area of Tanzania. We developed T-HIT as a tablet-based system for an electronic data collection system designed to capture and report PMTCT data during antenatal, delivery, and postnatal visits in Misungwi, Tanzania. T-HIT was tested by health workers in a pilot randomized trial comparing seven sites using T-HIT assigned at random to seven control sites; all sites maintained standard paper record-keeping during the pilot intervention period. We compared numbers of antenatal visits, number of HIV tests administered, and women testing positive across all sites. Health workers recorded data from antenatal visits for 1530 women; of these, 695 (45.42%) were tested for HIV and 3.59% (55/1530) tested positive. Health workers were unable to conduct an HIV test for 103 women (6.73%, 103/1530) because of lack of reagent, which is not captured on paper logs. There was no difference in the activity level for testing when comparing sites T-HIT to non-T-HIT sites. We observed a significant postintervention increase in the numbers of women testing positive for HIV compared with the preintervention period (P=.04), but this was likely not attributable to the T-HIT system. T-HIT had a high degree of acceptability and feasibility and is perceived as useful by health workers, who documented more antenatal visits during the pilot intervention

  19. Cancer Prevention Overview (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have been shown to reduce the risk of breast cancer in women at high risk. SERMS may cause side effects , such as hot flashes , so they are not often used for prevention of cancer. See the PDQ summary on Breast Cancer Prevention for more information. Finasteride has been ...

  20. Wildfire Prevention Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Wildlife Coordinating Group, Boise, ID.

    This document provides information and guidance on wildfire prevention strategies. Chapters include: (1) "Introduction"; (2) "How to Use this Guide"; (3) "Fire Cause Classification"; (4) "Relative Effectiveness"; (5) "Degree of Difficulty"; (6) "Intervention Techniques"; (7)…

  1. The Wind ENergy Data and Information (WENDI) Gateway: New Information and Analysis Tools for Wind Energy Stakeholders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, D.; Palanisamy, G.; Santhana Vannan, S.; Wei, Y.; Smith, T.; Starke, M.; Wibking, M.; Pan, Y.; Devarakonda, Ranjeet; Wilson, B. E.; Wind Energy Data; Information (WENDI) Gateway Team

    2010-12-01

    In support of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Office, DOE's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has launched the Wind ENergy Data & Information (WENDI) Gateway. The WENDI Gateway is intended to serve a broad range of wind-energy stakeholders by providing easy access to a large amount of wind energy-related data and information through its two main interfaces: the Wind Energy Metadata Clearinghouse and the Wind Energy Geographic Information System (WindGIS). The Metadata Clearinghouse is a powerful, customized search tool for discovering, accessing, and sharing wind energy-related data and information. Its database of metadata records points users to a diverse array of wind energy-related resources: from technical and scientific journal articles to mass media news stories; from annual government and industry reports to downloadable datasets, and much more. Through the WindGIS, users can simultaneously visualize a wide spectrum of United States wind energy-related spatial data, including wind energy power plant locations; wind resource maps; state-level installed wind capacity, generation, and renewable portfolio standards; electric transmission lines; transportation infrastructure; interconnection standards; land ownership, designation, and usage; and various ecological data layers. In addition, WindGIS allows users to download much of the data behind the layers. References: [1] Devarakonda R., et al. Mercury: reusable metadata management, data discovery and access system. Earth Science Informatics (2010), 3(1): 87-94. [2] Wilson, Bruce E., et al. "Mercury Toolset for Spatiotemporal Metadata." (2010).

  2. Level of information about gynaecological prevention in teenagers at risk from social exclusion, referred by family court rulings to juvenile attendance centres – a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Bobiński

    2015-09-01

    Teenagers of similar background may find it more difficult to gain access to knowledge about health prophylaxis, including gynaecological prevention. Efforts should be intensified in order to ‘equalize health opportunities’ through appropriate preparation of teaching curricula (including health education and philosophy of medicine.

  3. How Much Knowledge Can They Gain? Women's Information Behavior on Government Health Websites in the Context of HIV/AIDS Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Jing

    2010-01-01

    Women in the U.S. and all over the world are more vulnerable to HIV/AIDS because of both behavioral and contextual factors. HIV/AIDS prevention education on government health websites plays an important role in reducing this health inequality for women. However, contrary to the assumption of Rimal and Real's (2003) Risk Perception Attitude…

  4. Collaborative Evaluation of a High School Prevention Curriculum: How Methods of Collaborative Evaluation Enhanced a Randomized Control Trial to Inform Program Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsini, Muhsin Michael; Wyrick, David L.; Milroy, Jeffrey J.

    2012-01-01

    Blending high-quality and rigorous research with pure evaluation practice can often be best accomplished through thoughtful collaboration. The evaluation of a high school drug prevention program (All Stars Senior) is an example of how perceived competing purposes and methodologies can coexist to investigate formative and summative outcome…

  5. Interpreting treatment effects from clinical trials in the context of real-world risk information: end-stage renal disease prevention in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hare, Ann M; Hotchkiss, John R; Kurella Tamura, Manjula; Larson, Eric B; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R; Batten, Adam; Do, Thy P; Covinsky, Kenneth E

    2014-03-01

    Older adults are often excluded from clinical trials. The benefit of preventive interventions tested in younger trial populations may be reduced when applied to older adults in the clinical setting if they are less likely to survive long enough to experience those outcomes targeted by the intervention. To extrapolate a treatment effect similar to those reported in major randomized clinical trials of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers for prevention of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) to a real-world population of older patients with chronic kidney disease. Simulation study in a retrospective cohort conducted in Department of Veterans Affairs medical centers. We included 371 470 patients 70 years or older with chronic kidney disease. Level of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and proteinuria. Among members of this cohort, we evaluated the expected effect of a 30% reduction in relative risk on the number needed to treat (NNT) to prevent 1 case of ESRD over a 3-year period. These limits were selected to mimic the treatment effect achieved in major trials of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers for prevention of ESRD. These trials have reported relative risk reductions of 23% to 56% during observation periods of 2.6 to 3.4 years, yielding NNTs to prevent 1 case of ESRD of 9 to 25. The NNT to prevent 1 case of ESRD among members of this cohort ranged from 16 in patients with the highest baseline risk (eGFR of 15-29 mL/min/1.73 m(2) with a dipstick proteinuria measurement of ≥ 2+) to 2500 for those with the lowest baseline risk (eGFR of 45-59 mL/min/1.73 m(2) with negative or trace proteinuria and eGFR of ≥ 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 with dipstick proteinuria measurement of 1+). Most patients belonged to groups with an NNT of more than 100, even when the exposure time was extended over 10 years and in all sensitivity analyses. Differences in baseline risk and life expectancy between

  6. A systematic review and meta-analysis on the use of prophylactic topical antibiotics for the prevention of uncomplicated wound infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Q

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Qiao-Jing Tong,1 Kimberly DP Hammer,2,3 Erika M Johnson,4 Milagros Zegarra,2,3 Michihiko Goto,5,6 Tze Shien Lo3,7 1Department of Infection Control, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China; 2Research Service, Fargo VA Health Care System; 3Department of Internal Medicine, University of North Dakota, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Fargo, ND, USA; 4Library Resources, University of North Dakota, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Fargo, ND, USA; 5Center for Comprehensive Access & Delivery Research & Evaluation (CADRE, Iowa City VA Health Care System, West Iowa City, IA, USA; 6Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa, Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA, USA; 7Infectious Disease Service, Fargo VA Health Care System, Fargo, ND, USA Background: The prescription of topical antibiotics for the prevention of infections in uncomplicated wounds is common. However, the efficacy is not well reported. Therefore, the objective of the study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the available evidence on prevention of uncomplicated wound infections by prophylactic topical antibiotics. Materials and methods: The search included Pubmed, Google Scholar, SCOPUS, Embase, Cochrane, ClinicalTrials.gov, International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, National Technical Information Service, and the National Guidelines Clearinghouse. Results: We identified eight randomized controlled trials and four quasi-randomized trials that met the criteria for the systematic review. Of these trials, 11 studies were pooled for meta-analysis to compare the effects of topical antibiotics versus placebo and 4 studies were pooled for comparison of effects of topical antibiotics versus topical antiseptics on uncomplicated wounds. Fewer wound infections occurred in the topical antibiotic arms compared to placebo (pooled risk ratio: 0.57 [95% CI: 0.37 to 0.86]; p=0.01 and pooled risk

  7. Phocomelia: A Worldwide Descriptive Epidemiologic Study in a Large Series of Cases From the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research, and Overview of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermejo-Sánchez, Eva; Cuevas, Lourdes; Amar, Emmanuelle; Bianca, Sebastiano; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Botto, Lorenzo D.; Canfield, Mark A.; Castilla, Eduardo E.; Clementi, Maurizio; Cocchi, Guido; Landau, Danielle; Leoncini, Emanuele; Li, Zhu; Lowry, R. Brian; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo; Mutchinick, Osvaldo M.; Rissmann, Anke; Ritvanen, Annukka; Scarano, Gioacchino; Siffel, Csaba; Szabova, Elena; Martínez-Frías, María-Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiologic data on phocomelia are scarce. This study presents an epidemiologic analysis of the largest series of phocomelia cases known to date. Data were provided by 19 birth defect surveillance programs, all members of the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research. Depending on the program, data corresponded to a period from 1968 through 2006. A total of 22,740,933 live births, stillbirths and, for some programs, elective terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomaly (ETOPFA) were monitored. After a detailed review of clinical data, only true phocomelia cases were included. Descriptive data are presented and additional analyses compared isolated cases with those with multiple congenital anomalies (MCA), excluding syndromes. We also briefly compared congenital anomalies associated with nonsyndromic phocomelia with those presented with amelia, another rare severe congenital limb defect. A total of 141 phocomelia cases registered gave an overall total prevalence of 0.62 per 100,000 births (95% confidence interval: 0.52–0.73). Three programs (Australia Victoria, South America ECLAMC, Italy North East) had significantly different prevalence estimates. Most cases (53.2%) had isolated phocomelia, while 9.9% had syndromes. Most nonsyndromic cases were monomelic (55.9%), with an excess of left (64.9%) and upper limb (64.9%) involvement. Most nonsyndromic cases (66.9%) were live births; most isolated cases (57.9%) weighed more than 2,499 g; most MCA (60.7%) weighed less than 2,500 g, and were more likely stillbirths (30.8%) or ETOPFA (15.4%) than isolated cases. The most common associated defects were musculoskeletal, cardiac, and intestinal. Epidemiological differences between phocomelia and amelia highlighted possible differences in their causes. PMID:22002800

  8. Preventing Undesirable Effects of Mutual Trust and the Development of Skepticism in Virtual Groups by Applying the Knowledge and Information Awareness Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmann, Tanja; Kolodziej, Richard; Hesse, Friedrich W.

    2014-01-01

    Empirical studies have proven the effectiveness of the knowledge and information awareness approach of Engelmann and colleagues for improving collaboration and collaborative problem-solving performance of spatially distributed group members. This approach informs group members about both their collaborators' knowledge structures and their…

  9. Determination and prevention of cytotoxic effects induced in human lymphocytes by the alkylating agent 2,2`-dichlorodiethyl sulfide (sulfur mustard, HD). (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, H.L.; Johnson, J.B.

    1992-12-31

    2,2`-Dichlorodiethyl sulfide (sulfur mustard), HD, 1,1`thiobis(2-chloroethane) is a potent vesicant which can cause severe lesions to skin, lung, and eyes. There is no convenient in vitro or in vivo method(s) to objectively measure the damage induced by HD; therefore, a simple in vitro method was developed using human peripheral lymphocytes to study HD-induced cytotoxicity. The cytotoxicity of HD was measured using dye exclusion as an indicator of human lymphocyte viability. Exposure to HD resulted in both a time- and a concentration-dependent cytotoxic effect on human lymphocytes. Using this in vitro assay, the effectiveness of various therapeutics (niacin, niacinamide, and 3-aminobenzamide) in preventing HD-induced cytotoxicity was studied. Niacinamide and 3-aminobenzamide prevented the cytotoxic effects of HD for up to 2 days.

  10. Use of a Business Approach to Improve Disease Surveillance Data Management Systems and Information Technology Process in Florida's Bureau of STD Prevention and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiver, Stacy A; Schmitt, Karla; Cooksey, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    The business of sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention and control demands technology that is capable of supporting a wide array of program activities-from the processing of laboratory test results to the complex and confidential process involved in contact investigation. The need for a tool that enables public health officials to successfully manage the complex operations encountered in an STD prevention and control program, and the need to operate in an increasingly poor resource environment, led the Florida Bureau of STD to develop the Patient Reporting Investigation Surveillance Manager. Its unique approach, technical architecture, and sociotechnical philosophy have made this business application successful in real-time monitoring of disease burden for local communities, identification of emerging outbreaks, monitoring and assurance of appropriate treatments, improving access to laboratory data, and improving the quality of data for epidemiologic analysis. Additionally, the effort attempted to create and release a product that promoted the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's ideas for integration of programs and processes.

  11. Access to Anti-smoking Information among School Children and its Potential Impact on Preventing Smoking Initiation: Results from the Global Youth Tobacco Use Survey (GYTS) 2014 in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh, Hoang Van; Minh, Hoang Van; Giang, Kim Bao; Hai, Phan Thi; Hoang, Trinh Dinh; Huyen, Doan Thu; Khue, Luong Ngoc; Linh, Nguyen Thuy; Lam, Nguyen Tuan; Nga, Pham Thi Quynh

    2016-01-01

    Scientific evidence on all aspects of smoking amongst youth is very important for designing appropriate interventions to reduce smoking among this vulnerable population. This paper describes current access to antismoking information among school children aged 13 to 15 years in Vietnam in 2014 and examines its potential impact on preventing smoking initiation. The data used in this paper were obtained from the 2014 Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) in Vietnam. Students were asked questions about their level of awareness of anti-smoking information from various sources in the past 30 days and about lessons in school regarding the dangers of tobacco use during the last 12 months. Those who have never smoked were asked "whether or not they thought about avoiding cigarettes because of health warnings on cigarette packages" and answers were analyzed in combination with data on access to anti-smoking information from other sources. The prevalence of exposure to antismoking campaigns was high among school children in Viet Nam: 55.3% of current smokers reported thoughts of smoking cessation because of health warnings on cigarette packages; 60.5% of never smokers avoided initiating smoking because of the same health warnings. The potential impact of graphic health warnings to prevent school-aged children from smoking initiation would be stronger if there was concurrent access to anti-smoking programs on the dangers of tobacco use in schools. However, school education for tobacco prevention and control has not been as strong as expected. A more comprehensive school curriculum on tobacco prevention and control is recommended to reinforce antismoking messages among school children.

  12. Preventing Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Susan Fordney

    The purpose of this paper is to provide the beginning counselor with an overview of prevention concepts. Prevention is a relatively new emphasis in community efforts to stem the rising costs of substance abuse and other high-risk behaviors. The paper discusses agent, host, and environmental prevention models and how they relate to causal theories…

  13. The development and implementation of theory-driven programs capable of addressing poverty-impacted children's health, mental health, and prevention needs: CHAMP and CHAMP+, evidence-informed, family-based interventions to address HIV risk and care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKernan McKay, Mary; Alicea, Stacey; Elwyn, Laura; McClain, Zachary R B; Parker, Gary; Small, Latoya A; Mellins, Claude Ann

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a program of prevention and intervention research conducted by the CHAMP (Collaborative HIV prevention and Adolescent Mental health Project; McKay & Paikoff, 2007 ) investigative team. CHAMP refers to a set of theory-driven, evidence-informed, collaboratively designed, family-based approaches meant to address the prevention, health, and mental health needs of poverty-impacted African American and Latino urban youth who are either at risk for HIV exposure or perinatally infected and at high risk for reinfection and possible transmission. CHAMP approaches are informed by theoretical frameworks that incorporate an understanding of the critical influences of multilevel contextual factors on youth risk taking and engagement in protective health behaviors. Highly influential theories include the triadic theory of influence, social action theory, and ecological developmental perspectives. CHAMP program delivery strategies were developed via a highly collaborative process drawing upon community-based participatory research methods in order to enhance cultural and contextual sensitivity of program content and format. The development and preliminary outcomes associated with a family-based intervention for a new population, perinatally HIV-infected youth and their adult caregivers, referred to as CHAMP+, is described to illustrate the integration of theory, existing evidence, and intensive input from consumers and healthcare providers.

  14. The development and implementation of theory-driven programs capable of addressing poverty-impacted children’s health, mental health and prevention needs: CHAMP and CHAMP+, evidence-informed, family-based interventions to address HIV risk and care

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Mary McKernan; Alicea, Stacey; Elwyn, Laura; McClain, Zachary R.B.; Parker, Gary; Small, Latoya A; Ann Mellins, Claude

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a program of prevention and intervention research conducted by the CHAMP (CHAMP – Collaborative HIV prevention and Adolescent Mental health Project; McKay & Paikoff, 2007) investigative team. CHAMP refers to a set of theory-driven, evidence-informed, collaboratively-designed, family-based approaches meant to address the prevention, health and mental health needs of poverty-impacted, African American and Latino urban youth who are either at risk for HIV exposure or who are perinatally-infected and at high risk for re-infection and possible transmission. CHAMP approaches are informed by theoretical frameworks that incorporate an understanding of the critical influences of multi-level contextual factors on youth risk taking and engagement in protective health behaviors. Highly influential theories include: the Triadic Theory of Influence (TTI) (Bell, Flay, & Paikoff, 2002), Social Action Theory (SAT) (Ewart, 1991) and Ecological Developmental Perspectives (Paikoff, Traube, & McKay, 2006). CHAMP program delivery strategies were developed via a highly collaborative process drawing upon community-based participatory research methods in order to enhance cultural and contextual sensitivity of program content and format. The development and preliminary outcomes associated with a family-based intervention for a new population, perinatally HIV-infected youth and their adult caregivers, referred to as CHAMP+, is described to illustrate the integration of theory, existing evidence and intensive input from consumers and healthcare providers. PMID:24787707

  15. Level of information about gynaecological prevention in teenagers at risk from social exclusion, referred by family court rulings to juvenile attendance centres – a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Bobiński

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective. The objective of the study was to present preliminary results of a pilot study concerning the level of knowledge of gynaecological prevention, conducted in teenagers referred by court rulings to a juvenile attendance centre. Materials and method. The instrument was an anonymous survey questionnaire completed by participants in health prevention classes in late 2010 and early 2011. The studied group consisted of teenagers aged 15–17 years (mean age: 15.72 years, median = 16 years, SD = 0.679 who were under probation officers’ supervision in the Zamość region of south-eastern Poland. The sample size was 101 persons – 51 boys (50.50%, 50 girls (49.5%. Results. According to the respondents, the most important reasons for seeing a gynaecologist were: menstrual disorders (70.30%, suspicion of pregnancy (63.37% and pain or burning sensations while urinating (58.42%. The following were regarded as prevalent cancers in women: cancers of the breast (99.01%, cervix (89.1%, and ovaries (62.38%. Over 92% of subjects stated that it was possible to protect oneself from cervical cancer, but only 41.5% of respondents indicated the correct definition of the term ‘cytology’. Statistical analysis focused on differences between genders. A higher self-assessment of mental health was shown in boys. Conclusions. Teenagers of similar background may find it more difficult to gain access to knowledge about health prophylaxis, including gynaecological prevention. Efforts should be intensified in order to ‘equalize health opportunities’ through appropriate preparation of teaching curricula (including health education and philosophy of medicine.

  16. Guidelines for prevention in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The effectiveness of prevention to enhance human functioning and reduce psychological distress has been demonstrated. From infancy through adulthood, access to preventive services and interventions is important to improve the quality of life and human functioning and reduce illness and premature death. The importance of prevention is consistent with the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010. Even with the increased focus on prevention, psychology training programs rarely require specific courses on prevention. In particular, conceptualizations about best practices in prevention, particularly at the environmental level, are lacking. Therefore, psychologists engaged in prevention can benefit from a set of guidelines that address and inform prevention practices. Accordingly, the Guidelines for Prevention in Psychology are intended to "inform psychologists, the public, and other interested parties regarding desirable professional practices" in prevention. The Prevention Guidelines are recommended based on their potential benefits to the public and the professional practice of psychology. They support prevention as an important area of practice, research, and training for psychologists. The Guidelines give increased attention to prevention within APA, encouraging psychologists to become involved with preventive activities relevant to their area of practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. What Works Clearinghouse Quick Review: "Gathering Feedback for Teachers: Combining High-Quality Observations with Student Surveys and Achievement Gains"

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This study examined five instruments used to assess the effectiveness of teacher practices based on classroom observations. The study first examined whether observers could reliably assess teachers with each instrument, and then examined how well each instrument, along with other information, predicted student achievement. The study reported that,…

  18. Preventing eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Heather; Stice, Eric; Becker, Carolyn Black

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews eating disorder (ED) prevention programs, highlighting features that define successful programs and particularly promising interventions, and how they might be further refined. The field of ED prevention has advanced considerably both theoretically and methodologically compared with the earlier ED prevention programs, which were largely psychoeducational and met with limited success. Recent meta-analytic findings show that more than half (51%) of ED prevention interventions reduced ED risk factors and more than a quarter (29%) reduced current or future eating pathology (EP). A couple of brief programs have been shown to reduce the risk for future onset of EP and obesity. Selected interactive, multisession programs offered to participants older than 15 years, delivered by professional interventionists and including body acceptance or dissonance-induction content, produced larger effects. Understanding and applying these results can help inform the design of more effective prevention programs in the future.

  19. The impact of information about the prevalence of aids-preventive behavior among men and women : The mediating role of social norms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Eynden, R.J.J.M.; Buunk, Abraham (Bram); Bakker, A.B.; Siero, F.W.

    1998-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine the effect of information about the high prevalence of safe sex on condom use intention, and to investigate the possible mediating role of the perceived social norm of friends, and the perceived social norm of future sexual partners. Participants were

  20. Readability and Test-Retest Reliability of a Psychometric Instrument Designed to Assess HIV/AIDS Attitudes, Beliefs, Behaviours and Sources of HIV Prevention Information of Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogun, Joseph; Abiona, Titilayo; Lukobo-Durrell, Mainza; Adefuye, Adedeji; Amosun, Seyi; Frantz, Jose; Yakut, Yavuz

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This comparative study evaluated the readability and test-retest reliability of a questionnaire designed to assess the attitudes, beliefs behaviours and sources of information about HIV/AIDS among young adults recruited from universities in the United States of America (USA), Turkey and South Africa. Design/Setting: The instrument was…

  1. Family-based HIV prevention and intervention services for youth living in poverty-affected contexts: the CHAMP model of collaborative, evidence-informed programme development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhana, Arvin; McKay, Mary M; Mellins, Claude; Petersen, Inge; Bell, Carl

    2010-06-23

    Family-based interventions with children who are affected by HIV and AIDS are not well established. The Collaborative HIV Prevention and Adolescent Mental Health Program (CHAMP) represents one of the few evidence-based interventions tested in low-income contexts in the US, Caribbean and South Africa. This paper provides a description of the theoretical and empirical bases of the development and implementation of CHAMP in two of these countries, the US and South Africa. In addition, with the advent of increasing numbers of children infected with HIV surviving into adolescence and young adulthood, a CHAMP+ family-based intervention, using the founding principles of CHAMP, has been developed to mitigate the risk influences associated with being HIV positive.

  2. Prevention in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Stephen; Bridgman, Colette; Brocklehurst, Paul

    2015-01-01

    for the conference, collected materials from scribes during the conference and additional resources collated in advance of the meeting, authors agreed on the summary document. RESULTS: The Prevention in Practice conference aimed to collate information about which diseases could be prevented in practice, how diseases...... could be identified early enough to facilitate prevention, what evidence based therapies and treatments were available and how, given the collective evidence, could these be introduced in general dental practice within different reimbursement models. CONCLUSIONS: While examples of best practice were...

  3. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Steroid Injections Lumbar Zygapophysical (Facet) Joint Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle Choices 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen ...

  4. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle Choices 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic Exercise ...

  5. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Watchful Waiting and Education Injection Treatments for Spinal Pain Epidural Steroid Injections Lumbar Zygapophysical (Facet) Joint Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle Choices 10 ...

  6. Poison Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Poison Prevention Page Content Article Body Post the Poison Help number 1-800-222-1222 on the ... or empty container of a toxic substance, call Poison Help immediately. More than a million American children ...

  7. Data linkage between the National Birth Defects Prevention Study and the Occupational Information Network (O*NET) to assess workplace physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and emotional stressors during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Laura J; Symanski, Elaine; Lupo, Philip J; Tinker, Sarah C; Razzaghi, Hilda; Pompeii, Lisa A; Hoyt, Adrienne T; Canfield, Mark A; Chan, Wenyaw

    2016-02-01

    Knowledge of the prevalence of work-related physical activities, sedentary behaviors, and emotional stressors among pregnant women is limited, and the extent to which these exposures vary by maternal characteristics remains unclear. Data on mothers of 6,817 infants without major birth defects, with estimated delivery during 1997 through 2009 who worked during pregnancy were obtained from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Information on multiple domains of occupational exposures was gathered by linking mother's primary job to the Occupational Information Network Version 9.0. The most frequent estimated physical activity associated with jobs during pregnancy was standing. Of 6,337 mothers, 31.0% reported jobs associated with standing for ≥75% of their time. There was significant variability in estimated occupational exposures by maternal age, race/ethnicity, and educational level. Our findings augment existing literature on occupational physical activities, sedentary behaviors, emotional stressors, and occupational health disparities during pregnancy. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Engagement in the Overdose RIsk InfOrmatioN (ORION) e-Health Tool for Opioid Overdose Prevention and Self-Efficacy: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrà, Giuseppe; Crocamo, Cristina; Humphris, Gerald; Tabacchi, Tommaso; Bartoli, Francesco; Neufeind, Julia; Scherbaum, Norbert; Baldacchino, Alexander

    2017-12-01

    Increasing awareness of, and information about, overdose risk is an appropriate approach in risk reduction. e-Health technology in substance use disorders is an opportunity to support behavioral changes related to public health concerns. The present study aimed to evaluate the short-term impact of an innovative e-health psychoeducational software, the Overdose RIsk InfOrmatioN (ORION) tool. The ORION programme provided relevant information to opioid-dependent individuals about the risk of suffering a drug overdose as a result of high risky and dysfunctional behaviors. Seven aggregate risk factors were identified through a systematic review and their outputs included in a risk estimation model. We recruited 194 opioid-dependent treatment-seeking individuals from the United Kingdom, Germany, Italy, and Denmark. All participants were given at study entry, and after their use of the software, the General Self-Efficacy (GSE) Scale. We found comparable pre- and post-ORION administration mean GSE scores (SD), 28.49 (5.50) and 28.32 (5.90), respectively (p = 0.297). However, there was an inverse correlation between the number of risk factors and reported levels of self-efficacy (p ORION was able to identify individuals who are most in need of reducing their modifiable risk factors with appropriate interventions. However, a one-shot e-health tool cannot influence complex domains such as self-efficacy unless this is used with other effective interventions. Nonetheless, the ORION tool is unique in its style and content of delivery, that is translating risks combination into a clear estimation, and will need further development such as (a) integration in smartphone-based e-health apps and (b) testing in other high-risk populations.

  9. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D as a Biomarker of Vitamin D Status and Its Modeling to Inform Strategies for Prevention of Vitamin D Deficiency within the Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashman, Kevin D; van den Heuvel, Ellen Ghm; Schoemaker, Ruud Jw; Prévéraud, Damien P; Macdonald, Helen M; Arcot, Jayashree

    2017-11-01

    There is substantial evidence that the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency is unacceptably high in the population, and this requires action from a public health perspective. Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] is a robust and reliable marker of vitamin D status and has been used by numerous agencies in the establishment of vitamin D dietary requirements and for population surveillance of vitamin D deficiency or inadequacy. In a wider context, modeling of serum 25(OH)D data and its contributory sources, namely dietary vitamin D supply and UVB availability, can inform our understanding of population vitamin D status. The aim of this review is to provide the current status of knowledge in relation to modeling of such vitamin D-relevant data. We begin by highlighting the importance of the measurement of 25(OH)D and its standardization, both of which have led to new key data on the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and inadequacy in North America and Europe. We then overview how state-of-the-art modeling can be used to inform our understanding of the potential effect of ergocalciferol and 25(OH)D on vitamin D intake estimates and how meteorological data on UVB availability, when coupled with other key data, can help predict population serum 25(OH)D concentration, even accounting for seasonal fluctuations, and lastly, how these in silico approaches can help inform policymakers on strategic options on addressing low vitamin D status through food-based approaches and supplementation. The potential of exemplar food-based solutions will be highlighted, as will the possibility of synergies between vitamin D and other dairy food-based micronutrients, in relation to vitamin D status and bone health. Lastly, we will briefly consider the interactions between season and vitamin D supplements on vitamin D status and health. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  10. A call for a moratorium on the .health generic top-level domain: preventing the commercialization and exclusive control of online health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K; Eysenbach, Gunther; Liang, Bryan A; Kohler, Jillian C; Geissbuhler, Antoine; Attaran, Amir

    2014-09-26

    In just a few weeks, the Internet could be expanded to include a new .health generic top-level domain name run by a for-profit company with virtually no public health credentials - unless the international community intervenes immediately. This matters to the future of global public health as the "Health Internet" has begun to emerge as the predominant source of health information for consumers and patients. Despite this increasing use and reliance on online health information that may have inadequate quality or reliability, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) recently announced it intends to move forward with an auction to award the exclusive, 10 year rights to the .health generic top-level domain name. This decision is being made over the protests of the World Medical Association, World Health Organization, and other stakeholders, who have called for a suspension or delay until key questions can be resolved. However, rather than engage in constructive dialogue with the public health community over its concerns, ICANN chose the International Chamber of Commerce-a business lobbying group for industries to adjudicate the .health concerns. This has resulted in a rejection of challenges filed by ICANN's own independent watchdog and others, such that ICANN's Board decided in June 2014 that there are "no noted objections to move forward" in auctioning the .health generic top-level domain name to the highest bidder before the end of the year. This follows ICANN's award of several other health-related generic top-level domain names that have been unsuccessfully contested. In response, we call for an immediate moratorium/suspension of the ICANN award/auction process in order to provide the international public health community time to ensure the proper management and governance of health information online.

  11. MF59-adjuvanted and virosomal influenza vaccines for preventing influenza hospitalization in older people: comparative effectiveness using the Valencia health care information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig-Barberà, J; Natividad-Sancho, A; Calabuig-Pérez, J; Lluch-Rodrigo, J A; Pastor-Villalba, E; Martínez-Úbeda, S; Pérez-Vilar, S; Díez-Domingo, J

    2013-08-20

    Adjuvanted influenza vaccines offer greater and broader immunogenicity to older adults than conventional vaccines. Studies assessing the comparative effectiveness of adjuvanted influenza vaccines in this age group are lacking. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to estimate the comparative effectiveness of MF59-adjuvanted trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) and virosomal-TIV for prevention of influenza hospitalization in adults aged ≥65 years. We obtained administrative data on immunization status and influenza hospitalization for the 2010-2011 influenza season. We used Cox regression models to assess comparative effectiveness; crude and adjusted by age, sex, comorbidity, deprivation, type of insurance, and travel time to hospital. We accounted for data clustering at the hospital level by using a multilevel random effects model. Overall, 373,798 vaccinated subjects were evaluated. There were 40 hospitalizations for influenza among 176,618 subjects, contributing 4,288,109 person-weeks at risk in the virosomal-TIV group, and 37 hospitalizations for influenza among 197,180 subjects, contributing 4,786,360 person-weeks at risk in the MF59-TIV group. The crude hazard ratio (HR) was 0.83 (0.53-1.30), and the adjusted Cox estimated HR of MF59-TIV relative to virosomal-TIV was 0.86 (0.55-1.35). After accounting for data clustering, the HR of influenza hospitalization associated with MF59-TIV relative to virosomal-TIV was 0.94 (0.37-2.38). During the 2010-2011 influenza season, we found no differences in the risk of influenza hospitalization in subjects aged ≥65 years vaccinated with MF59-TIV compared with those vaccinated with virosomal-TIV. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. An informal school-based, peer-led intervention for prevention of tobacco consumption in adolescence: A cluster randomized trial in rural Gandhinagar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Sunil Kumar Mall

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco use among adolescence is one of the important preventable causes of death as well as a leading public health problem all over the world. The present study was conducted with the objective of studying the effect of peer-led interventions on tobacco use among adolescents. Materials and Methods: Twenty schools were randomly selected and ten schools each were identified as cluster for intervention and control groups. A total of 402 students in intervention group and 422 in control group were studied. Results: About 48% and 41% of adolescents were consuming smokeless tobacco in any form in the intervention and control groups, respectively. Prevalence of consumption of smokeless tobacco was significantly high among boys as compared to girls. Pan masala was the most common form of consumption. After conducting A Stop Smoking in School Trial-like peer-led intervention, a significant reduction in tobacco consumption of any form was observed in the intervention group (48%–36% during the follow-up (Z = 3.2, P < 0.01. A significant reduction in exposure to passive smoking in the intervention group (32%–29% was also observed. All the students smoking initially had stopped smoking at the end of the follow-up in both the groups. Conclusion: It was found that peer-led intervention was effective in reducing the consumption of smokeless tobacco in any form. The rate of reduction was more in the first follow-up as compared to the end of the intervention. Sustained intervention in the form of retraining is needed for the long-term effect.

  13. Integrated Information Management (IIM)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McIlvain, Jason

    2007-01-01

    Information Technology is the core capability required to align our resources and increase our effectiveness on the battlefield by integrating and coordinating our preventative measures and responses...

  14. Preventive analgesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Jørgen B; Kehlet, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    This paper will discuss the concepts of pre-emptive and preventive analgesia in acute and persistent postsurgical pain, based on the most recent experimental and clinical literature, with a special focus on injury-induced central sensitization and the development from acute to chronic pain. Recent...... of preventive analgesia for persistent postoperative pain are promising. However, clinicians must be aware of the demands for improved design of their clinical studies in order to get more conclusive answers regarding the different avenues for intervention. Summary: The concept of preventive analgesia is still...

  15. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Exercise Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy and Back Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back ... in very slightly. Hold a ball directly in front of you. Keep your abdominal muscles tight and ...

  16. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic ... Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy and Back Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain ...

  17. Prevent Shingles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Prevent Shingles Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... that can result in vision loss. Older Adults & Shingles As you get older, you are more likely ...

  18. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Epidural Steroid Injections Lumbar Zygapophysical (Facet) Joint Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle Choices 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! ...

  19. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Education Injection Treatments for Spinal Pain Epidural Steroid Injections Lumbar Zygapophysical (Facet) Joint Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle ... Z Spine Specialists Videos 9 for Spine Epidural Steroid Injections Exercise: The Backbone of Spine Treatment Spondylolisthesis ...

  20. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A SPECIALIST Prevention Strengthening Exercise Committee Exercise Committee Core Strengthening Many popular forms of exercise focus on ... acute pain, you should stop doing it. Transverse Core Strengthening This strengthens the muscles that cross from ...

  1. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Lumbar Zygapophysical (Facet) Joint Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle Choices 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient ... the floor; rotate from side to side. Repeat 10 times. Check with your physician; if you are ...

  2. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pregnancy and Back Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain Basics Book RESOURCES Patient ... popular forms of exercise focus on core strengthening, or building the muscles that provide support for your body. Pilates, yoga and martial arts ...

  3. Disaster prevention surveillance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nara, Satoru; Kamiya, Eisei

    2001-01-01

    Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. has supplied many management systems to nuclear reactor institution. 'The nuclear countermeasures-against-calamities special-measures' was enforced. A nuclear entrepreneur has devised the measure about expansion prevention and restoration of a calamity while it endeavors after prevention of generating of a nuclear calamity. Our company have supplied the 'disaster prevention surveillance system' to the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute Tokai Research Establishment aiming at strengthening of the monitoring function at the time (after the accident) of the accident used as one of the above-mentioned measures. A 'disaster prevention surveillance system' can share the information on the accident spot in an on-site command place, an activity headquarters, and support organizations, when the serious accident happens. This system is composed of various sensors (temperature, pressure and radiation), cameras, computers and network. (author)

  4. HIV Prevention

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-01

    Dr. Kevin Fenton, Director of CDC’s National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, talks about steps people can take to protect their health from HIV.  Created: 2/1/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 2/1/2012.

  5. Eating Disorder Prevention Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapia, Jennifer L.

    This paper provides information for school psychologists regarding the necessity and benefits of school-based prevention programming for students at risk for developing eating disorders (i.e., females). School-based programming is a cost-effective means of reaching the largest number of individuals at once and identifying those individuals…

  6. International Nuclear Information System 1983-1996. International Atomic Energy Agency Publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    This catalogue lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with the International Nuclear Information System (INIS). INIS was established in 1969 to announced the scientific literature published worldwide on the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. All books are published in English. It should be noted that prices of books are quoted in Austrian Schillings. The prices do not include local taxes and are subject to change without notice. All books in this catalogue are 21 x 30 cm, paper-bound, unless otherwise stated. In addition all books in this catalogue, except for the INIS Input Training Kit, are available on microfiche. For information on the microfiche versions, contact the INIS Clearinghouse of the IAEA

  7. Risk factors for head injury events in professional rugby union: a video analysis of 464 head injury events to inform proposed injury prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Ross; Raftery, Martin; Kemp, Simon; Brown, James; Fuller, Gordon; Hester, Ben; Cross, Matthew; Quarrie, Ken

    2017-08-01

    The tackle is responsible for the majority of head injuries during rugby union. In order to address head injury risk, risk factors during the tackle must first be identified. This study analysed tackle characteristics in the professional game in order to inform potential interventions. 464 tackles resulting in a head injury assessment (HIA) were analysed in detail, with tackle type, direction, speed, acceleration, nature of head contact and player body position the characteristics of interest. Propensity to cause an HIA was significantly greater for active shoulder tackles, front-on tackles, high speeder tackles and an accelerating tackler. Head contact between a tackler's head and ball carrier's head or shoulder was significantly more likely to cause an HIA than contact below the level of the shoulder (incident rate ratio (IRR) 4.25, 95%-CI 3.38 to 5.35). The tackler experiences the majority (78%) of HIAs when head-to-head contact occurs. An upright tackler was 1.5 times more likely to experience an HIA than a bent at the waist tackler (IRR 1.44, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.76). This study confirms that energy transfer in the tackle is a risk factor for head injury, since direction, type and speed all influence HIA propensity. The study provides evidence that body position and the height of tackles should be a focus for interventions, since lowering height and adopting a bent at the waist body position is associated with reduced risk for both tacklers and ball carriers. To this end, World Rugby has implemented law change based on the present data. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. PDQ® Cancer Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    An NCI database that contains the latest information about cancer treatment, screening, prevention, genetics, supportive care, and complementary and alternative medicine, plus drug information and a dictionary of cancer terms.

  9. Optimizing the technological and informational relationship of the health care process and of the communication between physician and patient. The impact of Preventive Medicine and social marketing applied in Health Care on youth awareness- preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrescu, C M; Gheorghe, I R; Petrescu, G D

    2011-01-01

    In this case study we wanted to find out the impact of Preventive Medicine and implicitly social marketing upon young students with the average age of 19, belonging to the academic environment in Romania. The study lasted one month and consisted of a questionnaire that was conceived and applied to 304 adolescents. The questionnaire contained demographic and personal information, such as age, origin, gender, marital status and some questions related to the respondents' attitude towards several issues that are inserted in the preventive medicine discipline, such as the date of their last consultation, if the respondents were registered to a family physician, suffered from chronic diseases, what was the rate of doing physical exercises, if they ate salty and fat meals, if they were on a diet, their rate of alcohol, caffeine and tobacco consumption. The panel was made up of more female respondents than male, with the average age rate of 19, who had medical consultations in the last 3 months, are included in the evidence of a family physician, had no chronic diseases, usually do workout exercises moderately, are not on a diet and have 3 meals per day. The meals are medium salty and rarely rich in fats. They drink 2 cups of tea per day and are non-alcohol drinkers and non-smokers. After applying several statistical tests to find a correlation between our variables, we reached the conclusion that even if the results are encouraging; there is no correlation between the impact of Preventive Medicine and the respondents' health behavior.

  10. Information and Informality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, Magnus; Segerstéen, Solveig; Svensson, Cathrin

    2011-01-01

    and interviews were analyzed thematically, resulting in three central themes: informality, information based authority, and information brokering. The general informal character of interactions at work included a network based information dissemination. In these networks, persons were percieved as informal...

  11. HOW TO PREVENT FRAUD?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionela – Corina Chersan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Fraud can range from minor employee theft and unproductive behavior tomisappropriation of assets and fraudulent financial reporting. The risk of fraud can be reduced through a combination of prevention and detection measures. Moreover, prevention and deterrence measures are much less costly than the time and expense required for fraud detection and investigation. The information presented in this document generally is applicable to entities of all sizes. However, the degree to which certain programs and controls are applied in smaller, less-complex entities and the formality of theirapplication are likely to differ from larger organizations.

  12. 77 FR 37869 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request-National Hunger...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ... organization World Hunger Year (WHY) of New York, NY. Section 26(d) was amended by section 112 of Public Law...: Proposed Collection; Comment Request--National Hunger Clearinghouse Database Form AGENCY: Food and... Hunger Clearinghouse. DATES: Written comments must be received on or before August 24, 2012. ADDRESSES...

  13. Bullying Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Patrice

    2016-01-01

    The focus of the milestone project is to focus on bridging the gap of bullying and classroom instruction methods. There has to be a defined expectations and level of accountability that has to be defined when supporting and implementing a plan linked to bullying prevention. All individuals involved in the student's learning have to be aware of…

  14. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic Exercise Cervical Exercise Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy and Back Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain Basics Book RESOURCES ... The Backbone of Spine Treatment Spondylolisthesis BLOG FIND ...

  15. Prevent Pneumonia

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-08-06

    CDC’s Matthew Westercamp explains what pneumonia is, its symptoms, and how to prevent it.  Created: 8/6/2015 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Bacterial Diseases (DBD), Respiratory Diseases Branch (RDB).   Date Released: 8/6/2015.

  16. HIV Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abroad Treatment Basic Statistics Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Collapse All Is abstinence the only 100% effective HIV prevention option? Yes. Abstinence means not having oral, ...

  17. ‘Leaving no one behind’: reflections on the design of community-based HIV prevention for migrants in Johannesburg’s inner-city hostels and informal settlements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Scorgie

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unmanaged urban growth in southern and eastern Africa has led to a growth of informal housing in cities, which are home to poor, marginalised populations, and associated with the highest HIV prevalence in urban areas. This article describes and reflects on the authors’ experiences in designing and implementing an HIV intervention originally intended for migrant men living in single-sex hostels of inner-city Johannesburg. It shows how formative research findings were incorporated into project design, substantially shifting the scope of the original project. Methods Formative research activities were undertaken to better understand the demand- and supply-side barriers to delivering HIV prevention activities within this community. These included community mapping, a baseline survey (n = 1458 and client-simulation exercise in local public sector clinics. The intervention was designed and implemented in the study setting over a period of 18 months. Implementation was assessed by way of a process evaluation of selected project components. Results The project scope expanded to include women living in adjacent informal settlements. Concurrent sexual partnerships between these women and male hostel residents were common, and HIV prevalence was higher among women (56% than men (24%. Overwhelmingly, hostel residents were internal migrants from another province, and most felt ‘alienated’ from the rest of the city. While men prioritised the need for jobs, women were more concerned about water, sanitation, housing and poverty alleviation. Most women (70% regarded their community as unsafe (cf. 47% of men. In the final intervention, project objectives were modified and HIV prevention activities were embedded within a broader health and development focus. ‘Community health clubs’ were established to build residents’ capacity to promote health and longer term well-being, and to initiate and sustain change within their

  18. MRSA Prevention Information and Advice for Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infection. Share items and surfaces that come into direct skin contact. Are sometimes not able to shower ... MRSA are most commonly reported among athletes in sports with a lot of physical contact. This includes ...

  19. INTURGEO: The international uranium geology information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-09-01

    The International Uranium Geology Information System (INTURGEO) is an international compilation of data on uranium deposits and occurrences. The purpose of INTURGEO is to provide a clearinghouse for uranium geological information that can serve for the better understanding of the worldwide distribution of uranium occurrences and deposits. The INTURGEO system is by no means complete for all regions of the world. Data have been available principally from the WOCA countries. INTURGEO currently covers 6,089 occurrences and deposits in 96 countries of which 4,596 occurrences in 92 countries are presented here. The information presented in this publication is a very brief, one line synopsis of deposits and occurrences, and has been collected from literature and through questionnaires sent directly to IAEA Member States. None of the information contained in the INTURGEO database was derived from confidential sources although there are many entries which come from the internal files of Member States and are not directly available in the general literature. The uniformity of the INTURGEO data presented in this report has depended heavily on the data provided by Member States. Basic information includes the deposit or occurrence name, the mining district, the tectonic setting, the geological type, status, size, host-rock type, age of mineralization and bibliographic references. The data contained in the maps of the atlas include all reported occurrences of uranium above the anomaly level. The categories of occurrence and deposit status includes: Anomaly; occurrences of unknown status; occurrences; prospects; developed prospects; subeconomic deposits; economic deposits; mines; inactive mines; depleted mines. A microcomputer version of INTURGEO on 21 Megabyte Bernoulli disks is available. 5 tabs, 102 maps

  20. Decree no 90-918 of 11 october 1990 on exercising rights to information on major risks, in implementation of Section 21 of act no 87-565 of 22 july 1987 on the organisation of public safety measures, forestry protection against fires and prevention of major risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This Decree specifies the content and type of information to which persons likely to be exposed to major risks must have access, in accordance with the 1987 Act. These provisions apply in the communes for which a special action plan has been prepared. The information includes a description of the risks and their foreseeable consequences for persons, property and the environment, and a statement on the preventive measures to limit their effects. A summary record of this information is established [fr

  1. Cancer prevention by phytochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Hoyoku; Murakoshi, Michiaki; Mou, Xiao Yang; Wada, Saeri; Masuda, Mitsuharu; Ohsaka, Yasuhito; Satomi, Yoshiko; Jinno, Kenji

    2005-01-01

    Information has been accumulated indicating that diets rich in vegetables and fruits can reduce the risk of a number of chronic diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes and age-related macular degeneration. Phytochemicals (various factors in plant foods), such as carotenoids, antioxidative vitamins, phenolic compounds, terpenoids, steroids, indoles and fibers, have been considered responsible for the risk reduction. Among them, a mixture of natural carotenoids has been studied extensively and proven to show beneficial effects on human cancer prevention.

  2. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Patient Information Feature Articles Patient Q&A Success Stories Definitions Anatomy of the Spine Definitions A-Z ... OK]## ##LOC[Cancel]## Press Releases | Have a Success Story to Share? | Contact Us SPINE CARE PROVIDERS GO ...

  3. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Nerve Tests: EMG, NCV and SEEP Alternative Medicine Acupuncture Herbal Supplements Surgical Options Anterior Cervical Fusion Artifical ... Back Pain Basics Book RESOURCES Patient Information Feature Articles Patient Q&A Success Stories Definitions Anatomy of ...

  4. Drowning Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on the back Appear to be climbing an invisible ladder For newborn infants and children through four ... Academy of Pediatrics) The information contained on this Web site should not be used as a substitute ...

  5. O papel da informação como medida preventiva ao uso de drogas entre jovens em situação de risco The role of information as a preventive drug measure among youth at risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zila van der Meer Sanchez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Entre os jovens, o uso de drogas ilícitas é um problema de saúde coletiva que desperta atenção. Poucos estudos sobre motivos para o não uso de drogas exploram o real papel da informação como método preventivo. O objetivo do estudo é analisar, entre adolescentes e jovens em situação de risco, os motivos para o não uso de drogas ilícitas, destacando o impacto da informação como fator protetor. Através de metodologia qualitativa, adotou-se uma amostra intencional, selecionada por informantes-chave e por "bola de neve". Foram entrevistados 62 adolescentes e jovens entre dezesseis e 24 anos, de baixa classe socioeconomica. Destes, 32 eram não usuários de drogas (NU e trinta eram usuários pesados (U. Entre o grupo NU, a informação destacou-se como principal motivo de não uso, através do conhecimento de aspectos positivos e negativos. O principal meio de veiculação foi a família, seguido da observação da experiência negativa vivenciada por amigos que já faziam abuso. Em contrapartida, no grupo U, prevaleceu a falta de informação ou a disponibilidade de conhecimentos vagos. Dispor de informações adequadas sobre o tema "drogas" parece essencial à prevenção do uso experimental entre adolescentes e jovens em situação de risco. No entanto, a informação que mais parece eficaz é a transmitida pela família.Illicit drug consumption among youngsters is a public health concern that requires attention. However, little research has highlighted the importance of "drug information availability" among protection factors. The objective of the study is to identify, from the point of view of youngsters at risk, what factors could prevent them to try illicit drugs, focusing on the importance of "drug information availability". An intentional sample was selected, composed by 62 youngsters divided into two groups: (NU non illicit users N=32 and (U users N=30. The sample was recruited through key-informants and snowball and each

  6. Allergy prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muche-Borowski, Cathleen; Kopp, Matthias; Reese, Imke; Sitter, Helmut; Werfel, Thomas; Schäfer, Torsten

    2010-09-01

    The further increase of allergies in industrialized countries demands evidence-based measures of primary prevention. The recommendations as published in the guideline of 2004 were updated and consented on the basis of a systematic literature search. Evidence from the period February 2003-May 2008 was searched in the electronic databases Cochrane and MEDLINE as well as in reference lists of recent reviews and by contacting experts. The retrieved citations were screened for relevance first by title and abstract and in a second step as full paper. Levels of evidence were assigned to each included study and the methodological quality of the studies was assessed as high or low. Finally the revised recommendations were formally consented (nominal group process) by representatives of relevant societies and organizations including a self-help group. Of originally 4556 hits, 217 studies (4 Cochrane Reviews, 14 meta-analyses, 19 randomized controlled trials, 135 cohort and 45 case-control studies) were included and critically appraised. Grossly unchanged remained the recommendations on avoiding environmental tobacco smoke, breast-feeding over 4 months (alternatively hypoallergenic formulas for children at risk), avoiding a mold-promoting indoor climate, vaccination according to current recommendations, and avoidance of furry pets (especially cats) in children at risk. The recommendation on reducing the house dust mite allergen exposure as a measure of primary prevention was omitted and the impact of a delayed introduction of supplementary food was reduced. New recommendations were adopted concerning fish consumption (during pregnancy / breast-feeding and as supplementary food in the first year), avoidance of overweight, and reducing the exposure to indoor and outdoor air pollutants. The revision of this guideline on a profound evidence basis led to (1) a confirmation of existing recommendations, (2) substantial revisions, and (3) new recommendations. Thereby it is possible

  7. Inform@ed space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Peter; Olsen, Kasper Nefer

    2001-01-01

    Inform@ed space Sensorial Perception And Computer Enchancement - bidrag til Nordisk Arkitekturforskningsforenings IT-konference, AAA april 2001.......Inform@ed space Sensorial Perception And Computer Enchancement - bidrag til Nordisk Arkitekturforskningsforenings IT-konference, AAA april 2001....

  8. Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Federal and national organizations and State contacts that work to prevent child abuse. Promoting child & family well-being Information on ... awareness & creating supportive communities Tools for sharing a child abuse ... research on what works, information on the role of related professionals, and ...

  9. New Campus Crime Prevention Resources Available

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campus Law Enforcement Journal, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Campus Crime Prevention Committee has compiled a list of university and college crime prevention agencies and resources, which includes contact information, links to agency crime prevention web pages, and a list of resources they offer (i.e., brochures, guides, PowerPoint programs, videos, etc.) as well as a spreadsheet showing organizations…

  10. A Framework for Engaging Parents in Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Karen A.; Fincham, Frank; Radey, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    The literature on engaging families in prevention programs is informed by the Health Beliefs Model (HBM), Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA), and Family Systems theory. Although useful, these frameworks have not facilitated the development of prevention-based practice strategies that recognize different levels of prevention (i.e., universal,…

  11. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic ... Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy and Back ... Patient Information Feature Articles Patient Q&A Success Stories ...

  12. Rotating preventers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tangedahl, M.J.; Stone, C.R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that recent changes in the oil and gas industry and ongoing developments in horizontal and underbalanced drilling necessitated development of a better rotating head. A new device called the rotating blowout preventer (RBOP) was developed by Seal-Tech. It is designed to replace the conventional rotating control head on top of BOP stacks and allows drilling operations to continue even on live (underbalanced) wells. Its low wear characteristics and high working pressure (1,500 psi) allow drilling rig crews to drill safely in slightly underbalanced conditions or handle severe well control problems during the time required to actuate other BOPs in the stack. Drilling with a RBOP allows wellbores to be completely closed in tat the drill floor rather than open as with conventional BOPs

  13. Youth at Risk: What Do We Know about Delinquency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazario, Thomas A.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews factors which contribute to delinquency: among them poverty, unemployment, negative role models, child abuse, and low self-esteem. Presents findings from a three-year study of violence conducted in California and provides information on how to contact the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention's clearinghouse on juvenile…

  14. Treating and Preventing Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Living Healthy Living Healthy Living Nutrition Fitness Sports Oral Health Emotional Wellness Growing Healthy Sleep Safety & Prevention Safety & Prevention Safety and Prevention Immunizations At Home ...

  15. Ethical aspects of obesity prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Have, Marieke

    2014-04-01

    Programs to prevent overweight and obesity are needed in order to improve individual and public health, to support informed choice and to diminish the societal costs associated with overweight. However, lifestyle interventions frequently evoke ethical debate. The potential ethical pitfalls that arise with respect to the prevention of overweight regard consequences for physical health, psychosocial well-being, equality, informed choice, social and cultural values, privacy, the attributions of responsibilities and liberty. For doctors in gastroenterology, it is important to be aware of these ethical pitfalls, either because they apply directly to questions in the consulting-room, or because they help to create awareness of the societal context a patient lives in. An ethical framework is being presented to show which ethical issues play a role in obesity prevention and how they can be prevented, followed by reflection on the ethical issues in interventions and in policy and media debate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Relapse prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, S M; Wasserman, D A; Havassy, B E

    1991-01-01

    Although knowledge about relapse prevention is still at an early stage, the extant data highlight the importance of several constructs. 1. Motivation for abstinence remains central. The construct itself is often clouded because of its association with mystical notions such as willpower and self-control. We know that manipulation of environmental events can increase motivation. These interventions are effective, however, only as long as the contingencies are in effect. We need to develop and evaluate strategies for transferring contingency management to the natural environment, that is, to institutions and groups that can perpetuate them for the long term. Also, clarification of the kinds of abstinence goals needed to prevent relapse is important. 2. Coping skills have been studied by several investigators, but research on these, except for job-finding skills, is not encouraging. The skills usually taught may be too basic. Skills training oriented to complex targets, such as building nondrug-using networks, may be useful and should be further explored. 3. Social support is clearly important, yet we do not know how best to use it to promote abstinence. The little research available suggests that both familial and nonfamilial systems should be mobilized. We need to define abstinence-promoting supportive behaviors, identify and engage important support systems in treatment, and help patients expand their nondrug-using contacts. 4. Negative affect may be causally related to relapse. We need to continue efforts to identify dysphoric patients and develop interventions to ameliorate dysphoria concurrent with drug abuse treatment (cf. Zweben and Smith 1989). 5. Drug cue reactivity and extinction to drug cues have been demonstrated in the laboratory. What is needed in this promising line of research are (1) investigation of cues and cue-reactivity phenomena in the natural environment or in conditions closely mimicking that environment and (2) extinction methods that transfer

  17. Can atopic dermatitis be prevented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-de la Fuente, E

    2015-05-01

    Atopic dermatitis has become a health problem in our setting due to its rising prevalence, impact on quality of life, associated costs, and role in the progression to other atopic diseases. Furthermore, atopic dermatitis has no definitive cure and therefore preventive measures are important. In this article, we review the latest advances in both primary prevention (reduction of the incidence of atopic dermatitis) and secondary prevention (reduction of associated morbidity and reduction of the atopic march). We analyze the different preventive strategies available, including modification of the immune system through microbial exposure, induction of immune tolerance through antigen exposure, and restoration of skin barrier function to halt the atopic march. Dermatologists need to be familiar with these strategies in order to apply them where necessary and to accurately inform patients and their relatives to prevent misguided or inappropriate actions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  18. Teleophthalmology in preventive medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Michelson, Georg

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an up-to-date overview of the clinical applications, methods, and technologies of teleophthalmology within the field of preventive medicine. The ability of novel methods to detect the initial signs of neurodegenerative diseases on the basis of alterations in the retina is reviewed, and detailed attention is paid to the role of teleophthalmology in screening for vision-threatening diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, and age-related macular degeneration. A major part of the book is devoted to novel imaging methods and the latest information technologies, including advanced mobile communication and Web 2.0 applications in teleophthalmology. In addition, the initial projects of an interdisciplinary cooperation in preventive medicine are described. All of the authors are experienced in the scientific and practical aspects of teleophthalmology, including e-learning, and have produced a book that will meet the needs of all medical care providers interested in using teleophthalmology.

  19. Tuberculosis: General Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    TB Elimination Tuberculosis: General Information What is TB? Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by germs that are spread from person ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination CS227840_A What Does a Positive Test ...

  20. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 5: Aerospace librarians and technical information specialists as information intermediaries: A report of phase 2 activities of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.

    1990-01-01

    The flow of U.S. government-funded and foreign scientific and technical information (STI) through libraries and related facilities to users in government and industry is examined, summarizing preliminary results of Phase 2 of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project (NAKDRP). The design and objectives of NAKDRP are reviewed; the NAKDRP model of STI transfer among producers, STI intermediaries, surrogates (technical report repositories or clearinghouses), and users is explained and illustrated with diagrams; and particular attention is given to the organization and operation of aerospace libraries. In a survey of North American libraries it was found that 25-30 percent of libraries regularly receive technical reports from ESA and the UK; the corresponding figures for Germany and for France, Sweden, and Japan are 18 and 5 percent, respectively. Also included is a series of bar graphs showing the librarians' assessments of the quality and use of NASA Technical Reports.

  1. Politics of prevention: The emergence of prevention science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roumeliotis, Filip

    2015-08-01

    This article critically examines the political dimension of prevention science by asking how it constructs the problems for which prevention is seen as the solution and how it enables the monitoring and control of these problems. It also seeks to examine how prevention science has established a sphere for legitimate political deliberation and which kinds of statements are accepted as legitimate within this sphere. The material consists of 14 publications describing and discussing the goals, concepts, promises and problems of prevention science. The analysis covers the period from 1993 to 2012. The analysis shows that prevention science has established a narrow definition of "prevention", including only interventions aimed at the reduction of risks for clinical disorders. In publications from the U.S. National Institute of Drug Abuse, the principles of prevention science have enabled a commitment to a zero-tolerance policy on drugs. The drug using subject has been constructed as a rational choice actor lacking in skills in exerting self-control in regard to drug use. Prevention science has also enabled the monitoring and control of expertise, risk groups and individuals through specific forms of data gathering. Through the juxtaposition of the concepts of "objectivity" and "morality", prevention science has constituted a principle of delineation, disqualifying statements not adhering to the principles of prevention science from the political field, rendering ethical and conflictual dimensions of problem representations invisible. The valorisation of scientific accounts of drugs has acted to naturalise specific political ideals. It simultaneously marginalises the public from the public policy process, giving precedence to experts who are able to provide information that policy-makers are demanding. Alternative accounts, such as those based on marginalisation, poverty or discrimination are silenced within prevention science. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  2. Polio and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Photo Collections Videos Polio Today → Polio + Prevention Polio + Prevention Polio and prevention Polio is a crippling and ... a child for life. Learn more about polio + prevention The Virus The Vaccines The Communities Related resources ...

  3. Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recruiting Patients & Families Consortia, Networks & Centers Reports & Planning Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) The NIDDK-sponsored Diabetes Prevention ... Diabetes Prevention Program for those who are eligible. Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) DPP Goal The DPP looked ...

  4. Information Management of Genome Enabled Data Streams for Pseudomonas syringae on the Pseudomonas-Plant Interaction (PPI Website

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalen Lindeberg

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Genome enabled research has led to a large and ever-growing body of data on Pseudomonas syringae genome variation and characteristics, though systematic capture of this information to maximize access by the research community remains a significant challenge. Major P. syringae data streams include genome sequence data, newly identified type III effectors, biological characterization data for type III effectors, and regulatory feature characterization. To maximize data access, the Pseudomonas-Plant Interaction (PPI website [1] is primarily focused on categorization of type III effectors and curation of effector functional data represented in the Hop database and Pseudomonas-Plant Interaction Resource, respectively. The PPI website further serves as a conduit for incorporation of new genome characterization data into the annotation records at NCBI and other data repositories, and clearinghouse for additional data sets and updates in response to the evolving needs of the research community.

  5. Clinical Practice Guidelines for Prevention, Diagnosis and Management of Early and Delayed-onset Ocular Injuries Due to Mustard Gas Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajavi, Zhale; Safi, Sare; Javadi, Mohammad Ali; Jafarinasab, Mohammad Reza; Feizi, Sepehr; Moghadam, Mohammadreza Sedighi; Jadidi, Khosrow; Babaei, Mahmoud; Shirvani, Armin; Baradaran-Rafii, Alireza; Mohammad-Rabei, Hossein; Ziaei, Hossein; Ghassemi-Broumand, Mohammad; Baher, Siamak Delfaza; Naderi, Mostafa; Panahi-Bazaz, Mahmoodreza; Zarei-Ghanavati, Siamak; Hanjani, Shahriar; Ghasemi, Hassan; Salouti, Ramin; Pakbin, Mojgan; Kheiri, Bahareh

    2017-01-01

    To develop clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for prevention, diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of ocular injuries caused by exposure to mustard gas. The clinical questions were designed by the guideline team. Websites and databases including National Guidelines Clearinghouse, National Institute for Clinical Excellence, Cochrane, and PubMed were searched to find related CPGs and explore possible answers to the clinical questions. Since there were no relevant CPGs in the literature, related articles in Persian and English languages were extracted. Each article along with its level of evidence was summarized. Additionally, hand search was performed by looking the reference list of each article. Consequently, recommendations were developed considering the clinical benefits and side effects of each therapeutic modality. The recommendations were re-evaluated in terms of customization criteria. All recommendations along with the related evidence were scored from 1 to 9 by experts from all medical universities of Iran. The level of agreement among the experts was evaluated by analyzing the given scores. The agreement was achieved for all recommendations. The experts suggested a number of minor modifications which were applied to the recommendations. Finally, CPGs were developed with 98 recommendations under three major domains including prevention of injury, diagnosis and management of the acute and delayed-onset mustard gas ocular injuries. Considering the lack of CPGs for the prevention, diagnosis, and management of mustard gas-induced keratitis, these recommendations would be useful to prevent the serious ocular complications of mustard gas and standardize eye care services to the affected individuals.

  6. NASA's Earth Observing Data and Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Andrew E.; Behnke, Jeanne; Lowe, Dawn; Ramapriyan, H. K.

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) has been a central component of NASA Earth observation program for over 10 years. It is one of the largest civilian science information system in the US, performing ingest, archive and distribution of over 3 terabytes of data per day much of which is from NASA s flagship missions Terra, Aqua and Aura. The system supports a variety of science disciplines including polar processes, land cover change, radiation budget, and most especially global climate change. The EOSDIS data centers, collocated with centers of science discipline expertise, archive and distribute standard data products produced by science investigator-led processing systems. Key to the success of EOSDIS is the concept of core versus community requirements. EOSDIS supports a core set of services to meet specific NASA needs and relies on community-developed services to meet specific user needs. EOSDIS offers a metadata registry, ECHO (Earth Observing System Clearinghouse), through which the scientific community can easily discover and exchange NASA s Earth science data and services. Users can search, manage, and access the contents of ECHO s registries (data and services) through user-developed and community-tailored interfaces or clients. The ECHO framework has become the primary access point for cross-Data Center search-and-order of EOSDIS and other Earth Science data holdings archived at the EOSDIS data centers. ECHO s Warehouse Inventory Search Tool (WIST) is the primary web-based client for discovering and ordering cross-discipline data from the EOSDIS data centers. The architecture of the EOSDIS provides a platform for the publication, discovery, understanding and access to NASA s Earth Observation resources and allows for easy integration of new datasets. The EOSDIS also has developed several methods for incorporating socioeconomic data into its data collection. Over the years, we have developed several methods for determining

  7. Prevention of relapsing backache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raspe, Heiner

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The condition of non-specific back pain is characterized by high prevalence, non satisfactory therapeutic options and severe socioeconomic consequences. Therefore prevention seems an attractive option to downsize the problem. However, the construction of effective preventive measures is complicated by the obscure aetiology of the condition, the multidimensionality of risk and prognostic factors (bio psychosocial model! and the variability of its natural as well as clinical course. This led to the development of a wide variety of preventive measures: e. g. exercise programs, educational measures (including back school, ergonomic modification of the work environment, mechanical supports (e. g. back belts as well as multidisciplinary interventions. For two reasons the workplace seems to be a suitable setting for prevention. First, because a number of strong risk factors are associated with working conditions and second, because it allows addressing a large proportion of the adult population. Against this background the assessment at hand sets out to answer the following questions: What is the amount and methodological quality of the available scientific literature on the effectiveness of back pain prevention in the workplace environment? What are effective measures for the prevention of back pain and its consequences in the workplace environment and how effective are they? Is back pain prevention in the workplace environment cost-effective? Is there a need for more research? As primary outcomes for effectiveness the assessment will focus on time lost from work and the frequency and duration of episodes with back pain. The preventive measures assessed belong to the following categories: exercise programs, educational and information measures, multidimensional interventions, back belts, lifting teams and ergonomic interventions. Methods: The assessment is based on a systematic review of the published literature according to the

  8. Preventing and diagnosing dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Bernie; Jenkins, Catharine; Ginesi, Laura

    While dementia is an umbrella term for a range of degenerative brain disorders, many share similar presentations. Nurses are ideally placed to identify those at risk and empower them to access treatment and plan and prepare for their future needs--as such, they need up-to-date knowledge of the signs and symptoms of the different types of dementia to identify risk factors and make an informed diagnosis. This article, the third in a four-part series on dementia, examines the risk factors, signs, symptoms and diagnosis of dementia, as well as outlining lifestyle factors such as diet and exercise that may help to prevent the development of the condition.

  9. Preventing the White Death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Casper Worm; Jensen, Peter S.; Madsen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a leading cause of death worldwide and, while treatable by antibiotics since the 1940s, drug resistant strains have emerged. This paper estimates the effects of the establishment of a pre-antibiotic era public health institution, known as a TB dispensary, designed to prevent...... of the dispensaries on productivity as measured by annual income per taxpayer at the city level, digitized from historical tax-assessment records. Overall, the evidence highlights the provision of personalized information on infectious diseases as a cost-effective cause of the historical mortality decline....

  10. Toward a new information infrastructure in health technology assessment: communication, design, process, and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neikter, Susanna Allgurin; Rehnqvist, Nina; Rosén, Måns; Dahlgren, Helena

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to facilitate effective internal and external communication of an international network and to explore how to support communication and work processes in health technology assessment (HTA). STRUCTURE AND METHODS: European network for Health Technology Assessment (EUnetHTA) connected sixty-four HTA Partner organizations from thirty-three countries. User needs in the different steps of the HTA process were the starting point for developing an information system. A step-wise, interdisciplinary, creative approach was used in developing practical tools. An Information Platform facilitated the exchange of scientific information between Partners and with external target groups. More than 200 virtual meetings were set up during the project using an e-meeting tool. A Clearinghouse prototype was developed with the intent to offering a single point of access to HTA relevant information. This evolved into a next step not planned from the outset: Developing a running HTA Information System including several Web-based tools to support communication and daily HTA processes. A communication strategy guided the communication effort, focusing on practical tools, creating added value, involving stakeholders, and avoiding duplication of effort. Modern technology enables a new information infrastructure for HTA. The potential of information and communication technology was used as a strategic tool. Several target groups were represented among the Partners, which supported collaboration and made it easier to identify user needs. A distinctive visual identity made it easier to gain and maintain visibility on a limited budget.

  11. The prevention of dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Ruth

    2009-05-01

    Dementia is prevalent in older adults and the population is ageing. Many factors have been associated with dementia and anything that may aid the prevention of dementia is of importance. The literature in this area was evaluated and information relating to the various factors that may impact upon the prevention of dementia is presented below. Factors that have been associated with a possible increased risk of developing dementia include high blood pressure, (at least in midlife), high body mass index, smoking and possibly diabetes although the evidence is mixed. There is currently no clear evidence with regard to cholesterol and metabolic syndrome although both may be implicated. Having education and maintaining a Mediterranean diet, including vegetable, fruit and fish intake, have been linked to a lower incidence of dementia as has low to moderate alcohol intake. Although care must be taken with the latter given the different characteristics of the studies reporting on alcohol and dementia. It may be that risk and protective factors vary with age, however, in the absence of prophylactic treatment it seems likely that the maintenance of a healthy lifestyle may represent the best option with regard to the prevention of dementia. (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Can we prevent road rage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbridge, Mark; Smart, Reginald G; Mann, Robert E

    2006-04-01

    Road rage has become a serious concern in many countries, and preventive efforts are required. This article reviews what can be done to prevent road rage by exploring potential prevention avenues in five areas. First, legal changes aimed at increasing the penalties for road rage behavior could be instituted, drawing on models from aggressive-driving or impaired-driving laws. A second approach would involve the adoption of court programs for convicted road ragers. Third, car redesign offers a means of reducing crime through environmental design. Fourth, mass media education could be implemented to inform drivers of the risk from road rage and how to avoid situations that facilitate road rage. Finally, prevention efforts could be directed to long-term societal changes that emphasize structural modifications, such as reducing congestion on the roads, reduced driver stress, or promoting public transportation. The strengths and weaknesses of these strategies are discussed.

  13. Strengthening Health Information Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haro, A. S.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the need to apply modern scientific management to health administration in order to effectively manage programs utilizing increased preventive and curative capabilities. The value of having maximum information in order to make decisions, and problems of determining information content are reviewed. For journal availability, see SO 506…

  14. Can prevention classification be improved by considering the function of prevention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxcroft, David R

    2014-12-01

    Universal, selective and indicated forms of prevention have been adopted as improvements on previous notions of primary and secondary prevention. However, some conceptual confusion remains concerning the placing of environmental, community-based or mass media preventive interventions within this typology. It is suggested that a new dimension of functional types of prevention, namely environmental, developmental and informational prevention should be specified alongside the forms of prevention in a taxonomy matrix. The main advantage of this new taxonomy is that a matrix combining the form and function dimensions of prevention can be used to identify and map out prevention strategies, to consider where research evidence is present and where more is needed, and to evaluate the relative effectiveness of different categories and components of prevention for specific health and social issues. Such evaluations would provide empirical evidence as to whether the different categories of prevention are related to outcomes or processes of prevention in ways that suggest the value of the taxonomy for understanding and increasing the impact of prevention science. This new prevention taxonomy has been useful for conceptualising and planning prevention activities in a case study involving the Swedish National Institute for Public Health. Future work should assess (1) the robustness of this new taxonomy and (2) the theoretical and empirical basis for profiling prevention investments across the various forms and functions of prevention.

  15. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... likely as white men to die from stomach cancer. Stomach Cancer Prevention Key Points Avoiding risk factors and increasing ... factors and increasing protective factors may help prevent stomach cancer. Avoiding cancer risk factors may help prevent certain ...

  16. [AIDS prevention in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pott, E

    2007-04-01

    In 1987 the national AIDS prevention campaign "Gib AIDS keine Chance" (Don't give AIDS a chance) was started in Germany. After a very difficult and controversial political debate about a probably successful response to AIDS, in the end a political decision was made in favour of the implementation of a long term "social learning strategy". Thus, since then the Bundeszentrale für gesundheitliche Aufklärung (Federal Centre for Health Education, BZgA) has been running the campaign on behalf of the Federal Ministry of Health. The result of this prevention program is a low rate of infections. In Germany there were 2600 newly diagnosed infections in 2005: 59 % in homosexual men, 16 % by heterosexual contacts, 17 % in people from high prevalence countries and 7 % in i.v. drug users. In comparison to the international situation Germany has a relatively low HIV-prevalence even nowadays. However, Germany has also been confronted with an increasing number of newly diagnosed infections in the last few years. When the prevention program was started it was very important to build new structures for a successful implementation of the campaign. That meant for instance to build up an effective infrastructure for cooperation between the governmental and the nongovernmental sector, including organising the coordinated action among the partners at the federal, regional and local levels. Likewise, international networking was of great importance. A key element, relevant for the success of the campaign was the close cooperation at the federal level between the BZgA and the Deutsche AIDS Hilfe (German AIDS Help, DAH), to combine the highreach intervention in low-prevalence populations with intensive interventions for high prevalence groups. An effective national AIDS prevention campaign must reach the whole population; inform the public about the main risks of infection, about methods of protection and about what is not infectious. Moreover groups with a higher level of risk of

  17. Towards a comprehensive estimate of national spending on prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.W. de Bekker-Grob (Esther); J.J. Polder (Johan); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan); W.J. Meerding (Willem Jan)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractBackground Comprehensive information about national spending on prevention is crucial for health policy development and evaluation. This study provides a comprehensive overview of prevention spending in the Netherlands, including those activities beyond the national health

  18. Economic savings from invasive plant prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevention programs are often assumed to be the most cost-effective method for managing invasive plants. However, there is very little information about economic and biological factors that determine the forage benefits resulting from prevention programs. We developed a simple economic model to asse...

  19. Teen Pregnancy Prevention. A Legislator's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiden, Mary

    This publication presents an overview of adolescent pregnancy, including national and state statistical information; funding sources for teen pregnancy prevention programs; examples of the effects of teen pregnancy prevention on society; illustrations of teenagers' perspectives on the issue; recent developments and initiatives in the arena of teen…

  20. Recognizing and Preventing Whooping Cough

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-22

    This podcast provides information about the symptoms of whooping cough and how vaccines can help prevent this serious disease for people of all ages. It is especially important for those who will have close contact with a baby to be up to date with their whooping cough vaccine.  Created: 1/22/2015 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Bacterial Diseases (DBD), Meningitis and Vaccine Preventable Diseases Branch (MVPDB).   Date Released: 1/22/2015.

  1. Medicare Preventive Services Quick Reference Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This educational tool provides the following information on Medicare preventive services Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System (HCPCS)-Current Procedural...

  2. "AN OUNCE OF PREVENTION..."

    Science.gov (United States)

    HASELKORN, FLORENCE

    PREVENTION AS FUNCTION, VALUE ISSUE, CONCEPTUAL SHORTCOMING, AND PRACTICE IS DISCUSSED AND RELATED TO EDUCATIONAL TASK. PREVENTION AS FUNCTION IS GENERATED BY OUR VALUE PREMISES. IN SEEKING TO PREVENT SOME FORMS OF SOCIAL DYSFUNCTION, WE MAY BE PERPETUATING OTHERS. THE CONCEPT OF PREVENTION IS AMBIGUOUS. CRUCIAL CONCEPTUAL ISSUES INCLUDE THE…

  3. Alternatives to animal testing: information resources via the Internet and World Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkinen, P J Bert; Green, Dianne K

    2002-04-25

    Many countries, including the United States, Canada, European Union member states, and others, require that a comprehensive search for possible alternatives be completed before beginning some or all research involving animals. Completing comprehensive alternatives searches and keeping current with information associated with alternatives to animal testing is a challenge that will be made easier as people throughout the world gain access to the Internet and World Wide Web. Numerous Internet and World Wide Web resources are available to provide guidance and other information on in vitro and other alternatives to animal testing. A comprehensive Web site is Alternatives to Animal Testing on the Web (Altweb), which serves as an online clearinghouse for resources, information, and news about alternatives to animal testing. Examples of other important Web sites include the joint one for the (US) Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) and the National Toxicology Program (NTP) Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM) and the Norwegian Reference Centre for Laboratory Animal Science and Alternatives (The NORINA database). Internet mailing lists and online access to bulletin boards, discussion areas, newsletters, and journals are other ways to access and share information to stay current with alternatives to animal testing.

  4. [Prevention of dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urakami, Katsuya

    2016-03-01

    The dementia prevention consists of three steps, primary prevention of dementia is to prevent from normal and mild cognitive impairment to dementia, secondary prevention is early detection and early treatment of dementia, and tertiary prevention is three stages of progress prevention of dementia. Primary prevention of dementia had been considered impossible until recently, but potential scientific evidence has been shown recently. The fact that 4.62 million people are person with dementia and 400 million people are person with mild cognitive impairment are considered to be urgent problem and we must intend to perform dementia prevention from primary to tertiary prevention thoroughly. We perform dementia screening using touch panel type computer and we recommend person with mild cognitive impairment to join dementia prevention classroom. Therefore, we can prevent progression from mild cognitive impairment to dementia (primary prevention). Early diagnosis and introduction to the specialized medical institution are needed if you find early stage of dementia and treat early (secondary prevention). To prevent progression by the appropriate drug treatment and care for dementia is required (tertiary prevention).

  5. Information from teachers on viral hepatitis transmission and prevention in Brazil Información de los maestros sobre la transmisión y la prevención de las hepatitis virales en el Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosangela Gaze

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess school teachers' level of knowledge on prevention of viral hepatitis (VH. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in three cities of Brazil, from August to November of 1999. The sample was composed of 360 subjects: 334 women and 26 men, 81 (22.5% from Belém, 123 (34.2% from Natal and 156 (43.3% from Rio de Janeiro. Cultural differences in knowledge were identified using a questionnaire to classify, according to semantic content, categories of transmission and preventive practices. Responses were scored as right or wrong. Data were tabulated and analyzed using EPIINFO 6.04 and open answers were classified according to semantic content. Comparison of the answer frequencies between cities was done through the chi-square test. RESULTS: Transmission category (TC (n=837 answers and prevention category (PC (n=771 answers "food-and waterborne" transmission items were the most frequently mentioned (40%. For TC, "food-and waterborne" answers were followed by "bloodborne" (16%, "inadequate knowledge" (9%, "possible causes of hepatic disease" (9%, and "sexual transmission" (7% answers. For PC items, "food-and waterborne" answers were followed by "general aspects of prevention" (13%, "immunization" (9%, "quality of health services" (8% and "sexual prevention" (5% items. "Right" scores for transmission mechanisms and prevention practices varied from zero to 80%. CONCLUSIONS: Study findings suggest that investments should be made to disseminate appropriate knowledge on VH prevention, mainly addressing sexual transmission and intravenous drug use.OBJETIVO: Evaluar los conocimientos y prácticas de profesores escolares en la prevención de hepatitis viral. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se llevó a cabo un estudio transversal en tres ciudades de Brasil, de agosto a noviembre de 1999. La muestra estuvo constituida por 360 sujetos: 334 mujeres y 26 hombres, 81 (22.5% de Belém, 123 (34.2% de Nataly 156 (43.3% de Río de Janeiro. Se

  6. Systematic review of youth crime prevention interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manuel, Celie; Jørgensen, Anne-Marie Klint

    This review centers on evaluations of youth crime prevention interventions published between 2008 and 2012. The aim of the review is to bring forward the newest information to supplement existing knowledge about crime preventive methods targeting youth. The review lists 56 studies, all targeting 12...... produced for TrygFonden and the Danish Crime Prevention Council TrygFonden and The Danish Crime Prevention Council have entered into an ambitious collaboration. The objective of this collaboration is to reduce crime and increase the feeling of security in Denmark by engaging citizens and creating new...

  7. Pollution prevention: The new environmental ethic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breen, J.J.; Dellarco, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    EPA is embarking on a new major environmental policy initiative: pollution prevention. It obviates the short-comings of end-of-pipe regulations and fosters efforts for industry to modify production practices to prevent pollution. For its part, the Agency has adopted this initiative in research and development, regulatory program development, and technology transfer activities. Research and Development programs are being established to address chemical substitution, reductions in chemical usage, product life cycles, and recycling. Regulatory programs are incorporating pollution prevention in major strategies of product stewardship and hazardous waste management. Technology transfer activities are designed to inform and educate industry and the public through Agency sponsored programs with the Pollution Prevention Information Center and the American Pollution Prevention Institute

  8. 76 FR 17427 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB; Emergency Comment Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    ... Proposed Information Collection to OMB; Emergency Comment Request; Homelessness Prevention Study AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer, HUD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The proposed information... Homelessness Prevention Study. This information collection request includes a survey instrument that will be...

  9. 76 FR 69722 - Access to Confidential Business Information by Protection Strategies Incorporated

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... information contact: Pamela Moseley, Information Management Division (7407M), Office of Pollution Prevention... Director, Information Management Division, Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics. [FR Doc. 2011-29074... Business Information by Protection Strategies Incorporated AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA...

  10. LANGUAGE SYSTEM: INFORMATION, INFORMATIONAL CONTENT, INFORMATION TRANSFERITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Galievna Zarifullina

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to research of language system as information system. To this point of view informational content and information transferity are properties of language as main and the most fail-safe communication instrument in human society.  In whole, informational content and information transferity are aspects of information. In that meaning the language realizes function that associated with database of information system: realization of information in formalized form, accumulation, storage and information transfer.But language itself is not an information. Information is language and speech, created with language. Language should be defined as database, because in human thought language doesn’t present as information, but as the formalized model, the system, which elements are bounded with each other and united by the algorithms. The modern forms of language existence are distributed database with multiple accesses, because language belongs to language native bearers, which use it simultaneously.

  11. Jet lag prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000719.htm Jet lag prevention To use the sharing features on this page, ... Headache Irritability Stomach upset Sore muscles Tips for Prevention Before your trip: Get plenty of rest, eat ...

  12. Research Areas: Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI’s prevention research has a broad focus, from identifying environmental and lifestyle factors that influence cancer risk to studying the biology of how cancer develops and studying ways to disseminate prevention interventions.

  13. Marine Pollution Prevention Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Pollution Prevention Act of 2008 implements the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, including related Protocols (MARPOL)...

  14. Preventing Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sexual & Urologic Problems Clinical Trials Preventing Type 2 Diabetes Perhaps you have learned that you have a ... I lower my chances of developing type 2 diabetes? Research such as the Diabetes Prevention Program shows ...

  15. Preventing Diabetes Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Problems Diabetes & Sexual & Urologic Problems Clinical Trials Preventing Diabetes Problems View or Print All Sections Heart Disease & ... prevent or delay sexual and urologic problems. Depression & Diabetes Depression is common among people with a chronic, ...

  16. Statins and Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cell membrane integrity, cell signaling, protein synthesis, and cell cycle progression, all of which are potential areas of intervention to arrest the cancer process. What are the ... at the NCI Division of Cancer Prevention Web site at http://prevention. ...

  17. Preventing food poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007441.htm Preventing food poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. To prevent food poisoning , take the following steps when preparing food: Carefully ...

  18. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Preventing Pressure Sores Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David Chen, MD Preventing ...

  19. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Preventing Pressure Sores Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David Chen, MD Preventing Pressure Sores Mary Zeigler, MS Transition from Hospital to ...

  20. Traditional preventive treatment options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longbottom, C; Ekstrand, K; Zero, D

    2009-01-01

    Preventive treatment options can be divided into primary, secondary and tertiary prevention techniques, which can involve patient- or professionally applied methods. These include: oral hygiene (instruction), pit and fissure sealants ('temporary' or 'permanent'), fluoride applications (patient...... options....

  1. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... L Sarah Harrison, OT Anne Bryden, OT The Role of the Social Worker after Spinal Cord Injury ... do to prevent pressure sores? play_arrow What role does diet and hydration play in preventing pressure ...

  2. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to prevent pressure sores? play_arrow What is “skin tolerance” and how can it be ... play_arrow What role does diet and hydration play in preventing pressure sores among ...

  3. National Suicide Prevention Lifeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Our Crisis Centers Stories of Hope and Recovery Mental Health & Suicide Prevention Glossary Get Involved Participate Our Crisis Centers Social Media Hub Promote National Suicide Prevention Month Providers & Professionals ...

  4. Prevention of gravitational collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moffat, J.W.; Taylor, J.G.

    1981-01-01

    We apply a new theory of gravitation to the question of gravitational collapse to show that collapse is prevented in this theory under very reasonable conditions. This result also extends to prevent ultimate collapse of the Universe. (orig.)

  5. Accident prevention in radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, O

    2007-04-01

    In order to prevent accidents in radiotherapy, it is important to learn from accidents that have occurred previously. Lessons learned from a number of accidents are summarised and underlying patterns are looked for in this paper. Accidents can be prevented by applying several safety layers of preventive actions. Categories of these preventive actions are discussed together with specific actions belonging to each category of safety layer.

  6. Accident prevention in radiotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Holmberg, O

    2007-01-01

    In order to prevent accidents in radiotherapy, it is important to learn from accidents that have occurred previously. Lessons learned from a number of accidents are summarised and underlying patterns are looked for in this paper. Accidents can be prevented by applying several safety layers of preventive actions. Categories of these preventive actions are discussed together with specific actions belonging to each category of safety layer.

  7. Prevention of periodontal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dentino, Andrew R; Kassab, Moawia M; Renner, Erica J

    2005-07-01

    The ultimate goal of periodontal disease prevention is to maintain the dentition over a lifetime in a state of health, comfort, and function in an aesthetically pleasing presentation. This article focuses on primary and secondary periodontal disease prevention as they relate to gingivitis and periodontitis. Risk assessment, mechanical plaque control, chemical plaque control, current clinical recommendations for optimal prevention, and future preventive strategies are discussed.

  8. Fall Prevention: Simple Tips to Prevent Falls

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bars for the shower or tub A sturdy plastic seat for the shower or tub — plus a ... healthy-lifestyle/healthy-aging/in-depth/fall-prevention/art-20047358 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and Terms ...

  9. Chickenpox Prevention and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Multimedia Related Links Medline Plus Healthfinder.gov Shingles Prevention & Treatment Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... Prescribed by Your Doctor Español: Prevención y tratamiento Prevention The best way to prevent chickenpox is to ...

  10. Prevention IS Care

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-03-26

    This podcast provides an overview of the Prevention IS Care campaign, which provides HIV prevention tools for medical care providers to use on a daily basis with patients who are living with HIV.  Created: 3/26/2009 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 3/26/2009.

  11. Strategies to prevent loneliness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong Gierveld, J.; Fokkema, T.; Sha'ked, A.; Rokach, A.

    2015-01-01

    Prevention is better than cure’. This also applies to loneliness experiences: preventing people from loneliness is better than helping them to reduce their feelings of loneliness through interventions. In this chapter, we argue the necessity of loneliness prevention strategies for handling future

  12. Prevention of Food Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Army Quartermaster School, Ft. Lee, VA.

    The programed text provides a single lesson, four-hour, correspondence subcourse on the prevention of food poisoning. It covers the following areas: a definition of food poisoning; chemical food poisoning; biological food poisoning; causes and prevention of trichinosis; six factors controlling bacteria growth; bacterial infection; prevention of…

  13. Cancer risks and prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vessey, M.P.; Gray, M.

    1985-01-01

    A series of essays in honour of Sir Richard Doll is presented. Chapters cover the preventability of cancer, geography, smoking, diet, occupation, radiation, infections and immune impairment, exogenous and endogenous hormones, other drugs, prevention through legislation and by education and cancer risks and prevention in the Third World. The chapter on radiation has been indexed separately. (UK)

  14. Sunburn: Treatment and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 12 mos.) Toddler 1-3yrs. Preschool 3-5yrs Grade School 5-12yrs. Teen 12-18yrs. Young Adult 18-21yrs. Healthy Living Healthy Living Healthy Living Nutrition Fitness Sports Oral Health Emotional Wellness Growing Healthy Sleep Safety & Prevention Safety & Prevention Safety and Prevention Immunizations ...

  15. Health Information in Swahili (Kiswahili)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chemical Dependency Taskforce of Minnesota B Expand Section Benefits of Exercise Health and Well-Being 4 - Exercise - ... Risk? Information for People from Africa - Kiswahili (Swahili) Bilingual PDF Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Hepatitis ...

  16. General Information about Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of cancer. Tracheostomy : Surgery to create an opening ( stoma ) into the windpipe to help you breathe. The ... information on cancer prevention, detection, genetics, treatment, supportive care, and complementary and alternative medicine. Most summaries come ...

  17. Regulatory Information by Topic: Emergency Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regulatory information about emergencies, including chemical accident prevention, risk management plans (RMPs), chemical reporting, community right to know, and oil spills and hazardous substances releases.

  18. Preventing Suicide in Prisons, Part II International Comparisons of Suicide Prevention Services in Correctional Facilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diagle, M.S.; Daniel, A.E.; Dear, G.E.; Frottier, P.; Hayes, H.M.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.; Konrad, N.; Liebling, A.; Sarchiapone, M.

    2007-01-01

    The International Association for Suicide Prevention created a Task Force on Suicide in Prisons to better disseminate the information in this domain. One of its objectives was to summarize suicide-prevention activities in the prison systems. This study of the Task Force uncovered many differences

  19. Translating research to practice in bullying prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Catherine P

    2015-01-01

    Bullying continues to be a concern in schools and communities across the United States and worldwide, yet there is uncertainty regarding the most effective approaches for preventing it and addressing its impacts on children and youth. This paper synthesizes findings from a series of studies and meta-analyses examining the efficacy of bullying prevention programs. This paper considers some methodological issues encountered when testing the efficacy and effectiveness of bullying prevention and intervention approaches. It also identifies several areas requiring additional research in order to increase the effectiveness of bullying prevention efforts in real-world settings. Drawing upon a public health perspective and findings from the field of prevention science, this paper aims to inform potential future directions for enhancing the adoption, high quality implementation, and dissemination of evidence-based bullying prevention programs. It is concluded that although bullying prevention programs can be effective in reducing bullying and victimization among school-aged youth, there is a great need for more work to increase the acceptability, fidelity, and sustainability of the existing programs in order to improve bullying-related outcomes for youth. The findings from this review are intended to inform both policy and public health practice related to bullying prevention. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. [Prevention of eating disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papežová, Hana

    2017-01-01

    The quality of the prevention of eating disorders represents in several last decades frequently discussed issue in the context of rapidly changing socio-economic conditions, a significant increase of influence of the media, new technologies and knowledge of risk factors. Primary prevention aims to reduce the risk of developing eating disorders, but secondary and tertiary prevention play the important role as well. Effective and coordinated prevention is still missing. Our experience of international cooperation of the last 20 years led to the development and evaluation of prevention programs. We are describing their fast development and ongoing programs following the new trends recommended by WHO.

  1. NASA's Earth Observing Data and Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, A. E.; Behnke, J.; Lowe, D.; Ramapriyan, H. K.

    2009-12-01

    NASA’s Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) has been a central component of NASA Earth observation program for over 10 years. It is one of the largest civilian science information system in the US, performing ingest, archive and distribution of over 3 terabytes of data per day much of which is from NASA’s flagship missions Terra, Aqua and Aura. The system supports a variety of science disciplines including polar processes, land cover change, radiation budget, and most especially global climate change. The EOSDIS data centers, collocated with centers of science discipline expertise, archive and distribute standard data products produced by science investigator-led processing systems. Key to the success of EOSDIS is the concept of core versus community requirements. EOSDIS supports a core set of services to meet specific NASA needs and relies on community-developed services to meet specific user needs. EOSDIS offers a metadata registry, ECHO (Earth Observing System Clearinghouse), through which the scientific community can easily discover and exchange NASA’s Earth science data and services. Users can search, manage, and access the contents of ECHO’s registries (data and services) through user-developed and community-tailored interfaces or clients. The ECHO framework has become the primary access point for cross-Data Center search-and-order of EOSDIS and other Earth Science data holdings archived at the EOSDIS data centers. ECHO’s Warehouse Inventory Search Tool (WIST) is the primary web-based client for discovering and ordering cross-discipline data from the EOSDIS data centers. The architecture of the EOSDIS provides a platform for the publication, discovery, understanding and access to NASA’s Earth Observation resources and allows for easy integration of new datasets. The EOSDIS also has developed several methods for incorporating socioeconomic data into its data collection. Over the years, we have developed several methods for

  2. Misconceptions about HIV prevention and transmission in Botswana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Misconceptions about how HIV can be transmitted or prevented often prevent individuals from making informed choices and taking appropriate action. The purpose of the research was to explore the socio-demographic and behavioural factors in Botswana that are associated with misconceptions about HIV prevention and ...

  3. Prevention Of Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraja D

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is an important cause for neurological morbidity and mortality. Prevention of ischemic stroke involves identification and prevention of risk factors and optimal use of pharmacotherapy. Risk factors have been classified as modifiable and non-modifiable; control of modifiable factors should prevent stroke occurrence. Stroke prevention has been described at three levels: primary, secondary and tertiary. Prolonged hypertension increases an individual′s risk for developing fatal or nonfatal stroke by three times and its control has been shown to prevent stroke. Diabetes mellitus is an important cause for microangiopathy and predisposes to stroke. Statin trials have shown significant reduction in stroke in those who were treated with statins. Stroke risk can be reduced by avoiding tobacco use, control of obesity and avoiding sedentary life style. Anti platelet medications are effective for secondary prevention of stroke. Educating society regarding modifiable risk factors and optimal use of pharmacotherapy form the cornerstone for the prevention of stroke.

  4. Accident management information needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, D.J.; Ward, L.W.; Nelson, W.R.; Meyer, O.R.

    1990-04-01

    The tables contained in this Appendix A describe the information needs for a pressurized water reactor (PWR) with a large, dry containment. To identify these information needs, the branch points in the safety objective trees were examined to decide what information is necessary to (a) determine the status of the safety functions in the plant, i.e., whether the safety functions are being adequately maintained within predetermined limits, (b) identify plant behavior (mechanisms) or precursors to this behavior which indicate that a challenge to plant safety is occurring or is imminent, and (c) select strategies that will prevent or mitigate this plant behavior and monitor the implementation and effectiveness of these strategies. The information needs for the challenges to the safety functions are not examined since the summation of the information needs for all mechanisms associated with a challenge comprise the information needs for the challenge itself

  5. Identity theft prevention in CyberCIEGE

    OpenAIRE

    Ruppar, Carrie Aliene

    2005-01-01

    The increase in online activities which involve peopleâ s identification information means that identity theft has become a widespread computer security issue. Identity theft is defined as the misuse of personal information and identity. To address this problem, an Information Assurance training tool, such as CyberCIEGE, can be used for user awareness and education. This thesis incorporated current research on identity theft attacks and prevention techniques into a customized scenario defini...

  6. Building infrastructure to prevent disasters like Hurricane Maria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandaragoda, C.; Phuong, J.; Mooney, S.; Stephens, K.; Istanbulluoglu, E.; Pieper, K.; Rhoads, W.; Edwards, M.; Pruden, A.; Bales, J.; Clark, E.; Brazil, L.; Leon, M.; McDowell, W. G.; Horsburgh, J. S.; Tarboton, D. G.; Jones, A. S.; Hutton, E.; Tucker, G. E.; McCready, L.; Peckham, S. D.; Lenhardt, W. C.; Idaszak, R.

    2017-12-01

    2000 words Recovery efforts from natural disasters can be more efficient with data-driven information on current needs and future risks. We aim to advance open-source software infrastructure to support scientific investigation and data-driven decision making with a prototype system using a water quality assessment developed to investigate post-Hurricane Maria drinking water contamination in Puerto Rico. The widespread disruption of water treatment processes and uncertain drinking water quality within distribution systems in Puerto Rico poses risk to human health. However, there is no existing digital infrastructure to scientifically determine the impacts of the hurricane. After every natural disaster, it is difficult to answer elementary questions on how to provide high quality water supplies and health services. This project will archive and make accessible data on environmental variables unique to Puerto Rico, damage caused by Hurricane Maria, and will begin to address time sensitive needs of citizens. The initial focus is to work directly with public utilities to collect and archive samples of biological and inorganic drinking water quality. Our goal is to advance understanding of how the severity of a hazard to human health (e.g., no access to safe culinary water) is related to the sophistication, connectivity, and operations of the physical and related digital infrastructure systems. By rapidly collecting data in the early stages of recovery, we will test the design of an integrated cyberinfrastructure system to for usability of environmental and health data to understand the impacts from natural disasters. We will test and stress the CUAHSI HydroShare data publication mechanisms and capabilities to (1) assess the spatial and temporal presence of waterborne pathogens in public water systems impacted by a natural disaster, (2) demonstrate usability of HydroShare as a clearinghouse to centralize selected datasets related to Hurricane Maria, and (3) develop a

  7. Information Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Noruzi, Alireza

    2000-01-01

    The exponential growth of information resources creates new challenges for end-users. The correct information may be polluted by misinformation, disinformation, propaganda or incorrect information via the Internet and other media. This paper defines 'information pollution' as "the contamination of information by misinformation, disinformation, propaganda and incorrect information." The purpose of this paper is to present the methods of information pollution. It is concluded that it is sometim...

  8. Information Crisis

    CERN Document Server

    Losavio, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Information Crisis discusses the scope and types of information available online and teaches readers how to critically assess it and analyze potentially dangerous information, especially when teachers, editors, or other information gatekeepers are not available to assess the information for them. Chapters and topics include:. The Internet as an information tool. Critical analysis. Legal issues, traps, and tricks. Protecting personal safety and identity. Types of online information.

  9. Prevention of suicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Suicide is a major public health problem in India, probably even bigger than in the West. Suicidal behavior is the best conceptualized as a multifaceted complex problem involving social factors and mental illnesses. Broadly, there are two approaches to suicide prevention; population preventive strategies and high-risk preventive strategies. Population preventive strategies include reducing availability of means for suicide, education of primary care physicians, influencing media portrayal of suicidal behavior, education of the public, telephone helplines, and addressing economic issues associated with suicidal behavior. High-risk preventive strategy includes identifying individuals with high risk of committing suicide, intensively treating mental illness if present, and providing psychosocial support. Thus, prevention requires a multipronged effort with collaboration from various sectors including mental health professionals, social justice department, and macroeconomic policy makers.

  10. HARM REDUCTION IN THE PREVENTION OF DRUG ADDICTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    KALOUSOVÁ, Dita

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation on Harm Reduction approach in the prevention of drug addictions deals with tertiary drug prevention. It aims to show the importance of how much information about this topic students at comprehensive schools get and have. The theoretical part provides some information about the consequences of drug addiction in general, about drug prevention, substitution treatment, Harm Reduction approach and the services involved. The practical part presents the results of a survey which ai...

  11. Second meeting of the French CEIP (Centres d'Evaluation et d'Information sur la Pharmacodépendance). Part I: how to evaluate and prevent the abuse and dependence on hypnotic/anxiolytic drugs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micallef-Roll, Joëlle; Lapeyre-Mestre, Maryse

    2009-01-01

    The second meeting of the French CEIP (Centres d'Evaluation et d'Information sur la Pharmacodépendance) was organized during the annual congress of the French Society of Pharmacology Therapeutics and Physiology in 2008. The aim of this meeting was to update the knowledge on abuse and dependence of the anxiolytics and hypnotics from different points of view (pharmacoepidemiology, epidemiology and treatment). The first part of this meeting summarized the pharmacological data obtained by the pharmacoepidemiological tools developed by the CEIP network. Even if the abuse liability of these agents is not a new problem, it remains always present and characterized by differences of misuse between drugs in real-life settings. The second part targeted to a subtype of consumers, the elderly population, because older patients are more likely to be prescribed with multiple prescriptions and also more at risk for prescription abuse. Despite this evidence, there is a scarcity of information on the factors associated with a such behaviour and its screening, assessment, diagnosis and treatment.

  12. Falls prevention for the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Lühmann

    2012-04-01

    inclusion criteria. However, to a variable degree the validity of their results must be rated as compromised due to different biasing factors. In summary, it appears that the performance of tests or the application of parameters to identify individuals at risk of falling yields little or no clinically relevant information. Positive effects of exercise interventions may be expected in relatively young and healthy seniors, while studies indicate opposite effects in the fragile elderly. For this specific vulnerable population the modification of the housing environment shows protective effects. A low number of studies, low quality of studies or inconsistent results lead to the conclusion that the effectiveness of the following interventions has to be rated unclear yet: correction of vision disorders, modification of psychotropic medication, vitamin D supplementation, nutritional supplements, psychological interventions, education of nursing personnel, multiple and multifactorial programs as well as the application of hip protectors. For the context of the German health care system the economic evaluations of fall prevention retrieved by the literature searches yield very few useful results. Cost-effectiveness calculations of fall prevention are mostly based on weak effectiveness data as well as on epidemiological and cost data from foreign health care systems. Ethical analysis demonstrates ambivalent views of the target population concerning fall risk and the necessity of fall prevention. The willingness to take up preventive measures depends on a variety of personal factors, the quality of information, guidance and decision-making, the prevention program itself and social support. The analysis of papers regarding legal issues shows three main challenges: the uncertainty of which standard of care has to be expected with regard to fall prevention, the necessity to consider the specific conditions of every single case when measures for fall prevention are applied, and the

  13. Falls prevention for the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzer, Katrin; Bremer, Martina; Schramm, Susanne; Lühmann, Dagmar; Raspe, Heiner

    2012-01-01

    results must be rated as compromised due to different biasing factors. In summary, it appears that the performance of tests or the application of parameters to identify individuals at risk of falling yields little or no clinically relevant information. Positive effects of exercise interventions may be expected in relatively young and healthy seniors, while studies indicate opposite effects in the fragile elderly. For this specific vulnerable population the modification of the housing environment shows protective effects. A low number of studies, low quality of studies or inconsistent results lead to the conclusion that the effectiveness of the following interventions has to be rated unclear yet: correction of vision disorders, modification of psychotropic medication, vitamin D supplementation, nutritional supplements, psychological interventions, education of nursing personnel, multiple and multifactorial programs as well as the application of hip protectors. For the context of the German health care system the economic evaluations of fall prevention retrieved by the literature searches yield very few useful results. Cost-effectiveness calculations of fall prevention are mostly based on weak effectiveness data as well as on epidemiological and cost data from foreign health care systems. Ethical analysis demonstrates ambivalent views of the target population concerning fall risk and the necessity of fall prevention. The willingness to take up preventive measures depends on a variety of personal factors, the quality of information, guidance and decision-making, the prevention program itself and social support. THE ANALYSIS OF PAPERS REGARDING LEGAL ISSUES SHOWS THREE MAIN CHALLENGES: the uncertainty of which standard of care has to be expected with regard to fall prevention, the necessity to consider the specific conditions of every single case when measures for fall prevention are applied, and the difficulty to balance the rights to autonomous decision making and physical

  14. Improving malaria treatment and prevention in India by aiding district managers to manage their programmes with local information: a trial assessing the impact of Lot Quality Assurance Sampling on programme outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadez, Joseph J; Devkota, Baburam; Pradhan, Madan Mohan; Meherda, Pramod; Sonal, G S; Dhariwal, Akshay; Davis, Rosemary

    2014-10-01

    This paper reports the first trial of Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) assessing associations between access to LQAS data and subsequent improvements in district programming. This trial concerns India's approach to addressing an increase in malaria-attributable deaths by training community health workers to diagnose, treat and prevent malaria, while using LQAS to monitor sub-district performance and make programme improvements. The Ministry of Health introduced LQAS into four matched high malaria burden districts (Annual Parasite Incidence >5) (N > 5 million). In each sub-district, we sampled four populations in three 6-monthly surveys: households, children <5 years, people with fever in the last 2 weeks and community health workers. In three districts, trained local staff collected, analysed and used data for programme management; in one control district, non-local staff collected data and did not disseminate results. For eight indicators, we calculated the change in proportion from survey one to three and used a Difference-in-Differences test to compare the relative change between intervention and control districts. Coverage increased from survey one to three for 24 of 32 comparisons. Difference-in-Differences tests revealed that intervention districts exhibited significantly greater change in four of six vertical strategies (insecticide treated bed-nets and indoor residual spraying), one of six treatment-seeking behaviours and four of 12 health worker capacity indicators. The control district displayed greater improvement than two intervention districts for one health worker capacity indicator. One district with poor management did not improve. In this study, LQAS results appeared to support district managers to increase coverage in underperforming areas, especially for vertical strategies in the presence of diligent managers. © 2014 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Intradermal and virosomal influenza vaccines for preventing influenza hospitalization in the elderly during the 2011-2012 influenza season: a comparative effectiveness study using the Valencia health care information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig-Barberà, J; Natividad-Sancho, A; Calabuig-Pérez, J; Lluch-Rodrigo, J A; Pastor-Villalba, E; Martínez-Úbeda, S; Díez-Domingo, J

    2014-09-22

    The use of intradermal vaccination or virosomal vaccines could increase protection against influenza among the vulnerable population of older adults. Studies assessing the comparative effectiveness of these two influenza vaccine types in this age group are lacking. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to estimate the comparative effectiveness of intradermal seasonal trivalent-influenza vaccine (TIV) delivered by a microneedle injection system and a virosomal-TIV intramuscularly delivered for prevention of influenza hospitalization in non-institutionalized adults aged ≥65 years. We obtained administrative data on immunization status and influenza hospitalization for the 2011-2012 influenza season, and used Cox regression models to assess comparative effectiveness. We estimated crude and adjusted (age, sex, comorbidity, pharmaceutical claims, recent pneumococcal vaccination and number of hospitalizations for all causes other than influenza between the previous and current influenza seasons) hazard ratios (HR). Overall, 164,021 vaccinated subjects were evaluated. There were 127 hospitalizations for influenza among 62,058 subjects, contributing 914,740 person-weeks at risk in the virosomal-TIV group, and 133 hospitalizations for influenza among 101,963 subjects, contributing 1,504,570 person-weeks at risk in the intradermal-TIV group. The crude HR of intradermal-TIV relative to virosomal-TIV was 0.64 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.50-0.81), and the adjusted Cox estimated HR was 0.67 (95% CI: 0.52-0.85). During the 2011-2012 influenza season the risk of hospitalization for influenza was reduced by 33% in non-institutionalized elderly adults who were vaccinated with intradermal-TIV compared with virosomal-TIV. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Commentary for Special Issue of Prevention Science "Using Genetics in Prevention: Science Fiction or Science Fact?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Danielle M

    2018-01-01

    A growing number of prevention studies have incorporated genetic information. In this commentary, I discuss likely reasons for growing interest in this line of research and reflect on the current state of the literature. I review challenges associated with the incorporation of genotypic information into prevention studies, as well as ethical considerations associated with this line of research. I discuss areas where developmental psychologists and prevention scientists can make substantive contributions to the study of genetic predispositions, as well as areas that could benefit from closer collaborations between prevention scientists and geneticists to advance this area of study. In short, this commentary tackles the complex questions associated with what we hope to achieve by adding genetic components to prevention research and where this research is likely to lead in the future.

  17. Traditional preventive treatment options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longbottom, C; Ekstrand, K; Zero, D

    2009-01-01

    conventional operative care, and since controlling the caries process prior to first restoration is the key to breaking the repair cycle and improving care for patients, future research should address the shortcomings in the current level of supporting evidence for the various traditional preventive treatment......Preventive treatment options can be divided into primary, secondary and tertiary prevention techniques, which can involve patient- or professionally applied methods. These include: oral hygiene (instruction), pit and fissure sealants ('temporary' or 'permanent'), fluoride applications (patient...

  18. Prevention of Prosthetic Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eremin O.V.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Prevention in prosthetic dentistry is not just a regular oral hygiene and the prevention of caries in the early stages of its development. The initial goal of orthopedic and dental should be the ability to convey to the patient's sense of pros-thetics that proteziruya one saved more. An example is included prosthetic dental arch defects with bridges or single artificial crowns on implants that will prevent movement of teeth and the continuity of the dentition

  19. Prevent Infections During Chemotherapy

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-10-24

    This podcast discusses the importance of preventing infections in cancer patients who are undergoing chemotherapy. Dr. Lisa Richardson, CDC oncologist, talks about a new Web site for cancer patients and their caregivers.  Created: 10/24/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 10/24/2011.

  20. Preventing food allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Silva, Debra; Panesar, Sukhmeet S; Thusu, Sundeep

    2013-01-01

    The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology is developing guidelines about how to prevent and manage food allergy. As part of the guidelines development process, a systematic review is planned to examine published research about the prevention of food allergy. This systematic review...... recommendations. The aim of this systematic review will be to assess the effectiveness of approaches for the primary prevention of food allergy....

  1. STD patients’ preferences for HIV prevention strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro JG

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Jose G Castro,1 Deborah L Jones,2 Stephen M Weiss2 1Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, 2Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA Abstract: The objective of this pilot study was to explore the knowledge of and preferences regarding effective biomedical interventions among high risk individuals attending a sexually transmitted diseases clinic, and to examine the effect of a brief information intervention on preference. Participants completed a baseline assessment, attended a presentation on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV prevention methods, and completed a postintervention assessment. Outcome measures included: demographics and sexual risk factors, self-perceived HIV risk, and knowledge and attitudes regarding new biomedical methods of HIV prevention. After the baseline evaluation, participants were provided with information on new biomedical prevention strategies. Participants were given the option to review the information by reading a pamphlet or by viewing a brief video containing the same information. Participants (n=97 were female (n=51 and male (n=46. At baseline, only a small minority of participants were aware of the newer biomedical strategies to prevent HIV infection. Postintervention, 40% endorsed having heard about the use of HIV medications to prevent HIV infection; 72% had heard that male circumcision can decrease the risk of acquiring HIV infection in men; and 73% endorsed knowledge of the potential role of microbicides in decreasing the risk of acquiring HIV. Following the intervention, the most preferred prevention method was male condoms, followed by preexposure prophylaxis, and microbicides. The least preferred methods were male circumcision and female condoms. This study provides preliminary information on knowledge and attitudes regarding newer biomedical interventions to protect against HIV infection. Keywords: STD clinic, biomedical HIV prevention, PrEP, male

  2. Intrusion Detection amp Prevention Systems - Sourcefire Snort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Vuppala

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Information security is a challenging issue for all business organizations today amidst increasing cyber threats. While there are many alternative intrusion detection amp prevention systems available to choose from selecting the best solution to implement to detect amp prevent cyber-attacks is a difficult task. The best solution is of the one that gets the best reviews and suits the organizations needs amp budget. In this review paper we summarize various classes of intrusion detection and prevention systems compare features of alternative solutions and make recommendation for implementation of one as the best solution for business organization in Fiji.

  3. Speech disorder prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladis Fornaris-Méndez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Language therapy has trafficked from a medical focus until a preventive focus. However, difficulties are evidenced in the development of this last task, because he is devoted bigger space to the correction of the disorders of the language. Because the speech disorders is the dysfunction with more frequently appearance, acquires special importance the preventive work that is developed to avoid its appearance. Speech education since early age of the childhood makes work easier for prevent the appearance of speech disorders in the children. The present work has as objective to offer different activities for the prevention of the speech disorders.

  4. Work hazard prevention plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albertos Campos, F.

    2009-01-01

    The prevention of industrial risks is a constantly evolving discipline that has changed considerable in the last 25 years. The Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plants has always been operated with a clear policy favoring prevention by supporting the principle of its integration, i. e., that the hierarchical functional organization of the company make sure that industrial risk prevention is effective and that health and safety standards are met. The historical evolution of occupational safety in the Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plant shows a a clear trend towards improvement and is the results of many years of hard work and effort by the plants own and contractor personnel in the field of industrial risk prevention. (Author)

  5. Fungus Infections: Preventing Recurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Favorite Name: Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Fungus Infections: Preventing Recurrence Share | Doctors have excellent treatments for skin fungus infections that occur on the feet, nails, groin, ...

  6. Prevention at Community Colleges. Prevention Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    According to "Community College Student Alcohol Use: Developing Context-Specific Evidence and Prevention Approaches," community colleges have traditionally had a threefold mission that includes preparing students for transfer to four-year colleges, developmental education, and workforce preparation. The researchers point out that the demographic…

  7. Learning from a cluster randomized controlled trial to improve healthcare workers' access to prevention and care for tuberculosis and HIV in Free State, South Africa: the pivotal role of information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassi, Annalee; Adu, Prince A; Nophale, Letshego; Zungu, Muzimkhulu

    2016-01-01

    Occupational tuberculosis (TB) continues to plague the healthcare workforce in South Africa. A 2-year cluster randomized controlled trial was therefore launched in 27 public hospitals in Free State province, to better understand how a combined workforce and workplace program can improve health of the healthcare workforce. This mid-term evaluation aimed to analyze how well the intervention was being implemented, seek evidence of impact or harm, and draw lessons. Both intervention and comparison sites had been instructed to conduct bi-annual and issue-based infection control assessments (when healthcare workers [HCW] are diagnosed with TB) and offer HCWs confidential TB and HIV counseling and testing, TB treatment and prophylaxis for HIV-positive HCWs. Intervention sites were additionally instructed to conduct quarterly workplace assessments, and also offer HCWs HIV treatment at their occupational health units (OHUs). Trends in HCW mortality, sick-time, and turnover rates (2005-2014) were analyzed from the personnel salary database ('PERSAL'). Data submitted by the OHUs were also analyzed. Open-ended questionnaires were then distributed to OHU HCWs and in-depth interviews conducted at 17 of the sites to investigate challenges encountered. OHUs reported identifying and treating 23 new HCW cases of TB amongst the 1,372 workers who used the OHU for HIV and/or TB services; 39 new cases of HIV were also identified and 108 known-HIV-positive HCWs serviced. Although intervention-site workforces used these services significantly more than comparison-site healthcare staff (p<0.001), the data recorded were incomplete for both the intervention and comparison OHUs. An overall significant decline in mortality and turnover rates was documented over this period, but no significant differences between intervention and comparison sites; sick-time data proved unreliable. Severe OHU workload as well as residual confidentiality concerns prevented the proper implementation of protocols

  8. Learning from a cluster randomized controlled trial to improve healthcare workers’ access to prevention and care for tuberculosis and HIV in Free State, South Africa: the pivotal role of information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalee Yassi

    2016-06-01

    confidentiality concerns prevented the proper implementation of protocols, especially workplace assessments and data recording. Particularly, the failure to implement computerized data collection required OHU staff to duplicate their operational data collection duties by also entering research paper forms. The study was therefore halted pending the implementation of a computerized system. Conclusions: The significant differences in OHU use documented cannot be attributable to the intervention due to incomplete data reporting; unreliable sick-time data further precluded ascertaining the benefit potentially attributable to the intervention. Computerized data collection is essential to facilitate operational monitoring while conducting real-world intervention research. The digital divide still requires the attention of researchers along with overall infrastructural constraints.

  9. Postpartum haemorrhage: prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelmow, David

    2011-04-04

    Loss of more than 500 mL of blood following childbirth is usually caused by failure of the uterus to contract fully after delivery of the placenta, and occurs in over 10% of deliveries, with a 1% mortality rate worldwide. Other causes of postpartum haemorrhage include retained placental tissue, lacerations to the genital tract, and coagulation disorders. Uterine atony is more likely in women who have had a general anaesthetic or oxytocin, an over-distended uterus, a prolonged or precipitous labour, or who are of high parity. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of non-drug interventions and of drug interventions to prevent primary postpartum haemorrhage? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to March 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 40 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: active management of the third stage of labour, carboprost injection, controlled cord traction, ergot compounds (ergometrine/methylergotamine), immediate breastfeeding, misoprostol (oral, rectal, sublingual, or vaginal), oxytocin, oxytocin plus ergometrine combinations, prostaglandin E2 compounds, and uterine massage.

  10. Diabetes Mellitus amp Its Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KusumaNeela Bolla

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Diabetes Mellitus has been known for centuries as a disease related to sweetness. even though several million people all over the world are effected with diabetes not all are well informed about the nature of the disease. in diabetes there is excessive glucose in blood and urine due to inadequate production of insulin or insulin resistance. diabetics can lead a normal life provided they take prescribed durgs and make certain changes in their lifestyle particularly in their diet and physical activity. uncontrolled diabetes leads to some of the complication so some of the home remedies also play a major role to prevent the diabetes.

  11. 77 FR 12322 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB; Evaluation of the Veterans...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... Proposed Information Collection to OMB; Evaluation of the Veterans Homelessness Prevention Demonstration AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer, HUD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The proposed information... Homelessness Prevention Demonstration (VHPD). The Department solicits public comments on the proposed...

  12. Preventing Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Eye Injuries Sections Preventing Eye Injuries Recognizing and Treating ... Infographic Five Steps to Safer Champagne Celebrations Preventing Eye Injuries Leer en Español: Lesiones de los ojos ...

  13. Injury prevention in football

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and cool downs before and after training and matches, respectively. As part of injury prevention, adequate injury management and rehabilitation are essential; especially in the prevention of re-injury. Unfortunately, youth football is often disadvantaged with inadequate or unavailable sports medicine personnel and treatment ...

  14. HIV Risk and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention VIH En Español Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Email Updates on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV Risk and Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ...

  15. Preventative Medicine today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Maluf de Carvalho

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The great majority of chronic diseases can be prevented byreducing risks, understood as factors that increase the probabilityof a specific disease or condition, such as hypertension,hypercholesterolemia, inadequate diet, smoking habit, obesity andsedentarism. These aspects are evaluated in this article as wellas prevention and screening methods.

  16. [Prevention of psychosocial risks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalle, Édouard; Trichard-Salembier, Alexandra; Sobaszek, Annie

    2018-02-01

    The theme of psychosocial risks remains in the workplace. It is therefore essential that all members of a company are made aware of the terminology and specific prevention actions in this field. Distinguishing between the manifestations of these risks and their causes and consequences helps to improve prevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Prevention de la Poliomyelite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Baltazard

    1962-01-01

    Full Text Available In Iran, the prevention of poliomyelitis is practically limited to vaccinatton This paper, however, gives a detailed account of the preventive measures attempting to check the spread of the infection and of those aiming at the reduction of the frequency of the paralytic manifestation

  18. Prevent Cervical Cancer!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-08

    Cervical cancer can be prevented. Listen as two friends—one a doctor—talk about screening tests and early detection. Learn what test you might need.  Created: 1/8/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/8/2015.

  19. Prevention of Preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sammya Bezerra Maia e Holanda Moura

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia (PE affects around 2–5% of pregnant women. It is a major cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. In an attempt to prevent preeclampsia, many strategies based on antenatal care, change in lifestyle, nutritional supplementation, and drugs have been studied. The aim of this paper is to review recent evidence about primary and secondary prevention of preeclampsia.

  20. Prevention of Preeclampsia

    OpenAIRE

    Bezerra Maia e Holanda Moura, Sammya; Marques Lopes, Laudelino; Murthi, Padma; da Silva Costa, Fabricio

    2012-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) affects around 2–5% of pregnant women. It is a major cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. In an attempt to prevent preeclampsia, many strategies based on antenatal care, change in lifestyle, nutritional supplementation, and drugs have been studied. The aim of this paper is to review recent evidence about primary and secondary prevention of preeclampsia.

  1. Can I Prevent Acne?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español Can I Prevent Acne? KidsHealth / For Teens / Can I Prevent Acne? Print en español ¿Puedo prevenir el acné? What Causes Acne? Contrary to what you may have heard, acne ...

  2. Prevention of preterm birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flood, Karen

    2012-02-01

    Preterm birth (delivery before 37 completed weeks of gestation) is common and rates are increasing. In the past, medical efforts focused on ameliorating the consequences of prematurity rather than preventing its occurrence. This approach resulted in improved neonatal outcomes, but it remains costly in terms of both the suffering of infants and their families and the economic burden on society. Increased understanding of the pathophysiology of preterm labor has altered the approach to this problem, with increased focus on preventive strategies. Primary prevention is a limited strategy which involves public education, smoking cessation, improved nutritional status and avoidance of late preterm births. Secondary prevention focuses on recurrent preterm birth which is the most recognisable risk factor. Widely accepted strategies include cervical cerclage, progesterone and dedicated clinics. However, more research is needed to explore the role of antibiotics and anti-inflammatory treatments in the prevention of this complex problem.

  3. Great Books. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2011

    2011-01-01

    "Great Books" is a program that aims to improve the reading, writing, and critical thinking skills of students in kindergarten through high school. The program is implemented as a core or complementary curriculum and is based on the Shared Inquiry[TM] method of learning. The purpose of "Great Books" is to engage students in…

  4. Clearinghouse for Inventories and Emissions Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions inventories, modeling, and monitoring are the basis for understanding, controlling and tracking stationary sources of air pollution. This technical site provides access to tools and data to support those efforts.

  5. Milieu Teaching. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

    2012-01-01

    "Milieu teaching" is a practice that involves manipulating or arranging stimuli in a preschool child's natural environment to create a setting that encourages them to engage in a targeted behavior. For example, a teacher might place a desirable toy in a setting to encourage a student to request that toy (where requesting a toy is the…

  6. Reconnecting Youth. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2015

    2015-01-01

    "Reconnecting Youth" is an elective, credit-bearing course for students at risk of dropping out of school due to frequent absenteeism, low grades, or a history of dropping out. The curriculum focuses on building self-esteem, decision making, personal control, and interpersonal communication skills. The What Works Clearninghouse (WWC)…

  7. Read Naturally. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "Read Naturally" is a supplemental reading program designed to improve reading fluency, accuracy, and comprehension of elementary and middle school students using a combination of books, audio CDs, and computer software. The program combines three main strategies: modeling of story reading, repeated reading of text for developing oral…

  8. Head Start. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2015

    2015-01-01

    "Head Start" is a national, federally funded program that provides services to promote school readiness for children from birth to age 5 from predominantly low-income families. Based on a review of the research, the WWC found "Head Start" to have potentially positive effects on general reading achievement and no discernible…

  9. ACT Aspire™. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2017

    2017-01-01

    The "ACT Aspire"™ system provides a longitudinal, systematic approach for assessing and monitoring students' preparation for high school studies and readiness for college and career. "ACT Aspire"™ includes assessments for students from grade 3 through early high school in five subject areas: English, mathematics, reading,…

  10. Repeated Reading. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2014

    2014-01-01

    "Repeated reading" is an academic practice that aims to increase oral reading fluency. "Repeated reading" can be used with students who have developed initial word reading skills but demonstrate inadequate reading fluency for their grade level. During "repeated reading," a student sits in a quiet location with a…

  11. Spelling Mastery. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2014

    2014-01-01

    "Spelling Mastery" is designed to explicitly teach spelling skills to students in grades 1 through 6. One of several Direct Instruction curricula from McGraw-Hill that precisely specify how to teach incremental content, "Spelling Mastery" includes phonemic, morphemic, and whole-word strategies. The What Works Clearinghouse…

  12. Project SEED. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

    2012-01-01

    "Project SEED" is a supplemental mathematics program for low-achieving students in grades 3 through 8 and is intended to prepare students to be successful in high school and college math. Based on the Socratic method, instruction is delivered through a series of questions to the class. In addition to individual responses, the instructor…

  13. Reading Edge. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

    2012-01-01

    "Reading Edge" is a middle school literacy program that emphasizes cooperative learning, goal setting, feedback, classroom management techniques, and the use of metacognitive strategy, whereby students assess their own skills and learn to apply new ones. The program is a component of the "Success for All"[superscript 2]…

  14. Reciprocal Teaching. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "Reciprocal teaching" is an instructional method designed to help teach reading comprehension skills to students with adequate decoding proficiency. During initial instructional sessions, the teacher introduces four comprehension strategies: summarizing, questioning, clarifying, and predicting. Then, the teacher and student read several…

  15. Saxon Math. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2017

    2017-01-01

    "Saxon Math" is a curriculum for students in grades K-12. The amount of new math content students receive each day is limited and students practice concepts every day. New concepts are developed, reviewed, and practiced cumulatively rather than in discrete chapters or units. This review focuses on studies of "Saxon Math"'s…

  16. Odyssey Reading. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

    2012-01-01

    "Odyssey Reading," published by CompassLearning[R], is a web-based K-12 reading/language arts program designed to allow for instructional differentiation and data-driven decision making. The online program includes electronic curricula and materials for individual or small-group work, assessments aligned with state curriculum standards,…

  17. Reading Mastery. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

    2012-01-01

    "Reading Mastery" is designed to provide explicit reading instruction to students in grades pre-K-5. One of several Direct Instruction curricula from McGraw-Hill, "Reading Mastery" is available in two versions: (1) "Reading Mastery Classic" (for grades pre-K-2) aims to help beginning readers identify letter sounds,…

  18. Information Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The first wave delivered a range of services to most areas of the world through a vast, carefully constructed global network. Cellular technology ...Information Technology and Services Alliance. Digital Planet 2002: The Global Information Economy. February 2002. Yegyazarian, Anush. Sales Taxes...Information Technology ABSTRACT: The information technology (IT) industry affects virtually every industry in the n economy. During the late 90

  19. Social information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando de Barros Campos

    Full Text Available Based on Erving Goffman's work, the article aims to discuss a definition of information centered on the type conveyed by individuals in a multimodal way, encompassing language and body in situations of co-presence, where face-to-face interaction occurs, and influencing inter-subjective formation of the self. Six types of information are highlighted: material information, expressive information, ritualized information, meta-information, strategic information, and information displays. It is argued that the construction of this empirical object tends to dissolve the tension among material, cognitive and pragmatic aspects, constituting an example of the necessary integration among them. Some vulnerable characteristics of the theory are critically mentioned and it is suggested that the concept of information displays could provide a platform to approach the question of the interaction order in its relations with the institutional and social orders, and consequently, to reassess the scope of the notion of social information analyzed.

  20. A music-based HIV prevention intervention for urban adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Anthony F; Fisher, Jeffrey D; Pratto, Felicia

    2008-05-01

    This research examines the process of conducting and evaluating a music-based HIV prevention intervention among urban adolescents, and is informed by the information, motivation, behavioral skills (IMB) model. Musically talented opinion leaders were recruited to write, record, and distribute HIV prevention themed music to their peers to increase HIV prevention motivation, behavioral skills, and behaviors. In this 3-month field experiment, participants were 306 students enrolled in health classes at each of three large multiracial urban high schools (one treatment school; two control schools). Measures of HIV prevention information, motivation, behavioral skills, and behaviors, both pre- and postintervention. Results indicate that the intervention influenced several aspects of HIV prevention motivation, behavioral skills, and condom use and HIV testing behaviors. This research demonstrates that the incorporation of music into HIV prevention interventions for adolescents has the potential to be effective.

  1. League of Women Voters Education Fund providing a forum for public information and participation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraft, E.

    1993-01-01

    In March of 1992, the League of Women Voters Education Fund (LWVEF) signed a five-year cooperative agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) to provide American citizens with information and training on the management and clean up of nuclear waste from both civilian and defense sources. During Year 1 of the agreement the LWVEF updated The Nuclear Waste Primer: A Citizens Handbook. Activities in Year 2 of the agreement will include: (1) Oversight of the project by an Advisory Committee; (2) A national Train-the-Trainers Conference; (3) Grants to state and local Leagues for model community education projects; (4) Publication of Taking Nuclear Waste Issues to the Village Square, a discussion leader's guide on organizing community education programs on nuclear wastes issues and a magazine article on defense waste issues in the the National Voter, the membership magazine of the League of Women Voters of the United States; and (5) Technical assistance to Leagues and other organizations via a Citizen's Nuclear Waste Clearinghouse

  2. The Development of Consumer-Driven Human Services Information Technology Initiatives: The Lake County Indiana Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W. Pavkov

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The Family Access Project will deploy innovative community empowerment, education, consensus building, and information system development strategies to strengthen community, ensure the efficient and effective delivery of needed services, and address the unique needs of families requiring public assistance from a host of public and private agencies in Lake County. The goal of the project is to enhance community life through improved care coordination by linking new technologies to the human service delivery process. Upon completion, the project will assist in the enhancement of community-based services through the development of rules of data transaction and data standards and the deploy-ment of a secure messaging/document exchange network. By putting technology in the hands of consumers we also hope to impact the economic development and workforce readiness goals set forth in our community's welfare to work programs. These innovations will require educational innovations in order to facilitate the use of technology by both provider and consumer end-users. Proposed innovations include tutorials related to data standards development, peer train-the-trainer training in the development and use of technology to support service system reforms; and ongoing support through a technical assistance clearinghouse and help desk.

  3. You can’t burn the house down because of one bedbug: a qualitative study of changing gender norms in the prevention of violence against women and girls in an urban informal settlement in India [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayreen Daruwalla

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The contribution of structural inequalities and societal legitimisation to violence against women, which 30% of women in India survive each year, is widely accepted. There is a consensus that interventions should aim to change gender norms, particularly through community mobilisation. How this should be done is less clear. Methods: We did a qualitative study in a large informal settlement in Mumbai, an environment that characterises 41% of households. After reviewing the anonymised records of consultations with 1653 survivors of violence, we conducted 5 focus group discussions and 13 individual interviews with 71 women and men representing a range of age groups and communities. We based the interviews on fictitious biographical vignettes to elicit responses and develop an understanding of social norms. We wondered whether, in trying to change norms, we might exploit the disjunction between descriptive norms (beliefs about what others actually do and injunctive norms (beliefs about what others think one ought to do, focusing program activities on evidence that descriptive norms are changing. Results: We found that descriptive and injunctive norms were relatively similar with regard to femininity, masculinity, the need for marriage and childbearing, resistance to separation and divorce, and disapproval of friendships between women and men. Some constraints on women’s dress and mobility were relaxing, but there were more substantial differences between descriptive and injunctive norms around women’s education, control of income and finances, and premarital sexual relationships. Conclusions: Programmatically, we hope to exploit these areas of mismatch in the context of injunctive norms generally inimical to violence against women. We propose that an under-appreciated strategy is expansion of the reference group: induction of relatively isolated women and men into broader social groups whose descriptive and injunctive norms do not

  4. You can't burn the house down because of one bedbug: a qualitative study of changing gender norms in the prevention of violence against women and girls in an urban informal settlement in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daruwalla, Nayreen; Hate, Ketaki; Pinto, Preethi; Ambavkar, Gauri; Kakad, Bhaskar; Osrin, David

    2017-01-01

    Background : The contribution of structural inequalities and societal legitimisation to violence against women, which 30% of women in India survive each year, is widely accepted. There is a consensus that interventions should aim to change gender norms, particularly through community mobilisation. How this should be done is less clear. Methods : We did a qualitative study in a large informal settlement in Mumbai, an environment that characterises 41% of households. After reviewing the anonymised records of consultations with 1653 survivors of violence, we conducted 5 focus group discussions and 13 individual interviews with 71 women and men representing a range of age groups and communities. We based the interviews on fictitious biographical vignettes to elicit responses and develop an understanding of social norms. We wondered whether, in trying to change norms, we might exploit the disjunction between descriptive norms (beliefs about what others actually do) and injunctive norms (beliefs about what others think one ought to do), focusing program activities on evidence that descriptive norms are changing. Results : We found that descriptive and injunctive norms were relatively similar with regard to femininity, masculinity, the need for marriage and childbearing, resistance to separation and divorce, and disapproval of friendships between women and men. Some constraints on women's dress and mobility were relaxing, but there were more substantial differences between descriptive and injunctive norms around women's education, control of income and finances, and premarital sexual relationships. Conclusions : Programmatically, we hope to exploit these areas of mismatch in the context of injunctive norms generally inimical to violence against women. We propose that an under-appreciated strategy is expansion of the reference group: induction of relatively isolated women and men into broader social groups whose descriptive and injunctive norms do not tolerate violence.

  5. Informal Taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Olken, Benjamin A.; Singhal, Monica

    2011-01-01

    Informal payments are a frequently overlooked source of local public finance in developing countries. We use microdata from ten countries to establish stylized facts on the magnitude, form, and distributional implications of this "informal taxation." Informal taxation is widespread, particularly in rural areas, with substantial in-kind labor payments. The wealthy pay more, but pay less in percentage terms, and informal taxes are more regressive than formal taxes. Failing to include informal t...

  6. Disabled persons' knowledge of HIV prevention and access to health care prevention services in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eide, Arne Henning; Schür, Clare; Ranchod, Chitra; Rohleder, Poul; Swartz, Leslie; Schneider, Marguerite

    2011-12-01

    The main research question in this article is how access to information about HIV/AIDS and level of HIV/AIDS prevention related knowledge are distributed among disabled people, and whether level of knowledge predicts access to HIV/AIDS related services. A survey was carried out among a sample of 285 disabled people from three provinces in South Africa. Analyses of the data revealed that gender and level of education, together with geographical differences, are key predictors for access to information and knowledge about HIV/AIDS among disabled people. For male respondents number of information sources predicts access to voluntary counselling and testing services and HIV testing, while knowledge about prevention predicts access to Voluntary Counselling and Testing centres. Significant gender differences with regards to information, knowledge and access to services highlight the need for gender specific prevention strategies among disabled people.

  7. CSI cardiac prevent 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Ramakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The CSI Cardiac Prevent 2015 was held at Hotel Taj Palace, New Delhi, on September 25-27, 2015. The major challenge was to create interest among cardiologists and physicians on preventive cardiology, a neglected area. The theme of the conference was "Innovations in Heart Disease Prevention.′′ This conference included "CSI at WHF Roadmap Workshop, Inauguration Ceremony, scientific program, plenary sessions, Nursing/Dietician track, Industry Exhibition, Social Events," Great India blood pressure Survey, and CSI Smart Heart App. A total of 848 delegates/faculties attended this conference against a total of 1140 people registered for the meeting.

  8. Obesity Prevention and Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Eleanor R; Olson, Alexandra; DiFazio, Marc; Cassidy, Omni

    2016-03-01

    Obesity is widespread, associated with several physical and psychosocial comorbidities, and is difficult to treat. Prevention of obesity across the lifespan is critical to improving the health of individuals and society. Screening and prevention efforts in primary care are an important step in addressing the obesity epidemic. Each period of human development is associated with unique risks, challenges, and opportunities for prevention and intervention. Screening tools for overweight/obesity, although imperfect, are quick and easy to administer. Screening should be conducted at every primary care visit and tracked longitudinally. Screening tools and cutoffs for overweight and obesity vary by age group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Prevention of Eye Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Pashby, Tom

    1981-01-01

    In Canada 30,000 people are registered as blind; in one third of these, blindness might have been avoided. Prevention is the key to reducing the number of eye injuries and blind eyes. The role of the family physician in early identification of treatable conditions and in the education of patients is discussed, but responsibility for prevention belongs to all physicians. The success of prevention is seen in the great reduction in eye injuries in industry and sports since eye protectors have be...

  10. Measuring pollution prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephan, D.G.; Bridges, J.S.

    1992-01-01

    To assess progress in pollution prevention, estimates or measurements of the amounts of pollution actually prevented have to be made. Such estimates or measurements tell us how far we have come and, possibly, how much farther there is to go in utilizing pollution prevention as a tool for improving environmental quality. They can, theoretically, be used to assess progress on a scale ranging from the individual facility or even the individual process or activity generation wastes to scale as large as a geographical area such as a county, a state or even the United States as a whole. 3 refs

  11. Novel preventive treatment options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longbottom, C; Ekstrand, K; Zero, D

    2009-01-01

    A number of novel preventive treatment options which, as with traditional methods, can be differentiated into 3 categories of prevention (primary, secondary and tertiary), have been and are being currently investigated. Those reviewed are either commercially available or appear relatively close...... of these techniques show considerable promise and dentists should be aware of these developments and follow their progress, the evidence for each of these novel preventive treatment options is currently insufficient to make widespread recommendations. Changes in dental practice should be explored to see how oral...

  12. Information Myopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadi Helena Presser

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects on the ways of appropriation in organizations. The notion of Information Myopia is characterized by the lack of knowledge about the available informational capabilities in organizations, revealing a narrow view of the information environment. This analysis has focused on the process for renewing the software licenses contracts of a large multinational group, in order to manage its organizational assets in information technology. The collected, explained and justified information allowed to elaborate an action proposal, which enabled the creation of new organizational knowledge. In its theoretical dimension, the value of information was materialized by its use, in a collective process of organizational learning.

  13. Information Concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Marchionini, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Information is essential to all human activity, and information in electronic form both amplifies and augments human information interactions. This lecture surveys some of the different classical meanings of information, focuses on the ways that electronic technologies are affecting how we think about these senses of information, and introduces an emerging sense of information that has implications for how we work, play, and interact with others. The evolutions of computers and electronic networks and people's uses and adaptations of these tools manifesting a dynamic space called cyberspace. O

  14. [The use of bibliographic information resources and Web 2.0 by neuropaediatricians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González de Dios, Javier; Camino-León, Rafael; Ramos-Lizana, Julio

    2011-06-16

    To determine the state of knowledge and use of the main sources of bibliographic information and Web 2.0 resources in a sample of pediatricians linked professionally to child neurology. Anonymous opinion survey to 44 pediatricians (36 neuropediatric staffs and 8 residents) with two sections: sources of bibliographic information: (25 questions) and Web 2.0 resources (14 questions). The most consulted journals are Revista de Neurología and Anales de Pediatría. All use PubMed database and less frequently Índice Médico Español (40%) and Embase (27%); less than 20% use of other international and national databases. 81% of respondents used the Cochrane Library, and less frequently other sources of evidence-based medicine: Tripdatabase (39%), National Guideline Clearinghouse (37%), Excelencia Clínica (12%) and Sumsearch (3%). 45% regularly receive some e-TOC (electronic table of contents) of biomedical journals, but only 7% reported having used the RSS (really system syndication). The places to start searching for information are PubMed (55%) and Google (23%). The four resources most used of Web 2.0 are YouTube (73%), Facebook (43%), Picasa (27%) and blogs (25%). We don't found differences in response between the group of minus or equal to 34 and major or equal to 35 years. Knowledge of the patterns of use of information databases and Web 2.0 resources can identify the limitations and opportunities for improvement in the field of pediatric neurology training and information.

  15. 16. Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Effective disaster management requires systems for data acquisition and information management that enable responders to rapidly collect, process, interpret, distribute, and access the data and information required for disaster management. Effective information sharing depends on the types of users, the type of damage, alterations of the functional status of the affected society, and how the information is structured. Those in need of information should be provided with the information necessary for their tasks and not be overloaded with unnecessary information that could serve as a distraction. Such information systems must be designed and exercised. To disseminate and share data with the relevant users, all disaster responses must include effective and reliable information systems. This information includes that acquired from repeated assessments in terms of available and needed human and material resources, which resources no longer are needed, and the status of the relief and recovery workers. It is through this information system that vital decisions are made that are congruent with the overall picture as perceived by the most relevant coordination and control centre. It is essential that information systems be designed and tested regularly as part of preparedness. Such systems must have the capacity to acquire, classify, and present information in an organised and useful manner.

  16. Can Vaginitis Be Prevented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... examples of safe sex. 1 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2010). Self-study STD module—vaginitis . ... Halvorson New Chief of Gynecologic Health and Disease Branch Division of Epidemiology, Statistics, ...

  17. Dental Sealants Prevent Cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FAQs CDC SEALS Software CDC State Strategies: Preventing Tooth Decay CDC Oral Health Data Other Sites MedlinePlus – Child Dental Health MedlinePlus – Tooth Decay American Dental Association – Evidence-based clinical practice guideline ...

  18. Prevent Back Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and prevent back pain: Do back-strengthening and stretching exercises at least 2 or 3 times a week. ... risk of back pain. Do back-strengthening and stretching exercises [PDF - 244 KB] at least 2 or 3 ...

  19. Preventing Knee Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blog Skip breadcrumb navigation Preventing Knee Injuries Knee injuries in children and adolescent athletes may be the result of ... occur in childhood sports, but with any knee injury in a growing child there is a possibility of a fracture related ...

  20. Home Improvements Prevent Falls

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Falls and Older Adults Home Improvements Prevent Falls Past Issues / Winter 2014 Table ... and ensure your safety. "Safe-ty-fy" Your Home Some Questions for Your Provider Will my medicines ...

  1. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... increased? play_arrow What do family members and caregivers need to know about pressure sores? play_arrow What do family members and caregivers need to do to prevent pressure sores? play_ ...

  2. Prostate Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prostate cancer A man whose father, brother, or son has had prostate cancer has a higher-than- ... known if these drugs lower the risk of death from prostate cancer. The Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial ( ...

  3. Prevention of cisplatin nephrotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayati Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cisplatin has a well-established role in the treatment of broad spectrum of malignancies; however its use is limited because of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity (CIN which can be progressive in more than 50% of cases. The most important risk factors for CIN include higher doses of cisplatin, previous cisplatin chemotherapy, underlying kidney damage and concurrent treatment with other potential nephrotoxin agents, such as aminoglycosides, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, or iodinated contrast media. Different strategies have been offered to diminish or prevent nephrotoxicity of cisplatin. The standard approach for prevention of CIN is the administration of lower doses of cisplatin in combination with full intravenous hydration prior and after cisplatin administration. Cisplatin-induced oxidative stress in the kidney may be prevented by natural antioxidant compounds. The results of this review show that many strategies for prevention of CIN exist, however, attention to the administration of these agent for CIN is necessary.

  4. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Preventing Pressure Sores Adult Injuries ... LLC Understanding Spinal Cord Injury About Us Expert Videos Contact Us Personal Experience Videos Blog Videos By ...

  5. Preventing Financial Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen

    This paper investigates the Swedish tax authority’s (Skatteverkets) compliance initiative called Preventing Financial Crime. In Sweden tax evasion related to organised moon-lighting is defined as a major risk to the revenue collection and to the legitimacy of Skatteverket. The traditional approach...... to abating such tax evasion has been reformed and a new mix-method approach adopted. This approach combines a proactive strategy—Preventing Financial Crime—with a reactive inspection strategy. During one a month of intensive fieldwork in Sweden, I studied the daily work in Preventing Financial Crime. Based...... on this, the paper shows that the Swedish tax officials seek to motivate large construction contractors and municipalities to take preventive measures in relation to their sub-contractors to avoid and abate tax evasion. The paper shows the challenges in engaging and involving these external stakeholders...

  6. Oral Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & Early Detection Treatment Cancer & Public Health Cancer Health Disparities Childhood Cancer Clinical Trials Global Health Key Initiatives Cancer Moonshot Genomic Data Commons National Clinical Trials ...

  7. Esophageal Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & Early Detection Treatment Cancer & Public Health Cancer Health Disparities Childhood Cancer Clinical Trials Global Health Key Initiatives Cancer Moonshot Genomic Data Commons National Clinical Trials ...

  8. Child Maltreatment Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Study Prevent Shaken Baby Syndrome Suggested Practices for Journalists Reporting on Child Abuse and Neglect [PDF 2. ... input class="button submit" name="commit" type="submit" value="Submit" /> Related Links Saving Lives & Protecting People ...

  9. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Preventing Pressure Sores ... sores? What is a Spinal Cord Injury? SCI Medical Experts People Living With SCI Personal Experiences By ...

  10. Prevent Child Abuse America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... call the police . Crisis and support contacts For Child Abuse Reporting Numbers in your State please visit: Child ... suspected child abuse and neglect. Parent Resources Prevent Child Abuse America (800) CHILDREN A resource for tips, referrals, ...

  11. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David Chen, MD Preventing Pressure Sores Mary Zeigler, MS Transition from ... Rosenberg, PsyD Understanding SCI Rehabilitation Donald Peck Leslie, MD Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair Lisa ...

  12. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... hours? play_arrow What's the best way to do daily skin inspections? play_arrow What are the ... for someone with a spinal cord injury to do to prevent pressure sores? play_arrow Why is ...

  13. Preventing Deep Vein Thrombosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you may wear special elastic stockings or inflatable boots. These devices squeeze the muscles to help keep ... Special stockings that compress the legs below the knee may help prevent blood clots from forming. However, ...

  14. Preventing High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Heart Disease Cholesterol Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Preventing High Blood Pressure: Healthy Living Habits Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... meal and snack options can help you avoid high blood pressure and its complications. Be sure to eat plenty ...

  15. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Living with SCI Personal Experiences by Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Preventing Pressure Sores Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David ...

  16. INFORMATION MANAGERx

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    ) reported that the dramatic changes have affected the skills and competencies required of library and information science professionals working in libraries and information centers. Ferreira et al (2007) also observed from their study of core ...

  17. Prevention of malignant neoplasms

    OpenAIRE

    D. G. Zaridze; D. M. Maksimovich

    2017-01-01

    Research in causation of cancer is an important part of cancer research in general and is an essential prerequisite for cancer prevention. The effective primary prevention is not visible without evidence based knowledge in the causation of cancer in humans.There is sufficient evidence that certain life style and environment factors cause cancer in humans. These factors include: smoking and other types of tobacco consumption, overweight and obesity, lack of physical activity, diet rich in proc...

  18. HPV Prevention series

    OpenAIRE

    de Sanjosé Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) is a major leading cause of Human Cancer. Through the HPV Prevention series we would like to highlight the quality and the breadth of the research being carried out on the Control and Prevention of HPV and HPV related disease. This series aims to bring together a diverse range of HPV related specialties featuring research that has as ultimate goal insights into HPV related disease reduction. Articles within a wide range of topics such as natural history st...

  19. Prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kew, Michael C

    2010-01-01

    Because of its frequency and grave prognosis, preventing hepatocellular carcinoma is an urgent priority. Prevention should be possible because environmental carcinogens-chronic hepatitis B and C virus infections, dietary exposure to aflatoxins, and iron overload-cause the great majority of these tumors. Chronic hepatitis B virus infection accounts for 55% of global hepatocellular carcinomas and 80% of those in the high-incidence Asia Pacific and sub-Saharan African regions. In these regions the infection that becomes chronic is predominantly acquired very early in life. A safe and effective vaccine against this virus is available and its universal inclusion in the immunization of infants has already resulted in a marked reduction of chronic infection and a 70% decrease in the occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma in those immunized. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection is the major cause of hepatocellular carcinoma in industrialized countries. The infection is mainly acquired in adulthood and, until a vaccine becomes available, prevention will consist mainly of identifying, counselling, and treating chronically infected individuals, preventing spread of the virus by the use of safe injection practices (particularly in intravenous drug abusers), and screening all donated blood for the presence of the virus. 4.5 billion of the world.s population are exposed to dietary aflatoxins. Prevention involves treating susceptible crops to prevent fungal contamination, and handling the foodstuffs in such a way as to prevent contamination during storage. Iron overload in hereditary hemochromatosis can be prevented by repeated venesection and in African dietary iron overload by fermenting the home-brewed beer in iron-free containers.

  20. Information Myopia

    OpenAIRE

    Nadi Helena Presser; Daniel Cunha Santana Quirino

    2016-01-01

    This article reflects on the ways of appropriation in organizations. The notion of Information Myopia is characterized by the lack of knowledge about the available informational capabilities in organizations, revealing a narrow view of the information environment. This analysis has focused on the process for renewing the software licenses contracts of a large multinational group, in order to manage its organizational assets in information technology. The collected, explained and justified inf...