WorldWideScience

Sample records for prevention efforts designed

  1. Net benefits of wildfire prevention education efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon; David T. Butry; Karen L. Abt; Ronda Sutphen

    2010-01-01

    Wildfire prevention education efforts involve a variety of methods, including airing public service announcements, distributing brochures, and making presentations, which are intended to reduce the occurrence of certain kinds of wildfires. A Poisson model of preventable Florida wildfires from 2002 to 2007 by fire management region was developed. Controlling for...

  2. Engaging local businesses in HIV prevention efforts: the consumer perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips-Guzman, Christina M; Martinez-Donate, Ana P; Hovell, Melbourne F; Blumberg, Elaine J; Sipan, Carol L; Rovniak, Liza S; Kelley, Norma J

    2011-07-01

    Participation of different community sectors, including the private business sector, is necessary to fight the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Local businesses may be reluctant to participate in HIV prevention because of fear of negative customer reactions and loss of revenue. This study examines the extent to which residents of two communities in San Diego, California, would support HIV prevention initiatives in local businesses. A population-based household survey (N = 200) is conducted in two communities with higher versus lower risk for HIV. The survey includes questions regarding the acceptability of HIV prevention activities, such as condom and brochure distribution in businesses, and history of exposure to HIV prevention activities in local businesses. Most residents agree that (a) business involvement in prevention activities would reduce HIV (92%), (b) free or low-cost condoms available in businesses could prevent the spread of HIV (90.9%) and increase condom accessibility (87%), and (c) they would prefer to shop at businesses that supported HIV prevention versus those that did not (87.4%). These findings suggest that HIV prevention in local businesses would be supported by residents and would be unlikely to adversely affect business profits. This information could be used to design interventions to engage local businesses in HIV-prevention efforts.

  3. Incentive Design and Mis-Allocated Effort

    OpenAIRE

    Schnedler, Wendelin

    2013-01-01

    Incentives often distort behavior: they induce agents to exert effort but this effort is not employed optimally. This paper proposes a theory of incentive design allowing for such distorted behavior. At the heart of the theory is a trade-off between getting the agent to exert effort and ensuring that this effort is used well. The theory covers various moral-hazard models, ranging from traditional single-task to multi-task models. It also provides -for the first time- a formalization and proof...

  4. 1996 Design effort for IFMIF HEBT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blind, B.

    1997-01-01

    The paper details the 1996 design effort for the IFMIF HEBT. Following a brief overview, it lists the primary requirements for the beam at the target, describes the design approach and design tools used, introduces the beamline modules, gives the results achieved with the design at this stage, points out possible improvements and gives the names and computer locations of the TRACE3-D and PARMILA files that sum up the design work. The design does not fully meet specifications in regards to the flatness of the distribution at the target. With further work, including if necessary some backup options, the flatness specifications may be realized. It is not proposed that the specifications, namely flatness to ±5% and higher-intensity ridges that are no more than 15% above average, be changed at this time. The design also does not meet the requirement that the modules of all beamlines should operate at the same settings. However, the goal of using identical components and operational procedures has been met and only minor returning is needed to produce very similar beam distributions from all beamlines. Significant further work is required in the following areas: TRACE3-D designs and PARMILA runs must be made for the beams coming from accelerators No. 3 and No. 4. Transport of 30-MeV and 35-MeV beams to the targets and beam dump must be studied. Comprehensive error studies must be made. These must result in tolerance specifications and may require design iterations. Detailed interfacing with target-spot instrumentation is required. This instrumentation must be able to check all aspects of the specifications

  5. YOUTH HOMELESSNESS: PREVENTION AND INTERVENTION EFFORTS IN PSYCHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JHON J. SANABRIA

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I review the prevention and intervention efforts addressing youth homelessness in the fieldof psychology between 1994 and 2004. Analyses of the literature revealed that the majority of papersincluding homeless youth as a population for study have focused on issues other than homelessness.These issues include HIV/AIDS and substance abuse prevention. Eleven journal articles addressing youthhomelessness were reviewed. These articles focused on outcomes, interventions, and recommendationsfor clinical practice. Literature findings revealed that demographic variables did not predict outcomesfor homeless youth; youth returning home with their parents have more positive outcomes than youthmoving into other locations, emergency shelter services improve youth’s mental health and social condition,and services should be comprehensive and move beyond the individuals. Implications for communitypsychology, policy makers, and shelters are discussed.

  6. The moderating effects of school climate on bullying prevention efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Sabina; Van Ryzin, Mark

    2014-09-01

    Bullying prevention efforts have yielded mixed effects over the last 20 years. Program effectiveness is driven by a number of factors (e.g., program elements and implementation), but there remains a dearth of understanding regarding the role of school climate on the impact of bullying prevention programs. This gap is surprising, given research suggesting that bullying problems and climate are strongly related. The current study examines the moderating role of school climate on the impacts of a stand-alone bullying prevention curriculum. In addition, the current study examined 2 different dimensions of school climate across both student and staff perceptions. Data for this study were derived from a Steps to Respect (STR) randomized efficacy trial that was conducted in 33 elementary schools over a 1-year period. Schools were randomly assigned to intervention or wait-listed control condition. Outcome measures (pre-to-post) were obtained from (a) all school staff, (b) a randomly selected subset of 3rd-5th grade teachers in each school, and (c) all students in classrooms of selected teachers. Multilevel analyses revealed that psychosocial climate was strongly related to reductions in bullying-related attitudes and behaviors. Intervention status yielded only 1 significant main effect, although, STR schools with positive psychosocial climate at baseline had less victimization at posttest. Policies/administrative commitment to bullying were related to reduced perpetration among all schools. Findings suggest positive psychosocial climate (from both staff and student perspective) plays a foundational role in bullying prevention, and can optimize effects of stand-alone programs. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. The influence of health disparities on targeting cancer prevention efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonderman, Alan B; Ejiogu, Ngozi; Norbeck, Jennifer; Evans, Michele K

    2014-03-01

    Despite the advances in cancer medicine and the resultant 20% decline in cancer death rates for Americans since 1991, there remain distinct cancer health disparities among African Americans, Hispanics, Native Americans, and the those living in poverty. Minorities and the poor continue to bear the disproportionate burden of cancer, especially in terms of stage at diagnosis, incidence, and mortality. Cancer health disparities are persistent reminders that state-of-the-art cancer prevention, diagnosis, and treatment are not equally effective for and accessible to all Americans. The cancer prevention model must take into account the phenotype of accelerated aging associated with health disparities as well as the important interplay of biological and sociocultural factors that lead to disparate health outcomes. The building blocks of this prevention model will include interdisciplinary prevention modalities that encourage partnerships across medical and nonmedical entities, community-based participatory research, development of ethnically and racially diverse research cohorts, and full actualization of the prevention benefits outlined in the 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. However, the most essential facet should be a thoughtful integration of cancer prevention and screening into prevention, screening, and disease management activities for hypertension and diabetes mellitus because these chronic medical illnesses have a substantial prevalence in populations at risk for cancer disparities and cause considerable comorbidity and likely complicate effective treatment and contribute to disproportionate cancer death rates. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Cyberbullying Prevention and Intervention Efforts: Current Knowledge and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jun Sung

    2016-01-01

    Bullying is a serious public health concern that is associated with significant negative mental, social, and physical outcomes. Technological advances have increased adolescents’ use of social media, and online communication platforms have exposed adolescents to another mode of bullying—cyberbullying. Prevention and intervention materials, from websites and tip sheets to classroom curriculum, have been developed to help youth, parents, and teachers address cyberbullying. While youth and parents are willing to disclose their experiences with bullying to their health care providers, these disclosures need to be taken seriously and handled in a caring manner. Health care providers need to include questions about bullying on intake forms to encourage these disclosures. The aim of this article is to examine the current status of cyberbullying prevention and intervention. Research support for several school-based intervention programs is summarised. Recommendations for future research are provided. PMID:28562094

  9. Cyberbullying Prevention and Intervention Efforts: Current Knowledge and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espelage, Dorothy L; Hong, Jun Sung

    2017-06-01

    Bullying is a serious public health concern that is associated with significant negative mental, social, and physical outcomes. Technological advances have increased adolescents' use of social media, and online communication platforms have exposed adolescents to another mode of bullying- cyberbullying. Prevention and intervention materials, from websites and tip sheets to classroom curriculum, have been developed to help youth, parents, and teachers address cyberbullying. While youth and parents are willing to disclose their experiences with bullying to their health care providers, these disclosures need to be taken seriously and handled in a caring manner. Health care providers need to include questions about bullying on intake forms to encourage these disclosures. The aim of this article is to examine the current status of cyberbullying prevention and intervention. Research support for several school-based intervention programs is summarised. Recommendations for future research are provided.

  10. Mechanisms of Biliary Plastic Stent Occlusion and Efforts at Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Il Kwon

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Biliary stenting via endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography has greatly improved the quality of patient care over the last 30 years. Plastic stent occlusion limits the life span of such stents. Attempts to improve plastic stent patency duration have mostly failed. Metal stents (self-expandable metal stents [SEMSs] have therefore replaced plastic stents, especially for malignant biliary strictures. SEMS are at least 10 times more expensive than plastic stents. In this focused review, we will discuss basic mechanisms of plastic stent occlusion, along with a systematic summary of previous efforts and related studies to improve stent patency and potential new techniques to overcome existing limitations.

  11. Standardizing economic analysis in prevention will require substantial effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyll, Max

    2014-12-01

    It is exceedingly difficult to compare results of economic analyses across studies due to variations in assumptions, methodology, and outcome measures, a fact which surely decreases the impact and usefulness of prevention-related economic research. Therefore, Crowley et al. (Prevention Science, 2013) are precisely correct in their call for increased standardization and have usefully highlighted the issues that must be addressed. However, having made the need clear, the questions become what form the solution should take, and how should it be implemented. The present discussion outlines the rudiments of a comprehensive framework for promoting standardized methodology in the estimation of economic outcomes, as encouraged by Crowley et al. In short, a single, standard, reference case approach should be clearly articulated, and all economic research should be encouraged to apply that standard approach, with results from compliant analyses being reported in a central archive. Properly done, the process would increase the ability of those without specialized training to contribute to the body of economic research pertaining to prevention, and the most difficult tasks of predicting and monetizing distal outcomes would be readily completed through predetermined models. These recommendations might be viewed as somewhat forcible, insomuch as they advocate for prescribing the details of a standard methodology and establishing a means of verifying compliance. However, it is unclear that the best practices proposed by Crowley et al. will be widely adopted in the absence of a strong and determined approach.

  12. Mediation designs for tobacco prevention research

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, David P.; Taborga, Marcia P.; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes research designs and statistical analyses to investigate how tobacco prevention programs achieve their effects on tobacco use. A theoretical approach to program development and evaluation useful for any prevention program guides the analysis. The theoretical approach focuses on action theory for how the program affects mediating variables and on conceptual theory for how mediating variables are related to tobacco use. Information on the mediating mechanisms by which tobacco prevention programs achieve effects is useful for the development of efficient programs and provides a test of the theoretical basis of prevention efforts. Examples of these potential mediating mechanisms are described including mediated effects through attitudes, social norms, beliefs about positive consequences, and accessibility to tobacco. Prior research provides evidence that changes in social norms are a critical mediating mechanism for successful tobacco prevention. Analysis of mediating variables in single group designs with multiple mediators are described as well as multiple group randomized designs which are the most likely to accurately uncover important mediating mechanisms. More complicated dismantling and constructive designs are described and illustrated based on current findings from tobacco research. Mediation analysis for categorical outcomes and more complicated statistical methods are outlined. PMID:12324176

  13. Crime Prevention through Environmental Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Rick; Cadzow, Emma

    2004-01-01

    Applying CPTED (Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design) strategies to schools can significantly contribute to a safer learning environment by influencing the behaviour of students and visitors. CPTED has three overlapping primary concepts that are intended to reduce opportunities for crime as well as fear of crime: access control,…

  14. The SAATELLITE and EVADE Clinical Studies Within the COMBACTE Consortium: A Public-Private Collaborative Effort in Designing and Performing Clinical Trials for Novel Antibacterial Drugs to Prevent Nosocomial Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, Bruno; Chastre, Jean; Eggiman, Philippe; Laterre, Pierre-François; Torres, Antoni; Sanchez, Miguel; Esser, Mark T; Bishop, Brian; Bonten, Marc; Goosens, Herman; Jafri, Hasan S

    2016-08-15

    The Innovative Medicines Initiative-funded COMBACTE consortium fosters academic-industry partnership in pioneering studies to combat serious bacterial infections. We describe how this partnership is advancing the development of 2 monoclonal antibodies, MEDI4893 and MEDI3902, for the prevention of nosocomial pneumonia. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Exploring the Identity-Theft Prevention Efforts of Consumers in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jacquelyne L.

    2011-01-01

    Identity theft is quite expensive and devastating for victims; unfortunately, it is also a rapidly growing crime. Much of the prior research on identity theft has focused on legislative efforts that may prevent the crime. However, limited research exists on what consumers perceive as identity prevention and the measures they take to prevent…

  16. Implications of the 2015 World Health Organization isoniazid preventive therapy recommendations on tuberculosis prevention efforts in Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oloo, Stella Anne

    2016-07-01

    The World Health Organization recently released guidelines recommending 36-month use of isoniazid preventive therapy in adults and adolescents living with HIV in resource-limited settings. Namibia continues to grapple with one of the highest incidences of tuberculosis (TB) worldwide. Implementation of these guidelines requires considerations of TB epidemiology, health infrastructure, programmatic priorities and patient adherence. This article explores the challenges Namibia currently faces in its fight against TB and the implications of the new guidelines on Namibian TB prevention efforts.

  17. Orientation to pollution prevention for facility design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raney, E.A.; Whitehead, J.K.; Encke, D.B. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Dorsey, J.A. [Kaiser Engineers Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This material was developed to assist engineers in incorporating pollution prevention into the design of new or modified facilities within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The material demonstrates how the design of a facility can affect the generation of waste throughout a facility`s entire life and it offers guidance on how to prevent the generation of waste during design. Contents include: Orientation to pollution prevention for facility design training course booklet; Pollution prevention design guideline; Orientation to pollution prevention for facility design lesson plan; Training participant survey and pretest; and Training facilitator`s guide and schedule.

  18. A Covariance Structure Model Test of Antecedents of Adolescent Alcohol Misuse and a Prevention Effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dielman, T. E.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Questionnaires were administered to 4,157 junior high school students to determine levels of alcohol misuse, exposure to peer use and misuse of alcohol, susceptibility to peer pressure, internal health locus of control, and self-esteem. Conceptual model of antecendents of adolescent alcohol misuse and effectiveness of a prevention effort was…

  19. Infection prevention efforts of pulmonary tuberculosis patients in the local government clinic of Kuta Baro Aceh Besar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andika, Fauziah; Syahputra, Muhammad Yusrizal; Marniati

    2017-09-01

    Pulmonary tuberculosis is one of the infectious diseases that has been known and is still the leading cause of death in the world. It is an old disease which is a global problem in the world and estimated that a third of the world's population has been infected by this bacterium. The purpose of this study was to determine the factors related with the infection prevention efforts of pulmonary tuberculosis patients in the local goverment clinic of Kuta Baro Aceh Besar. This research is descriptive analytic survey using cross sectional design. It used univariate analysis to see the frequency distribution and the percentage of each variable. Meanwhile, the bivariate analysis used chi square test with CI (Confident Interval) of 95%. The samples in this study are 34 people. The research results obtained with good infection prevention efforts of pulmonary tuberculosis is 41.2%, 5.9% for teenagers, 47.1% for knowledgeable people, 17.6% for people who do not work and 44.1% for those who have a positive behavior. The results of the bivariate obtained there is correlation between the prevention of pulmonary tuberculosis infection with age (p = 0.087), Occupation (p = 0.364), knowledge (p = 0.006) and behavior (p = 0.020). To conclude, there is a correlation between knowledge and behaviors with the infection prevention efforts of pulmonary tuberculosis patients and there is no correlation between age and occupation with infection prevention efforts of pulmonary tuberculosis patients. It is expected that the respondents to hold consultations to health officials about a mechanism of prevention to avoid the disease.

  20. Ethics and Issues of Secondary Prevention Efforts in Child Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartan, Kieran F; Merdian, Hannah L; Perkins, Derek E; Kettleborough, Danielle

    2017-08-01

    This article discusses the ethical, practical, and moral issues surrounding secondary prevention efforts of child sexual abuse from a professional and practice-based perspective. Transcripts of a semistructured consultation event with n = 15 international experts on the secondary prevention of child sexual abuse were analysed using thematic qualitative analysis. The research identified four main critical areas linked to secondary prevention efforts, including, the psychology of self-reporting and disclosure; the interaction with and within existing legal, social, and professional frameworks; the scale and type of an appropriate response; and potential hurdles (i.e., within media, public, politics). The article outlines these areas, highlighting participant perspectives on risk-enhancing and mitigating factors for each domain.

  1. Ukrainian efforts in preventing illicit trafficking in nuclear materials and other radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondratov, S.I.

    1998-01-01

    The Ukrainian efforts in preventing illicit trafficking in nuclear materials and other radioactive sources are described. Attention is paid for Ukrainian Government's Decree intended, in particular, to facilitate in establishing well-coordinated activities of the Ukrainian law enforcement bodies and other agencies involved, assigning the status of the main expert organization on illicit trafficking in nuclear materials to the Scientific Center 'Institute for Nuclear Research', in developing the three-years Program on prevention illicit trafficking in nuclear materials and other radioactive sources on the Ukrainian territory as well as measures at the State and customs borders. The main directions provided by the draft Program mentioned are presented as well. (author)

  2. Development of Mix Design Method in Efforts to Increase Concrete Performance Using Portland Pozzolana Cement (PPC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krisnamurti; Soehardjono, A.; Zacoeb, A.; Wibowo, A.

    2018-01-01

    Earthquake disaster can cause infrastructure damage. Prevention of human casualties from disasters should do. Prevention efforts can do through improving the mechanical performance of building materials. To achieve high-performance concrete (HPC), usually used Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC). However, the most widely circulating cement types today are Portland Pozzolana Cement (PPC) or Portland Composite Cement (PCC). Therefore, the proportion of materials used in the HPC mix design needs to adjust to achieve the expected performance. This study aims to develop a concrete mix design method using PPC to fulfil the criteria of HPC. The study refers to the code/regulation of concrete mixtures that use OPC based on the results of laboratory testing. This research uses PPC material, gravel from Malang area, Lumajang sand, water, silica fume and superplasticizer of a polycarboxylate copolymer. The analyzed information includes the investigation results of aggregate properties, concrete mixed composition, water-binder ratio variation, specimen dimension, compressive strength and elasticity modulus of the specimen. The test results show that the concrete compressive strength achieves value between 25 MPa to 55 MPa. The mix design method that has developed can simplify the process of concrete mix design using PPC to achieve the certain desired performance of concrete.

  3. Leveraging human-centered design in chronic disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Gordon O; Pacione, Chris; Shultz, Rebecca K; Klügl, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Bridging the knowing-doing gap in the prevention of chronic disease requires deep appreciation and understanding of the complexities inherent in behavioral change. Strategies that have relied exclusively on the implementation of evidence-based data have not yielded the desired progress. The tools of human-centered design, used in conjunction with evidence-based data, hold much promise in providing an optimal approach for advancing disease prevention efforts. Directing the focus toward wide-scale education and application of human-centered design techniques among healthcare professionals will rapidly multiply their effective ability to bring the kind of substantial results in disease prevention that have eluded the healthcare industry for decades. This, in turn, would increase the likelihood of prevention by design. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Prevention of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder: Current Canadian Efforts and Analysis of Gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Poole

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective prevention of risky alcohol use in pregnancy involves much more than providing information about the risk of potential birth defects and developmental disabilities in children. To categorize the breadth of possible initiatives, Canadian experts have identified a four-part framework for fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD prevention: Level 1, public awareness and broad health promotion; Level 2, conversations about alcohol with women of childbearing age and their partners; Level 3, specialized support for pregnant women; and Level 4, postpartum support for new mothers. In order to describe the level of services across Canada, 50 Canadian service providers, civil servants, and researchers working in the area of FASD prevention were involved in an online Delphi survey process to create a snapshot of current FASD prevention efforts, identify gaps, and provide ideas on how to close these gaps to improve FASD prevention. Promising Canadian practices and key areas for future action are described. Overall, Canadian FASD prevention programming reflects evidence-based practices; however, there are many opportunities to improve scope and availability of these initiatives.

  5. How active resisters and organizational constipators affect health care-acquired infection prevention efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint, Sanjay; Kowalski, Christine P; Banaszak-Holl, Jane; Forman, Jane; Damschroder, Laura; Krein, Sarah L

    2009-05-01

    As of October 2008, hospitals in the United States no longer receive Medicare reimbursement for certain types of health care-associated infection (HAI), thereby heightening the need for effective prevention efforts. The mere existence of evidence-based practices, however, does not always result in the use of such practices because of the complexities inherent in translating evidence into practice. A qualitative study was conducted to determine the barriers to implementing evidence-based practices to prevent HAI, with a specific focus on the role played by hospital personnel. In-depth phone and in-person interviews were conducted between October 2006 and September 2007 with 86 participants (31 physicians) including chief executive officers, chiefs of staff, hospital epidemiologists, infection control professionals, intensive care unit directors, nurse managers, and frontline physicians and nurses, in 14 hospitals. Active resistance to evidence-based practice change was pervasive. Successful efforts to overcome active resisters included benchmarking infection rates, identifying effective champions, and participating in collaborative efforts. Organizational constipators-mid- to high-level executives who act as insidious barriers to change-also increased the difficulty in implementing change. Recognizing the presence of constipators is often the first step in addressing the problem but can be followed with including the organizational constipator early in group discussions to improve communication and obtain buy-in, working around the individual, and terminating the constipator's employment. Two types of personnel-active resistors and organizational constipators-impeded HAI prevention activities, and several approaches were used to overcome those barriers. Hospital administrators and patient safety leaders can use the findings to more successfully structure activities that prevent HAI in their hospitals.

  6. A model to estimate cost-savings in diabetic foot ulcer prevention efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barshes, Neal R; Saedi, Samira; Wrobel, James; Kougias, Panos; Kundakcioglu, O Erhun; Armstrong, David G

    2017-04-01

    Sustained efforts at preventing diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) and subsequent leg amputations are sporadic in most health care systems despite the high costs associated with such complications. We sought to estimate effectiveness targets at which cost-savings (i.e. improved health outcomes at decreased total costs) might occur. A Markov model with probabilistic sensitivity analyses was used to simulate the five-year survival, incidence of foot complications, and total health care costs in a hypothetical population of 100,000 people with diabetes. Clinical event and cost estimates were obtained from previously-published trials and studies. A population without previous DFU but with 17% neuropathy and 11% peripheral artery disease (PAD) prevalence was assumed. Primary prevention (PP) was defined as reducing initial DFU incidence. PP was more than 90% likely to provide cost-savings when annual prevention costs are less than $50/person and/or annual DFU incidence is reduced by at least 25%. Efforts directed at patients with diabetes who were at moderate or high risk for DFUs were very likely to provide cost-savings if DFU incidence was decreased by at least 10% and/or the cost was less than $150 per person per year. Low-cost DFU primary prevention efforts producing even small decreases in DFU incidence may provide the best opportunity for cost-savings, especially if focused on patients with neuropathy and/or PAD. Mobile phone-based reminders, self-identification of risk factors (ex. Ipswich touch test), and written brochures may be among such low-cost interventions that should be investigated for cost-savings potential. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Are labour-intensive efforts to prevent pressure ulcers cost-effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiesen, Anne Sofie Mølbak; Nørgaard, Kamilla; Andersen, Marie Frederikke Bruun; Møller, Klaus Meyer; Ehlers, Lars Holger

    2013-10-01

    Pressure ulcers are a major problem in Danish healthcare with a prevalence of 13-43% among hospitalized patients. The associated costs to the Danish Health Care Sector are estimated to be €174.5 million annually. In 2010, The Danish Society for Patient Safety introduced the Pressure Ulcer Bundle (PUB) in order to reduce hospital-acquired pressure ulcers by a minimum of 50% in five hospitals. The PUB consists of evidence-based preventive initiatives implemented by ward staff using the Model for Improvement. To investigate the cost-effectiveness of labour-intensive efforts to reduce pressure ulcers in the Danish Health Care Sector, comparing the PUB with standard care. A decision analytic model was constructed to assess the costs and consequences of hospital-acquired pressure ulcers during an average hospital admission in Denmark. The model inputs were based on a systematic review of clinical efficacy data combined with local cost and effectiveness data from the Thy-Mors Hospital, Denmark. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA) was conducted to assess the uncertainty. Prevention of hospital-acquired pressure ulcers by implementing labour-intensive effects according to the PUB was cost-saving and resulted in an improved effect compared to standard care. The incremental cost of the PUB was -€38.62. The incremental effects were a reduction of 9.3% prevented pressure ulcers and 0.47% prevented deaths. The PSAs confirmed the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER)'s dominance for both prevented pressure ulcers and saved lives with the PUB. This study shows that labour-intensive efforts to reduce pressure ulcers on hospital wards can be cost-effective and lead to savings in total costs of hospital and social care. The data included in the study regarding costs and effects of the PUB in Denmark were based on preliminary findings from a pilot study at Thy-Mors Hospital and literature.

  8. Recent sexually transmitted disease prevention efforts and their implications for AIDS health education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, M Z; DeJong, W

    1986-01-01

    In the absence of a cure or vaccine for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) educational and social marketing efforts to reduce the transmission of Human T-lymphotropic type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV) are currently our best hope for controlling the disease. Since 1983, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) has funded a series of research studies to determine whether education efforts can successfully motivate the adoption of key behaviors relevant to the control of a variety of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Analysis of the first two studies which are now completed, and preliminary data from a third study, have documented dramatic changes in behavior, knowledge, and attitudes among clients in inner-city public health clinics. The authors describe the principles and underlying assumptions that have guided the design of their STD initiatives, drawing special attention to the implications for AIDS health education efforts.

  9. Recurrent issues in efforts to prevent homicidal youth violence in schools: expert opinions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, Karen E; Redding, Richard E; Smith, Peter K; Surette, Ray; Cornell, Dewey G

    2011-01-01

    Developmental research on social influences on adolescents can guide practices aimed to prevent homicidal youth violence. School shootings have repeatedly raised questions about the contributory role of bullying and entertainment violence, how news media publicity might produce copycat crimes, and whether stiffer criminal sanctions might have a deterrent effect. This article presents the thoughts and recommendations of a group of experts on these topics summarizing the current knowledge base. In brief, bullying reduction programs may be a useful early prevention effort. Television and video games with violent themes can encourage aggressive behavior, but these media can be used to teach more prosocial behavior as well. The potential copycat effects of highly publicized crimes might be diminished with more restrained reporting, although more research is needed. Finally, there is substantial evidence that increased criminal sanctions for youthful offenders have not had a deterrent effect. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  10. Standardization Efforts for Mechanical Testing and Design of Advanced Ceramic Materials and Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Jonathan A.; Jenkins, Michael G.

    2003-01-01

    Advanced aerospace systems occasionally require the use of very brittle materials such as sapphire and ultra-high temperature ceramics. Although great progress has been made in the development of methods and standards for machining, testing and design of component from these materials, additional development and dissemination of standard practices is needed. ASTM Committee C28 on Advanced Ceramics and ISO TC 206 have taken a lead role in the standardization of testing for ceramics, and recent efforts and needs in standards development by Committee C28 on Advanced Ceramics will be summarized. In some cases, the engineers, etc. involved are unaware of the latest developments, and traditional approaches applicable to other material systems are applied. Two examples of flight hardware failures that might have been prevented via education and standardization will be presented.

  11. State and local law enforcement agency efforts to prevent sales to obviously intoxicated patrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenk, Kathleen M; Toomey, Traci L; Nelson, Toben F; Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Erickson, Darin J

    2014-04-01

    Alcohol sales to intoxicated patrons are illegal and may lead to public health issues such as traffic crashes and violence. Over the past several decades, considerable effort has been made to reduce alcohol sales to underage persons but less attention has been given to the issue of sales to obviously intoxicated patrons. Studies have found a high likelihood of sales to obviously intoxicated patrons (i.e., overservice), but little is known about efforts by enforcement agencies to reduce these sales. We conducted a survey of statewide alcohol enforcement agencies and local law enforcement agencies across the US to assess their strategies for enforcing laws prohibiting alcohol sales to intoxicated patrons at licensed alcohol establishments. We randomly sampled 1,631 local agencies (1,082 participated), and surveyed all 49 statewide agencies that conduct alcohol enforcement. Sales to obviously intoxicated patrons were reported to be somewhat or very common in their jurisdiction by 55 % of local agencies and 90 % of state agencies. Twenty percent of local and 60 % of state agencies reported conducting enforcement efforts to reduce sales to obviously intoxicated patrons in the past year. Among these agencies, fewer than half used specific enforcement strategies on at least a monthly basis to prevent overservice of alcohol. Among local agencies, enforcement efforts were more common among agencies that had a full-time officer specifically assigned to carry out alcohol enforcement efforts. Enforcement of laws prohibiting alcohol sales to obviously intoxicated patrons is an underutilized strategy to reduce alcohol-related problems, especially among local law enforcement agencies.

  12. Prevalence of endoparasitic infection in children and its relation with cholera prevention efforts in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Charles T; Garcia, Benito Borrego; Logan, Michael H; New, John C; Patton, Sharon

    2003-07-01

    To investigate whether increased knowledge and use of public health measures promoted for cholera prevention is reflected in lower prevalence of parasitic infection in households in a community in the state of Tamaulipas, Mexico, that is close to the border with the United States of America. Between 1994 and 1997, fecal samples from 438 children were collected through convenience sampling and then examined for helminth eggs/larvae and protozoan cysts as biologic indicators of household compliance with recommended cholera prevention measures. The suggested measures were to wash hands before meals and after defecation, to drink purified water, to wash fruits and vegetables, and to eat well-cooked food. In addition, information on the knowledge of and the use of cholera preventive measures was collected by interviews with adult informants in 252 households (186 of those households also provided a fecal sample for analysis). Parasitic infections occurred in 131 of the 438 children (30%), who resided in 79 of the 186 households (42%) that provided fecal samples. Giardia lamblia accounted for 12.5% of all infections. Infections with Hymenolepis nana, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, Ancylostoma/Necator, Strongyloides stercoralis, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba hartmanni, Entamoeba histolytica, Endolimax nana, and Iodamoeba bütschlii were also noted. Infected children were older and more often had an infected sibling. Households with three or more children were also more likely to have an infected child. The primary caregivers in the households where at least one child had a parasitic infection were distinguished by their inability to list at least three cholera prevention measures from memory. The 42% household prevalence of parasitic infection was relatively high and indicates that some residents of this community may not have fully embraced the public health education efforts promoted for prevention of cholera. The occurrence of

  13. Prevalence of endoparasitic infection in children and its relation with cholera prevention efforts in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles T. Faulkner

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether increased knowledge and use of public health measures promoted for cholera prevention is reflected in lower prevalence of parasitic infection in households in a community in the state of Tamaulipas, Mexico, that is close to the border with the United States of America. METHODS: Between 1994 and 1997, fecal samples from 438 children were collected through convenience sampling and then examined for helminth eggs/larvae and protozoan cysts as biologic indicators of household compliance with recommended cholera prevention measures. The suggested measures were to wash hands before meals and after defecation, to drink purified water, to wash fruits and vegetables, and to eat well-cooked food. In addition, information on the knowledge of and the use of cholera preventive measures was collected by interviews with adult informants in 252 households (186 of those households also provided a fecal sample for analysis. RESULTS: Parasitic infections occurred in 131 of the 438 children (30%, who resided in 79 of the 186 households (42% that provided fecal samples. Giardia lamblia accounted for 12.5% of all infections. Infections with Hymenolepis nana, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, Ancylostoma/Necator, Strongyloides stercoralis, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba hartmanni, Entamoeba histolytica, Endolimax nana, and Iodamoeba bütschlii were also noted. Infected children were older and more often had an infected sibling. Households with three or more children were also more likely to have an infected child. The primary caregivers in the households where at least one child had a parasitic infection were distinguished by their inability to list at least three cholera prevention measures from memory. CONCLUSIONS: The 42% household prevalence of parasitic infection was relatively high and indicates that some residents of this community may not have fully embraced the public health education efforts

  14. A brief history of the global effort to develop a preventive HIV vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esparza, José

    2013-08-02

    Soon after HIV was discovered as the cause of AIDS in 1983-1984, there was an expectation that a preventive vaccine would be rapidly developed. In trying to achieve that goal, three successive scientific paradigms have been explored: induction of neutralizing antibodies, induction of cell mediated immunity, and exploration of combination approaches and novel concepts. Although major progress has been made in understanding the scientific basis for HIV vaccine development, efficacy trials have been critical in moving the field forward. In 2009, the field was reinvigorated with the modest results obtained from the RV144 trial conducted in Thailand. Here, we review those vaccine development efforts, with an emphasis on events that occurred during the earlier years. The goal is to provide younger generations of scientists with information and inspiration to continue the search for an HIV vaccine. Copyright © 2013 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Report: Pollution Prevention: Effectiveness of EPA’s Efforts to Encourage Purchase of Recycled Goods Has Not Been Demonstrated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #2003-P-00013, Sept 22, 2003. In an effort to prevent pollution and conserve natural resources and virgin materials, Congress requires that the Federal Government’s purchasing power be used to steer materials away from disposal toward recycling.

  16. Clinical Trial Design for HIV Prevention Research: Determining Standards of Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Liza; Zwerski, Sheryl

    2015-06-01

    This article seeks to advance ethical dialogue on choosing standards of prevention in clinical trials testing improved biomedical prevention methods for HIV. The stakes in this area of research are high, given the continued high rates of infection in many countries and the budget limitations that have constrained efforts to expand treatment for all who are currently HIV-infected. New prevention methods are still needed; at the same time, some existing prevention and treatment interventions have been proven effective but are not yet widely available in the countries where they most urgently needed. The ethical tensions in this field of clinical research are well known and have been the subject of extensive debate. There is no single clinical trial design that can optimize all the ethically important goals and commitments involved in research. Several recent articles have described the current ethical difficulties in designing HIV prevention trials, especially in resource limited settings; however, there is no consensus on how to handle clinical trial design decisions, and existing international ethical guidelines offer conflicting advice. This article acknowledges these deep ethical dilemmas and moves beyond a simple descriptive approach to advance an organized method for considering what clinical trial designs will be ethically acceptable for HIV prevention trials, balancing the relevant criteria and providing justification for specific design decisions. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  17. Why Do We Report Suicides and How Can We Facilitate Suicide Prevention Efforts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qijin; Fu, King-wa; Caine, Eric; Yip, Paul S. F.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Hong Kong news media report suicide-related events more frequently and sensationally than Western countries. Little is known about Hong Kong media professionals’ experiences and thoughts about such reporting. Aims To understand Hong Kong media professionals’ experiences and perceptions of suicide reporting and whether the news media can be better engaged into suicide prevention. Method We conducted three focus groups of journalists from both the Cantonese and English language news media. Data were analyzed using grounded theory methods. Results We discerned three rationales from participants regarding their intense coverage of suicide-related events: (1) satisfying commercial competitiveness, (2) addressing social problems, and (3) responding to readers’ interests. The first rationale was a dominant and vigorous motivating factor, and often influenced suicide reporting among local Cantonese media. Media professionals recommended engagement strategies targeted at frontline journalists, media managers, and general media consumers. Conclusion We see potential to involve news media professionals in Hong Kong as working partners in suicide prevention. To succeed, this effort requires engagement in a proactive, consistent, and sustained fashion. PMID:24322824

  18. Bankruptcy Prevention: New Effort to Reflect on Legal and Social Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliestik, Tomas; Misankova, Maria; Valaskova, Katarina; Svabova, Lucia

    2018-04-01

    Every corporation has an economic and moral responsibility to its stockholders to perform well financially. However, the number of bankruptcies in Slovakia has been growing for several years without an apparent macroeconomic cause. To prevent a rapid denigration and to prevent the outflow of foreign capital, various efforts are being zealously implemented. Robust analysis using conventional bankruptcy prediction tools revealed that the existing models are adaptable to local conditions, particularly local legislation. Furthermore, it was confirmed that most of these outdated tools have sufficient capability to warn of impending financial problems several years in advance. A novel bankruptcy prediction tool that outperforms the conventional models was developed. However, it is increasingly challenging to predict bankruptcy risk as corporations have become more global and more complex and as they have developed sophisticated schemes to hide their actual situations under the guise of "optimization" for tax authorities. Nevertheless, scepticism remains because economic engineers have established bankruptcy as a strategy to limit the liability resulting from court-imposed penalties.

  19. Present status of Tomari No.3 unit construction and efforts for preventing global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouchi, Tamotsu; Sakai, Ichiro; Makino, Takeshi

    2009-01-01

    Hokkaido Electric Power Company, Inc. (HEPCO) supplies electricity to almost all area of Hokkaido. Its service area accounts for about one-fifth of Japan's area, on the other hand, the population of the service area only accounts for 4.4% of the nation. This means Hokkaido's nature is precious, and one of HEPCO's missions is to protect such environment, with providing stable electricity. Therefore, nuclear power, which does not emit greenhouse effect gas for generation, is becoming more important. HEPCO's operating nuclear power stations are Tomari No.1 unit and No.2 unit. Their generation capacity is 579 MW respectively. Now, No.3 unit is under construction. Its generation capacity is 912 MW and it will be operational in December 2009. In Hokkaido, about one fourth of electricity is now produced by nuclear power, however, after Tomari No.3 is completed, more than 40% of electricity will be produced by nuclear. So, Tomari No.3 unit will contribute stable supply of electricity in the first half of 21st century and prevent global warming in Hokkaido. This paper describes the present status of Tomari No.3 unit construction with major specifications and our efforts to prevent global warming. (author)

  20. Present status of Tomari No.3 unit construction and efforts for preventing global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouchi, Tamotsu

    2008-01-01

    Hokkaido Electric Power Company, Inc. (HEPCO) supplies electricity to almost all area of Hokkaido. Its service area accounts for about one-fifth of Japan's area, on the other hand, the population of the service area only accounts for 4.4% of the nation. This means Hokkaido's nature is precious, and one of HEPCO's missions is to protect such environment, with providing stable electricity. Therefore, nuclear power, which does not emit greenhouse effect gas for generation, is becoming more important. HEPCO's operating nuclear power stations are Tomari No.1 unit and No.2 unit. Their generation capacity is 579 MW respectively. Now, No.3 unit is under construction. Its generation capacity is 912 MW and it will be operational in December 2009. In Hokkaido, about one fourth of electricity is now produced by nuclear power, however, after Tomari No.3 is completed, about 40% of electricity will be produced by nuclear. So, Tomari No.3 unit will contribute stable supply of electricity in the first half of 21st century and prevent global warming in Hokkaido. This paper describes the present status of Tomari No.3 unit construction with major specifications and our efforts to prevent global warming. (author)

  1. Modeling the Movement of Homicide by Type to Inform Public Health Prevention Efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeoli, April M; Grady, Sue; Pizarro, Jesenia M; Melde, Chris

    2015-10-01

    We modeled the spatiotemporal movement of hotspot clusters of homicide by motive in Newark, New Jersey, to investigate whether different homicide types have different patterns of clustering and movement. We obtained homicide data from the Newark Police Department Homicide Unit's investigative files from 1997 through 2007 (n = 560). We geocoded the address at which each homicide victim was found and recorded the date of and the motive for the homicide. We used cluster detection software to model the spatiotemporal movement of statistically significant homicide clusters by motive, using census tract and month of occurrence as the spatial and temporal units of analysis. Gang-motivated homicides showed evidence of clustering and diffusion through Newark. Additionally, gang-motivated homicide clusters overlapped to a degree with revenge and drug-motivated homicide clusters. Escalating dispute and nonintimate familial homicides clustered; however, there was no evidence of diffusion. Intimate partner and robbery homicides did not cluster. By tracking how homicide types diffuse through communities and determining which places have ongoing or emerging homicide problems by type, we can better inform the deployment of prevention and intervention efforts.

  2. A Priori Implementation Effort Estimation for HW Design Based on Independent-Path Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgren, Rasmus; Diguet, Jean-Philippe; Bomel, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    that with the proposed approach it is possible to estimate the hardware implementation effort. This approach, part of our light design space exploration concept, is implemented in our framework ‘‘Design-Trotter'' and offers a new type of tool that can help designers and managers to reduce the time-to-market factor......This paper presents a metric-based approach for estimating the hardware implementation effort (in terms of time) for an application in relation to the number of linear-independent paths of its algorithms. We exploit the relation between the number of edges and linear-independent paths...... in an algorithm and the corresponding implementation effort. We propose an adaptation of the concept of cyclomatic complexity, complemented with a correction function to take designers' learning curve and experience into account. Our experimental results, composed of a training and a validation phase, show...

  3. Climate Change and Implications for Prevention. California's Efforts to Provide Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmes, John R

    2018-04-01

    The atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and the temperature of the earth's surface have been rising in parallel for decades, with the former recently reaching 400 parts per million, consistent with a 1.5°C increase in global warming. Climate change models predict that a "business as usual" approach, that is, no effort to control CO 2 emissions from combustion of fossil fuels, will result in a more than 2°C increase in annual average surface temperature by approximately 2034. With atmospheric warming comes increased air pollution. The concept of a "climate gap" in air quality control captures the decreased effectiveness of regulatory policies to reduce pollution with a hotter climate. Sources of greenhouse gases and climate-forcing aerosols ("black carbon") are the same sources of air pollutants that harm health. California has adopted robust climate change mitigation policies that are also designed to achieve public health cobenefits by improving air quality. These policies include advanced clean car standards, renewable energy, a sustainable communities strategy to limit suburban sprawl, a low carbon fuel standard, and energy efficiency. A market-based mechanism to put a price on CO 2 emissions is the cap-and-trade program that allows capped facilities to trade state-issued greenhouse gas emissions allowances. The "cap" limits total greenhouse gas emissions from all covered sources, and declines over time to progressively reduce emissions. An alternative approach is a carbon tax. California's leadership on air quality and climate change mitigation is increasingly important, given the efforts to slow or even reverse implementation of such policies at the U.S. national level.

  4. Deployment of pollution prevention during design -- a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Mar, R.A.; Ambalam, T.T.

    1997-08-01

    Traditionally, pollution prevention (P2) assessments have been performed on existing facilities and ongoing operations, well after the completion of design and construction. It has been theorized that more success can be achieved by moving P2 upstream into the design process, where an estimated 70% of a project's total life cycle costs are initially fixed. Decisions made during design to prevent or minimize the amount of waste generated can reap benefits for many years to come. This is especially true when designing systems for handling hazardous and radioactive wastes for treatment, storage, and disposal. P2 assessments performed during design of such projects can uncover significant savings to be reaped during project construction, operations, and/or decommissioning. However, many project managers are still reluctant to include some type of P2 review or assessment as part of the design effort, because the immediate payback to the design entity is difficult to quantify. This paper presents the results of a P2 assessment performed on a design project at Hanford which identified close to $500,000 in construction savings while minimizing low-level and mixed radioactive waste generation. This paper describes the process used to per-form the assessment, discusses its results, and provides lessons-learned for future P2 design assessments

  5. Cigarette package design: opportunities for disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Difranza, J R; Clark, D M; Pollay, R W

    2002-06-15

    To learn how cigarette packages are designed and to determine to what extent cigarette packages are designed to target children. A computer search was made of all Internet websites that post tobacco industry documents using the search terms: packaging, package design, package study, box design, logo, trademark and design study. All documents were retrieved electronically and analyzed by the first author for recurrent themes. Cigarette manufacturers devote a great deal of attention and expense to package design because it is central to their efforts to create brand images. Colors, graphic elements, proportioning, texture, materials and typography are tested and used in various combinations to create the desired product and user images. Designs help to create the perceived product attributes and project a personality image of the user with the intent of fulfilling the psychological needs of the targeted type of smoker. The communication of these images and attributes is conducted through conscious and subliminal processes. Extensive testing is conducted using a variety of qualitative and quantitative research techniques. The promotion of tobacco products through appealing imagery cannot be stopped without regulating the package design. The same marketing research techniques used by the tobacco companies can be used to design generic packaging and more effective warning labels targeted at specific consumers.

  6. Cigarette package design: opportunities for disease prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollay RW

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To learn how cigarette packages are designed and to determine to what extent cigarette packages are designed to target children. Methods A computer search was made of all Internet websites that post tobacco industry documents using the search terms: packaging, package design, package study, box design, logo, trademark and design study. All documents were retrieved electronically and analyzed by the first author for recurrent themes. Data Synthesis Cigarette manufacturers devote a great deal of attention and expense to package design because it is central to their efforts to create brand images. Colors, graphic elements, proportioning, texture, materials and typography are tested and used in various combinations to create the desired product and user images. Designs help to create the perceived product attributes and project a personality image of the user with the intent of fulfilling the psychological needs of the targeted type of smoker. The communication of these images and attributes is conducted through conscious and subliminal processes. Extensive testing is conducted using a variety of qualitative and quantitative research techniques. Conclusion The promotion of tobacco products through appealing imagery cannot be stopped without regulating the package design. The same marketing research techniques used by the tobacco companies can be used to design generic packaging and more effective warning labels targeted at specific consumers.

  7. Creel survey sampling designs for estimating effort in short-duration Chinook salmon fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Joshua L.; Quist, Michael C.; Schill, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha sport fisheries in the Columbia River basin are commonly monitored using roving creel survey designs and require precise, unbiased catch estimates. The objective of this study was to examine the relative bias and precision of total catch estimates using various sampling designs to estimate angling effort under the assumption that mean catch rate was known. We obtained information on angling populations based on direct visual observations of portions of Chinook Salmon fisheries in three Idaho river systems over a 23-d period. Based on the angling population, Monte Carlo simulations were used to evaluate the properties of effort and catch estimates for each sampling design. All sampling designs evaluated were relatively unbiased. Systematic random sampling (SYS) resulted in the most precise estimates. The SYS and simple random sampling designs had mean square error (MSE) estimates that were generally half of those observed with cluster sampling designs. The SYS design was more efficient (i.e., higher accuracy per unit cost) than a two-cluster design. Increasing the number of clusters available for sampling within a day decreased the MSE of estimates of daily angling effort, but the MSE of total catch estimates was variable depending on the fishery. The results of our simulations provide guidelines on the relative influence of sample sizes and sampling designs on parameters of interest in short-duration Chinook Salmon fisheries.

  8. Strategies to Build Readiness in Community Mobilization Efforts for Implementation in a Multi-Year Teen Pregnancy Prevention Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuiya, Nazmim; House, L Duane; Desmarais, Jeffrey; Fletcher, Erica; Conlin, Maeve; Perez-McAdoo, Sarah; Waggett, Jessica; Tendulkar, Shalini A

    2017-03-01

    This paper describes an assessment of community readiness to implement a community-wide teen pregnancy prevention initiative, Youth First, and presents strategies used to enhance this readiness as informed by the assessment. Twenty-five community stakeholder interviews were conducted to assess four domains of readiness: (1) attitudes, perception, and knowledge of teen pregnancy; (2) perceived level of readiness; (3) resources, existing and current efforts; and (4) leadership. Interview transcripts were coded and analyzed to identify key themes. Stakeholders acknowledged teen pregnancy as an issue but lacked contextual information. They also perceived the community as ready to address the issue and recognized some organizations already championing efforts. However, many key players were not involved, and ongoing data collection to assess teen pregnancy and prevention efforts was limited. Though many stakeholders were ready to engage in teen pregnancy prevention efforts, they required additional information and training to appropriately address the issue. In response to the assessment findings, several strategies were applied to address readiness and build Youth First partners' capacity to implement the community-wide initiative. Thus, to successfully implement community-wide prevention efforts, it is valuable to assess the level of community readiness to address health issues. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Enforcement Alert: EPA Enforcement Efforts Focus on Prevention of Chemical Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Alert is intended to inform the industry that companies must take responsibility to prevent accidental releases of dangerous chemicals like anhydrous ammonia through compliance with CAA’s Chemical Accident Prevention Program.

  10. Schools Must Include Faculty and Staff in Sexual Violence Prevention Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Jessica; Krause, Kathleen

    2017-01-01

    Creating a normative campus environment intolerant to sexual violence is important for prevention. While prevention initiatives focusing on students are vital, faculty and staff have a central role in supporting and sustaining a comprehensive strategy for preventing campus sexual violence. Nationwide, colleges and universities recently implemented…

  11. Modularity Design Approach for Preventive Machine Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernawati, D.; Pudji, E.; Ngatilah, Y.; Handoyo, R.

    2018-01-01

    In a company, machine maintenance system will be very influential in production process activity. The company should have a scheduled engine maintenance system that does not require high costs when repairing and replacing machine parts. Modularity Design method is able to provide solutions to the engine maintenance scheduling system and can prevent fatal damage to the engine components. It can minimize the cost of repair and replacement of these machine components.The paper provides a solution to machine maintenance problems. The paper is also completed with case study of milling machines. That case studies can give us a real description about impact implementation of modularity design to prevent fatal damage to components and minimize the cost of repair and replacement of components of the machine.

  12. A Method for A Priori Implementation Effort Estimation for Hardware Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgren, Rasmus; Diguet, Jean-Philippe; Gogniat, Guy

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a metric-based approach for estimating the hardware implementation effort (in terms of time) for an application in relation to the number of independent paths of its algorithms. We define a metric which exploits the relation between the number of independent paths in an algori...... facilitating designers and managers needs for estimating the time-to-market schedule....

  13. Designing Chemistry Practice Exams for Enhanced Benefits: An Instrument for Comparing Performance and Mental Effort Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaus, Karen J.; Murphy, Kristen L.; Holme, Thomas A.

    2009-01-01

    The design and use of a chemistry practice exam instrument that includes a measure for student mental effort is described in this paper. Use of such an instrument can beneficial to chemistry students and chemistry educators as well as chemical education researchers from both a content and cognitive science perspective. The method for calculating…

  14. Design strategies for pollution prevention in industries (life cycle design)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleemi, A.R.

    1997-01-01

    Pollution prevention and adoption of clean technologies in the industry are to be the proper strategies to flight against the growing industrial pollution in Pakistan. These strategies will not only reduce the existing pollution load and will also help to have sustainable industrial development in Pakistan in is well established that the concept of pollution prevention demands use of minimum, resources with maximum efficiency to achieve double benefits such as resource conservation and environmental protection. The application of cleaner production and waste minimization in thousand of industries in other part of world has proved beyond doubt that the use of cleaner technology is cheaper as compared to installation of waste treatment plants for end of pipe treatment. Waste treatment plants have been blamed not to solve any pollution problem, but only to transfer pollution from one environmental media to another. The adoption of waste treatment technologies have also created lot of other problems. Thousand of industries in the world have change their focus of activities from end of pipe treatment to pollution prevention techniques. It is the right time to start pollution prevention activities in industry. The design of a product system in the industry can be represented logically as a series of decision and choices made individually and collectively by design participant. The choices range from the selection of materials and manufacturing processes to choices relating to shape, from and function of a product. The product life cycle design provides a logical system for addressing pollution prevention because the full range of environmental consequence associated with the product can be considered and it is a powerful tool for identifying and maximizing the environmental benefits of pollution prevention. The life cycle assesment (LCA) concept suggests that decision making should be based on consideration of the cradle-to grave characteristics of the product, process

  15. Knowledge, Attitudes and Preventive Efforts of Malaysian Medical Students Regarding Exposure to Environmental Tobacco and Cigarette Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, Ann Stirling; Kurtz, Margot; Shamsuddin, Khadijah

    1999-01-01

    Study examines changes in knowledge, attitudes, and preventive efforts of Malaysian students concerning cigarette smoking and environmental exposure to tobacco smoke from their first pre-clinical year in medical school until their final clinical year. Although there were significant improvements in knowledge about smoking and environmental…

  16. The village/commune safety policy and HIV prevention efforts among key affected populations in Cambodia: finding a balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomson Nick

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Village/Commune Safety Policy was launched by the Ministry of Interior of the Kingdom of Cambodia in 2010 and, due to a priority focus on “cleaning the streets”, has created difficulties for HIV prevention programs attempting to implement programs that work with key affected populations including female sex workers and people who inject drugs. The implementation of the policy has forced HIV program implementers, the UN and various government counterparts to explore and develop collaborative ways of delivering HIV prevention services within this difficult environment. The following case study explores some of these efforts and highlights the promising development of a Police Community Partnership Initiative that it is hoped will find a meaningful balance between the Village/Commune Safety Policy and HIV prevention efforts with key affected populations in Cambodia.

  17. Use of psychotropic medication among inpatients during focused efforts in prevention of coercion and restraint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Mikkel; Høgh, Lene; Munk-Jørgensen, Povl

    Objective: Department of Psychiatry in Aabenraa participates in a national Danish project supporting efforts to reduce coercion and restraint in psychiatry. Antipsychotic and anxiolytic medicine is widely used among agitated patients, but is also known to contribute to cardio-vascular disease...

  18. Narrative Means to Preventative Ends: A Narrative Engagement Framework for Designing Prevention Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Day, Michelle; Hecht, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a Narrative Engagement Framework (NEF) for guiding communication-based prevention efforts. This framework suggests that personal narratives have distinctive capabilities in prevention. The paper discusses the concept of narrative, links narrative to prevention, and discusses the central role of youth in developing narrative interventions. As illustration, the authors describe how the NEF is applied in the keepin’ it REAL adolescent drug prevention curriculum, pose theoretical directions, and offer suggestions for future work in prevention communication. PMID:23980613

  19. Using Evidence-Based Parenting Programs to Advance CDC Efforts in Child Maltreatment Prevention. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Linda Anne; Whitaker, Daniel J.; Lutzker, John R.; Filene, Jill H.; Wyatt, Jennifer M.; Cephas, Kendell C.; Hoover, D. Michele

    2004-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recognize child maltreatment as a serious public health problem with extensive short- and long-term health effects. In addition to the immediate physical and emotional effects of maltreatment, children who have experienced abuse and neglect are at increased risk of adverse health effects and…

  20. Secondary Prevention Efforts at the Middle School Level: An Application of the Behavior Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Capizzi, Andrea M.; Fisher, Marisa H.; Ennis, Robin Parks

    2012-01-01

    In this study we examine the impact of the Behavior Education Program (BEP; Hawken, MacLeod, & Rawlings, 2007) with four middle school students who were not responsive to a comprehensive primary prevention program including academic, behavioral and social components. To extend this line of inquiry we (a) conducted a functional behavioral…

  1. Recurrent Issues in Efforts to Prevent Homicidal Youth Violence in Schools: Expert Opinions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, Karen E.; Redding, Richard E.; Smith, Peter K.; Surette, Ray; Cornell, Dewey G.

    2011-01-01

    Developmental research on social influences on adolescents can guide practices aimed to prevent homicidal youth violence. School shootings have repeatedly raised questions about the contributory role of bullying and entertainment violence, how news media publicity might produce copycat crimes, and whether stiffer criminal sanctions might have a…

  2. Education Department Effort to Prevent Colleges from Releasing Crime Records Suffers Setback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaschik, Scott

    1991-01-01

    The Department of Education has suffered legal defeats in Missouri and Arkansas in its campaign to prevent colleges from publicly releasing names of students arrested by campus security. Controversy involves interpretation of a 1974 privacy-protection law, the Buckley Amendment. College officials are unsure about how to deal with the issue. (MSE)

  3. Are current health behavioral change models helpful in guiding prevention of weight gain efforts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowski, Tom; Cullen, Karen W; Nicklas, Theresa; Thompson, Deborah; Baranowski, Janice

    2003-10-01

    Effective procedures are needed to prevent the substantial increases in adiposity that have been occurring among children and adults. Behavioral change may occur as a result of changes in variables that mediate interventions. These mediating variables have typically come from the theories or models used to understand behavior. Seven categories of theories and models are reviewed to define the concepts and to identify the motivational mechanism(s), the resources that a person needs for change, the processes by which behavioral change is likely to occur, and the procedures necessary to promote change. Although each model has something to offer obesity prevention, the early promise can be achieved only with substantial additional research in which these models are applied to diet and physical activity in regard to obesity. The most promising avenues for such research seem to be using the latest variants of the Theory of Planned Behavior and Social Ecology. Synergy may be achieved by taking the most promising concepts from each model and integrating them for use with specific populations. Biology-based steps in an eating or physical activity event are identified, and research issues are suggested to integrate behavioral and biological approaches to understanding eating and physical activity behaviors. Social marketing procedures have much to offer in terms of organizing and strategizing behavioral change programs to incorporate these theoretical ideas. More research is needed to assess the true potential for these models to contribute to our understanding of obesity-related diet and physical activity practices, and in turn, to obesity prevention.

  4. Preliminary design of an osmotic-type salinity gradient energy converter. Phase I, design effort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-04-30

    The base case that was studied for this Phase I Interim Report is a 50 kWe design with 3.5% salt water (seawater) on one side and saturated salt water on the other side of the semi-permeable membrane. This case included a solar evaporation pond. The report includes system descriptions, system component descriptions, siting restrictions, environmental considerations, pretreatment, membrane characteristics, preliminary system capital costs, and recommendations for further work. During the course of the study and investigations, it was decided to extend the review to develop an additional basic flow sheet using brackish water instead of seawater with a solar pond. This option requires reduced flow rates and therefore can utilize smaller and less expensive components as compared to the seawater base case. Based on data for reverse osmosis water purification systems, the operating costs for pretreatment and labor would also be expected to be less for the brackish water system than for the seawater system. Finally, the use of brackish water systems greatly increases the potential number of sites available for a practical Osmo-Hydro Power System.

  5. Socioeconomic Perspectives on Household Chestnut Fruit Utilization and Chestnut Blight Prevention Efforts in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taner Okan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Exotic pathogens, within the center of genetic diversity for the species, compromise European chestnut populations in Turkey. In Turkey today, the species is of tremendous economic, ecological and cultural importance. At this time of severe exotic pathogenic pressure on a highly-valued forest species, we ask, how does awareness of diseases and treatments as well as value for chestnut trees affect the efforts of households to manage pests and diseases of chestnut trees in Turkey? We conducted 96 surveys in 34 villages in 10 provinces across Turkey to investigate awareness of diseases and other challenges to the chestnut population, chestnut harvesting habits, family value for chestnuts and efforts to mitigate pest and disease pressure. We analyze our results using cluster and regression analysis. Our results show that based on analysis of all observed characteristics, our research sites in Turkey break cleanly into groups based on production level. Further, results demonstrate significant correlation between amount of chestnut-derived income and awareness of pests and diseases as well as the likelihood of households enacting disease mitigation measures. These results also demonstrate correlation between observed awareness of diseases and pests and the likelihood of households enacting disease mitigation measures.

  6. Breckinridge Project, initial effort. Report XI, Volume V. Critical review of the design basis. [Critical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    Report XI, Technical Audit, is a compendium of research material used during the Initial Effort in making engineering comparisons and decisions. Volumes 4 and 5 of Report XI present those studies which provide a Critical Review of the Design Basis. The Critical Review Report, prepared by Intercontinental Econergy Associates, Inc., summarizes findings from an extensive review of the data base for the H-Coal process design. Volume 4 presents this review and assessment, and includes supporting material; specifically, Design Data Tabulation (Appendix A), Process Flow Sheets (Appendix B), and References (Appendix C). Volume 5 is a continuation of the references of Appendix C. Studies of a proprietary nature are noted and referenced, but are not included in these volumes. They are included in the Limited Access versions of these reports and may be reviewed by properly cleared personnel in the offices of Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc.

  7. Retaining clients in an outcome monitoring evaluation study: HIV prevention efforts in community settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bryce D; Kalayil, Elizabeth J; Patel-Larson, Alpa; Chen, Brenda; Vaughan, Marla

    2012-02-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention (DHAP) conducted outcome monitoring studies on evidence-based interventions (EBIs) provided by CDC-funded community-based organizations (CBOs). Critical to the success of outcome monitoring was the ability of CBOs to recruit and retain clients in evaluation studies. Two EBIs, Video Opportunities for Innovative Condom Education and Safer Sex (VOICES/VOCES) and Healthy Relationships, were evaluated using repeated measure studies, which require robust follow-up retention rates to increase the validity and usefulness of the findings. The retention rates were high for both VOICES/VOCES CBOs (95.8% at 30 days and 91.1% at 120 days), and Healthy Relationships CBOs (89.5% at 90 days and 83.5% at 180 days). This paper presents an overview of the retention of clients, challenges to follow-up, and strategies developed by CBOs to achieve high retention rates. These strategies and rates are discussed within the context of the CBOs' target populations and communities. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Efforts of Uzbekistan to prevent nuclear terrorism and smuggling of radioactive and nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrenko, V.D.; Karimov, Yu.N.; Podkovirin, A.I.; Shipilov, N.N.; Yuldashev, B.S.; Fazylov, M.I.

    2005-01-01

    Uzbekistan is located on the cross-roads from the north-Russia, Western Europe-to the south-Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq and others. The appearance of terrorist organizations urged some Asian countries to make the nuclear weapons, the making the task of stopping the transportation of nuclear materials and technologies from the north (from countries possessing nuclear weapon) to the south (to countries desiring to have weapons and its components) a reality. To resolve this problem, on the main transportation routes, 'Yantar' stationary radiation monitors of Russian production were installed, and development and production of monitors of our own make was started. This paper covers these works as well as those on preventing possible terrorist attacks on nuclear objects of Uzbekistan

  9. Community-based health efforts for the prevention of falls in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Hanley

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Alan Hanley1, Carmel Silke2, John Murphy31Department of Medicine, Letterkenny General Hospital, Letterkenny, Co Donegal, Ireland; 2Department of Rheumatology, Our Lady's Hospital Manorhamilton, Manorhamilton, Co Leitrim, Ireland; 3Department of Medicine, Castlebar, Co Mayo, IrelandAbstract: Falls are a major public health problem in the elderly population. The associated health care cost is great. It has therefore become an important public health matter to evaluate those interventions that might be effective in reducing the risk of falls. Risk factors that predict an increased risk of falling are described. We discuss interventions that can be employed in the community to reduce the risk of falls and associated injuries by discipline, including physiotherapy, occupational therapy, and physician-led interventions. We also discuss the cost-effectiveness of such interventions.Keywords: fall, fracture, prevention, public health

  10. Prevention of skin cancer in primary healthcare: an evaluation of three different prevention effort levels and the applicability of a phototest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Magnus; Anderson, Chris

    2008-01-01

    The high skin cancer incidence in western society, and its known association with sun exposure habits, makes the area an important target for prevention. We investigated, in a primary healthcare setting, differentiated levels of prevention efforts directed at the propensity of the patient to change his/her sun habits, sun protection behaviour, and attitudes, after information intervention. Additionally, the impact of the performance of a phototest to determine individual sun sensitivity was evaluated. 308 patients visiting a primary healthcare centre in southern Sweden completed a questionnaire concerning sun habits, sun protection behaviour, and attitudes, and were randomized into one of three groups, representing increasing levels of prevention effort in terms of resources. Feedback on their questionnaire and general preventive sun protection advice was given, in the first group by means of a letter, and in the second and third groups by a doctor's consultation. Group 3 also underwent a phototest, with a self-reading assessment and a written follow-up of the phototest result. Change of sun habits, behaviour, and attitudes, based on the Transtheoretical Model of Behaviour Change and on Likert scale scorings, was evaluated after 6 months, by a repeated questionnaire. Prevention mediated by a doctor's consultation had a clearly better impact on the subjects. The addition of a phototest did not further reinforce this effect in the group as a whole, but it did for a subgroup of individuals with high ultraviolet (UV) sensitivity, as determined by the phototest itself, suggesting that this might actually be a tool to improve outcome in this high-risk group. A personal doctor's consultation is a valuable tool in the effective delivery of preventive information in the general practice setting. In individuals with high UV-sensitivity and thus high risk for skin cancer the performance of a photo-test reinforces a positive outcome in habits, behaviour and attitudes.

  11. Interim report on the Global Design Effort Global International Linear Collider (ILC) R&D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, M.

    2011-04-30

    The International Linear Collider: A Technical Progress Report marks the halfway point towards the Global Design Effort fulfilling its mandate to follow up the ILC Reference Design Report with a more optimised Technical Design Report (TDR) by the end of 2012. The TDR will be based on much of the work reported here and will contain all the elements needed to propose the ILC to collaborating governments, including a technical design and implementation plan that are realistic and have been better optimised for performance, cost and risk. We are on track to develop detailed plans for the ILC, such that once results from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN establish the main science goals and parameters of the next machine, we will be in good position to make a strong proposal for this new major global project in particle physics. The two overriding issues for the ILC R&D programme are to demonstrate that the technical requirements for the accelerator are achievable with practical technologies, and that the ambitious physics goals can be addressed by realistic ILC detectors. This GDE interim report documents the impressive progress on the accelerator technologies that can make the ILC a reality. It highlights results of the technological demonstrations that are giving the community increased confidence that we will be ready to proceed with an ILC project following the TDR. The companion detector and physics report document likewise demonstrates how detector designs can meet the ambitious and detailed physics goals set out by the ILC Steering Committee. LHC results will likely affect the requirements for the machine design and the detectors, and we are monitoring that very closely, intending to adapt our design as those results become available.

  12. Engaging Minority Youth in Diabetes Prevention Efforts Through a Participatory, Spoken-Word Social Marketing Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Elizabeth A; Fine, Sarah C; Handley, Margaret A; Davis, Hodari B; Kass, James; Schillinger, Dean

    2017-07-01

    To examine the reach, efficacy, and adoption of The Bigger Picture, a type 2 diabetes (T2DM) social marketing campaign that uses spoken-word public service announcements (PSAs) to teach youth about socioenvironmental conditions influencing T2DM risk. A nonexperimental pilot dissemination evaluation through high school assemblies and a Web-based platform were used. The study took place in San Francisco Bay Area high schools during 2013. In the study, 885 students were sampled from 13 high schools. A 1-hour assembly provided data, poet performances, video PSAs, and Web-based platform information. A Web-based platform featured the campaign Web site and social media. Student surveys preassembly and postassembly (knowledge, attitudes), assembly observations, school demographics, counts of Web-based utilization, and adoption were measured. Descriptive statistics, McNemar's χ 2 test, and mixed modeling accounting for clustering were used to analyze data. The campaign included 23 youth poet-created PSAs. It reached >2400 students (93% self-identified non-white) through school assemblies and has garnered >1,000,000 views of Web-based video PSAs. School participants demonstrated increased short-term knowledge of T2DM as preventable, with risk driven by socioenvironmental factors (34% preassembly identified environmental causes as influencing T2DM risk compared to 83% postassembly), and perceived greater personal salience of T2DM risk reduction (p < .001 for all). The campaign has been adopted by regional public health departments. The Bigger Picture campaign showed its potential for reaching and engaging diverse youth. Campaign messaging is being adopted by stakeholders.

  13. Understanding social and sexual networks of sexual minority men and transgender women in Guatemala city to improve HIV prevention efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, C; Arandi, C Galindo; Bolaños, J Herbert; Paz-Bailey, G; Barrington, C

    2014-11-01

    Sexual minority men and transgender women are disproportionately affected by HIV in Guatemala. Innovative prevention strategies are urgently needed to address these disparities. While social network approaches are frequently used to reach sexual minorities, little is known about the unique network characteristics among sub-groups. We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with 13 gay-identifying men, eight non-gay-identifying men who have sex with men (MSM) and eight transgender women in Guatemala City. Using narrative and thematic coding procedures, we identified distinct patterns in the size, composition, and overlap between social and sexual networks across groups. Gay-identifying men had the largest, most supportive social networks, predominantly comprising family. For both non-gay-identifying MSM and transgender women, friends and sex clients provided more support. Transgender women reported the smallest social networks, least social support, and the most discrimination. HIV prevention efforts should be tailored to the specific sexual minority population and engage with strong ties.

  14. Effectiveness of Crime Prevention through Environmental Design ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined crime prevention strategies vis-a-vis perceived residents. feeling of safety in Osogbo Nigeria. The survey was conducted using systematic sampling. Four (4) crime prevention approaches were identified in the study area. Residents. perception of effectiveness of these safety strategies measured ...

  15. Engineering specification and system design for CAD/CAM of custom shoes: UMC project effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Han P.

    1990-01-01

    Further experimentations were made to improve the design and fabrication techniques of the integrated sole. The sole design is shown to be related to the foot position requirements and the actual shape of the foot including presence of neurotropic ulcers or other infections. Factors for consideration were: heel pitch, balance line, and rigidity conditions of the foot. Machining considerations were also part of the design problem. Among these considerations, widths of each contour, tool motion, tool feed rate, depths of cut, and slopes of cut at the boundary were the key elements. The essential fabrication techniques evolved around the idea of machining a mold then, using quick-firm latex material, casting the sole through the mold. Two main mold materials were experimented with: plaster and wood. Plaster was very easy to machine and shape but could barely support the pressure in the hydraulic press required by the casting process. Wood was found to be quite effective in terms of relative cost, strength, and surface smoothness except for the problem of cutting against the fibers which could generate ragged surfaces. The programming efforts to convert the original dBase programs into C programs so that they could be executed on the SUN Computer at North Carolina State University are discussed.

  16. Designing Supervision under the preventive Anti-money laundering policy in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    van den Broek, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    Directive 2005/60/EC on the prevention of the use of the financial system for the purpose of money laundering and terrorist financing is currently one of the main instruments which regulates efforts to combat money laundering (and terrorist financing) in the European Union. Respecting national procedural autonomy, this directive leaves a high degree of freedom for the Member States in designing their own supervisory architectures under the preventive anti-money laundering policy. This contrib...

  17. Minimizing Experimental Setup Time and Effort at APS beamline 1-ID through Instrumentation Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benda, Erika; Almer, Jonathan; Kenesei, Peter; Mashayekhi, Ali; Okasinksi, John; Park, Jun-Sang; Ranay, Rogelio; Shastri, Sarvijt

    2016-01-01

    Sector 1-ID at the APS accommodates a number of dif-ferent experimental techniques in the same spatial enve-lope of the E-hutch end station. These include high-energy small and wide angle X-ray scattering (SAXS and WAXS), high-energy diffraction microscopy (HEDM, both near and far field modes) and high-energy X-ray tomography. These techniques are frequently combined to allow the users to obtain multimodal data, often attaining 1 μm spatial resolution and <0.05º angular resolution. Furthermore, these techniques are utilized while the sam-ple is thermo-mechanically loaded to mimic real operat-ing conditions. The instrumentation required for each of these techniques and environments has been designed and configured in a modular way with a focus on stability and repeatability between changeovers. This approach allows the end station to be more versatile, capable of collecting multi-modal data in-situ while reducing time and effort typically required for set up and alignment, resulting in more efficient beam time use. Key instrumentation de-sign features and layout of the end station are presented.

  18. Systems Engineering Force XXI: Experimental Analysis Integration and Systems Engineering Support to the Force XXI Design Effort

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brock, H

    1996-01-01

    .... Effective needs are critical because the definition of a successful design effort is meeting or exceeding the effective needs of the client or stakeholder group in a cost-effective, high-quality way...

  19. Designing Cyberbullying Prevention and Mitigation Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashktorab, Zahra

    2017-01-01

    While cyberbullying is prevalent among adolescents, attempts by researchers to evaluate mechanisms for its prevention and mitigation have been largely non-existent. In this dissertation, I argue that the complex nature of cyberbullying, made more challenging by the affordances of diverse social media, cannot be solved through strictly algorithmic…

  20. design of preventive maintenance scheduling model for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    connected in parallel, Rj(ti) is the reliability of the jth unit at ith time interval, n is the to- tal number of systems (components or units) connected in parallel. Equations (3) and (4) enable us to deter- mine the reliability of all components, units or sub-systems in an industry. 5. System Reliability with Preventive. Maintenance. Fig.

  1. Designing instrumented walker to measure upper-extremity's efforts: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodadadi, Mohammad; Baniasad, Mina Arab; Arazpour, Mokhtar; Farahmand, Farzam; Zohoor, Hassan

    2018-02-26

    The high prevalence of shoulder pain in using walkers in patients who have spinal cord injury (SCI). Also, the limited options available to economically measure grip forces in walkers, which drove the need to create one. This article describes a method to obtain upper-extremities' forces and moments in a person with SCI by designing an appropriate instrumented walker. First, since the commercial multidirectional loadcells are too expensive, custom loadcells are fabricated. Ultimately, a complete gait analysis by means of VICON motion analysis and using inverse dynamic method has been held to measure upper-extremities' efforts. The results for a person with SCI using a two-wheel walker in low and high heights and a basic walker show that there are higher shoulder and elbow flexion-extension moments and also higher shoulder forces in superior-inferior direction and higher elbow and wrist forces in anterior-posterior directions. The results are not much different in using two different types of walker. By using the proposed method, upper-extremities' forces and moments were obtained and the results were compared to each other in using two different walkers.

  2. Pitfalls in Designing Zero-Effort Deauthentication: Opportunistic Human Observation Attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Huhta, O.; Shrestha, P.; Udar, S.; Juuti, M.; Saxena, N.; Asokan, N.

    2015-01-01

    VK: Asokan, N. Deauthentication is an important component of any authentication system. The widespread use of computing devices in daily life has underscored the need for zero-effort deauthentication schemes. However, the quest for eliminating user effort may lead to hidden security flaws in the authentication schemes. As a case in point, we investigate a prominent zero-effort deauthentication scheme, called ZEBRA, which provides an interesting and a useful solution to a difficult problem ...

  3. Why do we report suicides and how can we facilitate suicide prevention efforts? Perspectives of Hong Kong media professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qijin; Fu, King-wa; Caine, Eric; Yip, Paul S F

    2014-01-01

    The Hong Kong news media report suicide-related events more frequently and sensationally than Western countries. Little is known about Hong Kong media professionals' experiences and thoughts about such reporting. To understand Hong Kong media professionals' experiences and perceptions of suicide reporting and whether the news media can be better engaged into suicide prevention. We conducted three focus groups of journalists from both the Cantonese and English language news media. Data were analyzed using grounded theory methods. We discerned three rationales from participants regarding their intense coverage of suicide-related events: (1) satisfying commercial competitiveness, (2) addressing social problems, and (3) responding to readers' interests. The first rationale was a dominant and vigorous motivating factor, and often influenced suicide reporting among local Cantonese media. Media professionals recommended engagement strategies targeted at frontline journalists, media managers, and general media consumers. We see potential to involve news media professionals in Hong Kong as working partners in suicide prevention. To succeed, this effort requires engagement in a proactive, consistent, and sustained fashion.

  4. Understanding Social and Sexual Networks of Sexual Minority Men and Transgender Women in Guatemala City to Improve HIV Prevention Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, C.; Arandi, C. Galindo; Bolaños, J. Herbert; Paz-Bailey, G.; Barrington, C.

    2015-01-01

    Sexual minority men and transgender women are disproportionately affected by HIV in Guatemala. Innovative prevention strategies are urgently needed to address these disparities. While social network approaches are frequently used to reach sexual minorities, little is known about the unique network characteristics among sub-groups. We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with 13 gay-identifying men, eight non-gay-identifying men who have sex with men (MSM) and eight transgender women in Guatemala City. Using narrative and thematic coding procedures, we identified distinct patterns in the size, composition, and overlap between social and sexual networks across groups. Gay-identifying men had the largest, most supportive social networks, predominantly comprising family. For both non-gay-identifying MSM and transgender women, friends and sex clients provided more support. Transgender women reported the smallest social networks, least social support, and the most discrimination. HIV prevention efforts should be tailored to the specific sexual minority population and engage with strong ties. PMID:25418236

  5. Engaging partners to initiate evaluation efforts: tactics used and lessons learned from the prevention research centers program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Demia Sundra; Anderson, Lynda A; Brownson, Ross C; Gwaltney, Margaret K; Scherer, Jennifer; Cross, Alan W; Goodman, Robert M; Schwartz, Randy; Sims, Tom; White, Carol R

    2008-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) Prevention Research Centers (PRC) Program underwent a 2-year evaluation planning project using a participatory process that allowed perspectives from the national community of PRC partners to be expressed and reflected in a national logic model. The PRC Program recognized the challenge in developing a feasible, useable, and relevant evaluation process for a large, diverse program. To address the challenge, participatory and utilization-focused evaluation models were used. Four tactics guided the evaluation planning process: 1) assessing stakeholders' communication needs and existing communication mechanisms and infrastructure; 2) using existing mechanisms and establishing others as needed to inform, educate, and request feedback; 3) listening to and using feedback received; and 4) obtaining adequate resources and building flexibility into the project plan to support multifaceted mechanisms for data collection. Participatory methods resulted in buy-in from stakeholders and the development of a national logic model. Benefits included CDC's use of the logic model for program planning and development of a national evaluation protocol and increased expectations among PRC partners for involvement. Challenges included the time, effort, and investment of program resources required for the participatory approach and the identification of whom to engage and when to engage them for feedback on project decisions. By using a participatory and utilization-focused model, program partners positively influenced how CDC developed an evaluation plan. The tactics we used can guide the involvement of program stakeholders and help with decisions on appropriate methods and approaches for engaging partners.

  6. Aligning HIV/AIDS communication with the oral tradition of Africans: a theory-based content analysis of songs' potential in prevention efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekalu, Mesfin Awoke; Eggermont, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Despite a growing recognition of songs as a useful HIV/AIDS campaign strategy, little research has investigated their potential and/or actual impact. In this study, through a theory-based content analysis, we have assessed the prevention domains covered and the health-relevant constructs promoted by 23 AIDS songs widely used to aid prevention efforts in Ethiopia. To identify the health-relevant constructs and reveal their potential to facilitate or inhibit positive changes, the Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM) has been used. The findings revealed that the songs cover most of the prevention domains that constitute the current agenda of behavior change communication in Sub-Saharan Africa. However, although all the EPPM variables have been found in almost every song, there were significantly more efficacy messages than threat messages. This suggests that although the songs may lead to positive changes in HIV/AIDS-related outcomes among audiences who have already perceived the threat posed by HIV/AIDS, they are less likely to motivate and thereby generate responses from audiences who have less or no threat perceptions. It is argued that given their potential as a culturally appropriate strategy in Sub-Saharan Africa where oral channels of communication play significant roles, songs could be harnessed for better outcomes through a theory-based design.

  7. Assessing School-Based Gang Prevention Efforts in Urban Centers: Are These Programs Reaching Those Students Who May Benefit the Most?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Hector

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, schools have become a focal point for general delinquency and gang prevention programs for a variety of reasons. One premise behind this approach is that schools can serve as ideal settings for providing delinquency and intervention services because youths spend so much time there. School-based gang prevention efforts are supposed…

  8. Research design considerations for chronic pain prevention clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gewandter, Jennifer S; Dworkin, Robert H; Turk, Dennis C

    2015-01-01

    Although certain risk factors can identify individuals who are most likely to develop chronic pain, few interventions to prevent chronic pain have been identified. To facilitate the identification of preventive interventions, an IMMPACT meeting was convened to discuss research design considerations...

  9. Spacecraft Charging Considerations and Design Efforts for the Orion Crew Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Bob

    2017-01-01

    The Orion Crew Module (CM) is nearing completion for the next flight, designated as Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1). For the uncrewed mission, the flight path will take the CM through a Perigee Raise Maneuver (PRM) out to an altitude of approximately 1800 km, followed by a Trans-Lunar Injection burn, a pass through the Van Allen belts then out to the moon for a lunar flyby, a Distant Retrograde Insertion (DRI) burn, a Distant Retrograde Orbit (DRO), a Distant Retrograde Departure (DRD) burn, a second lunar flyby, an Earth Insertion (EI) burn, and finally entry and landing. All of this, with the exception of the DRO associated maneuvers, is similar to the previous Apollo 8 mission in late 1968. In recent discussions, it is now possible that EM-1 will be a crewed mission, and if this happens, the orbit may be quite different from that just described. In this case, the flight path may take the CM on an out and back pass through the Van Allen belts twice, then out to the moon, again passing through the Van Allen belts twice, then finally back home. Even if the current EM-1 mission doesn't end up as a crewed mission, EM-2 and subsequent missions will undoubtedly follow orbital trajectories that offer comparable exposures to heightened vehicle charging effects. Because of this, and regardless of flight path, the CM vehicle will likely experience a wide range of exposures to energetic ions and electrons, essentially covering the gamut between low earth orbit to geosynchronous orbit and beyond. National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) and Lockheed Martin (LM) engineers and scientists have been working to fully understand and characterize the vehicle's immunity level with regard to surface and deep dielectric charging, and the ramifications of that immunity level pertaining to materials and impacts to operational avionics, communications, and navigational systems. This presentation attempts to chronicle these efforts in a summary fashion, and attempts to capture

  10. System 80+ design features for severe accident prevention and mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, M.C.; Schneider, R.E.; Finnicum, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    ABB-CE, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, is working to develop and certify the System 80+ design, which is ABB-CE's standardized evolutionary Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) design. It incorporates design enhancements based on Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) insights, guidance from the EPRI's Utility Requirements Document, and US NRC's Severe Accident Policy. Major severe accident prevention and mitigation design features of the system is discussed along with its conformance to EPRI URD guidance, as applicable. Computer simulation of a best estimate severe accident scenario is presented to illustrate the acceptable containment performance of the design. It is concluded that by considering severe accident prevention and mitigation early in the design process, the System 80+ design represents a robust plant design that has low core damage frequencies, low containment conditional failure probabilities, and acceptable deterministic containment performance under severe accident conditions

  11. Universal prevention efforts should address eating disorder pathology across the weight spectrum: Implications for screening and intervention on college campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass, Andrea E.; Jones, Megan; Kolko, Rachel P.; Altman, Myra; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E.; Eichen, Dawn M.; Balantekin, Katherine N.; Trockel, Mickey; Taylor, C. Barr; Wilfley, Denise E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Given shared risk and maintaining factors between eating disorders and obesity, it may be important to include both eating disorder intervention and healthy weight management within a universal eating disorder care delivery program. This study evaluated differential eating disorder screening responses by initial weight status among university students, to assess eating disorder risk and pathology among individuals with overweight/obesity versus normal weight or underweight. Methods 1529 individuals were screened and analyzed. Screening was conducted via pilot implementation of the Internet-based Healthy Body Image program on two university campuses. Results Fifteen percent of the sample had overweight/obesity. Over half (58%) of individuals with overweight/obesity screened as high risk for an eating disorder or warranting clinical referral, and 58% of individuals with overweight/obesity endorsed a ≥10-pound weight change over the past year. Compared to individuals with normal weight or underweight, individuals with overweight/obesity were more likely to identify as Black, endorse objective binge eating and fasting, endorse that eating disorder-related concerns impaired their relationships/social life and made them feel badly, and endorse higher weight/shape concerns. Conclusions Results suggest rates of eating disorder pathology and clinical impairment are highest among students with overweight/obesity, and targeted intervention across weight categories and diverse races/ethnicities is warranted within universal eating disorder intervention efforts. Integrating eating disorder intervention and healthy weight management into universal prevention programs could reduce the incidence and prevalence of eating disorders, unhealthy weight control practices, and obesity among university students. PMID:27090854

  12. Universal prevention efforts should address eating disorder pathology across the weight spectrum: Implications for screening and intervention on college campuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass, Andrea E; Jones, Megan; Kolko, Rachel P; Altman, Myra; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E; Eichen, Dawn M; Balantekin, Katherine N; Trockel, Mickey; Taylor, C Barr; Wilfley, Denise E

    2017-04-01

    Given shared risk and maintaining factors between eating disorders and obesity, it may be important to include both eating disorder intervention and healthy weight management within a universal eating disorder care delivery program. This study evaluated differential eating disorder screening responses by initial weight status among university students, to assess eating disorder risk and pathology among individuals with overweight/obesity versus normal weight or underweight. 1529 individuals were screened and analyzed. Screening was conducted via pilot implementation of the Internet-based Healthy Body Image program on two university campuses. Fifteen percent of the sample had overweight/obesity. Over half (58%) of individuals with overweight/obesity screened as high risk for an eating disorder or warranting clinical referral, and 58% of individuals with overweight/obesity endorsed a ≥10-pound weight change over the past year. Compared to individuals with normal weight or underweight, individuals with overweight/obesity were more likely to identify as Black, endorse objective binge eating and fasting, endorse that eating disorder-related concerns impaired their relationships/social life and made them feel badly, and endorse higher weight/shape concerns. Results suggest rates of eating disorder pathology and clinical impairment are highest among students with overweight/obesity, and targeted intervention across weight categories and diverse races/ethnicities is warranted within universal eating disorder intervention efforts. Integrating eating disorder intervention and healthy weight management into universal prevention programs could reduce the incidence and prevalence of eating disorders, unhealthy weight control practices, and obesity among university students. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Accelerator production of tritium pollution prevention design assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, R.; Nowacki, P.; Sheetz, S.O.; Lanik, P.

    1997-01-01

    This Pollution Prevention Design Assessment (PPDA) provides data for cost-benefit analysis of the potential environmental impact of the APT, is an integral part of pollution prevention/waste minimization, and is required by DOE for any activity generating radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes. It will also better position the APT to meet future requirements, since it is anticipated that regulatory and other requirements will continue to become more restrictive and demanding

  14. Accelerator production of tritium pollution prevention design assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, R.; Nowacki, P.; Sheetz, S.O. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Lanik, P. [Burns and Roe Engineering Inc. (United States)

    1997-09-18

    This Pollution Prevention Design Assessment (PPDA) provides data for cost-benefit analysis of the potential environmental impact of the APT, is an integral part of pollution prevention/waste minimization, and is required by DOE for any activity generating radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes. It will also better position the APT to meet future requirements, since it is anticipated that regulatory and other requirements will continue to become more restrictive and demanding.

  15. Effect of running therapy on depression (EFFORT-D. Design of a randomised controlled trial in adult patients [ISRCTN 1894

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kruisdijk Frank R

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The societal and personal burden of depressive illness is considerable. Despite the developments in treatment strategies, the effectiveness of both medication and psychotherapy is not ideal. Physical activity, including exercise, is a relatively cheap and non-harmful lifestyle intervention which lacks the side-effects of medication and does not require the introspective ability necessary for most psychotherapies. Several cohort studies and randomised controlled trials (RCTs have been performed to establish the effect of physical activity on prevention and remission of depressive illness. However, recent meta-analysis's of all RCTs in this area showed conflicting results. The objective of the present article is to describe the design of a RCT examining the effect of exercise on depressive patients. Methods/Design The EFFect Of Running Therapy on Depression in adults (EFFORT-D is a RCT, studying the effectiveness of exercise therapy (running therapy (RT or Nordic walking (NW on depression in adults, in addition to usual care. The study population consists of patients with depressive disorder, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD ≥ 14, recruited from specialised mental health care. The experimental group receives the exercise intervention besides treatment as usual, the control group receives treatment as usual. The intervention program is a group-based, 1 h session, two times a week for 6 months and of increasing intensity. The control group only performs low intensive non-aerobic exercises. Measurements are performed at inclusion and at 3,6 and 12 months. Primary outcome measure is reduction in depressive symptoms measured by the HRSD. Cardio-respiratory fitness is measured using a sub maximal cycling test, biometric information is gathered and blood samples are collected for metabolic parameters. Also, co-morbidity with pain, anxiety and personality traits is studied, as well as quality of life and cost

  16. Stick and feel system design: Systèmes de restitution des efforts au manche

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gibson, J. C; Hess, R. A

    1997-01-01

    Since the earliest days of manned flight, designers have to sought to assist the pilot in the performance of tasks by using stick and feel systems to bring these tasks within the bounds of human physical capabilities...

  17. Current design efforts for the gas-cooled fast reactor (GFR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, K.D.

    2005-01-01

    Current research and development on the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR) has focused on the design of safety systems that will remove the decay heat during accident conditions, ion irradiations of candidate ceramic materials, joining studies of oxide dispersion strengthened alloys; and within the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFC I) the fabrication of carbide fuels and ceramic fuel matrix materials, development of non-halide precursor low density and high density ceramic coatings, and neutron irradiation of candidate ceramic fuel matrix and metallic materials. The vast majority of this work has focused on the reference design for the GCFR: a helium-cooled, direct Brayton cycle power conversion system that will operate with an outlet temperature of 850 C at 7 MPa. In addition to the work being performed in the United States, seven international partners under the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) have identified their interest in participating in research related to the development of the GCFR. These are EURATOM (European Commission), France, Japan, South Africa, South Korea, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. Of these, EURATOM (including the United Kingdom), France, Japan, and Switzerland have active research activities with respect to the GCFR. The research includes GCFR design and safety, and fuels/in-core materials/fuel cycle projects. This paper outlines the current design status of the GCFR, and includes work done in the areas mentioned above. (Author)

  18. A University-Wide Collaborative Effort to Designing a Makerspace at an Academic Health Sciences Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herron, Jennifer; Kaneshiro, Kellie

    2017-01-01

    This article describes the planning and development of a 3D printing makerspace at an academic health sciences library. At the start of 2015, a new library Technology Team was formed consisting of a team leader, an emerging technologies librarian, and a library systems analyst. One of the critical steps in the development of the proposal and with the planning of this project was collaborating and partnering with different departments and units outside the library. These connections helped shape the design of the makerspace.

  19. Influence of AC system design on the realisation of tractive efforts by high adhesion locomotives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiryagin, Maksym; Wolfs, Peter; Cole, Colin; Stichel, Sebastian; Berg, Mats; Manfred, Plöchl

    2017-08-01

    The main task for heavy haul railway operators is to reduce the cost of exported minerals and enhance the long-term viability of rail transport operations through increasing productivity by running longer and heavier trains. The common opinion is that this is achievable by means of implementation of high adhesion locomotives with advanced AC traction technologies. Modern AC high adhesion locomotives are very complex mechatronic systems and can be designed with two alternative traction topologies of either bogie or individual axle controls. This paper describes a modelling approach for these two types of AC traction systems with the application of an advanced co-simulation methodology, where an electrical system and a traction algorithm are modelled in Matlab/Simulink, and a mechanical system is modelled in a multibody software package. Although the paper concentrates on the analysis of the functioning for these two types of traction control systems, the choice of reference slip values also has an influence on the performance of both systems. All these design variations and issues have been simulated for various adhesion conditions at the wheel-rail interface and their influence on the high traction performance of a locomotive equipped with two three-axle bogies has been discussed.

  20. Maraghe Observatory and an Effort towards Retrieval of Architectural Design of Astronomical Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Shekari Niri

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Maraghe observatory was built by such engineers as Moayiededdin Orozi etc. under supervision of Khaje Nasireddin Tousi in 7th century AH. The most significant feature associated with Maraghe observatory is the fact that architecture is employed to achieve astronomical purposes in this site. The reason for preferring observatory by astronomers was the fact that these units are superior to wooden and metal instruments with respect to accuracy, no size limitations, etc. Architectural design and function of astronomical units of Maraghe observatory site after discovery of its foundation in the course of explorations before Islamic Revolution remained unclear until recent years. After conducting required studies and investigations, the author managed to find significant cues and after some precise comparisons, he succeeded to recover the main design and function of some astronomical units of this international center. Based on these findings these astronomical structures can reliably be rebuilt. This research showed that every circular or polygonal building cannot be considered as an observatory. For example form and function of cemetery structures are completely different with astronomical ones. Following this research also valuable results were obtained in relation to stone architectural structures present on Maraghe observatory hill. In addition, claims about invention of astronomical units of Maraghe observatory by non-Iranian scientists are rejected and rights of Iranian scientists are rationally defended in this regard.

  1. A traditional and a less-invasive robust design: choices in optimizing effort allocation for seabird population studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Converse, S.J.; Kendall, W.L.; Doherty, P.F.; Naughton, M.B.; Hines, J.E.; Thomson, David L.; Cooch, Evan G.; Conroy, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    For many animal populations, one or more life stages are not accessible to sampling, and therefore an unobservable state is created. For colonially-breeding populations, this unobservable state could represent the subset of adult breeders that have foregone breeding in a given year. This situation applies to many seabird populations, notably albatrosses, where skipped breeders are either absent from the colony, or are present but difficult to capture or correctly assign to breeding state. Kendall et al. have proposed design strategies for investigations of seabird demography where such temporary emigration occurs, suggesting the use of the robust design to permit the estimation of time-dependent parameters and to increase the precision of estimates from multi-state models. A traditional robust design, where animals are subject to capture multiple times in a sampling season, is feasible in many cases. However, due to concerns that multiple captures per season could cause undue disturbance to animals, Kendall et al. developed a less-invasive robust design (LIRD), where initial captures are followed by an assessment of the ratio of marked-to-unmarked birds in the population or sampled plot. This approach has recently been applied in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands to populations of Laysan (Phoebastria immutabilis) and black-footed (P. nigripes) albatrosses. In this paper, we outline the LIRD and its application to seabird population studies. We then describe an approach to determining optimal allocation of sampling effort in which we consider a non-robust design option (nRD), and variations of both the traditional robust design (RD), and the LIRD. Variations we considered included the number of secondary sampling occasions for the RD and the amount of total effort allocated to the marked-to-unmarked ratio assessment for the LIRD. We used simulations, informed by early data from the Hawaiian study, to address optimal study design for our example cases. We found that

  2. Support for school-based obesity prevention efforts: attitudes among administrators at nationally representative samples of US elementary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Lindsey; Slater, Sandy J; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2013-08-01

    With the continued threat of childhood obesity, many public health intervention efforts focus on school settings. The current study sought to document administrator attitudes regarding obesity and interest in improving relevant school practices (i.e., nutrition and physical activity) in elementary schools. Mail-back surveys were used to gather data from public and private elementary schools during the 2006-2007, 2007-2008, 2008-2009, and 2010-2011 school years. In each year, a different set of items pertaining to administrator attitudes was included. Numbers of responding schools annually ranged from 259 to 336 private schools, and from 578 to 748 public schools. The vast majority of elementary school administrators (>90%) agreed that schools can play a role in addressing childhood obesity, physical education improves a variety of academic outcomes, and they were interested in improving practices at their school. Concern about childhood obesity and perceiving that schools can play a role in addressing obesity were both associated with more interest in improving school practices. However, only one-third of administrators agreed that parents were interested in participating in improving nutrition and physical activity practices, suggesting opportunities for efforts to improve collaboration. Administrators are generally very supportive of school-based efforts to improve nutrition and physical activity practices and see the value in doing so. Given the amount of time children spend in school, schools are an essential venue for efforts to address childhood obesity.

  3. Effective Work Procedure design Using Discomfort and Effort Factor in Brick stacking operation-A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, Biswaranjan; Dash, R. R.; Dhupal, D.

    2018-02-01

    In this work a typical planning of movement of limbs and torso of the worker to be well design to reduce fatigue and energy of the worker. A simulation model is generated to suit the procedure and comply with the constraints in the workspace. It requires verifying the capability of human postures and movements in different working conditions for the evaluation of effectiveness of the new design. In this article a simple human performance measure is introduce that enable the mathematical model for evaluation of a cost function. The basic scheme is to evaluate the performance in the form of several cost factors using AI techniques. Here two main cost factors taken in to consideration are discomfort factor and effort factor in limb movements. Discomfort factor measures the level of discomfort from the most neutral position of a given limb to the position of the corresponding limb after movement and effort factor is a measure of the displacement of the corresponding limbs from the original position. The basic aim is to optimize the movement of the limbs with the above mentioned cost functions. The effectiveness of the procedure is tested with an example of working procedure of workers used for stacking of fly ash bricks in a local fly ash bricks manufacturing unit. The objective is to find out the optimised movement of the limbs to reduce discomfort level and effort required of workers. The effectiveness of the procedure in this case study illustrated with the obtained results.

  4. Integrating male sexual diversity into violence prevention efforts with men and boys: evidence from the Asia-Pacific Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miedema, Stephanie S; Yount, Kathryn M; Chirwa, Esnat; Dunkle, Kristin; Fulu, Emma

    2017-02-01

    Men's perpetration of gender-based violence remains a global public health issue. Violence prevention experts call for engagement of boys and men to change social norms around masculinity in order to prevent gender-based violence. Yet, men do not comprise a homogenous category. Drawing on probability estimates of men who report same-sex practices and preferences captured in a multi-country gender-based violence prevention survey in the Asia-Pacific region, we test the effects of sexuality-related factors on men's adverse life experiences. We find that sexual minority men face statistically higher risk of lifetime adversity related to gender-based violence, stemming from gender inequitable norms in society. Sexuality is thus a key axis of differentiation among men in the Asia-Pacific region, influencing health and wellbeing and reflecting men's differential engagement with dominant norms of masculinity. Integrating awareness of male sexual diversity into gender-based violence prevention interventions, particularly those that work with boys and men, and bridging violence prevention programming between sexual minority communities and women, are essential to tackle the root drivers of violence.

  5. Defining Design Limits of a Portable Radiation Dispersion Prevention System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang Seong Woo; Yim, Man Sung [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    To the eyes of the general public, however, reducing the chance of such accident is not enough. A typical engineer views a risk as a combination of both consequences and likelihoods, whereas an ordinary person may only consider consequences. The implementations of better regulations, improved human operator actions, and installations of extra safety systems may reduce the chance of having uncontrolled accident practically to zero, yet the public still fears having nuclear reactors. One such barrier system is a portable suction-based radiation dispersion prevention system, called Integrated Portable Suction-Centrifugal Filtration System (IPS-CFS). To design such systems, detailed information about the radioactive source term at the release point to the environment must be available to draw design limits. The preliminary design limits of the IPS-CFS are presented in this paper. It may seem challenging to design a comprehensive radioactive dispersion system that can successfully prevent such extreme accident conditions, especially due to the releases from high pressure. However, as more technologies develop and more realistic source term analyses are performed, it may be possible to develop such a public relief technology. With the development of such technology that can effectively prevent the dispersion of the uncontrolled radioactive releases in case of another Fukushima-like accident, it will result in increased safety of the nuclear power plants for both the public and the workers and may contribute to the increase in the public acceptance of nuclear energy.

  6. Reported Systems Changes and Sustainability Perceptions of Three State Departments of Health Implementing Multi-Faceted Evidence-Based Fall Prevention Efforts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Lee Smith

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Although the concepts of systems change and sustainability are not new, little is known about the factors associated with systems change sustaining multi-state, multi-level fall prevention efforts. This exploratory study focuses on three State Departments of Health (DOH that were awarded 5-year funding from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to simultaneously implement four separate yet related evidence-based fall prevention initiatives at the clinical, community, and policy level. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in partnerships and collaborative activities that occurred to accomplish project goals (examining changes in the context of “before funding” and “after funding was received”. Additionally, this study explored changes in State DOH perceptions about action related to sustainability indicators in the context of “during funding” and “after funding ends.” Findings from this study document the partnership and activity changes necessary to achieve defined fall prevention goals after funding is received, and that the importance of sustainability indicator documentation is seen as relevant during funding, but less so after the funding ends. Findings from this study have practice and research implications that can inform future funded efforts in terms of sector and stakeholder engagement necessary for initiating, implementing, and sustaining community- and clinical-based fall prevention interventions.

  7. Improvement in Product Development: Use of back-end data to support upstream efforts of Robust Design Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanajah Siva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the area of Robust Design Methodology (RDM less is done on how to use and work with data from the back-end of the product development process to support upstream improvement. The purpose of this paper is to suggest RDM practices for the use of customer claims data in early design phases as a basis for improvements. The back-end data, when systematically analyzed and fed back into the product development process, aids in closing the product development loop from claims to improvement in the design phase. This is proposed through a flow of claims data analysis tied to an existing tool, namely Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA. The systematic and integrated analysis of back-end data is suggested as an upstream effort of RDM to increase understanding of noise factors during product usage based on the feedback of claims data to FMEA and to address continuous improvement in product development.

  8. Pollution prevention, preparedness, and response coordination efforts between the US Coast Guard and Coastal, Great Lakes, and Inland River states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donohoe, M.J.; Russell, B.A.; Clark, P.

    1993-01-01

    Following the passage of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA 90) and increased public demands for action in the wake of the Exxon Valdez oil spill, many states are now aggressively redefining and expanding their marine safety and marine environmental protection programs. The US Coast Guard is developing a program to coordinate these efforts with the aim toward minimizing duplicative requirements, leveraging resources, and eliminating barriers to marine transportation due to widely differing federal and state regulations

  9. Suicide Risk Protocols: Addressing the Needs of High Risk Youths Identified through Suicide Prevention Efforts and in Clinical Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilbron, Nicole; Goldston, David; Walrath, Christine; Rodi, Michael; McKeon, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Several agencies have emphasized the importance of establishing clear protocols or procedures to address the needs of youths who are identified as suicidal through suicide prevention programs or in emergency department settings. What constitutes optimal guidelines for developing and implementing such protocols, however, is unclear. At the request…

  10. Mitigating construction safety risks using prevention through design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangolells, Marta; Casals, Miquel; Forcada, Núria; Roca, Xavier; Fuertes, Alba

    2010-04-01

    Research and practice have demonstrated that decisions made prior to work at construction sites can influence construction worker safety. However, it has also been argued that most architects and design engineers possess neither the knowledge of construction safety nor the knowledge of construction processes necessary to effectively perform Construction Hazards Prevention through Design (CHPtD). This paper introduces a quantitative methodology that supports designers by providing a way to evaluate the safety-related performance of residential construction designs using a risk analysis-based approach. The methodology compares the overall safety risk level of various construction designs and ranks the significance of the various safety risks of each of these designs. The methodology also compares the absolute importance of a particular safety risk in various construction designs. Because the methodology identifies the relevance of each safety risk at a particular site prior to the construction stage, significant risks are highlighted in advance. Thus, a range of measures for mitigating safety risks can then be implemented during on-site construction. The methodology is specially worthwhile for designers, who can compare construction techniques and systems during the design phase and determine the corresponding level of safety risk without their creative talents being restricted. By using this methodology, construction companies can improve their on-site safety performance. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The First Four Years: A Synopsis of the Global Effort. Department of Defense HIV/AIDS Prevention Program (DHAPP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    international companies such as CARE International, Mobil Gas Service Corporation, and the Coca - Cola Company. Each participating agency created its own...police, and prison wardens, with a total of 35,450 per- sonnel trained. Counseling and Testing Under DHAPP sponsorship , 6 CT centers were opened and...Troops Trained To date, more than 1200 CAF troops have been trained in HIV prevention. Counseling and Testing Under DHAPP sponsorship , 1 CT

  12. ADDRESSING POLLUTION PREVENTION ISSUES IN THE DESIGN OF A NEW NUCLEAR RESEARCH FACILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cournoyer, Michael E.; Corpion, Juan; Nelson, Timothy O.

    2003-01-01

    The Chemistry and Metallurgical Research (CMR) Facility was designed in 1949 and built in 1952 at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to support analytical chemistry, metallurgical studies, and actinide research and development on samples of plutonium and other nuclear materials for the Atomic Energy Commission's nuclear weapons program. These primary programmatic uses of the CMR Facility have not changed significantly since it was constructed. In 1998, a seismic fault was found to the west of the CMR Facility and projected to extend beneath two wings of the building. As part of the overall Risk Management Strategy for the CMR Facility, the Department of Energy (DOE) proposed to replace it by 2010 with what is called the CMR Facility Replacement (CMRR). In an effort to make this proposed new nuclear research facility environmentally sustainable, several pollution prevention/waste minimization initiatives are being reviewed for potential incorporation during the design phase. A two-phase approach is being adopted; the facility is being designed in a manner that integrates pollution prevention efforts, and programmatic activities are being tailored to minimize waste. Processes and procedures that reduce waste generation compared to current, prevalent processes and procedures are identified. Some of these ''best practices'' include the following: (1) recycling opportunities for spent materials; (2) replacing lithium batteries with alternate current adaptors; (3) using launderable contamination barriers in Radiological Control Areas (RCAs); (4) substituting mercury thermometers and manometers in RCAs with mercury-free devices; (5) puncturing and recycling aerosol cans; (6) using non-hazardous low-mercury fluorescent bulbs where available; (7) characterizing low-level waste as it is being generated; and (8) utilizing lead alternatives for radiological shielding. Each of these pollution prevention initiatives are being assessed for their technical validity, relevancy

  13. Blocking the benefit of group-based HIV-prevention efforts during adolescence: the problem of HIV-related stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, David H; Swenson, Rebecca R; Brown, Larry K; Stanton, Bonita F; Vanable, Peter A; Carey, Michael P; Valois, Robert F; Diclemente, Ralph J; Salazar, Laura F; Romer, Daniel

    2012-04-01

    HIV-related stigma has been shown to impede HIV-antibody testing and safer sexual practices in adults. Less is known about its effects on prevention programs among at-risk youth. This study examined the longitudinal relationships between HIV-stigma and HIV-knowledge following completion of a validated group-based intervention. Data were provided by 1,654 African-American adolescents who participated in a large multi-city prevention trial (Project iMPACCS). Participants were randomly assigned to an empirically-validated skill-based intervention or a general health promotion control group. Both stigma and knowledge were assessed at baseline and post-intervention. Results suggested that adolescents participating in the intervention showed improvements in knowledge and decreases in stigma when compared to controls. Improvements in stigma appeared to be partly driven by improvements in knowledge. Higher baseline stigma was shown to reduce gains in knowledge in both the treatment and control groups. Results suggest that HIV-stigma can interfere with how youth identify with and internalize messages from group-based prevention trials.

  14. European recommendations for primary prevention of congenital anomalies: a joined effort of EUROCAT and EUROPLAN projects to facilitate inclusion of this topic in the National Rare Disease Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taruscio, Domenica; Arriola, Larraitz; Baldi, Francesca; Barisic, Ingeborg; Bermejo-Sánchez, Eva; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Calzolari, Elisa; Carbone, Pietro; Curran, Rhonda; Garne, Ester; Gatt, Miriam; Latos-Bieleńska, Anna; Khoshnood, Babak; Irgens, Lorentz; Mantovani, Alberto; Martínez-Frías, Maria Luisa; Neville, Amanda; Rißmann, Anke; Ruggeri, Stefania; Wellesley, Diana; Dolk, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Congenital anomalies (CA) are the paradigm example of rare diseases liable to primary prevention actions due to the multifactorial etiology of many of them, involving a number of environmental factors together with genetic predispositions. Yet despite the preventive potential, lack of attention to an integrated preventive strategy has led to the prevalence of CA remaining relatively stable in recent decades. The 2 European projects, EUROCAT and EUROPLAN, have joined efforts to provide the first science-based and comprehensive set of recommendations for the primary prevention of CA in the European Union. The resulting EUROCAT-EUROPLAN 'Recommendations on Policies to Be Considered for the Primary Prevention of Congenital Anomalies in National Plans and Strategies on Rare Diseases' were issued in 2012 and endorsed by EUCERD (European Union Committee of Experts on Rare Diseases) in 2013. The recommendations exploit interdisciplinary expertise encompassing drugs, diet, lifestyles, maternal health status, and the environment. The recommendations include evidence-based actions aimed at reducing risk factors and at increasing protective factors and behaviors at both individual and population level. Moreover, consideration is given to topics specifically related to CA (e.g. folate status, teratogens) as well as of broad public health impact (e.g. obesity, smoking) which call for specific attention to their relevance in the pre- and periconceptional period. The recommendations, reported entirely in this paper, are a comprehensive tool to implement primary prevention into national policies on rare diseases in Europe. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Fatigue Design and Prevention in Movable Scaffolding Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coelho Hugo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Movable Scaffolding System (MSS is a heavy construction equipment used for casting situ of concrete bridge decks. In the past decades, MSSs have become increasingly complex and industrialized, enlarging its span ranges, incorporating auxiliary elevation machinery and increasing productivity. The tendency nowadays is for strong reutilization and the notion of MSS as a disposable or temporary structure is somehow reductive. The main structure of MSSs may be potentially exposed to fatigue, usually characterized by low number of cycles with significant stress amplitude. Fatigue may be prevented through adequate design; judicious selection of materials; demanding quality control and implementation of robust inspection and maintenance plans.

  16. Fatigue Design and Prevention in Movable Scaffolding Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Hugo; Torres, Alberto; Pacheco, Pedro; Moreira, Cristiano; Silva, Rute; Soares, José M.; Pinto, Dânia

    2017-06-01

    The Movable Scaffolding System (MSS) is a heavy construction equipment used for casting situ of concrete bridge decks. In the past decades, MSSs have become increasingly complex and industrialized, enlarging its span ranges, incorporating auxiliary elevation machinery and increasing productivity. The tendency nowadays is for strong reutilization and the notion of MSS as a disposable or temporary structure is somehow reductive. The main structure of MSSs may be potentially exposed to fatigue, usually characterized by low number of cycles with significant stress amplitude. Fatigue may be prevented through adequate design; judicious selection of materials; demanding quality control and implementation of robust inspection and maintenance plans.

  17. Designing Supervision under the Preventive Anti-Money Laundering Policy in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa van den Broek

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Directive 2005/60/EC on the prevention of the use of the financial system for the purpose of money laundering and terrorist financing is currently one of the main instruments which regulates efforts to combat money laundering (and terrorist financing in the European Union. Respecting national procedural autonomy, this directive leaves a high degree of freedom for the Member States in designing their own supervisory architectures under the preventive anti-money laundering policy. This contribution adopts a systematic approach to the institutional differences between the EU Member States and presents four models of supervision that are currently present in the European Union. It explains the main characteristics of these models, categorises the EU Member States accordingly and analyses the potential strengths and weaknesses of each model, thereby providing a first indication of their effectiveness.

  18. Bloodstream infection rates in outpatient hemodialysis facilities participating in a collaborative prevention effort: a quality improvement report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Priti R; Yi, Sarah H; Booth, Stephanie; Bren, Virginia; Downham, Gemma; Hess, Sally; Kelley, Karen; Lincoln, Mary; Morrissette, Kathy; Lindberg, Curt; Jernigan, John A; Kallen, Alexander J

    2013-08-01

    Bloodstream infections (BSIs) cause substantial morbidity in hemodialysis patients. In 2009, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) sponsored a collaborative project to prevent BSIs in outpatient hemodialysis facilities. We sought to assess the impact of a set of interventions on BSI and access-related BSI rates in participating facilities using data reported to the CDC's National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN). Quality improvement project. Patients in 17 outpatient hemodialysis facilities that volunteered to participate. Facilities reported monthly event and denominator data to NHSN, received guidance from the CDC, and implemented an evidence-based intervention package that included chlorhexidine use for catheter exit-site care, staff training and competency assessments focused on catheter care and aseptic technique, hand hygiene and vascular access care audits, and feedback of infection and adherence rates to staff. Crude and modeled BSI and access-related BSI rates. Up to 12 months of preintervention (January 2009 through December 2009) and 15 months of intervention period (January 2010 through March 2011) data from participating centers were analyzed. Segmented regression analysis was used to assess changes in BSI and access-related BSI rates during the preintervention and intervention periods. Most (65%) participating facilities were hospital based. Pooled mean BSI and access-related BSI rates were 1.09 and 0.73 events per 100 patient-months during the preintervention period and 0.89 and 0.42 events per 100 patient-months during the intervention period, respectively. Modeled rates decreased 32% (P = 0.01) for BSIs and 54% (P facilities were not representative of all outpatient hemodialysis centers nationally. There was no control arm to this quality improvement project. Facilities participating in a collaborative successfully decreased their BSI and access-related BSI rates. The decreased rates appeared to be maintained in the intervention

  19. Findings and lessons learned from a multi-partner collaboration to increase cervical cancer prevention efforts in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stormo, Analia R; Espey, David; Glenn, Jeffrey; Lara-Prieto, Elisa; Moreno, Amanda; Nuñez, Fernando; Padilla, Haydee; Waxman, Alan; Flowers, Lisa; Santos, Carlos; Soria, Milton; Luciani, Silvana; Saraiya, Mona

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a leading cause of cancer death among women in Bolivia, where cytology based screening has not performed well due to health-systems constraints. In response, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Pan American Health Organization partnered with the Bolivian Ministry of Health and the Peruvian Cancer Institute (INEN) to build capacity in Bolivia for the use of visual inspection of the cervix with acetic acid (VIA) and cryotherapy. Four 5-day courses on basic clinical skills to perform these procedures, provide related counseling, and manage side effects and infections were conducted from September 2010 to December 2012 for 61 Bolivian nurses and physicians. Of these courses, two were conducted by Bolivian trainers that were certified through a Training-of-Trainers course taught by the INEN. Classroom didactic sessions included lectures and practice with anatomic models followed by clinical practice sessions to provide trainees with practical experience in VIA and cryotherapy. Pre- and post-training evaluations were administered to ascertain knowledge gained. Evaluation of competency was conducted during simulation exercises in the classroom and during supervised performances of procedures in clinical settings. This report summarizes findings and lessons learned that will be useful for planning the supervision and monitoring phase of this project as well as for future partnerships in the Latin American and the Caribbean region.

  20. Point-Counterpoint: Active surveillance for carriers of toxigenic Clostridium difficile should be performed to guide prevention efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, L Clifford; Diekema, Daniel J

    2018-05-16

    In 2017, we published a point-counterpoint on laboratory diagnosis of C. difficile infection (CDI). At that time, Drs Ferric Fang, Christopher Polage, and Mark Wilcox discussed the strategies for diagnosing Clostridium difficile colitis in symptomatic patients. Since that manuscript new guidelines from the Infectious Diseases Society of American and the Society for Health Care Epidemiology have been published (1) and healthcare systems have begun to explore screening asymptomatic patients for C. difficile colonization. The theory behind screening selected patient populations for C. difficile colonization is that these patients represent a substantial reservoir of the bacteria and can transfer the bacteria to other patients. Hospital administrators are taking note of institutional CDI rates because they are publicly reported. They have become an important metric impacting hospital safety ratings and value-based purchasing where hospitals may have millions of dollars of reimbursement at risk. In this point-counterpoint, Cliff McDonald, of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, will discuss the value of asymptomatic C. difficile screening, while Dan Diekema, of the University of Iowa, will discuss why caution should be used. This is a work of the U.S. Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. Foreign copyrights may apply.

  1. Design and dosimetry of a novel 90y beta source to prevent restenosis after angioplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueck, Konrad; Schmidt, Werner; Wexberg, Paul; Goerz, Walter; Maurer, Gerald; Gottsauner-Wolf, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: Post-dilatation irradiation of the vessel wall is currently under investigation for prevention of restenosis after balloon dilatation. For the irradiation, special sources were designed for animal experiments which would give equivalent irradiation conditions and doses to the vessel wall that would later be employed for human application. Methods and Materials: For the planned irradiations, a specially designed yttrium-wire of 0.45-mm diameter coated with a thin shrink tube to prevent contamination was deployed. Several leakage tests applied before and after application proved that the irradiation source was leakproof. Dosimetry was performed by using 0.1-mm-thick thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD-100) calibrated against a primary standard. A shielding transport and application container was designed to facilitate the handling of the source during use, while reducing exposure of the medical personnel. Results: The designed source proves to be flexible for the insertion into proximal coronary vessels, and positioning at the site of stenosis. It provides an optimum protection of the animal and requires little radiation protection efforts on behalf of the medical staff. Dosimetric calculations and measurements showed that a centering of the source inside the vessel could be achieved with a maximum deviation of 50% between maximum and average dose levels. Conclusion: A yttrium-90 beta brachytherapy source was designed which provides high flexibility within proximal coronary arteries, ensures an adequate centering inside the artery, and provides irradiation conditions to the vessel wall of the experimental animal comparable to the application inside a human artery

  2. An Examination of Participants Who Develop an Eating Disorder Despite Completing an Eating Disorder Prevention Program: Implications for Improving the Yield of Prevention Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Numerous trials provide support for the Body Project, an eating disorder prevention program wherein young women with body image concerns critique the thin ideal. Despite medium to large effects, some participants subsequently develop an eating disorder, suggesting that intervention or recruitment procedures could be improved. This study investigated baseline and acute intervention predictors of DSM-5 eating disorder development during a 3-year follow-up among Body Project participants. Combined data from two trials compare participants who experienced eating disorder onset during follow-up (n=20) to those who did not (n=216). Participants who did versus did not develop an eating disorder started the intervention with higher eating disorder symptoms (η2=0.08), negative affect (η2=0.06), thin-ideal internalization (η2=0.02), and body dissatisfaction (η2=0.02); the same baseline predictors of eating disorder onset emerged in controls. Attenuated pre–post reductions in eating disorder symptoms (η2=0.01) predicted eating disorder onset but not after controlling for baseline levels. Given that Body Project and control participants who later developed an eating disorder started with initial elevations in risk factors and eating disorder symptoms, it might be useful to develop a more intensive variant of this program for those exhibiting greater risk at baseline and to deliver the prevention program earlier to prevent initial escalation of risk. The fact that nonresponders also showed greater negative affect and eating disorder symptoms suggests that it might be useful to add activities to improve affect and increase dissonance about disordered eating. PMID:25342026

  3. Designs for Evaluating the Community-Level Impact of Comprehensive Prevention Programs: Examples from the CDC Centers of Excellence in Youth Violence Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Albert D; Henry, David; Bradshaw, Catherine; Reischl, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    This article discusses the opportunities and challenges of developing research designs to evaluate the impact of community-level prevention efforts. To illustrate examples of evaluation designs, we describe six projects funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to evaluate multifaceted approaches to reduce youth violence in high-risk communities. Each of these projects was designed to evaluate the community-level impact of multiple intervention strategies to address individual and contextual factors that place youth at risk for violent behavior. Communities differed across projects in their setting, size, and how their boundaries were defined. Each project is using multiple approaches to compare outcomes in one or more intervention communities to those in comparison communities. Five of the projects are using comparative interrupted time-series designs to compare outcomes in an intervention community to matched comparison communities. A sixth project is using a multiple baseline design in which the order and timing of intervention activities is randomized across three communities. All six projects are also using regression point displacement designs to compare outcomes within intervention communities to those within broader sets of similar communities. Projects are using a variety of approaches to assess outcomes including archival records, surveys, and direct observations. We discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the designs of these projects and illustrate the challenges of designing high-quality evaluations of comprehensive prevention approaches implemented at the community level.

  4. Design and Implementation of Distress Prevention System using a Beacon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Imsu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It was proven that human accidents due to mountain climbing occupy large proportion of recently occurred man-made disasters. This paper designed and implemented an application that tells users about a variety of accidents that frequently occur in mountain and shows dynamic information about mountain climbing. It designed ‘distress prevention system using beacon’. When using beacon, it can dynamically express information without using GPS. It has advantage of supporting BLE and has little Smartphone battery consumption. The application was developed based on Android as a prototype. We expect that the application developed in this paper can contribute to the protection of precious lives by helping quick rescue in case of emergency such as distress. Manager of mountain can control data regarding the mountain climbing accident where the related functions are provided through view and user authority setup in DBMS.

  5. Tracking the evolution of HIV/AIDS in China from 1989-2009 to inform future prevention and control efforts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongwei Jia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To determine policy implications, this analysis tracks the evolution of HIV/AIDS infection across China to understand current trends and potential risk factors. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A retrospective study with spatial analytical model and multilevel spatial models was conducted among 326,157 HIV/AIDS cases reported from 1989-2009. The results indicate that the distribution of HIV/AIDS was clustered at the county level with different directional distributions across China from 2003 to 2009. Compared to 2003, by 2009 there was a 122% increase in HIV cases among rural residents, 294% increase among urban residents, 211% increase among migrants, and 237% increase among permanent residents. The overall proportion of HIV by different routes of transmission showed dramatic changes with a 504% increase in sexual transmission of HIV, 90% decrease in blood/plasma transmission, and 35% decrease in injecting drug user transmission. Sexual transmission was the major transmission route among women (44% and the elderly (59% in men, 44% in women as well as among permanent (36% and urban residents (33%. Among those <65 years old, women increased more than men, but among those ≥ 65 years, men increased more than women. Migrants contributed to the variance of HIV infection between counties but not within counties. The length of highway and urbanization combined with illiteracy were risk factors for HIV/AIDS. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Rates of HIV/AIDS among permanent urban residents, particularly women and elderly men, have increased significantly in recent years. To prevent HIV from spreading further among the general population, additional attention should be paid to these populations as well as to migrants.

  6. Development and testing of a novel survey to assess Stakeholder-driven Community Diffusion of childhood obesity prevention efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korn, Ariella R; Hennessy, Erin; Hammond, Ross A; Allender, Steven; Gillman, Matthew W; Kasman, Matt; McGlashan, Jaimie; Millar, Lynne; Owen, Brynle; Pachucki, Mark C; Swinburn, Boyd; Tovar, Alison; Economos, Christina D

    2018-05-31

    Involving groups of community stakeholders (e.g., steering committees) to lead community-wide health interventions appears to support multiple outcomes ranging from policy and systems change to individual biology. While numerous tools are available to measure stakeholder characteristics, many lack detail on reliability and validity, are not context specific, and may not be sensitive enough to capture change over time. This study describes the development and reliability of a novel survey to measure Stakeholder-driven Community Diffusion via assessment of stakeholders' social networks, knowledge, and engagement about childhood obesity prevention. This study was completed in three phases. Phase 1 included conceptualization and online survey development through literature reviews and expert input. Phase 2 included a retrospective study with stakeholders from two completed whole-of-community interventions. Between May-October 2015, 21 stakeholders from the Shape Up Somerville and Romp & Chomp interventions recalled their social networks, knowledge, and engagement pre-post intervention. We also assessed one-week test-retest reliability of knowledge and engagement survey modules among Shape Up Somerville respondents. Phase 3 included survey modifications and a second prospective reliability assessment. Test-retest reliability was assessed in May 2016 among 13 stakeholders involved in ongoing interventions in Victoria, Australia. In Phase 1, we developed a survey with 7, 20 and 50 items for the social networks, knowledge, and engagement survey modules, respectively. In the Phase 2 retrospective study, Shape Up Somerville and Romp & Chomp networks included 99 and 54 individuals. Pre-post Shape Up Somerville and Romp & Chomp mean knowledge scores increased by 3.5 points (95% CI: 0.35-6.72) and (- 0.42-7.42). Engagement scores did not change significantly (Shape Up Somerville: 1.1 points (- 0.55-2.73); Romp & Chomp: 0.7 points (- 0.43-1.73)). Intraclass correlation

  7. Design of Organic Transformations at Ambient Conditions: Our Sincere Efforts to the Cause of Green Chemistry Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahmachari, Goutam

    2016-02-01

    This account summarizes our recent efforts in designing a good number of important organic transformations leading to the synthesis of biologically relevant compounds at room temperature and pressure. Currently, the concept of green chemistry is globally acclaimed and has already advanced quite significantly to emerge as a distinct branch of chemical sciences. Among the principles of green chemistry, one principle is dedicated to the "design of energy efficiency" - that is, to develop synthetic strategies that require less or the minimum amount of energy to carry out a specific reaction with optimum productivity - and the most effective way to save energy is to develop strategies/protocols that are capable enough to carry out the transformations at ambient temperature! As part of on-going developments in green synthetic strategies, the design of reactions under ambient conditions coupled with other green aspects is, thus, an area of current interest. The concept of developing reaction strategies at room temperature and pressure is now an emerging field of research in organic chemistry and is progressing steadily. This account is aimed to offer an overview of our recent research works directly related to this particular field of interest, and highlights the green chemistry practice leading to carbon-carbon and carbon-heteroatom bond-forming reactions of topical significance. Green synthetic routes to a variety of biologically relevant organic molecules (heterocyclic, heteroaromatic, alicyclic, acyclic, etc.) at room temperature and pressure are discussed. © 2015 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Design of Fishing Boat for Pelabuhanratu Fishermen as One of Effort to Increase Production of Capture Fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur, Iswadi; Joko Suranto, Purwo

    2018-02-01

    Design of fishing boat for Pelabuhanratu fisherman as one of effort to increase production of capture fisheries. The fishing boat should be proper for the characteristic of its service area, as; capacity of fishing boat up to 60 GT, the fishing boat has minimum 6 fish holds and location of fish hold in the middle body, the fishing boat hull has the bilge keel plate, and the material of hull fishing boat to be made of wooden, steel, aluminium, or fiberglass. Main dimesion of fishing boat is Length Over All = 25.436 m, Breadth = 4.55 m, Draft = 1.6 m, Speed = 12.5 knots. The research had been known every thing that will be supporting the production of capture fisheries like ; amount of fish production = 25.030 ton per day, the fishing port capacity approximately 268.957GT per day, the area of fishing port industry had not completed, therefore all data research result less than standard of Oceanic Fising Port. So Pelabuhanratu National Fishing Port can not be changed to Oceanic Fishing Port.

  9. Prototype development of radio frequency cavity and quadrupole for ADSS - initial efforts by mechanical design and prototype development section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Manish; Kamble, Sunil; Choughule, L.S.; Kumar, Sunil; Patankar, S.R.; Phalke, V.M.; Dharmik, D.A.; Singh, Tejinder; Ram, Y.; Chaudhari, A.T.; Pathak, Kavindra; Prasad, N.K.; Marathe, V.V.; Matkar, A.W.

    2007-01-01

    Mechanical Design and Prototype Development Section has participated in the efforts for development of RF cavity and Quadrupole for ADSS. Recently prototype Super conducting RF cavity, Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ), Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) Simulation Chamber and related experimental setups were developed, fabricated and delivered for the characterisation of various relevant parameters. Under the program for development of Super conducting RF Cavity for high-energy section of LINAC of ADS first prototype RF Cavity of ETP copper was developed by machining and brazing process. The prototype cavity having elliptical and circular profile is the heart of this setup. The cavity is made up of two symmetrical cups joined together by welding or brazing. Various methods are being tried out by MD and PDS for the fabrication of cups and joining them together. Manufacturing of cup by machining and joining them by conventional brazing technique to make the cavity was the first step in this direction. Another method of manufacturing and joining viz forming of cup by deep drawing and joining them by EB welding is in progress. RFQ is a versatile and efficient system for accelerating ion beams especially at low energy. It works in quadrupole mode, which is at 350M Hz. RFQ Focuses, Bunches and Accelerates the beam simultaneously. The bunching is done in this RFQ, which results in more than 95% transmission where as in the normal buncher the transmission is less than 40%. The actual RFQ, which is designed for the PURNIMA facility, will be fabricated from OFHC copper that will accelerate a deuteron (D+) ion beam from 50keV to 400keV over its 1.37meter length. For the validation of manufacturing process and characterisation of various parameters at low frequency a 500mm long prototype RFQ in Aluminium with an accuracy of ± 25microns and surface finish of 1.6 micron has been fabricated by MD and PDS. A simplified simulation chamber to facilitate the development of RFQ for

  10. Optimising cluster survey design for planning schistosomiasis preventive chemotherapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah C L Knowles

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The cornerstone of current schistosomiasis control programmes is delivery of praziquantel to at-risk populations. Such preventive chemotherapy requires accurate information on the geographic distribution of infection, yet the performance of alternative survey designs for estimating prevalence and converting this into treatment decisions has not been thoroughly evaluated.We used baseline schistosomiasis mapping surveys from three countries (Malawi, Côte d'Ivoire and Liberia to generate spatially realistic gold standard datasets, against which we tested alternative two-stage cluster survey designs. We assessed how sampling different numbers of schools per district (2-20 and children per school (10-50 influences the accuracy of prevalence estimates and treatment class assignment, and we compared survey cost-efficiency using data from Malawi. Due to the focal nature of schistosomiasis, up to 53% simulated surveys involving 2-5 schools per district failed to detect schistosomiasis in low endemicity areas (1-10% prevalence. Increasing the number of schools surveyed per district improved treatment class assignment far more than increasing the number of children sampled per school. For Malawi, surveys of 15 schools per district and 20-30 children per school reliably detected endemic schistosomiasis and maximised cost-efficiency. In sensitivity analyses where treatment costs and the country considered were varied, optimal survey size was remarkably consistent, with cost-efficiency maximised at 15-20 schools per district.Among two-stage cluster surveys for schistosomiasis, our simulations indicated that surveying 15-20 schools per district and 20-30 children per school optimised cost-efficiency and minimised the risk of under-treatment, with surveys involving more schools of greater cost-efficiency as treatment costs rose.

  11. LFR core design for prevention & mitigation of severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grasso, Giacomo

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: • Aiming at fully complying Gen-IV safety requirements – even in case of Fukushima-like events –, prevention and mitigation strategies must be stressed in FR design. • The safety of Lead-cooled Fast Reactors can rely on intrinsic features due to the coolant, such as: • the practical impossibility of Lead boiling, hence the unreliability of core (only) voiding for wide safety margins, and the retention of corium; • the high density of lead, for the buoyancy of Control Rods (allowing their safe positioning below the core), and the dispersion of molten core up to the setting up of a “cold melting pot”. • the possibility to adopt wide coolant channels for encouraging natural circulation, without affecting the hardness of the neutron spectrum; • the hard neutron spectrum allows the adiabatic operation of LFRs (which implies minimal criticality swings even through long cycles) with small amounts of Mas (hence with a negligible detriment to the safety features); • an effective reduction of the coolant density effect simply through the shortening of the active height

  12. Effortful echolalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadano, K; Nakamura, H; Hamanaka, T

    1998-02-01

    We report three cases of effortful echolalia in patients with cerebral infarction. The clinical picture of speech disturbance is associated with Type 1 Transcortical Motor Aphasia (TCMA, Goldstein, 1915). The patients always spoke nonfluently with loss of speech initiative, dysarthria, dysprosody, agrammatism, and increased effort and were unable to repeat sentences longer than those containing four or six words. In conversation, they first repeated a few words spoken to them, and then produced self initiated speech. The initial repetition as well as the subsequent self initiated speech, which were realized equally laboriously, can be regarded as mitigated echolalia (Pick, 1924). They were always aware of their own echolalia and tried to control it without effect. These cases demonstrate that neither the ability to repeat nor fluent speech are always necessary for echolalia. The possibility that a lesion in the left medial frontal lobe, including the supplementary motor area, plays an important role in effortful echolalia is discussed.

  13. Design and methods for evaluating an early childhood obesity prevention program in the childcare center setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natale Ruby

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many unhealthy dietary and physical activity habits that foster the development of obesity are established by the age of five. Presently, approximately 70 percent of children in the United States are currently enrolled in early childcare facilities, making this an ideal setting to implement and evaluate childhood obesity prevention efforts. We describe here the methods for conducting an obesity prevention randomized trial in the child care setting. Methods/design A randomized, controlled obesity prevention trial is currently being conducted over a three year period (2010-present. The sample consists of 28 low-income, ethnically diverse child care centers with 1105 children (sample is 60% Hispanic, 15% Haitian, 12% Black, 2% non-Hispanic White and 71% of caregivers were born outside of the US. The purpose is to test the efficacy of a parent and teacher role-modeling intervention on children’s nutrition and physical activity behaviors. . The Healthy Caregivers-Healthy Children (HC2 intervention arm schools received a combination of (1 implementing a daily curricula for teachers/parents (the nutritional gatekeepers; (2 implementing a daily curricula for children; (3 technical assistance with meal and snack menu modifications such as including more fresh and less canned produce; and (4 creation of a center policy for dietary requirements for meals and snacks, physical activity and screen time. Control arm schools received an attention control safety curriculum. Major outcome measures include pre-post changes in child body mass index percentile and z score, fruit and vegetable and other nutritious food intake, amount of physical activity, and parental nutrition and physical activity knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs, defined by intentions and behaviors. All measures were administered at the beginning and end of the school year for year one and year two of the study for a total of 4 longitudinal time points for assessment

  14. What role can child-care settings play in obesity prevention? A review of the evidence and call for research efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole; Ward, Dianne S; Neelon, Sara Benjamin; Story, Mary

    2011-09-01

    Given the widespread use of out-of-home child care and an all-time high prevalence of obesity among US preschool-aged children, it is imperative to consider the opportunities that child-care facilities may provide to reduce childhood obesity. This review examines the scientific literature on state regulations, practices and policies, and interventions for promoting healthy eating and physical activity, and for preventing obesity in preschool-aged children attending child care. Research published between January 2000 and July 2010 was identified by searching PubMed and MEDLINE databases, and by examining the bibliographies of relevant studies. Although the review focused on US child-care settings, interventions implemented in international settings were also included. In total, 42 studies were identified for inclusion in this review: four reviews of state regulations, 18 studies of child-care practices and policies that may influence eating or physical activity behaviors, two studies of parental perceptions and practices relevant to obesity prevention, and 18 evaluated interventions. Findings from this review reveal that most states lack strong regulations for child-care settings related to healthy eating and physical activity. Recent assessments of child-care settings suggest opportunities for improving the nutritional quality of food provided to children, the time children are engaged in physical activity, and caregivers' promotion of children's health behaviors and use of health education resources. A limited number of interventions have been designed to address these concerns, and only two interventions have successfully demonstrated an effect on child weight status. Recommendations are provided for future research addressing opportunities to prevent obesity in child-care settings. Copyright © 2011 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Methodological challenges in designing dementia prevention trials - The European Dementia Prevention Initiative (EDPI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richard, Edo; Andrieu, Sandrine; Solomon, Alina; Mangialasche, Francesca; Ahtiluoto, Satu; Moll van Charante, Eric P.; Coley, Nicola; Fratiglioni, Laura; Neely, Anna Stigsdotter; Vellas, Bruno; van Gool, Willem A.; Kivipelto, Miia

    2012-01-01

    Recent epidemiological studies have indicated numerous associations between vascular and lifestyle related risk factors and incident dementia. However, evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCT) showing effectiveness of interventions aimed at these risk factors in preventing or postponing

  16. Using Sibling Designs to Understand Neurodevelopmental Disorders: From Genes and Environments to Prevention Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Mark; Prime, Heather; Madigan, Sheri

    2015-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental disorders represent a broad class of childhood neurological conditions that have a significant bearing on the wellbeing of children, families, and communities. In this review, we draw on evidence from two common and widely studied neurodevelopmental disorders-autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-to demonstrate the utility of genetically informed sibling designs in uncovering the nature and pathogenesis of these conditions. Specifically, we examine how twin, recurrence risk, and infant prospective tracking studies have contributed to our understanding of genetic and environmental liabilities towards neurodevelopmental morbidity through their impact on neurocognitive processes and structural/functional neuroanatomy. It is suggested that the siblings of children with ASD and ADHD are at risk not only of clinically elevated problems in these areas, but also of subthreshold symptoms and/or subtle impairments in various neurocognitive skills and other domains of psychosocial health. Finally, we close with a discussion on the practical relevance of sibling designs and how these might be used in the service of early screening, prevention, and intervention efforts that aim to alleviate the negative downstream consequences associated with disorders of neurodevelopment.

  17. Using Sibling Designs to Understand Neurodevelopmental Disorders: From Genes and Environments to Prevention Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Wade

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurodevelopmental disorders represent a broad class of childhood neurological conditions that have a significant bearing on the wellbeing of children, families, and communities. In this review, we draw on evidence from two common and widely studied neurodevelopmental disorders—autism spectrum disorder (ASD and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD—to demonstrate the utility of genetically informed sibling designs in uncovering the nature and pathogenesis of these conditions. Specifically, we examine how twin, recurrence risk, and infant prospective tracking studies have contributed to our understanding of genetic and environmental liabilities towards neurodevelopmental morbidity through their impact on neurocognitive processes and structural/functional neuroanatomy. It is suggested that the siblings of children with ASD and ADHD are at risk not only of clinically elevated problems in these areas, but also of subthreshold symptoms and/or subtle impairments in various neurocognitive skills and other domains of psychosocial health. Finally, we close with a discussion on the practical relevance of sibling designs and how these might be used in the service of early screening, prevention, and intervention efforts that aim to alleviate the negative downstream consequences associated with disorders of neurodevelopment.

  18. The clinical profile of women with stable ischaemic heart disease in Spain. More effort is needed in secondary prevention. SIRENA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gámez, J M; Ripoll, T; Barrios, V; Anguita, M; Pedreira, M; Madariaga, I

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death for women, especially ischaemic heart disease, which is still considered a man's disease. In Spain, there are various registries on ischaemic heart disease, although none are exclusively for women. The objectives of the SIRENA study were to describe the clinical profile of women with ischaemic heart disease treated in cardiology consultations, to estimate its prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and understand its clinical management. A multicentre observational study was conducted with a sample of 631 women with stable ischaemic heart disease, consecutively included during cardiology consultations. Forty-one researchers from all over Spain participated in the study. The mean age was 68.5 years. The clinical presentation was in the form of acute coronary syndrome in up to 67.2% of the patients. The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors was high (77.7% of the patients had hypertension, 40.7% had diabetes and 68% had dyslipidaemia), with 30.7% having uncontrolled hypertension, 78.4% having LDL-cholesterol levels higher than 70mg/dL and 49.2% having HbA1c levels greater than 7%. The considerable majority of the patients underwent optimal medical treatment with antiplatelet agents, beta-blockers, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockers and hypolipidaemic agents. Coronary angiography was performed for 88.3% of the patients, and 63.4% underwent percutaneous coronary intervention. Women with stable ischaemic heart disease in Spain initially present some form of acute coronary syndrome and a high prevalence of inadequately controlled cardiovascular risk factors, despite undergoing optimal medical therapy. A high percentage of these women undergo coronary revascularisation. Increased efforts are required for secondary prevention in women with stable ischaemic heart disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  19. Chlorin photosensitizers sterically designed to prevent self-aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchoa, Adjaci F; de Oliveira, Kleber T; Baptista, Mauricio S; Bortoluzzi, Adailton J; Iamamoto, Yassuko; Serra, Osvaldo A

    2011-11-04

    The synthesis and photophysical evaluation of new chlorin derivatives are described. The Diels-Alder reaction between protoporphyrin IX dimethyl ester and substituted maleimides furnishes endo-adducts that completely prevent the self-aggregation of the chlorins. Fluorescence, resonant light scattering (RLS) and (1)H NMR experiments, as well as X-ray crystallographic have demonstrated that the configurational arrangement of the synthesized chlorins prevent π-stacking interactions between macrocycles, thus indicating that it is a nonaggregating photosensitizer with high singlet oxygen (Φ(Δ)) and fluorescence (Φ(f)) quantum yields. Our results show that this type of synthetic strategy may provide the lead to a new generation of PDT photosensitizers.

  20. Design an effective storm water pollution prevention plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vivona, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    A case history shows ''how'' to plan and organize a storm water pollution prevention program (SWPPP). Using easy-to-use worksheets and guidelines, hydrocarbon processing industry (HPI) operators can build upon existing best management practices (i.e., housekeeping procedures, visual inspections, spill prevention programs, etc.) to meet tighter restrictions set by National Pollutant Discharge Elimination system (NPDES) permits. Especially in high rainfall areas, storm water poses an intermittent, but large volume problem. The facility's site size is another factor that impacts the scope and cost for SWPPP. The five steps to implementing a SWPPP are: Planning and organization; Assessment; Best management practice (BMP) identification; Implementation; Evaluation and monitoring. Initially, HPI operators must identify all potential contamination sources and past spills and leak areas. Following the SWPP guidelines, operators can map out a cost-effective storm water program that meets all NPDES requirements

  1. Designing Interventions that Last: A Classification of Environmental Behaviors in Relation to the Activities, Costs, and Effort Involved for Adoption and Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Harriet E.; Boldero, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Policy makers draw on behavioral research to design interventions that promote the voluntary adoption of environmental behavior in societies. Many environmental behaviors will only be effective if they are maintained over the long-term. In the context of climate change and concerns about future water security, behaviors that involve reducing energy consumption and improving water quality must be continued indefinitely to mitigate global warming and preserve scarce resources. Previous reviews of environmental behavior have focused exclusively on factors related to adoption. This review investigates the factors that influence both adoption and maintenance, and presents a classification of environmental behaviors in terms of the activities, costs, and effort required for both adoption and maintenance. Three categories of behavior are suggested. One-off behaviors involve performing an activity once, such as purchasing an energy efficient washing machine, or signing a petition. Continuous behaviors involve the performance of the same set of behaviors for adoption and for maintenance, such as curbside recycling. Dynamic behaviors involve the performance of different behaviors for adoption and maintenance, such as revegetation. Behaviors can also be classified into four categories related to cost and effort: those that involve little cost and effort for adoption and maintenance, those that involve moderate cost and effort for adoption and maintenance, those that involve a high cost or effort for adoption and less for maintenance, and those that involve less cost or effort for adoption and a higher amount for maintenance. In order to design interventions that last, policy makers should consider the factors that influence the maintenance as well as the adoption of environmental behaviors. PMID:29163265

  2. Designing an Effective Prevention Program: Principles Underlying the Rand Smoking and Drug Prevention Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellickson, Phyllis L.

    This paper describes the Project ALERT program (Adolescent Learning Experiences in Resistance Training) which was established by the Rand Corporation to prevent smoking and drug use among seventh graders. The program is based on the social influence model of drug use initiation. Curriculum features are described including motivation to resist and…

  3. The Process of Planning and Designing Research for an Educational Telecommunications Effort. Satellite Technology Demonstration, Technical Report No. 0209.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, A. J.; And Others

    The Satellite Technology Demonstration (STD) designed research for a satellite-based communication system that would transmit educational television programs. Their procedures were subject to a series of external and internal evaluations by the project sponsors, the National Institute of Education. In regard to external evaluation, STD recommended…

  4. Lack of knowledge of HIV status a major barrier to HIV prevention, care and treatment efforts in Kenya: results from a nationally representative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Cherutich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We analyzed HIV testing rates, prevalence of undiagnosed HIV, and predictors of testing in the Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey (KAIS 2007. METHODS: KAIS was a nationally representative sero-survey that included demographic and behavioral indicators and testing for HIV, HSV-2, syphilis, and CD4 cell counts in the population aged 15-64 years. We used gender-specific multivariable regression models to identify factors independently associated with HIV testing in sexually active persons. RESULTS: Of 19,840 eligible persons, 80% consented to interviews and blood specimen collection. National HIV prevalence was 7.1% (95% CI 6.5-7.7. Among ever sexually active persons, 27.4% (95% CI 25.6-29.2 of men and 44.2% (95% CI 42.5-46.0 of women reported previous HIV testing. Among HIV-infected persons, 83.6% (95% CI 76.2-91.0 were unaware of their HIV infection. Among sexually active women aged 15-49 years, 48.7% (95% CI 46.8-50.6 had their last HIV test during antenatal care (ANC. In multivariable analyses, the adjusted odds ratio (AOR for ever HIV testing in women ≥35 versus 15-19 years was 0.2 (95% CI: 0.1-0.3; p<0.0001. Other independent associations with ever HIV testing included urban residence (AOR 1.6, 95% CI: 1.2-2.0; p = 0.0005, women only, highest wealth index versus the four lower quintiles combined (AOR 1.8, 95% CI: 1.3-2.5; p = 0.0006, men only, and an increasing testing trend with higher levels of education. Missed opportunities for testing were identified during general or pregnancy-specific contacts with health facilities; 89% of adults said they would participate in home-based HIV testing. CONCLUSIONS: The vast majority of HIV-infected persons in Kenya are unaware of their HIV status, posing a major barrier to HIV prevention, care and treatment efforts. New approaches to HIV testing provision and education, including home-based testing, may increase coverage. Targeted interventions should involve sexually active men, sexually

  5. Research design considerations for chronic pain prevention clinical trials: IMMPACT recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gewandter, Jennifer S; Dworkin, Robert H; Turk, Dennis C; Farrar, John T; Fillingim, Roger B; Gilron, Ian; Markman, John D; Oaklander, Anne Louise; Polydefkis, Michael J; Raja, Srinivasa N; Robinson, James P; Woolf, Clifford J; Ziegler, Dan; Ashburn, Michael A; Burke, Laurie B; Cowan, Penney; George, Steven Z; Goli, Veeraindar; Graff, Ole X; Iyengar, Smriti; Jay, Gary W; Katz, Joel; Kehlet, Henrik; Kitt, Rachel A; Kopecky, Ernest A; Malamut, Richard; McDermott, Michael P; Palmer, Pamela; Rappaport, Bob A; Rauschkolb, Christine; Steigerwald, Ilona; Tobias, Jeffrey; Walco, Gary A

    2015-07-01

    Although certain risk factors can identify individuals who are most likely to develop chronic pain, few interventions to prevent chronic pain have been identified. To facilitate the identification of preventive interventions, an IMMPACT meeting was convened to discuss research design considerations for clinical trials investigating the prevention of chronic pain. We present general design considerations for prevention trials in populations that are at relatively high risk for developing chronic pain. Specific design considerations included subject identification, timing and duration of treatment, outcomes, timing of assessment, and adjusting for risk factors in the analyses. We provide a detailed examination of 4 models of chronic pain prevention (ie, chronic postsurgical pain, postherpetic neuralgia, chronic low back pain, and painful chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy). The issues discussed can, in many instances, be extrapolated to other chronic pain conditions. These examples were selected because they are representative models of primary and secondary prevention, reflect persistent pain resulting from multiple insults (ie, surgery, viral infection, injury, and toxic or noxious element exposure), and are chronically painful conditions that are treated with a range of interventions. Improvements in the design of chronic pain prevention trials could improve assay sensitivity and thus accelerate the identification of efficacious interventions. Such interventions would have the potential to reduce the prevalence of chronic pain in the population. Additionally, standardization of outcomes in prevention clinical trials will facilitate meta-analyses and systematic reviews and improve detection of preventive strategies emerging from clinical trials.

  6. Preventing Teen Pregnancy: Coordinating Community Efforts. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Human Resources and Intergovernmental Relations of the Committee on Government Reform and Oversight. House of Representatives, One Hundred Fourth Congress, Second Session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Government Reform and Oversight.

    The Subcommittee on Human Resources and Intergovernmental Relations of the House of Representatives Committee on Government Reform and Oversight met to consider the causes of and solutions to teen pregnancy and the role of community organizations in prevention efforts. Opening remarks by Representative Christopher Shays were followed by statements…

  7. Designing Insurance to Promote Use of Childhood Obesity Prevention Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly J. Rask

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity is a recognized public health crisis. This paper reviews the lessons learned from a voluntary initiative to expand insurance coverage for childhood obesity prevention and treatment services in the United States. In-depth telephone interviews were conducted with key informants from 16 participating health plans and employers in 2010-11. Key informants reported difficulty ensuring that both providers and families were aware of the available services. Participating health plans and employers are beginning new tactics including removing enrollment requirements, piloting enhanced outreach to selected physician practices, and educating providers on effective care coordination and use of obesity-specific billing codes through professional organizations. The voluntary initiative successfully increased private health insurance coverage for obesity services, but the interviews described variability in implementation with both best practices and barriers identified. Increasing utilization of obesity-related health services in the long term will require both family- and provider-focused interventions in partnership with improved health insurance coverage.

  8. Human factors considerations in designing for infection prevention and control in neonatal care - findings from a pre-design inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudel, Chantal; Cobb, Sue; Momtahan, Kathryn; Brintnell, Janet; Mitchell, Ann

    2018-01-01

    Qualitative data collection methods drawn from the early stages of human-centred design frameworks combined with thematic analysis were used to develop an understanding of infection prevention practice within an existing neonatal intensive care unit. Findings were used to generate a framework of understanding which in turn helped inform a baseline approach for future research and design development. The study revealed that a lack of clarity between infection transmission zones and a lack of design attributes needed to uphold infection prevention measures may be undermining healthcare workers' understanding and application of good practice. The issue may be further complicated by well-intentioned behavioural attitudes to meeting work objectives; undue influences from spatial constraints; the influence of inadvertent and excessive touch-based interactions; physical and/or cognitive exertion to maintain transmission barriers; and the impact of expanding job design and increased workload to supplement for lack of effective barriers. Practitioner Summary: Despite high hand hygiene compliance within a neonatal intensive care unit, healthcare workers expressed concerns about the unit design and infection prevention practice. Early inquiry methods from human-centred design and thematic analysis helped develop a framework to understand how design can be used to aid infection prevention.

  9. Suicide prevention e-learning modules designed for gatekeepers: A descriptive review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghoncheh, R.; Kerkhof, A.; Koot, H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: E-learning modules can be a useful method for educating gatekeepers in suicide prevention and awareness. Aims: To review and provide an overview of e-learning modules on suicide prevention designed for gatekeepers and assess their effectiveness. Method: Two strategies were used. First,

  10. European recommendations for primary prevention of congenital anomalies: A joined effort of EUROCAT and EUROPLAN projects to facilitate inclusion of this topic in the National Rare Disease Plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taruscio, Domenica; Arriola, Larraitz; Baldi, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Congenital anomalies (CA) are the paradigm example of rare diseases liable to primary prevention actions due to the multifactorial etiology of many of them, involving a number of environmental factors together with genetic predispositions. Yet despite the preventive potential, lack of attention t...

  11. Minimally invasive strabismus surgery versus paralimbal approach: A randomized, parallel design study is minimally invasive strabismus surgery worth the effort?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richa Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Minimal access surgery is common in all fields of medicine. We compared a new minimally invasive strabismus surgery (MISS approach with a standard paralimbal strabismus surgery (SPSS approach in terms of post-operative course. Materials and Methods: This parallel design study was done on 28 eyes of 14 patients, in which one eye was randomized to MISS and the other to SPSS. MISS was performed by giving two conjunctival incisions parallel to the horizontal rectus muscles; performing recession or resection below the conjunctival strip so obtained. We compared post-operative redness, congestion, chemosis, foreign body sensation (FBS, and drop intolerance (DI on a graded scale of 0 to 3 on post-operative day 1, at 2-3 weeks, and 6 weeks. In addition, all scores were added to obtain a total inflammatory score (TIS. Statistical Analysis: Inflammatory scores were analyzed using Wilcoxon′s signed rank test. Results: On the first post-operative day, only FBS (P = 0.01 and TIS (P = 0.04 showed significant difference favoring MISS. At 2-3 weeks, redness (P = 0.04, congestion (P = 0.04, FBS (P = 0.02, and TIS (P = 0.04 were significantly less in MISS eye. At 6 weeks, only redness (P = 0.04 and TIS (P = 0.05 were significantly less. Conclusion: MISS is more comfortable in the immediate post-operative period and provides better cosmesis in the intermediate period.

  12. Design rules to prevent from elasto-plastic bucking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autrusson, B.; Acker, D.

    1986-10-01

    The development of fast neutron reactors requires the construction of mechanical structures which are subject to thermal transients. These structures being thin, there is a risk of important buckling. Studies developed in the general framework of dimensioning propose a simplified method. This method is based on the determination of the elastic critical load of the perfect structure and its correction by a reduction coefficient which takes into account the effect of tolerances, plasticity and a possible instable post-critical behavior. This paper presents this method and its experimental validation, as also a comparison with the rules proposed by the CODAP 80 (C4 41) for structures subject to an external pressure load. This method has been introduced in the French Rules of design and construction of fast neutron reactor mechanical components (RCC-MR) [fr

  13. Long-term outcome of a randomized controlled universal prevention trial through a positive parenting program: is it worth the effort?

    OpenAIRE

    Hahlweg, Kurt; Heinrichs, Nina; Kuschel, Annett; Bertram, Heike; Naumann, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Approximately 20% of children experience internalizing or externalizing DSM-IV-TR disorders. This prevalence rate cannot be reduced through treatment only. Effective preventive interventions are therefore urgently needed. The aim of the current investigation is to evaluate the two-year efficacy of the group Triple P parenting program administered universally for the prevention of child behavior problems. Methods Based on their respective preschool, N = 280 families were ra...

  14. The DIAN-TU Next Generation Alzheimer’s prevention trial: adaptive design and disease progression model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Randall J.; Benzinger, Tammie L.; Berry, Scott; Clifford, David B.; Duggan, Cynthia; Fagan, Anne M.; Fanning, Kathleen; Farlow, Martin R.; Hassenstab, Jason; McDade, Eric M.; Mills, Susan; Paumier, Katrina; Quintana, Melanie; Salloway, Stephen P.; Santacruz, Anna; Schneider, Lon S.; Wang, Guoqiao; Xiong, Chengjie

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network Trials Unit (DIAN-TU) trial is an adaptive platform trial testing multiple drugs to slow or prevent the progression of Alzheimer’s disease in autosomal dominant Alzheimer’s disease (ADAD) families. With completion of enrollment of the first two drug arms, the DIAN-TU now plans to add new drugs to the platform, designated as the Next Generation Prevention Trial (NexGen). METHODS In collaboration with ADAD families, philanthropic organizations, academic leaders, the DIAN-TU Pharma Consortium, the NIH, and regulatory colleagues, the DIAN-TU developed innovative clinical study designs for the DIAN-TU NexGen trial. RESULTS Our expanded trials toolbox consists of a Disease Progression Model for ADAD, primary endpoint DIAN-TU cognitive performance composite, biomarker development, self-administered cognitive assessments, adaptive dose adjustments, and blinded data collection through the last participant completion. CONCLUSION These steps represent elements to improve efficacy of the adaptive platform trial and a continued effort to optimize prevention and treatment trials in ADAD. PMID:27583651

  15. Worldwide effort against smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-01

    The 39th World Health Assembly, which met in May 1986, recognized the escalating health problem of smoking-related diseases and affirmed that tobacco smoking and its use in other forms are incompatible with the attainment of "Health for All by the Year 2000." If properly implemented, antismoking campaigns can decrease the prevalence of smoking. Nations as a whole must work toward changing smoking habits, and governments must support these efforts by officially stating their stand against smoking. Over 60 countries have introduced legislation affecting smoking. The variety of policies range from adopting a health education program designed to increase peoples' awareness of its dangers to increasing taxes to deter smoking by increasing tobacco prices. Each country must adopt an antismoking campaign which works most effectively within the cultural parameters of the society. Other smoking policies include: printed warnings on cigarette packages; health messages via radio, television, mobile teams, pamphlets, health workers, clinic walls, and newspapers; prohibition of smoking in public areas and transportation; prohibition of all advertisement of cigarettes and tobacco; and the establishment of upper limits of tar and nicotine content in cigarettes. The tobacco industry spends about $2000 million annually on worldwide advertising. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), controlling this overabundance of tobacco advertisements is a major priority in preventing the spread of smoking. Cigarette and tobacco advertising can be controlled to varying degrees, e.g., over a dozen countries have enacted a total ban on advertising on television or radio, a mandatory health warning must accompany advertisements in other countries, and tobacco companies often are prohibited from sponsoring sports events. Imposing a substantial tax on cigarettes is one of the most effective means to deter smoking. However, raising taxes and banning advertisements is not enough because

  16. Nationwide SIP Telephony Network Design to Prevent Congestion Caused by Disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Daisuke; Ashitagawa, Kyoko

    We present a session initiation protocol (SIP) network design for a voice-over-IP network to prevent congestion caused by people calling friends and family after a disaster. The design increases the capacity of SIP servers in a network by using all of the SIP servers equally. It takes advantage of the fact that equipment for voice data packets is different from equipment for signaling packets in SIP networks. Furthermore, the design achieves simple routing on the basis of telephone numbers. We evaluated the performance of our design in preventing congestion through simulation. We showed that the proposed design has roughly 20 times more capacity, which is 57 times the normal load, than the conventional design if a disaster were to occur in Niigata Prefecture struck by the Chuetsu earthquake in 2004.

  17. Relationships between the Family Environment and School-Based Obesity Prevention Efforts: Can School Programs Help Adolescents Who Are Most in Need?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, K. W.; Neumark-Sztainer, D.; Hannan, P. J.; Fulkerson, J. A.; Story, M.

    2011-01-01

    Identifying factors that contribute to students' behavior and weight improvements during school-based obesity prevention interventions is critical for the development of effective programs. The current study aims to determine whether the support and resources that adolescent girls received from their families were associated with improvements in…

  18. Translating Genetic Research into Preventive Intervention: The Baseline Target Moderated Mediator Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, George W; Beach, Steven R H; Brody, Gene H; Wyman, Peter A

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present and discuss a novel research approach, the baseline target moderated mediation (BTMM) design, that holds substantial promise for advancing our understanding of how genetic research can inform prevention research. We first discuss how genetically informed research on developmental psychopathology can be used to identify potential intervention targets. We then describe the BTMM design, which employs moderated mediation within a longitudinal study to test whether baseline levels of intervention targets moderate the impact of the intervention on change in that target, and whether change in those targets mediates causal impact of preventive or treatment interventions on distal health outcomes. We next discuss how genetically informed BTMM designs can be applied to both microtrials and full-scale prevention trials. We use simulated data to illustrate a BTMM, and end with a discussion of some of the advantages and limitations of this approach.

  19. Translating genetic research into preventive intervention: The baseline target moderated mediator design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George W. Howe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present and discuss a novel research approach, the baseline target moderated mediation (BTMM design, that holds substantial promise for advancing our understanding of how genetic research can inform prevention research. We first discuss how genetically informed research on developmental psychopathology can be used to identify potential intervention targets. We then describe the BTMM design, which employs moderated mediation within a longitudinal study to test whether baseline levels of intervention targets moderate the impact of the intervention on change in that target, and whether change in those targets mediates causal impact of preventive or treatment interventions on distal health outcomes. We next discuss how genetically informed BTMM designs can be applied to both microtrials and full-scale prevention trials. We end with a discussion of some of the advantages and limitations of this approach.

  20. Long-term outcome of a randomized controlled universal prevention trial through a positive parenting program: is it worth the effort?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahlweg, Kurt; Heinrichs, Nina; Kuschel, Annett; Bertram, Heike; Naumann, Sebastian

    2010-05-16

    Approximately 20% of children experience internalizing or externalizing DSM-IV-TR disorders. This prevalence rate cannot be reduced through treatment only. Effective preventive interventions are therefore urgently needed. The aim of the current investigation is to evaluate the two-year efficacy of the group Triple P parenting program administered universally for the prevention of child behavior problems. Based on their respective preschool, N = 280 families were randomly assigned either to the parent training or to the control group. The efficacy was analyzed using multi-source assessments, including questionnaires by mother and father, behavioral observation of mother-child interaction, and teacher evaluations. At the 2-year follow-up, both parents in the Triple P intervention reported significant reductions in dysfunctional parenting behavior, and mothers also an increase in positive parenting behavior. In addition, mothers reported significant reductions in internalizing and externalizing child behavior. Single-parent mothers in the Triple P intervention did not report significant changes in parenting or child problem behavior which is primarily due to inexplicable high positive effects in single parent mothers of the control group. Neither mother-child interactions nor teacher ratings yielded significant results. The results support the long-term efficacy of the Triple P - group program as a universal prevention intervention for changing parenting behavior in two-parent households, but not necessarily in single-parent mothers.

  1. Long-term outcome of a randomized controlled universal prevention trial through a positive parenting program: is it worth the effort?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertram Heike

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Approximately 20% of children experience internalizing or externalizing DSM-IV-TR disorders. This prevalence rate cannot be reduced through treatment only. Effective preventive interventions are therefore urgently needed. The aim of the current investigation is to evaluate the two-year efficacy of the group Triple P parenting program administered universally for the prevention of child behavior problems. Methods Based on their respective preschool, N = 280 families were randomly assigned either to the parent training or to the control group. The efficacy was analyzed using multi-source assessments, including questionnaires by mother and father, behavioral observation of mother-child interaction, and teacher evaluations. Results At the 2-year follow-up, both parents in the Triple P intervention reported significant reductions in dysfunctional parenting behavior, and mothers also an increase in positive parenting behavior. In addition, mothers reported significant reductions in internalizing and externalizing child behavior. Single-parent mothers in the Triple P intervention did not report significant changes in parenting or child problem behavior which is primarily due to inexplicable high positive effects in single parent mothers of the control group. Neither mother-child interactions nor teacher ratings yielded significant results. Conclusions The results support the long-term efficacy of the Triple P - group program as a universal prevention intervention for changing parenting behavior in two-parent households, but not necessarily in single-parent mothers.

  2. Designing System Reforms: Using a Systems Approach to Translate Incident Analyses into Prevention Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goode, Natassia; Read, Gemma J. M.; van Mulken, Michelle R. H.; Clacy, Amanda; Salmon, Paul M.

    2016-01-01

    Advocates of systems thinking approaches argue that accident prevention strategies should focus on reforming the system rather than on fixing the “broken components.” However, little guidance exists on how organizations can translate incident data into prevention strategies that address the systemic causes of accidents. This article describes and evaluates a series of systems thinking prevention strategies that were designed in response to the analysis of multiple incidents. The study was undertaken in the led outdoor activity (LOA) sector in Australia, which delivers supervised or instructed outdoor activities such as canyoning, sea kayaking, rock climbing and camping. The design process involved workshops with practitioners, and focussed on incident data analyzed using Rasmussen's AcciMap technique. A series of reflection points based on the systemic causes of accidents was used to guide the design process, and the AcciMap technique was used to represent the prevention strategies and the relationships between them, leading to the creation of PreventiMaps. An evaluation of the PreventiMaps revealed that all of them incorporated the core principles of the systems thinking approach and many proposed prevention strategies for improving vertical integration across the LOA system. However, the majority failed to address the migration of work practices and the erosion of risk controls. Overall, the findings suggest that the design process was partially successful in helping practitioners to translate incident data into prevention strategies that addressed the systemic causes of accidents; refinement of the design process is required to focus practitioners more on designing monitoring and feedback mechanisms to support decisions at the higher levels of the system. PMID:28066296

  3. Quantification of construction waste prevented by BIM-based design validation: Case studies in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Jongsung; Cheng, Jack C P; Lee, Ghang

    2016-03-01

    Waste generated in construction and demolition processes comprised around 50% of the solid waste in South Korea in 2013. Many cases show that design validation based on building information modeling (BIM) is an effective means to reduce the amount of construction waste since construction waste is mainly generated due to improper design and unexpected changes in the design and construction phases. However, the amount of construction waste that could be avoided by adopting BIM-based design validation has been unknown. This paper aims to estimate the amount of construction waste prevented by a BIM-based design validation process based on the amount of construction waste that might be generated due to design errors. Two project cases in South Korea were studied in this paper, with 381 and 136 design errors detected, respectively during the BIM-based design validation. Each design error was categorized according to its cause and the likelihood of detection before construction. The case studies show that BIM-based design validation could prevent 4.3-15.2% of construction waste that might have been generated without using BIM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Error begat error: design error analysis and prevention in social infrastructure projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Peter E D; Lopez, Robert; Edwards, David J; Goh, Yang M

    2012-09-01

    Design errors contribute significantly to cost and schedule growth in social infrastructure projects and to engineering failures, which can result in accidents and loss of life. Despite considerable research that has addressed their error causation in construction projects they still remain prevalent. This paper identifies the underlying conditions that contribute to design errors in social infrastructure projects (e.g. hospitals, education, law and order type buildings). A systemic model of error causation is propagated and subsequently used to develop a learning framework for design error prevention. The research suggests that a multitude of strategies should be adopted in congruence to prevent design errors from occurring and so ensure that safety and project performance are ameliorated. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Smart City Environmental Pollution Prevention and Control Design Based on Internet of Things

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, He; Bohong, Zheng; Qinpei, Kuang

    2017-11-01

    Due to increasingly serious urban pollution, this paper proposes an environmental pollution prevention and control system in combination with Internet of things. The system transfers data through the Internet, which also utilizes sensor, pH sensor and smoke sensor to obtain environmental data. Besides, combined with the video data acquired through monitoring, the data are transferred to data center to analyze the haze pollution, water pollution and fire disaster in environment. According to the results, multi-purpose vehicles are mobilized to complete the tasks such as spraying water to relieve haze, water source purification and fire fighting in city environment. Experiments show that the environmental pollution prevention and control system designed in this paper can automatically complete the urban environmental pollution detection, prevention and control, which thus reduces human and material resources and improves the efficiency of pollution prevention and control. Therefore, it possesses greatly practical significance to the construction of smart city.

  6. Trends in hospitalised sport/leisure injuries in New South Wales, Australia--implications for the targetting of population-focussed preventive sports medicine efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Caroline F; Mitchell, Rebecca; Boufous, Soufiane

    2011-01-01

    Sport/leisure injuries are a population health issue in Australia. Over 2003-2004 to 2007-2008, the rate of sport/leisure injury NSW hospitalisations was 195.5/100,000 residents. Males and children/young people had consistently highest rates of hospitalisation. There was no significant decline in rates over this period and no change in the profiles of the types of sport/leisure injuries. The extent to which effective preventive programs have been developed and implemented needs to be determined as current programs do not seem to be impacting on hospitalisation rates. Medical/health promotion agencies and sports bodies need to jointly formulate and implement policies to reduce sport/leisure injuries. This is one of the most significant challenges facing sports medicine professionals today. Copyright © 2010 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The role of intervention mapping in designing disease prevention interventions: A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garba, Rayyan M; Gadanya, Muktar A

    2017-01-01

    To assess the role of Intervention Mapping (IM) in designing disease prevention interventions worldwide. Systematic search and review of the relevant literature-peer-reviewed and grey-was conducted using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. Only five of the twenty two included studies reviewed were RCTs that compared intervention using IM protocol with placebo intervention, and provided the outcomes in terms of percentage increase in the uptake of disease-prevention programmes, and only one of the five studies provided an effect measure in the form of relative risk (RR = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.08-2.34, p = 0.02). Of the five RCTs, three were rated as strong evidences, one as a medium evidence and one as a weak evidence, and they all reported statistically significant difference between the two study groups, with disease prevention interventions that have used the intervention mapping approach generally reported significant increases in the uptake of disease-prevention interventions, ranging from 9% to 28.5% (0.0001 ≤ p ≤ 0.02), On the other hand, all the 22 studies have successfully identified the determinants of the uptake of disease prevention interventions that is essential to the success of disease prevention programmes. Intervention Mapping has been successfully used to plan, implement and evaluate interventions that showed significant increase in uptake of disease prevention programmes. This study has provided a good understanding of the role of intervention mapping in designing disease prevention interventions, and a good foundation upon which subsequent reviews can be guided.

  8. A worksite prevention program for construction workers: Design of a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Hengel, K.M.; Joling, C.I.; Proper, K.I.; Blatter, B.M.; Bongers, P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background. A worksite prevention program was developed to promote the work ability of construction workers and thereby prolong a healthy working life. The objective of this paper is to present the design of a randomized controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of that intervention program

  9. CPTED 101: Crime Prevention through Environmental Design--The Fundamentals for Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Tod

    2010-01-01

    Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED) 101 applies to both new and existing schools and is built on three simple concepts: natural surveillance, natural access control, and territoriality. If a school's layout seems unsafe, adopting a few CPTED fundamentals may help make it significantly safer. This paper offers some tips for making…

  10. Preventive measures of water hammer in the design stage of mine drainage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Dongyan

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms and types of water hammer accident in mine drainage system are introduced. Through calculating water hammer pressure head of pump-failure water hammer, the extent of the harm caused by water hammer can be displayed visually, therefore,the preventive measures to be taken in the design stage are put forward in order to reduce water hammer accident. (author)

  11. Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED) Characteristics Associated with Violence and Safety in Middle Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagi, Kevin J.; Stevens, Mark R.; Simon, Thomas R.; Basile, Kathleen C.; Carter, Sherry P.; Carter, Stanley L.

    2018-01-01

    Background: This study used a new Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) assessment tool to test the associations between physical attributes of schools and violence-related behaviors and perceptions of students. Methods: Data were collected from 4717 students from 50 middle schools. Student perceptions of risk and safety, and…

  12. Age- and Sex-Specific Trends in Lung Cancer Mortality over 62 Years in a Nation with a Low Effort in Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Ulrich; Hanke, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Background: A decrease in lung cancer mortality among females below 50 years of age has been reported for countries with significant tobacco control efforts. The aim of this study was to describe the lung cancer deaths, including the mortality rates and proportions among total deaths, for females and males by age at death in a country with a high smoking prevalence (Germany) over a time period of 62 years. Methods: The vital statistics data were analyzed using a joinpoint regression analysis stratified by age and sex. An age-period-cohort analysis was used to estimate the potential effects of sex and school education on mortality. Results: After an increase, lung cancer mortality among women aged 35–44 years remained stable from 1989 to 2009 and decreased by 10.8% per year from 2009 to 2013. Conclusions: Lung cancer mortality among females aged 35–44 years has decreased. The potential reasons include an increase in the number of never smokers, following significant increases in school education since 1950, particularly among females. PMID:27023582

  13. HIV epidemic appraisals for assisting in the design of effective prevention programmes: shifting the paradigm back to basics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmistha Mishra

    Full Text Available To design HIV prevention programmes, it is critical to understand the temporal and geographic aspects of the local epidemic and to address the key behaviours that drive HIV transmission. Two methods have been developed to appraise HIV epidemics and guide prevention strategies. The numerical proxy method classifies epidemics based on current HIV prevalence thresholds. The Modes of Transmission (MOT model estimates the distribution of incidence over one year among risk-groups. Both methods focus on the current state of an epidemic and provide short-term metrics which may not capture the epidemiologic drivers. Through a detailed analysis of country and sub-national data, we explore the limitations of the two traditional methods and propose an alternative approach.We compared outputs of the traditional methods in five countries for which results were published, and applied the numeric and MOT model to India and six districts within India. We discovered three limitations of the current methods for epidemic appraisal: (1 their results failed to identify the key behaviours that drive the epidemic; (2 they were difficult to apply to local epidemics with heterogeneity across district-level administrative units; and (3 the MOT model was highly sensitive to input parameters, many of which required extraction from non-regional sources. We developed an alternative decision-tree framework for HIV epidemic appraisals, based on a qualitative understanding of epidemiologic drivers, and demonstrated its applicability in India. The alternative framework offered a logical algorithm to characterize epidemics; it required minimal but key data.Traditional appraisals that utilize the distribution of prevalent and incident HIV infections in the short-term could misguide prevention priorities and potentially impede efforts to halt the trajectory of the HIV epidemic. An approach that characterizes local transmission dynamics provides a potentially more effective tool with

  14. Psychological distress, health protection, and sexual practices among young men who have sex with men: Using social action theory to guide HIV prevention efforts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian W Holloway

    Full Text Available The present study addresses gaps in the literature related to theory development for young men who have sex with men (YMSM sexual practices through the application and modification of Social Action Theory. Data come from the Healthy Young Men study (N = 526, which longitudinally tracked a diverse cohort of YMSM ages 18-24 to characterize risk and protective factors associated with drug use and sexual practices. Structural equation modeling examined the applicability of, and any necessary modifications to a YMSM-focused version of Social Action Theory. The final model displayed excellent fit (CFI = 0.955, TLI = 0.947, RMSEA = 0.037 and suggested concordance between social support and personal capacity for sexual health promotion. For YMSM, practicing health promotion and avoiding practices that may put them at risk for HIV was associated with both social isolation and psychological distress (β = -0.372, t = -4.601, p<0.001; psychological distress is an internalized response to environmental and cognitive factors and sexual practices are an externalized response. Results point to the utility of Social Action Theory as a useful model for understanding sexual practices among YMSM, the application of which shows health protective sexual practices are a function of sociocognitive factors that are influenced by environmental contexts. Social Action Theory can help prevention scientists better address the needs of this vulnerable population.

  15. Psychological distress, health protection, and sexual practices among young men who have sex with men: Using social action theory to guide HIV prevention efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Ian W.; Traube, Dorian E.; Schrager, Sheree M.; Tan, Diane; Dunlap, Shannon; Kipke, Michele D.

    2017-01-01

    The present study addresses gaps in the literature related to theory development for young men who have sex with men (YMSM) sexual practices through the application and modification of Social Action Theory. Data come from the Healthy Young Men study (N = 526), which longitudinally tracked a diverse cohort of YMSM ages 18–24 to characterize risk and protective factors associated with drug use and sexual practices. Structural equation modeling examined the applicability of, and any necessary modifications to a YMSM-focused version of Social Action Theory. The final model displayed excellent fit (CFI = 0.955, TLI = 0.947, RMSEA = 0.037) and suggested concordance between social support and personal capacity for sexual health promotion. For YMSM, practicing health promotion and avoiding practices that may put them at risk for HIV was associated with both social isolation and psychological distress (β = -0.372, t = -4.601, pcognitive factors and sexual practices are an externalized response. Results point to the utility of Social Action Theory as a useful model for understanding sexual practices among YMSM, the application of which shows health protective sexual practices are a function of sociocognitive factors that are influenced by environmental contexts. Social Action Theory can help prevention scientists better address the needs of this vulnerable population. PMID:28886128

  16. Using mixed methods effectively in prevention science: designs, procedures, and examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wanqing; Watanabe-Galloway, Shinobu

    2014-10-01

    There is growing interest in using a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods to generate evidence about the effectiveness of health prevention, services, and intervention programs. With the emerging importance of mixed methods research across the social and health sciences, there has been an increased recognition of the value of using mixed methods for addressing research questions in different disciplines. We illustrate the mixed methods approach in prevention research, showing design procedures used in several published research articles. In this paper, we focused on two commonly used mixed methods designs: concurrent and sequential mixed methods designs. We discuss the types of mixed methods designs, the reasons for, and advantages of using a particular type of design, and the procedures of qualitative and quantitative data collection and integration. The studies reviewed in this paper show that the essence of qualitative research is to explore complex dynamic phenomena in prevention science, and the advantage of using mixed methods is that quantitative data can yield generalizable results and qualitative data can provide extensive insights. However, the emphasis of methodological rigor in a mixed methods application also requires considerable expertise in both qualitative and quantitative methods. Besides the necessary skills and effective interdisciplinary collaboration, this combined approach also requires an open-mindedness and reflection from the involved researchers.

  17. Violence against children in Latin America and Caribbean countries: a comprehensive review of national health sector efforts in prevention and response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea L. Wirtz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Violence against children (VAC remains a global problem. The health sector has an opportunity and responsibility to be part of the multi-sector collaboration to prevent and respond to VAC. This review aimed to assess the health sector’s response to VAC among Latin American & Caribbean (LAC countries, particularly as it relates to physical violence, sexual violence, and neglect. Method National protocols for the identification and provision of health care to child survivors of violence, abuse and neglect were solicited in partnership with UNICEF and PAHO/WHO country offices within the LAC region. A parallel systematic review was undertaken in January 2015 to review studies published in the last 10 years that describe the regional health sector response to VAC. Results We obtained health sectors guidelines/protocols related to VAC from 22 of 43 (51 % countries and reviewed 97 published articles/reports that met the review inclusion criteria. Country protocols were presented in Spanish (n = 12, Portuguese (n = 1, and English (n = 9. Thematic areas of country protocols included: 1 identifying signs and symptoms of VAC, 2 providing patient-centered care to the victim, and 3 immediate treatment of injuries related to VAC. The systematic review revealed that health professionals are often unaware of national protocols and lack training, resources, and support to respond to cases of VAC. Further, there is limited coordination between health and social protection services. Conclusions VAC remains an international, public health priority. Health professionals are well-positioned to identify, treat and refer cases of VAC to appropriate institutions and community-based partners. However, poor protocol dissemination and training, limited infrastructure, and inadequate human resources challenge adherence to VAC guidelines.

  18. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A

    2001-01-01

    , breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....

  19. Building communication strategy on health prevention through the human-centered design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine de Mello Freire

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available It has been identified a latent need for developing efficient communication strategies for prevention of diseases and also, design as a potential agent to create communications artifacts that are able to promote self-care. In order to analyze a design process that develops this kind of artifact, an action research in IAPI Health Center in Porto Alegre was done. The action’s goal was to design a strategy to promote self-care to prevent cervical cancer. The process was conducted from the human centered design approach - HCD, which seeks to create solutions desirable for people and feasible for organizations from three main phases: a Hear, in which inspirations are originated from stories collected from people; b Create, which aims to translate these knowledge into prototypes; and, c Deliver, where the prototypes are tested and developed with users. Communication strategies were supported by design studies about visual-verbal rhetoric. As results, this design approach has shown adequate to create communication strategies targeted at self-care behaviors, aiming to empower users to change their behavior.

  20. Design and methods for evaluating an early childhood obesity prevention program in the childcare center setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natale, Ruby; Scott, Stephanie Hapeman; Messiah, Sarah E; Schrack, Maria Mesa; Uhlhorn, Susan B; Delamater, Alan

    2013-01-28

    Many unhealthy dietary and physical activity habits that foster the development of obesity are established by the age of five. Presently, approximately 70 percent of children in the United States are currently enrolled in early childcare facilities, making this an ideal setting to implement and evaluate childhood obesity prevention efforts. We describe here the methods for conducting an obesity prevention randomized trial in the child care setting. A randomized, controlled obesity prevention trial is currently being conducted over a three year period (2010-present). The sample consists of 28 low-income, ethnically diverse child care centers with 1105 children (sample is 60% Hispanic, 15% Haitian, 12% Black, 2% non-Hispanic White and 71% of caregivers were born outside of the US). The purpose is to test the efficacy of a parent and teacher role-modeling intervention on children's nutrition and physical activity behaviors. . The Healthy Caregivers-Healthy Children (HC2) intervention arm schools received a combination of (1) implementing a daily curricula for teachers/parents (the nutritional gatekeepers); (2) implementing a daily curricula for children; (3) technical assistance with meal and snack menu modifications such as including more fresh and less canned produce; and (4) creation of a center policy for dietary requirements for meals and snacks, physical activity and screen time. Control arm schools received an attention control safety curriculum. Major outcome measures include pre-post changes in child body mass index percentile and z score, fruit and vegetable and other nutritious food intake, amount of physical activity, and parental nutrition and physical activity knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs, defined by intentions and behaviors. All measures were administered at the beginning and end of the school year for year one and year two of the study for a total of 4 longitudinal time points for assessment. Although few attempts have been made to prevent obesity

  1. Learning Environment and Student Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopland, Arnt O.; Nyhus, Ole Henning

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between satisfaction with learning environment and student effort, both in class and with homework assignments. Design/methodology/approach: The authors use data from a nationwide and compulsory survey to analyze the relationship between learning environment and student effort. The…

  2. Successful Bullying Prevention Programs: Influence of Research Design, Implementation Features, and Program Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryanna Hahn Fox

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Bullying prevention programs have been shown to be generally effective in reducing bullying and victimization. However, the effects are relatively small in randomized experiments and greater in quasi-experimental and age-cohort designs. Programs that are more intensive and of longer duration (for both children and teachers are more effective, as are programs containing more components. Several program components are associated with large effect sizes, including parent training or meetings and teacher training. These results should inform the design and evaluation of anti-bullying programs in the future, and a system ofaccreditation of effective programs.

  3. Incorporating Primary and Secondary Prevention Approaches To Address Childhood Obesity Prevention and Treatment in a Low-Income, Ethnically Diverse Population: Study Design and Demographic Data from the Texas Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (TX CORD) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butte, Nancy F.; Barlow, Sarah; Vandewater, Elizabeth A.; Sharma, Shreela V.; Huang, Terry; Finkelstein, Eric; Pont, Stephen; Sacher, Paul; Byrd-Williams, Courtney; Oluyomi, Abiodun O.; Durand, Casey; Li, Linlin; Kelder, Steven H.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: There is consensus that development and evaluation of a systems-oriented approach for child obesity prevention and treatment that includes both primary and secondary prevention efforts is needed. This article describes the study design and baseline data from the Texas Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (TX CORD) project, which addresses child obesity among low-income, ethnically diverse overweight and obese children, ages 2–12 years; a two-tiered systems-oriented approach is hypothesized to reduce BMI z-scores, compared to primary prevention alone. Methods: Our study aims are to: (1) implement and evaluate a primary obesity prevention program; (2) implement and evaluate efficacy of a 12-month family-centered secondary obesity prevention program embedded within primary prevention; and (3) quantify the incremental cost-effectiveness of the secondary prevention program. Baseline demographic and behavioral data for the primary prevention community areas are presented. Results: Baseline data from preschool centers, elementary schools, and clinics indicate that most demographic variables are similar between intervention and comparison communities. Most families are low income (≤$25,000) and Hispanic/Latino (73.3–83.8%). The majority of parents were born outside of the United States. Child obesity rates exceed national values, ranging from 19.0% in preschool to 35.2% in fifth-grade children. Most parents report that their children consume sugary beverages, have a television in the bedroom, and do not consume adequate amounts of fruits and vegetables. Conclusions: Interventions to address childhood obesity are warranted in low-income, ethnically diverse communities. Integrating primary and secondary approaches is anticipated to provide sufficient exposure that will lead to significant decreases in childhood obesity. PMID:25555188

  4. Incorporating primary and secondary prevention approaches to address childhood obesity prevention and treatment in a low-income, ethnically diverse population: study design and demographic data from the Texas Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (TX CORD) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelscher, Deanna M; Butte, Nancy F; Barlow, Sarah; Vandewater, Elizabeth A; Sharma, Shreela V; Huang, Terry; Finkelstein, Eric; Pont, Stephen; Sacher, Paul; Byrd-Williams, Courtney; Oluyomi, Abiodun O; Durand, Casey; Li, Linlin; Kelder, Steven H

    2015-02-01

    There is consensus that development and evaluation of a systems-oriented approach for child obesity prevention and treatment that includes both primary and secondary prevention efforts is needed. This article describes the study design and baseline data from the Texas Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (TX CORD) project, which addresses child obesity among low-income, ethnically diverse overweight and obese children, ages 2-12 years; a two-tiered systems-oriented approach is hypothesized to reduce BMI z-scores, compared to primary prevention alone. Our study aims are to: (1) implement and evaluate a primary obesity prevention program; (2) implement and evaluate efficacy of a 12-month family-centered secondary obesity prevention program embedded within primary prevention; and (3) quantify the incremental cost-effectiveness of the secondary prevention program. Baseline demographic and behavioral data for the primary prevention community areas are presented. Baseline data from preschool centers, elementary schools, and clinics indicate that most demographic variables are similar between intervention and comparison communities. Most families are low income (≤$25,000) and Hispanic/Latino (73.3-83.8%). The majority of parents were born outside of the United States. Child obesity rates exceed national values, ranging from 19.0% in preschool to 35.2% in fifth-grade children. Most parents report that their children consume sugary beverages, have a television in the bedroom, and do not consume adequate amounts of fruits and vegetables. Interventions to address childhood obesity are warranted in low-income, ethnically diverse communities. Integrating primary and secondary approaches is anticipated to provide sufficient exposure that will lead to significant decreases in childhood obesity.

  5. A proposed framework for conducting pollution prevention design assessments (P2DAs) on U.S. Department of Energy design projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorsey, J.A.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this manual is to provide a framework for project managers, engineers, and designers to integrate pollution prevention principles and features into DOE design projects. The framework suggested is referred to as the pollution prevention design assessment (P2DA). The P2DA is based on DOE's method for conducting pollution prevention opportunity assessments (PPOAs) on existing waste-generating operations, but the P2DA is modified because the facility or process it assesses does not physically exist during design. Before the P2DA framework is introduced in the manual, recommendations for establishing the P2DA team and budget are provided. Specific pollution prevention requirements and opportunities for each design stage as delineated in DOE Order 4700.1 Project Management System are also discussed and a sample format for drafting a P2DA report is provided in the appendix. The scope of this manual includes not only the P2DA framework, but also a background discussion of pollution prevention and related topics; the regulatory requirements mandating design for pollution prevention; the benefits and barriers of designing for pollution prevention; and the impact that pollution prevention and related environmental avoidance concepts have had on the engineering profession

  6. Preventing Airborne Disease Transmission: Review of Methods for Ventilation Design in Health Care Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliabadi, Amir A.; Rogak, Steven N.; Bartlett, Karen H.; Green, Sheldon I.

    2011-01-01

    Health care facility ventilation design greatly affects disease transmission by aerosols. The desire to control infection in hospitals and at the same time to reduce their carbon footprint motivates the use of unconventional solutions for building design and associated control measures. This paper considers indoor sources and types of infectious aerosols, and pathogen viability and infectivity behaviors in response to environmental conditions. Aerosol dispersion, heat and mass transfer, deposition in the respiratory tract, and infection mechanisms are discussed, with an emphasis on experimental and modeling approaches. Key building design parameters are described that include types of ventilation systems (mixing, displacement, natural and hybrid), air exchange rate, temperature and relative humidity, air flow distribution structure, occupancy, engineered disinfection of air (filtration and UV radiation), and architectural programming (source and activity management) for health care facilities. The paper describes major findings and suggests future research needs in methods for ventilation design of health care facilities to prevent airborne infection risk. PMID:22162813

  7. Radon prevention in the design and construction of schools and other large buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leovic, K.W.; Craig, A.B.; Harris, D.B.

    1991-01-01

    The paper discusses radon prevention in the design and construction of schools and other large buildings. The U.S. EPA's Office of Research and Development (ORD) has started incorporating radon control measures into the design and construction of new schools and other large buildings. The goal of the new designs is twofold: (1) to prevent elevated radon levels in the completed building, and (2) to provide the protection at a fraction of the cost of retrofit systems. ORD's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory (AEERL) has conducted the research necessary to develop viable designs. The Indoor Radon Abatement Act of 1988 set a national long-term goal for indoor radon of 0.5 picocurie per liter (pCi/L)--the same as that typically found in outdoor air. The EPA currently recommends that homeowners take action to reduce radon levels to below 4 pCi/L. To achieve the national goal set in the 1988 Act for new construction in radon-prone areas, AEERL research is using a combination of active subslab depressurization (ASD) and operation of the heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system to pressurize buildings. These measures are described briefly, along with a case history of one building

  8. School-Based Efforts to Prevent Cyberbullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patchin, Justin W.; Hinduja, Sameer

    2012-01-01

    While bullying historically has occurred within or in close proximity to the school, advances in communication technologies have allowed would-be bullies to extend their reach. Cyberbullying--as it is termed--has become a significant concern among adolescents and adults alike. As a result, parents, school professionals, law enforcement, and youth…

  9. Fire Prevention Efforts in the Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.W. Lindenmuth; J.J. Keetch

    1952-01-01

    The frequency of forest fires in 13 northeastern states dropped about one-half from 1943 to 1950, exclusive of the fluctuations due to weather. The average downward trend and the annual observations from which the trend is determined are shown graphically in the lower chart on the other side of this page. Each dot on the chart is the ratio of fire occurrence (actual...

  10. Efforts to Prevent Concussions Target Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2010-01-01

    The number of sports-related concussions reported by young athletes is on the rise, prompting awareness campaigns from athletic and medical groups, as well as proposed federal legislation to set minimum standards for concussion management in public schools. Concussions are caused by a jolt to the body or a blow to the head that causes the head to…

  11. Development of new canine and feline preventive healthcare guidelines designed to improve pet health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) and American Animal Hospital Association (AAHA) have jointly introduced the first Canine and Feline Preventive Healthcare Guidelines. These consensus statements provide veterinarians with a new resource for improving patient care by emphasizing the value and scope of regular pet examinations. The two guidelines provide complete recommendations for comprehensive preventive healthcare programs, published as accessible, single-page documents. The guidelines are based on the subjective-objective-assessment-plan (SOAP) methodology of case management, a proven approach traditionally used with sick or injured patients. This logical and disciplined process is equally applicable to healthy patients and is designed to consistently deliver optimal patient care. The guidelines recommend visits for health examinations on at least an annual basis, recognizing that for many pets, more frequent visits may be appropriate, depending on the individual needs of the patient. The guidelines also provide detailed diagnostic, therapeutic, prevention, and follow up plans, to be accompanied by appropriate documentation. The inclusive content and concise format of the guidelines are designed to maximize their practical value and make them easy to implement.

  12. User input in iterative design for prevention product development: leveraging interdisciplinary methods to optimize effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Kate M; Rosen, Rochelle K; Vargas, Sara E; Guillen, Melissa; Steger, Arielle L; Getz, Melissa L; Smith, Kelley A; Ramirez, Jaime J; Kojic, Erna M

    2017-10-01

    The development of HIV-preventive topical vaginal microbicides has been challenged by a lack of sufficient adherence in later stage clinical trials to confidently evaluate effectiveness. This dilemma has highlighted the need to integrate translational research earlier in the drug development process, essentially applying behavioral science to facilitate the advances of basic science with respect to the uptake and use of biomedical prevention technologies. In the last several years, there has been an increasing recognition that the user experience, specifically the sensory experience, as well as the role of meaning-making elicited by those sensations, may play a more substantive role than previously thought. Importantly, the role of the user-their sensory perceptions, their judgements of those experiences, and their willingness to use a product-is critical in product uptake and consistent use post-marketing, ultimately realizing gains in global public health. Specifically, a successful prevention product requires an efficacious drug, an efficient drug delivery system, and an effective user. We present an integrated iterative drug development and user experience evaluation method to illustrate how user-centered formulation design can be iterated from the early stages of preclinical development to leverage the user experience. Integrating the user and their product experiences into the formulation design process may help optimize both the efficiency of drug delivery and the effectiveness of the user.

  13. Human-Centered Design of an mHealth App for the Prevention of Burnout Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narváez, Santiago; Tobar, Ángela M; López, Diego M; Blobel, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Stress-related disorders have become one of the main health problems in many countries and organizations worldwide. They can generate depression and anxiety, and could derive in work absenteeism and reduction in productivity. Design, develop, and evaluate an mHealth App for the prevention of Burnout Syndrome following the recommendations of standard User-Centered Design methodologies. 1) A descriptive cross-sectional study was performed on a sample of 59 faculty members and workers at the University of Cauca, Colombia using the Maslach Burnout Inventory as an instrument for measuring Burnout, accompanied by a demographic and technological questionnaire. 2) Three prototypes of the mHealth App were iteratively developed following the recommendations provided by the ISO Usability Maturity Model and the ISO User-Centered Design model. 3) Usability tests of the system were performed based on the ISO 9126 standard. The results obtained are considered positive, particularly those regarding user's satisfaction measured using the System Usability Scale.

  14. Severe accident approach - final report. Evaluation of design measures for severe accident prevention and consequence mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tentner, A.M.; Parma, E.; Wei, T.; Wigeland, R.

    2010-01-01

    An important goal of the US DOE reactor development program is to conceptualize advanced safety design features for a demonstration Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR). The treatment of severe accidents is one of the key safety issues in the design approach for advanced SFR systems. It is necessary to develop an in-depth understanding of the risk of severe accidents for the SFR so that appropriate risk management measures can be implemented early in the design process. This report presents the results of a review of the SFR features and phenomena that directly influence the sequence of events during a postulated severe accident. The report identifies the safety features used or proposed for various SFR designs in the US and worldwide for the prevention and/or mitigation of Core Disruptive Accidents (CDA). The report provides an overview of the current SFR safety approaches and the role of severe accidents. Mutual understanding of these design features and safety approaches is necessary for future collaborations between the US and its international partners as part of the GEN IV program. The report also reviews the basis for an integrated safety approach to severe accidents for the SFR that reflects the safety design knowledge gained in the US during the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) and Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) programs. This approach relies on inherent reactor and plant safety performance characteristics to provide additional safety margins. The goal of this approach is to prevent development of severe accident conditions, even in the event of initiators with safety system failures previously recognized to lead directly to reactor damage.

  15. Design and implementation of an identification system in construction site safety for proactive accident prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huanjia; Chew, David A S; Wu, Weiwei; Zhou, Zhipeng; Li, Qiming

    2012-09-01

    Identifying accident precursors using real-time identity information has great potential to improve safety performance in construction industry, which is still suffering from day to day records of accident fatality and injury. Based on the requirements analysis for identifying precursor and the discussion of enabling technology solutions for acquiring and sharing real-time automatic identification information on construction site, this paper proposes an identification system design for proactive accident prevention to improve construction site safety. Firstly, a case study is conducted to analyze the automatic identification requirements for identifying accident precursors in construction site. Results show that it mainly consists of three aspects, namely access control, training and inspection information and operation authority. The system is then designed to fulfill these requirements based on ZigBee enabled wireless sensor network (WSN), radio frequency identification (RFID) technology and an integrated ZigBee RFID sensor network structure. At the same time, an information database is also designed and implemented, which includes 15 tables, 54 queries and several reports and forms. In the end, a demonstration system based on the proposed system design is developed as a proof of concept prototype. The contributions of this study include the requirement analysis and technical design of a real-time identity information tracking solution for proactive accident prevention on construction sites. The technical solution proposed in this paper has a significant importance in improving safety performance on construction sites. Moreover, this study can serve as a reference design for future system integrations where more functions, such as environment monitoring and location tracking, can be added. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Severe accident approach - final report. Evaluation of design measures for severe accident prevention and consequence mitigation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tentner, A. M.; Parma, E.; Wei, T.; Wigeland, R.; Nuclear Engineering Division; SNL; INL

    2010-03-01

    An important goal of the US DOE reactor development program is to conceptualize advanced safety design features for a demonstration Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR). The treatment of severe accidents is one of the key safety issues in the design approach for advanced SFR systems. It is necessary to develop an in-depth understanding of the risk of severe accidents for the SFR so that appropriate risk management measures can be implemented early in the design process. This report presents the results of a review of the SFR features and phenomena that directly influence the sequence of events during a postulated severe accident. The report identifies the safety features used or proposed for various SFR designs in the US and worldwide for the prevention and/or mitigation of Core Disruptive Accidents (CDA). The report provides an overview of the current SFR safety approaches and the role of severe accidents. Mutual understanding of these design features and safety approaches is necessary for future collaborations between the US and its international partners as part of the GEN IV program. The report also reviews the basis for an integrated safety approach to severe accidents for the SFR that reflects the safety design knowledge gained in the US during the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) and Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) programs. This approach relies on inherent reactor and plant safety performance characteristics to provide additional safety margins. The goal of this approach is to prevent development of severe accident conditions, even in the event of initiators with safety system failures previously recognized to lead directly to reactor damage.

  17. Clinical Trial Design for Testing the Stem Cell Model for the Prevention and Treatment of Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, Rishindra M., E-mail: reddyrm@med.umich.edu [Medical Center, University of Michigan, 1500 E. Medical Center Drive, 2120 Taubman Center, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Kakarala, Madhuri; Wicha, Max S. [Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Michigan, 1500 E. Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2011-06-20

    The cancer stem cell model introduces new strategies for the prevention and treatment of cancers. In cancers that appear to follow the stem cell model, pathways such as Wnt, Notch and Hedgehog may be targeted with natural compounds such as curcumin or drugs to reduce the risk of initiation of new tumors. Disease progression of established tumors could also potentially be inhibited by targeting the tumorigenic stem cells alone, rather than aiming to reduce overall tumor size. These new approaches mandate a change in the design of clinical trials and biomarkers chosen for efficacy assessment for preventative, neoadjuvant, adjuvant, and palliative treatments. Cancer treatments could be evaluated by assessing stem cell markers before and after treatment. Targeted stem cell specific treatment of cancers may not result in “complete” or “partial” responses radiologically, as stem cell targeting may not reduce the tumor bulk, but eliminate further tumorigenic potential. These changes are discussed using breast, pancreatic, and lung cancer as examples.

  18. Clinical Trial Design for Testing the Stem Cell Model for the Prevention and Treatment of Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, Rishindra M.; Kakarala, Madhuri; Wicha, Max S.

    2011-01-01

    The cancer stem cell model introduces new strategies for the prevention and treatment of cancers. In cancers that appear to follow the stem cell model, pathways such as Wnt, Notch and Hedgehog may be targeted with natural compounds such as curcumin or drugs to reduce the risk of initiation of new tumors. Disease progression of established tumors could also potentially be inhibited by targeting the tumorigenic stem cells alone, rather than aiming to reduce overall tumor size. These new approaches mandate a change in the design of clinical trials and biomarkers chosen for efficacy assessment for preventative, neoadjuvant, adjuvant, and palliative treatments. Cancer treatments could be evaluated by assessing stem cell markers before and after treatment. Targeted stem cell specific treatment of cancers may not result in “complete” or “partial” responses radiologically, as stem cell targeting may not reduce the tumor bulk, but eliminate further tumorigenic potential. These changes are discussed using breast, pancreatic, and lung cancer as examples

  19. Design guideline to prevent the pipe rupture by radiolysis gases in BWR steam piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, T.; Miyagawa, M.; Ota, T.; Sato, T.; Sakata, K.

    2009-01-01

    In late 2001, pipe rupture accidents due to fast combustion of radiolysis gas occurred in Japan and elsewhere's BWR power plants. TENPES began to set up the guideline as action to such a new problem to prevent accumulation and combustion of radiolysis gas in BWR steam piping. And then, the first edition of guideline was published in October 2005. Afterwards, the experimental study about combustion/detonation of radiolysis gas have been continued. And in March 2007, TENPES published a revised edition of the guideline. This is the report of the revised edition of that guideline. According to this guideline, it became possible to design BWR's steam piping to prevent accumulation of radiolysis gas. (author)

  20. Enhancing sibling relationships to prevent adolescent problem behaviors: theory, design and feasibility of Siblings Are Special.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Mark E; Sakuma, Kari-Lyn; Hostetler, Michelle; McHale, Susan M

    2013-02-01

    Siblings play a significant but neglected role in family socialization dynamics, and focusing on the sibling relationship is a non-stigmatizing point of entry into the family for prevention programming. Siblings are Special (SAS) was designed as a universal program that targets both sibling relationship and parenting mediating processes in middle childhood to prevent behavior problems in adolescence. We describe the theoretical framework underlying SAS, the SAS curriculum, and the feasibility of the program based on a study of 128 middle-childhood aged sibling dyads. Data on the quality of program implementation, program fidelity, siblings' engagement, and ratings of impact indicated the SAS program was acceptable to families and schools, that the curriculum could be implemented with high fidelity, that siblings and parents participated at high levels and were highly engaged, and that, from the perspective of group leaders, school administrators and parents, the program had a positive impact on the siblings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. HIV/AIDS prevention, faith, and spirituality among black/African American and Latino communities in the United States: strengthening scientific faith-based efforts to shift the course of the epidemic and reduce HIV-related health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Madeline Y; Parks, Carolyn P

    2013-06-01

    Black/African American and Latino communities are disproportionately affected by the domestic HIV/AIDS epidemic. Blacks/African Americans and Latinos are also more likely to report a formal, religious, or faith affiliation when compared with non-Hispanic whites. As such, faith leaders and their institutions have been identified in the National HIV/AIDS Strategy as having a vital role to serve in reducing: (1) HIV-related health disparities and (2) the number of new HIV infections by promoting non-judgmental support for persons living with and at risk for HIV/AIDS and by serving as trusted information resources for their congregants and communities. We describe faith doctrines and faith-science partnerships that are increasing in support of faith-based HIV prevention and service delivery activities and discuss the vital role of these faith-based efforts in highly affected black/African American and Latino communities.

  2. Design retrofit to prevent damage due to heat transport pump operation under conditions of significant void

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, K.F.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a general review of certain key design areas which address the safety concerns of HT pump operation under conditions of significant void. To illustrate the challenges confronting designers and analysts, some of the highlights during the design of a protective system to prevent damage to HT piping and pump supports at Bruce NGS 'A' are outlined. The effects of this protective system on reactor safety are also discussed. HI pump operation under conditions of significant void offers a major challenge to designers and analysts to ensure that pump induced vibration and its effects on pump and piping are addressed. For an in-service station the search for a practical solution is often limited by existing. station equipment design and Layout. The diversity of design verification process requires a major commitment of engineering resources to ensure all. safety aspects meet the requirements of regulatory body. Work currently undertaken at Ontario Hydro Research Pump Test Complex on two-phase flow in pumps and piping may provide better prediction of vibration characteristics so that inherent conservativeness in fatigue Life prediction of HI system components can be reduced

  3. Design retrofit to prevent damage due to heat transport pump operation under conditions of significant void

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, K F [Bruce Engineering Department, In-Service Nuclear Projects, Ontario Hydro, North York, ON (Canada)

    1991-04-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a general review of certain key design areas which address the safety concerns of HT pump operation under conditions of significant void. To illustrate the challenges confronting designers and analysts, some of the highlights during the design of a protective system to prevent damage to HT piping and pump supports at Bruce NGS 'A' are outlined. The effects of this protective system on reactor safety are also discussed. HI pump operation under conditions of significant void offers a major challenge to designers and analysts to ensure that pump induced vibration and its effects on pump and piping are addressed. For an in-service station the search for a practical solution is often limited by existing. station equipment design and Layout. The diversity of design verification process requires a major commitment of engineering resources to ensure all. safety aspects meet the requirements of regulatory body. Work currently undertaken at Ontario Hydro Research Pump Test Complex on two-phase flow in pumps and piping may provide better prediction of vibration characteristics so that inherent conservativeness in fatigue Life prediction of HI system components can be reduced.

  4. Design and Evaluation of a Pressure and Temperature Monitoring System for Pressure Ulcer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farve Daneshvar Fard

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Pressure ulcers are tissue damages resulting from blood flow restriction, which occurs when the tissue is exposed to high pressure for a long period of time. These painful sores are common in patients and elderly, who spend extended periods of time in bed or wheelchair. In this study, a continuous pressure and temperature monitoring system was developed for pressure ulcer prevention. Materials and Methods The monitoring system consists of 64 pressure and 64 temperature sensors on a 40×50 cm2 sheet. Pressure and temperature data and the corresponding maps were displayed on a computer in real-time. Risk assessment could be performed by monitoring and recording absolute pressure and temperature values, as well as deviations over time. Furthermore, a posture detection procedure was proposed for sitting posture identification. Information about the patient’s movement history may help caregivers make informed decisions about the patient’s repositioning and ulcer prevention strategies. Results Steady temporal behaviour of the designed system and repeatability of the measurements were evaluated using several particular tests. The results illustrated that the system could be utilized for continuous monitoring of interface pressure and temperature for pressure ulcer prevention. Furthermore, the proposed method for detecting sitting posture was verified using a statistical analysis. Conclusion A continuous time pressure and temperature monitoring system was presented in this study. This system may be suited for pressure ulcer prevention given its feasibility for simultaneous monitoring of pressure and temperature and alarming options. Furthermore, a method for detecting different sitting postures was proposed and verified. Pressure ulcers in wheelchair-bound patients may be prevented using this sitting posture detection method.

  5. A pressure ulcer prevention programme specially designed for nursing homes: does it work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Enid W-Y; Lau, Ada T-Y; Lee, Rainbow L-P; Kwan, Rick Y-C

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a pressure ulcer prevention programme for nursing homes to ascertain the feasibility of its implementation, impact on care staff and outcomes for pressure ulcer knowledge and skills and pressure ulcer reduction. No pressure ulcer prevention protocol for long-term care settings has been established to date. The first author of this study thus developed a pressure ulcer prevention programme for nursing homes. A quasi-experimental pretest and post-test design was adopted. Forty-one non-licensed care providers and eleven nurses from a government-subsidised nursing home voluntarily participated in the study. Knowledge and skills of the non-licensed care providers were assessed before, immediately after and six weeks after the training course, and pressure ulcer prevalence and incidence were recorded before and during the protocol implementation. At the end of the programme implementation, focus group interviews with the subjects were conducted to explore their views on the programme. A statistically significant improvement in knowledge and skills scores amongst non-licensed care providers was noted. Pressure ulcer prevalence and incidence rates dropped from 9-2·5% and 2·5-0·8%, respectively, after programme implementation. The focus group findings indicated that the programme enhanced the motivation of non-licensed care providers to improve their performance of pressure ulcer prevention care and increased communication and cooperation amongst care staff, but use of the modified Braden scale was considered by nurses to increase their workload. A pressure ulcer prevention programme for nursing homes, which was feasible and acceptable, with positive impact and outcome in a nursing home was empirically developed. The study findings can be employed to modify the programme and its outcomes for an evaluation of effectiveness of the programme through a randomised controlled trial. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. A Community-Based Intervention to Prevent Obesity Beginning at Birth among American Indian Children: Study Design and Rationale for the PTOTS study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanja, Njeri; Aickin, Mikel; Lutz, Tam; Mist, Scott; Jobe, Jared B.; Maupomé, Gerardo; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    Eating and physical activity behaviors associated with adult obesity have early antecedents, yet few studies have focused on obesity prevention interventions targeting very young children. Efforts to prevent obesity beginning at birth seem particularly important in populations at risk for early-onset obesity. National estimates indicate that American Indian (AI) children have higher rates of overweight and obesity than children of other races/ethnicities. The Prevention of Toddler Obesity and Teeth Health Study (PTOTS) is a community-partnered randomized controlled trial designed to prevent obesity beginning at birth in AI children. PTOTS was developed to test the effectiveness of a multi-component intervention designed to: promote breastfeeding, reduce sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, appropriately time the introduction of healthy solid foods, and counsel parents to reduce sedentary lifestyles in their children. A birth cohort of 577 children from five AI tribes is randomized by tribe to either the intervention (three tribes) or the comparison condition (two tribes). The strengths and weaknesses of PTOTS include a focus on a critical growth phase, placement in the community, and intervention at many levels, using a variety of approaches. PMID:23001689

  7. Prevention through Design Adoption Readiness Model (PtD ARM): An integrated conceptual model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidman, Justin; Dickerson, Deborah E; Koebel, Charles T

    2015-01-01

    Prevention through Design (PtD), eliminating hazards at the design-stage of tools and systems, is the optimal method of mitigating occupational health and safety risks. A recent National Institute of Safety and Health initiative has established a goal to increase adoption of PtD innovation in industry. The construction industry has traditionally lagged behind other sectors in the adoption of innovation, in general; and of safety and health prevention innovation, in particular. Therefore, as a first step toward improving adoption trends in this sector, a conceptual model was developed to describe the parameters and causal relationships that influence and predict construction stakeholder "adoption readiness" for PtD technology innovation. This model was built upon three well-established theoretical frameworks: the Health Belief Model, the Diffusion of Innovation Model, and the Technology Acceptance Model. Earp and Ennett's model development methodology was employed to build a depiction of the key constructs and directionality and magnitude of relationships among them. Key constructs were identified from the literature associated with the three theoretical frameworks, with special emphasis given to studies related to construction or OHS technology adoption. A conceptual model is presented. Recommendations for future research are described and include confirmatory structural equation modeling of model parameters and relationships, additional descriptive investigation of barriers to adoption in some trade sectors, and design and evaluation of an intervention strategy.

  8. Design Example of Useful Memory Latency for Developing a Hazard Preventive Pipeline High-Performance Embedded-Microprocessor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Hwa Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The existence of structural, control, and data hazards presents a major challenge in designing an advanced pipeline/superscalar microprocessor. An efficient memory hierarchy cache-RAM-Disk design greatly enhances the microprocessor's performance. However, there are complex relationships among the memory hierarchy and the functional units in the microprocessor. Most past architectural design simulations focus on the instruction hazard detection/prevention scheme from the viewpoint of function units. This paper emphasizes that additional inboard memory can be well utilized to handle the hazardous conditions. When the instruction meets hazardous issues, the memory latency can be utilized to prevent performance degradation due to the hazard prevention mechanism. By using the proposed technique, a better architectural design can be rapidly validated by an FPGA at the start of the design stage. In this paper, the simulation results prove that our proposed methodology has a better performance and less power consumption compared to the conventional hazard prevention technique.

  9. A community-based obesity prevention program for minority children: rationale and study design for Hip-Hop to Health Jr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgibbon, Marian L; Stolley, Melinda R; Dyer, Alan R; VanHorn, Linda; KauferChristoffel, Katherine

    2002-02-01

    BACKGROUND; The increasing prevalence of overweight among children in the United States presents a national health priority. Higher rates of overweight/obesity among minority women place their children at increased risk. Although increased rates of overweight are observed in 4- to 5-year-old children, they are not observed in 2- to 3-year-old children. Therefore, early prevention efforts incorporating families are critical. The primary aim of Hip-Hop to Health Jr. is to alter the trajectory toward overweight/obesity among preschool African-American and Latino children. This 5-year randomized intervention is conducted in 24 Head Start programs, where each site is randomized to either a 14-week dietary/physical activity intervention or a general health intervention. This paper presents the rationale and design of the study. Efficacy of the intervention will be determined by weight change for the children and parent/caretaker. Secondary measures include reductions in dietary fat and increases in fiber, fruit/vegetable intake, and physical activity. Baseline data will be presented in future papers. The problem of overweight/obesity is epidemic in the United States. Behaviors related to diet and physical activity are established early in life and modeled by family members. Early intervention efforts addressing the child and family are needed to prevent obesity later in life. This paper describes a comprehensive, family-oriented obesity prevention program for minority preschool children. Copyright 2002 American Health Foundation and Elsevier Science (USA).

  10. A study for prevent theft of the bike design and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Che; Huang, Tai-Shen

    2017-10-01

    This research will deal with the analysis and design of an anti-theft bicycle. At the first, the structure of the bicycle lock device will be focused. Therefore, all related academic journals, dissertations, and patent were collected, ordered, classified, and analysis in order to understand the phase of the developing tendency towards the bicycle lock apparatus presently. Nowadays, a wave of riding bicycles all over the world is quite prevailing. Also, the bicycles incline to be high-price sporting and recreational equipment. Due to this, the rate of stolen bicycles has increased as well. Even though there are many different types of bicycle locks sold on the market, they are unable to work out effectively to prevent from being stolen because they are easy to be broken. In this case, the target design in this research will be mainly put on the simple structure and facile use enabling users feeling secure to park their bicycles. The design also includes a lock that works together with the bicycle frame to provide a new option of anti-theft design for bicycles. We defined the functional requirements by the process of an innovative mechanical design, before designing the fundamental bicycle structure of the present anti-theft bicycle and finally integrate all the requirements of design. The SolidWorks software was used to draw a 3D model of the anti-theft bicycle; the ANSYS software was also used to do CAE analysis, to understand the distribution of stress, so that the design and the requirements of use are met.

  11. Mapping telemedicine efforts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kierkegaard, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    are being utilized? What medical disciplines are being addressed using telemedicine systems? Methods: All data was surveyed from the "Telemedicinsk Landkort", a newly created database designed to provide a comprehensive and systematic overview of all telemedicine technologies in Denmark. Results......Objectives: The aim of this study is to survey telemedicine services currently in operation across Denmark. The study specifically seeks to answer the following questions: What initiatives are deployed within the different regions? What are the motivations behind the projects? What technologies......: The results of this study suggest that a growing number of telemedicine initiatives are currently in operation across Denmark but that considerable variations existed in terms of regional efforts as the number of operational telemedicine projects varied from region to region. Conclusions: The results...

  12. Design and Implementation of a Pilot Obesity Prevention Program in a Low-Resource School: Lessons Learned and Research Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin, Monica L.; Zunker, Christie; Worley, Courtney B.; Dial, Brenda; Kimbrough, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to describe the design, implementation, and lessons learned from an obesity prevention pilot program delivered in a low resource school in the USA. Design/methodology/approach: A planned program evaluation was conducted to: document explicitly the process of designing and implementing the program; and assess the…

  13. Is Hammarby Sjöstad a model case? Crime prevention through environmental design in Stockholm, Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønlund, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) claims to reduce crime and fear of crime through urban design and planning. If it does, it ought to be part of the sustainable planning and design of cities. This chapter gives an overview of the development of CPTED principles and then uses...

  14. The use of intermediate endpoints in the design of type 1 diabetes prevention trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krischer, Jeffrey P

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents a rationale for the selection of intermediate endpoints to be used in the design of type 1 diabetes prevention clinical trials. Relatives of individuals diagnosed with type 1 diabetes were enrolled on the TrialNet Natural History Study and screened for diabetes-related autoantibodies. Those with two or more such autoantibodies were analysed with respect to increased HbA1c, decreased C-peptide following an OGTT, or abnormal OGTT values as intermediate markers of disease progression. Over 2 years, a 10% increase in HbA1c, and a 20% or 30% decrease in C-peptide from baseline, or progression to abnormal OGTT, occurred with a frequency between 20% and 41%. The 3- to 5-year risk of type 1 diabetes following each intermediate endpoint was high, namely 47% to 84%. The lower the incidence of the endpoint being reached, the higher the risk of diabetes. A diabetes prevention trial using these intermediate endpoints would require a 30% to 50% smaller sample size than one using type 1 diabetes as the endpoint. The use of an intermediate endpoint in diabetes prevention is based on the generally held view of disease progression from initial occurrence of autoantibodies through successive immunological and metabolic changes to manifest type 1 diabetes. Thus, these markers are suitable for randomised phase 2 trials, which can more rapidly screen promising new therapies, allowing them to be subsequently confirmed in definitive phase 3 trials.

  15. Suicide prevention e-learning modules designed for gatekeepers: a descriptive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoncheh, Rezvan; Koot, Hans M; Kerkhof, Ad J F M

    2014-01-01

    E-learning modules can be a useful method for educating gatekeepers in suicide prevention and awareness. To review and provide an overview of e-learning modules on suicide prevention designed for gatekeepers and assess their effectiveness. Two strategies were used. First, articles were systematically searched in databases of PubMed, Web of Science, and PsycINFO. Second, Google search was used to find e-learning modules on the Web. The literature search resulted in 448 papers, of which none met the inclusion criteria of this study. The Google search resulted in 130 hits, of which 23 met the inclusion criteria of this review. Organizations that owned the modules were contacted, of which 13 responded and nine were included in this study. The effectiveness of two e-learning modules is currently being tested in a randomized controlled trial (RCT), one organization is planning to test the effectiveness of their module, and one organization has compared their face-to-face training with their online training. Furthermore, the included modules have different characteristics. There is a need for RCTs to study the effectiveness of online modules in this area and to understand which characteristics are essential to create effective e-learning modules to educate gatekeepers in suicide prevention.

  16. Partnerships for the Design, Conduct, and Analysis of Effectiveness, and Implementation Research: Experiences of the Prevention Science and Methodology Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C. Hendricks; Kellam, Sheppard G.; Kaupert, Sheila; Muthén, Bengt O.; Wang, Wei; Muthén, Linda K.; Chamberlain, Patricia; PoVey, Craig L.; Cady, Rick; Valente, Thomas W.; Ogihara, Mitsunori; Prado, Guillermo J.; Pantin, Hilda M.; Gallo, Carlos G.; Szapocznik, José; Czaja, Sara J.; McManus, John W.

    2012-01-01

    What progress prevention research has made comes through strategic partnerships with communities and institutions that host this research, as well as professional and practice networks that facilitate the diffusion of knowledge about prevention. We discuss partnership issues related to the design, analysis, and implementation of prevention research and especially how rigorous designs, including random assignment, get resolved through a partnership between community stakeholders, institutions, and researchers. These partnerships shape not only study design, but they determine the data that can be collected and how results and new methods are disseminated. We also examine a second type of partnership to improve the implementation of effective prevention programs into practice. We draw on social networks to studying partnership formation and function. The experience of the Prevention Science and Methodology Group, which itself is a networked partnership between scientists and methodologists, is highlighted. PMID:22160786

  17. Design Concept of Human Interface System for Risk Monitoring for Proactive Trouble Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hidekazu, Yoshikawa; Ming, Yang; Zhijian, Zhang

    2011-01-01

    interface systems to support the collaboration work between workers at local workplace and the main control room. In this paper, the general issues are reviewed on how to configure the whole human interface system for helping proactive trouble prevention and risk evaluation on the basis of the presented......) with the risk monitor to watch Defense-in Depth plant safety functions. The proposed concept is applied for a liquid metal fast reactor Monju and necessary R&D subjects are reviewed to realize human interface system for the maintenance work in Monju plant. Because of using high temperature liquid sodium...... as reactor coolant in Monju plant, the maintenance for Monju should utilize more automated equipments of remote control and robotics than that of light water reactor. It is necessary to design optimum task allocation between human and automated machine as the requisites for good communication design of human...

  18. Designing a patient-centered personal health record to promote preventive care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krist Alex H

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence-based preventive services offer profound health benefits, yet Americans receive only half of indicated care. A variety of government and specialty society policy initiatives are promoting the adoption of information technologies to engage patients in their care, such as personal health records, but current systems may not utilize the technology's full potential. Methods Using a previously described model to make information technology more patient-centered, we developed an interactive preventive health record (IPHR designed to more deeply engage patients in preventive care and health promotion. We recruited 14 primary care practices to promote the IPHR to all adult patients and sought practice and patient input in designing the IPHR to ensure its usability, salience, and generalizability. The input involved patient usability tests, practice workflow observations, learning collaboratives, and patient feedback. Use of the IPHR was measured using practice appointment and IPHR databases. Results The IPHR that emerged from this process generates tailored patient recommendations based on guidelines from the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force and other organizations. It extracts clinical data from the practices' electronic medical record and obtains health risk assessment information from patients. Clinical content is translated and explained in lay language. Recommendations review the benefits and uncertainties of services and possible actions for patients and clinicians. Embedded in recommendations are self management tools, risk calculators, decision aids, and community resources - selected to match patient's clinical circumstances. Within six months, practices had encouraged 14.4% of patients to use the IPHR (ranging from 1.5% to 28.3% across the 14 practices. Practices successfully incorporated the IPHR into workflow, using it to prepare patients for visits, augment health behavior counseling, explain test results

  19. The Role of Environmental Design in Cancer Prevention, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Survivorship: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharaveis, Arsalan; Kazem-Zadeh, Mahshad

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to provide a better understanding of the impact that environmental design can have on the process of cancer prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and survivorship. Cancer is considered a chronic disease in the United States, and more than 1.6 million new cases are diagnosed annually. New strategies of cancer care propose patient-centered services to achieve the best outcome, and researchers have found that environmental design can be an important part of improving this care. Searches were conducted in the PubMed and Google Scholar databases as well as in specific healthcare design journals such as Health Environments Research & Design, Environmental Psychology, and Environment and Behavior. The criteria for articles included in the review were (a) English-language articles related to facility design, which addressed (b) the topics of built environment in relation to cancer diagnosis, treatment, and survivorship, and were (c) published in peer-reviewed journals between 2000 and 2017. Finally, 10 articles were selected, and the contents were analyzed. The selected articles demonstrate that environmental design is one of the critical factors for success throughout the whole continuum of cancer care from diagnosis to end-of-treatment. Some of the specific conclusions from the review are that "neighborhood-oriented" design strategies can be beneficial (by providing accessibility to all facilities along the patient's path), that access to nature for patients, staff, and visitors alike is associated with better outcomes, and that provisions for natural lighting and noise reduction are associated with cancer patients' well-being.

  20. Straight talk: HIV prevention for African-American heterosexual men: theoretical bases and intervention design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Victoria; Bonner, Sebastian; Williams, Kim; Henny, Kirk; Bond, Keosha; Lucy, Debbie; Cupid, Malik; Smith, Stephen; Koblin, Beryl A

    2012-10-01

    In the United States, racial disparities in HIV/AIDS are stark. Although African Americans comprise an estimated 14% of the U.S. population, they made up 52% of new HIV cases among adults and adolescents diagnosed in 2009. Heterosexual transmission is now the second leading cause of HIV in the United States. African Americans made up a full two-thirds of all heterosexually acquired HIV/AIDS cases between 2005 and 2008. Few demonstrated efficacious HIV prevention interventions designed specifically for adult, African-American heterosexual men exist. Here, we describe the process used to design a theory-based HIV prevention intervention to increase condom use, reduce concurrent partnering, and increase HIV testing among heterosexually active African-American men living in high HIV prevalence areas of New York City. The intervention integrated empowerment, social identity, and rational choices theories and focused on four major content areas: HIV/AIDS testing and education; condom skills training; key relational and behavioral turning points; and masculinity and fatherhood.

  1. A novel transanal tube designed to prevent anastomotic leakage after rectal cancer surgery: the WING DRAIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishigori, Hideaki; Ito, Masaaki; Nishizawa, Yuji

    2017-04-01

    We introduce a novel transanal tube (TAT), named the "WING DRAIN", designed to prevent anastomotic leakage after rectal cancer surgery, and report the fundamental experiments that led to its development. We performed the basic experiments to evaluate the effect of TATs on intestinal decompression, the changes they make in patterns of watery fluid drainage, the changes in their decompression effect when the extension tube connecting the TAT to the collection bag fills with watery drainage fluid, and the variations in intestinal contact and crushing pressure made by some types of TAT. Any type of TAT contributed to decompression in the intestinal tract. Watery drainage commenced from when the water level first rose to the hole in the tip of drain. The intestinal pressure increased with the length of the vertical twist in an extension tube. The crushing pressures of most types of TAT were high enough to cause injury to the intestine. We resolved the problems using an existing TAT for the purpose of intestinal decompression and by creating the first specialized TAT designed to prevent anastomotic leakage after rectal cancer surgery in Japan.

  2. A worksite prevention program for construction workers: design of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oude Hengel, Karen M; Joling, Catelijne I; Proper, Karin I; Blatter, Birgitte M; Bongers, Paulien M

    2010-06-14

    A worksite prevention program was developed to promote the work ability of construction workers and thereby prolong a healthy working life. The objective of this paper is to present the design of a randomized controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of that intervention program compared with usual care for construction workers. The study is designed as a randomized controlled trial with a follow-up of one year. Employees eligible for this study are construction workers performing actual construction work. The worksite intervention will be compared with usual care. This intervention was developed by using the Intervention Mapping approach and consists of the following components: (1) two individual training sessions of a physical therapist to lower the physical workload, (2) a Rest-Break tool to improve the balance between work and recovery, and (3) two empowerment training sessions to increase the influence of the construction workers at the worksite. Outcome measures are assessed at baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months. The primary outcome measures of this study are work ability and health-related quality of life. Secondary outcome measures include need for recovery, musculoskeletal complaints, work engagement and self efficacy. Cost-effectiveness will be evaluated from the company perspective. Moreover, a process evaluation will be conducted. The feasibility of the intervention and the study has been enhanced by creating an intervention program that explicitly appeals to construction workers and will not interfere too much with the ongoing construction. The feasibility and effectiveness of this worksite prevention program will be investigated by means of an effect- and a process evaluation. If proven effective, this worksite prevention program can be implemented on a larger scale within the construction industry. NTR1278.

  3. A worksite prevention program for construction workers: design of a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Proper Karin I

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A worksite prevention program was developed to promote the work ability of construction workers and thereby prolong a healthy working life. The objective of this paper is to present the design of a randomized controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of that intervention program compared with usual care for construction workers. Methods The study is designed as a randomized controlled trial with a follow-up of one year. Employees eligible for this study are construction workers performing actual construction work. The worksite intervention will be compared with usual care. This intervention was developed by using the Intervention Mapping approach and consists of the following components: (1 two individual training sessions of a physical therapist to lower the physical workload, (2 a Rest-Break tool to improve the balance between work and recovery, and (3 two empowerment training sessions to increase the influence of the construction workers at the worksite. Outcome measures are assessed at baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months. The primary outcome measures of this study are work ability and health-related quality of life. Secondary outcome measures include need for recovery, musculoskeletal complaints, work engagement and self efficacy. Cost-effectiveness will be evaluated from the company perspective. Moreover, a process evaluation will be conducted. Discussion The feasibility of the intervention and the study has been enhanced by creating an intervention program that explicitly appeals to construction workers and will not interfere too much with the ongoing construction. The feasibility and effectiveness of this worksite prevention program will be investigated by means of an effect- and a process evaluation. If proven effective, this worksite prevention program can be implemented on a larger scale within the construction industry. Trial Registration NTR1278

  4. Executive summary, Hanford Site Pollution Prevention Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    A pollution prevention plan is an organized, comprehensive, and continual effort to systematically reduce waste generation. The Hanford Site Pollution Prevention Plan is designed to eliminate or minimize pollutant releases to all environmental media from all aspects of Site operations. These efforts offer increased protection of public health and the environment. This plan reflects the goals and policies for pollution prevention at the Hanford Site and represents an ongoing effort to make pollution prevention part of the Site operating philosophy. The plan encompasses hazardous waste only and excludes radioactive waste and radioactive mixed waste

  5. Developing Tools to Counteract and Prevent Suicide Bomber Incidents: A Case Study in Value Sensitive Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royakkers, Lambèr; Steen, Marc

    2017-08-01

    Developers and designers make all sorts of moral decisions throughout an innovation project. In this article, we describe how teams of developers and designers engaged with ethics in the early phases of innovation based on case studies in the SUBCOP project (SUBCOP stands for 'SUicide Bomber COunteraction and Prevention'). For that purpose, Value Sensitive Design (VSD) will be used as a reference. Specifically, we focus on the following two research questions: How can researchers/developers learn about users' perspectives and values during the innovation process? and How can researchers/developers take into account these values, and related design criteria, in their decision-making during the innovation process? Based on a case study of several innovation processes in this project, we conclude the researchers/developers involved are able to do something similar to VSD (without them knowing about VSD or calling it 'VSD'), supported by relatively simple exercises in the project, e.g., meetings with potential end-users and discussions with members of the Ethical Advisory Board of the project. Furthermore, we also found-possibly somewhat counterintuitively-that a commercial, with its focus on understanding and satisfying customers' needs, can promote VSD.

  6. In the service of peace: 2005 Nobel Peace prize[For the efforts to prevent nuclear energy from being used for military purposes and to ensure that nuclear energy for peaceful purposes is used in the safest possible way

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-01-15

    Nobel Citation: The Norwegian Nobel Committee has decided that the Nobel Peace Prize for 2005 is to be shared, in two equal parts, between the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and its Director General, Mohamed ElBaradei, for their efforts to prevent nuclear energy from being used for military purposes and to ensure that nuclear energy for peaceful purposes is used in the safest possible way. At a time when the threat of nuclear arms is again increasing, the Norwegian Nobel Committee wishes to underline that this threat must be met through the broadest possible international cooperation. This principle finds its clearest expression today in the work of the IAEA and its Director General. In the nuclear non-proliferation regime, it is the IAEA which controls that nuclear energy is not misused for military purposes, and the Director General has stood out as an unafraid advocate of new measures to strengthen that regime. At a time when disarmament efforts appear deadlocked, when there is a danger that nuclear arms will spread both to states and to terrorist groups, and when nuclear power again appears to be playing an increasingly significant role, IAEA's work is of incalculable importance. In his will, Alfred Nobel wrote that the Peace Prize should, among other criteria, be awarded to whoever had done most for the abolition or reduction of standing armies. In its application of this criterion in recent decades, the Norwegian Nobel Committee has concentrated on the struggle to diminish the significance of nuclear arms in international politics, with a view to their abolition. That the world has achieved little in this respect makes active opposition to nuclear arms all the more important today. The full Nobel Lecture of the Director General of the IAEA, Mr. Mohamed ElBaradei is given in this paper.

  7. Mobilising indigenous resources for anthropologically designed HIV-prevention and behaviour-change interventions in southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Edward C; Dlamini, Cedza; D'Errico, Nicole C; Ruark, Allison; Duby, Zoe

    2009-12-01

    HIV prevention is often implemented as if African culture were either nonexistent or a series of obstacles to overcome in order to achieve an effective, gender-equitable, human rights-based set of interventions. Similarly, traditional or indigenous leaders, such as chiefs and members of royal families, have been largely excluded from HIV/AIDS responses in Africa. This qualitative study used focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with traditional leaders and 'ritual specialists' to better understand cultural patterns and ways of working with, rather than against, culture and traditional leaders in HIV-prevention efforts. The research was carried out in four southern African countries (Botswana, Lesotho, South Africa and Swaziland). The purpose was to discover what aspects of indigenous leadership and cultural resources might be accessed and developed to influence individual behaviour as well as the prevailing community norms, values, sanctions and social controls that are related to sexual behaviour. The indigenous leaders participating in the research largely felt bypassed and marginalised by organised efforts to prevent HIV infections and also believed that HIV-prevention programmes typically confronted, circumvented, criticised or condemned traditional culture. However, indigenous leaders may possess innovative ideas about ways to change individuals' sexual behaviour in general. The participants discussed ways to revive traditional social structures and cultural mechanisms as a means to incorporate HIV-prevention and gender-sensitivity training into existing cultural platforms, such as rites of passage, chiefs' councils and traditional courts.

  8. Robust Structural Analysis and Design of Distributed Control Systems to Prevent Zero Dynamics Attacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weerakkody, Sean [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Liu, Xiaofei [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Sinopoli, Bruno [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2017-12-12

    We consider the design and analysis of robust distributed control systems (DCSs) to ensure the detection of integrity attacks. DCSs are often managed by independent agents and are implemented using a diverse set of sensors and controllers. However, the heterogeneous nature of DCSs along with their scale leave such systems vulnerable to adversarial behavior. To mitigate this reality, we provide tools that allow operators to prevent zero dynamics attacks when as many as p agents and sensors are corrupted. Such a design ensures attack detectability in deterministic systems while removing the threat of a class of stealthy attacks in stochastic systems. To achieve this goal, we use graph theory to obtain necessary and sufficient conditions for the presence of zero dynamics attacks in terms of the structural interactions between agents and sensors. We then formulate and solve optimization problems which minimize communication networks while also ensuring a resource limited adversary cannot perform a zero dynamics attacks. Polynomial time algorithms for design and analysis are provided.

  9. The aging of equipment in service: Preventive measures taken in the design of the EPR reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefrancois, A.

    2009-01-01

    The design of a new Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) has to take into account past experience, and in particular the lessons drawn from aging of components already in operation. The benefit of this process for tong term operation can be exceptionally high in the case of an evolutionary design such as that of the EPR TM reactor, for which the materials and the manufacturing conditions are the result of a very Long term optimization. Aging of materials in operation encompasses several damages, from the embrittlement caused by irradiation or thermal aging to the generation of cracks by fatigue or corrosion. These damages are known and characterized through international field experience and through a Cot of Laboratory studies performed worldwide, in France mainly by EDF, Cea and AREVA NP. Even if some damage mechanisms are not fully understood, good practice rules or empirical models were developed in order to give accurate predictions of damage kinetics and consequences. All this experience was taken into account during the design phase of the EPR TM project to define mate-rials and/or service conditions allowing to prevent or to minimize aging. (author)

  10. Person mobility in the design and analysis of cluster-randomized cohort prevention trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuchinich, Sam; Flay, Brian R; Aber, Lawrence; Bickman, Leonard

    2012-06-01

    Person mobility is an inescapable fact of life for most cluster-randomized (e.g., schools, hospitals, clinic, cities, state) cohort prevention trials. Mobility rates are an important substantive consideration in estimating the effects of an intervention. In cluster-randomized trials, mobility rates are often correlated with ethnicity, poverty and other variables associated with disparity. This raises the possibility that estimated intervention effects may generalize to only the least mobile segments of a population and, thus, create a threat to external validity. Such mobility can also create threats to the internal validity of conclusions from randomized trials. Researchers must decide how to deal with persons who leave study clusters during a trial (dropouts), persons and clusters that do not comply with an assigned intervention, and persons who enter clusters during a trial (late entrants), in addition to the persons who remain for the duration of a trial (stayers). Statistical techniques alone cannot solve the key issues of internal and external validity raised by the phenomenon of person mobility. This commentary presents a systematic, Campbellian-type analysis of person mobility in cluster-randomized cohort prevention trials. It describes four approaches for dealing with dropouts, late entrants and stayers with respect to data collection, analysis and generalizability. The questions at issue are: 1) From whom should data be collected at each wave of data collection? 2) Which cases should be included in the analyses of an intervention effect? and 3) To what populations can trial results be generalized? The conclusions lead to recommendations for the design and analysis of future cluster-randomized cohort prevention trials.

  11. Design of intelligent proximity detection zones to prevent striking and pinning fatalities around continuous mining machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissert, P T; Carr, J L; DuCarme, J P; Smith, A K

    2016-01-01

    The continuous mining machine is a key piece of equipment used in underground coal mining operations. Over the past several decades these machines have been involved in a number of mine worker fatalities. Proximity detection systems have been developed to avert hazards associated with operating continuous mining machines. Incorporating intelligent design into proximity detection systems allows workers greater freedom to position themselves to see visual cues or avoid other hazards such as haulage equipment or unsupported roof or ribs. However, intelligent systems must be as safe as conventional proximity detection systems. An evaluation of the 39 fatal accidents for which the Mine Safety and Health Administration has published fatality investigation reports was conducted to determine whether the accident may have been prevented by conventional or intelligent proximity. Multiple zone configurations for the intelligent systems were studied to determine how system performance might be affected by the zone configuration. Researchers found that 32 of the 39 fatalities, or 82 percent, may have been prevented by both conventional and intelligent proximity systems. These results indicate that, by properly configuring the zones of an intelligent proximity detection system, equivalent protection to a conventional system is possible.

  12. Modified design in new construction prevents infiltration of soil gas that carries radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericson, S.O.; Schmied, H.

    1987-01-01

    Dwellings located on permeable soil with strong exhalation of radon often get a contribution to indoor radon from infiltrating soil gas carrying radon from the ground into the building. 100 dwellings have been built on radon dangerous land with different modifications in design and construction in order to prevent infiltration of radon. Tight construction, ventilated crawl space, ventilation/depressurization of the capillary breaking layer (crushed stone), and mechanical ventilation with heat recovery by air to air heat exchangers or heat pumps have been tested. Added building costs and measured concentration of radon after construction and 3-5 years later are reported. It is concluded that it is possible to build radon protective and radon safe dwellings on any land. The added costs have ranged from zero to 4% of total building costs

  13. Preventing passenger vehicle occupant injuries by vehicle design--a historical perspective from IIHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Brian

    2009-04-01

    and chest injury measures recorded on driver and front-seat test dummies. NHTSA later added side crash tests and rollover ratings to the U.S. NCAP. Consumer crash testing spread worldwide in the 1990s. In 1995, the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) began using frontal offset crash tests to rate and compare frontal crashworthiness and later added side and rear crash assessments. Shortly after, Europe launched EuroNCAP to assesses new car performance including front, side, and front-end pedestrian tests. The influence of these consumer-oriented crash test programs on vehicle designs has been major. From the beginning, U.S. NCAP results prompted manufacturers to improve seat belt performance. Frontal offset tests from IIHS and EuroNCAP resulted in greatly improved front-end crumple zones and occupant compartments. Side impact tests have similarly resulted in improved side structures and accelerated the introduction of side impact airbags, especially those designed to protect occupant's heads. Vehicle safety designs, initially driven by regulations and later by consumer demand because of crash testing, have proven to be very successful public health measures. Since they were first introduced in the late 1960s, vehicle safety designs have saved hundreds of thousands of lives and prevented countless injuries worldwide. The designs that improved vehicle crashworthiness have been particularly effective. Some newer crash avoidance designs also have the potential to be effective-e.g., electronic stability control is already saving many lives in single-vehicle crashes. However, determining the actual effectiveness of these new technologies is a slow process and needs real-world crash experience because there are no assessment equivalent of crash tests for crash avoidance designs.

  14. Geographic overlaps between priority areas for forest carbon-storage efforts and those for delivering peacebuilding programs: implications for policy design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Nunez, Augusto; Mertz, Ole; Sosa, Chrystian C.

    2017-05-01

    Of the countries considering national-level policies for incentivizing reductions in forest-based greenhouse gas emissions (REDD+), some 25 are experiencing (or are emerging from) armed-conflicts. It has been hypothesized that the outcomes of the interactions between carbon-storage and peacebuilding efforts could result in either improved or worsened forest conservation and likewise increased or decreased conflict. Hence, for this study we explore potential interactions between forest carbon-storage and peacebuilding efforts, with Colombia as a case study. Spatial associations between biomass carbon and three conflict-related variables suggest that such interactions may exist. Nonetheless, while priority areas for carbon-focused conservation are presumably those at highest risks of deforestation, our research indicates that forests with lower risk of deforestation are typically those affected by armed-conflict. Our findings moreover highlight three possible roles played by Colombian forested municipalities in armed groups’ military strategies: venues for battle, hideouts, and sources of natural resources to finance war.

  15. Design Concept of Human Interface System for Risk Monitoring for Proactive Trouble Prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Yang, Ming; Zhang, Zhijian; Hashim, Muhammad [Harbin Engineering University, Harbin (China); Lind, Morten [Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby (Djibouti); Tamayama, Kiyoshi; Okusa, Kyoichi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tsuruga (Japan)

    2011-08-15

    A new concept is first proposed of distributed human interface system to integrate both operation and maintenance of nuclear power plant. Then, a method of constructing human interface system is introduced by integrating the plant knowledge database system based on Multilevel Flow Model (MFM) with the risk monitor to watch Defense-in Depth plant safety functions. The proposed concept is applied for a liquid metal fast reactor Monju and necessary R and D subjects are reviewed to realize human interface system for the maintenance work in Monju plant. Because of using high temperature liquid sodium as reactor coolant in Monju plant, the maintenance for Monju should utilize more automated equipment of remote control and robotics than that of light water reactor. It is necessary to design optimum task allocation between human and automated machine as the requisites for good communication design of human interface systems to support the collaboration work between workers at local workplace and the main control room. In this paper, the general issues are reviewed on how to configure the whole human interface system for helping proactive trouble prevention and risk evaluation on the basis of the presented target plant model before the concrete proposition of the hardware and software systems development to be used by both the staffs of operation and maintenance of NPP.

  16. Design Concept of Human Interface System for Risk Monitoring for Proactive Trouble Prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Yang, Ming; Zhang, Zhijian; Hashim, Muhammad; Lind, Morten; Tamayama, Kiyoshi; Okusa, Kyoichi

    2011-01-01

    A new concept is first proposed of distributed human interface system to integrate both operation and maintenance of nuclear power plant. Then, a method of constructing human interface system is introduced by integrating the plant knowledge database system based on Multilevel Flow Model (MFM) with the risk monitor to watch Defense-in Depth plant safety functions. The proposed concept is applied for a liquid metal fast reactor Monju and necessary R and D subjects are reviewed to realize human interface system for the maintenance work in Monju plant. Because of using high temperature liquid sodium as reactor coolant in Monju plant, the maintenance for Monju should utilize more automated equipment of remote control and robotics than that of light water reactor. It is necessary to design optimum task allocation between human and automated machine as the requisites for good communication design of human interface systems to support the collaboration work between workers at local workplace and the main control room. In this paper, the general issues are reviewed on how to configure the whole human interface system for helping proactive trouble prevention and risk evaluation on the basis of the presented target plant model before the concrete proposition of the hardware and software systems development to be used by both the staffs of operation and maintenance of NPP

  17. Petri Net Approach of Collision Prevention Supervisor Design in Port Transport System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danko Kezić

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Modern port terminals are equipped with various localtransport systems, which have the main task to transport cargobetween local storehouses and transport resources (ships,trains, trucks in the fastest and most efficient way, and at thelowest possible cost. These local transport systems consist offully automated transport units (AGV- automatic guided vehiclewhich are controlled by the computer system. The portcomputer system controls the fully automated transport units inthe way to avoid possible deadlocks and collisions betweenthem. However, beside the fully automated local transportunits, there are human operated transport units (fork-lifttrucks, cranes etc. which cross the path oftheAGVfrom timeto time. The collision of human operated transp011 unit andA GV is possible due to human inattention. To solve this problem,it is necesswy to design a supe1vismy control system thatcoordinates and controls both human driven transport unit andA G V In other words, the human-machine interactions need tobe supen·ised. The supen•ising system can be realized in the waythat the port terminal is divided into zones. Vehicle movementsare supen•ised by a video system which detects the moving ofparticular l'ehicles as a discrete event. Based on detected events,dangerous moving of certain vehicles is blocked by the supe1visi11gsystem. The paper considers the design of collision preventionsupen•isor by using discrete event dynamic themy. The portterminal is modeled by using ordi1za1y Petri nets. The design ofcollision prevention supe1visor is cmTied out by using the P-inl'ariantmethod. The verification of the supervisor is done bycomputer simulation.

  18. Thermal and flow analysis of the Fluor Daniel, Inc., Nuclear Material Storage Facility renovation design (initial 30% effort of Title 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinke, R.G.; Mueller, C.; Knight, T.D.

    1998-03-01

    The computational fluid dynamics code CFX4.2 was used to evaluate steady-state thermal-hydraulic conditions in the Fluor Daniel, Inc., Nuclear Material Storage Facility renovation design (initial 30% of Title 1). Thirteen facility cases were evaluated with varying temperature dependence, drywell-array heat-source magnitude and distribution, location of the inlet tower, and no-flow curtains in the drywell-array vault. Four cases of a detailed model of the inlet-tower top fixture were evaluated to show the effect of the canopy-cruciform fixture design on the air pressure and flow distributions

  19. Participation in preventive care programs: individual determinants, social interactions and program design.

    OpenAIRE

    Bouckaert, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    This doctoral research focuses on existing medical preventive care programs. Because of externalities (e.g. in the prevention of communicable diseases) or the program cost-benefit ratio, preventive care programs require high participation rates. In the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have set clear participation objectives – next to quality targets – which are measured and evaluated over time (National Center for Health Statistics, 2012). For example, the 2010 pa...

  20. Allowing for MSD prevention during facilities planning for a public service: an a posteriori analysis of 10 library design projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellemare, Marie; Trudel, Louis; Ledoux, Elise; Montreuil, Sylvie; Marier, Micheline; Laberge, Marie; Vincent, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    Research was conducted to identify an ergonomics-based intervention model designed to factor in musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) prevention when library projects are being designed. The first stage of the research involved an a posteriori analysis of 10 recent redesign projects. The purpose of the analysis was to document perceptions about the attention given to MSD prevention measures over the course of a project on the part of 2 categories of employees: librarians responsible for such projects and personnel working in the libraries before and after changes. Subjects were interviewed in focus groups. Outcomes of the analysis can guide our ergonomic assessment of current situations and contribute to a better understanding of the way inclusion or improvement of prevention measures can support the workplace design process.

  1. Estimation of inspection effort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullen, M.F.; Wincek, M.A.

    1979-06-01

    An overview of IAEA inspection activities is presented, and the problem of evaluating the effectiveness of an inspection is discussed. Two models are described - an effort model and an effectiveness model. The effort model breaks the IAEA's inspection effort into components; the amount of effort required for each component is estimated; and the total effort is determined by summing the effort for each component. The effectiveness model quantifies the effectiveness of inspections in terms of probabilities of detection and quantities of material to be detected, if diverted over a specific period. The method is applied to a 200 metric ton per year low-enriched uranium fuel fabrication facility. A description of the model plant is presented, a safeguards approach is outlined, and sampling plans are calculated. The required inspection effort is estimated and the results are compared to IAEA estimates. Some other applications of the method are discussed briefly. Examples are presented which demonstrate how the method might be useful in formulating guidelines for inspection planning and in establishing technical criteria for safeguards implementation

  2. Prevention of Contrast-Induced AKI: A Review of Published Trials and the Design of the Prevention of Serious Adverse Events following Angiography (PRESERVE) Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Martin; Kaufman, James; Cass, Alan; Parikh, Chirag R.; Chertow, Glenn M.; Shunk, Kendrick A.; McCullough, Peter A.; Fine, Michael J.; Mor, Maria K.; Lew, Robert A.; Huang, Grant D.; Conner, Todd A.; Brophy, Mary T.; Lee, Joanne; Soliva, Susan; Palevsky, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Contrast-induced AKI (CI-AKI) is a common condition associated with serious, adverse outcomes. CI-AKI may be preventable because its risk factors are well characterized and the timing of renal insult is commonly known in advance. Intravenous (IV) fluids and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) are two of the most widely studied preventive measures for CI-AKI. Despite a multitude of clinical trials and meta-analyses, the most effective type of IV fluid (sodium bicarbonate versus sodium chloride) and the benefit of NAC remain unclear. Careful review of published trials of these interventions reveals design limitations that contributed to their inconclusive findings. Such design limitations include the enrollment of small numbers of patients, increasing the risk for type I and type II statistical errors; the use of surrogate primary endpoints defined by small increments in serum creatinine, which are associated with, but not necessarily causally related to serious, adverse, patient-centered outcomes; and the inclusion of low-risk patients with intact baseline kidney function, yielding low event rates and reduced generalizability to a higher-risk population. The Prevention of Serious Adverse Events following Angiography (PRESERVE) trial is a randomized, double-blind, multicenter trial that will enroll 8680 high-risk patients undergoing coronary or noncoronary angiography to compare the effectiveness of IV isotonic sodium bicarbonate versus IV isotonic sodium chloride and oral NAC versus oral placebo for the prevention of serious, adverse outcomes associated with CI-AKI. This article discusses key methodological issues of past trials investigating IV fluids and NAC and how they informed the design of the PRESERVE trial. PMID:23660180

  3. The design and development of a complex multifactorial falls assessment intervention for falls prevention: The Prevention of Falls Injury Trial (PreFIT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Julie; Ralhan, Shvaita; Sheridan, Ray; Westacott, Katharine; Withers, Emma; Finnegan, Susanne; Davison, John; Martin, Finbarr C; Lamb, Sarah E

    2017-06-01

    This paper describes the design and development of a complex multifactorial falls prevention (MFFP) intervention for implementation and testing within the framework of a large UK-based falls prevention randomised controlled trial (RCT). A complex intervention was developed for inclusion within the Prevention of Falls Injury Trial (PreFIT), a multicentre pragmatic RCT. PreFIT aims to compare the clinical and cost-effectiveness of three alternative primary care falls prevention interventions (advice, exercise and MFFP), on outcomes of fractures and falls. Community-dwelling adults, aged 70 years and older, were recruited from primary care in the National Health Service (NHS), England. Development of the PreFIT MFFP intervention was informed by the existing evidence base and clinical guidelines for the assessment and management of falls in older adults. After piloting and modification, the final MFFP intervention includes seven falls risk factors: a detailed falls history interview with consideration of 'red flags'; assessment of balance and gait; vision; medication screen; cardiac screen; feet and footwear screen and home environment assessment. This complex intervention has been fully manualised with clear, documented assessment and treatment pathways for each risk factor. Each risk factor is assessed in every trial participant referred for MFFP. Referral for assessment is based upon a screening survey to identify those with a history of falling or balance problems. Intervention delivery can be adapted to the local setting. This complex falls prevention intervention is currently being tested within the framework of a large clinical trial. This paper adheres to TIDieR and CONSORT recommendations for the comprehensive and explicit reporting of trial interventions. Results from the PreFIT study will be published in due course. The effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the PreFIT MFFP intervention, compared to advice and exercise, on the prevention of falls and

  4. Job rotation designed to prevent musculoskeletal disorders and control risk in manufacturing industries: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Rosimeire Simprini; Comper, Maria Luiza Caires; Sparer, Emily H; Dennerlein, Jack T

    2017-01-01

    To better understand job rotation in the manufacturing industry, we completed a systematic review asking the following questions: 1) How do job-rotation programs impact work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and related risk control for these MSDs, as well as psychosocial factors? and 2) How best should the job rotation programs be designed? We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Business Source Premier, ISI Web of Knowledge, CINAHL, PsyINFO, Scopus, and SciELO databases for articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Eligible studies were examined by two independent reviewers for relevance (population of manufacturing workers, outcomes of musculoskeletal disorders, physical factors, psychosocial factors, and strategies used in job-rotation implantation) and methodological quality rating. From 10,809 potential articles, 71 were read for full text analysis. Of the 14 studies included for data extraction, two were non-randomized control trial studies, one was a case-control study, and 11 were cross-sectional comparisons. Only one, with a case-control design, was scored with good methodological quality. Currently, weak evidence exists supporting job rotation as a strategy for the prevention and control of musculoskeletal disorders. Job rotation did not appear to reduce the exposure of physical risk factors; yet, there are positive correlations between job rotation and higher job satisfaction. Worker training has been described as a crucial component of a successful job-rotation program. The studies reported a range of parameters used to implement and measure job-rotation programs. More rigorous studies are needed to better understand the full impact of job rotation on production and health. CRD42014013319. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Design and rationale of dabigatran's stroke prevention in real life in Turkey (D-SPIRIT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türk, Uğur Önsel; Alioğlu, Emin; Tunçer, Eşref; Özpelit, Mehmet Emre; Pekel, Nihat; Tengiz, İstemihan; Çetin, Nurullah; Dalgıç, Onur; Topaloğlu, Caner; Bilgin, Nazile; Altın, Cihan; Özdemirkıran, Tolga; Tülüce, Kamil; Türkoğlu, Ebru İpek; Özpelit, Ebru

    2016-04-01

    The D-SPIRIT registry is designed to investigate the safety and efficacy of dabigatran etexilate in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) and to collect data on outcomes in clinical practice. The D-SPIRIT is a national, prospective, observational, post-marketing registry involving patients with NVAF who have been taking dabigatran etexilate therapy for stroke prevention for a minimum of 6 months prior to enrollment. The registry will collect and analyze data from routine care, enrolling up to 600 patients in 9 centers. Patients will be followed up for 2 years to evaluate effectiveness and safety. A sample size of 600 subjects is proposed based on the following assumptions; Two-sided significance level of 0.05 (1-sided significance level of 0.025), ischemic stroke incidence rate of 0.768%-1.111%, hemorrhagic stroke incidence rate of 0.109%-0.130%, transient ischemic attack incidence rate of 0.722%-0.623%, therapy discontinuation incidence rate of 40% at day 730, and duration of enrollment period of 12 months with non-uniformed enrollment rate. Ethics approval was given by Dokuz Eylül University Ethics Committee of Clinical Research (2014/54) and approved by the Turkish Ministry of Health. Potential results of D-SPIRIT registry will add data from clinical practice to those from the RE-LY trial to expand knowledge of dabigatran etexilate treatment in patients with NVAF.

  6. Design, Implementation, and Evaluation of the Adolescents and Surveillance System for the Obesity Prevention Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabacchi, Garden; Bianco, Antonino; Alessi, Nicola; Filippi, Anna Rita; Napoli, Giuseppe; Jemni, Monèm; Censi, Laura; Breda, João; Schumann, Nathali Lehmann; Firenze, Alberto; Vitale, Francesco; Mammina, Caterina

    2016-03-01

    The Adolescents Surveillance System for Obesity prevention (ASSO) Project aimed at developing standardized and web-based tools for collecting data on adolescents' obesity and its potential determinants. This has been implemented and piloted in the local area of Palermo city, Italy. The aim of the present study is to provide an overview of the Project's design, implementation, and evaluation, highlighting all the aspects for a potential scale-up of the surveillance system on the whole national territory and abroad, as a sustainable and effective source of data.The overall structure and management, the ASSO-toolkit, the ASSO-NutFit software, and all developed and used procedures for recruiting, training, and data collecting/analyzing are addressed. An interim evaluation has been performed through a feasibility study; a final Project evaluation has been performed reporting the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) and the attributes that a surveillance system should have.This article provides a detailed overview of the Project and highlights that ASSO can be considered a valid, logical, coherent, efficient, and sustainable surveillance system that is consistent with countries' needs and priorities.The system developed by the ASSO Project provides high-quality data and complies with several characteristics typical of a suitable surveillance system. It has a potential of being adopted within the National Health Service and other countries' Health Services for monitoring adolescents' obesity and its determinants, such as food intakes, behaviors, physical activity, and fitness profiles.

  7. Designing the user interfaces of a behavior modification intervention for obesity & eating disorders prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulos, Ioannis; Maramis, Christos; Mourouzis, Alexandros; Maglaveras, Nicos

    2015-01-01

    The recent immense diffusion of smartphones has significantly upgraded the role of mobile user interfaces in interventions that build and/or maintain healthier lifestyles. Indeed, high-quality, user-centered smartphone applications are able to serve as advanced front-ends to such interventions. These smartphone applications, coupled with portable or wearable sensors, are being employed for monitoring day to day health-related behaviors, including eating and physical activity. Some of them take one step forward by identifying unhealthy behaviors and contributing towards their modification. This work presents the design as well as the preliminary implementation of the mobile user interface of SPLENDID, a novel, sensor-oriented intervention for preventing obesity and eating disorders in young populations. This is implemented by means of an Android application, which is able to monitor the eating and physical activity behaviors of young individuals at risk for obesity and/or eating disorders, subsequently guiding them towards the modification of those behaviors that put them at risk. Behavior monitoring is based on multiple data provided by a set of communicating sensors and self-reported information, while guidance is facilitated through a feedback/encouragement provision and goal setting mechanism.

  8. A Community-Based Intervention to Prevent Obesity Beginning at Birth among American Indian Children: Study Design and Rationale for the PTOTS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanja, Njeri; Aickin, Mikel; Lutz, Tam; Mist, Scott; Jobe, Jared B.; Maupome, Gerardo; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    Eating and physical activity behaviors associated with adult obesity have early antecedents, yet few studies have focused on obesity prevention interventions targeting very young children. Efforts to prevent obesity beginning at birth seem particularly important in populations at risk for early-onset obesity. National estimates indicate that…

  9. Design of the Prevention of Adult Caries Study (PACS: A randomized clinical trial assessing the effect of a chlorhexidine dental coating for the prevention of adult caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snyder John J

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental caries is one of the primary causes of tooth loss among adults. It is estimated to affect a majority of Americans aged 55 and older, with a disproportionately higher burden in disadvantaged populations. Although a number of treatments are currently in use for caries prevention in adults, evidence for their efficacy and effectiveness is limited. Methods/Design The Prevention of Adult Caries Study (PACS is a multicenter, placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized clinical trial of the efficacy of a chlorhexidine (10% w/v dental coating in preventing adult caries. Participants (n = 983 were recruited from four different dental delivery systems serving four diverse communities, including one American Indian population, and were randomized to receive either chlorhexidine or a placebo treatment. The primary outcome is the net caries increment (including non-cavitated lesions from baseline to 13 months of follow-up. A cost-effectiveness analysis also will be considered. Discussion This new dental treatment, if efficacious and approved for use by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA, would become a new in-office, anti-microbial agent for the prevention of adult caries in the United States. Trial Registration Number NCT00357877

  10. Empowerment evaluation with programs designed to prevent first-time male perpetration of sexual violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, Rita K; Gibbs, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    This special issue captures several threads in the ongoing evolution of sexual violence prevention. The articles that follow examine an empowerment evaluation process with four promising programs dedicated to preventing first-time male perpetration of sexual violence, as well as evaluation findings. Both the evaluation approach and the programs examined shed light on how sexual violence prevention can continue to be improved in the future.

  11. Design, evaluation and recommedation effort relating to the modification of a residential 3-ton absorption cycle cooling unit for operation with solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrick, R. H.; Anderson, P. P.

    1973-01-01

    The possible use of solar energy powered absorption units to provide cooling and heating of residential buildings is studied. Both, the ammonia-water and the water-lithium bromide cycles, are considered. It is shown that the air cooled ammonia water unit does not meet the criteria for COP and pump power on the cooling cycle and the heat obtained from it acting as a heat pump is at too low a temperature. If the ammonia machine is water cooled it will meet the design criteria for cooling but can not supply the heating needs. The water cooled lithium bromide unit meets the specified performance for cooling with appreciably lower generator temperatures and without a mechanical solution pump. It is recommeded that in the demonstration project a direct expansion lithium bromide unit be used for cooling and an auxiliary duct coil using the solar heated water be employed for heating.

  12. Study designs for identifying risk compensation behavior among users of biomedical HIV prevention technologies: balancing methodological rigor and research ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underhill, Kristen

    2013-10-01

    The growing evidence base for biomedical HIV prevention interventions - such as oral pre-exposure prophylaxis, microbicides, male circumcision, treatment as prevention, and eventually prevention vaccines - has given rise to concerns about the ways in which users of these biomedical products may adjust their HIV risk behaviors based on the perception that they are prevented from infection. Known as risk compensation, this behavioral adjustment draws on the theory of "risk homeostasis," which has previously been applied to phenomena as diverse as Lyme disease vaccination, insurance mandates, and automobile safety. Little rigorous evidence exists to answer risk compensation concerns in the biomedical HIV prevention literature, in part because the field has not systematically evaluated the study designs available for testing these behaviors. The goals of this Commentary are to explain the origins of risk compensation behavior in risk homeostasis theory, to reframe risk compensation as a testable response to the perception of reduced risk, and to assess the methodological rigor and ethical justification of study designs aiming to isolate risk compensation responses. Although the most rigorous methodological designs for assessing risk compensation behavior may be unavailable due to ethical flaws, several strategies can help investigators identify potential risk compensation behavior during Phase II, Phase III, and Phase IV testing of new technologies. Where concerns arise regarding risk compensation behavior, empirical evidence about the incidence, types, and extent of these behavioral changes can illuminate opportunities to better support the users of new HIV prevention strategies. This Commentary concludes by suggesting a new way to conceptualize risk compensation behavior in the HIV prevention context. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Description of the Design and Implementation of a School-Based Obesity Prevention Program Addressing Needs of Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward-Begnoche, Wendy L.; Gance-Cleveland, Bonnie; Harris, Margaret M.; Dean, Janice

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the design and implementation of a school-based obesity prevention program, the successes associated with its implementation, and challenges with development and application of the program's curriculum base. The program is described, including purpose and goals, content and structure of the curriculum, type and training of…

  14. Preventing musculoskeletal injuries among recreational adult volleyball players: design of a randomised prospective controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouttebarge, Vincent; Zwerver, Johannes; Verhagen, Evert

    2017-08-02

    Both acute and overuse injuries are common among recreational volleyball players, especially finger/wrist, ankle, shoulder and knee injuries. Consequently, an intervention ('VolleyVeilig') was developed to prevent or reduce the occurrence of finger/wrist, shoulder, knee and ankle injuries among recreational volleyball players. This article describes the design of a study evaluating the effectiveness of the developed intervention on the one-season occurrence of finger/wrist, shoulder, knee and ankle injuries among recreational adult volleyball players. A randomized prospective controlled trial with a follow-up period of one volleyball season will be conducted. Participants will be healthy recreational adult volleyball players (18 years of age or older) practicing volleyball (training and/or match) at least twice a week. The intervention ('VolleyVeilig') consists of a warm-up program based on more than 50 distinct exercises (with different variations and levels). The effect of the intervention programme on the occurrence of injuries will be compared to volleyball as usual. Outcome measures will be incidence of acute injury (expressed as number of injuries per 1000 h of play) and prevalence of overuse injuries (expressed as percentage). This study will be one of the first randomized prospective controlled trials evaluating the effectiveness of an intervention on the occurrence of both acute and overuse injuries among recreational adult volleyball players. Outcome of this study could possibly lead to the nationwide implementation of the intervention in all volleyball clubs in The Netherlands, ultimately resulting in less injuries. Dutch Trial Registration NTR6202 , registered February 1st 2017. Version 3, February 2017.

  15. Design and implementation of an empowerment model to prevent elder abuse: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estebsari, Fatemeh; Dastoorpoor, Maryam; Mostafaei, Davoud; Khanjani, Narges; Khalifehkandi, Zahra Rahimi; Foroushani, Abbas Rahimi; Aghababaeian, Hamidreza; Taghdisi, Mohammad Hossein

    2018-01-01

    Older adults are more vulnerable to health risks than younger people and may get exposed to various dangers, including elder abuse. This study aimed to design and implement an empowerment educational intervention to prevent elder abuse. This parallel randomized controlled trial was conducted in 2014-2016 for 18 months on 464 older adults aged above 60 years who visited health houses of 22 municipalities in Tehran. Data were collected using standard questionnaires, including the Elder Abuse-Knowledge Questionnaire, Health-Promoting Behavior Questionnaire, Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II, Barriers to Healthy Lifestyle, Perceived Social Support, Perceived Self-Efficacy, Loneliness Scale, Geriatric Depression Scale, Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale, and the SCARED (stress, coping, argument, resources, events, and dependence) tool. The intervention was done in twenty 45- to 60-minute training sessions over 6 months. Data analysis were performed using χ 2 tests, multiple linear and logistic regression, and structural equation modeling (SEM). The frequency of knowledge of elder abuse, self-efficacy, social support and health promoting lifestyle before the intervention was similar in the two groups. However, the frequency of high knowledge of elder abuse (94.8% in the intervention group and 46.6% in the control group), high self-efficacy (82.8% and 7.8%, respectively), high social support (97.0% and 10.3%, respectively) and high health promoting lifestyle (97.0% and 10.3%, respectively) was significantly higher ( P elder abuse risk (28.0% and 49.6%, respectively) was significantly less in the intervention group after the intervention. SEM standardized beta (Sβ) showed that the intervention had the highest impact on increase social support (Sβ=0.80, β=48.64, SE=1.70, P elder abuse risk was indirect and significant (Sβ=-0.406, β=-0.340, SE=0.03, P elder abuse.

  16. Associations between Social Capital and HIV Stigma in Chennai, India: Considerations for Prevention Intervention Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaram, Sudha; Zelaya, Carla; Srikrishnan, A. K.; Latkin, Carl; Go, V. F.; Solomon, Suniti; Celentano, David

    2009-01-01

    Stigma against persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) is a barrier to seeking prevention education, HIV testing, and care. Social capital has been reported as an important factor influencing HIV prevention and social support upon infection. In the study, we explored the associations between social capital and stigma among men and women who are…

  17. Design of Detection and Prevention System of Unauthorized Data Sending from the Local Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Moskvin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Malware often aims at breaking confidentiality. A malicious program gets inside the local network, finds out necessary data and then illegally transfers this data to the intruder. Prevention of unauthorized data transfer requires development of a special software product, which will detect and prevent leak of information from the local network.

  18. Steps in the design, development and formative evaluation of obesity prevention-related behavior change trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obesity prevention interventions through dietary and physical activity change have generally not been effective. This paper uses the Mediating Variable Model (MVM) as a conceptual framework for examining why obesity prevention interventions have not worked. Problems were identified in measurement of...

  19. Enhancing Local Designers Skill in Rattan Furniture Industries in Cirebon through Comprehensive-Design Approach Regarding Buyers’ Dependencies Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andar Bagus Sriwarno

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Between the 1970s and the 1990s, the Indonesian economy has been transforming from an agriculture-based to an industry-based economy. According to this condition, Cirebon growth rapidly to export rattan goods even this city has no resources in rattan. The lack of design quality, export regulation and global economic crisis become the main factor to affect the decrease of company’s income at recent. Despite the crisis, government is now trying to recover by inviting design expert to improve design skills and capacity building of entrepreneurs in particular small-medium scale enterprises. This study aims to define why Cirebon still lags behind in industrial competitiveness regarding rattan furniture design. The intervention program of design is conducted to seek out the craftsman’s ability and determined the kind of design competitiveness advantages according their nature of business.

  20. Now is the time to advocate for interventions designed specifically to prevent and control waterpipe tobacco smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, A A; Eissenberg, T; Jaafar, M; Afifi, R

    2017-03-01

    Waterpipe tobacco usage is spreading rapidly worldwide, with reports of more youth being waterpipe users compared to adults. In many areas of the world, waterpipe usage surpasses cigarette smoking. Waterpipes and cigarettes are both mechanisms for inhalation of tobacco smoke and therefore have serious health consequences. However, because of the many differences between the two products, prevention and control strategies that have proven effective for cigarettes may not transfer readily to waterpipe. This report highlights the differences between waterpipes and cigarettes in toxicant exposure and physiologic effects, patterns of use, social norms, the extent of evidence, and the policy environment. There is little evidence to date around effective interventions for waterpipe prevention and control. The current state of evidence for intervention to curb or control waterpipe is at ground zero and critically needs attention from both scientists and policy makers. National and global efforts aimed at cigarette prevention have succeeded, particularly in developed countries. We suggest the time has come to harness what we know works for cigarette prevention and control and adapt it to tackle the growing epidemic of waterpipe tobacco use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Research on Modularized Design and Allocation of Infectious Disease Prevention and Control Equipment in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Wang, Yun-Dou; Zhang, Xiao-Feng; Gao, Shu-Tian; Guo, Li-Jun; Sun, Li-Na

    2017-06-01

    For the prevention and control of newly emergent or sudden infectious diseases, we built an on-site, modularized prevention and control system and tested the equipment by using the clustering analysis method. On the basis of this system, we propose a modular equipment allocation method and 4 applications of this method for different types of infectious disease prevention and control. This will help to improve the efficiency and productivity of anti-epidemic emergency forces and will provide strong technical support for implementing more universal and serialized equipment in China. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:375-382).

  2. Design and implementation of an empowerment model to prevent elder abuse: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estebsari F

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Fatemeh Estebsari,1 Maryam Dastoorpoor,2 Davoud Mostafaei,3 Narges Khanjani,4 Zahra Rahimi Khalifehkandi,5 Abbas Rahimi Foroushani,6 Hamidreza Aghababaeian,7 Mohammad Hossein Taghdisi8 1Department of Community Health Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, 2Air Pollution and Respiratory Diseases Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, 3Department of Nursing Management, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, 4Neurology Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, 5Department of Health Education and Health Promotion, School of Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, 6Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, 7Nursing and Emergency Department, Dezful University of Medical Sciences, Dezful, 8Department of Health Education and Health Promotion, School of Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran Background: Older adults are more vulnerable to health risks than younger people and may get exposed to various dangers, including elder abuse. This study aimed to design and implement an empowerment educational intervention to prevent elder abuse.Methods: This parallel randomized controlled trial was conducted in 2014–2016 for 18 months on 464 older adults aged above 60 years who visited health houses of 22 municipalities in Tehran. Data were collected using standard questionnaires, including the Elder Abuse-Knowledge Questionnaire, Health-Promoting Behavior Questionnaire, Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II, Barriers to Healthy Lifestyle, Perceived Social Support, Perceived Self-Efficacy, Loneliness Scale, Geriatric Depression Scale, Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale, and the SCARED (stress, coping, argument, resources, events, and dependence tool. The intervention was done in

  3. Basis and Statistical Design of the Passive HIV-1 Antibody Mediated Prevention (AMP) Test-of-Concept Efficacy Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Peter B; Juraska, Michal; deCamp, Allan C; Karuna, Shelly; Edupuganti, Srilatha; Mgodi, Nyaradzo; Donnell, Deborah J; Bentley, Carter; Sista, Nirupama; Andrew, Philip; Isaacs, Abby; Huang, Yunda; Zhang, Lily; Capparelli, Edmund; Kochar, Nidhi; Wang, Jing; Eshleman, Susan H; Mayer, Kenneth H; Magaret, Craig A; Hural, John; Kublin, James G; Gray, Glenda; Montefiori, David C; Gomez, Margarita M; Burns, David N; McElrath, Julie; Ledgerwood, Julie; Graham, Barney S; Mascola, John R; Cohen, Myron; Corey, Lawrence

    2017-01-01

    Anti-HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) have been developed as potential agents for prevention of HIV-1 infection. The HIV Vaccine Trials Network and the HIV Prevention Trials Network are conducting the Antibody Mediated Prevention (AMP) trials to assess whether, and how, intravenous infusion of the anti-CD4 binding site bnAb, VRC01, prevents HIV-1 infection. These are the first test-of-concept studies to assess HIV-1 bnAb prevention efficacy in humans. The AMP trials are two parallel phase 2b HIV-1 prevention efficacy trials conducted in two cohorts: 2700 HIV-uninfected men and transgender persons who have sex with men in the United States, Peru, Brazil, and Switzerland; and 1500 HIV-uninfected sexually active women in seven countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Participants are randomized 1:1:1 to receive an intravenous infusion of 10 mg/kg VRC01, 30 mg/kg VRC01, or a control preparation every 8 weeks for a total of 10 infusions. Each trial is designed (1) to assess overall prevention efficacy (PE) pooled over the two VRC01 dose groups vs. control and (2) to assess VRC01 dose and laboratory markers as correlates of protection (CoPs) against overall and genotype- and phenotype-specific infection. Each AMP trial is designed to have 90% power to detect PE > 0% if PE is ≥ 60%. The AMP trials are also designed to identify VRC01 properties (i.e., concentration and effector functions) that correlate with protection and to provide insight into mechanistic CoPs. CoPs are assessed using data from breakthrough HIV-1 infections, including genetic sequences and sensitivities to VRC01-mediated neutralization and Fc effector functions. The AMP trials test whether VRC01 can prevent HIV-1 infection in two study populations. If affirmative, they will provide information for estimating the optimal dosage of VRC01 (or subsequent derivatives) and identify threshold levels of neutralization and Fc effector functions associated with high-level protection, setting a benchmark

  4. Sustainable prevention of obesity through integrated strategies: The SPOTLIGHT project’s conceptual framework and design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakerveld Jeroen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of overweight and obesity in Europe is high. It is a major cause of the overall rates of many of the main chronic (or non communicable diseases in this region and is characterized by an unequal socio-economic distribution within the population. Obesity is largely determined by modifiable lifestyle behaviours such as low physical activity levels, sedentary behaviour and consumption of energy dense diets. It is increasingly being recognised that effective responses must go beyond interventions that only focus on a specific individual, social or environmental level and instead embrace system-based multi-level intervention approaches that address both the individual and environment. The EU-funded project “sustainable prevention of obesity through integrated strategies” (SPOTLIGHT aims to increase and combine knowledge on the wide range of determinants of obesity in a systematic way, and to identify multi-level intervention approaches that are strong in terms of Reach, Efficacy, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance (RE-AIM. Methods/Design SPOTLIGHT comprises a series of systematic reviews on: individual-level predictors of success in behaviour change obesity interventions; social and physical environmental determinants of obesity; and on the RE-AIM of multi-level interventions. An interactive web-atlas of currently running multi-level interventions will be developed, and enhancing and impeding factors for implementation will be described. At the neighbourhood level, these elements will inform the development of methods to assess obesogenicity of diverse environments, using remote imaging techniques linked to geographic information systems. The validity of these methods will be evaluated using data from surveys of health and lifestyles of adults residing in the neighbourhoods surveyed. At both the micro- and macro-levels (national and international the different physical, economical, political and socio

  5. Towards a Concerted Effort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Mette-Louise; Mouritsen, Tina; Montgomery, Edith

    2006-01-01

    This book contains a method model for the prevention of youth crime in Danish municipalities. The method model consists of instructions for conducting processual network meetings between traumatized refugee parents and the professional specialists working with their children on an intermunicipal...

  6. Contribution of formative research to design an environmental program for obesity prevention in schools in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvecchio, Anabelle; Théodore, Florence L; Safdie, Margarita; Duque, Tiffany; Villanueva, María Ángeles; Torres, Catalina; Rivera, Juan

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the methods and key findings of formative research conducted to design a school-based program for obesity prevention. Formative research was based on the ecological model and the principles of social marketing. A mixed method approach was used. Qualitative (direct observation, indepth interviews, focus group discussions and photo-voice) and quantitative (closed ended surveys, checklists, anthropometry) methods were employed. Formative research key findings, including barriers by levels of the ecological model, were used for designing a program including environmental strategies to discourage the consumption of energy dense foods and sugar beverages. Formative research was fundamental to developing a context specific obesity prevention program in schools that seeks environment modification and behavior change.

  7. Adaptation and dissemination of an evidence-based obesity prevention intervention: design of a comparative effectiveness trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscemi, Joanna; Odoms-Young, Angela; Stolley, Melinda L; Blumstein, Lara; Schiffer, Linda; Berbaum, Michael L; McCaffrey, Jennifer; Montoya, Anastasia McGee; Braunschweig, Carol; Fitzgibbon, Marian L

    2014-07-01

    Low-income youth are at increased risk for excess weight gain. Although evidence-based prevention programs exist, successful adaptation to provide wide dissemination presents a challenge. Hip-Hop to Health (HH) is a school-based obesity prevention intervention that targets primarily preschool children of low-income families. In a large randomized controlled trial, HH was found to be efficacious for prevention of excessive weight gain. The Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) and the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education (SNAP-Ed) are USDA-funded nutrition education programs offered to low-income families, and may provide an ideal platform for the wide dissemination of evidence-based obesity prevention programs. A research-practice partnership was established in order to conduct formative research to guide the adaptation and implementation of HH through EFNEP and SNAP-Ed. We present the design and method of a comparative effectiveness trial that will determine the efficacy of HH when delivered by peer educators through these programs compared to the standard EFNEP and SNAP-Ed nutrition education (NE) curriculum. Results from this trial will inform larger scale dissemination. The dissemination of HH through government programs has the potential to increase the reach of efficacious obesity prevention programs that target low-income children and families. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Designing behavioral self-regulation application for preventive personal mental healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Hirano

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Most of computerized cognitive behavioral therapy targeted restoration and few have targeted primary prevention. The purpose of this study is to obtain the knowledge for further development on preventive mental healthcare application. We developed a personal mental healthcare application which aimed to give users the chance to manage their mental health by self-monitoring and regulating their behavior. Through the 30-day field trial, the results showed improvement of mood score through conducting of suggested action, and the depressive mood of the participants was significantly decreased after the trial. The possibility of application and further problem was confirmed.

  9. Analysis Efforts Supporting NSTX Upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.; Titus, P.; Rogoff, P.; Zolfaghari, A.; Mangra, D.; Smith, M.

    2010-01-01

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is a low aspect ratio, spherical torus (ST) configuration device which is located at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) This device is presently being updated to enhance its physics by doubling the TF field to 1 Tesla and increasing the plasma current to 2 Mega-amperes. The upgrades include a replacement of the centerstack and addition of a second neutral beam. The upgrade analyses have two missions. The first is to support design of new components, principally the centerstack, the second is to qualify existing NSTX components for higher loads, which will increase by a factor of four. Cost efficiency was a design goal for new equipment qualification, and reanalysis of the existing components. Showing that older components can sustain the increased loads has been a challenging effort in which designs had to be developed that would limit loading on weaker components, and would minimize the extent of modifications needed. Two areas representing this effort have been chosen to describe in more details: analysis of the current distribution in the new TF inner legs, and, second, analysis of the out-of-plane support of the existing TF outer legs.

  10. Conceptual Design of Portable Filtered Air Suction Systems For Prevention of Released Radioactive Gas under Severe Accidents of NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Beom W.; Choi, Su Y.; Yim, Man S.; Rim, Chun T. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    It becomes evident that severe accidents may occur by unexpected disasters such as tsunami, heavy flood, or terror. Once radioactive material is released from NPP through severe accidents, there are no ways to prevent the released radioactive gas spreading in the air. As a remedy for this problem, the idea on the portable filtered air suction system (PoFASS) for the prevention of released radioactive gas under severe accidents was proposed. In this paper, the conceptual design of a PoFASS focusing on the number of robot fingers and robot arm rods are proposed. In order to design a flexible robot suction nozzle, mathematical models for the gaps which represent the lifted heights of extensible covers for given convex shapes of pipes and for the covered areas are developed. In addition, the system requirements for the design of the robot arms of PoFASS are proposed, which determine the accessible range of leakage points of released radioactive gas. In this paper, the conceptual designs of the flexible robot suction nozzle and robot arm have been conducted. As a result, the minimum number of robot fingers and robot arm rods are defined to be four and three, respectively. For further works, extensible cover designs on the flexible robot suction nozzle and the application of the PoFASS to the inside of NPP should be studied because the radioactive gas may be released from connection pipes between the containment building and auxiliary buildings.

  11. Preventing musculoskeletal injuries among recreational adult volleyball players : design of a randomised prospective controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouttebarge, Vincent; Zwerver, Johannes; Verhagen, Evert

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Both acute and overuse injuries are common among recreational volleyball players, especially finger/wrist, ankle, shoulder and knee injuries. Consequently, an intervention ('VolleyVeilig') was developed to prevent or reduce the occurrence of finger/wrist, shoulder, knee and ankle

  12. Preventing musculoskeletal injuries among recreational adult volleyball players: design of a randomised prospective controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouttebarge, Vincent; Zwerver, Johannes; Verhagen, Evert

    2017-01-01

    Background: Both acute and overuse injuries are common among recreational volleyball players, especially finger/wrist, ankle, shoulder and knee injuries. Consequently, an intervention ('VolleyVeilig') was developed to prevent or reduce the occurrence of finger/wrist, shoulder, knee and ankle

  13. Steps in the design, development and formative evaluation of obesity prevention-related behavior change trials

    OpenAIRE

    Baranowski Janice; Cerin Ester; Baranowski Tom

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Obesity prevention interventions through dietary and physical activity change have generally not been effective. Limitations on possible program effectiveness are herein identified at every step in the mediating variable model, a generic conceptual framework for understanding how interventions may promote behavior change. To minimize these problems, and thereby enhance likely intervention effectiveness, four sequential types of formative studies are proposed: targeted behavior valida...

  14. Advanced composites: Design and application. Proceedings of the meeting of the Mechanical Failures Prevention Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shives, T. R.; Willard, W. A.

    1979-01-01

    The design and application of advanced composites is discussed with emphasis on aerospace, aircraft, automotive, marine, and industrial applications. Failure modes in advanced composites are also discussed.

  15. Design measures for prevention and mitigation of severe accidents at advanced water cooled reactors. Proceedings of a technical committee meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    Over 8500 reactor-years of operating experience have been accumulated with the current nuclear energy systems. New generations of nuclear power plants are being developed, building upon this background of experience. During the last decade, requirements for equipment specifically intended to minimize releases of radioactive material to the environment in the event of a core melt accident have been introduced, and designs for new plants include measures for preventing and mitigating a range of severe accident scenarios. The IAEA Technical Committee Meeting on Impact of Severe Accidents on Plant Design and Layout of Advanced Water Cooled Reactors was jointly organized by the Department of Nuclear Energy and the Department of Nuclear Safety to review measures which are being incorporated into advanced water cooled reactor designs for preventing and mitigating severe accidents, the status of experimental and analytical investigations of severe accident phenomena and challenges which support design decisions and accident management procedures, and to understand the impact of explicitly addressing severe accidents on the cost of nuclear power plants. This publication is intended to provide an objective source of information on this topic. It includes 14 papers presented at the Technical Committee meeting held in Vienna between 21-25 October 1996. It also includes a Summary and Findings of the Working Groups. The papers were grouped in three sections. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper

  16. Literality and Cognitive Effort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacruz, Isabel; Carl, Michael; Yamada, Masaru

    2018-01-01

    We introduce a notion of pause-word ratio computed using ranges of pause lengths rather than lower cutoffs for pause lengths. Standard pause-word ratios are indicators of cognitive effort during different translation modalities.The pause range version allows for the study of how different types...... remoteness. We use data from the CRITT TPR database, comparing translation and post-editing from English to Japanese and from English to Spanish, and study the interaction of pause-word ratio for short pauses ranging between 300 and 500ms with syntactic remoteness, measured by the CrossS feature, semantic...... remoteness, measured by HTra, and syntactic and semantic remoteness, measured by Literality....

  17. Breckinridge Project, initial effort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1982-09-01

    Report III, Volume 1 contains those specifications numbered A through J, as follows: General Specifications (A); Specifications for Pressure Vessels (C); Specifications for Tanks (D); Specifications for Exchangers (E); Specifications for Fired Heaters (F); Specifications for Pumps and Drivers (G); and Specifications for Instrumentation (J). The standard specifications of Bechtel Petroleum Incorporated have been amended as necessary to reflect the specific requirements of the Breckinridge Project, and the more stringent specifications of Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc. These standard specifications are available to the Initial Effort (Phase Zero) work performed by all contractors and subcontractors. Report III, Volume 1 also contains the unique specifications prepared for Plants 8, 15, and 27. These specifications will be substantially reviewed during Phase I of the project, and modified as necessary for use during the engineering, procurement, and construction of this project.

  18. Rationale, design, and protocol for the prevention of low back pain in the military (POLM trial (NCT00373009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugan Jessica L

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are few effective strategies reported for the primary prevention of low back pain (LBP. Core stabilization exercises targeting the deep abdominal and trunk musculature and psychosocial education programs addressing patient beliefs and coping styles represent the current best evidence for secondary prevention of low back pain. However, these programs have not been widely tested to determine if they are effective at preventing the primary onset and/or severity of LBP. The purpose of this cluster randomized clinical trial is to determine if a combined core stabilization exercise and education program is effective in preventing the onset and/or severity of LBP. The effect of the combined program will be compared to three other standard programs. Methods/Design Consecutive Soldiers participating in advanced individual training (AIT will be screened for eligibility requirements and consented to study participation, as appropriate. Companies of Soldiers will be randomly assigned to receive the following standard prevention programs; a core stabilization exercise program (CSEP alone, a CSEP with a psychosocial education (PSEP, a traditional exercise (TEP, or a TEP with a PSEP. Proximal outcome measures will be assessed at the conclusion of AIT (a 12 week training period and include imaging of deep lumbar musculature using real-time ultrasound imaging and beliefs about LBP by self-report questionnaire. We are hypothesizing that Soldiers receiving the CSEP will have improved thickness of selected deep lumbar musculature (transversus abdominus, multifidi, and erector spinae muscles. We are also hypothesizing that Soldiers receiving the PSEP will have improved beliefs about the management of LBP. After AIT, Soldiers will be followed monthly to measure the distal outcomes of LBP occurrence and severity. This information will be collected during the subsequent 2 years following completion of AIT using a web-based data entry system

  19. A couple-focused intervention to prevent postnatal smoking relapse: PRISM study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meghea, Cristian Ioan; Brînzaniuc, Alexandra; Mihu, Dan; Iuhas, Cristian Ioan; Stamatian, Florin; Caracostea, Gabriela; Sidor, Alexandra; Alexa, Paula Mădălina; Brînza, Cătălina; Pop, Oana Maria; Cherecheș, Răzvan Mircea

    2015-03-01

    Maternal smoking is one of the most modifiable factors with clear adverse effects for the fetus and the entire family. Addressing the dearth of pregnancy smoking interventions with partner support, PRISM (Prevent Relapse In SMoking) is a partnership between a research institution and the two largest state-owned obstetrics and gynecology clinics in Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The study will assess the efficacy of a couple-focused telephone-counseling program to prevent smoking relapse among mothers who quit smoking closely before or during pregnancy. The intervention is a program for couples based on motivational interviewing delivered over the phone after birth. The study is an ongoing randomized controlled trial of 250 Romanian women recruited soon after childbirth, who quit smoking in the six months before pregnancy or no later than the end of the first pregnancy trimester and remained abstinent (which was biochemically verified) until delivery. Participants were randomized to: (1) a control arm (usual care); and (2) an intervention arm consisting of up to 4 postnatal counseling calls for mothers and their partners using motivational interviewing to encourage the woman to remain smoke-free and the partner to support her decision. The primary outcome is maternal smoking abstinence at 6 months postpartum (biochemically verified). PRISM has the potential to identify strategies to reduce maternal postnatal relapse and increase partner quitting. If successful, the program may be an effective method to prevent and reduce smoking, which may lead to improved child, mother, and partner health both in the short and the long term. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A Fully Automated Diabetes Prevention Program, Alive-PD: Program Design and Randomized Controlled Trial Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Gladys; Azar, Kristen Mj; Block, Torin J; Romanelli, Robert J; Carpenter, Heather; Hopkins, Donald; Palaniappan, Latha; Block, Clifford H

    2015-01-21

    In the United States, 86 million adults have pre-diabetes. Evidence-based interventions that are both cost effective and widely scalable are needed to prevent diabetes. Our goal was to develop a fully automated diabetes prevention program and determine its effectiveness in a randomized controlled trial. Subjects with verified pre-diabetes were recruited to participate in a trial of the effectiveness of Alive-PD, a newly developed, 1-year, fully automated behavior change program delivered by email and Web. The program involves weekly tailored goal-setting, team-based and individual challenges, gamification, and other opportunities for interaction. An accompanying mobile phone app supports goal-setting and activity planning. For the trial, participants were randomized by computer algorithm to start the program immediately or after a 6-month delay. The primary outcome measures are change in HbA1c and fasting glucose from baseline to 6 months. The secondary outcome measures are change in HbA1c, glucose, lipids, body mass index (BMI), weight, waist circumference, and blood pressure at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Randomization and delivery of the intervention are independent of clinic staff, who are blinded to treatment assignment. Outcomes will be evaluated for the intention-to-treat and per-protocol populations. A total of 340 subjects with pre-diabetes were randomized to the intervention (n=164) or delayed-entry control group (n=176). Baseline characteristics were as follows: mean age 55 (SD 8.9); mean BMI 31.1 (SD 4.3); male 68.5%; mean fasting glucose 109.9 (SD 8.4) mg/dL; and mean HbA1c 5.6 (SD 0.3)%. Data collection and analysis are in progress. We hypothesize that participants in the intervention group will achieve statistically significant reductions in fasting glucose and HbA1c as compared to the control group at 6 months post baseline. The randomized trial will provide rigorous evidence regarding the efficacy of this Web- and Internet-based program in reducing or

  1. Healthy School, Happy School: Design and Protocol for a Randomized Clinical Trial Designed to Prevent Weight Gain in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Schneid Schuh

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Schools have become a key figure for the promotion of health and obesity interventions, bringing the development of critical awareness to the construction and promotion of a healthy diet, physical activity, and the monitoring of the nutritional status in childhood and adolescence. Objectives: To describe a study protocol to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention designed to improve knowledge of food choices in the school environment. Methods: This is a cluster-randomized, parallel, two-arm study conducted in public elementary and middle schools in Brazil. Participants will be children and adolescents between the ages of 5 and 15 years, from both genders. The interventions will be focusing on changes in lifestyle, physical activities and nutritional education. Intervention activities will occur monthly in the school’s multimedia room or sports court. The control group arm will receive usual recommendations by the school. The primary outcome variable will be anthropometric measures, such as body mass index percentiles and levels of physical activity by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Results: We expect that after the study children will increase the ingestion of fresh food, reduce excessive consumption of sugary and processed foods, and reduce the hours of sedentary activities. Conclusion: The purpose of starting the dietary intervention at this stage of life is to develop a knowledge that will enable for healthy choices, providing opportunities for a better future for this population.

  2. Methodological and Design Considerations in Evaluating the Impact of Prevention Programs on Violence and Related Health Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massetti, Greta M; Simon, Thomas R; Smith, Deborah Gorman

    2016-10-01

    Drawing on research that has identified specific predictors and trajectories of risk for violence and related negative outcomes, a multitude of small- and large-scale preventive interventions for specific risk behaviors have been developed, implemented, and evaluated. One of the principal challenges of these approaches is that a number of separate problem-specific programs targeting different risk areas have emerged. However, as many negative health behaviors such as substance abuse and violence share a multitude of risk factors, many programs target identical risk factors. There are opportunities to understand whether evidence-based programs can be leveraged for potential effects across a spectrum of outcomes and over time. Some recent work has documented longitudinal effects of evidence-based interventions on generalized outcomes. This work has potential for advancing our understanding of the effectiveness of promising and evidence-based prevention strategies. However, conducting longitudinal follow-up of established interventions presents a number of methodological and design challenges. To answer some of these questions, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention convened a panel of multidisciplinary experts to discuss opportunities to take advantage of evaluations of early prevention programs and evaluating multiple long-term outcomes. This special section of the journal Prevention Science includes a series of papers that begin to address the relevant considerations for conducting longitudinal follow-up evaluation research. This collection of papers is intended to inform our understanding of the challenges and strategies for conducting longitudinal follow-up evaluation research that could be used to drive future research endeavors.

  3. Definition and Means of Maintaining the Criticality Prevention Design Features Portion of the PFP Safety Envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RAMBLE, A.L.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to record the technical evaluation of the Operational Safety Requirements described in the Plutonium Finishing Plant Final (PFP) Operational Safety Requirements, WHC-SD-CP-OSR-010. Rev. 0-N , Section 3.1.1, ''Criticality Prevention System.'' This document, with its appendices, provides the following: (1) The results of a review of Criticality Safety Analysis Reports (CSAR), later called Criticality Safety Evaluation Reports (CSER), and Criticality Prevention Specifications (CPS) to determine which equipment or components analyzed in the CSER or CPS are considered as one of the two unlikely, independent, and concurrent changes before a criticality accident is possible. (2) Evaluations of equipment or components to determine the safety boundary for the system (Section 4). (3) A list of essential drawings that show the safety system or component (Appendix A). (4) A list of the safety envelope (SE) equipment (Appendix B). (5) Functional requirements for the individual safety envelope equipment (Sections 3 and 4). (6) A list of the operational and surveillance procedures necessary to maintain the system equipment within the safety envelope (Section 5)

  4. Assessment of severe accident prevention and mitigation features: PWR, large dry containment design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, K.R.; Hsu, C.J.; Lehner, J.R.; Luckas, W.J.; Cho, N.; Fitzpatrick, R.G.; Pratt, W.T.; Eltawila, F.; Maly, J.A.

    1988-07-01

    Plant features and operator actions which have been found to be important in either preventing or mitigating severe accidents in PWRs with large dry containments have been identified. These features and actions were developed from insights derived from reviews of risk assessments performed specifically for the Zion plant and from assessments of other relevant studies. Accident sequences that dominate the core-damage frequency and those accident sequences that are of potentially high consequence were identified. Vulnerabilities of the large dry containment to severe accident containment loads were also identified. In addition, those features of a PWR with a large dry containment, which are important for preventing core damage and are available for mitigating fission-product release to the environment were identified. The report is issued to provide focus to the analyst examining an individual plant. The report calls attention to plant features and operator actions and provides a list of deterministic tributes for assessing those features and actions found to be helpful in reducing the overall risk for Zion and other PWRs with large dry containments. Thus, the guidance is offered as a resource in examining the subject plant to determine if the same, or similar, plant features and operator actions will be of value in reducing overall plant risk. This report is intended to serve solely as guidance

  5. Assessment of severe accident prevention and mitigation features: PWR, ice-condenser containment design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, C.J.; Perkins, K.R.; Luckas, W.J.; Fitzpatrick, R.G.; Cho, N.; Lehner, J.R.; Pratt, W.T.; Eltawila, F.; Maly, J.A.

    1988-07-01

    Plant features and operator actions which have been found to be important in either preventing and mitigating severe accidents in PWRs with ice-condenser containments have been identified. Thus features and actions were developed from insights derived from reviews of risk assessments performed specifically for the Sequoyah plant and from assessments of other relevant studies. Accident sequences that dominate the core-damage frequency and those accident sequences that are of potentially high consequence were identified. Vulnerabilities of the ice-condenser containment to sever accident containment loads were also identified. In addition, those features of a PWR with an ice-condenser containment, which are important for preventing core damage and are available for mitigating fission-product release to the environment were identified. This report is issued to provide focus to an analyst examining an individual plant. The report calls attention to plant features and operator actions and provides a list of deterministic attributes for assessing those features and actions found to be helpful in reducing the overall risk for Sequoyah and other PWRs with ice-condenser containments. Thus, the guidance is offered as a resource in examining the subject plant to determine if the same, or similar, plant features and operator actions will be of value in reducing overall plant risk. This report is intended to serve solely as guidance. 14 tabs

  6. Assessment of severe accident prevention and mitigation features: BWR, Mark II containment design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehner, J.R.; Hsu, C.J.; Eltawila, F.; Perkins, K.R.; Luckas, W.J.; Fitzpatrick, R.G.; Pratt, W.T.

    1988-07-01

    Plant features and operator actions, which have been found to be important in either preventing or mitigating severe accidents in BWRs with Mark II containments (BWR Mark II's) have been identified. These features and actions were developed from insights derived from reviews of in-depth risk assessments performed specifically for the Limerick and Shoreham plants and from other relevant studies. Accident sequences that dominate the core-damage frequency and those accident sequences that are of potentially high consequence were identified. Vulnerabilities of the BWR Mark II to severe-accident containment loads were also noted. In addition, those features of a BWR Mark II, which are important for preventing core damage and are available for mitigating fission-product release to the environment were also identified. This report is issued to provide focus to an analyst examining an individual plant. This report calls attention to plant features and operator actions and provides a list of deterministic attributes for assessing those features and actions found to be helpful in reducing the overall risk for Mark II plants. Thus, the guidance is offered as a resource in examining the subject plant to determine if the same, or similar, plant features and operator actions will be of value in reducing overall plant risk. This report is intended to serve solely as guidance

  7. Assessment of Evaluation Frameworks for Design of a Sexual Risk Prevention Game for Black Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sockolow, Paulina; Joppa, Meredith; Zhu, Jichen

    2018-01-01

    Adolescent sexual risk behavior (SRB), a major public health problem affects urban Black adolescent girls increasing their health disparities and risks for sexually transmitted infections. Collaborating with these adolescents, we designed a game for smartphones that incorporates elements of trauma-informed care and social cognitive theory to reduce SRB. Game researchers promote use of a comprehensive, multipurpose framework for development and evaluation of games for health applications. Our first game development step was framework selection and measurable health outcomes identification. Literature search identified two health game frameworks, both incorporating pedagogical theory, learning theory, and gaming requirements. Arnab used the IM + LM-GM framework to develop and implement a game in a school intervention program. Yusoff's framework was developed for use during game design. We investigated concordance and discordance between our SRB game design characteristics and each framework's components. Findings indicated Arnab's framework was sufficiently comprehensive to guide development of our game and outcome measure selection.

  8. MMI design of K-CPS for preventing human errors and enhancing convenient operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Chan Ho; Jung, Yeon Sub; Oh, Eoung Se; Shin, Young Chul; Lee, Yong Kwan

    2001-01-01

    In order to supplement defects of paper procedure, reduce human errors and enhance convenient operation, computer-based procedure system is being developed. CPS (Computerized Procedure System) including human-factor engineering design concept for KNGR (Korean Next Generation Reactor) has been also developed with the same object. K-CPS(KNGR CPS) has higher level of automation than paper procedure. It is fully integrated with control and monitoring systems. Combining statements and relevant components, which changes dynamically according to plant status enhances readability of procedure. This paper shows general design criteria on computer-based procedure system, the MMI design characteristics of K-CPS and the results of suitability evaluation for K-CPS by operator

  9. In vitro results of flexible light-emitting antimicrobial bandage designed for prevention of surgical site infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Mitchell; Sharan, Riti; Galbadage, Thushara; Sule, Preeti; Smith, Robert; Lovelady, April; Cirillo, Jeffrey D.; Glowczwski, Alan; Maitland, Kristen C.

    2018-02-01

    Surgical site infections (SSIs) are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality and a significant expense to the healthcare system and hospitals. The majority of these infections are preventable; however, increasing bacterial resistance, biofilm persistence, and human error contribute to the occurrence of these healthcare-associated infections. We present a flexible antimicrobial blue-light emitting bandage designed for use on postoperative incisions and wounds. The photonic device is designed to inactivate bacteria present on the skin and prevent bacterial colonization of the site, thus reducing the occurrence of SSIs. This antimicrobial light emitting bandage uses blue light's proven abilities to inactivate a wide range of clinical pathogens regardless of their resistance to antibiotics, inactivate bacteria without harming mammalian cells, improve wound healing, and inactivate bacteria in biofilms. The antimicrobial bandage consists of a thin 2"x2" silicone sheet with an array of 77 LEDs embedded in multiple layers of the material for thermal management. The 405 nm center wavelength LED array is designed to be a wearable device that integrates with standard hospital infection prevention protocols. The device was characterized for irradiance of 44.5 mW/cm2. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus seeded in a petri dish was used to evaluate bacterial inactivation in vitro. Starting with a concentration of 2.16 x 107 colony forming units (CFU)/mL, 45% of the bacteria was inactivated within 15 minutes, 65% had been inactivated by 30 minutes, 99% was inactivated by 60 minutes, and a 7 log reduction and complete sterilization was achieved within 120 minutes.

  10. Antifouling coatings: recent developments in the design of surfaces that prevent fouling by proteins, bacteria, and marine organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Indrani; Pangule, Ravindra C.; Kane, Ravi S. [Howard P. Isermann Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Ricketts Building, Troy, NY 12180 (United States)

    2011-02-08

    The major strategies for designing surfaces that prevent fouling due to proteins, bacteria, and marine organisms are reviewed. Biofouling is of great concern in numerous applications ranging from biosensors to biomedical implants and devices, and from food packaging to industrial and marine equipment. The two major approaches to combat surface fouling are based on either preventing biofoulants from attaching or degrading them. One of the key strategies for imparting adhesion resistance involves the functionalization of surfaces with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) or oligo(ethylene glycol). Several alternatives to PEG-based coatings have also been designed over the past decade. While protein-resistant coatings may also resist bacterial attachment and subsequent biofilm formation, in order to overcome the fouling-mediated risk of bacterial infection it is highly desirable to design coatings that are bactericidal. Traditional techniques involve the design of coatings that release biocidal agents, including antibiotics, quaternary ammonium salts (QAS), and silver, into the surrounding aqueous environment. However, the emergence of antibiotic- and silver-resistant pathogenic strains has necessitated the development of alternative strategies. Therefore, other techniques based on the use of polycations, enzymes, nanomaterials, and photoactive agents are being investigated. With regard to marine antifouling coatings, restrictions on the use of biocide-releasing coatings have made the generation of nontoxic antifouling surfaces more important. While considerable progress has been made in the design of antifouling coatings, ongoing research in this area should result in the development of even better antifouling materials in the future. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. Swedish nuclear waste efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rydberg, J.

    1981-09-01

    After the introduction of a law prohibiting the start-up of any new nuclear power plant until the utility had shown that the waste produced by the plant could be taken care of in an absolutely safe way, the Swedish nuclear utilities in December 1976 embarked on the Nuclear Fuel Safety Project, which in November 1977 presented a first report, Handling of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Final Storage of Vitrified Waste (KBS-I), and in November 1978 a second report, Handling and Final Storage of Unreprocessed Spent Nuclear Fuel (KBS II). These summary reports were supported by 120 technical reports prepared by 450 experts. The project engaged 70 private and governmental institutions at a total cost of US $15 million. The KBS-I and KBS-II reports are summarized in this document, as are also continued waste research efforts carried out by KBS, SKBF, PRAV, ASEA and other Swedish organizations. The KBS reports describe all steps (except reprocessing) in handling chain from removal from a reactor of spent fuel elements until their radioactive waste products are finally disposed of, in canisters, in an underground granite depository. The KBS concept relies on engineered multibarrier systems in combination with final storage in thoroughly investigated stable geologic formations. This report also briefly describes other activities carried out by the nuclear industry, namely, the construction of a central storage facility for spent fuel elements (to be in operation by 1985), a repository for reactor waste (to be in operation by 1988), and an intermediate storage facility for vitrified high-level waste (to be in operation by 1990). The R and D activities are updated to September 1981

  12. Healthy School, Happy School: Design and Protocol for a Randomized Clinical Trial Designed to Prevent Weight Gain in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuh, Daniela Schneid; Goulart, Maíra Ribas; Barbiero, Sandra Mari; Sica, Caroline D'Azevedo; Borges, Raphael; Moraes, David William; Pellanda, Lucia Campos

    2017-06-01

    Schools have become a key figure for the promotion of health and obesity interventions, bringing the development of critical awareness to the construction and promotion of a healthy diet, physical activity, and the monitoring of the nutritional status in childhood and adolescence. To describe a study protocol to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention designed to improve knowledge of food choices in the school environment. This is a cluster-randomized, parallel, two-arm study conducted in public elementary and middle schools in Brazil. Participants will be children and adolescents between the ages of 5 and 15 years, from both genders. The interventions will be focusing on changes in lifestyle, physical activities and nutritional education. Intervention activities will occur monthly in the school's multimedia room or sports court. The control group arm will receive usual recommendations by the school. The primary outcome variable will be anthropometric measures, such as body mass index percentiles and levels of physical activity by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. We expect that after the study children will increase the ingestion of fresh food, reduce excessive consumption of sugary and processed foods, and reduce the hours of sedentary activities. The purpose of starting the dietary intervention at this stage of life is to develop a knowledge that will enable for healthy choices, providing opportunities for a better future for this population. As escolas tornaram-se essenciais para a promoção de saúde e de intervenções para obesidade, propiciando o desenvolvimento de consciência crítica para a construção e promoção de dieta saudável, atividade física e monitoramento do status nutricional na infância e adolescência. Descrever um protocolo de estudo para avaliar a eficiência de uma intervenção projetada para aprimorar o conhecimento sobre escolhas alimentares no ambiente escolar. Estudo clínico randomizado em cluster

  13. Steps in the design, development and formative evaluation of obesity prevention-related behavior change trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowski, Tom; Cerin, Ester; Baranowski, Janice

    2009-01-21

    Obesity prevention interventions through dietary and physical activity change have generally not been effective. Limitations on possible program effectiveness are herein identified at every step in the mediating variable model, a generic conceptual framework for understanding how interventions may promote behavior change. To minimize these problems, and thereby enhance likely intervention effectiveness, four sequential types of formative studies are proposed: targeted behavior validation, targeted mediator validation, intervention procedure validation, and pilot feasibility intervention. Implementing these studies would establish the relationships at each step in the mediating variable model, thereby maximizing the likelihood that an intervention would work and its effects would be detected. Building consensus among researchers, funding agencies, and journal editors on distinct intervention development studies should avoid identified limitations and move the field forward.

  14. Steps in the design, development and formative evaluation of obesity prevention-related behavior change trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baranowski Janice

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Obesity prevention interventions through dietary and physical activity change have generally not been effective. Limitations on possible program effectiveness are herein identified at every step in the mediating variable model, a generic conceptual framework for understanding how interventions may promote behavior change. To minimize these problems, and thereby enhance likely intervention effectiveness, four sequential types of formative studies are proposed: targeted behavior validation, targeted mediator validation, intervention procedure validation, and pilot feasibility intervention. Implementing these studies would establish the relationships at each step in the mediating variable model, thereby maximizing the likelihood that an intervention would work and its effects would be detected. Building consensus among researchers, funding agencies, and journal editors on distinct intervention development studies should avoid identified limitations and move the field forward.

  15. Improving educational achievement and anaemia of school children: design of a cluster randomised trial of school-based malaria prevention and enhanced literacy instruction in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halliday Katherine E

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improving the health of school-aged children can yield substantial benefits for cognitive development and educational achievement. However, there is limited experimental evidence on the benefits of school-based malaria prevention or how health interventions interact with other efforts to improve education quality. This study aims to evaluate the impact of school-based malaria prevention and enhanced literacy instruction on the health and educational achievement of school children in Kenya. Design A factorial, cluster randomised trial is being implemented in 101 government primary schools on the coast of Kenya. The interventions are (i intermittent screening and treatment of malaria in schools by public health workers and (ii training workshops and support for teachers to promote explicit and systematic literacy instruction. Schools are randomised to one of four groups: receiving either (i the malaria intervention alone; (ii the literacy intervention alone; (iii both interventions combined; or (iv control group where neither intervention is implemented. Children from classes 1 and 5 are randomly selected and followed up for 24 months. The primary outcomes are educational achievement and anaemia, the hypothesised mediating variables through which education is affected. Secondary outcomes include malaria parasitaemia, school attendance and school performance. A nested process evaluation, using semi-structured interviews, focus group discussion and a stakeholder analysis will investigate the community acceptability, feasibility and cost-effectiveness of the interventions. Discussion Across Africa, governments are committed to improve health and education of school-aged children, but seek clear policy and technical guidance as to the optimal approach to address malaria and improved literacy. This evaluation will be one of the first to simultaneously evaluate the impact of health and education interventions in the improvement of

  16. Quality-oriented efforts in IPD, - a framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    1998-01-01

    It is generally expected that modern quality efforts like TQM and ISO9000 should deliver a sufficient framework for quality efforts in industrial companies. Our findings in Danish industry shows a fragmented picture of islands of efforts and a weak understanding of basic quality concepts between...... designers. The paper propose a framework for quality efforts, illustrated by simple metaphors....

  17. Design of a multispecies probiotic mixture to prevent infectious complications in critically ill patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, H.M.; Niers, L.E.M.; Ridwan, B.U.; Koning, C.J.M.; Mulder, L.; Akkermans, L.M.A.; Rombouts, F.M.; Rijkers, G.T.

    2007-01-01

    Background & aims Although the potential for probiotics is investigated in an increasing variety of diseases, there is little or no consensus regarding the desired probiotic properties for a particular disease in question, nor about the final design of the probiotic. Specific strain selection

  18. Design of a multispecies probiotic mixture to prevent infectious complications in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmerman, Harro M; Niers, Laetitia E M; Ridwan, Ben U; Koning, Catherina J M; Mulder, Linda; Akkermans, Louis M A; Rombouts, Frans M; Rijkers, Ger T

    2007-08-01

    Although the potential for probiotics is investigated in an increasing variety of diseases, there is little or no consensus regarding the desired probiotic properties for a particular disease in question, nor about the final design of the probiotic. Specific strain selection procedures were undertaken to design a disease-specific multispecies probiotic. From a strain collection of 69 different lactic acid bacteria a primary selection was made of 14 strains belonging to different species showing superior survival in a simulated gastrointestinal environment. Functional tests like antimicrobial activity against a range of clinical isolates and cytokine inducing capacity in cultured human peripheral blood mononuclear cells were used to further identify potential strains. Specific strains inhibited growth of clinical isolates whereas others superiorly induced the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Based on functional tests and general criteria regarding probiotic design and safety, a selection of the following six strains was made (Ecologic 641); Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium infantis, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus salivarius and Lactococcus lactis. Combination of these strains resulted in a wider antimicrobial spectrum, superior induction of IL-10 and silencing of pro-inflammatory cytokines as compared to the individual components. Application of strict criteria during the design of a disease-specific probiotic prior to implementation in clinical trials may provide a rational basis for use of probiotics.

  19. Experiencing an Epidemic: A Seminar Designed To Explore the Spread and Prevention of the AIDS Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochlin, Joyce T.

    A seminar was designed to present AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) related information to 52 college students enrolled in Psychology 101 courses at Essex Community College in Maryland. First, a questionnaire was administered to determine student knowledge about AIDS. The next part of the procedure was an intervention in the form of a…

  20. Design of the Dutch prevention of influenza, surveillance and management (PRISMA) study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hak, E; van Loon, S; Buskens, E; van Essen, G A; de Bakker, D; Tacken, M A J B; van Hout, B A; Grobbee, D E; Verheij, Th J M

    2003-01-01

    Rationale and design of a study on the cost-effectiveness of the Dutch influenza vaccination campaign are described. During two influenza epidemics, about 75,000 primary care patients recommended for influenza vaccination are included. Cases have fatal or non-fatal influenza, pneumonia, otitis

  1. SIGMA without effort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagedorn, R.; Reinfelds, J.

    1978-01-01

    SIGMA (System for Interactive Graphical Analysis) is an interactive computing language with automatic array handling and graphical facilities. It is designed as a tool for mathematical problem solving. The SIGMA language is simple, almost obvious, yet flexible and powerful. This tutorial introduces the beginner to SIGMA. It is supposed to be used at a graphics terminal having access to SIGMA. The user will learn the language in dialogue with the system in sixteen sessions of about one hour. The first session enables him already to compute and display functions of one or two variables. (Auth.)

  2. Top event prevention in complex systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youngblood, R.W.; Worrell, R.B.

    1995-01-01

    A key step in formulating a regulatory basis for licensing complex and potentially hazardous facilities is identification of a collection of design elements that is necessary and sufficient to achieve the desired level of protection of the public, the workers, and the environment. Here, such a collection of design elements will be called a ''prevention set.'' At the design stage, identifying a prevention set helps to determine what elements to include in the final design. Separately, a prevention-set argument could be used to limit the scope of regulatory oversight to a subset of design elements. This step can be taken during initial review of a design, or later as part of an effort to justify relief from regulatory requirements that are burdensome but provide little risk reduction. This paper presents a systematic approach to the problem of optimally choosing a prevention set

  3. How to Design Tobacco Prevention and Control Games for Youth and Adolescents: A Qualitative Analysis of Expert Interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Amanda K; Mercado, Rebeccah; Anderson-Lewis, Charkarra; Darville, Gabrielle; Bernhardt, Jay M

    2015-12-01

    Games for health, including digital videogames and gaming-based approaches, are increasingly being used in health promotion research and practice. Recently published research has shown that videogames have significant potential to promote healthy behaviors among youth and adolescents. Yet, there is a lack of available evidence-based resources to guide practitioners on the integration of games into tobacco prevention and smoking cessation interventions. To address this gap, expert researchers and game developers were interviewed to further define games for health, explore the current research, and provide recommendations for developing, evaluating, and promoting effective anti-tobacco games. Nationally recognized experts on game development, games for health, tobacco, and health behavior were asked to participate. A qualitative analysis of 25 in-depth individual interviews using a constant comparative approach for emerging themes was conducted. Main themes that emerged from the data analysis included the following: (1) the current state of games for health research to facilitate health behavior change, (2) strategies for how to develop and evaluate games for quality and impact, and (3) recommendations for how to effectively design tobacco prevention and smoking cessation educational videogames that engage youth and adolescents. The synthesized findings identified through these expert interviews offer stakeholders strategies for how to incorporate games for health within their current and future work. Specific recommendations are presented for developers and researchers to consider when developing and evaluating videogames for tobacco prevention and smoking cessation targeted at youth and adolescents.

  4. Autogenic-Feedback Training (AFT) as a preventive method for space motion sickness: Background and experimental design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowings, Patricia S.; Toscano, William B.

    1993-01-01

    Finding an effective treatment for the motion sickness-like symptoms that occur in space has become a high priority for NASA. The background research is reviewed and the experimental design of a formal life sciences shuttle flight experiment designed to prevent space motion sickness in shuttle crew members is presented. This experiment utilizes a behavioral medicine approach to solving this problem. This method, Autogenic-Feedback Training (AFT), involves training subjects to voluntarily control several of their own physiological responses to environmental stressors. AFT has been used reliably to increase tolerance to motion sickness during ground-based tests in over 200 men and women under a variety of conditions that induce motion sickness, and preliminary evidence from space suggests that AFT may be an effective treatment for space motion sickness as well. Proposed changes to this experiment for future manifests are included.

  5. Using Sibling Designs to Understand Neurodevelopmental Disorders: From Genes and Environments to Prevention Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Wade, Mark; Prime, Heather; Madigan, Sheri

    2015-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental disorders represent a broad class of childhood neurological conditions that have a significant bearing on the wellbeing of children, families, and communities. In this review, we draw on evidence from two common and widely studied neurodevelopmental disorders—autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)—to demonstrate the utility of genetically informed sibling designs in uncovering the nature and pathogenesis of these conditions. Speci...

  6. Experimental validation of the design method to prevent flow-induced vibration in high Reynolds-number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Takaaki; Yamaguchi, Akira; Morisita, Masaki; Iwata, Koji

    1998-08-01

    The incident of sodium leakage from a main pipe of the secondary heat transport system of Monju fast breeder reactor was caused by the failure of a thermometer well. 'Flow-induced vibration design guide for thermometer wells' (express as 'design guide') was proposed by PNC Working Group to prevent the same cause of the sodium leak incident in future. On this report, applicability of the 'design guide' was estimated to plant conditions in high Reynolds-number(approximately 3x10 5 ∼ 3x10 6 ) involving the supercritical region, by measured data on a vortex synchronized vibration and a turbulence induced vibration. Experiments were performed for cylindrical and taper shaped types of test pieces. As results, reduced velocity (Vr) at onsets of the inline synchronized vibration were evaluated to be grater than 1.0 in the range of experimental conditions. Fluctuating drag and lift coefficients, which were evaluated from power spectrum of turbulence for Vr < 1.0 condition, were 0.01 ∼ 0.05 for drag direction and 0.04 ∼ 0.13 for lift direction. The fluctuating drag and lift coefficients used in the 'design guide' were estimated to be conservative by comparison with these data. Correlation lengths for a cylinder and a taper shaped one in the high Reynolds-number region were estimated to be 1.6 times of the diameter(D) in the maximum case. The measured value of correlation length is enough smaller than the 'design guide' value of 3.0D. Displacement amplitudes of test pieces for Vr < 1.0 conditions were enough smaller (fives times) than calculated values based on the 'design guide'. Consequently, the applicability of the design guide' was confirmed in the range of experiments involving the super critical Reynolds-number region. (author)

  7. The Effort Paradox: Effort Is Both Costly and Valued.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inzlicht, Michael; Shenhav, Amitai; Olivola, Christopher Y

    2018-04-01

    According to prominent models in cognitive psychology, neuroscience, and economics, effort (be it physical or mental) is costly: when given a choice, humans and non-human animals alike tend to avoid effort. Here, we suggest that the opposite is also true and review extensive evidence that effort can also add value. Not only can the same outcomes be more rewarding if we apply more (not less) effort, sometimes we select options precisely because they require effort. Given the increasing recognition of effort's role in motivation, cognitive control, and value-based decision-making, considering this neglected side of effort will not only improve formal computational models, but also provide clues about how to promote sustained mental effort across time. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Breckinridge Project, initial effort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    Report IV, Volume 4, provides descriptions, data, and drawings pertaining to the Gas Plant (Plant 7). The Gas Plant (Plant 7) receives feed gas streams from various process plants. The Gas Plant compresses, treats, and fractionates the gas streams into intermediate and final products. The following information is included for the plant described in this volume: a description of the plant's process design, including the utility balance, catalysts and chemicals usage, and process flow diagrams; an equipment list, including item numbers and descriptions; data sheets and sketches for major plant components; and pertinent engineering drawings. An appendix contains: an overall site plan showing the locations of all plants; and the symbols and legend for the piping and instrument diagrams included in this volume.

  9. Breckinridge Project, initial effort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    Report IV, Volume 7 provides descriptions, data, and drawings pertaining to the Oxygen Plant (Plant 15) and Naphtha Hydrotreating and Reforming (Plant 18). The Oxygen Plant (Plant 15) utilizes low-pressure air separation to manufacture the oxygen required in Gasification and Purification (Plant 12). The Oxygen Plant also supplies nitrogen as needed by the H-COAL process. Naphtha Hydrotreating and Reforming (Plant 18) upgrades the raw H-COAL naphtha. The following information is provided for both plants described in this volume: a description of the plant's process design, including the utility balance, catalysts and chemicals usage, and process flow diagrams; an equipment list including item numbers and descriptions; data sheets and sketches for major plant components (Oxygen Plant only); and pertinent engineering drawings. An appendix contains: an overall site plan showing the locations of all plants; and the symbols and legend for the piping and instrument diagrams included in this volume.

  10. Prevention and treatment of chronic catarrhal gingivitis and gingival recession in patients with non-removable dental prosthesis designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Анатолій Михайлович Петрушанко

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Schemes of prevention and treatment of chronic catarrhal gingivitis and gingival recession in patients with non-removable dental prosthesis designs. It is proved their clinical effectiveness and evaluation criteria of developed gum recession land. After application of preventive and therapeutic complexes, which observed in patients, improve the hygienic condition of the mouth, confirming the feasibility of their application.Methods. It is included 153 patients with various defects of individual teeth and dentition, including 85 women (55.6% and 68 men (44.4% aged from 25 to 55 years. The control group consisted of 35 healthy individuals of the same age without metallic inclusions in the mouth.Results. In analyzing the evaluation index hygienic condition of the oral cavity in patients 25-34 years of gingivitis against the backdrop of orthopedic treatment non-removable denture constructions the indices Green-Vermillion and Silness-Loe following data were obtained: patients of the main group before treatment, the rate Green Vermillion index was an average of 1,70 ± 0,07 points to 1,75 ± 0,08 points, indicating a satisfactory level of oral hygiene. After application of preventive and therapeutic complexes improve the hygienic condition of the oral cavity, which marked the studied index indicators hygiene.Analyzing the data should be noted that positive changes of hygienic condition of the oral cavity were observed throughout the study period in all age groups of patients in both subgroups of observation and comparison.Conclusions. We offer health care systems for the prevention and treatment of gum recession and chronic catarrhal gingivitis in patients after dental prosthetics of non-replaceable constructs allowed to suspend pathological processes in the gums and improve oral hygiene

  11. Barriers to healthy-lifestyle participation in stroke: consumer participation in secondary prevention design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, Olive C; Doody, Catherine; Ni Choisdealbh, Cliodhna; Blake, Catherine

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the study was to explore community-dwelling stroke patients' perceived barriers to healthy-lifestyle participation for secondary disease prevention, as well as their preferred means for risk-reduction information dissemination and motivators to participation in healthy-lifestyle interventions. Four focus groups (5-6 stroke survivors per group) were defined from community support groups. Key questions addressed barriers to healthy-lifestyle adoption, preferred methods for receiving information and factors that would engage participants in a risk-reduction programme. Groups were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim and analysed for thematic content using a framework approach. Twenty-two participants, 12 men, 10 women, mean age 71.4 (53-87) years, were included in the study. Three overarching themes emerged as barriers to healthy-lifestyle participation: physical, mental and environmental. Exercise participation difficulties spread across all three themes; healthy eating and smoking cessation concentrated in environmental and mental dimensions. Talks (discussions) were noted as participants' preferred method of information provision. Risk-reduction programmes considered attractive were stroke specific, convenient and delivered by healthcare professionals and involved both social and exercise components. Many stroke patients appear unable to adopt healthy-lifestyle changes through advice alone because of physical, mental and environmental barriers. Risk-reduction programmes including interactive education should be specifically tailored to address barriers currently experienced and extend beyond the stroke survivor to others in their environment who influence lifestyle choices.

  12. Designing Health Information Technology Tools to Prevent Gaps in Public Health Insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jennifer D; Harding, Rose L; DeVoe, Jennifer E; Gold, Rachel; Angier, Heather; Sumic, Aleksandra; Nelson, Christine A; Likumahuwa-Ackman, Sonja; Cohen, Deborah J

    2017-06-23

    Changes in health insurance policies have increased coverage opportunities, but enrollees are required to annually reapply for benefits which, if not managed appropriately, can lead to insurance gaps. Electronic health records (EHRs) can automate processes for assisting patients with health insurance enrollment and re-enrollment. We describe community health centers' (CHC) workflow, documentation, and tracking needs for assisting families with insurance application processes, and the health information technology (IT) tool components that were developed to meet those needs. We conducted a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews and observation of clinic operations and insurance application assistance processes. Data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. We diagramed workflows and shared information with a team of developers who built the EHR-based tools. Four steps to the insurance assistance workflow were common among CHCs: 1) Identifying patients for public health insurance application assistance; 2) Completing and submitting the public health insurance application when clinic staff met with patients to collect requisite information and helped them apply for benefits; 3) Tracking public health insurance approval to monitor for decisions; and 4) assisting with annual health insurance reapplication. We developed EHR-based tools to support clinical staff with each of these steps. CHCs are uniquely positioned to help patients and families with public health insurance applications. CHCs have invested in staff to assist patients with insurance applications and help prevent coverage gaps. To best assist patients and to foster efficiency, EHR based insurance tools need comprehensive, timely, and accurate health insurance information.

  13. Safety design/analysis and scenario for prevention of CDA with ECCS in lead-bismuth-cooled fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minoru, Takahashi; Vaclav, Dostal; Abu Khalid, Rivai; Novitrian; Yumi, Yamada

    2007-01-01

    Safety design has been developed to show safety feature of Pb-Bi-cooled direct contact boiling water small fast reactor (PBWFR). The core is designed to have negative void reactivity even if the entire core and upper plenum are voided by steam intrusion from above. In-vessel type control rod driving mechanisms are used to prevent control rods from accidental ejection due to high pressure in the reactor vessel. In cases of coolant leakage from reactor vessel and feed water pipes, Pb-Bi coolant level in the reactor vessel is kept at the required level for decay heat removal by means of closed type guard vessel. Dual pipes are adopted to avoid leak of water in the feedwater system. Pump trip in feedwater systems initiates loss of coolant flow (LOF) event, although there is no concern of loss of flow accident due to primary pump trip. Injection of high pressure water slows down the flow-coast-down of feedwater at the LOF event. It has been evaluated that the fuel temperature is kept lower than safety limits at the unprotected loss of flow and heat sink (ATWS). A scenario for prevention of the core disruptive accident (CDA) with the emergency core cooling system (ECCS) is examined. The reactor becomes super-critical when the reactor vessel is filled with water. It is necessary to use water with boric acid for the ECC system, and additional backup rods for sub-critical core in water injection. (authors)

  14. Design and Evaluation of Ergonomic Interventions for the Prevention of Musculoskeletal Disorders in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Improper workstation, work procedures and tools are found to be the risk factors for the development of musculoskeletal disorders among the informal sector workers of the developing countries. Low cost ergonomic interventions can effectively improve such adverse conditions. Case presentation In the present article some studies related to design interventions in different informal and agricultural sectors were discussed and their efficacies were analyzed. It was observed that with the help of appropriate interventions musculoskeletal disorders were reduced, adverse physiological conditions were improved when awkward postures were corrected and ultimately the organisational productivity was increased. Conclusion Proper implementation of ergonomic interventions can ultimately improve the economy of the nation. PMID:25009740

  15. Breckinridge Project, initial effort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    Report IV, Volume 6 provides descriptions, data, and drawings pertaining to Gasification and Purification (Plant 12). Gasification and Purification (Plant 12) produces makeup hydrogen for H-COAL Preheating and Reaction (Plant 3), and produces a medium Btu fuel gas for consumption in fired heaters. The following information is included: a description of the plant's process design, including the utility balance, catalysts and chemicals usage, and a process flow diagram; an equipment list, including item numbers and descriptions; data sheets and sketches for major plant components; and pertinent engineering drawings. An appendix contains: an overall site plan showing the locations of all plants; and the symbols and legend for the piping and instrument diagrams included in this volume. Gasification and Purification (Plant 12) utilizes process technology from three licensors: gasification of vacuum bottoms using the Texaco process, shift conversion using the Haldor Topsoe process, and purification of fuel gas and shifted gas using the Allied Chemical Selexol process. This licensed technology is proprietary in nature. As a result, this volume does not contain full disclosure of these processes although a maximum of information has been presented consistent with the confidentiality requirements. Where data appears incomplete in this volume, it is due to the above described limitations. Full data concerning this plant are available for DOE review at the Houston offices of Bechtel Petroleum, Inc.

  16. Breckinridge Project, initial effort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    Report IV, Volume 5, provides descriptions, data, and drawings pertaining to Cryogenic Hydrogen Purification (Plant 8), Sour Water Treating (Plant 9), and the Sulfur Plant (Plant 10). Cryogenic Hydrogen Purification (Plant 8) purifies the purge gas stream from the Gas Plant (Plant 7, described in Report IV, Volume 4) to a 93% purity hydrogen product. Sour Water Treating (Plant 9) removes free ammonia and acid gases from sour water and separates them to recover a high quality anhydrous ammonia product. The Sulfur Plant (Plant 10) recovers, as a saleable liquid product, approximately 95% of the sulfur in feed streams from the Gas Plant (Plant 7, described in Report IV, Volume 4), Sour Water Treating (Plant 9), Gasification and Purification (Plant 12, described in Report IV, Volume 6), and Stack Gas Scrubbing (Plant 35, described in Report V, Volume 3). The following information is included for each of the three plants described in this volume: a description of the plant's process design, including the utility balance, catalysts and chemicals usage, and a process flow diagram; an equipment list, including item numbers and descriptions; data sheets and sketches for major plant components; and pertinent engineering drawings. An appendix contains: an overall site plan showing the locations of all plants; and the symbols and legend for the piping and instrument diagrams included in this volume.

  17. Breckinridge Project, initial effort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    The project cogeneration plant supplies electric power, process steam and treated boiler feedwater for use by the project plants. The plant consists of multiple turbine generators and steam generators connected to a common main steam header. The major plant systems which are required to produce steam, electrical power and treated feedwater are discussed individually. The systems are: steam, steam generator, steam generator fuel, condensate and feedwater deaeration, condensate and blowdown collection, cooling water, boiler feedwater treatment, coal handling, ash handling (fly ash and bottom ash), electrical, and control system. The plant description is based on the Phase Zero design basis established for Plant 31 in July of 1980 and the steam/condensate balance as presented on Drawing 31-E-B-1. Updating of steam requirements as more refined process information becomes available has generated some changes in the steam balance. Boiler operation with these updated requirements is reflected on Drawing 31-D-B-1A. The major impact of updating has been that less 600 psig steam generated within the process units requires more extraction steam from the turbine generators to close the 600 psig steam balance. Since the 900 psig steam generation from the boilers was fixed at 1,200,000 lb/hr, the additional extraction steam required to close the 600 psig steam balance decreased the quantity of electrical power available from the turbine generators. In the next phase of engineering work, the production of 600 psig steam will be augmented by increasing convection bank steam generation in the Plant 3 fired heaters by 140,000 to 150,000 lb/hr. This modification will allow full rated power generation from the turbine generators.

  18. Breckinridge Project, initial effort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    Report IV, Volume 3, provides descriptions, data, and drawings pertaining to H-COAL Recycle Slurry Preparation (Plant 5), H-COAL Recycle Hydrogen Compression (Plant 6), and H-COAL Distillate Separation (Plant 17). H-COAL Recycle Slurry Preparation (Plant 5) receives a slurry stream from H-COAL Primary Separation (Plant 4), and then pumps the slurry through hydrocyclones, producing two slurry streams. One, dilute in solids is recycled back to the reactor. The other, concentrated in solids, is further processed to recover liquid products and is then transferred to Gasification and Purification (Plant 12). H-COAL Recycle Hydrogen Compression (Plant 6) compresses and recycles back to the reactor system hydrogen-rich vapor from H-COAL Primary Separation (Plant 4). This recycling maintains a hydrogen partial pressure and gas flow through the reactor vessel. H-COAL Distillate Separation (Plant 17) processes products from H-COAL Primary Separation (Plant 4) and H-COAL Recycle Slurry Preparation to produce light naphtha for the Gas Plant (Plant 7), middle and heavy distillates for tank farms, and heavy naphtha for Naphtha Hydrotreating and Reforming (Plant 18). The following information is included for each of the three plants: a description of the plant's process design, including the utility balance, heat and material balance (if applicable), and a process flow diagram; an equipment list, including item numbers and descriptions; data sheets and sketches for major plant components; and pertinent engineering drawings. An appendix contains: an overall site plan showing the locations of all plants; and the symbols and legend for the piping and instrument diagrams included in this volume.

  19. Designing Anti-Binge Drinking Prevention Messages: Message Framing vs. Evidence Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hannah; Lee, Moon J

    2017-09-27

    We investigated whether presenting anti-binge drinking health campaign messages in different message framing and evidence types influences college students' intention to avoid binge drinking, based on prospect theory (PT) and exemplification theory. A 2 (message framing: loss-framed message/gain-framed message) X 2 (evidence type: statistical/narrative) between-subjects factorial design with a control group was conducted with 156 college students. College students who were exposed to the loss-framed message condition exhibited a higher level of intention to avoid binge drinking in the near future than those who did not see any messages (the control group). This finding was mainly among non-binge drinkers. Regardless of evidence type, those who were exposed to the messages exhibited a higher level of intention to avoid binge drinking than those in the control group. This is also mainly among non-binge drinkers. We also found the main effects of message framing and evidence type on attitude toward the message and the main effect of message framing on attitude toward drinking.

  20. Message Design and Audience Engagement with Tobacco Prevention Posts on Social Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strekalova, Yulia A; Damiani, Rachel E

    2018-06-01

    Understanding the appropriate medium to communicate health promotion messages is vital for improving personal and societal health. As increasingly more people utilize social media for health information, public health practitioners use these platforms to engage an existing audience in health promotion messages. In this study, the relational framing theory was used as a lens for studying how message framing may influence social media audience engagement. Specifically, we assessed how posts from Tobacco Free Florida's Facebook page were framed as either dominant-submissive or affiliate-disaffiliate to an implied audience of either smokers, nonsmokers, active quitters, or a mixed audience, and the extent to which a direct call for engagement, in terms of a request to comment, like, or share the post, was used for audience engagement. A three-way interaction for the level of engagement through comments was significant, F(3217) = 7.11, p social media. Implied audiences of Tobacco Free Florida's posts included smokers, those who are trying to quit, and nonsmokers as health promotion can be targeted at the individual's health, social support infrastructure, or the well-being of the society, and implications for strategic message design and audience targeting are discussed.

  1. Development of a Preventive HIV Vaccine Requires Solving Inverse Problems Which Is Unattainable by Rational Vaccine Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc H. V. Van Regenmortel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypotheses and theories are essential constituents of the scientific method. Many vaccinologists are unaware that the problems they try to solve are mostly inverse problems that consist in imagining what could bring about a desired outcome. An inverse problem starts with the result and tries to guess what are the multiple causes that could have produced it. Compared to the usual direct scientific problems that start with the causes and derive or calculate the results using deductive reasoning and known mechanisms, solving an inverse problem uses a less reliable inductive approach and requires the development of a theoretical model that may have different solutions or none at all. Unsuccessful attempts to solve inverse problems in HIV vaccinology by reductionist methods, systems biology and structure-based reverse vaccinology are described. The popular strategy known as rational vaccine design is unable to solve the multiple inverse problems faced by HIV vaccine developers. The term “rational” is derived from “rational drug design” which uses the 3D structure of a biological target for designing molecules that will selectively bind to it and inhibit its biological activity. In vaccine design, however, the word “rational” simply means that the investigator is concentrating on parts of the system for which molecular information is available. The economist and Nobel laureate Herbert Simon introduced the concept of “bounded rationality” to explain why the complexity of the world economic system makes it impossible, for instance, to predict an event like the financial crash of 2007–2008. Humans always operate under unavoidable constraints such as insufficient information, a limited capacity to process huge amounts of data and a limited amount of time available to reach a decision. Such limitations always prevent us from achieving the complete understanding and optimization of a complex system that would be needed to achieve a truly

  2. Apixaban for the Secondary Prevention of Thrombosis Among Patients With Antiphospholipid Syndrome: Study Rationale and Design (ASTRO-APS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woller, Scott C; Stevens, Scott M; Kaplan, David A; Branch, D Ware; Aston, Valerie T; Wilson, Emily L; Gallo, Heather M; Johnson, Eric G; Rondina, Matthew T; Lloyd, James F; Evans, R Scott; Elliott, C Gregory

    2016-04-01

    Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an acquired thrombophilia characterized by thrombosis, pregnancy morbidity, and the presence of characteristic antibodies. Current therapy for patients having APS with a history of thrombosis necessitates anticoagulation with the vitamin K antagonist warfarin, a challenging drug to manage. Apixaban, approved for the treatment and prevention of venous thrombosis with a low rate of bleeding observed, has never been studied among patients with APS. We report study rationale and design of Apixaban for the Secondary Prevention of Thrombosis Among Patients With Antiphospholipid Syndrome (ASTRO-APS), a prospective randomized open-label blinded event pilot study that will randomize patients with a clinical diagnosis of APS receiving therapeutic anticoagulation to either adjusted-dose warfarin or apixaban 2.5 mg twice a day. We aim to report our ability to identify, recruit, randomize, and retain patients with APS randomized to apixaban compared with warfarin. We will report clinically important outcomes of thrombosis and bleeding. All clinical outcomes will be adjudicated by a panel blinded to the treatment arm. A unique aspect of this study is the enrollment of patients with an established clinical diagnosis of APS. Also unique is our use of electronic medical record interrogation techniques to identify patients who would likely meet our inclusion criteria and use of an electronic portal for follow-up visit data capture. ASTRO-APS will be the largest prospective study to date comparing a direct oral anticoagulant with warfarin among patients with APS for the secondary prevention of thrombosis. Our inclusion criteria assure that outcomes obtained will be clinically applicable to the routine management of patients with APS receiving indefinite anticoagulation. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Internet-based prevention of posttraumatic stress symptoms in injured trauma patients: design of a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Mouthaan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Injured trauma victims are at risk of developing Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD and other post-trauma psychopathology. So far, interventions using cognitive behavioral techniques (CBT have proven most efficacious in treating early PTSD in highly symptomatic individuals. No early intervention for the prevention of PTSD for all victims has yet proven effective. In the acute psychosocial care for trauma victims, there is a clear need for easily applicable, accessible, cost-efficient early interventions. Objective: To describe the design of a randomized controlled trial (RCT evaluating the effectiveness of a brief Internet-based early intervention that incorporates CBT techniques with the aim of reducing acute psychological distress and preventing long-term PTSD symptoms in injured trauma victims. Method: In a two armed RCT, 300 injured trauma victims from two Level-1 trauma centers in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, will be assigned to an intervention or a control group. Inclusion criteria are: being 18 years of age or older, having experienced a traumatic event according to the diagnostic criteria of the DSM-IV and understanding the Dutch language. The intervention group will be given access to the intervention's website (www.traumatips.nl, and are specifically requested to login within the first month postinjury. The primary clinical study outcome is PTSD symptom severity. Secondary outcomes include symptoms of depression and anxiety, quality of life, and social support. In addition, a cost-effectiveness analysis of the intervention will be performed. Data are collected at one week post-injury, prior to first login (baseline, and at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months. Analyses will be on an intention-to-treat basis. Discussion: The results will provide more insight into the effects of preventive interventions in general, and Internet-based early interventions specifically, on acute stress reactions and PTSD, in an injured population, during the

  4. Engendering healthy masculinities to prevent sexual violence: Rationale for and design of the Manhood 2.0 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abebe, Kaleab Z; Jones, Kelley A; Culyba, Alison J; Feliz, Nayck B; Anderson, Heather; Torres, Irving; Zelazny, Sarah; Bamwine, Patricia; Boateng, Adwoa; Cirba, Benjamin; Detchon, Autumn; Devine, Danielle; Feinstein, Zoe; Macak, Justin; Massof, Michael; Miller-Walfish, Summer; Morrow, Sarah Elizabeth; Mulbah, Paul; Mulwa, Zabi; Paglisotti, Taylor; Ripper, Lisa; Ports, Katie A; Matjasko, Jennifer L; Garg, Aapta; Kato-Wallace, Jane; Pulerwitz, Julie; Miller, Elizabeth

    2018-05-23

    Violence against women and girls is an important global health concern. Numerous health organizations highlight engaging men and boys in preventing violence against women as a potentially impactful public health prevention strategy. Adapted from an international setting for use in the US, "Manhood 2.0" is a "gender transformative" program that involves challenging harmful gender and sexuality norms that foster violence against women while promoting bystander intervention (i.e., giving boys skills to interrupt abusive behaviors they witness among peers) to reduce the perpetration of sexual violence (SV) and adolescent relationship abuse (ARA). Manhood 2.0 is being rigorously evaluated in a community-based cluster-randomized trial in 21 lower resource Pittsburgh neighborhoods with 866 adolescent males ages 13-19. The comparison intervention is a job readiness training program which focuses on the skills needed to prepare youth for entering the workforce, including goal setting, accountability, resume building, and interview preparation. This study will provide urgently needed information about the effectiveness of a gender transformative program, which combines healthy sexuality education, gender norms change, and bystander skills to interrupt peers' disrespectful and harmful behaviors to reduce SV/ARA perpetration among adolescent males. In this manuscript, we outline the rationale for and evaluation design of Manhood 2.0. Clinical Trials #: NCT02427061. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. On-line pressurizer surveillance system design to prevent small break LOCA through PORV using micro-computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong-Ho; Chang, Soon-Heung

    1986-01-01

    Small break LOCA caused by a stuck-open PORV is one of the important contributors to nuclear power plant risk. This paper deals with the design of a pressurizer surveillance system using micro-computer to prevent the malfunction of system and has assessed the effect of this improvement through Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) method. Micro-computer diagnoses the malfunction of system by a process checking method and performs automatically backup action related to each malfunction. Owing to this improvement, we can correctly diagnose ''Spurious Opening'', ''Fail to Reclose'' and ''Small break LOCA'' which are difficult for operator to diagnose quickly and correctly and reduce the probability of a human error by an automatic backup action. (author)

  6. Road traffic crashes and risk groups in India: Analysis, interpretations, and prevention strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj V. Ponnaluri

    2012-03-01

    Recommended prevention strategies include: developing a road accident recording system and an access management policy; integrating safety into corridor design and road construction; undertaking capacity-building efforts; and expanding emergency response services.

  7. Response to Intervention and Continuous School Improvement: How to Design, Implement, Monitor, and Evaluate a School-Wide Prevention System, 2nd Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Victoria L.; Hébert, Connie L.

    2017-01-01

    Experts Bernhardt and Hébert's latest book demonstrates strategies to ensure your entire staff works together to design, implement, monitor, and evaluate a schoolwide prevention system with integrity and fidelity. Each step in this important resource is designed to help administrators, teachers, and other educators improve the learning of every…

  8. Community-based participatory research to design a faith-enhanced diabetes prevention program: The Better Me Within randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitzman, Heather; Dodgen, Leilani; Mamun, Abdullah; Slater, J Lee; King, George; Slater, Donna; King, Alene; Mandapati, Surendra; DeHaven, Mark

    2017-11-01

    Reducing obesity positively impacts diabetes and cardiovascular risk; however, evidence-based lifestyle programs, such as the diabetes prevention program (DPP), show reduced effectiveness in African American (AA) women. In addition to an attenuated response to lifestyle programs, AA women also demonstrate high rates of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. To address these disparities, enhancements to evidence-based lifestyle programs for AA women need to be developed and evaluated with culturally relevant and rigorous study designs. This study describes a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach to design a novel faith-enhancement to the DPP for AA women. A long-standing CBPR partnership designed the faith-enhancement from focus group data (N=64 AA adults) integrating five components: a brief pastor led sermon, memory verse, in class or take-home faith activity, promises to remember, and scripture and prayer integrated into participant curriculum and facilitator materials. The faith components were specifically linked to weekly DPP learning objectives to strategically emphasize behavioral skills with religious principles. Using a CBPR approach, the Better Me Within trial was able to enroll 12 churches, screen 333 AA women, and randomize 221 (M age =48.8±11.2; M BMI =36.7±8.4; 52% technical or high school) after collection of objective eligibility measures. A prospective, randomized, nested by church, design will be used to evaluate the faith-enhanced DPP as compared to a standard DPP on weight, diabetes and cardiovascular risk, over a 16-week intervention and 10-month follow up. This study will provide essential data to guide enhancements to evidence-based lifestyle programs for AA women who are at high risk for chronic disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Cognitive effort: A neuroeconomic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braver, Todd S.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive effort has been implicated in numerous theories regarding normal and aberrant behavior and the physiological response to engagement with demanding tasks. Yet, despite broad interest, no unifying, operational definition of cognitive effort itself has been proposed. Here, we argue that the most intuitive and epistemologically valuable treatment is in terms of effort-based decision-making, and advocate a neuroeconomics-focused research strategy. We first outline psychological and neuroscientific theories of cognitive effort. Then we describe the benefits of a neuroeconomic research strategy, highlighting how it affords greater inferential traction than do traditional markers of cognitive effort, including self-reports and physiologic markers of autonomic arousal. Finally, we sketch a future series of studies that can leverage the full potential of the neuroeconomic approach toward understanding the cognitive and neural mechanisms that give rise to phenomenal, subjective cognitive effort. PMID:25673005

  10. [Limitation of the therapeutic effort].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreros, B; Palacios, G; Pacho, E

    2012-03-01

    The limitation of the therapeutic effort (LTE) consists in not applying extraordinary or disproportionate measures for therapeutic purposes that are proposed for a patient with poor life prognosis and/or poor quality of life. There are two types. The first is to not initiate certain measures or to withdraw them when they are established. A decision of the LTE should be based on some rigorous criteria, so that we make the following proposal. First, it is necessary to know the most relevant details of the case to make a decision: the preferences of the patient, the preferences of the family when pertinent, the prognosis (severity), the quality of life and distribution of the limited resources. After, the decision should be made. In this phase, participatory deliberation should be established to clarify the end of the intervention. Finally, if it is decided to perform an LTE, it should be decided how to do it. Special procedures, disproportionate measures, that are useless and vain should not be initiated for the therapeutic objective designed (withdraw them if they have been established). When it has been decided to treat a condition (interim measures), the treatment should be maintained. This complex phase may need stratification of he measures. Finally, the necessary palliative measures should be established. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  11. Instruction Emphasizing Effort Improves Physics Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Daoquan

    2012-01-01

    Effectively using strategies to solve complex problems is an important educational goal and is implicated in successful academic performance. However, people often do not spontaneously use the effective strategies unless they are motivated to do so. The present study was designed to test whether educating students about the importance of effort in…

  12. Effort - Final technical report on task 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Henningsen, Poul; Eriksen, Morten

    The present report is documentation for the work carried out at DTU on the Brite/Euram project No. BE96-3340, contract No. BRPR-CT97-0398, with the title Enhanced Framework for forging design using reliable three-dimensional simulation (EFFORTS). The objective of task 3 is to determine data...

  13. Design and implementation of a field pilot study on using coal fly ash to prevent oxidation of reactive mine tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H.L.; Shang, J.Q.; Xu, Y.Q.; Yanful, E.K. [Western Ontario Univ., London, ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Hmidi, N. [Goldcorp Inc., Musselwhite Mine, Thunder Bay, ON (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This paper reported on a pilot scale study that investigated the feasibility of using coal fly ash in mine tailings management and acid mine drainage (AMD) treatment at Goldcorp's Musselwhite Mine site in northern Ontario. The principles and key aspects of the fly ash application in mine tailings management were described. Fly ash from the Atikokan coal-fired power generating plant was added to the Musselwhite tailings as a mixture as well as intermediate and top layers. The physical, chemical and hydrogeological effects of the two approaches were monitored. The paper provided details of the design, implementation, monitoring, sampling and testing over 2 years. The objectives were to evaluate the optimum mass ratio of coal fly ash and mine tailings, effectiveness in reducing the infiltration of precipitation, and projected long-term durability and performance on tailings oxidation prevention. The pilot study was designed based on the principles of cementitious materials formation and secondary mineral formation by the reactions of coal fly ash and water/AMD. Calcium oxide, aluminum oxide, silicon oxide, and ferric oxide are major components of coal fly ash. The preliminary test results revealed that water did not accumulate and cracks did not form on top of 4 tanks. The settlements of the mixing approaches were lower than that of the stratified approach and the temperature distributions in the 4 tanks were comparable. 9 refs., 3 tabs., 11 figs.

  14. Design and implementation of a field pilot study on using coal fly ash to prevent oxidation of reactive mine tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, H.L.; Shang, J.Q.; Xu, Y.Q.; Yanful, E.K.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reported on a pilot scale study that investigated the feasibility of using coal fly ash in mine tailings management and acid mine drainage (AMD) treatment at Goldcorp's Musselwhite Mine site in northern Ontario. The principles and key aspects of the fly ash application in mine tailings management were described. Fly ash from the Atikokan coal-fired power generating plant was added to the Musselwhite tailings as a mixture as well as intermediate and top layers. The physical, chemical and hydrogeological effects of the two approaches were monitored. The paper provided details of the design, implementation, monitoring, sampling and testing over 2 years. The objectives were to evaluate the optimum mass ratio of coal fly ash and mine tailings, effectiveness in reducing the infiltration of precipitation, and projected long-term durability and performance on tailings oxidation prevention. The pilot study was designed based on the principles of cementitious materials formation and secondary mineral formation by the reactions of coal fly ash and water/AMD. Calcium oxide, aluminum oxide, silicon oxide, and ferric oxide are major components of coal fly ash. The preliminary test results revealed that water did not accumulate and cracks did not form on top of 4 tanks. The settlements of the mixing approaches were lower than that of the stratified approach and the temperature distributions in the 4 tanks were comparable. 9 refs., 3 tabs., 11 figs.

  15. OPREVENT2: Design of a multi-institutional intervention for obesity control and prevention for American Indian adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Gittelsohn

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity and other nutrition-related chronic disease rates are high in American Indian (AI populations, and an urgent need exists to identify evidence-based strategies for prevention and treatment. Multi-level, multi-component (MLMC interventions are needed, but there are significant knowledge gaps on how to deliver these types of interventions in low-income rural AI communities. Methods OPREVENT2 is a MLMC intervention targeting AI adults living in six rural reservations in New Mexico and Wisconsin. Aiming to prevent and reduce obesity in adults by working at multiple levels of the food and physical activity (PA environments, OPREVENT2 focuses on evidence-based strategies known to increase access to, demand for, and consumption of healthier foods and beverages, and increase worksite and home-based opportunities for PA. OPREVENT2 works to create systems-level change by partnering with tribal stakeholders, multiple levels of the food and PA environment (food stores, worksites, schools, and the social environment (children as change agents, families, social media. Extensive evaluation will be conducted at each level of the intervention to assess effectiveness via process and impact measures. Discussion Novel aspects of OPREVENT2 include: active engagement with stakeholders at many levels (policy, institutional, and at multiple levels of the food and PA system; use of community-based strategies to engage policymakers and other key stakeholders (community workshops, action committees; emphasis on both the built environment (intervening with retail food sources and the social environment. This paper describes the design of the intervention and the evaluation plan of the OPREVENT2. Trial registration Clinical Trial Registration: NCT02803853 (June 10, 2016

  16. OPREVENT2: Design of a multi-institutional intervention for obesity control and prevention for American Indian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittelsohn, Joel; Jock, Brittany; Redmond, Leslie; Fleischhacker, Sheila; Eckmann, Thomas; Bleich, Sara N; Loh, Hong; Ogburn, Elizabeth; Gadhoke, Preety; Swartz, Jacqueline; Pardilla, Marla; Caballero, Benjamin

    2017-01-23

    Obesity and other nutrition-related chronic disease rates are high in American Indian (AI) populations, and an urgent need exists to identify evidence-based strategies for prevention and treatment. Multi-level, multi-component (MLMC) interventions are needed, but there are significant knowledge gaps on how to deliver these types of interventions in low-income rural AI communities. OPREVENT2 is a MLMC intervention targeting AI adults living in six rural reservations in New Mexico and Wisconsin. Aiming to prevent and reduce obesity in adults by working at multiple levels of the food and physical activity (PA) environments, OPREVENT2 focuses on evidence-based strategies known to increase access to, demand for, and consumption of healthier foods and beverages, and increase worksite and home-based opportunities for PA. OPREVENT2 works to create systems-level change by partnering with tribal stakeholders, multiple levels of the food and PA environment (food stores, worksites, schools), and the social environment (children as change agents, families, social media). Extensive evaluation will be conducted at each level of the intervention to assess effectiveness via process and impact measures. Novel aspects of OPREVENT2 include: active engagement with stakeholders at many levels (policy, institutional, and at multiple levels of the food and PA system); use of community-based strategies to engage policymakers and other key stakeholders (community workshops, action committees); emphasis on both the built environment (intervening with retail food sources) and the social environment. This paper describes the design of the intervention and the evaluation plan of the OPREVENT2. Clinical Trial Registration: NCT02803853 (June 10, 2016).

  17. Workstation Table Engineering Model Design, Development, Fabrication, and Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    This research effort is focused on providing a workstation table design that will reduce the risk of occupant injuries due to secondary impacts and to compartmentalize the occupants to prevent impacts with other objects and/or passengers seated acros...

  18. Preventing knee injuries in adolescent female football players – design of a cluster randomized controlled trial [NCT00894595

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldén Markus

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knee injuries in football are common regardless of age, gender or playing level, but adolescent females seem to have the highest risk. The consequences after severe knee injury, for example anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injury, are well-known, but less is known about knee injury prevention. We have designed a cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT to evaluate the effect of a warm-up program aimed at preventing acute knee injury in adolescent female football. Methods In this cluster randomized trial 516 teams (309 clusters in eight regional football districts in Sweden with female players aged 13–17 years were randomized into an intervention group (260 teams or a control group (256 teams. The teams in the intervention group were instructed to do a structured warm-up program at two training sessions per week throughout the 2009 competitive season (April to October and those in the control group were informed to train and play as usual. Sixty-eight sports physical therapists are assigned to the clubs to assist both groups in data collection and to examine the players' acute knee injuries during the study period. Three different forms are used in the trial: (1 baseline player data form collected at the start of the trial, (2 computer-based registration form collected every month, on which one of the coaches/team leaders documents individual player exposure, and (3 injury report form on which the study therapists report acute knee injuries resulting in time loss from training or match play. The primary outcome is the incidence of ACL injury and the secondary outcomes are the incidence of any acute knee injury (except contusion and incidence of severe knee injury (defined as injury resulting in absence of more than 4 weeks. Outcome measures are assessed after the end of the 2009 season. Discussion Prevention of knee injury is beneficial for players, clubs, insurance companies, and society. If the warm-up program is proven to

  19. Preventing knee injuries in adolescent female football players - design of a cluster randomized controlled trial [NCT00894595].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hägglund, Martin; Waldén, Markus; Atroshi, Isam

    2009-06-23

    Knee injuries in football are common regardless of age, gender or playing level, but adolescent females seem to have the highest risk. The consequences after severe knee injury, for example anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, are well-known, but less is known about knee injury prevention. We have designed a cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate the effect of a warm-up program aimed at preventing acute knee injury in adolescent female football. In this cluster randomized trial 516 teams (309 clusters) in eight regional football districts in Sweden with female players aged 13-17 years were randomized into an intervention group (260 teams) or a control group (256 teams). The teams in the intervention group were instructed to do a structured warm-up program at two training sessions per week throughout the 2009 competitive season (April to October) and those in the control group were informed to train and play as usual. Sixty-eight sports physical therapists are assigned to the clubs to assist both groups in data collection and to examine the players' acute knee injuries during the study period. Three different forms are used in the trial: (1) baseline player data form collected at the start of the trial, (2) computer-based registration form collected every month, on which one of the coaches/team leaders documents individual player exposure, and (3) injury report form on which the study therapists report acute knee injuries resulting in time loss from training or match play. The primary outcome is the incidence of ACL injury and the secondary outcomes are the incidence of any acute knee injury (except contusion) and incidence of severe knee injury (defined as injury resulting in absence of more than 4 weeks). Outcome measures are assessed after the end of the 2009 season. Prevention of knee injury is beneficial for players, clubs, insurance companies, and society. If the warm-up program is proven to be effective in reducing the incidence of knee

  20. Prevention of Gestational Diabetes: Design of a Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial and One-Year Follow-Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansikkamäki Kirsi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Annual prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is 12.5% among Finnish pregnant women. The prevalence is expected to rise with the increasing overweight among women before pregnancy. Physical activity and diet are both known to have favourable effects on insulin resistance and possibly on the risk of GDM. We aimed to investigate, whether GDM can be prevented by counseling on diet, physical activity and gestational weight gain during pregnancy. Methods/Design A cluster-randomized controlled trial was conducted in 14 municipalities in the southern part of Finland. Pairwise randomization was performed in order to take into account socioeconomic differences. Recruited women were at 8-12 weeks' gestation and fulfilled at least one of the following criteria: body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m2, history of earlier gestational glucose intolerance or macrosomic newborn (> 4500 g, age ≥ 40 years, first or second degree relative with history of type 1 or 2 diabetes. Main exclusion criterion was pathological oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT at 8-12 weeks' gestation. The trial included one counseling session on physical activity at 8-12 weeks' gestation and one for diet at 16-18 weeks' gestation, and three to four booster sessions during other routine visits. In the control clinics women received usual care. Information on height, weight gain and other gestational factors was obtained from maternity cards. Physical activity, dietary intake and quality of life were followed by questionnaires during pregnancy and at 1-year postpartum. Blood samples for lipid status, hormones, insulin and OGTT were taken at 8-12 and 26-28 weeks' gestation and 1 year postpartum. Workability and return to work were elicited by a questionnaire at 1- year postpartum. Linkage to the national birth register of years 2007-2009 will provide information on perinatal complications and GDM incidence among the non-participants of the study. Cost

  1. Multidisciplinary Efforts Driving Translational Theranostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tony Y.

    2014-01-01

    This themed issue summarizes significant efforts aimed at using “biological language” to discern between “friends” and “foes” in the context of theranostics for true clinical application. It is expected that the success of theranostics depends on multidisciplinary efforts, combined to expedite our understanding of host responses to “customized” theranostic agents and formulating individualized therapies. PMID:25285169

  2. Respiratory effort from the photoplethysmogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, Paul S

    2017-03-01

    The potential for a simple, non-invasive measure of respiratory effort based on the pulse oximeter signal - the photoplethysmogram or 'pleth' - was investigated in a pilot study. Several parameters were developed based on a variety of manifestations of respiratory effort in the signal, including modulation changes in amplitude, baseline, frequency and pulse transit times, as well as distinct baseline signal shifts. Thirteen candidate parameters were investigated using data from healthy volunteers. Each volunteer underwent a series of controlled respiratory effort maneuvers at various set flow resistances and respiratory rates. Six oximeter probes were tested at various body sites. In all, over three thousand pleth-based effort-airway pressure (EP) curves were generated across the various airway constrictions, respiratory efforts, respiratory rates, subjects, probe sites, and the candidate parameters considered. Regression analysis was performed to determine the existence of positive monotonic relationships between the respiratory effort parameters and resulting airway pressures. Six of the candidate parameters investigated exhibited a distinct positive relationship (poximeter probe and an ECG (P2E-Effort) and the other using two pulse oximeter probes placed at different peripheral body sites (P2-Effort); and baseline shifts in heart rate, (BL-HR-Effort). In conclusion, a clear monotonic relationship was found between several pleth-based parameters and imposed respiratory loadings at the mouth across a range of respiratory rates and flow constrictions. The results suggest that the pleth may provide a measure of changing upper airway dynamics indicative of the effort to breathe. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. A web-based computer-tailored smoking prevention programme for primary school children: intervention design and study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Although the number of smokers has declined in the last decade, smoking is still a major health problem among youngsters and adolescents. For this reason, there is a need for effective smoking prevention programmes targeting primary school children. A web-based computer-tailored feedback programme may be an effective intervention to stimulate youngsters not to start smoking, and increase their knowledge about the adverse effects of smoking and their attitudes and self-efficacy regarding non-smoking. Methods & design This paper describes the development and evaluation protocol of a web-based out-of-school smoking prevention programme for primary school children (age 10-13 years) entitled ‘Fun without Smokes’. It is a transformation of a postal mailed intervention to a web-based intervention. Besides this transformation the effects of prompts will be examined. This web-based intervention will be evaluated in a 2-year cluster randomised controlled trial (c-RCT) with three study arms. An intervention and intervention + prompt condition will be evaluated for effects on smoking behaviour, compared with a no information control condition. Information about pupils’ smoking status and other factors related to smoking will be obtained using a web-based questionnaire. After completing the questionnaire pupils in both intervention conditions will receive three computer-tailored feedback letters in their personal e-mail box. Attitudes, social influences and self-efficacy expectations will be the content of these personalised feedback letters. Pupils in the intervention + prompt condition will - in addition to the personalised feedback letters - receive e-mail and SMS messages prompting them to revisit the ‘Fun without Smokes’ website. The main outcome measures will be ever smoking and the utilisation of the ‘Fun without Smokes’ website. Measurements will be carried out at baseline, 12 months and 24 months of follow-up. Discussion The present study

  4. A web-based computer-tailored smoking prevention programme for primary school children: intervention design and study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cremers Henricus-Paul

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the number of smokers has declined in the last decade, smoking is still a major health problem among youngsters and adolescents. For this reason, there is a need for effective smoking prevention programmes targeting primary school children. A web-based computer-tailored feedback programme may be an effective intervention to stimulate youngsters not to start smoking, and increase their knowledge about the adverse effects of smoking and their attitudes and self-efficacy regarding non-smoking. Methods & design This paper describes the development and evaluation protocol of a web-based out-of-school smoking prevention programme for primary school children (age 10-13 years entitled ‘Fun without Smokes’. It is a transformation of a postal mailed intervention to a web-based intervention. Besides this transformation the effects of prompts will be examined. This web-based intervention will be evaluated in a 2-year cluster randomised controlled trial (c-RCT with three study arms. An intervention and intervention + prompt condition will be evaluated for effects on smoking behaviour, compared with a no information control condition. Information about pupils’ smoking status and other factors related to smoking will be obtained using a web-based questionnaire. After completing the questionnaire pupils in both intervention conditions will receive three computer-tailored feedback letters in their personal e-mail box. Attitudes, social influences and self-efficacy expectations will be the content of these personalised feedback letters. Pupils in the intervention + prompt condition will - in addition to the personalised feedback letters - receive e-mail and SMS messages prompting them to revisit the ‘Fun without Smokes’ website. The main outcome measures will be ever smoking and the utilisation of the ‘Fun without Smokes’ website. Measurements will be carried out at baseline, 12 months and 24 months of follow

  5. Summary of process research analysis efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    A summary of solar-cell process research analysis efforts was presented. Process design and cell design are interactive efforts where technology from integrated circuit processes and other processes are blended. The primary factors that control cell efficiency are: (1) the bulk parameters of the available sheet material, (2) the retention and enhancement of these bulk parameters, and (3) the cell design and the cost to produce versus the finished cells performance. The process sequences need to be tailored to be compatible with the sheet form, the cell shape form, and the processing equipment. New process options that require further evaluation and utilization are lasers, robotics, thermal pulse techniques, and new materials. There are numerous process control techniques that can be adapted and used that will improve product uniformity and reduced costs. Two factors that can lead to longer life modules are the use of solar cell diffusion barriers and improved encapsulation.

  6. Has Malaysia's antidrug effort been effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorzelli, J F

    1992-01-01

    It is a common belief that a massive effort in law enforcement, preventive education and rehabilitation will result in the elimination of a country's drug problem. Based on this premise. Malaysia in 1983 implemented such a multifaceted anti-drug strategy, and the results of a 1987 study by the author suggested that Malaysia's effort had begun to contribute to a steady decrease in the number of identified drug abusers. Although the number of drug-addicted individuals declined, the country's recidivism rates were still high. Because of this high relapse rate, Malaysia expanded their rehabilitation effort and developed a community transition program. In order to determine the impact of these changes on the country's battle against drug abuse, a follow-up study was conducted in 1990. The results of this study did not clearly demonstrate that the Malaysian effort had been successful in eliminating the problem of drug abuse, and raised some questions concerning the effectiveness of the country's drug treatment programs.

  7. Design of the Anti-tuberculosis Drugs induced Adverse Reactions in China National Tuberculosis Prevention and Control Scheme Study (ADACS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Ping

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background More than 1 million tuberculosis (TB patients are receiving the standard anti-TB treatment provided by China National Tuberculosis Prevention and Control Scheme (CNTS in China every year. Adverse reactions (ADRs induced by anti-TB drugs could both do harm to patients and lead to anti-TB treatment failure. The ADACS aimed to explore ADRs' incidences, prognoses, economical and public health impacts for TB patients and TB control, and build a DNA bank of TB patients. Methods/Design Multiple study designs were adopted. Firstly, a prospective cohort with 4488 sputum smears positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients was established. Patients were followed up for 6-9 months in 52 counties of four regions. Those suspected ADRs should be checked and confirmed by Chinese State Food and Drug Administration (SFDA. Secondly, if the suspected ADR was anti-TB drug induced liver injury (ATLI, a nested case-control study would be performed which comprised choosing a matched control and doing a plus questionnaire inquiry. Thirdly, health economical data of ADRs would be collected to analyze financial burdens brought by ADRs and cost-effectiveness of ADRs' treatments. Fourthly, a drop of intravenous blood for each patient was taken and saved in FTA card for DNA banking and genotyping. Finally, the demographic, clinical, environmental, administrative and genetic data would be merged for the comprehensive analysis. Discussion ADACS will give an overview of anti-TB drugs induced ADRs' incidences, risk factors, treatments, prognoses, and clinical, economical and public health impacts for TB patients applying CNTS regimen in China, and provide suggestions for individualized health care and TB control policy.

  8. Design of the Anti-tuberculosis Drugs induced Adverse Reactions in China National Tuberculosis Prevention and Control Scheme Study (ADACS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background More than 1 million tuberculosis (TB) patients are receiving the standard anti-TB treatment provided by China National Tuberculosis Prevention and Control Scheme (CNTS) in China every year. Adverse reactions (ADRs) induced by anti-TB drugs could both do harm to patients and lead to anti-TB treatment failure. The ADACS aimed to explore ADRs' incidences, prognoses, economical and public health impacts for TB patients and TB control, and build a DNA bank of TB patients. Methods/Design Multiple study designs were adopted. Firstly, a prospective cohort with 4488 sputum smears positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients was established. Patients were followed up for 6-9 months in 52 counties of four regions. Those suspected ADRs should be checked and confirmed by Chinese State Food and Drug Administration (SFDA). Secondly, if the suspected ADR was anti-TB drug induced liver injury (ATLI), a nested case-control study would be performed which comprised choosing a matched control and doing a plus questionnaire inquiry. Thirdly, health economical data of ADRs would be collected to analyze financial burdens brought by ADRs and cost-effectiveness of ADRs' treatments. Fourthly, a drop of intravenous blood for each patient was taken and saved in FTA card for DNA banking and genotyping. Finally, the demographic, clinical, environmental, administrative and genetic data would be merged for the comprehensive analysis. Discussion ADACS will give an overview of anti-TB drugs induced ADRs' incidences, risk factors, treatments, prognoses, and clinical, economical and public health impacts for TB patients applying CNTS regimen in China, and provide suggestions for individualized health care and TB control policy. PMID:20492672

  9. Effort rights-based management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Squires, Dale; Maunder, Mark; Allen, Robin

    2017-01-01

    Effort rights-based fisheries management (RBM) is less widely used than catch rights, whether for groups or individuals. Because RBM on catch or effort necessarily requires a total allowable catch (TAC) or total allowable effort (TAE), RBM is discussed in conjunction with issues in assessing fish...... populations and providing TACs or TAEs. Both approaches have advantages and disadvantages, and there are trade-offs between the two approaches. In a narrow economic sense, catch rights are superior because of the type of incentives created, but once the costs of research to improve stock assessments...

  10. Childcare outdoor renovation as a built environment health promotion strategy: evaluating the preventing obesity by design intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosco, Nilda G; Moore, Robin C; Smith, William R

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of Preventing Obesity by Design (POD), a childcare center outdoor renovation intervention. Pre-post intervention evaluation. North Carolina licensed childcare centers (N = 27). Preschool children. Outdoor renovation, teacher training. Behavior mapping, Preschool Outdoor Environment Measurement Scale (POEMS), center director interview. Descriptive statistics, ordinary least squares and logistic regressions calculated to assess levels of association between environmental change, children's physical activity (PA), social behaviors, and environmental quality. Qualitative interview data analyzed to help understand intervention impact. Behavior mapping showed that site layout attributes, such as the form (i.e., "single loop" and "double loop") of pathways (functioning as circulation routes and wheeled toy settings), are associated with higher levels of PA. Teacher interaction was associated with decreased children's PA. Absence of teacher or lack of child/child interaction was associated with increased PA. POEMS assessment of environmental quality was higher after renovation. POEMS domains (Physical Space and Teacher/Caregiver Roles) were positively associated with PA. After renovation, 68% of center directors reported positive changes in children's behavior and 40% mentioned edible plant installations as greatest success. Built environment renovation of childcare center outdoors, including looped pathways installation, coupled with teacher training, may support increased PA. Renovation, including food gardens, may be a key to success for preschool health promotion and support change in childcare policy.

  11. Fire Risk Analysis and Optimization of Fire Prevention Management for Green Building Design and High Rise Buildings: Hong Kong Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yau Albert

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There are many iconic high rise buildings in Hong Kong, for example, International Commercial Centre, International Financial Centre, etc. Fire safety issue in high rise buildings has been raised by local fire professionals in terms of occupant evacuation, means of fire-fighting by fire fighters, sprinkler systems to automatically put off fires in buildings, etc. Fire risk becomes an important issue in building fire safety because it relates to life safety of building occupants where they live and work in high rise buildings in Hong Kong. The aim of this research is to identify the fire risk for different types of high rise buildings in Hong Kong and to optimise the fire prevention management for those high rise buildings with higher level of fire risk and to validate the model and also to carry out the study of the conflict between the current fire safety building code and the current trend of green building design. Survey via the 7-point scale questionnaire was conducted through 50 participants and their responses were received and analysed via the statistical tool SPSS software computer program. A number of statistical methods of testing for significantly difference in samples were adopted to carry out the analysis of the data received. When the statistical analysis was completed, the results of the data analysis were validated by two Fire Safety Experts in this area of specialisation and also by quantitative fire risk analysis.

  12. Pilot study of a novel classroom designed to prevent myopia by increasing children's exposure to outdoor light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhongqiang; Chen, Tingting; Wang, Mengrui; Jin, Ling; Zhao, Yongyi; Chen, Shangji; Wang, Congyao; Zhang, Guoshan; Wang, Qilin; Deng, Qiaoming; Liu, Yubo; Morgan, Ian G; He, Mingguang; Liu, Yizhi; Congdon, Nathan

    2017-01-01

    We sought to assess light characteristics and user acceptability of a prototype Bright Classroom (BC), designed to prevent children's myopia by exposing them to light conditions resembling the outdoors. Conditions were measured throughout the school year in the glass-constructed BC, a traditional classroom (TC) and outdoors. Teachers and children completed user questionnaires, and children rated reading comfort at different light intensities. A total of 230 children (mean age 10.2 years, 57.4% boys) and 13 teachers (36.8 years, 15.4% men) completed questionnaires. The median (Inter Quartile Range) light intensity in the BC (2,540 [1,330-4,060] lux) was greater than the TC (477 [245-738] lux, P 500 [8,960-36,000] lux, P summer and on sunny days (>5,000 lux) was at the upper limit of children's comfort for reading. In summary, light intensity in the BC exceeds TC, and is at the practical upper limit for routine use. Children and teachers prefer the BC.

  13. Realizing the Potential of Adolescence to Prevent Transgenerational Conditioning of Noncommunicable Disease Risk: Multi-Sectoral Design Frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquie L. Bay

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Evidence from the field of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD demonstrates that early life environmental exposures impact later-life risk of non-communicable diseases (NCDs. This has revealed the transgenerational nature of NCD risk, thus demonstrating that interventions to improve environmental exposures during early life offer important potential for primary prevention of DOHaD-related NCDs. Based on this evidence, the prospect of multi-sectoral approaches to enable primary NCD risk reduction has been highlighted in major international reports. It is agreed that pregnancy, lactation and early childhood offer significant intervention opportunities. However, the importance of interventions that establish positive behaviors impacting nutritional and non-nutritional environmental exposures in the pre-conceptual period in both males and females, thus capturing the full potential of DOHaD, must not be overlooked. Adolescence, a period where life-long health-related behaviors are established, is therefore an important life-stage for DOHaD-informed intervention. DOHaD evidence underpinning this potential is well documented. However, there is a gap in the literature with respect to combined application of theoretical evidence from science, education and public health to inform intervention design. This paper addresses this gap, presenting a review of evidence informing theoretical frameworks for adolescent DOHaD interventions that is accessible collectively to all relevant sectors.

  14. Core Competencies for Injury and Violence Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens-Stidham, Shelli; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Bou-Saada, Ingrid; Hunter, Wanda; Lindemer, Kristen; Runyan, Carol

    2009-01-01

    Efforts to reduce the burden of injury and violence require a workforce that is knowledgeable and skilled in prevention. However, there has been no systematic process to ensure that professionals possess the necessary competencies. To address this deficiency, we developed a set of core competencies for public health practitioners in injury and violence prevention programs. The core competencies address domains including public health significance, data, the design and implementation of prevention activities, evaluation, program management, communication, stimulating change, and continuing education. Specific learning objectives establish goals for training in each domain. The competencies assist in efforts to reduce the burden of injury and violence and can provide benchmarks against which to assess progress in professional capacity for injury and violence prevention. PMID:19197083

  15. Concept of Household Waste in Environmental Pollution Prevention Efforts

    OpenAIRE

    Sunarsih, Elvi

    2014-01-01

    Background : Waste is materials that are not used anymore which is the rest of human activities result including household, industrial, and mining. At a certain concentration, the presence of the waste can have a negative impact on the environment and on human health, so we need a proper handling for the waste. Household waste is waste from the kitchen, bathroom, laundry, house hold waste and industrial former human waste. Household waste that is over and it is not overcome is very potential ...

  16. Informing pest prevention efforts through Sentinel Plant Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Botanic gardens with international collections provide a unique opportunity to help detect potential invasive threats to forest health. Nursery stock is well-recognized as a major pathway for the introduction of invasive insects and pathogens to native ecosystems. Plant health regulators need help knowing what pests attack host plants abroad so they can develop ways to...

  17. State wavering afflicts AIDS prevention efforts / Ilko Stoilov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Stoilov, Ilko

    2004-01-01

    Eksperdid Eesti aidsiennetuskeskusest leiavad, et valitsus keskendub liialt organisatsioonilistele küsimustele ning tegeleb liiga vähe aidsi ja narkomaania ennetustegevuse tõhustamisega. Kommentaarid aidsiennetuskeskuse endiselt juhatajalt Nelli Kalikovalt

  18. Prioritizing the School Environment in School Violence Prevention Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sarah Lindstrom; Burke, Jessica G.; Gielen, Andrea C.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Numerous studies have demonstrated an association between characteristics of the school environment and the likelihood of school violence. However, little is known about the relative importance of various characteristics of the school environment or their differential impact on multiple violence outcomes. Methods: Primarily…

  19. Pandemic Influenza: Domestic Preparedness Efforts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lister, Sarah A

    2005-01-01

    .... Though influenza pandemics occur with some regularity, and the United States has been involved in specific planning efforts since the early 1990s, the H5N1 situation has created a sense of urgency...

  20. Effort Estimation in BPMS Migration

    OpenAIRE

    Drews, Christopher; Lantow, Birger

    2018-01-01

    Usually Business Process Management Systems (BPMS) are highly integrated in the IT of organizations and are at the core of their business. Thus, migrating from one BPMS solution to another is not a common task. However, there are forces that are pushing organizations to perform this step, e.g. maintenance costs of legacy BPMS or the need for additional functionality. Before the actual migration, the risk and the effort must be evaluated. This work provides a framework for effort estimation re...

  1. Implications of design on infection prevention and control practice in a novel hospital unit: the Medical Ward of the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanSteelandt, Amanda; Conly, John; Ghali, William; Mather, Charles

    2015-01-01

    The physical design of hospital wards is associated with transmission of pathogenic organisms and hospital-acquired infections. A novel hospital unit, the Medical Ward of the 21st Century (W21C), optimizes features for infection prevention and control practices. Ethnographic research on the W21C versus conventional hospital wards examined the experiential and behavioural elements of the different designs. Three recurring themes emerged regarding the design features on the W21C and included visual cues, 'having a place for things', and less sharing of spaces and materials. Observational data of healthcare worker practices demonstrated significantly higher compliance with hand hygiene opportunities on the W21C compared with older hospital units. These findings suggest how the physical design of a hospital ward may enhance infection prevention and control practices.

  2. Effort in Multitasking: Local and Global Assessment of Effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiesel, Andrea; Dignath, David

    2017-01-01

    When performing multiple tasks in succession, self-organization of task order might be superior compared to external-controlled task schedules, because self-organization allows optimizing processing modes and thus reduces switch costs, and it increases commitment to task goals. However, self-organization is an additional executive control process that is not required if task order is externally specified and as such it is considered as time-consuming and effortful. To compare self-organized and externally controlled task scheduling, we suggest assessing global subjective and objectives measures of effort in addition to local performance measures. In our new experimental approach, we combined characteristics of dual tasking settings and task switching settings and compared local and global measures of effort in a condition with free choice of task sequence and a condition with cued task sequence. In a multi-tasking environment, participants chose the task order while the task requirement of the not-yet-performed task remained the same. This task preview allowed participants to work on the previously non-chosen items in parallel and resulted in faster responses and fewer errors in task switch trials than in task repetition trials. The free-choice group profited more from this task preview than the cued group when considering local performance measures. Nevertheless, the free-choice group invested more effort than the cued group when considering global measures. Thus, self-organization in task scheduling seems to be effortful even in conditions in which it is beneficiary for task processing. In a second experiment, we reduced the possibility of task preview for the not-yet-performed tasks in order to hinder efficient self-organization. Here neither local nor global measures revealed substantial differences between the free-choice and a cued task sequence condition. Based on the results of both experiments, we suggest that global assessment of effort in addition to

  3. Response to Intervention and Continuous School Improvement: Using Data, Vision, and Leadership to Design, Implement, and Evaluate a Schoolwide Prevention System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Victoria L.; Hebert, Connie L.

    2011-01-01

    Ensure the success of your school and improve the learning of "all" students by implementing Response-to-Intervention (RTI) as part of a continuous school improvement (CSI) process. This book shows you how to get your entire staff working together to design, implement, and evaluate a schoolwide prevention system. With specific examples, CSI expert…

  4. Some recent efforts toward high density implosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClellan, G.E.

    1980-01-01

    Some recent Livermore efforts towards achieving high-density implosions are presented. The implosion dynamics necessary to compress DT fuel to 10 to 100 times liquid density are discussed. Methods of diagnosing the maximum DT density for a specific design are presented along with results to date. The dynamics of the double-shelled target with an exploding outer shell are described, and some preliminary experimental results are presented

  5. Designing Skin Cancer Prevention Messages: Should We Emphasize Gains or Losses? Message Framing, Risk Type, and Prior Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moon J; Kang, Hannah

    2018-05-01

    To test whether message framing (ie, gain vs. loss) and risk type (ie, health vs appearance risk) in skin cancer prevention messages interact with one's prior experience. Two experiments with a 2 (message framing: gain vs loss) × 2 (risk type: health vs appearance risk) factorial design were conducted. The participants were given a URL to the experiment website via e-mail. On the first page of the website, the participants were told that they would be asked to evaluate a skin cancer print public service announcement (PSA): Online experiments. A total of 397 individuals participated (236 for experiment 1 and 161 for experiment 2). Apparatus: Four versions of the skin cancer print PSAs were developed. Four PSAs were identical except for the 2 manipulated components: message framing and risk type. Measures were adopted from Cho and Boster (message framing), Jones and Leary and Kiene et al. (risk type), De Vries, Mesters, van't Riet, Willems, and Reubsaet and Knight, Kirincich, Farmer, and Hood (prior experience), and Hammond, Fong, Zanna, Thrasher, and Borland and Hoffner and Ye (behavioral intent). General linear models were used to test hypotheses. Three-way interactions among message framing, risk type, and prior experience were found: When the intent of the message was to encourage sunscreen use, the effects of message framing and risk type were shown to be the exact opposite directions from when the intent was to discourage indoor/outdoor tanning. To discourage tanning among those with prior experience, messages emphasizing losses in terms of one's health will work better. For those with no prior experience, messages emphasizing potential appearance losses will work better for discouraging tanning while messages emphasizing gains like improving appearance will do a better job in encouraging sunscreen use.

  6. Fall prevention and safety communication training for foremen: report of a pilot project designed to improve residential construction safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaskutas, Vicki; Dale, Ann Marie; Lipscomb, Hester; Evanoff, Brad

    2013-02-01

    Falls from heights account for 64% of residential construction worker fatalities and 20% of missed work days. We hypothesized that worker safety would improve with foremen training in fall prevention and safety communication. Training priorities identified through foreman and apprentice focus groups and surveys were integrated into an 8-hour training. We piloted the training with ten foremen employed by a residential builder. Carpenter trainers contrasted proper methods to protect workers from falls with methods observed at the foremen's worksites. Trainers presented methods to deliver toolbox talks and safety messages. Results from worksite observational audits (n=29) and foremen/crewmember surveys (n=97) administered before and after training were compared. We found that inexperienced workers are exposed to many fall hazards that they are often not prepared to negotiate. Fall protection is used inconsistently and worksite mentorship is often inadequate. Foremen feel pressured to meet productivity demands and some are unsure of the fall protection requirements. After the training, the frequency of daily mentoring and toolbox talks increased, and these talks became more interactive and focused on hazardous daily work tasks. Foremen observed their worksites for fall hazards more often. We observed increased compliance with fall protection and decreased unsafe behaviors during worksite audits. Designing the training to meet both foremen's and crewmembers' needs ensured the training was learner-centered and contextually-relevant. This pilot suggests that training residential foremen can increase use of fall protection, improve safety behaviors, and enhance on-the-job training and safety communication at their worksites. Construction workers' training should target safety communication and mentoring skills with workers who will lead work crews. Interventions at multiple levels are necessary to increase safety compliance in residential construction and decrease falls

  7. Dopamine, behavioral economics, and effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D Salamone

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. There are numerous problems with the hypothesis that brain dopamine (DA systems, particularly in the nucleus accumbens, directly mediate the rewarding or primary motivational characteristics of natural stimuli such as food. Research and theory related to the functions of mesolimbic DA are undergoing a substantial conceptual restructuring, with the traditional emphasis on hedonia and primary reward yielding to other concepts and lines of inquiry. The present review is focused upon the involvement of nucleus accumbens DA in behavioral activation and effort-related processes. Viewed from the framework of behavioral economics, the effects of accumbens DA depletions and antagonism on food-reinforced behavior are highly dependent upon the work requirements of the instrumental task, and DA depleted rats are more sensitive to increases in response costs (i.e., ratio requirements. Moreover, interference with accumbens DA transmission exerts a powerful influence over effort-related choice behavior. Rats with accumbens DA depletions or antagonism reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks that have high response requirements, and instead these rats select a less-effortful type of food-seeking behavior. Nucleus accumbens DA and adenosine interact in the regulation of effort-related functions, and other brain structures (anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, ventral pallidum also are involved. Studies of the brain systems regulating effort-based processes may have implications for understanding drug abuse, as well as energy-related disorders such as psychomotor slowing, fatigue or anergia in depression and other neurological disorders.

  8. Maximum effort in the minimum-effort game

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Engelmann, Dirk; Normann, H.-T.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 3 (2010), s. 249-259 ISSN 1386-4157 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : minimum-effort game * coordination game * experiments * social capital Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.868, year: 2010

  9. Incorporating primary and secondary prevention approaches to address childhood obesity prevention and treatment in a low-income, ethnically diverse population

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is consensus that development and evaluation of a systems-oriented approach for child obesity prevention and treatment that includes both primary and secondary prevention efforts is needed. This article describes the study design and baseline data from the Texas Childhood Obesity Research Demo...

  10. Environmental Restoration Program pollution prevention performance measures for FY 1993 and 1994 remedial investigations: Generator training manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    This computer-based program is designed to help waste generators in the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program prevent pollution at the DOE Oak Ridge Field Office (DOE-OR) facilities in Oak Ridge, Paducah, and Portsmouth. The Numerical Scoring System (NSS) is an interactive system designed to maintain data on ER Program pollution prevention efforts and to measure the success of these efforts through the ER Program life cycle

  11. Environmental Restoration Program pollution prevention performance measures for FY 1993 and 1994 remedial investigations: Management training manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    This computer-based program is designed to help waste generators in the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program prevent pollution at the DOE Oak Ridge Field Office (DOE-OR) facilities in Oak Ridge, Paducah, and Portsmouth. The Numerical Scoring System (NSS) is an interactive system designed to maintain data on ER Program pollution prevention efforts and to measure the success of these efforts through the ER Program life cycle

  12. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.K. Morton

    2012-09-01

    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  13. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.K. Morton

    2011-09-01

    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  14. Effort Estimation in BPMS Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Drews

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Usually Business Process Management Systems (BPMS are highly integrated in the IT of organizations and are at the core of their business. Thus, migrating from one BPMS solution to another is not a common task. However, there are forces that are pushing organizations to perform this step, e.g. maintenance costs of legacy BPMS or the need for additional functionality. Before the actual migration, the risk and the effort must be evaluated. This work provides a framework for effort estimation regarding the technical aspects of BPMS migration. The framework provides questions for BPMS comparison and an effort evaluation schema. The applicability of the framework is evaluated based on a simplified BPMS migration scenario.

  15. Effort problem of chemical pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okrajni, J.; Ciesla, M.; Mutwil, K. [Silesian Technical University, Katowice (Poland)

    1998-12-31

    The problem of the technical state assessment of the chemical pipelines working under mechanical and thermal loading has been shown in the paper. The pipelines effort after the long time operating period has been analysed. Material geometrical and loading conditions of the crack initiation and crack growth process in the chosen object has been discussed. Areas of the maximal effort have been determined. The material structure charges after the long time operating period have been described. Mechanisms of the crack initiation and crack growth in the pipeline elements have been analysed and mutual relations between the chemical and mechanical influences have been shown. (orig.) 16 refs.

  16. Perspectives on the design of safer nanomaterials and manufacturing processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraci, Charles; Heidel, Donna; Sayes, Christie; Hodson, Laura; Schulte, Paul; Eastlake, Adrienne; Brenner, Sara

    2015-01-01

    A concerted effort is being made to insert Prevention through Design principles into discussions of sustainability, occupational safety and health, and green chemistry related to nanotechnology. Prevention through Design is a set of principles, which includes solutions to design out potential hazards in nanomanufacturing including the design of nanomaterials, and strategies to eliminate exposures and minimize risks that may be related to the manufacturing processes and equipment at various stages of the lifecycle of an engineered nanomaterial

  17. Perspectives on the design of safer nanomaterials and manufacturing processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geraci, Charles [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (United States); Heidel, Donna [Bureau Veritas North America, Inc. (United States); Sayes, Christie [Baylor University (United States); Hodson, Laura, E-mail: lhodson@cdc.gov; Schulte, Paul; Eastlake, Adrienne [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (United States); Brenner, Sara [Colleges of Nanoscale Science and Engineering at State University of New York Polytechnic Institute, (SUNY Poly) (United States)

    2015-09-15

    A concerted effort is being made to insert Prevention through Design principles into discussions of sustainability, occupational safety and health, and green chemistry related to nanotechnology. Prevention through Design is a set of principles, which includes solutions to design out potential hazards in nanomanufacturing including the design of nanomaterials, and strategies to eliminate exposures and minimize risks that may be related to the manufacturing processes and equipment at various stages of the lifecycle of an engineered nanomaterial.

  18. Pioneering efforts to control AIDS. Review: IHO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterji, A; Sehgal, K

    1995-01-01

    The Indian Health Organisation (IHO) is a nongovernmental organization based in Bombay with more than 12 years experience in HIV/AIDS prevention and control efforts. It has attacked ignorance and prejudice via communication efforts. IHO has created a bond with some hospital systems of Bombay. IHO disseminated information about HIV/AIDS in Bombay's red light districts and has bridged the gap between the city's medical establishment and the community most in need. IHO's aggressive street-level fighting in a sector replete with sensitive issues has somewhat isolated it from mainstream national NGOs involved in HIV/AIDS education and control as well as from the medical establishment and potential partners. IHO funds have been reduced, forcing IHO to reduce intervention programs and responses to field demands. It suffers from a high rate of turnover among middle management staff. IHO's chief advantage is its confidence gained over the past 12 years. IHO has clearly delineated the direction it wants to go: care and support programs for persons affected by HIV/AIDS and for commercial sex workers to allow them to quit prostitution, orphan care, and development of training institutions for the education and motivation of medical personnel on HIV/AIDS care and prevention. It plans to build a hospice for AIDS patients and orphans and a training center. Training activities will vary from one-week orientation programs to three-month certificate courses for medical workers, NGOs, and managers from the commercial sector. IHO is prepared to share its experiences in combating HIV/AIDS in Bombay in a team effort. As official and bilateral funding has been decreasing, IHO has targeted industry for funding. Industry has responded, which enables IHO to sustain its core programs and approaches. IHO observations show a decrease in the number of men visiting red-light districts. IHO enjoys a positive relationship with Bombay's media reporting on AIDS.

  19. Effort, anhedonia, and function in schizophrenia: reduced effort allocation predicts amotivation and functional impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barch, Deanna M; Treadway, Michael T; Schoen, Nathan

    2014-05-01

    One of the most debilitating aspects of schizophrenia is an apparent interest in or ability to exert effort for rewards. Such "negative symptoms" may prevent individuals from obtaining potentially beneficial outcomes in educational, occupational, or social domains. In animal models, dopamine abnormalities decrease willingness to work for rewards, implicating dopamine (DA) function as a candidate substrate for negative symptoms given that schizophrenia involves dysregulation of the dopamine system. We used the effort-expenditure for rewards task (EEfRT) to assess the degree to which individuals with schizophrenia were wiling to exert increased effort for either larger magnitude rewards or for rewards that were more probable. Fifty-nine individuals with schizophrenia and 39 demographically similar controls performed the EEfRT task, which involves making choices between "easy" and "hard" tasks to earn potential rewards. Individuals with schizophrenia showed less of an increase in effort allocation as either reward magnitude or probability increased. In controls, the frequency of choosing the hard task in high reward magnitude and probability conditions was negatively correlated with depression severity and anhedonia. In schizophrenia, fewer hard task choices were associated with more severe negative symptoms and worse community and work function as assessed by a caretaker. Consistent with patterns of disrupted dopamine functioning observed in animal models of schizophrenia, these results suggest that 1 mechanism contributing to impaired function and motivational drive in schizophrenia may be a reduced allocation of greater effort for higher magnitude or higher probability rewards.

  20. Reproductive effort in viscous populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pen, Ido

    Here I study a kin selection model of reproductive effort, the allocation of resources to fecundity versus survival, in a patch-structured population. Breeding females remain in the same patch for life. Offspring have costly, partial long-distance dispersal and compete for breeding sites, which

  1. Preventive analgesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Jørgen B; Kehlet, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    This paper will discuss the concepts of pre-emptive and preventive analgesia in acute and persistent postsurgical pain, based on the most recent experimental and clinical literature, with a special focus on injury-induced central sensitization and the development from acute to chronic pain. Recent...... of preventive analgesia for persistent postoperative pain are promising. However, clinicians must be aware of the demands for improved design of their clinical studies in order to get more conclusive answers regarding the different avenues for intervention. Summary: The concept of preventive analgesia is still...

  2. 3 CFR - Presidential Determination With Respect to Foreign Governments' Efforts Regarding Trafficking in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., poverty reduction, livelihoods, or family planning, or which would have a significant adverse effect on..., aftercare (shelter, counseling), training, and reintegration; or (c) expand prevention efforts through...

  3. The impact of occupational health and safety regulations on prevention through design in construction projects: Perspectives from Spain and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Aires, María Dolores; Rubio Gámez, María Carmen; Gibb, Alistair

    2015-01-01

    Since the mid-1990 s, Prevention through Design (PtD) has become increasingly prevalent in the built environment. The acceptance of PtD has largely been due to the removal or reduction of risks during the execution phase of construction projects. European States have had the added impetus of national legislation. This paper analyzes the influence of European Union Directive 92/57/EEC on occupational safety and health injury prevention in the project design phase. Qualitative methods comprised individual semi-structured interviews and focus groups with a panel of experts. Sixty individuals from construction and related professions (architects, engineers, constructors, developers, and other construction experts) answered 17 key questions to establish national perceptions of the effectiveness of Directive 92/57/EEC in Spain and the United Kingdom (UK). The implementation of PtD in the project design phase in the UK is clearer since the regulations explicitly state the obligations of project designers as well as those of the coordinator. Interviews with Spanish experts show that, in Spain, the prevention culture is less frequently realized. The most significant differences between the European Directive and national regulations which influence PtD are linked to the Health and Safety Coordinator, and Health and Safety documents.

  4. Pollution prevention: The new environmental ethic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breen, J.J.; Dellarco, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    EPA is embarking on a new major environmental policy initiative: pollution prevention. It obviates the short-comings of end-of-pipe regulations and fosters efforts for industry to modify production practices to prevent pollution. For its part, the Agency has adopted this initiative in research and development, regulatory program development, and technology transfer activities. Research and Development programs are being established to address chemical substitution, reductions in chemical usage, product life cycles, and recycling. Regulatory programs are incorporating pollution prevention in major strategies of product stewardship and hazardous waste management. Technology transfer activities are designed to inform and educate industry and the public through Agency sponsored programs with the Pollution Prevention Information Center and the American Pollution Prevention Institute

  5. Cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubiana, M

    1999-01-01

    Over 70% of human cancers are associated with lifestyle and about half of cancer deaths could be prevented by relatively simple individual actions: no smoking, moderate consumption of alcohol, increased consumption of fruit and vegetables, avoidance of sunbathing, obesity and a too high consumption of saturated lipids. Most of these efforts would also markedly decrease the incidence of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. However, the concept of prevention is currently neither well accepted nor understood by the medical community and the general public. It is often felt that it restricts freedom, imposes a choice between pleasure and duty, and that passing judgement on lifestyle is a form of intolerance. The case of tobacco illustrates the difficulties encountered by prevention, notably among adolescents. The fight against smoking requires information, a societal approach (ban on advertising, increase in price), and a reduction of the example given by adult smoking (parents, peers, teachers, physicians, TV presenters, movie stars, have a great influence on adolescents), while tobacco cessation programs must be promoted. The various approaches should be integrated into a global program of health prevention, including health education at school from 5 to 12 years of age. The efficacy of each of the global program's components should be evaluated. Misconceptions such as overestimation of the impact of pollution on health should also be corrected. Health is created and experienced by people within the setting of their daily lives, in particular during childhood. Prevention is the responsibility of individual members of the community but also of the community as a whole.

  6. Reflections on preventive medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miettinen, Olli S

    2014-10-01

    Having thought much about medicine in my career-long effort to understand it and the research for its advancement, I have come to views rather different form the now-prevailing ones in respect to what preventive medicine is about; what epidemiology is in relation to preventive medicine; what distinguishes preventive medicine in preventive healthcare at large; the relation of preventive medicine to public health; the concept of health promotion; and also the core principles of preventive medicine. All of these views I set forth in this article, for the readers' critical reflection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Combined Intimate Partner Violence and HIV/AIDS Prevention in Rural Uganda: Design of the SHARE Intervention Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagman, Jennifer A.; King, Elizabeth J.; Namatovu, Fredinah; Kiwanuka, Deus; Kairania, Robert; Ssemanda, John Baptist; Nalugoda, Fred; Serwadda, David; Wawer, Maria J.; Gray, Ronald; Brahmbhatt, Heena

    2016-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) has a bidirectional relationship with HIV infection. Researchers from Rakai Health Sciences Program (RHSP), an HIV research and services organization in rural Uganda, conducted a combination IPV and HIV prevention intervention called the Safe Homes And Respect for Everyone (SHARE) Project between 2005–2009. SHARE was associated with significant declines in physical and sexual IPV and overall HIV incidence and its model could be adopted as a promising practice in other settings. In this paper we describe how SHARE’s IPV-prevention strategies were integrated into RHSP’s existing HIV programming and provide recommendations for replication of the approach. PMID:26086189

  8. Preventing Learned Helplessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Cheri

    1986-01-01

    To prevent learned helplessness in learning disabled students, teachers can share responsibilities with the students, train students to reinforce themselves for effort and self control, and introduce opportunities for changing counterproductive attitudes. (CL)

  9. Naval Preventive Diplomacy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cassel, Joseph

    2001-01-01

    Naval power, as part of a U.S. preventive diplomacy effort, can be flexibly mixed with political, economic, and informational power to intervene early in places of incipient crisis or before mass violence...

  10. Design of a randomized trial of diabetes genetic risk testing to motivate behavior change: the Genetic Counseling/lifestyle Change (GC/LC) Study for Diabetes Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Richard W; Meigs, James B; Florez, Jose C; Park, Elyse R; Green, Robert C; Waxler, Jessica L; Delahanty, Linda M; O'Brien, Kelsey E

    2011-10-01

    The efficacy of diabetes genetic risk testing to motivate behavior change for diabetes prevention is currently unknown. This paper presents key issues in the design and implementation of one of the first randomized trials (The Genetic Counseling/Lifestyle Change (GC/LC) Study for Diabetes Prevention) to test whether knowledge of diabetes genetic risk can motivate patients to adopt healthier behaviors. Because individuals may react differently to receiving 'higher' vs 'lower' genetic risk results, we designed a 3-arm parallel group study to separately test the hypotheses that: (1) patients receiving 'higher' diabetes genetic risk results will increase healthy behaviors compared to untested controls, and (2) patients receiving 'lower' diabetes genetic risk results will decrease healthy behaviors compared to untested controls. In this paper we describe several challenges to implementing this study, including: (1) the application of a novel diabetes risk score derived from genetic epidemiology studies to a clinical population, (2) the use of the principle of Mendelian randomization to efficiently exclude 'average' diabetes genetic risk patients from the intervention, and (3) the development of a diabetes genetic risk counseling intervention that maintained the ethical need to motivate behavior change in both 'higher' and 'lower' diabetes genetic risk result recipients. Diabetes genetic risk scores were developed by aggregating the results of 36 diabetes-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms. Relative risk for type 2 diabetes was calculated using Framingham Offspring Study outcomes, grouped by quartiles into 'higher', 'average' (middle two quartiles) and 'lower' genetic risk. From these relative risks, revised absolute risks were estimated using the overall absolute risk for the study group. For study efficiency, we excluded all patients receiving 'average' diabetes risk results from the subsequent intervention. This post-randomization allocation strategy was

  11. Design and Rationale of the Intima-Medial Thickness Sub-Study of the PreventIon of CArdiovascular Events in iSchemic Stroke Patients with High Risk of Cerebral hemOrrhage (PICASSO-IMT) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Woo-Keun; Kim, Yong Jae; Lee, Juneyoung; Kwon, Sun U

    2017-09-01

    Atherosclerosis is one of the main mechanisms of stroke and cardiovascular diseases and is associated with increased risk of recurrent stroke and cardiovascular events. Intima-medial thickness (IMT) is a well-known surrogate marker of atherosclerosis and has been used to predict stroke and cardiovascular events. However, the clinical significance of IMT and IMT change in stroke has not been investigated in well-designed studies. The PreventIon of CArdiovascular events in iSchemic Stroke patients with high risk of cerebral hemOrrhage-Intima-Media Thickness (PICASSO-IMT) sub-study is designed to investigate the effects of cilostazol, probucol, or both on IMT in patients with stroke. PICASSO-IMT is a prospective sub-study of the PICASSO study designed to measure IMT and plaque score at 1, 13, 25, 37, and 49 months after randomization. The primary outcome is the change in mean carotid IMT, which is defined as the mean of the far-wall IMTs of the right and left common carotid arteries, between baseline and 13 months after randomization. PICASSO-IMT will provide the largest IMT data set in a stroke population and will provide valuable information about the clinical significance of IMT in patients with ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Voluntary versus Enforced Team Effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Keser

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a model where each of two players chooses between remuneration based on either private or team effort. Although at least one of the players has the equilibrium strategy to choose private remuneration, we frequently observe both players to choose team remuneration in a series of laboratory experiments. This allows for high cooperation payoffs but also provides individual free-riding incentives. Due to significant cooperation, we observe that, in team remuneration, participants make higher profits than in private remuneration. We also observe that, when participants are not given the option of private remuneration, they cooperate significantly less.

  13. Students' Academic Performance: Academic Effort Is an Intervening ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Students' Academic Performance: Academic Effort Is an Intervening Variable ... This study was designed to seek explanations for differences in academic performance among junior ...

  14. Overview of NASA/OAST efforts related to manufacturing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, N. T.

    1976-01-01

    An overview of some of NASA's current efforts related to manufacturing technology and some possible directions for the future are presented. The topics discussed are: computer-aided design, composite structures, and turbine engine components.

  15. APS Education and Diversity Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestridge, Katherine; Hodapp, Theodore

    2015-11-01

    American Physical Society (APS) has a wide range of education and diversity programs and activities, including programs that improve physics education, increase diversity, provide outreach to the public, and impact public policy. We present the latest programs spearheaded by the Committee on the Status of Women in Physics (CSWP), with highlights from other diversity and education efforts. The CSWP is working to increase the fraction of women in physics, understand and implement solutions for gender-specific issues, enhance professional development opportunities for women in physics, and remedy issues that impact gender inequality in physics. The Conferences for Undergraduate Women in Physics, Professional Skills Development Workshops, and our new Professional Skills program for students and postdocs are all working towards meeting these goals. The CSWP also has site visit and conversation visit programs, where department chairs request that the APS assess the climate for women in their departments or facilitate climate discussions. APS also has two significant programs to increase participation by underrepresented minorities (URM). The newest program, the APS National Mentoring Community, is working to provide mentoring to URM undergraduates, and the APS Bridge Program is an established effort that is dramatically increasing the number of URM PhDs in physics.

  16. Defilade, Stationary Target and Moving Target Embankment, Low Water Crossing, and Course Road Designs for Soil Loss Prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Svendsen, Niels G; Kalita, Prasanta K; Gebhart, Dick L; Denight, Michael L

    2006-01-01

    .... Additionally, incorporating sustainability into the range designs should remain a high priority to meet environmental compliance regulations and provide a durable long-lasting structure useful...

  17. Readiness for diabetes prevention and barriers to lifestyle change in women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus: rationale and study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipscombe, Lorraine L; Banerjee, Ananya Tina; McTavish, Sarah; Mukerji, Geetha; Lowe, Julia; Ray, Joel; Evans, Marilyn; Feig, Denice S

    2014-10-01

    Women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have a high risk of future diabetes, which can be prevented with lifestyle modification. Prior diabetes prevention programmes in this population have been limited by lack of adherence. The aim of this study is to evaluate readiness for behaviour change at different time points after GDM diagnosis and identify barriers and facilitators, to inform a lifestyle modification programme specifically designed for this group. The objective of this paper is to present the rationale and methodological design of this study. The ongoing prospective cohort study has recruited a multi-ethnic cohort of 1353 women with GDM from 7 Ontario, Canada hospitals during their pregnancy. A questionnaire was developed to evaluate stage of readiness for behaviour change, and sociodemographic, psychosocial, and clinical predictors of healthy diet and physical activity. Thus far, 960 women (71%) have completed a baseline survey prior to delivery. Prospective postpartum follow-up is ongoing. We are surveying women at 2 time-points after delivery: 3-12 months postpartum, and 13-24 months postpartum. Survey data will be linked to health care administrative databases for long-term follow-up for diabetes. Qualitative interviews were conducted in a subset of women to gain a deeper understanding of barriers and facilitators to lifestyle change. Our study is a fundamental first step in effectively addressing diabetes prevention in women with GDM. Our findings will aid in the design of a diabetes prevention intervention specifically targeted to women with recent GDM, which can then be evaluated in a clinical trial. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A structured women's preventive health clinic for residents: a quality improvement project designed to meet training needs and improve cervical cancer screening rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mamta K; Einstadter, Douglas; Lawrence, Renee

    2010-10-01

    Multiple resident-related factors contribute to 'missed opportunities' in providing comprehensive preventive care for female patients, including comfort level, knowledge and experience--all of which are compounded by resident turnover rates. Of particular concern among Internal Medicine (IM) residents is their knowledge and comfort level in performing pelvic exams. To evaluate the impact of a quality improvement project of implementing a Women's Preventive Health Clinic (WPHC) on addressing gaps identified by needs assessments: residents' comfort and knowledge with female preventive care and cervical cancer screening. The WPHC, a multidisciplinary weekly clinic, focused on preventive services for women with chronic conditions. The alternating didactic and clinic sessions emphasised women's preventive health topics for IM residents. Sixty-three IM residents participated in WPHC between 2002 and 2005. Pre- and post-test design was used to assess resident knowledge and comfort levels. Cervical cancer screening rates of residents' patients were assessed pre- and post-WPHC initiation. There was a significant improvement in general knowledge (64% correct at pretest vs 73% at post-test, p=0.0002), resident comfort level in discussing women's health topics and performing gynaecological exams (p<0.0002). Cervical cancer screening rates among IM residents' patients improved from 54% (pre-WPHC initiation) to 65% (post-WPHC initiation period). The results indicate that a focused resident preventive programme can meet gaps identified by education and needs assessments, and simultaneously have a positive impact on cervical cancer screening rates and thus may serve as a model for other residency programmes.

  19. Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volf, Mette

    This publication is unique in its demystification and operationalization of the complex and elusive nature of the design process. The publication portrays the designer’s daily work and the creative process, which the designer is a part of. Apart from displaying the designer’s work methods...... and design parameters, the publication shows examples from renowned Danish design firms. Through these examples the reader gets an insight into the designer’s reality....

  20. Termination of prehospital resuscitative efforts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Søren; Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, Caroline; Binderup, Lars Grassmé

    2017-01-01

    -and-death decision-making in the patient's medical records is required. We suggest that a template be implemented in the prehospital medical records describing the basis for any ethical decisions. This template should contain information regarding the persons involved in the deliberations and notes on ethical......BACKGROUND: Discussions on ethical aspects of life-and-death decisions within the hospital are often made in plenary. The prehospital physician, however, may be faced with ethical dilemmas in life-and-death decisions when time-critical decisions to initiate or refrain from resuscitative efforts...... need to be taken without the possibility to discuss matters with colleagues. Little is known whether these considerations regarding ethical issues in crucial life-and-death decisions are documented prehospitally. This is a review of the ethical considerations documented in the prehospital medical...

  1. Anticipated emotions and effort allocation in weight goal striving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelissen, R.M.A.; de Vet, H.C.W.; Zeelenberg, M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. This study aimed to investigate the influence of anticipated emotions on preventive health behaviour if specified at the level of behavioural outcomes. Consistent with predictions from a recently developed model of goal pursuit, we hypothesized that the impact of emotions on effort levels

  2. Prevalence of endoparasitic infection in children and its relation with cholera prevention efforts in Mexico Prevalencia de la infestación endoparasitaria en niños y su relación con los esfuerzos para la prevención del cólera en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles T. Faulkner

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether increased knowledge and use of public health measures promoted for cholera prevention is reflected in lower prevalence of parasitic infection in households in a community in the state of Tamaulipas, Mexico, that is close to the border with the United States of America. METHODS: Between 1994 and 1997, fecal samples from 438 children were collected through convenience sampling and then examined for helminth eggs/larvae and protozoan cysts as biologic indicators of household compliance with recommended cholera prevention measures. The suggested measures were to wash hands before meals and after defecation, to drink purified water, to wash fruits and vegetables, and to eat well-cooked food. In addition, information on the knowledge of and the use of cholera preventive measures was collected by interviews with adult informants in 252 households (186 of those households also provided a fecal sample for analysis. RESULTS: Parasitic infections occurred in 131 of the 438 children (30%, who resided in 79 of the 186 households (42% that provided fecal samples. Giardia lamblia accounted for 12.5% of all infections. Infections with Hymenolepis nana, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, Ancylostoma/Necator, Strongyloides stercoralis, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba hartmanni, Entamoeba histolytica, Endolimax nana, and Iodamoeba bütschlii were also noted. Infected children were older and more often had an infected sibling. Households with three or more children were also more likely to have an infected child. The primary caregivers in the households where at least one child had a parasitic infection were distinguished by their inability to list at least three cholera prevention measures from memory. CONCLUSIONS: The 42% household prevalence of parasitic infection was relatively high and indicates that some residents of this community may not have fully embraced the public health education efforts

  3. A Community-Based, Technology-Supported Health Service for Detecting and Preventing Frailty among Older Adults: A Participatory Design Development Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Velsen, Lex; Illario, Maddalena; Jansen-Kosterink, Stephanie; Crola, Catherine; Di Somma, Carolina; Colao, Annamaria; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    Frailty is a multifaceted condition that affects many older adults and marks decline on areas such as cognition, physical condition, and nutritional status. Frail individuals are at increased risk for the development of disability, dementia, and falls. There are hardly any health services that enable the identification of prefrail individuals and that focus on prevention of further functional decline. In this paper, we discuss the development of a community-based, technology-supported health service for detecting prefrailty and preventing frailty and further functional decline via participatory design with a wide range of stakeholders. The result is an innovative service model in which an online platform supports the integration of traditional services with novel, Information Communication Technology supported tools. This service is capable of supporting the different phases of screening and offers training services, by also integrating them with community-based services. The service model can be used as a basis for developing similar services within a wide range of healthcare systems. We present the service model, the general functioning of the technology platform, and the different ways in which screening for and prevention of frailty has been localized. Finally, we reflect on the added value of participatory design for creating such health services.

  4. Routine versus aggressive upstream rhythm control for prevention of early atrial fibrillation in heart failure: background, aims and design of the RACE 3 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alings, M; Smit, M D; Moes, M L; Crijns, H J G M; Tijssen, J G P; Brügemann, J; Hillege, H L; Lane, D A; Lip, G Y H; Smeets, J R L M; Tieleman, R G; Tukkie, R; Willems, F F; Vermond, R A; Van Veldhuisen, D J; Van Gelder, I C

    2013-07-01

    Rhythm control for atrial fibrillation (AF) is cumbersome because of its progressive nature caused by structural remodelling. Upstream therapy refers to therapeutic interventions aiming to modify the atrial substrate, leading to prevention of AF. The Routine versus Aggressive upstream rhythm Control for prevention of Early AF in heart failure (RACE 3) study hypothesises that aggressive upstream rhythm control increases persistence of sinus rhythm compared with conventional rhythm control in patients with early AF and mild-to-moderate early systolic or diastolic heart failure undergoing electrical cardioversion. RACE 3 is a prospective, randomised, open, multinational, multicenter trial. Upstream rhythm control consists of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and/or angiotensin receptor blockers, mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists, statins, cardiac rehabilitation therapy, and intensive counselling on dietary restrictions, exercise maintenance, and drug adherence. Conventional rhythm control consists of routine rhythm control therapy without cardiac rehabilitation therapy and intensive counselling. In both arms, every effort is made to keep patients in the rhythm control strategy, and ion channel antiarrhythmic drugs or pulmonary vein ablation may be instituted if AF relapses. Total inclusion will be 250 patients. If upstream therapy proves to be effective in improving maintenance of sinus rhythm, it could become a new approach to rhythm control supporting conventional pharmacological and non-pharmacological rhythm control.

  5. Defilade, Stationary Target and Moving Target Embankment, Low Water Crossing, and Course Road Designs for Soil Loss Prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Svendsen, Niels G; Kalita, Prasanta K; Gebhart, Dick L; Denight, Michael L

    2006-01-01

    ... for military training requirements. This report proposes several new range structure designs to begin the iterative process of developing new range edifices that reduce soil loss, control erosion, promote sustainability, and enhance training...

  6. An appraisal of female sex work in Nigeria--implications for designing and scaling up HIV prevention programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikpeazu, Akudo; Momah-Haruna, Amaka; Madu Mari, Baba; Thompson, Laura H; Ogungbemi, Kayode; Daniel, Uduak; Aboki, Hafsatu; Isac, Shajy; Gorgens, Marelize; Mziray, Elizabeth; Njie, Ndella; Akala, Francisca Ayodeji; Emmanuel, Faran; Odek, Willis Omondi; Blanchard, James F

    2014-01-01

    The HIV epidemic in Nigeria is complex with diverse factors driving the epidemic. Accordingly, Nigeria's National Agency for the Control of AIDS is coordinating a large-scale initiative to conduct HIV epidemic appraisals across all states. These appraisals will help to better characterize the drivers of the epidemic and ensure that the HIV prevention programmes match the local epidemic context, with resources allocated to interventions that have the greatest impact locally. Currently, the mapping and size estimation of Female Sex Workers (FSWs)--a major component of the appraisal has been completed in seven states. These states are using the data generated to plan, prioritize and scale-up sub-national HIV prevention programmes. It involved a two-level process of identifying and validating locations where FSWs solicit and/or meet clients ("hotspots"). In the first level, secondary key informants were interviewed to collect information about the geographic location and description of the hotspots. For the second level, FSWs were interviewed at each hotspot and information on population size estimates, typologies and operational dynamics of the FSWs were collected. Across the seven states, a total of 17,266 secondary key informants and 5,732 FSWs were interviewed. 10,233 hotspots were identified with an estimated 126,489 FSWs ranging from 5,920 in Anambra to 46,691 in Lagos. The most common hotspots were bars/nightclubs (30%), hotels/lodges (29.6%), streets (16.6%), and brothels (14.6%). Furthermore, the population density of FSWs (per thousand adult men) across the states ranged from 2 in Anambra to 17 in the Federal Capital Territory. FSW populations in Nigeria are large and diverse, with substantial differences between and within states. Improved understanding of the location, population size, density, organizational typologies and clients of sex work has informed and is central to Nigeria's planning process for scaling up focused HIV prevention programmes.

  7. An Appraisal of Female Sex Work in Nigeria - Implications for Designing and Scaling Up HIV Prevention Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikpeazu, Akudo; Momah-Haruna, Amaka; Madu Mari, Baba; Thompson, Laura H.; Ogungbemi, Kayode; Daniel, Uduak; Aboki, Hafsatu; Isac, Shajy; Gorgens, Marelize; Mziray, Elizabeth; Njie, Ndella; Akala, Francisca Ayodeji; Emmanuel, Faran; Odek, Willis Omondi; Blanchard, James F.

    2014-01-01

    Background The HIV epidemic in Nigeria is complex with diverse factors driving the epidemic. Accordingly, Nigeria's National Agency for the Control of AIDS is coordinating a large-scale initiative to conduct HIV epidemic appraisals across all states. These appraisals will help to better characterize the drivers of the epidemic and ensure that the HIV prevention programmes match the local epidemic context, with resources allocated to interventions that have the greatest impact locally. Currently, the mapping and size estimation of Female Sex Workers (FSWs) - a major component of the appraisal has been completed in seven states. These states are using the data generated to plan, prioritize and scale-up sub-national HIV prevention programmes. Methodology It involved a two-level process of identifying and validating locations where FSWs solicit and/or meet clients (“hotspots”). In the first level, secondary key informants were interviewed to collect information about the geographic location and description of the hotspots. For the second level, FSWs were interviewed at each hotspot and information on population size estimates, typologies and operational dynamics of the FSWs were collected. Results Across the seven states, a total of 17,266 secondary key informants and 5,732 FSWs were interviewed. 10,233 hotspots were identified with an estimated 126,489 FSWs ranging from 5,920 in Anambra to 46,691 in Lagos. The most common hotspots were bars/nightclubs (30%), hotels/lodges (29.6%), streets (16.6%), and brothels (14.6%). Furthermore, the population density of FSWs (per thousand adult men) across the states ranged from 2 in Anambra to 17 in the Federal Capital Territory. Conclusion FSW populations in Nigeria are large and diverse, with substantial differences between and within states. Improved understanding of the location, population size, density, organizational typologies and clients of sex work has informed and is central to Nigeria's planning process for

  8. An appraisal of female sex work in Nigeria--implications for designing and scaling up HIV prevention programmes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akudo Ikpeazu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The HIV epidemic in Nigeria is complex with diverse factors driving the epidemic. Accordingly, Nigeria's National Agency for the Control of AIDS is coordinating a large-scale initiative to conduct HIV epidemic appraisals across all states. These appraisals will help to better characterize the drivers of the epidemic and ensure that the HIV prevention programmes match the local epidemic context, with resources allocated to interventions that have the greatest impact locally. Currently, the mapping and size estimation of Female Sex Workers (FSWs--a major component of the appraisal has been completed in seven states. These states are using the data generated to plan, prioritize and scale-up sub-national HIV prevention programmes. METHODOLOGY: It involved a two-level process of identifying and validating locations where FSWs solicit and/or meet clients ("hotspots". In the first level, secondary key informants were interviewed to collect information about the geographic location and description of the hotspots. For the second level, FSWs were interviewed at each hotspot and information on population size estimates, typologies and operational dynamics of the FSWs were collected. RESULTS: Across the seven states, a total of 17,266 secondary key informants and 5,732 FSWs were interviewed. 10,233 hotspots were identified with an estimated 126,489 FSWs ranging from 5,920 in Anambra to 46,691 in Lagos. The most common hotspots were bars/nightclubs (30%, hotels/lodges (29.6%, streets (16.6%, and brothels (14.6%. Furthermore, the population density of FSWs (per thousand adult men across the states ranged from 2 in Anambra to 17 in the Federal Capital Territory. CONCLUSION: FSW populations in Nigeria are large and diverse, with substantial differences between and within states. Improved understanding of the location, population size, density, organizational typologies and clients of sex work has informed and is central to Nigeria's planning

  9. Evidence-based development of school-based and family-involved prevention of overweight across Europe: The ENERGY-project's design and conceptual framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klepp Knut

    2010-05-01

    , multidisciplinary effort to develop and test an evidence-based and theory-informed intervention program for obesity prevention among school-aged children.

  10. Efforts toward enhancing seismic safety at Kashiwazaki Kariwa Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Kazuhiko

    2009-01-01

    It has been two years since the Niigata-ken Chuetsu-oki Earthquake (NCOE) occurred in 2007. The earthquake brought a major disaster for Kashiwazaki, Kariwa, and the neighboring areas. First of all, we would like to give condolences to people in the devastated area and to pray for the immediate recovery. Our Kashiwazaki Kariwa Nuclear Power Station located in the same area was naturally caught up in the earthquake. The station was hit by a big tremor more than its intensity assumed to be valid at the station design stage. In spite of unexpected tremor, preventive functions for the station safety worked as expected as it designed. Critical facilities designed as high seismic class were not damaged, though considerable damages were seen in outside-facilities designed as low seismic class. We currently make efforts to inspect and recover damages. While we carefully carry out inspection and assessment to make sure the station integrity, we are also going forward restoration as well as construction for seismic safety enhancement in turn. This report introduces details of the following accounts, these are an outline of guidelines for seismic design evaluation that was revised in 2006, a situation at Kashiwazaki Kariwa Nuclear Power Station in the aftermath of the earthquake, and efforts toward enhancing seismic safety that the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) has made since the seismic disaster, and our approach to evaluation of facility integrity. (author)

  11. A police education programme to integrate occupational safety and HIV prevention: protocol for a modified stepped-wedge study design with parallel prospective cohorts to assess behavioural outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strathdee, Steffanie A; Arredondo, Jaime; Rocha, Teresita; Abramovitz, Daniela; Rolon, Maria Luisa; Patiño Mandujano, Efrain; Rangel, Maria Gudelia; Olivarria, Horcasitas Omar; Gaines, Tommi; Patterson, Thomas L; Beletsky, Leo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Policing practices are key drivers of HIV among people who inject drugs (PWID). This paper describes the protocol for the first study to prospectively examine the impact of a police education programme (PEP) to align law enforcement and HIV prevention. PEPs incorporating HIV prevention (including harm reduction programmes like syringe exchange) have been successfully piloted in several countries but were limited to brief pre–post assessments; the impact of PEPs on policing behaviours and occupational safety is unknown. Objectives Proyecto ESCUDO (SHIELD) aims to evaluate the efficacy of the PEP on uptake of occupational safety procedures, as assessed through the incidence of needle stick injuries (NSIs) (primary outcome) and changes in knowledge of transmission, prevention and treatment of HIV and viral hepatitis; attitudes towards PWID, adverse behaviours that interfere with HIV prevention and protective behaviours (secondary outcomes). Methods/analysis ESCUDO is a hybrid type I design that simultaneously tests an intervention and an implementation strategy. Using a modified stepped-wedge design involving all active duty street-level police officers in Tijuana (N=∼1200), we will administer one 3 h PEP course to groups of 20–50 officers until the entire force is trained. NSI incidence and geocoded arrest data will be assessed from department-wide de-identified data. Of the consenting police officers, a subcohort (N=500) will be randomly sampled from each class to undergo pre-PEP and post-PEP surveys with a semiannual follow-up for 2 years to assess self-reported NSIs, attitudes and behaviour changes. The impact on PWIDs will be externally validated through a parallel cohort of Tijuana PWIDs. Ethics/dissemination Research ethics approval was obtained from the USA and Mexico. Findings will be disseminated through open access to protocol materials through the Law Enforcement and HIV Network. Trial registration number NCT02444403. PMID:26260350

  12. ‘Leaving no one behind’: reflections on the design of community-based HIV prevention for migrants in Johannesburg’s inner-city hostels and informal settlements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Scorgie

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unmanaged urban growth in southern and eastern Africa has led to a growth of informal housing in cities, which are home to poor, marginalised populations, and associated with the highest HIV prevalence in urban areas. This article describes and reflects on the authors’ experiences in designing and implementing an HIV intervention originally intended for migrant men living in single-sex hostels of inner-city Johannesburg. It shows how formative research findings were incorporated into project design, substantially shifting the scope of the original project. Methods Formative research activities were undertaken to better understand the demand- and supply-side barriers to delivering HIV prevention activities within this community. These included community mapping, a baseline survey (n = 1458 and client-simulation exercise in local public sector clinics. The intervention was designed and implemented in the study setting over a period of 18 months. Implementation was assessed by way of a process evaluation of selected project components. Results The project scope expanded to include women living in adjacent informal settlements. Concurrent sexual partnerships between these women and male hostel residents were common, and HIV prevalence was higher among women (56% than men (24%. Overwhelmingly, hostel residents were internal migrants from another province, and most felt ‘alienated’ from the rest of the city. While men prioritised the need for jobs, women were more concerned about water, sanitation, housing and poverty alleviation. Most women (70% regarded their community as unsafe (cf. 47% of men. In the final intervention, project objectives were modified and HIV prevention activities were embedded within a broader health and development focus. ‘Community health clubs’ were established to build residents’ capacity to promote health and longer term well-being, and to initiate and sustain change within their

  13. Design of Polymeric Nanofiber Gauze Mask to Prevent Inhaling PM2.5 Particles from Haze Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingzhou Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, PM2.5 (particulate matter with diameter of 2.5 micron or less has become a major health hazard from the polluted air in many cities in China. The regular gauze masks are used to prevent inhaling the PM2.5 fine particles; however, those masks are not able to filter out the PM2.5 because of the large porosity of the mask materials. Some well-prevented masks usually have poor breathability, which increases other health risks. In this study, a polysulfone based nanofiber for mask filtration material was synthesized by electrospinning. That nanofiber mask material was characterized by SEM, air permeability test, and PM2.5 trapping experiment. The results indicate that nanofiber mask material can efficiently filter out the PM2.5 particles and simultaneously preserve a good breathability. We attribute such improvement to the nanoscaled fibers, having the same porosity as that of regular gauze mask but with extremely reduced local interfiber space.

  14. Design of preventive maintenance system using the reliability engineering and maintenance value stream mapping methods in PT. XYZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sembiring, N.; Panjaitan, N.; Angelita, S.

    2018-02-01

    PT. XYZ is a company owned by non-governmental organizations engaged in the field of production of rubber processing becoming crumb rubber. Part of the production is supported by some of machines and interacting equipment to achieve optimal productivity. Types of the machine that are used in the production process are Conveyor Breaker, Breaker, Rolling Pin, Hammer Mill, Mill Roll, Conveyor, Shredder Crumb, and Dryer. Maintenance system in PT. XYZ is corrective maintenance i.e. repairing or replacing the engine components after the crash on the machine. Replacement of engine components on corrective maintenance causes the machine to stop operating during the production process is in progress. The result is in the loss of production time due to the operator must replace the damaged engine components. The loss of production time can impact on the production targets which were not reached and lead to high loss costs. The cost for all components is Rp. 4.088.514.505. This cost is really high just for maintaining a Mill Roll Machine. Therefore PT. XYZ is needed to do preventive maintenance i.e. scheduling engine components and improving maintenance efficiency. The used methods are Reliability Engineering and Maintenance Value Stream Mapping (MVSM). The needed data in this research are the interval of time damage to engine components, opportunity cost, labor cost, component cost, corrective repair time, preventive repair time, Mean Time To Opportunity (MTTO), Mean Time To Repair (MTTR), and Mean Time To Yield (MTTY). In this research, the critical components of Mill Roll machine are Spier, Bushing, Bearing, Coupling and Roll. Determination of damage distribution, reliability, MTTF, cost of failure, cost of preventive, current state map, and future state map are done so that the replacement time for each critical component with the lowest maintenance cost and preparation of Standard Operation Procedure (SOP) are developed. For the critical component that has been

  15. Improving Outreach and Surveillance Efforts Following a Large-Scale Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, Paul D; Vogt, Christy M; Wozniak, Ryan J; Camponeschi, Jenny; Werner, Mark A; Meiman, Jonathan G

    In December 2014, the largest carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning in Wisconsin's history occurred at an ice arena. Following this event, the Wisconsin Environmental Public Health Tracking (WI EPHT) Program sought to improve outreach and surveillance efforts. WI EPHT designed and distributed educational materials on CO poisoning prevention and surveyed stakeholders to gauge the effectiveness of outreach efforts. To enhance surveillance, WI EPHT utilized data from the Wisconsin Poison Center (WPC) to generate real-time alerts of anomalous numbers of CO-related calls. WI EPHT found that 42% of stakeholders reviewed the outreach materials, and 1 ice arena had installed a CO detector as a result. CO alerts were developed using WPC data and are now routinely used in statewide public health surveillance. WI EPHT staff improved CO poisoning prevention outreach and saw a positive response among stakeholders. This work demonstrates ways that health agencies can improve outreach and surveillance for CO poisoning. Improvements in these areas can bolster public health response and may prevent CO-related illness and injury.

  16. Lessons Learned in Evaluating a Multisite, Comprehensive Teen Dating Violence Prevention Strategy: Design and Challenges of the Evaluation of Dating Matters: Strategies to Promote Healthy Teen Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niolon, Phyllis Holditch; Taylor, Bruce G; Latzman, Natasha E; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M; Valle, Linda Anne; Tharp, Andra T

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes the multisite, longitudinal cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) design of the evaluation of the Dating Matters: Strategies to Promote Healthy Relationships initiative, and discusses challenges faced in conducting this evaluation. Health departments in 4 communities are partnering with middle schools in high-risk, urban communities to implement 2 models of teen dating violence (TDV) prevention over 4 years. Schools were randomized to receive either the Dating Matters comprehensive strategy or the "standard of care" strategy (an existing, evidence-based TDV prevention curriculum). Our design permits comparison of the relative effectiveness of the comprehensive and standard of care strategies. Multiple cohorts of students from 46 middle schools are surveyed in middle school and high school, and parents and educators from participating schools are also surveyed. Challenges discussed in conducting a multisite RCT include site variability, separation of implementation and evaluation responsibilities, school retention, parent engagement in research activities, and working within the context of high-risk urban schools and communities. We discuss the strengths and weaknesses of our approaches to these challenges in the hopes of informing future research. Despite multiple challenges, the design of the Dating Matters evaluation remains strong. We hope this paper provides researchers who are conducting complex evaluations of behavioral interventions with thoughtful discussion of the challenges we have faced and potential solutions to such challenges.

  17. Application of Human Factors Methods to Design Healthcare Work Systems: Instance of the prevention of Adverse Drug Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcilly, Romaric; Beuscart-Zephir, Marie-Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Human Factors (HF) methods are increasingly needed to support the design of new technologies in order to avoid that introducing those technologies into healthcare work systems induces use errors with potentially catastrophic consequences for the patients. This chapter illustrates the application of HF methods in developing two health technologies aiming at securing the hospital medication management process. Lessons learned from this project highlight the importance of (i) analyzing the work system in which the technology is intended to be implemented, (ii) involving end users in the design process and (iii) the intermediation role of HF between end users and scientific/technical experts.

  18. Mental and physical effort affect vigilance differently

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, A.S.; Eling, P.A.T.M.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Coenen, A.M.L.

    2005-01-01

    Both physical and mental effort are thought to affect vigilance. Mental effort is known for its vigilance declining effects, but the effects of physical effort are less clear. This study investigated whether these two forms of effort affect the EEG and subjective alertness differently. Participants

  19. Mental and physical effort affect vigilance differently.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, A.S.; Eling, P.A.T.M.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Coenen, A.M.L.

    2005-01-01

    Both physical and mental effort are thought to affect vigilance. Mental effort is known for its vigilance declining effects, but the effects of physical effort are less clear. This study investigated whether these two forms of effort affect the EEG and subjective alertness differently. Participants

  20. Worksite interventions for preventing physical deterioration among employees in job-groups with high physical work demands: background, design and conceptual model of FINALE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Jørgensen, Marie B; Gram, Bibi

    2010-01-01

    physical demands remains to be established. This paper describes the background, design and conceptual model of the FINALE programme, a framework for health promoting interventions at 4 Danish job groups (i.e. cleaners, health-care workers, construction workers and industrial workers) characterized by high......A mismatch between individual physical capacities and physical work demands enhance the risk for musculoskeletal disorders, poor work ability and sickness absence, termed physical deterioration. However, effective intervention strategies for preventing physical deterioration in job groups with high...... physical work demands, musculoskeletal disorders, poor work ability and sickness absence....

  1. Prevention and investigations of core degradation in case of beyond design accidents of the 2400 MWTH gas-cooled fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertrand, F.; Gatin, V.; Bentivoglio, F.; Gueneau, C.

    2011-01-01

    The present paper deals with studies carried out to assess the ability of the core of the Gas Fast Reactor (GFR) to withstand beyond design accidents. The work presented here is aimed at simulating the behaviour of this core by using analytical models whose input parameters are calculated with the CATHARE2 code. Among possible severe accident initiators, the Unprotected Loss Of Coolant Accident (ULOCA of 3 Inches diameter) is investigated in detail in the paper with CATHARE2. Additionally, a simplified pessimistic assessment of the effect of a postulated power excursion that could result from the failure of prevention provisions is presented. (author)

  2. Assessment and prevention of acute health effects of weather conditions in Europe, the PHEWE project: background, objectives, design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Hugh

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The project "Assessment and prevention of acute health effects of weather conditions in Europe" (PHEWE had the aim of assessing the association between weather conditions and acute health effects, during both warm and cold seasons in 16 European cities with widely differing climatic conditions and to provide information for public health policies. Methods The PHEWE project was a three-year pan-European collaboration between epidemiologists, meteorologists and experts in public health. Meteorological, air pollution and mortality data from 16 cities and hospital admission data from 12 cities were available from 1990 to 2000. The short-term effect on mortality/morbidity was evaluated through city-specific and pooled time series analysis. The interaction between weather and air pollutants was evaluated and health impact assessments were performed to quantify the effect on the different populations. A heat/health watch warning system to predict oppressive weather conditions and alert the population was developed in a subgroup of cities and information on existing prevention policies and of adaptive strategies was gathered. Results Main results were presented in a symposium at the conference of the International Society of Environmental Epidemiology in Paris on September 6th 2006 and will be published as scientific articles. The present article introduces the project and includes a description of the database and the framework of the applied methodology. Conclusion The PHEWE project offers the opportunity to investigate the relationship between temperature and mortality in 16 European cities, representing a wide range of climatic, socio-demographic and cultural characteristics; the use of a standardized methodology allows for direct comparison between cities.

  3. Legionellosis prevention in building water and HVAC systems a practical guide for design, operation and maintenance to minimize the risk

    CERN Document Server

    Joppolo, Cesare Maria; Pitera, Luca Alberto; Angermann, Jean Pierre; Izard, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This Guidebook is a practical guide for design, operation and maintenance to minimize the risk of legionellosis in building water and HVAC systmes. It is devided into several themes such as: Air conditioning of the air (by water – humidification), Production of hot water for washing (fundamentally but not only hot water for washing) and Evaporative cooling tower.

  4. Economic growth, biodiversity loss and conservation effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Simon; Adger, W Neil

    2003-05-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between economic growth, biodiversity loss and efforts to conserve biodiversity using a combination of panel and cross section data. If economic growth is a cause of biodiversity loss through habitat transformation and other means, then we would expect an inverse relationship. But if higher levels of income are associated with increasing real demand for biodiversity conservation, then investment to protect remaining diversity should grow and the rate of biodiversity loss should slow with growth. Initially, economic growth and biodiversity loss are examined within the framework of the environmental Kuznets hypothesis. Biodiversity is represented by predicted species richness, generated for tropical terrestrial biodiversity using a species-area relationship. The environmental Kuznets hypothesis is investigated with reference to comparison of fixed and random effects models to allow the relationship to vary for each country. It is concluded that an environmental Kuznets curve between income and rates of loss of habitat and species does not exist in this case. The role of conservation effort in addressing environmental problems is examined through state protection of land and the regulation of trade in endangered species, two important means of biodiversity conservation. This analysis shows that the extent of government environmental policy increases with economic development. We argue that, although the data are problematic, the implications of these models is that conservation effort can only ever result in a partial deceleration of biodiversity decline partly because protected areas serve multiple functions and are not necessarily designated to protect biodiversity. Nevertheless institutional and policy response components of the income biodiversity relationship are important but are not well captured through cross-country regression analysis.

  5. Ankles back in randomized controlled trial (ABrCt: braces versus neuromuscular exercises for the secondary prevention of ankle sprains. Design of a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verhagen Evert ALM

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ankle sprains are the most common sports and physical activity related injury. There is extensive evidence that there is a twofold increased risk for injury recurrence for at least one year post injury. In up to 50% of all cases recurrences result in disability and lead to chronic pain or instability, requiring prolonged medical care. Therefore ankle sprain recurrence prevention in athletes is essential. This RCT evaluates the effect of the combined use of braces and neuromuscular training (e.g. proprioceptive training/sensorimotor training/balance training against the individual use of either braces or neuromuscular training alone on ankle sprain recurrences, when applied to individual athletes after usual care. Methods/Design This study was designed as three way randomized controlled trial with one year follow-up. Healthy individuals between 12 and 70 years of age, who were actively participating in sports and who had sustained a lateral ankle sprain in the two months prior to inclusion, were eligible for inclusion. After subjects had finished ankle sprain treatment by means of usual care, they were randomised to any of the three study groups. Subjects in group 1 received an eight week neuromuscular training program, subjects in group 2 received a sports brace to be worn during all sports activities for the duration of one year, and group 3 received a combination of the neuromuscular training program and a sports brace to be worn during all sports activities for the duration of eight weeks. Outcomes were assessed at baseline and every month for 12 months therafter. The primary outcome measure was incidence of ankle sprain recurrences. Secondary outcome measures included the direct and indirect costs of recurrent injury, the severity of recurrent injury, and the residual complaints during and after the intervention. Discussion The ABrCt is the first randomized controlled trial to directly compare the secondary preventive

  6. Design of an internet-based health economic evaluation of a preventive group-intervention for children of parents with mental illness or substance use disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woolderink Marla

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preventive interventions are developed for children of parents with mental and substance use disorders (COPMI, because these children have a higher risk of developing a psychological or behavioral disorder in the future. Mental health and substance use disorders contribute significantly to the global burden of disease. Although the exact number of parents with a mental illness is unclear, the subject of mentally ill parents is gaining attention. Moreover there is a lack of interventions for COPMI-children, as well of (cost- effectiveness studies evaluating COPMI interventions. Innovative interventions such as e-health provide a new field for exploration. There is no knowledge about the opportunities for using the internet to prevent problems in children at risk. In the current study we will focus on the (cost- effectiveness of an online health prevention program for COPMI-children. Methods/Design We designed a randomized controlled trial to examine the (cost- effectiveness of the Kopstoring intervention. Kopstoring is an online intervention for COPMI-children to strengthen their coping skills and prevent behavioral and psychological problems. We will compare the Kopstoring intervention with (waiting list care as usual. This trial will be conducted entirely over the internet. An economic evaluation, from a societal perspective will be conducted, to examine the trial's cost-effectiveness. Power calculations show that 214 participants are needed, aged 16-25. Possible participants will be recruited via media announcements and banners on the internet. After screening and completing informed consent procedures, participants will be randomized. The main outcome is internalizing and externalizing symptoms as measured by the Youth Self Report. For the economic evaluation, healthcare costs and costs outside the healthcare sector will be measured at the same time as the clinical measures, at baseline, 3, 6 and 9 months. An extended

  7. The contribution of qualitative research in designing a complex intervention for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease in two different healthcare systems.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Corrrigan, Mairead

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Developing complex interventions for testing in randomised controlled trials is of increasing importance in healthcare planning. There is a need for careful design of interventions for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD). It has been suggested that integrating qualitative research in the development of a complex intervention may contribute to optimising its design but there is limited evidence of this in practice. This study aims to examine the contribution of qualitative research in developing a complex intervention to improve the provision and uptake of secondary prevention of CHD within primary care in two different healthcare systems. METHODS: In four general practices, one rural and one urban, in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland, patients with CHD were purposively selected. Four focus groups with patients (N = 23) and four with staff (N = 29) informed the development of the intervention by exploring how it could be tailored and integrated with current secondary prevention activities for CHD in the two healthcare settings. Following an exploratory trial the acceptability and feasibility of the intervention were discussed in four focus groups (17 patients) and 10 interviews (staff). The data were analysed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Integrating qualitative research into the development of the intervention provided depth of information about the varying impact, between the two healthcare systems, of different funding and administrative arrangements, on their provision of secondary prevention and identified similar barriers of time constraints, training needs and poor patient motivation. The findings also highlighted the importance to patients of stress management, the need for which had been underestimated by the researchers. The qualitative evaluation provided depth of detail not found in evaluation questionnaires. It highlighted how the intervention needed to be more practical by minimising administration

  8. The contribution of qualitative research in designing a complex intervention for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease in two different healthcare systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leathem Claire S

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Developing complex interventions for testing in randomised controlled trials is of increasing importance in healthcare planning. There is a need for careful design of interventions for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD. It has been suggested that integrating qualitative research in the development of a complex intervention may contribute to optimising its design but there is limited evidence of this in practice. This study aims to examine the contribution of qualitative research in developing a complex intervention to improve the provision and uptake of secondary prevention of CHD within primary care in two different healthcare systems. Methods In four general practices, one rural and one urban, in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland, patients with CHD were purposively selected. Four focus groups with patients (N = 23 and four with staff (N = 29 informed the development of the intervention by exploring how it could be tailored and integrated with current secondary prevention activities for CHD in the two healthcare settings. Following an exploratory trial the acceptability and feasibility of the intervention were discussed in four focus groups (17 patients and 10 interviews (staff. The data were analysed using thematic analysis. Results Integrating qualitative research into the development of the intervention provided depth of information about the varying impact, between the two healthcare systems, of different funding and administrative arrangements, on their provision of secondary prevention and identified similar barriers of time constraints, training needs and poor patient motivation. The findings also highlighted the importance to patients of stress management, the need for which had been underestimated by the researchers. The qualitative evaluation provided depth of detail not found in evaluation questionnaires. It highlighted how the intervention needed to be more practical by minimising

  9. The contribution of qualitative research in designing a complex intervention for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease in two different healthcare systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrrigan, Mairead; Cupples, Margaret E; Smith, Susan M; Byrne, Molly; Leathem, Claire S; Clerkin, Pauline; Murphy, Andrew W

    2006-07-18

    Developing complex interventions for testing in randomised controlled trials is of increasing importance in healthcare planning. There is a need for careful design of interventions for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD). It has been suggested that integrating qualitative research in the development of a complex intervention may contribute to optimising its design but there is limited evidence of this in practice. This study aims to examine the contribution of qualitative research in developing a complex intervention to improve the provision and uptake of secondary prevention of CHD within primary care in two different healthcare systems. In four general practices, one rural and one urban, in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland, patients with CHD were purposively selected. Four focus groups with patients (N = 23) and four with staff (N = 29) informed the development of the intervention by exploring how it could be tailored and integrated with current secondary prevention activities for CHD in the two healthcare settings. Following an exploratory trial the acceptability and feasibility of the intervention were discussed in four focus groups (17 patients) and 10 interviews (staff). The data were analysed using thematic analysis. Integrating qualitative research into the development of the intervention provided depth of information about the varying impact, between the two healthcare systems, of different funding and administrative arrangements, on their provision of secondary prevention and identified similar barriers of time constraints, training needs and poor patient motivation. The findings also highlighted the importance to patients of stress management, the need for which had been underestimated by the researchers. The qualitative evaluation provided depth of detail not found in evaluation questionnaires. It highlighted how the intervention needed to be more practical by minimising administration, integrating role plays into behaviour

  10. Development of a patient decision aid for prevention of myocardial infarction in type 2 diabetes - rationale, design and pilot testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Matthias; Kasper, Jürgen; Mühlhauser, Ingrid

    2009-10-19

    Development and testing of a decision aid about prevention of myocardial infarction for persons with type 2 diabetes. Development and testing were guided by the UK Medical Research Council's guidance for the development and evaluation of complex interventions. This comprised a systematic literature review, a focus group of 9 potential providers, modelling a prototype, interviews to qualitatively explore understanding and additional information needs, and revision of the decision aid. The decision aid includes evidence-based information, a tool for individual risk-assessment, worksheets, and an action plan. Five diabetes educators and 15 patients underwent two 60-minutes face-to-face interviews, firstly browsing the decision aid for the first time and then after using it. Both groups differed in their ratings. Overall, the decision aid was rated to present essential information in a complex but understandable and unbiased manner. Difficulties involved understanding of terminology and risk interpretation. "Social status as a risk factor" was the most challenged content by educators but considered as highly important by patients. The risk assessment tool was used inadequately. 5 patients allocated themselves into false risk categories. After revision of the tool, all 12 patients who were recruited for reassessment used the tool correctly. The decision aid was evaluated with diabetes educators and patients. Qualitative data analysis revealed aspects for revision. The decision aid is planned to be part of a shared decision making programme, comprising a strategy for patient counselling and educational modules addressed to providers. Quantitative evaluation is required to assess its effectiveness.

  11. Using a web-based game to prevent posttraumatic stress in children following medical events: design of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsac, Meghan L; Kohser, Kristen L; Winston, Flaura K; Kenardy, Justin; March, Sonja; Kassam-Adams, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Medical events including acute illness and injury are among the most common potentially traumatic experiences for children. Despite the scope of the problem, only limited resources are available for prevention of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) after pediatric medical events. Web-based programs provide a low-cost, accessible means to reach a wide range of families and show promise in related areas of child mental health. To describe the design of a randomized controlled trial that will evaluate feasibility and estimate preliminary efficacy of Coping Coach, a web-based preventive intervention to prevent or reduce PTSS after acute pediatric medical events. Seventy children and their parents will be randomly assigned to either an intervention or a waitlist control condition. Inclusion criteria require that children are aged 8-12 years, have experienced a medical event, have access to Internet and telephone, and have sufficient competency in the English language to complete measures and understand the intervention. Participants will complete baseline measures and will then be randomized to the intervention or waitlist control condition. Children in the intervention condition will complete module 1 (Feelings Identification) in the hospital and will be instructed on how to complete modules 2 (Appraisals) and 3 (Avoidance) online. Follow-up assessments will be conducted via telephone at 6, 12, and 18 weeks after the baseline assessment. Following the 12-week assessment, children in the waitlist control condition will receive instructions for completing the intervention. Primary study outcomes include data on intervention feasibility and outcomes (child appraisals, coping, PTSS and health-related quality of life). Results will provide data on the feasibility of the implementation of the Coping Coach intervention and study procedures as well as estimations of efficacy to determine sample size for a larger study. Potential strengths and limitations of this design are

  12. Using a web-based game to prevent posttraumatic stress in children following medical events: design of a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Kassam-Adams

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medical events including acute illness and injury are among the most common potentially traumatic experiences for children. Despite the scope of the problem, only limited resources are available for prevention of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS after pediatric medical events. Web-based programs provide a low-cost, accessible means to reach a wide range of families and show promise in related areas of child mental health. Objectives: To describe the design of a randomized controlled trial that will evaluate feasibility and estimate preliminary efficacy of Coping Coach, a web-based preventive intervention to prevent or reduce PTSS after acute pediatric medical events. Method: Seventy children and their parents will be randomly assigned to either an intervention or a waitlist control condition. Inclusion criteria require that children are aged 8–12 years, have experienced a medical event, have access to Internet and telephone, and have sufficient competency in the English language to complete measures and understand the intervention. Participants will complete baseline measures and will then be randomized to the intervention or waitlist control condition. Children in the intervention condition will complete module 1 (Feelings Identification in the hospital and will be instructed on how to complete modules 2 (Appraisals and 3 (Avoidance online. Follow-up assessments will be conducted via telephone at 6, 12, and 18 weeks after the baseline assessment. Following the 12-week assessment, children in the waitlist control condition will receive instructions for completing the intervention. Results: Primary study outcomes include data on intervention feasibility and outcomes (child appraisals, coping, PTSS and health-related quality of life. Discussion: Results will provide data on the feasibility of the implementation of the Coping Coach intervention and study procedures as well as estimations of efficacy to determine sample size for a

  13. Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volf, Mette

    Design - proces & metode iBog®  er enestående i sit fokus på afmystificering og operationalisering af designprocessens flygtige og komplekse karakter. Udgivelsen går bag om designerens daglige arbejde og giver et indblik i den kreative skabelsesproces, som designeren er en del af. Udover et bredt...... indblik i designerens arbejdsmetoder og designparametre giver Design - proces & metode en række eksempler fra anerkendte designvirksomheder, der gør det muligt at komme helt tæt på designerens virkelighed....

  14. Industry's efforts toward technology development related to aging management of PWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Hideo

    2010-01-01

    The term, 'aging plants', which refers to nuclear power plants operating more than 30 years, has become popular among local residents around nuclear power plants as well as among the media. The term 'aging' was first used in the title of the document issued by Agency of Natural Resources and Energy in 1996, 'The Basic Concept of Aging Management'. In addressing aging degradation, it was a matter of question which measure of time (date, month or year) should be used as a unit to consider an events. Although the aging plant was defined as a plant operating more than 30 years, the mode and timing of aging degradation depend on the environment and service conditions under which a component has been operating. Previous efforts made by related parties have contributed to the prevention of potential aging events which may challenge the reactor safety. Owing to such efforts, causes of some events attributable to defective design have been clarified and preventive maintenance measures, including the replacement and mitigation, have been taken accordingly. As a result, the number of events resulting from such aging phenomena has been reduced. On other other hand, the events caused by aging phenomena attributable to manufacturing processes (welding, surface treatment, etc.), which hardly emerge, are slightly increasing. There have been many cases that a shorter weld line due to lack of penetration in the narrow gap has been led to fatigue cracking. More recently, incidents of stress corrosion cracking due to work hardening and local tensile stresses on the surface have been observed. It should be noted that an effort to analyze not only the phenomena but also the mechanisms of the above events to clarify the root causes can improve the quality of preventive maintenance by means of rolling-out the analytical results to relevant plants. This paper introduces valuable experiences with the application of the results of technology development regarding to aging degradation of

  15. Evaluation Methods for Prevention Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blue, Amy V.; Barnette, J. Jackson; Ferguson, Kristi J.; Garr, David R.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the importance of assessing medical students' competence in prevention knowledge, skills, and attitudes. Provides general guidance for programs interested in evaluating their prevention instructional efforts, and gives specific examples of possible methods for evaluating prevention education. Stresses the need to tailor assessment…

  16. Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Richard; Cross, Nigel; Durling, David; Nelson, Harold; Owen, Charles; Valtonen, Anna; Boling, Elizabeth; Gibbons, Andrew; Visscher-Voerman, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of design were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Richard Buchanan, Nigel Cross, David Durling, Harold Nelson, Charles Owen, and Anna Valtonen. Scholars…

  17. Work hazard prevention plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albertos Campos, F.

    2009-01-01

    The prevention of industrial risks is a constantly evolving discipline that has changed considerable in the last 25 years. The Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plants has always been operated with a clear policy favoring prevention by supporting the principle of its integration, i. e., that the hierarchical functional organization of the company make sure that industrial risk prevention is effective and that health and safety standards are met. The historical evolution of occupational safety in the Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plant shows a a clear trend towards improvement and is the results of many years of hard work and effort by the plants own and contractor personnel in the field of industrial risk prevention. (Author)

  18. EX-MET study: exercise in prevention on of metabolic syndrome - a randomized multicenter trial: rational and design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjønna, Arnt Erik; Ramos, Joyce S; Pressler, Axel; Halle, Martin; Jungbluth, Klaus; Ermacora, Erika; Salvesen, Øyvind; Rodrigues, Jhennyfer; Bueno, Carlos Roberto; Munk, Peter Scott; Coombes, Jeff; Wisløff, Ulrik

    2018-04-02

    Metabolic syndrome substantially increases risk of cardiovascular events. It is therefore imperative to develop or optimize ways to prevent or attenuate this condition. Exercise training has been long recognized as a corner-stone therapy for reducing individual cardiovascular risk factors constituting the metabolic syndrome. However, the optimal exercise dose and its feasibility in a real world setting has yet to be established. The primary objective of this randomized trial is to investigate the effects of different volumes of aerobic interval training (AIT) compared to the current exercise guideline of moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) on the composite number of cardiovascular disease risk factors constituting the metabolic syndrome after a 16 week, 1-year, and 3-year follow-up. This is a randomized international multi-center trial including men and women aged ≥30 years diagnosed with the metabolic syndrome according to the International Diabetes Federation criteria. Recruitment began in August 2012 and concluded in December 2016. This trial consists of supervised and unsupervised phases to evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of different exercise doses on the metabolic syndrome in a real world setting. This study aims to include and randomize 465 participants to 3 years of one of the following training groups: i) 3 times/week of 4 × 4 min AIT at 85-95% peak heart rate (HRpeak); ii) 3 times/week of 1 × 4 min AIT at 85-95% HRpeak; or iii) 5-7 times/week of ≥30 min MICT at 60-70% HRpeak. Clinical examinations, physical tests and questionnaires are administered to all participants during all testing time points (baseline, 16 weeks and after 1-, and 3-years). This multi-center international trial indeed aims to ease the burden in healthcare/economic cost arising from treating end-stage CVD related conditions such as stroke and myocardial infarction, that could eventually emerge from the metabolic syndrome condition. Clinical

  19. Measuring collections effort improves cash performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shutts, Joe

    2009-09-01

    Having a satisfied work force can lead to an improved collections effort. Hiring the right people and training them ensures employee engagement. Measuring collections effort and offering incentives is key to revenue cycle success.

  20. Ankles back in randomized controlled trial (ABrCt): braces versus neuromuscular exercises for the secondary prevention of ankle sprains. Design of a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Kasper W; van Mechelen, Willem; Verhagen, Evert Alm

    2011-09-27

    Ankle sprains are the most common sports and physical activity related injury. There is extensive evidence that there is a twofold increased risk for injury recurrence for at least one year post injury. In up to 50% of all cases recurrences result in disability and lead to chronic pain or instability, requiring prolonged medical care. Therefore ankle sprain recurrence prevention in athletes is essential. This RCT evaluates the effect of the combined use of braces and neuromuscular training (e.g. proprioceptive training/sensorimotor training/balance training) against the individual use of either braces or neuromuscular training alone on ankle sprain recurrences, when applied to individual athletes after usual care. This study was designed as three way randomized controlled trial with one year follow-up. Healthy individuals between 12 and 70 years of age, who were actively participating in sports and who had sustained a lateral ankle sprain in the two months prior to inclusion, were eligible for inclusion. After subjects had finished ankle sprain treatment by means of usual care, they were randomised to any of the three study groups. Subjects in group 1 received an eight week neuromuscular training program, subjects in group 2 received a sports brace to be worn during all sports activities for the duration of one year, and group 3 received a combination of the neuromuscular training program and a sports brace to be worn during all sports activities for the duration of eight weeks. Outcomes were assessed at baseline and every month for 12 months therafter. The primary outcome measure was incidence of ankle sprain recurrences. Secondary outcome measures included the direct and indirect costs of recurrent injury, the severity of recurrent injury, and the residual complaints during and after the intervention. The ABrCt is the first randomized controlled trial to directly compare the secondary preventive effect of the combined use of braces and neuromuscular training

  1. Design of an internet-based health economic evaluation of a preventive group-intervention for children of parents with mental illness or substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolderink, Marla; Smit, Filip; van der Zanden, Rianne; Beecham, Jennifer; Knapp, Martin; Paulus, Aggie; Evers, Silvia

    2010-08-10

    Preventive interventions are developed for children of parents with mental and substance use disorders (COPMI), because these children have a higher risk of developing a psychological or behavioral disorder in the future. Mental health and substance use disorders contribute significantly to the global burden of disease. Although the exact number of parents with a mental illness is unclear, the subject of mentally ill parents is gaining attention. Moreover there is a lack of interventions for COPMI-children, as well of (cost-) effectiveness studies evaluating COPMI interventions. Innovative interventions such as e-health provide a new field for exploration. There is no knowledge about the opportunities for using the internet to prevent problems in children at risk. In the current study we will focus on the (cost-) effectiveness of an online health prevention program for COPMI-children. We designed a randomized controlled trial to examine the (cost-) effectiveness of the Kopstoring intervention. Kopstoring is an online intervention for COPMI-children to strengthen their coping skills and prevent behavioral and psychological problems. We will compare the Kopstoring intervention with (waiting list) care as usual. This trial will be conducted entirely over the internet. An economic evaluation, from a societal perspective will be conducted, to examine the trial's cost-effectiveness. Power calculations show that 214 participants are needed, aged 16-25. Possible participants will be recruited via media announcements and banners on the internet. After screening and completing informed consent procedures, participants will be randomized. The main outcome is internalizing and externalizing symptoms as measured by the Youth Self Report. For the economic evaluation, healthcare costs and costs outside the healthcare sector will be measured at the same time as the clinical measures, at baseline, 3, 6 and 9 months. An extended measure for the intervention group will be provided at

  2. Sidoarjo mudflow phenomenon and its mitigation efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, H. T.; Williams, V.

    2009-12-01

    Hot mud first erupted in Siring village, Porong, Sidoarjo May 29th 2006. The mud first appeared approximately 200 meters from Banjarpanji-1 gas-drilling well. The mud volume increased day by day, from 5000 cubic meters per day on June 2006 to 50,000 cubic meters per day during the last of 2006, and then increased to 100,000-120,000 cubic meters per day during 2007. Flow still continues at a high rate. Moreover, as the water content has gone down, the clast content has gone up. Consequently, there is now the threat of large amounts of solid material being erupted throughout the area. Also, there is the issue of subsurface collapse and ground surface subsidence. The Indonesian government has set up a permanent team to support communities affected by the mudflow that has swamped a number of villages near LUSI. Toll roads, railway tracks and factories also have been submerged and over 35,000 people have been displaced to date. The Sidoarjo Mudflow Mitigation Agency [SMMA, BPLS (Indonesia)] replaces a temporary team called National Team PSLS which was installed for seven months and ended their work on 7 April 2007. BPLS was set up by Presidential Regulation No. 14 / 2007, and it will have to cover the costs related to the social impact of the disaster, especially outside the swamped area. BPLS is the central government institution designated to handle the disaster by coordination with both the drilling company and local (provincial and district) governments. It takes a comprehensive, integrated and holistic approach for its mission and challenges. Those are: 1) How to stop the mudflow, 2) How to mitigate the impacts of the mudflow, and 3) How to minimize the social, economic, environmental impacts, and infrastructure impacts. The mudflow mitigation efforts were constrained by dynamic geology conditions, as well as resistance to certain measures by residents of impacted areas. Giant dykes were built to retain the spreading mud, and the mudflow from the main vent was

  3. Width design for gobs and isolated coal pillars based on overall burst-instability prevention in coal mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfei Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was conducted on the overall burst-instability of isolated coal pillars by means of the possibility index diagnosis method (PIDM. First, the abutment pressure calculation model of the gob in side direction was established to derive the abutment pressure distribution curve of the isolated coal pillar. Second, the overall burst-instability ratio of the isolated coal pillars was defined. Finally, the PIDM was utilized to judge the possibility of overall burst-instability and recoverability of isolated coal pillars. The results show that an overall burst-instability may occur due to a large gob width or a small pillar width. If the width of the isolated coal pillar is not large enough, the shallow coal seam will be damaged at first, and then the high abutment pressure will be transferred to the deep coal seam, which may cause an overall burst-instability accident. This approach can be adopted to design widths of gobs and isolated coal pillars and to evaluate whether an existing isolated coal pillar is recoverable in skip-mining mines.

  4. Design of a New Collimation System to Prevent Interference between X-ray Machines and Radiation Portal Monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzzardo, Tyler; Livesay, Jake

    2012-01-01

    Researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) developed a new collimation system that allows radiation portal monitors (RPMs) installed near x-ray machines to operate with a negligible false-positive alarm rate. RPMs are usually installed as far as possible from x-ray machines because false alarms are triggered by escaping x-rays; however, constraints at the installation site sometimes make it necessary that RPMs be installed near x-ray machines. Such RPMs are often plagued by high alarm rates resulting from the simultaneous operation of the RPMs and x-ray machines. Limitations on pedestrian flow, x-ray machine orientation, and RPM location often preclude a simple solution for lowering the alarm rate. Adding additional collimation to the x-ray machines to stop the x-rays at the source can reduce the alarm rate without interfering with site operations or adversely affecting the minimum detectable quantity of material (MDQ). A collimation design has been verified by measurements conducted at a RPM installation site and is applicable to all new and existing RPM installations near x-ray machines.

  5. The design, effectiveness and acceptability of the arm sleeve for the prevention of body fluid contamination during obstetric procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabukoba, J J; Pearce, J M

    1993-08-01

    1. To design a device that would reduce contamination of staff during obstetric procedures. 2. To undertake clinical trials to assess the effectiveness and acceptability of such a device. A prospective study. The arm sleeve is made of a nonwoven material laminated on polyethylene film making it waterproof. It has an elastomeric cuff with adhesive that ensures a watertight seal between it and the glove. Delivery suite in a teaching hospital. Doctors and midwives were requested to wear the sleeve on top of the standard gown and gloves. Each user was assessed for blood contamination at the end of the procedure and a questionnaire detailing the extent of contamination and the views of the user was completed. Eighty questionnaires were completed. The contamination of arms and hands was 3.8% and 5%, respectively. Eighty-nine percent thought the sleeve had served its purpose and 76% said they would use it regularly. The sleeve is an effective protective device which complements the glove and gown. We recommend that it should be used during all obstetric procedures.

  6. Crystallization of mutants of Turnip yellow mosaic virus protease/ubiquitin hydrolase designed to prevent protease self-recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayach, Maya; Bressanelli, Stéphane

    2015-04-01

    Processing of the polyprotein of Turnip yellow mosaic virus is mediated by the protease PRO. PRO cleaves at two places, one of which is at the C-terminus of the PRO domain of another polyprotein molecule. In addition to this processing activity, PRO possesses an ubiquitin hydrolase (DUB) activity. The crystal structure of PRO has previously been reported in its polyprotein-processing mode with the C-terminus of one PRO inserted into the catalytic site of the next PRO, generating PRO polymers in the crystal packing of the trigonal space group. Here, two mutants designed to disrupt specific PRO-PRO interactions were generated, produced and purified. Crystalline plates were obtained by seeding and cross-seeding from initial `sea urchin'-like microcrystals of one mutant. The plates diffracted to beyond 2 Å resolution at a synchrotron source and complete data sets were collected for the two mutants. Data processing and analysis indicated that both mutant crystals belonged to the same monoclinic space group, with two molecules of PRO in the asymmetric unit.

  7. Preventing Dampness Related Health Risks at the Design Stage of Buildings in Mediterranean Climates: A Cyprus Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugochukwu Kenechi Elinwa

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Dampness is a major building challenge that poses a health risk by aiding the growth of mold and other related microorganisms in very humid areas. Thus, the correction of these post-effects results in high maintenance costs via energy consumption, due to the prolonged heating of damp rooms and post-treatment, especially during the winter. A survey of 2000 valid respondents living in apartment-style buildings was conducted and analyzed using SPSS software. In this study, the AutoDesk Computational Fluid Dynamics (ACFD software was used to perform a simulation for building materials analysis, to evaluate them for suitability in high humidity areas and to select the best building orientation for adequate and natural ventilation. The analysis aimed to observe the indoor air conditions due to environmental air flow conditions. The relationships of the airflow conditions to the material properties were measured. The methodology involves a Failure Modes and Effects Analysis to determine the level and nature of the dampness sources. The Design-Expert Statistical-Software 10 confirmed the simulation results. The simulation revealed a lower percentage of relative humidity and temperature in Adobe walls than in brick walls.

  8. Design of a school randomized trial for nudging students towards healthy diet and physical activity to prevent obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Diana Barbosa; Verly Junior, Eliseu; Paravidino, Vitor Barreto; Araújo, Marina Campos; Mediano, Mauro Felippe Felix; Sgambato, Michele Ribeiro; de Souza, Bárbara da Silva Nalin; Marques, Emanuele Souza; Baltar, Valéria Troncoso; de Oliveira, Alessandra Silva Dias; da Silva, Ana Carolina Feldenheimer; Pérez-Cueto, Federico J.; Pereira, Rosangela Alves; Sichieri, Rosely

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of nudge activities at school on the students’ body mass index (BMI). Design: School-based factorial randomized community trial. Setting: Eighteen public schools in the municipality of Duque de Caxias, metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Participants and intervention: The 18 schools will be randomized into 4 group arms: group 1—control (without any activity); group 2—will receive educational activities in the classroom; group 3—will receive changes in the school environment (nudge strategies); group 4—will receive educational activities and changes in the school environment. Activities will occur during the 2018 school-year. Main outcome measure(s): The primary (BMI) and secondary (body fat percentage) outcomes will be assessed at baseline and after the study using a portable electronic scale with a segmental body composition monitor. The height will be measured by a portable stadiometer. Analysis: Statistical analyses for each outcome will be conducted through linear mixed models that took into account the missing data and cluster effect of the schools. PMID:29390278

  9. Macromolecular Design Strategies for Preventing Active-Material Crossover in Non-Aqueous All-Organic Redox-Flow Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doris, Sean E; Ward, Ashleigh L; Baskin, Artem; Frischmann, Peter D; Gavvalapalli, Nagarjuna; Chénard, Etienne; Sevov, Christo S; Prendergast, David; Moore, Jeffrey S; Helms, Brett A

    2017-02-01

    Intermittent energy sources, including solar and wind, require scalable, low-cost, multi-hour energy storage solutions in order to be effectively incorporated into the grid. All-Organic non-aqueous redox-flow batteries offer a solution, but suffer from rapid capacity fade and low Coulombic efficiency due to the high permeability of redox-active species across the battery's membrane. Here we show that active-species crossover is arrested by scaling the membrane's pore size to molecular dimensions and in turn increasing the size of the active material above the membrane's pore-size exclusion limit. When oligomeric redox-active organics (RAOs) were paired with microporous polymer membranes, the rate of active-material crossover was reduced more than 9000-fold compared to traditional separators at minimal cost to ionic conductivity. This corresponds to an absolute rate of RAO crossover of less than 3 μmol cm -2  day -1 (for a 1.0 m concentration gradient), which exceeds performance targets recently set forth by the battery industry. This strategy was generalizable to both high and low-potential RAOs in a variety of non-aqueous electrolytes, highlighting the versatility of macromolecular design in implementing next-generation redox-flow batteries. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Implementation of tuberculosis infection control measures in designated hospitals in Zhejiang Province, China: are we doing enough to prevent nosocomial tuberculosis infections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Liu, Min; Gu, Hua; Wang, Xiaomeng; Qiu, Wei; Shen, Jian; Jiang, Jianmin

    2016-03-03

    Tuberculosis (TB) infection control measures are very important to prevent nosocomial transmission and protect healthcare workers (HCWs) in hospitals. The TB infection control situation in TB treatment institutions in southeastern China has not been studied previously. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the implementation of TB infection control measures in TB-designated hospitals in Zhejiang Province, China. Cross-sectional survey using observation and interviews. All TB-designated hospitals (n=88) in Zhejiang Province, China in 2014. Managerial, administrative, environmental and personal infection control measures were assessed using descriptive analyses and univariate logistic regression analysis. The TB-designated hospitals treated a median of 3030 outpatients (IQR 764-7094) and 279 patients with confirmed TB (IQR 154-459) annually, and 160 patients with TB (IQR 79-426) were hospitalised in the TB wards. Most infection control measures were performed by the TB-designated hospitals. Measures including regular monitoring of TB infection control in high-risk areas (49%), shortening the wait times (42%), and providing a separate waiting area for patients with suspected TB (46%) were sometimes neglected. N95 respirators were available in 85 (97%) hospitals, although only 44 (50%) hospitals checked that they fit. Hospitals with more TB staff and higher admission rates of patients with TB were more likely to set a dedicated sputum collection area and to conduct annual respirator fit testing. TB infection control measures were generally implemented by the TB-designated hospitals. Measures including separation of suspected patients, regular monitoring of infection control practices, and regular fit testing of respirators should be strengthened. Infection measures for sputum collection and respirator fit testing should be improved in hospitals with lower admission rates of patients with TB. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to

  11. Prediction of Drug Attitude in Adolescents Based on Family Training Risk Factors for Mental Health in Society: Designing a Model for Prevention of Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Parsian

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Substance abuse is one of the worst humanitarian issues in recent years which undermines the base and foundations of human society. Its prevention requires the application of multiple theories in various disciplines together with diverse methods and techniques. Several studies have been emphasized on the role of personal and familial variables as risk factors for substance use . However, this study was done in order to predict drug addiction attitude in adolescents according to the family training risk factors to prevent substance abuse and to design a model for the prevention of addiction .   Methods: This study is a descriptive and survey research performed on a sample of 373 male and female students selected randomly among the five high school students in Ghaemshahr city. Then a questionnaire including parenting styles, attitude to addiction and social problem solving skill as well as a socioeconomic questionnaire distributed among the students. For data analysis, the statistical method of descriptive statistics and path analysis has been used.   Results: Results of this study have shown that the component of parenting styles has a direct and positive impact on attitudes to drug addiction. In addition, there was a direct and positive non-significant relationship between the adaptive social problem solving skills and attitude to drug addiction and also direct and negative significant relationship between the non-adaptive social problem solving skills on this attitudes. A direct and negative significant relationship was also seen between parenting styles and attitude to drug addiction.   Conclusions: Based on the results of present study, the components of parenting styles have a direct and negative impact on attitudes to drug addiction. Also there is a direct and significant relationship between the components of non-adaptive social problem solving skills and the variable of social attitude in adolescents . But the

  12. Anchorage failure of young trees in sandy soils is prevented by a rigid central part of the root system with various designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danquechin Dorval, Antoine; Meredieu, Céline; Danjon, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Storms can cause huge damage to European forests. Even pole-stage trees with 80-cm rooting depth can topple. Therefore, good anchorage is needed for trees to survive and grow up from an early age. We hypothesized that root architecture is a predominant factor determining anchorage failure caused by strong winds. Methods We sampled 48 seeded or planted Pinus pinaster trees of similar aerial size from four stands damaged by a major storm 3 years before. The trees were gathered into three classes: undamaged, leaning and heavily toppled. After uprooting and 3D digitizing of their full root architectures, we computed the mechanical characteristics of the main components of the root system from our morphological measurements. Key Results Variability in root architecture was quite large. A large main taproot, either short and thick or long and thin, and guyed by a large volume of deep roots, was the major component that prevented stem leaning. Greater shallow root flexural stiffness mainly at the end of the zone of rapid taper on the windward side also prevented leaning. Toppling in less than 90-cm-deep soil was avoided in trees with a stocky taproots or with a very big leeward shallow root. Toppled trees also had a lower relative root biomass – stump excluded – than straight trees. Conclusions It was mainly the flexural stiffness of the central part of the root system that secured anchorage, preventing a weak displacement of the stump. The distal part of the longest taproot and attached deep roots may be the only parts of the root system contributing to anchorage through their maximum tensile load. Several designs provided good anchorage, depending partly on available soil depth. Pole-stage trees are in-between the juvenile phase when they fail by toppling and the mature phase when they fail by uprooting. PMID:27456136

  13. The DARE study of relapse prevention in depression: design for a phase 1/2 translational randomised controlled trial involving mindfulness-based cognitive therapy and supported self monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawyer Frances

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression is a common condition that typically has a relapsing course. Effective interventions targeting relapse have the potential to dramatically reduce the point prevalence of the condition. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT is a group-based intervention that has shown efficacy in reducing depressive relapse. While trials of MBCT to date have met the core requirements of phase 1 translational research, there is a need now to move to phase 2 translational research - the application of MBCT within real-world settings with a view to informing policy and clinical practice. The aim of this trial is to examine the clinical impact and health economics of MBCT under real-world conditions and where efforts have been made to assess for and prevent resentful demoralization among the control group. Secondary aims of the project involve extending the phase 1 agenda to an examination of the effects of co-morbidity and mechanisms of action. Methods/Design This study is designed as a prospective, multi-site, single-blind, randomised controlled trial using a group comparison design between involving the intervention, MBCT, and a self-monitoring comparison condition, Depression Relapse Active Monitoring (DRAM. Follow-up is over 2 years. The design of the study indicates recruitment from primary and secondary care of 204 participants who have a history of 3 or more episodes of Major Depression but who are currently well. Measures assessing depressive relapse/recurrence, time to first clinical intervention, treatment expectancy and a range of secondary outcomes and process variables are included. A health economics evaluation will be undertaken to assess the incremental cost of MBCT. Discussion The results of this trial, including an examination of clinical, functional and health economic outcomes, will be used to assess the role that this treatment approach may have in recommendations for treatment of depression in Australia and

  14. Randomized placebo controlled blinded study to assess valsartan efficacy in preventing left ventricle remodeling in patients with dual chamber pacemaker--Rationale and design of the trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasik, Andrzej; Jacheć, Wojciech; Wojciechowska, Celina; Kawecki, Damian; Białkowska, Beata; Romuk, Ewa; Gabrysiak, Artur; Birkner, Ewa; Kalarus, Zbigniew; Nowalany-Kozielska, Ewa

    2015-05-01

    Dual chamber pacing is known to have detrimental effect on cardiac performance and heart failure occurring eventually is associated with increased mortality. Experimental studies of pacing in dogs have shown contractile dyssynchrony leading to diffuse alterations in extracellular matrix. In parallel, studies on experimental ischemia/reperfusion injury have shown efficacy of valsartan to inhibit activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9, to increase the activity of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-3 and preserve global contractility and left ventricle ejection fraction. To present rationale and design of randomized blinded trial aimed to assess whether 12 month long administration of valsartan will prevent left ventricle remodeling in patients with preserved left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF ≥ 40%) and first implantation of dual chamber pacemaker. A total of 100 eligible patients will be randomized into three parallel arms: placebo, valsartan 80 mg/daily and valsartan 160 mg/daily added to previously used drugs. The primary endpoint will be assessment of valsartan efficacy to prevent left ventricle remodeling during 12 month follow-up. We assess patients' functional capacity, blood plasma activity of matrix metalloproteinases and their tissue inhibitors, NT-proBNP, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and Troponin T. Left ventricle function and remodeling is assessed echocardiographically: M-mode, B-mode, tissue Doppler imaging. If valsartan proves effective, it will be an attractive measure to improve long term prognosis in aging population and increasing number of pacemaker recipients. ClinicalTrials.org (NCT01805804). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Preventing Sexual Violence in Adolescence: Comparison of a Scientist-Practitioner Program and a Practitioner Program Using a Cluster-Randomized Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muck, Christoph; Schiller, Eva-Maria; Zimmermann, Maria; Kärtner, Joscha

    2018-02-01

    Numerous school-based prevention programs have been developed by scientists and practitioners to address sexual violence in adolescence. However, such programs struggle with two major challenges. First, the effectiveness of many well-established practitioner programs has not been rigorously evaluated. Second, effective scientific programs may be hard to implement into everyday school practice. Combining the knowledge of scientists and practitioners in a scientist-practitioner program could be a helpful compromise. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effects of a scientist-practitioner program and a practitioner program using a cluster-randomized experimental design. Twenty-seven school classes were randomly assigned to either one of two programs or a control group. Outcome variables (knowledge, attitudes, behavior, and iatrogenic effects) were assessed at pretest, posttest, and a 6-month follow-up for 453 adolescents (55% female, Mage = 14.18). Short-term effects were found in both programs regarding general knowledge, knowledge of professional help, and victim-blaming attitudes. Long-term effects were found in both programs regarding general knowledge and knowledge of professional help and, in the practitioner program, in a reduction of victimization. No other effects were found on attitudes and behavior. No iatrogenic effects in the form of increased anxiety were found. Both the scientist-practitioner and the practitioner program show promise for the prevention of sexual violence in adolescence; in particular, the practitioner program may be a more cost-effective method.

  16. Design of a medical record review study on the incidence and preventability of adverse events requiring a higher level of care in Belgian hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlayen Annemie

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adverse events are unintended patient injuries that arise from healthcare management resulting in disability, prolonged hospital stay or death. Adverse events that require intensive care admission imply a considerable financial burden to the healthcare system. The epidemiology of adverse events in Belgian hospitals has never been assessed systematically. Findings A multistage retrospective review study of patients requiring a transfer to a higher level of care will be conducted in six hospitals in the province of Limburg. Patient records are reviewed starting from January 2012 by a clinical team consisting of a research nurse, a physician and a clinical pharmacist. Besides the incidence and the level of causation and preventability, also the type of adverse events and their consequences (patient harm, mortality and length of stay will be assessed. Moreover, the adequacy of the patient records and quality/usefulness of the method of medical record review will be evaluated. Discussion This paper describes the rationale for a retrospective review study of adverse events that necessitate a higher level of care. More specifically, we are particularly interested in increasing our understanding in the preventability and root causes of these events in order to implement improvement strategies. Attention is paid to the strengths and limitations of the study design.

  17. An on-line pressurizer surveillance system design to prevent small-break loss-of-coolant accidents through power-operated relief valves using a microcomputer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.H.; Chang, S.H.

    1987-01-01

    A small-break loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) caused by a stuck-open power-operated relief valve is one of the important contributors to nuclear power plant risk. A pressurizer surveillance system was designed to use a microcomputer to prevent the malfunction of the system; the effect of this improvement has been assessed through probabilistic risk assessment. The microcomputer diagnoses the malfunction of the system by a process-checking method and automatically performs the backup action related to each malfunction. This improvement means that we can correctly diagnose ''spurious opening,'' ''failure to reclose,'' and ''small-break LOCA,'' which are difficult for operators to diagnose quickly and correctly, and by taking automatic backup action one can reduce the probability of human error

  18. Design and methods for a cluster randomized trial of the Sunless Study: A skin cancer prevention intervention promoting sunless tanning among beach visitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merriam Philip

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Skin cancer is the most prevalent yet most preventable cancer in the US. While protecting oneself from ultraviolet radiation (UVR can largely reduce risk, rates of unprotected sun exposure remain high. Because the desire to be tan often outweighs health concerns among sunbathers, very few interventions have been successful at reducing sunbathing behavior. Sunless tanning (self-tanners and spray tans, a method of achieving the suntanned look without UVR exposure, might be an effective supplement to prevention interventions. Methods and Design This cluster randomized trial will examine whether a beach-based intervention that promotes sunless tanning as a substitute for sunbathing and includes sun damage imaging and sun safety recommendations is superior to a questionnaire only control group in reducing sunbathing frequency. Female beach visitors (N = 250 will be recruited from 2 public beaches in eastern Massachusetts. Beach site will be the unit of randomization. Follow-up assessment will occur at the end of the summer (1-month following intervention and 1 year later. The primary outcome is average sunbathing time per week. The study was designed to provide 90% power for detecting a difference of .70 hours between conditions (standard deviation of 2.0 at 1-year with an intra-cluster correlation coefficient of 0.01 and assuming a 25% rate of loss to follow-up. Secondary outcomes include frequency of sunburns, use of sunless tanning products, and sun protection behavior. Discussion Interventions might be improved by promoting behavioral substitutes for sun exposure, such as sunless tanners, that create a tanned look without exposure to UVR. Trial registration NCT00403377

  19. Preventing AVF thrombosis: the rationale and design of the Omega-3 fatty acids (Fish Oils and Aspirin in Vascular access OUtcomes in REnal Disease (FAVOURED study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosman Johan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Haemodialysis (HD is critically dependent on the availability of adequate access to the systemic circulation, ideally via a native arteriovenous fistula (AVF. The Primary failure rate of an AVF ranges between 20–54%, due to thrombosis or failure of maturation. There remains limited evidence for the use of anti-platelet agents and uncertainty as to choice of agent(s for the prevention of AVF thrombosis. We present the study protocol for a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial examining whether the use of the anti-platelet agents, aspirin and omega-3 fatty acids, either alone or in combination, will effectively reduce the risk of early thrombosis in de novo AVF. Methods/Design The study population is adult patients with stage IV or V chronic kidney disease (CKD currently on HD or where HD is planned to start within 6 months in whom a planned upper or lower arm AVF is to be the primary HD access. Using a factorial-design trial, patients will be randomised to aspirin or matching placebo, and also to omega-3 fatty acids or matching placebo, resulting in four treatment groups (aspirin placebo/omega-3 fatty acid placebo, aspirin/omega-3 fatty acid placebo, aspirin placebo/omega-3 fatty acid, aspirin/omega-3 fatty acid. Randomisation will be achieved using a dynamic balancing method over the two stratification factors of study site and upper versus lower arm AVF. The medication will be commenced pre-operatively and continued for 3 months post surgery. The primary outcome is patency of the AVF at three months after randomisation. Secondary outcome measures will include functional patency at six and twelve months, primary patency time, secondary (assisted patency time, and adverse events, particularly bleeding. Discussion This multicentre Australian and New Zealand study has been designed to determine whether the outcome of surgery to create de novo AVF can be improved by the use of aspirin and/or omega-3 fatty

  20. 'Be active, eat right', evaluation of an overweight prevention protocol among 5-year-old children: design of a cluster randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veldhuis Lydian

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of overweight and obesity in children has at least doubled in the past 25 years with a major impact on health. In 2005 a prevention protocol was developed applicable within Youth Health Care. This study aims to assess the effects of this protocol on prevalence of overweight and health behaviour among children. Methods and design A cluster randomised controlled trial is conducted among 5-year-old children included by 44 Youth Health Care teams randomised within 9 Municipal Health Services. The teams are randomly allocated to the intervention or control group. The teams measure the weight and height of all children. When a child in the intervention group is detected with overweight according to the international age and gender specific cut-off points of BMI, the prevention protocol is applied. According to this protocol parents of overweight children are invited for up to three counselling sessions during which they receive personal advice about a healthy lifestyle, and are motivated for and assisted in behavioural change. The primary outcome measures are Body Mass Index and waist circumference of the children. Parents will complete questionnaires to assess secondary outcome measures: levels of overweight inducing/reducing behaviours (i.e. being physically active, having breakfast, drinking sweet beverages and watching television/playing computer games, parenting styles, parenting practices, and attitudes of parents regarding these behaviours, health-related quality of life of the children, and possible negative side effects of the prevention protocol. Data will be collected at baseline (when the children are aged 5 years, and after 12 and 24 months of follow-up. Additionally, a process and a cost-effectiveness evaluation will be conducted. Discussion In this study called 'Be active, eat right' we evaluate an overweight prevention protocol for use in the setting of Youth Health Care. It is hypothesized that the

  1. Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Pettiway, Keon

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter, Ole B. Jensen takes a situational approach to mobilities to examine how ordinary life activities are structured by technology and design. Using “staging mobilities” as a theoretical approach, Jensen considers mobilities as overlapping, actions, interactions and decisions by desig...... by providing ideas about future research for investigating mobilities in situ as a kind of “staging,” which he notes is influenced by the “material turn” in social sciences....... with a brief description of how movement is studied within social sciences after the “mobilities turn” versus the idea of physical movement in transport geography and engineering. He then explains how “mobilities design” was derived from connections between traffic and architecture. Jensen concludes...

  2. Prevention of depression and anxiety in later life: design of a randomized controlled trial for the clinical and economic evaluation of a life-review intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smit Filip

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depressive and anxiety symptoms in older adults could develop into significant health problems with detrimental effects on quality of life and a possibly poor prognosis. Therefore, there is a need for preventive interventions which are at once effective, acceptable and economic affordable. Methods and design This paper describes the design of a study evaluating "The stories we live by", a preventive life-review group intervention, which was recently developed for adults of 55 years and over with depressive and anxiety symptoms. Both clinical and economic effectiveness will be evaluated in a pragmatic randomized controlled trial. The participants in the intervention condition will receive the 8-session preventive intervention. The participants in the control condition will have access to usual care. Clinical end-terms are depressive and anxiety symptoms, current major depressive episode, quality of life and positive mental health post-treatment (3 months after baseline and at follow-ups (6 and 12 months after baseline. Additional goals of this study are to identify groups for whom the intervention is particularly effective and to identify the therapeutic pathways that are vital in inducing clinical change. This will be done by analyzing if treatment response is moderated by demographics, personality, past major depressive episodes, important life events and chronically disease, and mediated by reminiscence functions, perceived control, automatic positive thoughts and meaning in life. Finally the cost-effectiveness of the intervention relative to care as usual will be assessed by computing incremental costs per case of depression and anxiety avoided (cost-effectiveness and per quality adjusted life year (QALY (cost utility. Discussion It is expected that both the life-review intervention and its evaluation will contribute to the existing body of knowledge in several ways. First, the intervention is unique in linking life

  3. Prevention of suicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Suicide is a major public health problem in India, probably even bigger than in the West. Suicidal behavior is the best conceptualized as a multifaceted complex problem involving social factors and mental illnesses. Broadly, there are two approaches to suicide prevention; population preventive strategies and high-risk preventive strategies. Population preventive strategies include reducing availability of means for suicide, education of primary care physicians, influencing media portrayal of suicidal behavior, education of the public, telephone helplines, and addressing economic issues associated with suicidal behavior. High-risk preventive strategy includes identifying individuals with high risk of committing suicide, intensively treating mental illness if present, and providing psychosocial support. Thus, prevention requires a multipronged effort with collaboration from various sectors including mental health professionals, social justice department, and macroeconomic policy makers.

  4. Anticipated emotions and effort allocation in weight goal striving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelissen, Rob M A; de Vet, Emely; Zeelenberg, Marcel

    2011-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the influence of anticipated emotions on preventive health behaviour if specified at the level of behavioural outcomes. Consistent with predictions from a recently developed model of goal pursuit, we hypothesized that the impact of emotions on effort levels depended on the perceived proximity to the goal. Participants with weight-loss intentions were randomly selected from an Internet panel and completed questionnaires at three points in time, baseline (T1; N= 725), 2 weeks later at T2 (N= 582) and again 2 months later at T3 (N= 528). Questionnaires assessed anticipated emotions (at T1) and experienced emotions (at T2) towards goal attainment and non-attainment. Goal proximity, goal desirability, and effort levels in striving for weight loss were assessed at both T1 and T2. Current and target weights were reported at all three assessments. In line with predictions, we found that negative anticipated emotions towards goal non-attainment resulted in increased effort but only if people perceived themselves in close proximity to their goal. Effort, in turn, predicted weight loss and goal achievement. The current data bear important practical implications as they identify anticipated emotions as targets of behaviour change interventions aimed to stimulate effort in striving for broad, health-related goals like weight loss. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  5. Integrated Safety in Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Casper Siebken; Jørgensen, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    An on-going research project investigates the inclusion of health and safety considerations in the design phase as a means to achieve a higher level of health and safety in the construction industry. Moreover, the approach is coupled to the overall quality efforts. Two architectural firms and two...... consulting engineering firms are project participants. The hypothesis is that health and safety problems in execution can be prevented through better planning in the early stages of the construction processes and that accidents are prevented by providing safety. In the first stage of the research project...... a theoretical framework is developed from a combination of existing literature on health and safety and a mapping of existing practices based on interviews in all four companies. The interviews revealed that the basic knowledge on OHS among architects and engineers is limited. Also currently designers typically...

  6. Design, characterization, and in vitro cellular inhibition and uptake of optimized genistein-loaded NLC for the prevention of posterior capsular opacification using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenji; Li, Xuedong; Ye, Tiantian; Chen, Fen; Sun, Xiao; Kong, Jun; Yang, Xinggang; Pan, Weisan; Li, Sanming

    2013-09-15

    This study was to design an innovative nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) for drug delivery of genistein applied after cataract surgery for the prevention of posterior capsular opacification. NLC loaded with genistein (GEN-NLC) was produced with Compritol 888 ATO, Gelucire 44/14 and Miglyol 812N, stabilized by Solutol(®) HS15 by melt emulsification method. A 2(4) central composite design of 4 independent variables was performed for optimization. Effects of drug concentration, Gelucire 44/14 concentration in total solid lipid, liquid lipid concentration, and surfactant concentration on the mean particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential and encapsulation efficiency were investigated. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) statistical test was used to assess the optimization. The optimized GEN-NLC showed a homogeneous particle size of 90.16 nm (with PI=0.33) of negatively charged surface (-25.08 mv) and high encapsulation efficiency (91.14%). Particle morphology assessed by TEM revealed a spherical shape. DSC analyses confirmed that GEN was mostly entrapped in amorphous state. In vitro release experiments indicated a prolonged and controlled genistein release for 72 h. In vitro growth inhibition assay showed an effective growth inhibition of GEN-NLCs on human lens epithelial cells (HLECs). Preliminary cellular uptake test proved a enhanced penetration of genistein into HLECs when delivered in NLC. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Pocket money and child effort at school

    OpenAIRE

    François-Charles Wolff; Christine Barnet-Verzat

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we study the relationship between the provision of parental pocket and the level of effort undertaken by the child at school. Under altruism, an increased amount of parental transfer should reduce the child's effort. Our empirical analysis is based on a French data set including about 1,400 parent-child pairs. We find that children do not undertake less effort when their parents are more generous.

  8. Preventing AVF thrombosis: the rationale and design of the Omega-3 fatty acids (Fish Oils) and Aspirin in Vascular access OUtcomes in REnal Disease (FAVOURED) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irish, Ashley; Dogra, Gursharan; Mori, Trevor; Beller, Elaine; Heritier, Stephane; Hawley, Carmel; Kerr, Peter; Robertson, Amanda; Rosman, Johan; Paul-Brent, Peta-Anne; Starfield, Melissa; Polkinghorne, Kevan; Cass, Alan

    2009-01-21

    Haemodialysis (HD) is critically dependent on the availability of adequate access to the systemic circulation, ideally via a native arteriovenous fistula (AVF). The Primary failure rate of an AVF ranges between 20-54%, due to thrombosis or failure of maturation. There remains limited evidence for the use of anti-platelet agents and uncertainty as to choice of agent(s) for the prevention of AVF thrombosis. We present the study protocol for a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial examining whether the use of the anti-platelet agents, aspirin and omega-3 fatty acids, either alone or in combination, will effectively reduce the risk of early thrombosis in de novo AVF. The study population is adult patients with stage IV or V chronic kidney disease (CKD) currently on HD or where HD is planned to start within 6 months in whom a planned upper or lower arm AVF is to be the primary HD access. Using a factorial-design trial, patients will be randomised to aspirin or matching placebo, and also to omega-3 fatty acids or matching placebo, resulting in four treatment groups (aspirin placebo/omega-3 fatty acid placebo, aspirin/omega-3 fatty acid placebo, aspirin placebo/omega-3 fatty acid, aspirin/omega-3 fatty acid). Randomisation will be achieved using a dynamic balancing method over the two stratification factors of study site and upper versus lower arm AVF. The medication will be commenced pre-operatively and continued for 3 months post surgery. The primary outcome is patency of the AVF at three months after randomisation. Secondary outcome measures will include functional patency at six and twelve months, primary patency time, secondary (assisted) patency time, and adverse events, particularly bleeding. This multicentre Australian and New Zealand study has been designed to determine whether the outcome of surgery to create de novo AVF can be improved by the use of aspirin and/or omega-3 fatty acids. Recently a placebo-controlled trial has shown that

  9. Economic response to harvest and effort control in fishery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoff, Ayoe; Frost, Hans

    for fisheries management. The report outlines bio-economic models, which are designed to shed light on the efficiency of different management tools in terms of quota or effort restrictions given the objectives of the Common Fisheries Policy about sustainable and economic viable fisheries. The report addresses...... the complexities of biological and economic interaction in a multispecies, multifleet framework and outlines consistent mathematical models....

  10. Efforts - Final technical report on task 4. Physical modelling calidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jan Lasson; Olsson, David Dam; Christensen, T. W.

    The present report is documentation for the work carried out in Task 4 at DTU Physical modelling-validation on the Brite/Euram project No. BE96-3340, contract No. BRPR-CT97-0398, with the title Enhanced Framework for forging design using reliable three-dimensional simulation (EFFORTS). The report...

  11. Partnering Against Cancer Today: A Blueprint for Coordinating Efforts Through Communication Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    One of the hallmarks of the communication revolution over the past decade has been its support for participation, whether that be in the active engagement of patients searching the Web for answers to vital health questions, or in the collective energies of self-organizing communities through social media. At the same time, some of the major obstacles to achieving a full and equitable reach of evidence-based cancer control knowledge have been traced back to discontinuities in communication either within clinical care or the broader public awareness system. Communication scientists from the National Cancer Institute, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the American Cancer Society joined forces in 2010 to investigate ways in which communication science can be used to improve coordination and enhance participation in cancer control for the nation. From 2010 to 2013, the three organizations worked together in 1) convening two meetings designed to assess the status of funded research in communication science, 2) completing a systematic review of literature published over the previous 10 years, and 3) authoring a blueprint for coordinated efforts using the implications of communication science. The blueprint consists of three major goals: first, to identify high-yield targets of opportunity using the health impact pyramid articulated by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Director, Thomas Frieden; second, to leverage opportunities within the new communication environment, including the opportunities catalyzed by national efforts to create an infrastructure for evidence implementation through health information technology; and third, to assist in coordinating efforts across collaborative entities through participative media. PMID:24395998

  12. KMRR fuel design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, D.S.; Sim, B.S.; Kim, T.R.; Hwang, W.; Kim, B.G.; Ku, Y.H.; Lee, C.B.; Lim, I.C.

    1992-06-01

    KMRR fuel rod design criteria on fuel swelling, blistering and oxide spallation have been reexamined. Fuel centerline temperature limit of 250deg C in normal operation condition and fuel swelling limit of 12 % at the end of life have been proposed to prevent fuel failure due to excessive fuel swelling. Fuel temperature limit of 485deg C has been proposed to exclude the possibility of fuel failures during transients or under accident condition. Further analyses are needed to decide the fuel cladding temperature limit to preclude the oxide spallation. Design changes in fuel assembly structure and their effects on related systems have been reviewed from a structural integrity viewpoint. The remained works in fuel mechanical design area have been identified and further efforts of fuel design group will be focused on these aspects. (Author)

  13. The Effectiveness and Sustainability of a Universal School-Based Programme for Preventing Depression in Chinese Adolescents: A Follow-Up Study Using Quasi-Experimental Design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza S Y Lai

    Full Text Available A pilot study about the effectiveness of a universal school-based programme, "The Little Prince is Depressed", for preventing depression in Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong was conducted and reported previously. This study used a larger sample to examine the effectiveness and sustainability of the programme.This study used quasi-experimental design. Twelve schools enrolled in "The Little Prince is Depressed" programme either as an intervention or a control condition. The intervention schools carried out the 12-session programme in two phases: the professional-led first phase and the teacher-led second phase. All participants were required to complete a questionnaire at three time points measuring their (1 depressive, anxiety, and stress levels; (2 knowledge of mental health; (3 attitudes towards mental illness; (4 perceived social support; and (5 help-seeking behaviours.A total of 3,391 students participated in the study. The level of depressive symptoms did not reduce significantly at post-intervention; however, a delayed effect was observed at follow-up assessment for the participants of the teacher-led group in reducing anxiety and stress levels. Also, the knowledge of mental health and attitudes towards mental illness of the intervention-group participants significantly improved at post-test, and the outcomes were maintained at 4 to 5 months after the intervention in both the professional-led and the teacher-led conditions (p<.05. A preference among schoolchildren for whom to seek help from was identified.The universal depression prevention programme was effective in enhancing knowledge of mental health and promoting a more positive attitude towards mental illness among adolescents in Hong Kong. In particular, the teacher-led group showed better outcomes than the professional-led group in reducing students' anxiety and stress at follow-up period. The programme can achieve sustainability in schools if teachers are provided with adequate

  14. Obesity Prevention and Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Eleanor R; Olson, Alexandra; DiFazio, Marc; Cassidy, Omni

    2016-03-01

    Obesity is widespread, associated with several physical and psychosocial comorbidities, and is difficult to treat. Prevention of obesity across the lifespan is critical to improving the health of individuals and society. Screening and prevention efforts in primary care are an important step in addressing the obesity epidemic. Each period of human development is associated with unique risks, challenges, and opportunities for prevention and intervention. Screening tools for overweight/obesity, although imperfect, are quick and easy to administer. Screening should be conducted at every primary care visit and tracked longitudinally. Screening tools and cutoffs for overweight and obesity vary by age group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The influence of music on mental effort and driving performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünal, Ayça Berfu; Steg, Linda; Epstude, Kai

    2012-09-01

    The current research examined the influence of loud music on driving performance, and whether mental effort mediated this effect. Participants (N=69) drove in a driving simulator either with or without listening to music. In order to test whether music would have similar effects on driving performance in different situations, we manipulated the simulated traffic environment such that the driving context consisted of both complex and monotonous driving situations. In addition, we systematically kept track of drivers' mental load by making the participants verbally report their mental effort at certain moments while driving. We found that listening to music increased mental effort while driving, irrespective of the driving situation being complex or monotonous, providing support to the general assumption that music can be a distracting auditory stimulus while driving. However, drivers who listened to music performed as well as the drivers who did not listen to music, indicating that music did not impair their driving performance. Importantly, the increases in mental effort while listening to music pointed out that drivers try to regulate their mental effort as a cognitive compensatory strategy to deal with task demands. Interestingly, we observed significant improvements in driving performance in two of the driving situations. It seems like mental effort might mediate the effect of music on driving performance in situations requiring sustained attention. Other process variables, such as arousal and boredom, should also be incorporated to study designs in order to reveal more on the nature of how music affects driving. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Injury Prevention Research

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-09-01

    Research provides the knowledge that we need to understand what is possible, what is not, and the best way to proceed in our intervention efforts.  Created: 9/1/2009 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 9/1/2009.

  17. Time preferences, study effort, and academic performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Non, J.A.; Tempelaar, D.T.

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the relation between time preferences, study effort, and academic performance among first-year Business and Economics students. Time preferences are measured by stated preferences for an immediate payment over larger delayed payments. Data on study efforts are derived from an electronic

  18. Interests, Effort, Achievement and Vocational Preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjoberg, L.

    1984-01-01

    Relationships between interest in natural sciences and technology and perceived ability, success, and invested effort were studied in Swedish secondary school students. Interests were accounted for by logical orientation and practical value. Interests and grades were strongly correlated, but correlations between interests and effort and vocational…

  19. Dopamine and Effort-Based Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Triasih Kurniawan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Motivational theories of choice focus on the influence of goal values and strength of reinforcement to explain behavior. By contrast relatively little is known concerning how the cost of an action, such as effort expended, contributes to a decision to act. Effort-based decision making addresses how we make an action choice based on an integration of action and goal values. Here we review behavioral and neurobiological data regarding the representation of effort as action cost, and how this impacts on decision making. Although organisms expend effort to obtain a desired reward there is a striking sensitivity to the amount of effort required, such that the net preference for an action decreases as effort cost increases. We discuss the contribution of the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA towards overcoming response costs and in enhancing an animal’s motivation towards effortful actions. We also consider the contribution of brain structures, including the basal ganglia (BG and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, in the internal generation of action involving a translation of reward expectation into effortful action.

  20. Listening Effort With Cochlear Implant Simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pals, Carina; Sarampalis, Anastasios; Başkent, Deniz

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Fitting a cochlear implant (CI) for optimal speech perception does not necessarily optimize listening effort. This study aimed to show that listening effort may change between CI processing conditions for which speech intelligibility remains constant. Method: Nineteen normal-hearing

  1. Effort and Selection Effects of Incentive Contracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwens, J.F.M.G.; van Lent, L.A.G.M.

    2003-01-01

    We show that the improved effort of employees associated with incentive contracts depends on the properties of the performance measures used in the contract.We also find that the power of incentives in the contract is only indirectly related to any improved employee effort.High powered incentive

  2. The Effect of Age on Listening Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degeest, Sofie; Keppler, Hannah; Corthals, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of age on listening effort. Method: A dual-task paradigm was used to evaluate listening effort in different conditions of background noise. Sixty adults ranging in age from 20 to 77 years were included. A primary speech-recognition task and a secondary memory task were performed…

  3. Evidence-based obesity prevention in childhood and adolescence: critique of recent etiological studies, preventive interventions, and policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, John J

    2012-07-01

    Prevention of obesity in childhood and adolescence remains a worthwhile and realistic goal, but preventive efforts have been beset by a number of problems, which are the subject of this review. The review draws on recent systematic reviews and evidence appraisals and has a United Kingdom (UK) perspective because there is a rich evidence base in the United Kingdom that may be helpful to obesity prevention researchers elsewhere. Recent evidence of a leveling off in child and adolescent obesity prevalence in some Western nations should not encourage the belief that the obesity prevention problem has been solved, although a better understanding of recent secular trends might be helpful for prevention strategy in future. An adequate body of evidence provides behavioral targets of preventive interventions, and there are frameworks for prioritizing these targets logically and models for translating them into generalizable interventions with a wide reach (e.g., school-based prevention interventions such as Planet Health). An improved understanding of the "energy gap" that children and adolescents experience would be helpful to the design of preventive interventions and to their tailoring to particular groups. In the United Kingdom, some recent etiological evidence has been taken as indicative of the need for paradigm shifts in obesity prevention, but this evidence from single studies has not been replicated, and paradigm shifts probably occur only rarely. Ensuring that the evidence base on etiology and prevention influences policy effectively remains one of the greatest challenges for childhood obesity researchers.

  4. Evidence-Based Obesity Prevention in Childhood and Adolescence: Critique of Recent Etiological Studies, Preventive Interventions, and Policies123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, John J.

    2012-01-01

    Prevention of obesity in childhood and adolescence remains a worthwhile and realistic goal, but preventive efforts have been beset by a number of problems, which are the subject of this review. The review draws on recent systematic reviews and evidence appraisals and has a United Kingdom (UK) perspective because there is a rich evidence base in the United Kingdom that may be helpful to obesity prevention researchers elsewhere. Recent evidence of a leveling off in child and adolescent obesity prevalence in some Western nations should not encourage the belief that the obesity prevention problem has been solved, although a better understanding of recent secular trends might be helpful for prevention strategy in future. An adequate body of evidence provides behavioral targets of preventive interventions, and there are frameworks for prioritizing these targets logically and models for translating them into generalizable interventions with a wide reach (e.g., school-based prevention interventions such as Planet Health). An improved understanding of the “energy gap” that children and adolescents experience would be helpful to the design of preventive interventions and to their tailoring to particular groups. In the United Kingdom, some recent etiological evidence has been taken as indicative of the need for paradigm shifts in obesity prevention, but this evidence from single studies has not been replicated, and paradigm shifts probably occur only rarely. Ensuring that the evidence base on etiology and prevention influences policy effectively remains one of the greatest challenges for childhood obesity researchers. PMID:22798005

  5. Low-effort thought promotes political conservatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidelman, Scott; Crandall, Christian S; Goodman, Jeffrey A; Blanchar, John C

    2012-06-01

    The authors test the hypothesis that low-effort thought promotes political conservatism. In Study 1, alcohol intoxication was measured among bar patrons; as blood alcohol level increased, so did political conservatism (controlling for sex, education, and political identification). In Study 2, participants under cognitive load reported more conservative attitudes than their no-load counterparts. In Study 3, time pressure increased participants' endorsement of conservative terms. In Study 4, participants considering political terms in a cursory manner endorsed conservative terms more than those asked to cogitate; an indicator of effortful thought (recognition memory) partially mediated the relationship between processing effort and conservatism. Together these data suggest that political conservatism may be a process consequence of low-effort thought; when effortful, deliberate thought is disengaged, endorsement of conservative ideology increases.

  6. Prevention of choking among children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Choking is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among children, especially those aged 3 years or younger. Food, coins, and toys are the primary causes of choking-related injury and death. Certain characteristics, including shape, size, and consistency, of certain toys and foods increase their potential to cause choking among children. Childhood choking hazards should be addressed through comprehensive and coordinated prevention activities. The US Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) should increase efforts to ensure that toys that are sold in retail store bins, vending machines, or on the Internet have appropriate choking-hazard warnings; work with manufacturers to improve the effectiveness of recalls of products that pose a choking risk to children; and increase efforts to prevent the resale of these recalled products via online auction sites. Current gaps in choking-prevention standards for children's toys should be reevaluated and addressed, as appropriate, via revisions to the standards established under the Child Safety Protection Act, the Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act, or regulation by the CPSC. Prevention of food-related choking among children in the United States has been inadequately addressed at the federal level. The US Food and Drug Administration should establish a systematic, institutionalized process for examining and addressing the hazards of food-related choking. This process should include the establishment of the necessary surveillance, hazard evaluation, enforcement, and public education activities to prevent food-related choking among children. While maintaining its highly cooperative arrangements with the CPSC and the US Department of Agriculture, the Food and Drug Administration should have the authority to address choking-related risks of all food products, including meat products that fall under the jurisdiction of the US Department of Agriculture. The existing National Electronic Injury Surveillance System-All Injury

  7. Los Angeles County Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act. Fiscal Year 2009-2010 Report. Technical Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fain, Terry; Turner, Susan; Ridgeway, Greg

    2012-01-01

    In 2000, the California State Legislature passed what is now known as the Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act (JJCPA). This effort was designed to provide a stable funding source to counties for juvenile programs that have been proven effective in curbing crime among juvenile probationers and young at-risk offenders. The Corrections Standards…

  8. NREL Quickens its Tech Transfer Efforts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lammers, H.

    2012-02-01

    Innovations and 'aha' movements in renewable energy and energy efficiency, while exciting in the lab, only truly live up to their promise once they find a place in homes or business. Late last year President Obama issued a directive to all federal agencies to increase their efforts to transfer technologies to the private sector in order to achieve greater societal and economic impacts of federal research investments. The president's call to action includes efforts to establish technology transfer goals and to measure progress, to engage in efforts to increase the speed of technology transfer and to enhance local and regional innovation partnerships. But, even before the White House began its initiative to restructure the commercialization process, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory had a major effort underway designed to increase the speed and impact of technology transfer activities and had already made sure its innovations had a streamlined path to the private sector. For the last three years, NREL has been actively setting commercialization goals and tracking progress against those goals. For example, NREL sought to triple the number of innovations over a five-year period that began in 2009. Through best practices associated with inventor engagement, education and collaboration, NREL quadrupled the number of innovations in just three years. Similar progress has been made in patenting, licensing transactions, income generation and rewards to inventors. 'NREL is known nationally for our cutting-edge research and companies know to call us when they are ready to collaborate,' William Farris, vice president for commercialization and technology transfer, said. 'Once a team is ready to dive in, they don't want be mired in paperwork. We've worked to make our process for licensing NREL technology faster; it now takes less than 60 days for us to come to an agreement and start work with a company interested in our research

  9. Preventing recurrence of endometriosis by means of long-acting progestogen therapy (PRE-EMPT): report of an internal pilot, multi-arm, randomised controlled trial incorporating flexible entry design and adaption of design based on feasibility of recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Lee J; Daniels, Jane P; Weckesser, Annalise; Bhattacharya, Siladitya

    2017-03-11

    Endometriosis is associated with the growth of endometrium in ectopic sites mainly within the pelvis. This results in inflammation and scarring, causing pain and impaired quality of life. Endometriotic lesions can be excised or ablated surgically, but the risk of recurrence is high. A Heath Technology Assessment commissioning call in 2011 sought applications for trials aimed at evaluating long-term effectiveness of postoperative, long-acting, reversible contraceptives (LARCs) in preventing recurrence of endometriosis. A survey of gynaecologists indicated that there was no consensus about which LARC (Levonorgestrel Intrauterine System (LNG-IUS) or depot medroxyprogesterone acetate injection (DMPA)) or comparator (combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP) or no treatment) should be evaluated. Hence, we designed a 'flexible-entry' internal pilot to assess whether a four-arm trial was feasible including a possible design adaption based on pilot findings. In this pilot, women could be randomised to two, three or four treatment options provided that one was a LARC and one was a non-LARC. An assessment of feasibility based on recruitment to these options and a revised substantive trial design was considered by an independent oversight committee. The study ran for 1 year from April 2014 and 77 women were randomised. Only 5 (6%) women accepted randomisation to all groups, with 63 (82%) having a LARC preference and 55 (71%) a non-LARC preference. Four-way and three-way designs were ruled out with a two-way LARC versus COCP design, stratified by prerandomisation choice of LARC and optional subrandomisation to LNG-IUS versus DMPA considered a feasible substantive study. Multi-arm studies are potentially efficient as they can answer multiple questions simultaneously but are difficult to recruit to if there are strong patient or clinician preferences. A flexible approach to randomisation in a pilot phase can be used to assess feasibility of such studies and modify a trial design

  10. Prevention of preterm birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flood, Karen

    2012-02-01

    Preterm birth (delivery before 37 completed weeks of gestation) is common and rates are increasing. In the past, medical efforts focused on ameliorating the consequences of prematurity rather than preventing its occurrence. This approach resulted in improved neonatal outcomes, but it remains costly in terms of both the suffering of infants and their families and the economic burden on society. Increased understanding of the pathophysiology of preterm labor has altered the approach to this problem, with increased focus on preventive strategies. Primary prevention is a limited strategy which involves public education, smoking cessation, improved nutritional status and avoidance of late preterm births. Secondary prevention focuses on recurrent preterm birth which is the most recognisable risk factor. Widely accepted strategies include cervical cerclage, progesterone and dedicated clinics. However, more research is needed to explore the role of antibiotics and anti-inflammatory treatments in the prevention of this complex problem.

  11. Managing Occupational Irritant Contact Dermatitis Using a Two-Step Skincare Regimen Designed to Prevent Skin Damage and Support Skin Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Grote, Erika C; Palaniswarmy, Kiruthi; Meckfessel, Matthew H

    2016-12-01

    Occupational irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) affecting the hands is a common and difficult-to-manage condition. Occupations that necessitate contact with harsh chemicals, use of alcohol-based disinfectants, and frequent hand washing elevate the risk of ICD. Management strategies that do not adequately prevent accumulated damage and repair skin, can develop into chronic dermatoses which negatively impact work productivity and quality of life. A 2-step skin-care regimen (Excipial Daily Protection Hand Cream (EP) and Excipial Rapid Repair Hand Cream (ER), Galderma Laboratories, L.P.) has been developed as a daily-use management strategy to protect and repair vulnerable hands. The protective barrier cream is formulated with aluminum chlorohydrate and designed for pre-exposure application to enhance the skin's natural protective barrier and minimize excessive moisture while wearing protective gloves. The repair cream, a lipid-rich formulation, is intended for post-exposure application to rehydrate and facilitate the skin's natural healing process. The results of 3 clinical studies highlighted in this review demonstrate how the use of a 2-step skin-care regimen offers a greater protective effect against ICD than the use of barrier cream alone, and also how the formulation of the barrier cream used in these studies helps minimize the occlusion effect caused by gloves and does not interfere with the antibacterial efficacy of an alcohol-based hand sanitizer. This 2-step skin-care regimen is effectively designed to manage and minimize the risk of ICD development in a variety of patients and provides clinicians an additional tool for helping patients manage ICD. J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(12):1504-1510.

  12. EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth (ENERGY project: Design and methodology of the ENERGY cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno Luis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity treatment is by large ineffective long term, and more emphasis on the prevention of excessive weight gain in childhood and adolescence is warranted. To inform energy balance related behaviour (EBRB change interventions, insight in the potential personal, family and school environmental correlates of these behaviours is needed. Studies on such multilevel correlates of EBRB among schoolchildren in Europe are lacking. The ENERGY survey aims to (1 provide up-to-date prevalence rates of measured overweight, obesity, self-reported engagement in EBRBs, and objective accelerometer-based assessment of physical activity and sedentary behaviour and blood-sample biomarkers of metabolic function in countries in different regions of Europe, (2 to identify personal, family and school environmental correlates of these EBRBs. This paper describes the design, methodology and protocol of the survey. Method/Design A school-based cross-sectional survey was carried out in 2010 in seven different European countries; Belgium, Greece, Hungary, the Netherlands, Norway, Slovenia, and Spain. The survey included measurements of anthropometrics, child, parent and school-staff questionnaires, and school observations to measure and assess outcomes (i.e. height, weight, and waist circumference, EBRBs and potential personal, family and school environmental correlates of these behaviours including the social-cultural, physical, political, and economic environmental factors. In addition, a selection of countries conducted accelerometer measurements to objectively assess physical activity and sedentary behaviour, and collected blood samples to assess several biomarkers of metabolic function. Discussion The ENERGY survey is a comprehensive cross-sectional study measuring anthropometrics and biomarkers as well as assessing a range of EBRBs and their potential correlates at the personal, family and school level, among 10-12 year old children in seven

  13. The longitudinal prevalence of MRSA in care home residents and the effectiveness of improving infection prevention knowledge and practice on colonisation using a stepped wedge study design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, C; Barr, B; Hall, D; Hodgson, G; Parnell, P; Tompkins, D

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To determine the prevalence and health outcomes of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonisation in elderly care home residents. To measure the effectiveness of improving infection prevention knowledge and practice on MRSA prevalence. Setting Care homes for elderly residents in Leeds, UK. Participants Residents able to give informed consent. Design A controlled intervention study, using a stepped wedge design, comprising 65 homes divided into three groups. Baseline MRSA prevalence was determined by screening the nares of residents (n=2492). An intervention based upon staff education and training on hand hygiene was delivered at three different times according to group number. Scores for three assessment methods, an audit of hand hygiene facilities, staff hand hygiene observations and an educational questionnaire, were collected before and after the intervention. After each group of homes received the intervention, all participants were screened for MRSA nasal colonisation. In total, four surveys took place between November 2006 and February 2009. Results MRSA prevalence was 20%, 19%, 22% and 21% in each survey, respectively. There was a significant improvement in scores for all three assessment methods post-intervention (p≤0.001). The intervention was associated with a small but significant increase in MRSA prevalence (p=0.023). MRSA colonisation was associated with previous and subsequent MRSA infection but was not significantly associated with subsequent hospitalisation or mortality. Conclusions The intervention did not result in a decrease in the prevalence of MRSA colonisation in care home residents. Additional measures will be required to reduce endemic MRSA colonisation in care homes. PMID:22240647

  14. Active video games as a tool to prevent excessive weight gain in adolescents: rationale, design and methods of a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Excessive body weight, low physical activity and excessive sedentary time in youth are major public health concerns. A new generation of video games, the ones that require physical activity to play the games –i.e. active games- may be a promising alternative to traditional non-active games to promote physical activity and reduce sedentary behaviors in youth. The aim of this manuscript is to describe the design of a study evaluating the effects of a family oriented active game intervention, incorporating several motivational elements, on anthropometrics and health behaviors in adolescents. Methods/Design The study is a randomized controlled trial (RCT), with non-active gaming adolescents aged 12 – 16 years old randomly allocated to a ten month intervention (receiving active games, as well as an encouragement to play) or a waiting-list control group (receiving active games after the intervention period). Primary outcomes are adolescents’ measured BMI-SDS (SDS = adjusted for mean standard deviation score), waist circumference-SDS, hip circumference and sum of skinfolds. Secondary outcomes are adolescents’ self-reported time spent playing active and non-active games, other sedentary activities and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. In addition, a process evaluation is conducted, assessing the sustainability of the active games, enjoyment, perceived competence, perceived barriers for active game play, game context, injuries from active game play, activity replacement and intention to continue playing the active games. Discussion This is the first adequately powered RCT including normal weight adolescents, evaluating a reasonably long period of provision of and exposure to active games. Next, strong elements are the incorporating motivational elements for active game play and a comprehensive process evaluation. This trial will provide evidence regarding the potential contribution of active games in prevention of excessive weight gain in

  15. Visual cues and listening effort: individual variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picou, Erin M; Ricketts, Todd A; Hornsby, Benjamin W Y

    2011-10-01

    To investigate the effect of visual cues on listening effort as well as whether predictive variables such as working memory capacity (WMC) and lipreading ability affect the magnitude of listening effort. Twenty participants with normal hearing were tested using a paired-associates recall task in 2 conditions (quiet and noise) and 2 presentation modalities (audio only [AO] and auditory-visual [AV]). Signal-to-noise ratios were adjusted to provide matched speech recognition across audio-only and AV noise conditions. Also measured were subjective perceptions of listening effort and 2 predictive variables: (a) lipreading ability and (b) WMC. Objective and subjective results indicated that listening effort increased in the presence of noise, but on average the addition of visual cues did not significantly affect the magnitude of listening effort. Although there was substantial individual variability, on average participants who were better lipreaders or had larger WMCs demonstrated reduced listening effort in noise in AV conditions. Overall, the results support the hypothesis that integrating auditory and visual cues requires cognitive resources in some participants. The data indicate that low lipreading ability or low WMC is associated with relatively effortful integration of auditory and visual information in noise.

  16. The Effectiveness and Sustainability of a Universal School-Based Programme for Preventing Depression in Chinese Adolescents: A Follow-Up Study Using Quasi-Experimental Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Eliza S Y; Kwok, Chi-Leung; Wong, Paul W C; Fu, King-Wa; Law, Yik-Wa; Yip, Paul S F

    2016-01-01

    A pilot study about the effectiveness of a universal school-based programme, "The Little Prince is Depressed", for preventing depression in Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong was conducted and reported previously. This study used a larger sample to examine the effectiveness and sustainability of the programme. This study used quasi-experimental design. Twelve schools enrolled in "The Little Prince is Depressed" programme either as an intervention or a control condition. The intervention schools carried out the 12-session programme in two phases: the professional-led first phase and the teacher-led second phase. All participants were required to complete a questionnaire at three time points measuring their (1) depressive, anxiety, and stress levels; (2) knowledge of mental health; (3) attitudes towards mental illness; (4) perceived social support; and (5) help-seeking behaviours. A total of 3,391 students participated in the study. The level of depressive symptoms did not reduce significantly at post-intervention; however, a delayed effect was observed at follow-up assessment for the participants of the teacher-led group in reducing anxiety and stress levels. Also, the knowledge of mental health and attitudes towards mental illness of the intervention-group participants significantly improved at post-test, and the outcomes were maintained at 4 to 5 months after the intervention in both the professional-led and the teacher-led conditions (psustainability in schools if teachers are provided with adequate support.

  17. Design and Implementation of a Community Health Worker HIV Treatment and Prevention Intervention in an HIV Hot Spot Fishing Community in Rakai, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Amanda; Mbabali, Ismail; Hutton, Heidi E; Thomas, Alvin G; Bugos, Eva; Mulamba, Jeremiah; Amico, Kathy Rivet; Nalugoda, Fred; Gray, Ronald H; Wawer, Maria J; Nakigozi, Gertrude; Chang, Larry W

    Innovative approaches are needed to increase engagement in HIV treatment and prevention services, particularly in HIV hot spots. Here, we detail our design, training approach, and early implementation experiences of a community-based HIV intervention called "health scouts." The intervention, utilizing a novel, theory-based approach, trained 10 community residents in an HIV hot spot fishing community to use motivational interviewing strategies and a mobile phone-based counseling application. During the first 3 months, 771 residents (median 82/health scout, range 27-160) were counseled. A directly observed Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity scale-based evaluation found adequate performance (median score 20/25, range 11-23). The health scout intervention was feasible to implement in a high HIV-prevalence fishing community, and its impact on HIV care outcomes will be evaluated in an ongoing cluster randomized trial. If found to be effective, it may be an important strategy for responding to HIV in high-burden settings.

  18. Design and construction of landslide preventive construction at Yamasubara hydroelectric power plant site. Yamasubata hatsudensho chiten ni okeru jisuberi taisaku koji no sekkei seko ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takase, H; Ito, M; Sakata, M [The Kyushu Electric Power Co. Inc., Fukuoka (Japan)

    1993-07-30

    This paper reports the design and construction of landslide preventive construction at the site of the Yamasubara hydroelectric power plant (with a maximum output of 40,700 kW) and the result of slope stability verification after completion of the construction. The moderate slope on top of the primary slide has sands presumed to be colluvial deposit distributed with a depth of 10 m or more, where occurrence of a secondary slip was feared as triggered by the primary slide. The power plant protective constructions consisted of concrete walls to protect the entire power plant including buildings, and falling stone protective fences installed around the surge tanks. The temporary measures were so set that groundwater levels are lowered to a level that can assure the slide safety factor of 1.0 or more by means of drain boring using the down-the-hole hammer type. The permanent protective construction used rock anchors that are superior in constructability and economy. The stability of sliding slope faces was verified to confirm effects of the protective constructions. The verification included observations of groundwater level behavior, water well-up from drain holes, and movements in the slopes. The result showed that the protective constructions have give sufficient effects. Continued slope stability control is important. 16 figs., 7 tabs.

  19. Go4it; study design of a randomised controlled trial and economic evaluation of a multidisciplinary group intervention for obese adolescents for prevention o