Jeffrey P. Prestemon; David T. Butry; Karen L. Abt; Ronda. Sutphen
Wildfire prevention education efforts involve a variety of methods, including airing public service announcements, distributing brochures, and making presentations, which are intended to reduce the occurrence of certain kinds of wildfires. A Poisson model of preventable Florida wildfires from 2002 to 2007 by fire management region was developed. Controlling for...
Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Capizzi, Andrea M.; Fisher, Marisa H.; Ennis, Robin Parks
In this study we examine the impact of the Behavior Education Program (BEP; Hawken, MacLeod, & Rawlings, 2007) with four middle school students who were not responsive to a comprehensive primary prevention program including academic, behavioral and social components. To extend this line of inquiry we (a) conducted a functional behavioral…
Prestridge, Katherine; Hodapp, Theodore
American Physical Society (APS) has a wide range of education and diversity programs and activities, including programs that improve physics education, increase diversity, provide outreach to the public, and impact public policy. We present the latest programs spearheaded by the Committee on the Status of Women in Physics (CSWP), with highlights from other diversity and education efforts. The CSWP is working to increase the fraction of women in physics, understand and implement solutions for gender-specific issues, enhance professional development opportunities for women in physics, and remedy issues that impact gender inequality in physics. The Conferences for Undergraduate Women in Physics, Professional Skills Development Workshops, and our new Professional Skills program for students and postdocs are all working towards meeting these goals. The CSWP also has site visit and conversation visit programs, where department chairs request that the APS assess the climate for women in their departments or facilitate climate discussions. APS also has two significant programs to increase participation by underrepresented minorities (URM). The newest program, the APS National Mentoring Community, is working to provide mentoring to URM undergraduates, and the APS Bridge Program is an established effort that is dramatically increasing the number of URM PhDs in physics.
Blue, Amy V.; Barnette, J. Jackson; Ferguson, Kristi J.; Garr, David R.
Discusses the importance of assessing medical students' competence in prevention knowledge, skills, and attitudes. Provides general guidance for programs interested in evaluating their prevention instructional efforts, and gives specific examples of possible methods for evaluating prevention education. Stresses the need to tailor assessment…
Hoelscher, Deanna M; Ranjit, Nalini; Pérez, Adriana
To address the obesity epidemic, the public health community must develop surveillance systems that capture data at levels through which obesity prevention efforts are conducted. Current systems assess body mass index (BMI), diet, and physical activity behaviors at the individual level, but environmental and policy-related data are often lacking. The goal of this review is to describe US surveillance systems that evaluate obesity prevention efforts within the context of international trends in obesity monitoring, to identify potential data gaps, and to present recommendations to improve the evaluation of population-level initiatives. Our recommendations include adding environmental and policy measures to surveillance efforts with a focus on addressing underserved populations, harmonizing existing surveillance systems, including more sensitive measures of obesity outcomes, and developing a knowledgeable workforce. In addition, the widespread use of electronic health records and new technologies that allow self-quantification of behaviors offers opportunities for innovative surveillance methods.
Professionals in the health and education sector require knowledge and understanding of issues of family violence. Violence in the family home against women and children continues to present alarming problems. Significant evidence suggests that not only current and former female partners, but also children, are exposed to violence in the home.…
Doreswamy, Rajiv; Armstrong, Robert C.
According to the National Science Foundation, of the more than 4 million first university degrees awarded in science and engineering in 2006, students in China earned about 21%, those in the European Union earned about 19%, and those in the United States earned about 11%. Statistics like these are of great interest to NASA's Ares Projects, which are responsible for building the rockets for the U.S. Constellation Program to send humans beyond low-Earth orbit. Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics students are essential for the long-term sustainability of any space program. Since the Projects creation, the Ares Outreach Team has used a variety of STEM-related media, methods, and materials to engage students, educators, and the general public in Constellation's mission. Like Project Apollo, the nation s exploration destinations and the vehicles used to get there can inspire students to learn more about STEM. Ares has been particularly active in public outreach to schools in Northern Alabama; on the Internet via outreach and grade-specific educational materials; and in more informal social media settings such as YouTube and Facebook. These combined efforts remain integral to America s space program, regardless of its future direction.
Phillips-Guzman, Christina M; Martinez-Donate, Ana P; Hovell, Melbourne F; Blumberg, Elaine J; Sipan, Carol L; Rovniak, Liza S; Kelley, Norma J
Participation of different community sectors, including the private business sector, is necessary to fight the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Local businesses may be reluctant to participate in HIV prevention because of fear of negative customer reactions and loss of revenue. This study examines the extent to which residents of two communities in San Diego, California, would support HIV prevention initiatives in local businesses. A population-based household survey (N = 200) is conducted in two communities with higher versus lower risk for HIV. The survey includes questions regarding the acceptability of HIV prevention activities, such as condom and brochure distribution in businesses, and history of exposure to HIV prevention activities in local businesses. Most residents agree that (a) business involvement in prevention activities would reduce HIV (92%), (b) free or low-cost condoms available in businesses could prevent the spread of HIV (90.9%) and increase condom accessibility (87%), and (c) they would prefer to shop at businesses that supported HIV prevention versus those that did not (87.4%). These findings suggest that HIV prevention in local businesses would be supported by residents and would be unlikely to adversely affect business profits. This information could be used to design interventions to engage local businesses in HIV-prevention efforts.
Panse, Nikhil Shrikrishna
Awareness of plastic surgery is lacking. Be it reconstructive surgery, or aesthetic surgery, public education and awareness regarding the spectrum is the need of the hour. We undertook a string of activities for patient awareness and education for burn prevention, occupational hand injuries prevention, skin banking awareness and various other conditions relevant to us as plastic surgeons. Use of social media helped us for increasing the reach of our projects. Some of the projects we started, we are still pursuing with sincerity, and some never really picked up. A wide range and spectrum of activities were undertaken, and we would like to think that we have made some impact towards advocacy of plastic surgery; however, the measurable impact of these initiatives is questionable. Collective efforts for promotion of the speciality using innovative methods, use of celebrities for awareness and social media amongst other things must be undertaken to make a sustained and demonstrable impact towards advocacy of plastic surgery.
JHON J. SANABRIA
Full Text Available In this paper, I review the prevention and intervention efforts addressing youth homelessness in the fieldof psychology between 1994 and 2004. Analyses of the literature revealed that the majority of papersincluding homeless youth as a population for study have focused on issues other than homelessness.These issues include HIV/AIDS and substance abuse prevention. Eleven journal articles addressing youthhomelessness were reviewed. These articles focused on outcomes, interventions, and recommendationsfor clinical practice. Literature findings revealed that demographic variables did not predict outcomesfor homeless youth; youth returning home with their parents have more positive outcomes than youthmoving into other locations, emergency shelter services improve youth’s mental health and social condition,and services should be comprehensive and move beyond the individuals. Implications for communitypsychology, policy makers, and shelters are discussed.
Atkinson, Donald R.; Wampold, Bruce
Analyzes an affirmative action questionnaire sent to counselor education programs asking respondents to identify activities used to recruit, admit, and support members of four minority groups. Results indicate that in the absence of federal mandates, counselor education programs engage in a limited number of affirmative action activities. (Author)
Low, Sabina; Van Ryzin, Mark
Bullying prevention efforts have yielded mixed effects over the last 20 years. Program effectiveness is driven by a number of factors (e.g., program elements and implementation), but there remains a dearth of understanding regarding the role of school climate on the impact of bullying prevention programs. This gap is surprising, given research suggesting that bullying problems and climate are strongly related. The current study examines the moderating role of school climate on the impacts of a stand-alone bullying prevention curriculum. In addition, the current study examined 2 different dimensions of school climate across both student and staff perceptions. Data for this study were derived from a Steps to Respect (STR) randomized efficacy trial that was conducted in 33 elementary schools over a 1-year period. Schools were randomly assigned to intervention or wait-listed control condition. Outcome measures (pre-to-post) were obtained from (a) all school staff, (b) a randomly selected subset of 3rd-5th grade teachers in each school, and (c) all students in classrooms of selected teachers. Multilevel analyses revealed that psychosocial climate was strongly related to reductions in bullying-related attitudes and behaviors. Intervention status yielded only 1 significant main effect, although, STR schools with positive psychosocial climate at baseline had less victimization at posttest. Policies/administrative commitment to bullying were related to reduced perpetration among all schools. Findings suggest positive psychosocial climate (from both staff and student perspective) plays a foundational role in bullying prevention, and can optimize effects of stand-alone programs. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
L.A. Hermansen-Baez; J.P. Prestemon; D.T. Butry; K.L. Abt; R. Sutphen
While there are many activities that can limit damages from wildfires, such as firefighting efforts and prescribed burning, wildfire prevention education programs can be particularly beneficial. This was confirmed through a study conducted by the Southern Research Station and the National Institute of Standards and Technology that demonstrated that wildfire prevention...
Ho, Anita; MacDonald, Lisa Mei-Hwa; Unger, David
Healthcare institutions have been making increasing efforts to standardize consultation methodology and to accredit both bioethics training programs and the consultants accordingly. The focus has traditionally been on the ethics consultation as the relevant unit of ethics intervention. Outcome measures are studied in relation to consultations, and the hidden assumption is that consultations are the preferred or best way to address day-to-day ethical dilemmas. Reflecting on the data from an internal quality improvement survey and the literature, we argue that having general ethics education as a key function of ethics services may be more important in meeting the contemporaneous needs of acute care settings. An expanded and varied ethics education, with attention to the time constraints of healthcare workers' schedules, was a key recommendation brought forward by survey respondents. Promoting ethical reflection and creating a culture of ethics may serve to prevent ethical dilemmas or mitigate their effects.
Stoddart, Greg L.
This paper presents a historical review of applications of effort-reporting in medical education, comments on key methodological issues and describes a revised methodology of a 2-step estimating process that is flexible enough to accommodate a multidisciplinary medical education. (Editor/PG)
Zonderman, Alan B; Ejiogu, Ngozi; Norbeck, Jennifer; Evans, Michele K
Despite the advances in cancer medicine and the resultant 20% decline in cancer death rates for Americans since 1991, there remain distinct cancer health disparities among African Americans, Hispanics, Native Americans, and the those living in poverty. Minorities and the poor continue to bear the disproportionate burden of cancer, especially in terms of stage at diagnosis, incidence, and mortality. Cancer health disparities are persistent reminders that state-of-the-art cancer prevention, diagnosis, and treatment are not equally effective for and accessible to all Americans. The cancer prevention model must take into account the phenotype of accelerated aging associated with health disparities as well as the important interplay of biological and sociocultural factors that lead to disparate health outcomes. The building blocks of this prevention model will include interdisciplinary prevention modalities that encourage partnerships across medical and nonmedical entities, community-based participatory research, development of ethnically and racially diverse research cohorts, and full actualization of the prevention benefits outlined in the 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. However, the most essential facet should be a thoughtful integration of cancer prevention and screening into prevention, screening, and disease management activities for hypertension and diabetes mellitus because these chronic medical illnesses have a substantial prevalence in populations at risk for cancer disparities and cause considerable comorbidity and likely complicate effective treatment and contribute to disproportionate cancer death rates. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Espelage, Dorothy L; Hong, Jun Sung
Bullying is a serious public health concern that is associated with significant negative mental, social, and physical outcomes. Technological advances have increased adolescents' use of social media, and online communication platforms have exposed adolescents to another mode of bullying- cyberbullying. Prevention and intervention materials, from websites and tip sheets to classroom curriculum, have been developed to help youth, parents, and teachers address cyberbullying. While youth and parents are willing to disclose their experiences with bullying to their health care providers, these disclosures need to be taken seriously and handled in a caring manner. Health care providers need to include questions about bullying on intake forms to encourage these disclosures. The aim of this article is to examine the current status of cyberbullying prevention and intervention. Research support for several school-based intervention programs is summarised. Recommendations for future research are provided.
Hong, Jun Sung
Bullying is a serious public health concern that is associated with significant negative mental, social, and physical outcomes. Technological advances have increased adolescents’ use of social media, and online communication platforms have exposed adolescents to another mode of bullying—cyberbullying. Prevention and intervention materials, from websites and tip sheets to classroom curriculum, have been developed to help youth, parents, and teachers address cyberbullying. While youth and parents are willing to disclose their experiences with bullying to their health care providers, these disclosures need to be taken seriously and handled in a caring manner. Health care providers need to include questions about bullying on intake forms to encourage these disclosures. The aim of this article is to examine the current status of cyberbullying prevention and intervention. Research support for several school-based intervention programs is summarised. Recommendations for future research are provided. PMID:28562094
Heimlich, Joe E.; Puglisi, Dawn D.
Funds are not always available to finance environmental education efforts in communities and schools. This digest highlights steps for identifying potential sources for funding and how to apply for those funds. Two sources of monetary awards to groups and individuals are grants and gifts. Four steps to identify potential donors and apply for…
This report documents the status of educational efforts for the preparation of a national security workforce as part of the National Security Preparedness Project, being performed by the Arrowhead Center of New Mexico State University under a DOE/NNSA grant. The need to adequately train and educate a national security workforce is at a critical juncture. Even though there are an increasing number of college graduates in the appropriate fields, many of these graduates choose to work in the private sector because of more desirable salary and benefit packages. This report includes an assessment of the current educational situation for the national security workforce.
Acampora, Alfonso P., Ed.; Nebelkopf, Ethan, Ed.
This document contains seven papers from the ninth World Conference of Therapeutic Communities (TCs) that deal with drug education and prevention. Papers include: (1) "State of the Art of Drug Prevention Programs: A Five Year Retrospective of School Curricula" (Natalie Silverstein, et al.); (2) "TCs: Education for Wholeness"…
Faulkner Charles T.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether increased knowledge and use of public health measures promoted for cholera prevention is reflected in lower prevalence of parasitic infection in households in a community in the state of Tamaulipas, Mexico, that is close to the border with the United States of America. METHODS: Between 1994 and 1997, fecal samples from 438 children were collected through convenience sampling and then examined for helminth eggs/larvae and protozoan cysts as biologic indicators of household compliance with recommended cholera prevention measures. The suggested measures were to wash hands before meals and after defecation, to drink purified water, to wash fruits and vegetables, and to eat well-cooked food. In addition, information on the knowledge of and the use of cholera preventive measures was collected by interviews with adult informants in 252 households (186 of those households also provided a fecal sample for analysis. RESULTS: Parasitic infections occurred in 131 of the 438 children (30%, who resided in 79 of the 186 households (42% that provided fecal samples. Giardia lamblia accounted for 12.5% of all infections. Infections with Hymenolepis nana, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, Ancylostoma/Necator, Strongyloides stercoralis, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba hartmanni, Entamoeba histolytica, Endolimax nana, and Iodamoeba bütschlii were also noted. Infected children were older and more often had an infected sibling. Households with three or more children were also more likely to have an infected child. The primary caregivers in the households where at least one child had a parasitic infection were distinguished by their inability to list at least three cholera prevention measures from memory. CONCLUSIONS: The 42% household prevalence of parasitic infection was relatively high and indicates that some residents of this community may not have fully embraced the public health education efforts
Charles T. Faulkner
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether increased knowledge and use of public health measures promoted for cholera prevention is reflected in lower prevalence of parasitic infection in households in a community in the state of Tamaulipas, Mexico, that is close to the border with the United States of America. METHODS: Between 1994 and 1997, fecal samples from 438 children were collected through convenience sampling and then examined for helminth eggs/larvae and protozoan cysts as biologic indicators of household compliance with recommended cholera prevention measures. The suggested measures were to wash hands before meals and after defecation, to drink purified water, to wash fruits and vegetables, and to eat well-cooked food. In addition, information on the knowledge of and the use of cholera preventive measures was collected by interviews with adult informants in 252 households (186 of those households also provided a fecal sample for analysis. RESULTS: Parasitic infections occurred in 131 of the 438 children (30%, who resided in 79 of the 186 households (42% that provided fecal samples. Giardia lamblia accounted for 12.5% of all infections. Infections with Hymenolepis nana, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, Ancylostoma/Necator, Strongyloides stercoralis, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba hartmanni, Entamoeba histolytica, Endolimax nana, and Iodamoeba bütschlii were also noted. Infected children were older and more often had an infected sibling. Households with three or more children were also more likely to have an infected child. The primary caregivers in the households where at least one child had a parasitic infection were distinguished by their inability to list at least three cholera prevention measures from memory. CONCLUSIONS: The 42% household prevalence of parasitic infection was relatively high and indicates that some residents of this community may not have fully embraced the public health education efforts
We begin this talk with a brief description of the gender and ethnic diversity of the physics community. We then discuss several current efforts within Physics Education Research that have the potential to further our understanding of issues surrounding underrepresentation. These efforts include research into (1) the role of community and strategies for developing effective communities; (2) physics identity and self-efficacy; (3) the affordances that students from underrepresented groups bring to physics learning; (4) socioeconomics and its impact on mathematization. One of the challenges to conducting this research is the relatively small proportion of underrepresented minority students in current physics classes, and the small number of women in physics and engineering majors. In collaboration with Stephen Kanim, New Mexico State University.
Van Parijs, L G
Life-style is now recognized as a main determinant of cancer risk. Public education is an important component of cancer control programmes and has been shown to be effective in leading to life-style changes. Four basic types of education programmes are reviewed: for increasing the public's awareness of cancer, for changing specific risk behaviour (such as stopping smoking), for learning self-examination skills (such as breast self-examination), and for promoting early cancer detection in the community.To change human behaviour it is best to approach the risk habit through the same forces that develop and sustain the habit. Simply giving information of an association between specific habits and cancer, even if repeated several times, will lead to increased public awareness and encourage some to make a minimal effort to change their behaviour, but in general the new habit does not persist and continuing and intensifying this approach are ineffective. An alternative strategy utilizes socially active forces to support the prevention practice and remove possible barriers to action. For example, an antismoking programme should create a favourable social image of the non-smoker. Although a culturally and socially relevant mass media campaign can influence knowledge and beliefs and induce people to participate in a screening activity, this needs to be supplemented over a period of time by personal contact methods, such as group discussions, telephone conversations and home visits, in order to promote a regular screening habit. Contrary to popular opinion, mass communication methods can be expensive on a per person cost-effectiveness basis because of low participation rates and weakness in sustaining healthy behaviour.
Lewis, Jacquelyne L.
Identity theft is quite expensive and devastating for victims; unfortunately, it is also a rapidly growing crime. Much of the prior research on identity theft has focused on legislative efforts that may prevent the crime. However, limited research exists on what consumers perceive as identity prevention and the measures they take to prevent…
Grieco, A; Occhipinti, E; Colombini, D; Menoni, O; Bulgheroni, M; Frigo, C; Boccardi, S
An investigation was made on the relationship between music practice and musculo-skeletal disorders among piano students, with the main aim of developing health education programmes that would improve the performance and health of the students. The investigation covered three areas: (a) Analysis of study organization and main musculo-skeletal complaints achieved by a questionnaire distributed to all piano students at the Milan Conservatory. (b) Vocational electromyographic analysis of the effort exerted by the various muscle groups of the trunk, of the shoulder and shoulder blade girdle, and of the arm during performance of a standard set of piano exercises, an unseen passage and a passage of maximum difficulty. This analysis was made on a sample of six subjects. (c) A series of preventive measures was developed on the basis of a critical assessment of the results (38% of the students practised for excessively long periods without breaks; 62% had from 1 to 5 complaints, the most affected sites being the spine and the trapezius muscles). These consisted largely of a health education programme aimed at helping the students to suitably organize practice and rest periods and in instructing them in appropriate exercises for relaxation and stretching of overused muscle groups and strengthening the supporting muscle groups. Changes in lifestyle were also suggested.
Brønsted, Lone Bæk
of such a preventive work aiming at creating trustful relations between the school and the children and focusing on children’s democracy understandings, experienced discrimination and peer pressure. Furthermore, the school are to activate children’s reflections on existential questions and their empathy with others...... social and cultural categorizations that marks what is legitimate and illegitimate behavior (Øland 2007, 2012; Bourdieu and Passeron 2006). The school as an institution plays a significant role in these studies and include studies of working class boys meeting with the school's middle and upper class...... standards (Willis 1977) and bilingual pupils' meeting with 'Danishness' through the teachers’ Danish middle class values (Gilliam 2009). The studies mark the school as an actor in societal social and cultural conflicts and are all concerned with differentiation and marginalization processes. Therefore...
Han, Kyong-Won; Lee, Eui-Jin
Nuclear energy has been a backbone for Korea's remarkable economic growth, and will continue its essential role with 18 nuclear power plants in operation, 2 more units under construction, 6 more units in planning. Korea is operating its own designed nuclear power plants, such as KSNP, 1400, as well as self-design and operation of 30 MW Hanaro research reactor. Korea makes strong efforts to develop future nuclear technology. They are the System-Integrated Modular Advanced Reactor, SMART, Korea Advanced Liquid Metal reactor, KALIMER, Hydrogen Production reactor, and Proliferation-resistant Nuclear Fuel Cycle. In parallel, Korea is establishing an Advanced Radiation Technology R and D Center and a High Power Proton Accelerator Center. International, next generation nuclear power technologies are being developed through projects such as the IAEA Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycle, INPRO, Generation IV International Forum, GIF, and International thermonuclear Experimental reactor, ITER. In the new millennium, Korea expects that radiation technology combined with bio, nano, and space technology will sustain our civilization. About 21,000 qualified nuclear human resources are engaged in power and non-power fields such as design and manufacturing of equipment, plant operation and maintenance, safety, RI production, R and D, etc. However, it is recognized that the first generation of nuclear work force is getting older and retired, less of our youth are studying nuclear science and engineering. Korean Government has established a promotion program on nuclear human resources development, which is needed until 2010. For the sustainable development of nuclear science and technology, it calls for more qualified human resources. We ought to encourage our youth to become more interested in nuclear studies and careers. Korea is making strong efforts to support nuclear education and training for young generations. It is believed that internationally accepted advanced
Jani, Asim A.; Trask, Jennifer; Ali, Ather
During 2012, the USDHHS’s Health Resources and Services Administration funded 12 accredited preventive medicine residencies to incorporate an evidence-based integrative medicine curriculum into their training programs. It also funded a national coordinating center at the American College of Preventive Medicine, known as the Integrative Medicine in Preventive Medicine Education (IMPriME) Center, to provide technical assistance to the 12 grantees. To help with this task, the IMPriME Center established a multidisciplinary steering committee, versed in integrative medicine, whose primary aim was to develop integrative medicine core competencies for incorporation into preventive medicine graduate medical education training. The competency development process was informed by central integrative medicine definitions and principles, preventive medicine’s dual role in clinical and population-based prevention, and the burgeoning evidence base of integrative medicine. The steering committee considered an interdisciplinary integrative medicine contextual framework guided by several themes related to workforce development and population health. A list of nine competencies, mapped to the six general domains of competence approved by the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education, was operationalized through an iterative exercise with the 12 grantees in a process that included mapping each site’s competency and curriculum products to the core competencies. The competencies, along with central curricular components informed by grantees’ work presented elsewhere in this supplement, are outlined as a roadmap for residency programs aiming to incorporate integrative medicine content into their curricula. This set of competencies adds to the larger efforts of the IMPriME initiative to facilitate and enhance further curriculum development and implementation by not only the current grantees but other stakeholders in graduate medical education around integrative medicine
Oloo, Stella Anne
The World Health Organization recently released guidelines recommending 36-month use of isoniazid preventive therapy in adults and adolescents living with HIV in resource-limited settings. Namibia continues to grapple with one of the highest incidences of tuberculosis (TB) worldwide. Implementation of these guidelines requires considerations of TB epidemiology, health infrastructure, programmatic priorities and patient adherence. This article explores the challenges Namibia currently faces in its fight against TB and the implications of the new guidelines on Namibian TB prevention efforts.
Dielman, T. E.; And Others
Questionnaires were administered to 4,157 junior high school students to determine levels of alcohol misuse, exposure to peer use and misuse of alcohol, susceptibility to peer pressure, internal health locus of control, and self-esteem. Conceptual model of antecendents of adolescent alcohol misuse and effectiveness of a prevention effort was…
Levitt, Alan; Denniston, Bob
This article describes and reflects upon efforts to generate greater support for media literacy and critical thinking within the strategies and programs of the Federal government in the early 1990s to about 2005 primarily among agencies with an interest in youth substance abuse prevention. Beginning with their personal reflections on discovering…
McCartan, Kieran F; Merdian, Hannah L; Perkins, Derek E; Kettleborough, Danielle
This article discusses the ethical, practical, and moral issues surrounding secondary prevention efforts of child sexual abuse from a professional and practice-based perspective. Transcripts of a semistructured consultation event with n = 15 international experts on the secondary prevention of child sexual abuse were analysed using thematic qualitative analysis. The research identified four main critical areas linked to secondary prevention efforts, including, the psychology of self-reporting and disclosure; the interaction with and within existing legal, social, and professional frameworks; the scale and type of an appropriate response; and potential hurdles (i.e., within media, public, politics). The article outlines these areas, highlighting participant perspectives on risk-enhancing and mitigating factors for each domain.
Bjerstedt, Ake, Ed.
This small book presents six articles from the journal "Peace, Environment and Education," published by the Peace Education Commission. The articles have been chosen to give a broad range of illustrations of principles and procedures in peace-related education efforts in the 1990s. The contents are as follows: (1) "Education beyond…
Japanese compulsory education is considered as relatively egalitarian since poorer regions receive more funding from the central government, which standardizes the quality of education nationwide. Nevertheless, the literature indicates socioeconomic status-based achievement and educational attainment gaps. As parts of explanations of these gaps,…
Matyas, Marsha Lakes; Ruedi, Elizabeth A.; Engen, Katie; Chang, Amy L.
The "Vision and Change in Undergraduate Biology Education" reports cite the critical role of professional societies in undergraduate life science education and, since 2008, have called for the increased involvement of professional societies in support of undergraduate education. Our study explored the level of support being provided by…
The Ukrainian efforts in preventing illicit trafficking in nuclear materials and other radioactive sources are described. Attention is paid for Ukrainian Government's Decree intended, in particular, to facilitate in establishing well-coordinated activities of the Ukrainian law enforcement bodies and other agencies involved, assigning the status of the main expert organization on illicit trafficking in nuclear materials to the Scientific Center 'Institute for Nuclear Research', in developing the three-years Program on prevention illicit trafficking in nuclear materials and other radioactive sources on the Ukrainian territory as well as measures at the State and customs borders. The main directions provided by the draft Program mentioned are presented as well. (author)
Garn, Alex; McCaughtry, Nate; Shen, Bo; Martin, Jeffrey J.; Fahlman, Mariane M.
This study investigated the relationships among four distinct types of social goals, effort, and disruptive behavior in urban physical education. Social responsibility, affiliation, recognition, status goals, along with effort and disruptive behavior in physical education were reported by high school physical education students (N = 314) from…
Bacchus, M. K.
Examines history of three native Caribbean groups, the Ciboney, the Arawaks, and the Caribs, from beginning of European colonization in the fifteen th century. Details destruction of Indian society and culture by Spanish settlers, who subjugated Natives with education and religion. Includes section of "Some Positive Educational Contributions…
Nelson, Sarah W.; Guerra, Patricia L.
Purpose: This qualitative study reports on beliefs practicing educators hold about diverse students and families. Specifically, this study examined educator beliefs related to culturally, linguistically, and economically diverse students and families along with participants' knowledge of culture and its application in practice. Research Design:…
Full Text Available Effective prevention of risky alcohol use in pregnancy involves much more than providing information about the risk of potential birth defects and developmental disabilities in children. To categorize the breadth of possible initiatives, Canadian experts have identified a four-part framework for fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD prevention: Level 1, public awareness and broad health promotion; Level 2, conversations about alcohol with women of childbearing age and their partners; Level 3, specialized support for pregnant women; and Level 4, postpartum support for new mothers. In order to describe the level of services across Canada, 50 Canadian service providers, civil servants, and researchers working in the area of FASD prevention were involved in an online Delphi survey process to create a snapshot of current FASD prevention efforts, identify gaps, and provide ideas on how to close these gaps to improve FASD prevention. Promising Canadian practices and key areas for future action are described. Overall, Canadian FASD prevention programming reflects evidence-based practices; however, there are many opportunities to improve scope and availability of these initiatives.
Mathiesen, Anne Sofie Mølbak; Nørgaard, Kamilla; Andersen, Marie Frederikke Bruun; Møller, Klaus Meyer; Ehlers, Lars Holger
Pressure ulcers are a major problem in Danish healthcare with a prevalence of 13-43% among hospitalized patients. The associated costs to the Danish Health Care Sector are estimated to be €174.5 million annually. In 2010, The Danish Society for Patient Safety introduced the Pressure Ulcer Bundle (PUB) in order to reduce hospital-acquired pressure ulcers by a minimum of 50% in five hospitals. The PUB consists of evidence-based preventive initiatives implemented by ward staff using the Model for Improvement. To investigate the cost-effectiveness of labour-intensive efforts to reduce pressure ulcers in the Danish Health Care Sector, comparing the PUB with standard care. A decision analytic model was constructed to assess the costs and consequences of hospital-acquired pressure ulcers during an average hospital admission in Denmark. The model inputs were based on a systematic review of clinical efficacy data combined with local cost and effectiveness data from the Thy-Mors Hospital, Denmark. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA) was conducted to assess the uncertainty. Prevention of hospital-acquired pressure ulcers by implementing labour-intensive effects according to the PUB was cost-saving and resulted in an improved effect compared to standard care. The incremental cost of the PUB was -€38.62. The incremental effects were a reduction of 9.3% prevented pressure ulcers and 0.47% prevented deaths. The PSAs confirmed the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER)'s dominance for both prevented pressure ulcers and saved lives with the PUB. This study shows that labour-intensive efforts to reduce pressure ulcers on hospital wards can be cost-effective and lead to savings in total costs of hospital and social care. The data included in the study regarding costs and effects of the PUB in Denmark were based on preliminary findings from a pilot study at Thy-Mors Hospital and literature.
In 2014, Oregon, Alaska, and the District of Columbia joined Colorado and Washington as voters approved initiatives to legally regulate and tax marijuana for adults. Other states, including California, are likely to follow in 2016. While none of these new laws allow sales to minors, there is widespread concern about the potential impact of these reforms on teenagers. Many worry that legalization will "send the wrong message," and increase access and availability, leading to an escalation in teenage use. This new social, political and cultural context presents a new challenge, as marijuana gradually becomes a normal part of the adult world, akin to alcohol. The movement toward legalization provides an opportunity to re-think our approach to teen drug education/prevention. This is the moment to examine current approaches, and devise innovative, pragmatic strategies for dealing with teens and marijuana (and other drug use). As we examine the issue of drug education/prevention in the context of legalization, we detail efforts that have been tried, and what is realistically possible to accomplish, with the health and safety of teenagers our highest priority. A reality-based approach advocates honest, science-based information; encourages moderation, if experimentation persists; promotes an understanding of the legal consequences and social context of drug use; emphasizes safety through personal responsibility and knowledge; and encourages the delay of experimentation with all intoxicating substances until adulthood.
Hawk, Benson S.
This paper examines the strengths and weaknesses of different models of education. The author, a teacher of humanities at Newark Academy in New Jersey, aims to move beyond some of the rhetoric about "progress" or rhetoric that implies there is something inherently right or wrong about different systems for organizing schools and…
Cheung, Alan; Muse, Ivan
A discussion of why Asian students rank high on international assessment tests in science and mathematics reveals that Asian schools stress rote memorization and test taking to the extent that children don't have the opportunity to be children. The U.S. educational system's encouragement of critical thinking and nonacademic activities contributes…
Moore, Robert M.
The education market is becoming more competitive and far more crowded. The economic downturn has caused many families to reconsider their priorities, re-evaluate their budgets, and refocus their attention. Once considered one of the dark arts, whose very tenets were unacceptable in a mission-based environment, branding is now widely regarded as…
Dill, Karen E; Redding, Richard E; Smith, Peter K; Surette, Ray; Cornell, Dewey G
Developmental research on social influences on adolescents can guide practices aimed to prevent homicidal youth violence. School shootings have repeatedly raised questions about the contributory role of bullying and entertainment violence, how news media publicity might produce copycat crimes, and whether stiffer criminal sanctions might have a deterrent effect. This article presents the thoughts and recommendations of a group of experts on these topics summarizing the current knowledge base. In brief, bullying reduction programs may be a useful early prevention effort. Television and video games with violent themes can encourage aggressive behavior, but these media can be used to teach more prosocial behavior as well. The potential copycat effects of highly publicized crimes might be diminished with more restrained reporting, although more research is needed. Finally, there is substantial evidence that increased criminal sanctions for youthful offenders have not had a deterrent effect. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.
Problem Statement: In the current information era, nearly all organizations make efforts to make innovations in the fields of information, communication, technology, etc. Educational organizations are no exception to this trend. Moreover, it can be argued that educational institutions make a particular effort to rapidly keep pace with change. In…
Adams, Alexandra K; Christens, Brian; Meinen, Amy; Korth, Amy; Remington, Patrick L; Lindberg, Sara; Schoeller, Dale
Obesity rates have increased dramatically, especially among children and disadvantaged populations. Obesity is a complex issue, creating a compelling need for prevention efforts in communities to move from single isolated programs to comprehensive multisystem interventions. To address these issues, we have established a childhood Obesity Prevention Initiative (Initiative) for Wisconsin. This Initiative seeks to test community change frameworks that can support multisystem interventions and provide data for local action as a means for influencing policies, systems, and environments that support individuals’ healthy eating and physical activity. The Initiative is comprised of three components: (1) infrastructure to support a statewide obesity prevention and health promotion network with state- and local-level public messaging and dissemination of evidence-based solutions (healthTIDE); (2) piloting a local, multisetting community-led intervention study in 2 Wisconsin counties; and (3) developing a geocoded statewide childhood obesity and fitness surveillance system. This Initiative is using a new model that involves both coalition action and community organizing to align resources to achieve health improvement at local and state levels. We expect that it will help lead to the implementation of cohesive and sustainable policy, system, and environment health promotion and obesity prevention strategies in communities statewide, and it has the potential to help Wisconsin become a national model for multisetting community interventions to address obesity. Addressing individual-level health through population-level changes ultimately will result in reductions in the prevalence of childhood obesity, current and future health care costs, and chronic disease mortality.
Shaner, A. J.; Shupla, C.; Shipp, S.; Allen, J.; Kring, D. A.; Halligan, E.; LaConte, K.
The Center for Lunar Science and Exploration (CLSE), a collaboration between the Lunar and Planetary Institute and NASA's Johnson Space Center, is one of seven member teams of the NASA Lunar Science Institute. In addition to research and exploration activities, the CLSE team is deeply invested in education and public outreach. Overarching goals of CLSE education are to strengthen the future science workforce, attract and retain students in STEM disciplines, and develop advocates for lunar exploration. The team's efforts have resulted in a variety of programs and products, including the creation of a variety of Lunar Traveling Exhibits and the High School Lunar Research Project, featured at http://www.lpi.usra.edu/nlsi/education/.
Olson, C. M.
In the last 10 to 15 years, nutrition has become a major component of health promotion and chronic disease prevention. Two widely recommended strategies for incorporating nutrition education directed toward children and youth into health promotion and disease prevention efforts are school-based nutrition education and the integration of nutritional care into health care. School-based nutrition education programs targeted toward very specific eating behaviors are showing very promising results in regard to behavior and attitude change of children and adolescents. Substantial changes in health care providers' attitudes and practices and in the funding and financing of health care will be needed if nutrition education delivered in the context of routine health care is to be a major force in health promotion and disease prevention for youth. PMID:2629968
Cheng, Qijin; Fu, King-wa; Caine, Eric; Yip, Paul S. F.
Background The Hong Kong news media report suicide-related events more frequently and sensationally than Western countries. Little is known about Hong Kong media professionals’ experiences and thoughts about such reporting. Aims To understand Hong Kong media professionals’ experiences and perceptions of suicide reporting and whether the news media can be better engaged into suicide prevention. Method We conducted three focus groups of journalists from both the Cantonese and English language news media. Data were analyzed using grounded theory methods. Results We discerned three rationales from participants regarding their intense coverage of suicide-related events: (1) satisfying commercial competitiveness, (2) addressing social problems, and (3) responding to readers’ interests. The first rationale was a dominant and vigorous motivating factor, and often influenced suicide reporting among local Cantonese media. Media professionals recommended engagement strategies targeted at frontline journalists, media managers, and general media consumers. Conclusion We see potential to involve news media professionals in Hong Kong as working partners in suicide prevention. To succeed, this effort requires engagement in a proactive, consistent, and sustained fashion. PMID:24322824
Hokkaido Electric Power Company, Inc. (HEPCO) supplies electricity to almost all area of Hokkaido. Its service area accounts for about one-fifth of Japan's area, on the other hand, the population of the service area only accounts for 4.4% of the nation. This means Hokkaido's nature is precious, and one of HEPCO's missions is to protect such environment, with providing stable electricity. Therefore, nuclear power, which does not emit greenhouse effect gas for generation, is becoming more important. HEPCO's operating nuclear power stations are Tomari No.1 unit and No.2 unit. Their generation capacity is 579 MW respectively. Now, No.3 unit is under construction. Its generation capacity is 912 MW and it will be operational in December 2009. In Hokkaido, about one fourth of electricity is now produced by nuclear power, however, after Tomari No.3 is completed, about 40% of electricity will be produced by nuclear. So, Tomari No.3 unit will contribute stable supply of electricity in the first half of 21st century and prevent global warming in Hokkaido. This paper describes the present status of Tomari No.3 unit construction with major specifications and our efforts to prevent global warming. (author)
Kliestik, Tomas; Misankova, Maria; Valaskova, Katarina; Svabova, Lucia
Every corporation has an economic and moral responsibility to its stockholders to perform well financially. However, the number of bankruptcies in Slovakia has been growing for several years without an apparent macroeconomic cause. To prevent a rapid denigration and to prevent the outflow of foreign capital, various efforts are being zealously implemented. Robust analysis using conventional bankruptcy prediction tools revealed that the existing models are adaptable to local conditions, particularly local legislation. Furthermore, it was confirmed that most of these outdated tools have sufficient capability to warn of impending financial problems several years in advance. A novel bankruptcy prediction tool that outperforms the conventional models was developed. However, it is increasingly challenging to predict bankruptcy risk as corporations have become more global and more complex and as they have developed sophisticated schemes to hide their actual situations under the guise of "optimization" for tax authorities. Nevertheless, scepticism remains because economic engineers have established bankruptcy as a strategy to limit the liability resulting from court-imposed penalties.
McDowall, Philippa S.; Schaughency, Elizabeth
School efforts to engage parents are posited to influence whether and how they are involved in their children's schooling. The authors examined educators' engagement efforts in beginning reading, their subjective evaluations of engagement practices, and beliefs about parent involvement, in two stratified samples of New Zealand elementary school…
English, Leona M.
This article uses the lens of critical discourse analysis to examine the religious education efforts of the Newfoundland School Society (NSS), the main provider of religious education in Newfoundland in the 19th century. Although its focus was initially this colony, the NSS quickly broadened its reach to the whole British empire, making it one of…
Zeoli, April M; Grady, Sue; Pizarro, Jesenia M; Melde, Chris
We modeled the spatiotemporal movement of hotspot clusters of homicide by motive in Newark, New Jersey, to investigate whether different homicide types have different patterns of clustering and movement. We obtained homicide data from the Newark Police Department Homicide Unit's investigative files from 1997 through 2007 (n = 560). We geocoded the address at which each homicide victim was found and recorded the date of and the motive for the homicide. We used cluster detection software to model the spatiotemporal movement of statistically significant homicide clusters by motive, using census tract and month of occurrence as the spatial and temporal units of analysis. Gang-motivated homicides showed evidence of clustering and diffusion through Newark. Additionally, gang-motivated homicide clusters overlapped to a degree with revenge and drug-motivated homicide clusters. Escalating dispute and nonintimate familial homicides clustered; however, there was no evidence of diffusion. Intimate partner and robbery homicides did not cluster. By tracking how homicide types diffuse through communities and determining which places have ongoing or emerging homicide problems by type, we can better inform the deployment of prevention and intervention efforts.
Tropical diabetic hand syndrome describes an acute symptom complex found in patients with diabetes in the tropics, usually following minor trauma to the hand. Two different ... Education remains the most important preventive tool in underdeveloped countries, and should remain an integral part of prevention. Keywords: ...
Underwood, Barbara A
Visual symptoms (night blindness) of vitamin A deficiency (VAD) were among the earliest diet-related deficiencies documented. Knowledge of vitamin A chemistry, metabolism and deficiency consequences accrued rapidly during the first eight decades of the 20th century. A series of disorders were described in animals, including impaired growth, reproduction, epithelial integrity, and disease resistance that were relieved by consumption of both animal and plant sources of the vitamin. Identification of the intestinal beta-carotene cleavage enzyme in the laboratory of James Allen Olson was seminal to understanding the mechanism for formation of vitamin A from ingested carotenoids. WHO's 1990 estimate of about 40 million children annually with clinical eye signs of VAD was revised upward to 140-250 million at risk of vitamin A deficiency disorders (VADD) when epidemiological and clinical trials demonstrated morbidity and mortality risk even in the absence of ocular signs. Alternative methods for VAD status assessment and more reliable analytical techniques were developed, several in Dr. Olson's laboratory. The last decade has seen global progress in VADD control by expanding distribution of medicinal supplements, fortification of foods and dietary diversification through horticulture and education programs. Experience shows that achievements gained through narrowly focused interventions are fragile and vulnerable to national political and economic instability. Contextually relevant, community-centered strategies that improve household food and nutrition security and self-reliance are critical to sustaining international efforts to control the VADD "pox."
Bhuiya, Nazmim; House, L Duane; Desmarais, Jeffrey; Fletcher, Erica; Conlin, Maeve; Perez-McAdoo, Sarah; Waggett, Jessica; Tendulkar, Shalini A
This paper describes an assessment of community readiness to implement a community-wide teen pregnancy prevention initiative, Youth First, and presents strategies used to enhance this readiness as informed by the assessment. Twenty-five community stakeholder interviews were conducted to assess four domains of readiness: (1) attitudes, perception, and knowledge of teen pregnancy; (2) perceived level of readiness; (3) resources, existing and current efforts; and (4) leadership. Interview transcripts were coded and analyzed to identify key themes. Stakeholders acknowledged teen pregnancy as an issue but lacked contextual information. They also perceived the community as ready to address the issue and recognized some organizations already championing efforts. However, many key players were not involved, and ongoing data collection to assess teen pregnancy and prevention efforts was limited. Though many stakeholders were ready to engage in teen pregnancy prevention efforts, they required additional information and training to appropriately address the issue. In response to the assessment findings, several strategies were applied to address readiness and build Youth First partners' capacity to implement the community-wide initiative. Thus, to successfully implement community-wide prevention efforts, it is valuable to assess the level of community readiness to address health issues. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sales, Jessica; Krause, Kathleen
Creating a normative campus environment intolerant to sexual violence is important for prevention. While prevention initiatives focusing on students are vital, faculty and staff have a central role in supporting and sustaining a comprehensive strategy for preventing campus sexual violence. Nationwide, colleges and universities recently implemented…
Okamoto, Kazuhiko; Nagashima, Shigeo
This paper describes the research regarding to the project management education effort in Hitachi, comprehensive electrical machinery enterprise. The project management education system has been offered to the following 4 ranks; project staffs, project leaders, project managers, and program managers. The contents of these courses include knowledge, capability, and application. This paper is proposing the spiral model education system to educate all 4 courses. This spiral model has the revolving function for the rank-up and the repeated enhancing function. This spiral model has following 4 steps, the member analysis, education, evaluation and applications. The business and the education have been coordinated to achieve a success of project. This paper also describes the contents and its importance of the project member evaluation.
Mackert, Michael; Poag, Meg
Objective: This project examined health literacy efforts among adult basic education providers in Central Texas. Methods: A survey was conducted with all adult literacy providers in Central Texas (N = 58). Results: Most programs provide health-related information. Literacy programs see needs for helping students communicate with doctors, filling…
Guan, Jianmin; Xiang, Ping; McBride, Ron; Bruene, April
This study examined the relationship between achievement goals and social goals and explored how students' achievement goals and social goals might affect their reported persistence and effort expended toward physical education in high school settings. Participants were 544 students from two high schools in the southwest U.S. Multiple regression…
Kub, Joan; Feldman, Marissa A.
Bullying among children and adolescents is recognized as a significant global public health problem, as it has serious health consequences. Schools are important sites in which to address violence prevention, specifically bullying prevention, and to promote positive youth development. The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion outlines five action…
Spieldenner, Andrew R.; Castro, Christian F.
In the third decade of HIV/AIDS in the U.S., African American gay and bisexual men constitute the largest growing part of those testing HIV-positive. Education and prevention efforts are being refocused on this population, but there has been a dearth of research on health promotion efforts specifically tailored for this marginalized group. This…
Full Text Available Abstract The Village/Commune Safety Policy was launched by the Ministry of Interior of the Kingdom of Cambodia in 2010 and, due to a priority focus on “cleaning the streets”, has created difficulties for HIV prevention programs attempting to implement programs that work with key affected populations including female sex workers and people who inject drugs. The implementation of the policy has forced HIV program implementers, the UN and various government counterparts to explore and develop collaborative ways of delivering HIV prevention services within this difficult environment. The following case study explores some of these efforts and highlights the promising development of a Police Community Partnership Initiative that it is hoped will find a meaningful balance between the Village/Commune Safety Policy and HIV prevention efforts with key affected populations in Cambodia.
Jose Daniel Charry
Full Text Available Purpose: As trauma is a public health problem, different programs have been designed to prevent injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an educational model that measures the adolescents' attitudes towards the rules of road safety, alcohol and road accidents in Colombia. Methods: A pedagogical model evaluating the effect of road safety education and adolescents' attitudes towards and experiences of alcohol and road accidents in Colombia was created. After the education concluded, this educational process is analyzed by its impact on adolescents' behavior. The educational program included 160 adolescents with the mean age being 17.5 years. Results: The test results indicated that before the educational program 80% of adolescents did not use a safety element when driving, while after the educational program the percentage of no helmet use among adolescents decreased from 72.5% to 24.3% (p = 0.0001 and driving a vehicle under the state of drunkenness from 49.3% to 8.1% (p = 0.0001. Conclusion: An educational model aimed at preventing injuries caused by traffic accidents is shown to be effective in generating changes in adolescents' customs of and attitudes towards alcohol and road safety standards in Colombia. Keywords: Models, Educational, Trauma, Injury prevention, Alcohol
Andika, Fauziah; Syahputra, Muhammad Yusrizal; Marniati
Pulmonary tuberculosis is one of the infectious diseases that has been known and is still the leading cause of death in the world. It is an old disease which is a global problem in the world and estimated that a third of the world's population has been infected by this bacterium. The purpose of this study was to determine the factors related with the infection prevention efforts of pulmonary tuberculosis patients in the local goverment clinic of Kuta Baro Aceh Besar. This research is descriptive analytic survey using cross sectional design. It used univariate analysis to see the frequency distribution and the percentage of each variable. Meanwhile, the bivariate analysis used chi square test with CI (Confident Interval) of 95%. The samples in this study are 34 people. The research results obtained with good infection prevention efforts of pulmonary tuberculosis is 41.2%, 5.9% for teenagers, 47.1% for knowledgeable people, 17.6% for people who do not work and 44.1% for those who have a positive behavior. The results of the bivariate obtained there is correlation between the prevention of pulmonary tuberculosis infection with age (p = 0.087), Occupation (p = 0.364), knowledge (p = 0.006) and behavior (p = 0.020). To conclude, there is a correlation between knowledge and behaviors with the infection prevention efforts of pulmonary tuberculosis patients and there is no correlation between age and occupation with infection prevention efforts of pulmonary tuberculosis patients. It is expected that the respondents to hold consultations to health officials about a mechanism of prevention to avoid the disease.
Dorresteijn, J.A.; Kriegsman, D.M.; Assendelft, W.J.J.; Valk, G.D.
BACKGROUND: Ulceration of the feet, which can result in loss of limbs and even death, is one of the major health problems for people with diabetes mellitus. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of patient education on the prevention of foot ulcers in patients with diabetes mellitus. SEARCH METHODS:
Dorresteijn, J.A.; Kriegsman, D.M.; Assendelft, W.J.; Valk, G.D.
BACKGROUND: Ulceration of the feet, which can result in loss of limbs and even death, is one of the major health problems for people with diabetes mellitus. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of patient education on the prevention of foot ulcers in patients with diabetes mellitus. SEARCH METHODS: We
Fontana, Leonard; Beckerman, Adela
This article describes a project that incorporated interactive technology to teach violence prevention knowledge and skills to second grade students. The educational video games presented lessons consisting of animated characters in a story, accompanied by a number of exercises. The research issue was whether students would develop an appreciation…
de Wet, Corene
I report on an investigation into a group of Free State educators' recognition of bullying, their reactions to incidences of bullying, and their perceptions of the effectiveness of a number of bullying prevention strategies. The research instrument was a synthesis of the Delaware Research Questionnaire and questions based on findings from previous…
Limback, E. Rebecca; Bland, Zinna
To prevent sexual harassment, schools should have a written policy and should educate students about it. Suggested teaching activities include using current court cases, examining and refining school policy, roleplaying on video, inviting speakers, and using an "Is This Sexual Harassment?" questionnaire describing various behaviors. (SK)
Holloway, Ian W.; Cederbaum, Julie A.; Ajayi, Antonette; Shoptaw, Steven
Despite increasing rates of HIV infection among young men who have sex with men (YMSM), only a minority participate in formal HIV prevention efforts. Semi-structured mixed-methods interviews were conducted with a diverse sample of YMSM (N = 100, M[subscript age] = 25.0 years) in Los Angeles, California, to identify facilitators and barriers to…
Nichols, Melanie S; Reynolds, Rebecca C; Waters, Elizabeth; Gill, Timothy; King, Lesley; Swinburn, Boyd A; Allender, Steven
Community-based programs that affect healthy environments and policies have emerged as an effective response to high obesity levels in populations. Apart from limited individual reports, little is currently known about these programs, limiting the potential to provide effective support, to promote effective practice, prevent adverse outcomes and disseminate intervention results and experience. The aim of the present study was to identify the size and reach of current community-based obesity prevention projects in Australia and to examine their characteristics, program features (e.g. intervention setting), capacity and approach to obesity prevention. Detailed survey completed by representatives from community-based obesity prevention initiatives in Australia. There was wide variation in funding, capacity and approach to obesity prevention among the 78 participating projects. Median annual funding was Au$94900 (range Au$2500-$4.46 million). The most common intervention settings were schools (39%). Forty per cent of programs focused on a population group of ≥50000 people. A large proportion of respondents felt that they did not have sufficient resources or staff training to achieve project objectives. Community-based projects currently represent a very large investment by both government and non-government sectors for the prevention of obesity. Existing projects are diverse in size and scope, and reach large segments of the population. Further work is needed to identify the full extent of existing community actions and to monitor their reach and future 'scale up' to ensure that future activities aim for effective integration into systems, policies and environments. SO WHAT? Community-based programs make a substantial contribution to the prevention of obesity and promotion of healthy lifestyles in Australia. A risk of the current intervention landscape is that effective approaches may go unrecognised due to lack of effective evaluations or limitations in program
Dill, Karen E.; Redding, Richard E.; Smith, Peter K.; Surette, Ray; Cornell, Dewey G.
Developmental research on social influences on adolescents can guide practices aimed to prevent homicidal youth violence. School shootings have repeatedly raised questions about the contributory role of bullying and entertainment violence, how news media publicity might produce copycat crimes, and whether stiffer criminal sanctions might have a…
Valle, Linda Anne; Whitaker, Daniel J.; Lutzker, John R.; Filene, Jill H.; Wyatt, Jennifer M.; Cephas, Kendell C.; Hoover, D. Michele
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recognize child maltreatment as a serious public health problem with extensive short- and long-term health effects. In addition to the immediate physical and emotional effects of maltreatment, children who have experienced abuse and neglect are at increased risk of adverse health effects and…
Buli, Benti Geleta; Mayigane, Landry Ndriko; Oketta, Julius Facki; Soumouk, Aguide; Sandouno, Tamba Emile; Camara, Bole; Toure, Mory Saidou; Conde, Aissata
Guinea is the third hardest hit country in the region with 2,806 cases and 1,814 deaths as of January 11, 2015 after Sierra Leone and Liberia respectively. This KAP study was conducted in three sub-prefectures of Kouroussa in the Kankan region of Guinea from 15 December 2014 to 15 January 2015. It was conducted with the general objective of examining the knowledge, attitude and practice related to Ebola prevention and care among the public of Kouroussa Prefecture. A cross-sectional study design was employed to collect quantitative data to examine knowledge, attitude and practice related to Ebola. Structured questionnaire was administered by trained data collectors who were supervised by doctors and epidemiologists from WHO and Africa Union. Data were collected from 358 individuals (93% response rate) and analyzed in STATA 13 while tables and graphs are used to display results. Over 96% of the respondents have ever heard about Ebola while only 76.2% believed the disease existed in Kouroussa. Avoiding physical contacts including hand shaking and contacts with body fluids, and early treatment of persons sick from Ebola were the two important prevention methods frequently mentioned (96.8% and 93.9%). Only 35.7% of respondents were found to have comprehensive knowledge about Ebola (composite of correctly accepting three methods of prevention (85%) and rejecting misconceptions (55.7%)). The high level of knowledge about modes of transmission and prevention methods has not positively affected the level of comprehensive knowledge about Ebola. In contrast, the prevailing high level of misconceptions surrounding Ebola was found to be responsible for a low comprehensive knowledge.
Chan Swee Heng
Full Text Available Any attempt to define English language proficiency can never be divorced from the theories that describe the nature of language, language acquisition and human cognition. By virtue of such theories being socially constructed, the descriptions are necessarily value-laden. Thus, a definition of language proficiency can only, at best, be described as developmental, following changes that are linguistic, pragmatic, cultural and political. In defining English proficiency for tertiary education, the context is naturally also linked to the focus on university education. The argument has been that an ‘acceptable’ level of language competence of a university applicant is anything but constant. Tremendous social changes have seen traditional values of elitism in university education giving way to the ‘massification’ of education. As Kaplan and Baldauf (1997:257 affirms, “The principal problem in tertiary education is not declining literacy standards but rather it is about meeting changed societal, cultural and informational requirements and circumstances”. In the light of these changes, this paper attempts to trace influencing factors that help define an ‘acceptable’ level of English proficiency for Malaysian tertiary education. The paper examines past and present efforts of establishing an English language policy and assessment practice for tertiary education, and concludes with some views on future development that could evolve from the current indicative pursuits of establishing language learning and ability.
Full Text Available Exotic pathogens, within the center of genetic diversity for the species, compromise European chestnut populations in Turkey. In Turkey today, the species is of tremendous economic, ecological and cultural importance. At this time of severe exotic pathogenic pressure on a highly-valued forest species, we ask, how does awareness of diseases and treatments as well as value for chestnut trees affect the efforts of households to manage pests and diseases of chestnut trees in Turkey? We conducted 96 surveys in 34 villages in 10 provinces across Turkey to investigate awareness of diseases and other challenges to the chestnut population, chestnut harvesting habits, family value for chestnuts and efforts to mitigate pest and disease pressure. We analyze our results using cluster and regression analysis. Our results show that based on analysis of all observed characteristics, our research sites in Turkey break cleanly into groups based on production level. Further, results demonstrate significant correlation between amount of chestnut-derived income and awareness of pests and diseases as well as the likelihood of households enacting disease mitigation measures. These results also demonstrate correlation between observed awareness of diseases and pests and the likelihood of households enacting disease mitigation measures.
Buli, Benti Geleta; Mayigane, Landry Ndriko; Oketta, Julius Facki; Soumouk, Aguide; Sandouno, Tamba Emile; Camara, Bole; Toure, Mory Saidou; Conde, Aissata
Introduction Guinea is the third hardest hit country in the region with 2,806 cases and 1,814 deaths as of January 11, 2015 after Sierra Leone and Liberia respectively. This KAP study was conducted in three sub-prefectures of Kouroussa in the Kankan region of Guinea from 15 December 2014 to 15 January 2015. It was conducted with the general objective of examining the knowledge, attitude and practice related to Ebola prevention and care among the public of Kouroussa Prefecture. Methods A cross...
Full Text Available Educational systems around the world, and specifically in the United States, have long been awaiting for genuine reform efforts. Technology is often perceived as a panacea, if not as a crucial instrument in any educational reform effort. In a conversation with one of his students, Doctor Johnson discusses how the underlying assumptions embedded in our current schooling practices need to be seriously reviewed before any technology strategy is considered. New understandings, as opposed to mere information, is what schools need to reach in order to transform themselves. Finally, Dr. Johnson provides two brief examples, one in the United States and another in México, were hermeneutical approaches have been used for educational reform endeavors.
Lachance, Laurie; Kelly, R Patrick; Wilkin, Margaret; Burke, Jodi; Waddell, Sandra
Social determinants of health likely play a significant role in the development of type 2 diabetes for women in vulnerable communities. Adult African American women diagnosed with or at-risk for diabetes in Inkster, Michigan (n = 113) and a group of demographically similar women in Flint, Michigan (n = 48) participated in programs aimed at increasing diabetes-related self-management behaviors through peer coaching, health literacy training, and social support. Participants completed surveys to measure changes in health, health behaviors, health literacy, and social support. We found that these diabetes programs with a focus on increasing women's capacity to practice health management behaviors, navigate the health care system, and connect with social support, led to an increase in healthy behaviors and a reported increase in both overall and diabetes-specific health over an 18 month period. Overall health, general diet and specific diet improved significantly (p change was not statistically significant. Women who participated in the intervention changed health behaviors, and increased their sense of health literacy and social support. Improvement in women's access to and use of community preventive services, and the provision of outreach support using community health workers (CHWs) and peer mentorship was an integral part of creating these changes. Although this study found that a variety of diabetes prevention and management programs provided opportunities for positive health changes, findings also suggest that it is critical to address the burdens women from vulnerable communities face in order to participate in these programs.
Boon Chin Oh
Full Text Available Abstracts Educational-based problem gambling prevention programs are important avenues in targeting at-risk behaviors among adolescents to prevent an escalation of problematic behaviors into adulthood. The aim of this review is to examine features pertinent to effective educational-based programs in the area of adolescent problem gambling prevention in hopes of providing a foundation and future suggestions for preventive efforts. A stronger understanding of this research area will be essential in ensuring that past practical and theoretical advancements are integrated into the development of future programs.
Full Text Available Alan Hanley1, Carmel Silke2, John Murphy31Department of Medicine, Letterkenny General Hospital, Letterkenny, Co Donegal, Ireland; 2Department of Rheumatology, Our Lady's Hospital Manorhamilton, Manorhamilton, Co Leitrim, Ireland; 3Department of Medicine, Castlebar, Co Mayo, IrelandAbstract: Falls are a major public health problem in the elderly population. The associated health care cost is great. It has therefore become an important public health matter to evaluate those interventions that might be effective in reducing the risk of falls. Risk factors that predict an increased risk of falling are described. We discuss interventions that can be employed in the community to reduce the risk of falls and associated injuries by discipline, including physiotherapy, occupational therapy, and physician-led interventions. We also discuss the cost-effectiveness of such interventions.Keywords: fall, fracture, prevention, public health
Full Text Available Introduction. Cholera has accompanied mankind since time immemorial with historical records from China, India and ancient Greece. However, registers are available only since 1817, when the first documented pandemic emerged in Asia and spread to Turkey and Arab countries. Since then, eight episodes of cholera pandemic have occurred in the world. Objective. To inform the scientific community about the epidemiological situation in the province of Granma, Cuba, at the cross-sectional period of July 2012 and the prevention and health promotion measures that were introduced in the first level of care for cases of diarrhea caused by Vibrio cholerae. These measures were implemented in the territory with an intersectoral approach, resulting in the adoption of healthy lifestyles by the general population. Conclusion. Basic sanitation activities were undertaken to slow the spread of the disease, complemented by suggestions to the medical community about the importance of epidemiological surveillance to detect reemergence.
Robinson, Jo; Calear, Alison L; Bailey, Eleanor
Youth suicide rates are unacceptably high. Schools have long been accepted as an appropriate setting for suicide prevention activities. This review aims to synthesise the evidence for all types of suicide prevention interventions across educational settings. The review draws on two previous reviews conducted by the authors. In order to be included, studies had to test a specific suicide prevention intervention in an educational setting, have a suicide-related outcome and target young people. A totally of 21 studies were included: 17 were conducted in school settings and four in universities. Seven of the school-based studies (41%) and one of the university studies (25%) were randomised controlled trials. Overall, the trials conducted in schools reported positive effects, as did four of the non- randomised controlled trials. Two of the university-based studies reported positive effects. Both universal and indicated interventions showed positive results; no iatrogenic effects were reported. School-based studies can have a positive impact on suicide-related behaviour and, overall, do not appear to cause harm. Study quality is variable, and the number of studies conducted in school settings far exceed those conducted in universities. These gaps need to be addressed by future research.
Bank, C.; Halfkenny, B.; Hymers, L.; Clinton, L.; Heenan, S.; Jackson, D.; Nowlan, G.; Haidl, F.; Vodden, C.
The Canadian Geoscience Education Network (CGEN) numbers over 300 members who are active in promoting geoscience to the general public and especially in schools. Our membership spreads from coast to coast to coast in Canada and represents the wide range of geosciences. Most members work in education, government, industry, academia, or not-for-profit organizations. Our common goals are to (1) provide resources to teachers for the K-12 curriculum, (2) encourage students to pursue higher education and a rewarding career in geoscience, and (3) lobby to effect change to the school curriculum. Our strength is grounded in a grassroots approach (eg, regional chapters), flexible organization, and emphasis on a cost-effective style. Together we have created and maintain resources for teachers; for example, EdGEO (local workshops for teachers), Geoscape (community-based posters and lesson plans), and EarthNet (virtual resource centre). A new website showcases careers in the Earth sciences. CGEN members ensure that these resources remain current, promote them at individual outreach activities, and see to it that they are maintained. Although we have limited funding we draw strength from the networks of our members and capitalize on partnerships between seemingly disparate organizations and groups to get experts involved in the education of future geoscientists. (Details about CGEN may be found at http://www.geoscience.ca/cgen/principal.html.)
Casey, Erin A.; Carlson, Juliana; Fraguela-Rios, Cathlyn; Kimball, Ericka; Neugut, Tova B.; Tolman, Richard M.; Edleson, Jeffrey L.
As gender-based violence prevention programs around the world increasingly include efforts to engage men and boys as antiviolence allies, both the profound benefits and the inherent complexities of these efforts are emerging. Acknowledging and exploring tensions associated with engaging men is an important element of thoughtfully fostering men’s antiviolence ally movements so as to both respectfully invite men into anti-violence work and create effective, gender-equitable prevention programming. To this end, this study presents descriptive findings regarding challenges associated with men’s engagement programming from in-depth interviews with twenty-nine representatives of organizations that engage men and boys in preventing violence against women and girls in Africa, Asia, Europe, Oceania, and North and South America. Programs reported negotiating complex issues related to gender, the intersectional nature of men’s identities, and establishing legitimacy and sustainability within communities while maintaining ideological focus and consistency. Additionally, programs reported that these tensions manifest across ecological layers of analysis, and impact both the participation of individual men and the programs’ experiences in community and national contexts. PMID:25568612
Rogers, Elizabeth A; Fine, Sarah C; Handley, Margaret A; Davis, Hodari B; Kass, James; Schillinger, Dean
To examine the reach, efficacy, and adoption of The Bigger Picture, a type 2 diabetes (T2DM) social marketing campaign that uses spoken-word public service announcements (PSAs) to teach youth about socioenvironmental conditions influencing T2DM risk. A nonexperimental pilot dissemination evaluation through high school assemblies and a Web-based platform were used. The study took place in San Francisco Bay Area high schools during 2013. In the study, 885 students were sampled from 13 high schools. A 1-hour assembly provided data, poet performances, video PSAs, and Web-based platform information. A Web-based platform featured the campaign Web site and social media. Student surveys preassembly and postassembly (knowledge, attitudes), assembly observations, school demographics, counts of Web-based utilization, and adoption were measured. Descriptive statistics, McNemar's χ 2 test, and mixed modeling accounting for clustering were used to analyze data. The campaign included 23 youth poet-created PSAs. It reached >2400 students (93% self-identified non-white) through school assemblies and has garnered >1,000,000 views of Web-based video PSAs. School participants demonstrated increased short-term knowledge of T2DM as preventable, with risk driven by socioenvironmental factors (34% preassembly identified environmental causes as influencing T2DM risk compared to 83% postassembly), and perceived greater personal salience of T2DM risk reduction (p < .001 for all). The campaign has been adopted by regional public health departments. The Bigger Picture campaign showed its potential for reaching and engaging diverse youth. Campaign messaging is being adopted by stakeholders.
Rohde, Paul; Stice, Eric; Marti, C Nathan
Although several prospective studies have identified factors that increase risk for eating disorders, little is known about when these risk factors emerge and escalate, or when they begin to predict future eating disorder onset. The objective of this report was to address these key research gaps. Data were examined from a prospective study of 496 community female adolescents (M = 13.5, SD = 0.7 at baseline) who completed eight annual assessments of potential risk factors and eating disorders from preadolescence to young adulthood. Three variables exhibited positive linear increases: Perceived pressure to be thin, thin-ideal internalization, and body dissatisfaction; three were best characterized as quadratic effects: dieting (essentially little change); negative affectivity (overall decrease), and BMI (overall increase). Elevated body dissatisfaction at ages 13, 14, 15, and 16 predicted DSM-5 eating disorders onset in the 4-year period after each assessment, but the predictive effects of other risk factors were largely confined to age 14; BMI did not predict eating disorders at any age. The results imply that these risk factors are present by early adolescence, although eating disorders tend to emerge in late adolescence and early adulthood. These findings emphasize the need for efficacious eating disorder prevention programs for early adolescent girls, perhaps targeting 14-year olds, when risk factors seem to be most predictive. In early adolescence, it might be fruitful to target girls with body dissatisfaction, as this was the most consistent predictor of early eating disorder onset in this study. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Fukumoto, K.; Matsumoto, I.
It is fresh in memory that there were a big earthquake and a tidal wave in Tohoku District, Japan in 11th March 2011. Importance of the environmental education and disaster prevention education in a citizen Levels is increasingly larger after it. An author's one-person Fukumoto has been concerned with coverage and an editing of an environmental public relations magazine "Eco Town MATSUE" of matsue city for two years from a University student's position. Then, We arranged various information and data by our coverage and the reaction from citizen. By this research, we report the importance of the environmental education and science reteracy which were seen from the citizen Levels based on it. It seems that citizens have had big concern in disaster prevention and an energy problem since a big earthquake in 11th March 2011. Before a big earthquake, It is contrastive with the space of a magazine having had many the education and measures towards reduction of carbon dioxide. However, a common important thing occurs. It is a feeling of the citizen of building the National which also keeps the Environment of this earth in the future and where a Nature and a human being live together as a citizen. Therefore, the environment information based on the "right science" needs to be provided for "the environment information magazine" of a citizen Levels. In addition, it is important also because of promotion of the activity of a citizen with a systematic report of citizen's opinion, discussion, and activity to various Earth's and Local Environments. That is, by sending the above factor by a civic environment information magazine, civic environmental education and training of scientific literacy are promoted.
Mashey, J. R.
"There's always one every year" a fine local science teacher said after once again being hassled by a vocal parent for teaching appropriate climate science in school. How does that happen? The machinery of climate anti-science starts from the top with funders working through a maze of money paths, think tanks and front groups, employing spokespeople who can be portrayed as experts. While much of the money flows are still dark, some have been exposed over the last few years, and the effects finally filter down to the state and local levels of education. Among others, the Heartland Institute has a long history of trying to inject anti-science into K-12 and college education, having sent books, DVDs or brochures to teachers or school boards, as well as monthly newsletters to state legislators. Such are aimed at the top of the state or local organizations that affect education. For a vocal subset of the citizenry, a constant flow of misinformation from books, blogs, newsletters and some newspapers and magazines stirs action such as writing letters to editors, complaining to schools, calling on pseudo-experts and demanding equal time for pseudoscience. As the teacher said, it only takes one person to cause trouble at the local level. After a brief review of the overall machinery, this focuses on examples of anti-education tactics seen already, with some brief advice for climate scientists and educators who need to understand the machinery that supports such tactics. Some earlier history is included in http://www.desmogblog.com/2012/10/23/fakery-2-more-funny-finances-free-tax, but other attempts have surfaced in last few years, including state-wide efforts to reject Common Core Educational standard to avoid teaching climate science. Fortunately, school boards sometimes respond quite well, including one just recently in Pennsylvania.
Greer, Annette G; Clay, Maria; Blue, Amy; Evans, Clyde H; Garr, David
Given the emphasis on prevention in U.S. health care reform efforts, the importance of interprofessional education (IPE) that prepares health professions students to be part of effective health care teams is greater than ever. This study examined the prevalence and nature of IPE and interprofessional (IP) prevention education in U.S. academic health centers. The authors extracted a 10-item survey from the longer published IPE Assessment and Planning Instrument. In September 2010, they sent the survey to 346 health professions leaders in health sciences schools and colleges at 100 academic health centers. These institutions were identified via the online membership list of the Association of Academic Health Centers. The authors conducted descriptive statistical analysis and cross-tabulations. Surveys were completed by 127 contacts at 68 universities in 31 states and the District of Columbia. IPE was more prevalent than IP prevention education in all categories of measurement. Respondents affirmed existence of IPE in courses (85.0%) and in clinical rotations/internships (80.3%). The majority reported personnel with responsibility for IPE (68.5%) or prevention education (59.8%) at their institutional unit, and 59.8% reported an IPE office or center. This study provides evidence that IPE and IP prevention education exist in academic health centers, but additional attention should be paid to the development of IP prevention education. Sample syllabi, job descriptions, and policies may be available to support adoption of IPE and IP prevention education. Further effort is needed to increase the integration of IP and prevention education into practice.
The government of Botswana has been spending a lot of money in the prevention, treatment, care and support for HIV/AIDS patient for decades. This paper uses data from the third Botswana AIDS Impact Survey (BAIS III) to explore high-risk behaviors of adults and how they affect government efforts to stop the spread of HIV/AIDS. The objective of this paper is to fill in the gap on the assessment of high-risk behaviors associated with HIV/AIDS and their implications on HIV/AIDS prevention efforts. A nationally representative sample of 10,159 men and women aged 20-64 years who had successfully completed the BAIS III individual questionnaire were used in the study. Both descriptive and binary logistic regression analyses were used for analysis. Crude odds ratios were obtained from gross effects model while adjusted odds ratios (AOR) were obtained from the net effects model. Statistically significant association was observed between multiple current partners and alcohol consumption (AOR = 1.5), drug abuse (AOR = 1.7), transactional sex (AOR = 2.6) and intergenerational sex (AOR = 1.07). Furthermore, statistically significant association was seen for inconsistent condom use and having tested for HIV (AOR = 1.5). These results show a worrying tendency that despite government's efforts to stop the spread of HIV/AIDS, adults in Botswana continue to indulge in high-risk behaviors. Therefore, any programs and policies on HIV/AIDS should first target these high-risk behaviors.
Full Text Available Suicide is a major public health issue. In Japan, local governments are responsible for suicide prevention, and local government officers are therefore expected to act as gatekeepers for suicide prevention. In this study, through a questionnaire survey, the authors examined the current knowledge and attitudes concerning suicide prevention among local government officers and healthcare and welfare professionals, and the effects of providing suicide prevention education on their knowledge of and attitudes toward suicide and its prevention. One hundred eighty-three local government officers and 432 healthcare/welfare professionals completed the survey before and after a single education session. Before the session, the local government officers and healthcare/welfare professionals showed mainly positive attitudes toward suicide prevention efforts, with little difference between the two groups. After the training, knowledge and attitudes were further improved for most questionnaire items. Respondents with one or more experiences of suicide prevention training showed significantly more knowledge and positive attitudes before the training than those with no such experience. Moreover, knowledge of depression and having a sympathetic attitude were found to be especially associated with the overall attitude that “suicide can be prevented”. Training in suicide prevention was shown to be effective in promoting appropriate knowledge and attitudes among local government officers and healthcare/welfare professionals who are gatekeepers for preventing suicide. Our findings confirm the importance of suicide prevention education, and will contribute to creating a standard educational program on suicide prevention in Japan.
Ten years after publication of the UK Government's strategy for drug misuse in 1995, Tackling Drugs Together, the impact of drug education and prevention programmes remains less than desired. The 1995 strategy envisaged a new emphasis on education and prevention and there have been developments since then in drug education, especially with…
Fernando, Sumadhya Deepika; Rodrigo, Chaturaka; de Silva, Nipun; Semege, Saveen; Rajapakse, Senaka; Samaranayake, Nilakashi; Senenayake, Sanath; Premaratne, Risintha Gayan
The security forces are a high risk group for malaria transmission in Sri Lanka. Interrupting transmission and maintaining surveillance in this group is an important component of elimination efforts. The objective of the study was to develop a prototype educational programme on malaria for security forces serving in endemic areas. An interactive seminar was designed to deliver the required knowledge. The content was on current status, transmission, signs and symptoms and the role of security personnel in identification and prevention of malaria. Each seminar was preceded by a pre-test and followed by a post test to assess the improvement of knowledge. Fifty seminars were held in eight districts over 2 months with 2301 security forces personnel participating. Pre seminar knowledge on malaria was significantly better in the medical corps, those who had completed secondary education and in the Army compared to other security forces (pmalaria amongst security forces personnel who are a high risk group for re-introduction of malaria into the country. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Weiss, S; Sawa, G H; Abdeen, Z; Yanai, J
This paper is the result of a collaborative project of Israeli, Jordanian and Palestinian scientists gathered to reveal the current extent of substance abuse and efforts at prevention among Arabs in Israel, Jordan and the Palestinian Authority territories, in order to identify needs and suggest future collaborative activities and directions for regional cooperation. The article provides data and covers the current state of substance abuse prevention and research among Moslems, Christians and Druze in the trilateral region in the 1990s by reviewing prevention materials and studies published in the professional literature, as well as in reports and Doctoral and Master's theses in Arabic, which have been located in academic libraries and other institutions, in the framework of a comprehensive search. This manuscript is the first to summarize Jordanian and Palestinian findings in the substance abuse domain. The review shows that most of the Israeli research in the Arab sector deals with alcohol use among youth, that the majority of Jordanian studies focus on illicit drug use, that the research among Palestinians is in its infancy, and that comprehensive prevention programs are lacking in the trilateral region. It describes the key results of most of the 12 Israeli studies among Arabs, 11 Jordanian studies and four Palestinian studies. It reveals that drug abuse among Israeli Arab students is probably more prevalent than among Jewish adolescents, that the typical Jordanian drug addict has a higher level of education than the typical Palestinian drug addict, and that the Palestinian is more likely to be a multiple drug user. Recommendations for future activities include organization of a regional collaborative workshop in order to establish data collection systems for basic statistics relevant to drug abuse and development of comprehensive prevention programs, as well as studies in the substance abuse domain concerning knowledge, attitudes and behavior among the general
Klassen, Benjamin J; Lachowsky, Nathan J; Lin, Sally Yue; Edward, Joshua B; Chown, Sarah A; Hogg, Robert S; Moore, David M; Roth, Eric A
Effective rollout of HIV treatment-based prevention such as pre-exposure prophylaxis and treatment as prevention has been hampered by poor education, limited acceptability, and stigma among gay men. We undertook a thematic analysis regarding the education sources and acceptability of these New Prevention Technologies (NPTs) using 15 semistructured interviews with gay men in Vancouver, Canada, who were early adopters of NPTs. NPT education was derived from a variety of sources, including the Internet, health care providers, community organizations, sexual partners, and peers; participants also emphasized their own capacities as learners and educators. Acceptable forms of NPT education featured high-quality factual information, personal testimony, and easy access. Stigma was highlighted as a major barrier. For public health, policy makers, and gay communities to optimize the personal and population benefits of NPTs, there is a need for increased community support and dialogue, antistigma efforts, early NPT adopter testimony, and personalized implementation strategies.
Full Text Available It is commonly believed that the quality of teachers correlates with the quality of students‘ learning. This implies that if the quality of teachers is good the quality of students‘ learning will be good too. On the contrary, if the quality of teachers is bad the quality of students‘ learning will be bad too. The following data may justify this belief. First, the results of UKA (Uji Kompetensi Awal and UKG (Uji Kompetensi Guru held by the Ministry of Education and Culture in 2012 indicate that the mean score of the first was 42.25 whereas the mean score of the second was 45.82 – lower than the passing grade of UN (Ujian Nasional. When they are correlated with the results of study carried out by PISA on mathematics, natural sciences and language in 2009 and the study conducted by TIMSS on mathematics and natural sciences in 2007 and 2011 the belief may have its justification. PISA‘s study uncovered that Indonesian students were only in level 3 (out of 6 levels. Whereas, TIMSS‘ study revealed that around 95% of Indonesian junior high school students could only reach intermediate level (among five levels. Based on the above data, there must some efforts that must be done to improve the quality of teachers so that the quality of students‘ learning can be made better too. Revitalization of language teacher education is suggested to be one of the solutions.
Padilla, Carmencita David; Therrell, Bradford L
Many of the countries in the Asia Pacific Region, particularly those with depressed and developing economies, are just initiating newborn screening programs for selected metabolic and other congenital disorders. The cultural, geographic, language, and economic differences that exist throughout the region add to the challenges of developing sustainable newborn screening systems. There are currently more developing programs than developed programs within the region. Newborn screening activities in the Asia Pacific Region are particularly important since births there account for approximately half of the world's births. To date, there have been two workshops to facilitate formation of the Asia Pacific Newborn Screening Collaboratives. The 1st Workshop on Consolidating Newborn Screening Efforts in the Asia Pacific Region occurred in Cebu, Philippines, on March 30-April 1, 2008, as a satellite meeting to the 7th Asia Pacific Conference on Human Genetics. The second workshop was held on June 4-5, 2010, in Manila, Philippines. Workshop participants included key policy-makers, service providers, researchers, and consumer advocates from 11 countries with 50% or less newborn screening coverage. Expert lectures included experiences in the United States and the Netherlands, international quality assurance activities and ongoing and potential research activities. Additional meeting support was provided by the U.S. National Institutes of Health, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the U.S. National Newborn Screening and Genetics Resource Center, the International Society for Neonatal Screening, and the March of Dimes. As part of both meeting activities, participants shared individual experiences in program implementation with formal updates of screening information for each country. This report reviews the activities and country reports from two Workshops on Consolidating Newborn Screening Efforts in the Asia Pacific Region with emphasis on the second workshop. It
Tucker, C.; Arandi, C. Galindo; Bolaños, J. Herbert; Paz-Bailey, G.; Barrington, C.
Sexual minority men and transgender women are disproportionately affected by HIV in Guatemala. Innovative prevention strategies are urgently needed to address these disparities. While social network approaches are frequently used to reach sexual minorities, little is known about the unique network characteristics among sub-groups. We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with 13 gay-identifying men, eight non-gay-identifying men who have sex with men (MSM) and eight transgender women in Guatemala City. Using narrative and thematic coding procedures, we identified distinct patterns in the size, composition, and overlap between social and sexual networks across groups. Gay-identifying men had the largest, most supportive social networks, predominantly comprising family. For both non-gay-identifying MSM and transgender women, friends and sex clients provided more support. Transgender women reported the smallest social networks, least social support, and the most discrimination. HIV prevention efforts should be tailored to the specific sexual minority population and engage with strong ties. PMID:25418236
Cheng, Qijin; Fu, King-wa; Caine, Eric; Yip, Paul S F
The Hong Kong news media report suicide-related events more frequently and sensationally than Western countries. Little is known about Hong Kong media professionals' experiences and thoughts about such reporting. To understand Hong Kong media professionals' experiences and perceptions of suicide reporting and whether the news media can be better engaged into suicide prevention. We conducted three focus groups of journalists from both the Cantonese and English language news media. Data were analyzed using grounded theory methods. We discerned three rationales from participants regarding their intense coverage of suicide-related events: (1) satisfying commercial competitiveness, (2) addressing social problems, and (3) responding to readers' interests. The first rationale was a dominant and vigorous motivating factor, and often influenced suicide reporting among local Cantonese media. Media professionals recommended engagement strategies targeted at frontline journalists, media managers, and general media consumers. We see potential to involve news media professionals in Hong Kong as working partners in suicide prevention. To succeed, this effort requires engagement in a proactive, consistent, and sustained fashion.
Catanzarite, Julie A.; Robinson, Myles D.
Student peer educators have been used by higher education intuitions to influence the education and retention of college students for many years, and most institutions have some type of peer educator program. Newton and Ender (2010) broadly define the role of peer educators as "students who have been selected, trained, and designated by a…
Register-Mihalik, Johna; Baugh, Christine; Kroshus, Emily; Y Kerr, Zachary; Valovich McLeod, Tamara C
To offer an overview of sport-related concussion (SRC) prevention and education strategies in the context of the socioecological framework (SEF). Athletic trainers (ATs) will understand the many factors that interact to influence SRC prevention and the implications of these interactions for effective SRC education. Concussion is a complex injury that is challenging to identify and manage, particularly when athletes fail to disclose symptoms to their health care providers. Education is 1 strategy for increasing disclosure. However, limited information addresses how ATs can integrate the many factors that may influence the effectiveness of SRC education into their specific settings. Public health models provide an example through the SEF, which highlights the interplay among various levels of society and sport that can facilitate SRC prevention strategies, including education. For ATs to develop appropriate SRC prevention strategies, a framework for application is needed. A growing body of information concerning SRC prevention indicates that knowledge alone is insufficient to change concussion-related behaviors. The SEF allows this information to be considered at levels such as policy and societal, community, interpersonal (relationships), and intrapersonal (athlete). The use of such a framework will facilitate more comprehensive SRC prevention efforts that can be applied in all athletic training practice settings. Clinical Applications: Athletic trainers can use this information as they plan SRC prevention strategies in their specific settings. This approach will aid in addressing the layers of complexity that exist when developing a concussion-management policy and plan.
Stewart, Camille L; Acker, Shannon N; Pyle, Laura; Smith, Dwayne S; Bensard, Denis D; Moulton, Steven L
Initiatives exist to prevent pediatric injuries, but targeting these interventions to specific populations is challenging. We hypothesized that mapping pediatric injuries by zip code could be used to identify regions requiring more interventions and resources. We queried the trauma registries of two level I trauma centers for children 0-17years of age injured between 2009 and 2013 with home zip codes in our state. Maps were created to identify outlier zip codes. Multivariate linear regression analysis identified predictors within these zip codes. There were 5380 children who resided in the state and were admitted for traumatic injuries during the study period, with hospital costs totaling more than 200 million dollars. Choropleth mapping of patient addresses identified outlier zip codes in our metro area with higher incidences of specific mechanisms of injury and greater hospital charges. Multivariate analysis identified demographic features associated with higher rates of pediatric injuries and hospital charges, to further target interventions. We identified outlier zip codes in our metro area with higher frequencies of pediatric injuries and higher costs for treatment. These data have helped obtain funding for prevention and education efforts. Techniques such as those presented here are becoming more important as evidence based public health initiatives expand. Type of Study: Cost Effectiveness, II. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Stellefson, Michael; Barry, Adam; Chaney, Beth H; Chaney, J Don; Hanik, Bruce
What exactly is health education? Professionals with advanced degrees in health education have most likely encountered questions such as these either during introductory coursework or from those inquiring about the field. These queries can prove quite perplexing when asked by individuals who are unaware of the health education profession. Because the act of marketing health education is crucial to the sustainability of the field, the purpose of this article is to (a) explore the issue of describing and promoting health education, (b) establish ideas that can facilitate the provision of coordinated marketing efforts, and (c) offer marketing management and implementation principles that can assist in marketing both health education and health educators. Based on this discussion, the authors suggest building mainstream consensus in regards to marketing message development and implementation to better position health education.
Since the 7/7 bombings of July 2005, Britain has experienced a domestic terror threat posed by a small minority of young Muslims. In response, Britain has initiated "Prevent," a preventative counter-terrorism programme. Building on previous, general critiques of Prevent, this article outlines and critically discusses the ways in which…
Grossman, Susan J.; Gieck, Joe; Fang, Wei Li; Freedman, Alan
Alcohol and other drug (AOD) abuse affects every sector of society, and student-athletes are no exception. Because many factors affecting athletes do not affect other students, athletic departments commonly approach prevention through AOD education. Different educational approaches are described in this article, particularly the Athletic Prevention Programming and Leadership Education (APPLE) model. Project APPLE is designed to enable an athletic department to systematically analyze its AOD p...
Solov'ev, A G; Novikova, G A
The authors have systematized approaches to the prevention of beer dependence in adolescents and presented the inner structure of prevention in educational institutions in terms of consecutive steps. The author's methods for adolescence beer dependence diagnosis are described. Different forms of preventive work with adolescences and their parents allowing to combine flexibly the preventive methods with the participation of cross-functional specialists are presented.
Tsukernik, M.; McCaffrey, M. S.
As the International Polar Year 2007-2008 (IPY) is fast approaching, it is important to look back and learn from the previous experience. Over 125 years ago, when an Austrian explorer and naval officer Lt. Karl Weyprecht called for an international yearlong intensive effort to study the Polar Regions, he probably never imagined that his model for international collaboration would become so widely popular. Frustrated by the lack of coordinated, international collaboration in research activities, Weyprecht proposed an intensive burst of research activity over the course of at least a year. The first IPY began in 1882 with 12 nations establishing 13 stations in the Arctic and 2 in the Southern Hemisphere. The initial yearlong plan did not go beyond data collection. However, the idea lived in the minds of scientists worldwide and the second IPY followed the first one 50 years later. By 1932, technology evolved significantly, and on top of ground-based meteorological and geophysical measurements, data collection also included radiosonde and acoustic atmospheric measurements. Occurring during a global economic depression, and between world wars, the second IPY faced many challenges. However, 40 permanent stations were established, some of which are still active. Scientific exploration also reached remote frontiers from Antarctica to the Earth's ionosphere. Less than a decade after the WWII, the idea of the next IPY started to circulate in scientific circles. The world was focused on space exploration and the word "polar" seemed too narrow for the gigantic projects planned for the 1957. That is why the initial idea of the third IPY evolved into the International Geophysical Year (IGY), although polar regions were still a major focus. The success of the IGY is almost overwhelming the first Earth orbiting satellites, a traverse of Antarctica, a discovery of the Radiation Belt, a series of science education films about IGY activities and research themes are just a few
Merrie, Michael D.; Shewmake, Cole; Calleja, Paul
The purpose of this article is to provide physical educators with practical strategies that can assist in preventing injuries in the classroom. The dynamic nature of physical education and the numerous tasks physical educators must complete daily can be challenging. Embedded in these challenges is the constant risk of student injury. Fortunately,…
The purpose of this research was to understand the role carried out by persons-in-charge of campus internationalization efforts at community colleges. The comprehension of this leadership role encompassed identifying and understanding profile and qualities of the person-in-charge of campus internationalization efforts as well as the duties and…
Anderson, S. W.; Hatheway, B.
At a recent Tri-Agency PI meeting of NSF-, NASA- and NOAA-funded climate change education projects, we asked nearly 20 of our colleagues the following question, "If you had to choose just one of the following, which would it be: you would like the general public to believe that climate change is occurring, or you would like the general public to know that climate change is occurring?" We were a bit surprised when every person canvassed chose that they wanted the public to believe that climate change is occurring. When we inquired why, they all answered something along the lines that "beliefs lead to actions". However, when we looked at the funded efforts of the NASA, NOAA and NSF climate education community we came to the troubling conclusion that the vast majority were designed primarily with knowledge in mind, and that as a community we were perhaps not tackling some important non-scientific issues related to belief, trust and values. It is not surprising, nor unreasonable, that we have taken an approach to climate change education that largely focuses on increasing the knowledge base of the public. First of all, our fundamental task as science researchers is to create new knowledge, so we are typically comfortable discussing it. Secondly, knowledge may serve as a foundation for belief and ultimately lead to changes in behavior. However, this second line of reasoning clearly has limits, and we believe we are seeing these limits manifested in some of the poll numbers related to the general public's position on this topic. When the value of science is pitted against other things that people value, such as family, religion, and jobs, we are faced with the likelihood that it is not going to be as highly regarded by the general public as it is by scientists. Climate change science opponents understand the importance of value and belief, and directly capitalize on it by using two main strategies. First, they effectively minimize the value of climate science by casting
Kass, Andrea E; Jones, Megan; Kolko, Rachel P; Altman, Myra; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E; Eichen, Dawn M; Balantekin, Katherine N; Trockel, Mickey; Taylor, C Barr; Wilfley, Denise E
Given shared risk and maintaining factors between eating disorders and obesity, it may be important to include both eating disorder intervention and healthy weight management within a universal eating disorder care delivery program. This study evaluated differential eating disorder screening responses by initial weight status among university students, to assess eating disorder risk and pathology among individuals with overweight/obesity versus normal weight or underweight. 1529 individuals were screened and analyzed. Screening was conducted via pilot implementation of the Internet-based Healthy Body Image program on two university campuses. Fifteen percent of the sample had overweight/obesity. Over half (58%) of individuals with overweight/obesity screened as high risk for an eating disorder or warranting clinical referral, and 58% of individuals with overweight/obesity endorsed a ≥10-pound weight change over the past year. Compared to individuals with normal weight or underweight, individuals with overweight/obesity were more likely to identify as Black, endorse objective binge eating and fasting, endorse that eating disorder-related concerns impaired their relationships/social life and made them feel badly, and endorse higher weight/shape concerns. Results suggest rates of eating disorder pathology and clinical impairment are highest among students with overweight/obesity, and targeted intervention across weight categories and diverse races/ethnicities is warranted within universal eating disorder intervention efforts. Integrating eating disorder intervention and healthy weight management into universal prevention programs could reduce the incidence and prevalence of eating disorders, unhealthy weight control practices, and obesity among university students. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... can be significantly improved in rural areas, if the caregivers are adequately empowered through appropriate health education intervention though change in attitude and belief may require a longer and persistent effort. Keywords: Health education intervention, knowledge, malaria, nursing mothers, practice, rural Nigeria
Flamer, Mary Guess; Davis, Elaine P.
The purpose of this guide for educators is to provide strategies that schools can adopt to discourage teenage pregnancy. The first section describes adolescent pregnancy in New Jersey, including education efforts to address adolescent pregnancy, and statistics on adolescent fertility. The second section addresses familial, media and peer effects…
Bolli, Thomas; Johnes, Geraint
We develop and empirically test a model which examines the impact of changes in class time and tuition fees on student effort in the form of private study. The data come from the European Union's Adult Education Survey, conducted over the period 2005-2008. We find, in line with theoretical predictions, that the time students devote to private…
The Ministry of Education in Chile has adopted a policy that guarantees the right of children with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) to be educated. The document, "Educational policy and sexuality," recommends incorporating sex education and AIDS prevention into the school curriculum. In San Bernardo, where one child was not accepted at school, a project, "Education for prevention and non-discrimination," was announced by municipal authorities. Students in public and private schools in the country have been trained as monitors who, in the school environment, educate other children about AIDS. In Santiago, seminars that cover fear of AIDS have begun for teachers, many of whom are afraid. Working groups are being considered for development and communication of prevention strategies in schools.
Barros, Ana; Moreira, Luís; Santos, Helena; Ribeiro, Nuno; Carvalho, Luís; Santos-Silva, Filipe
Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, and thus represents a priority for national public health programs. Prevention has been assumed as the best strategy to reduce cancer burden, however most cancer prevention programs are implemented by healthcare professionals, which constrain range and educational impacts. We developed an innovative approach for cancer prevention education focused on high-school biology teachers, considered privileged mediators in the socialization processes. A training program, "Cancer, Educate to Prevent" was applied, so that the teachers were able to independently develop and implement prevention campaigns focused on students and school-related communities. The program encompassed different educational modules, ranging from cancer biology to prevention campaigns design. Fifty-four teachers were empowered to develop and implement their own cancer prevention campaigns in a population up to five thousands students. The success of the training program was assessed through quantitative evaluation--questionnaires focused on teachers' cancer knowledge and perceptions, before the intervention (pre-test) and immediately after (post-test). The projects developed and implemented by teachers were also evaluated regarding the intervention design, educational contents and impact on the students' knowledge about cancer. This study presents and discusses the results concerning the training program "Cancer, Educate to Prevent" and clearly shows a significant increase in teacher's cancer literacy (knowledge and perceptions) and teachers' acquired proficiency to develop and deliver cancer prevention campaigns with direct impact on students' knowledge about cancer. This pilot study reinforces the potential of high-school teachers and schools as cancer prevention promoters and opens a new perspective for the development and validation of cancer prevention education strategies, based upon focused interventions in restricted targets (students
Kleiman, Neil Scott
Education advocates nationwide are taking heart in signs that collaboration and coordination are beginning to ease the transition to higher education. Nowhere is this positive trend more pronounced than New York City, where the collaboration between public schools and higher education, also known as P-16, is becoming more frequent. The P-16 model…
There are few tools that exist to measure knowledge mobilization (KMb), the process of connecting research to policy and practice across diverse organizations and sectors. This article reports on a comparison of KMb efforts of 105 educational organizations: faculties of education (N = 21), research brokering organizations (N = 44), school…
Monica Seungah Choo
Full Text Available The Chikungunya virus (CHIKV has been rapidly spreading throughout Latin America, utilizing pre-existing vectors to infiltrate the immunologically naïve populations. With the current rise of the Zika Virus, there is an urgent need for more rigorous vector control efforts to prevent further Zika breakout. We designed a schoolbased education module on CHIKV and mosquito prevention and presented it to the local students of ages of 6-18 in a rural town called Sudzal in Yucatan, Mexico. We distributed questionnaires before and after education to test the students’ knowledge of CHIKV and mosquito prevention. Chisquared test was performed to determine the efficacy of the presentation in increasing their knowledge. The education presentation has proven to effectively educate the local residents in several critical methods of mosquito prevention, increasing the average test scores by 67% post-education. These include applying repellent, staying hydrated during recuperation, and cleaning indoor water containers to eliminate breeding sites (P<0.001. Furthermore, the questionnaire captured the residents’ behavioral patterns regarding CHIKV and mosquito prevention and identified cultural, ecological, and socioeconomic factors hindering effective implementation of vector control.
Impact of health education on home treatment and prevention of malaria. Chirdan O. O. et al. Page | 115 taken at home and dangers of self treatment. Part 3: Treatment of uncomplicated malaria and prevention of malaria. Posters and chloroquine drug charts were used as teaching aids. Post intervention impact assessment.
The increasing scourge of drug abuse among adolescents is a major challenge facing mankind. As the importance of health education in disease prevention is enormous, drug misuse prevention programme requires introducing innovations, flexibility and reinforcement which will be effective in shortest possible time among ...
Full Text Available Background: In a country like India, with limited resources and skilled manpower, the most feasible and cost effective method of controlling oral diseases should be preventive based, either in the form of information dissemination or specific protective measures. But the curriculum of our dental education does not train students in practicing or applying primary prevention, which remains the need of the hour. This review aims to emphasise the importance of primary prevention when compared to curative dentistry.
McCrystal, Patrick; Winning, Kerry
Drug misuse in Northern Ireland, like many parts of the world, is becoming one of the major issues facing society today. A first stage to addressing this problem is effective drugs education and prevention strategies to school-aged young people. A survey of a range of education providers including mainstream and special needs schools, and school…
Effect of health education on knowledge and prevention on Hepatitis infection among secondary school students in Ibadan North Local Government Area of Oyo state. ... Based on these findings, the study recommended that health education/ health campaign should be directed to school students and Specific risk practices ...
Markusen, Eric; Harris, John B.
Examines the role of education in the Holocaust of Nazi Germany, discusses U.S. nuclear weapons policy and factors of psychological resistance that have limited citizen participation in decision making, and explores the potential of education to help prevent nuclear war. (Author/SK)
A British Columbian Native teacher education program is guided by a team of First Nations educators and elders, university faculty, a representative of the teacher federation, and students. Aboriginal languages are incorporated into a Native cultural studies course using a holistic approach based on the Medicine Wheel that empowers students to…
Ethiopian agriculture is characterized by smallholders farming whose access to modern technology and basic education is very limited. Research, extension, education and farmers are the main pillars of agricultural knowledge systems and their effectiveness largely depends on strong linkage among each other. However, the existing…
Heun, Linda R
This article outlines the development of learning materials to educate osteopathic medical students about biological terrorism at the American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine (AACOM). The author then poses two questions that arose from this and concurrent AACOM projects and new technologic developments in medical education, regarding what colleges of osteopathic medicine teach and how they teach it.
Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Waasdorp, Tracy E.; O'Brennan, Lindsey M.; Gulemetova, Michaela
Given growing concerns regarding the prevalence and seriousness of bullying, the National Education Association recently drew upon its membership to launch a national study of teachers’ and education support professionals’ perceptions of bullying, and need for additional training on bullying prevention efforts and school-wide policies. The data were collected from a representative sample of 5,064 National Education Association members (2,163 teachers and 2,901 education support professionals). Analyses indicated that compared to education support professionals, teachers were more likely to witness students being bullied, more likely to view bullying as a significant problem at their school, and were more likely to have students report bullying to them. Teachers were more likely to be involved in bullying policies at their school, yet both groups reported wanting more training related to cyberbullying and bullying related to students’ sexual orientation, gender issues, and racial issues. Implications for school psychologists and the development of school-wide bullying prevention efforts are discussed. PMID:25414539
Lyu, Minjeong; Gill, Diane L.
Perceived competence is a key motivational determinant of physical activity behaviours in adolescents, and motivational determinants are influenced by the class environment. The purpose of this study was to investigate levels of perceived physical competence, enjoyment and effort in class, focusing on gender and class-type differences.…
Georgina Amayuela Mora
Full Text Available In Ecuador the profound social, have been creating the conditions for the development of new conceptions in the education of the sexuality. The necessity of taking actions in relation with the education of the sexuality is a challenge for the educators and the health personal. The objective of this paper is to offer psycho-pedagogical foundations for the prevention of adolescent pregnancy Theoretical and empiric methods were used in the present investigation, mainly. The work provides a system of psycho-pedagogical grounds to take into account in any proposal for adolescent pregnancy prevention.
Chang, C.-P.; Chen, Y.-A.; Hsu, T.-H.
The Taiwan government has invested much effort in developing and promoting disaster relief and prevention by following out many research projects after the 1999 Chichi earthquake. "Experiment and Development Project on Implementation and Introspection of Disaster Prevention Education" is one of the most important among these projects. This project includes five major areas such as, 1) "operation and supporting mechanism build-up"; 2) "curriculum development and popularization experiment"; 3) "teachers' training programs on disaster prevention education"; 4) "promotion and popularization of experiment and e-learning"; and 5) "establishment of evaluation system". Furthermore, The Ministry of Education has promoted actively for the participation of local government since 2007. Depending upon the requirements and characteristics of different areas, different projects are set up and some involved the teachers and students senior high schools and event under to participate. Through this project, most primary and secondary schools in Taiwan have participated the evacuation training during the large earthquake in the campus and have developed the disaster prevention project for their selves. These implementations are still of the early stage, most of the schools still lack experience and need to be more relevant for disaster prevention and relief exercises. In the future more executive powers and supports from the Ministry of Education and from the local government works will largely help the schools and general public at all levels to reduce the occurrence of disaster events on campus.
Saracho, Olivia N.
Bullying is a serious problem that affects the young children's well being. Early childhood educators find it difficult to manage bullying in the classroom. Preschool is the first environment outside of the home setting where children encounter difficulties when they socially interact with their peers. Based on the principles of protecting and…
D. T. Butry; J. P. Prestemon; K. L. Abt
Public outreach and wildfire education activities have been shown to limit the number of unintentional human-caused ignitions (i.e., 'accidental' wildfires). Such activities include the airing of public service announcements, visiting with homeowners in at-risk areas, distributing informative brochures and flyers, hosting of public forums (with presentations...
International Labour Office, Geneva (Switzerland).
Devoted to providing industrial workers with a greater knowledge of precautionary measures undertaken and enforced by industries for the protection of workers, this safety education manual contains 14 lessons ranging from "The Problems of Accidents during Work" to "Trade Unions and Workers and Industrial Safety." Fire protection, safety equipment…
McCaughey, Martha; Cermele, Jill
Recent activist, policy, and government efforts to engage in campus rape prevention education (RPE), culminating in the 2014 White House Task Force recommendations to combat campus sexual assault, prompt a need to examine the concept of "prevention" in the context of sexual assault on U.S. college campuses and their surrounding community service agencies. This article reviews previous research on effective resistance to sexual assault, showing that self-defense is a well-established protective factor in a public health model of sexual assault prevention. The article goes on to show, through an examination of campus rape prevention efforts framed as "primary prevention," that self-defense is routinely excluded. This creates a hidden curriculum that preserves a gender status quo even while it strives for change. The article concludes with recommendations for how administrators, educators, facilitators, funding agencies, and others can incorporate self-defense into campus RPE for a more effective, data-driven set of sexual assault prevention efforts. © The Author(s) 2015.
Decreasing gang activity in inner city neighborhoods is an essential component to reducing violence and improving our society as a whole. This study was conducted to help generate awareness and a better understanding as to how schools can be best utilized as a protective factor against youth gang activity. The participants consisted of 6 educators…
damage and dental ), suicide (counseling and nurse stress and fatigue), TBI and psychological health (PTSD), injury prevention, wound infection and...neural controlled lower limb prosthesis , powered and regenerative kinetics prostheses, advanced socket design, comfortable and dynamic sensing
We are pleased to be able to offer continuing education credits to Registered Dietitians. Registered Dietitians This event is pending for approval by the Commission on Dietetic Registration for 2 CPEUs. Procedure Immediately after the event, a link to a short questionnaire will be sent to you by email. Please complete the questionnaire online and print out your certificate of completion. |
Hewson, Peter W.; Butler Kahle, Jane; Scantlebury, Kathryn; Davies, Darleen
A central commitment of current reforms in science education is that all students, regardless of culture, gender, race, and/ or socioeconomic status, are capable of understanding and doing science. The study Bridging the Gap: Equity in Systemic Reform assessed equity in systemic reform using a nested research design that drew on both qualitative and quantitative methodologies. As part of the study, case studies were conducted in two urban middle schools in large Ohio cities. The purpose of the case studies was to identify factors affecting equity in urban science education reform. Data were analyzed using Kahle's (1998) equity metric. That model allowed us to assess progress toward equity using a range of research-based indicators grouped into three categories critical for equitable education: access to, retention in, and achievement in quality science education. In addition, a fourth category was defined for systemic indicators of equity. Analyses indicated that the culture and climate of the case study schools differentially affected their progress toward equitable reform in science education.
Thompson, Britta M; Teal, Cayla R; Rogers, John C; Paterniti, Debora A; Haidet, Paul
Medical schools are increasingly incorporating opportunities for reflection into their curricula. However, little is known about the cognitive and/or emotional processes that occur when learners participate in activities designed to promote reflection. The purpose of this study was to identify and elucidate those processes. In 2008, the authors analyzed qualitative data from focus groups that were originally conducted to evaluate an educational activity designed to promote reflection. These data afforded the opportunity to explore the processes of reflection in detail. Transcripts (94 pages, single-spaced) from four focus groups were analyzed using a narrative framework. The authors spent approximately 40 hours in group and 240 hours in individual coding activities. The authors developed a conceptual model of five major elements in students' reflective processes: the educational activity, the presence or absence of cognitive or emotional dissonance, and two methods of processing dissonance (preservation or reconciliation). The model also incorporates the relationship between the student's internal ideal of what a doctor is or does and the student's perception of the teacher's ideal of what a doctor is or does. The model further identifies points at which educators may be able to influence the processes of reflection and the development of professional ideals. Students' cognitive and emotional processes have important effects on the success of educational activities intended to stimulate reflection. Although additional research is needed, this model-which incorporates ideals, activities, dissonance, and processing-can guide educators as they plan and implement such activities.
Vanessa Lopes Munhoz Afonso
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Report educational experiences orienting the elderly population about sexuality and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases. Case description: A professional experience report of STD prevention group in the elderly at a specialized clinic. The educational gerontology was used as a methodology in the production of workshops held from November/2012 to December/2014 to service users. The workshops entitled “Tenda da Sabedoria”, “Baile dos Idosos” and “Roda de Conversa”addressed the sexuality of the elderly, knowledge about transmission and how to prevent it. Actions are always accompanied by the distribution of educational materials, condoms and referrals to testing users for Hepatitis B and C, HIV and syphilis. The group noticed satisfaction of the elderly, interest and effective participation through learning in a simple and enjoyable way. It was also possible to identify elderly interested in multiplying the knowledge with peers and family. Conclusions: The participatory educational process promotes strengthening of elderly network support, enabling an active channel of communication between staff and users, offering subsidies appropriated to prevention work and treatment of diseases. Keywords: Health of the Elderly; Health Education; Communicable Disease Prevention; Health Promotion.
Public health professionals seek to promote health literacy through education. In the mental health arena, such approaches have included teaching primary care gatekeepers to screen for early identification of suicide risk and teaching members of the general public to engage peers in need of mental health treatment and guide them into evidence-based care. Educational positivism is the belief that this pedagogic enterprise is unlimited, leading to a "more is better" approach. Despite its promise, however, educational approaches may have muted effects. Students in discrete training programs are often overwhelmed by too much information. Moreover, the effects of distributed training programs, which usually involve repeated training over longer periods, compete with already existing schemes of health action as well as the cacophony of other channels of information. Strategies to address these concerns are described.
Keating, Joseph C
John J. Nugent, D.C. is remembered by many as either the “Abraham Flexner of Chiropractic” or the “anti-Christ of Chiropractic.” From 1941 until his forced retirement in 1959, the Irish-born Palmer graduate was one of the most important factors in the profession's educational reforms. Yet Nugent's work as the National Chiropractic Association's (NCA's) director of research was not the beginning of the campaign to upgrade chiropractic education. This paper looks at earlier influences and event...
Hydon, Stephen; Wong, Marleen; Langley, Audra K; Stein, Bradley D; Kataoka, Sheryl H
Teachers can be vulnerable to secondary traumatic stress (STS) because of their supportive role with students and potential exposure to students' experiences with traumas, violence, disasters, or crises. STS symptoms, similar to those found in posttraumatic stress disorder, include nightmares, avoidance, agitation, and withdrawal, and can result from secondary exposure to hearing about students' traumas. This article describes how STS presents, how teachers can be at risk, and how STS can manifest in schools. A US Department of Education training program is presented, and thoughts on future directions are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The federal role in higher education has grown over the past two decades, and now a new administration has the opportunity to strengthen policies that support students and their colleges and universities. To help inform these decisions, the Urban Institute convened a bipartisan group of scholars and policy advisers to write a series of memos…
Cale, Lorraine; Harris, Jo
Background: Physical fitness testing is commonplace within schools and the physical education (PE) curriculum, with advocates claiming one of the key purposes of testing to be the promotion of healthy lifestyles and physical activity. Despite this, much controversy has surrounded the fitness testing of young people. Purpose: This paper draws on…
Somby, Hege Merete; Johansen, Vegard
Pupil enterprises are a widespread type of entrepreneurship education. In this working method, pupils start up, manage and close a business over short period of time. National and international policy documents claim that practical working methods through the use of pupil enterprises are beneficial to increase motivation by being a realistic and…
Murakami-Ramalho, Elizabeth; da Silva, Maria Auxiliadora Lima Dias
This study explores the intercultural movements toward social justice in education in the Americas, most particularly, North America, and how U.S. multicultural movements and policies influence countries like Brazil. First we analyzed the movement toward multicultural practices to understand how those are developed both in the U.S., and in Brazil.…
Bárbara Ferreira dos Santos
Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1807-0221.2016v13n24p138 This article reports experiences of undergraduates and university teatchers with the community in an extension project developed from March to December of 2015. In this article, the practices of Diabetes Mellitus, Hypertension, Cardiovascular Diseases and Obesity were discussed, with guidelines and demonstrations for the population at school, restaurant and university. The interventions were initiated by talking with the participants about means of prevention, reduction of diseases, healthy recipes and modifications in the habits of life. Practices to combat hypertension and diabetes have addressed ways to minimize diseases through eating and the ones to combat obesity and cardiovascular diseases were performed through dynamics. The practices revealed public interest in changing lifestyles and brought to extensionists practical knowledge, because they were able to put into practice content learned in class, which is one of the objectives of university extension.
Cardenas Herrera, Juan; Fernandez Gomez, Isis Maria
The purpose of this work is to train and inform on radiological accidents as a preventive measure to improve the people life quality. Radiological accidents are part of the events of technological origin which are composed of nuclear and radiological accidents. As a notable figure is determined that there have been 423 radiological accidents from 1944 to 2005 and among the causes prevail industrial accidents, by irradiations, medical accidents and of laboratories, among others. Latin American countries such as Argentina, Brazil, Mexico and Peru are some where most accidents have occurred by radioactivity. The radiological accidents can have sociological, environmental, economic, social and political consequences. In addition, there are scenarios of potential nuclear accidents and in them the potential human consequences. Also, the importance of the organization and planning in a nuclear emergency is highlighted. Finally, the experience that Cuba has lived on the subject of radiological accidents is described [es
Miedema, Stephanie S; Yount, Kathryn M; Chirwa, Esnat; Dunkle, Kristin; Fulu, Emma
Men's perpetration of gender-based violence remains a global public health issue. Violence prevention experts call for engagement of boys and men to change social norms around masculinity in order to prevent gender-based violence. Yet, men do not comprise a homogenous category. Drawing on probability estimates of men who report same-sex practices and preferences captured in a multi-country gender-based violence prevention survey in the Asia-Pacific region, we test the effects of sexuality-related factors on men's adverse life experiences. We find that sexual minority men face statistically higher risk of lifetime adversity related to gender-based violence, stemming from gender inequitable norms in society. Sexuality is thus a key axis of differentiation among men in the Asia-Pacific region, influencing health and wellbeing and reflecting men's differential engagement with dominant norms of masculinity. Integrating awareness of male sexual diversity into gender-based violence prevention interventions, particularly those that work with boys and men, and bridging violence prevention programming between sexual minority communities and women, are essential to tackle the root drivers of violence.
Matsuda, Naoki; Yoshida, Masahiro; Takao, Hideaki
The proper understanding of radiation safety by nursing staffs in hospitals are essential not only for radiation protection of themselves against occupational radiation exposure but for quality nursing for patients who receive medical radiation exposure. The education program on radiation in nursing schools in Japan is, however, rather limited, and is insufficient for nurses to acquire basic knowledge of radiation safety and protection. Therefore, the radiation safety training of working nurses is quite important. A hospital-based training needs assignment of radiation technologists and radiologists as instructors, which may result in temporary shortage of these staffs for patients' services. Additionally, the equipments and facilities for radiation training in a hospital might not be satisfactory. In order to provide an effective education regarding radiation for working nurses, the radiation safety training course has been conducted for nurse of the university hospital by the collaboration of medical and educational staffs in Nagasaki University. This course was given for 6 hours in Radioisotope Research Center, a research and education facility for radiation workers using radioisotopes. The curriculum of this course included basics of radiation, effects of radiation on human health, procedures in clinical settings for radiation protection and practical training by using survey meters, which were mainly based on the radiation safety training for beginners according to the Japanese law concerning radiation safety with a modification to focus on medical radiation exposure. This course has been given to approximately 25 nurses in a time, and held 13 times in May 2000 through October 2003 for 317 nurse overall. The pre-instruction questionnaire revealed that 60% of nurses felt fears about radiation diagnosis or therapy, which reduced to less than 15% in the post-instruction surveillance. The course also motivated nurses to give an answer to patients' questions about
Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this study was to determine: whether and at what stage of education is proper body posture learned, the intention of young adults to participate in activities teaching proper posture, and the effects of factors related with the said intention. Methods. The study involved 430 university students aged 18-24 years. Anthropometric data was collected. Participants completed questionnaires assessing physical activity level (IPAQ and their intention to participate in extracurricular activities teaching proper posture while sitting or walking, proper running technique, corrective gymnastics, or weight loss exercises. A self-assessment of posture, physical fitness, attractiveness, and body satisfaction was also completed. Results. Lower back pain was experienced by 41% of the respondents. Most were taught proper posture-related habits in primary school, followed by secondary school, and then at university. Many students expressed their intention to participate in the extracurricular activities. None of the questionnaire variables were associated with the intention to learn proper walking posture or proper running technique. The intention to participate in classes teaching proper sitting posture was associated with lower back pain in women and low physical activity level in men. In women, a relationship was found between the intention to participate in weight loss exercises and body dissatisfaction, high BMI, and poor self-evaluations of posture and attractiveness. In men, this activity was associated with body dissatisfaction. Conclusions. There is a need for further education on the development of proper postural habits at the university level.
Matthew Lee Smith
Full Text Available Although the concepts of systems change and sustainability are not new, little is known about the factors associated with systems change sustaining multi-state, multi-level fall prevention efforts. This exploratory study focuses on three State Departments of Health (DOH that were awarded 5-year funding from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to simultaneously implement four separate yet related evidence-based fall prevention initiatives at the clinical, community, and policy level. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in partnerships and collaborative activities that occurred to accomplish project goals (examining changes in the context of “before funding” and “after funding was received”. Additionally, this study explored changes in State DOH perceptions about action related to sustainability indicators in the context of “during funding” and “after funding ends.” Findings from this study document the partnership and activity changes necessary to achieve defined fall prevention goals after funding is received, and that the importance of sustainability indicator documentation is seen as relevant during funding, but less so after the funding ends. Findings from this study have practice and research implications that can inform future funded efforts in terms of sector and stakeholder engagement necessary for initiating, implementing, and sustaining community- and clinical-based fall prevention interventions.
Smith, Matthew Lee; Schneider, Ellen C.; Byers, Imani N.; Shubert, Tiffany E.; Wilson, Ashley D.; Towne, Samuel D.; Ory, Marcia G.
Although the concepts of systems change and sustainability are not new, little is known about the factors associated with systems change sustaining multi-state, multi-level fall prevention efforts. This exploratory study focuses on three State Departments of Health (DOH) that were awarded 5-year funding from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to simultaneously implement four separate yet related evidence-based fall prevention initiatives at the clinical, community, and policy level. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in partnerships and collaborative activities that occurred to accomplish project goals (examining changes in the context of “before funding” and “after funding was received”). Additionally, this study explored changes in State DOH perceptions about action related to sustainability indicators in the context of “during funding” and “after funding ends.” Findings from this study document the partnership and activity changes necessary to achieve defined fall prevention goals after funding is received, and that the importance of sustainability indicator documentation is seen as relevant during funding, but less so after the funding ends. Findings from this study have practice and research implications that can inform future funded efforts in terms of sector and stakeholder engagement necessary for initiating, implementing, and sustaining community- and clinical-based fall prevention interventions. PMID:28642861
Donohoe, M.J.; Russell, B.A.; Clark, P.
Following the passage of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA 90) and increased public demands for action in the wake of the Exxon Valdez oil spill, many states are now aggressively redefining and expanding their marine safety and marine environmental protection programs. The US Coast Guard is developing a program to coordinate these efforts with the aim toward minimizing duplicative requirements, leveraging resources, and eliminating barriers to marine transportation due to widely differing federal and state regulations
Meinke, B. K.; Thomas, C.; Eyermann, S.; Mitchell, S.; LaConte, K.; Hauck, K.
Libraries are community-centered, free-access venues serving learners of all ages and backgrounds. Libraries also recognize the importance of science literacy and strive to include science in their programming portfolio. Scientists and educators can partner with local libraries to advance mutual goals of connecting the public to Earth and Space Science. In this interactive Special Interest Group (SIG) discussion, representatives from the NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Education and Public Outreach (EPO) community's library collaborations discussed the opportunities for partnership with public and school libraries; explored the resources, events, and programs available through libraries; explored NASA science programming and professional development opportunities available for librarians; and strategized about the types of support that librarians require to plan and implement programs that use NASA data and resources. We also shared successes, lessons learned, and future opportunities for incorporating NASA science programming into library settings.
Hunt, Dan; Klamen, Debra; Harden, Ronald M; Ali, Farzand
Publications and organizations ranking medical schools rely heavily on schools' research-oriented and grant-success data because those are the publicly available data. To address the vacuum of evidence for medical education quality, in 2012 the Association of Education in Europe (AMEE) introduced an initiative entitled A Schools Programme for International Recognition of Excellence in Education (ASPIRE) awards. ASPIRE panels of international experts in specific areas of medical education have developed internationally peer-based criteria to benchmark excellence in social accountability, student engagement, student assessment, faculty development, and simulation; they plan to publish criteria on curriculum design and development in 2018. Schools are encouraged to use ASPIRE criteria to challenge themselves and, for a fee, may submit evidence that they have met the criteria for excellence in one or more of the five areas. The international panels then judge the evidence submitted by the school and determine whether an award of excellence is merited.The authors share lessons learned from five years of program experience. Of the 88 schools submitting evidence, 38 have been recognized for their excellence in one of the ASPIRE topic areas. As the number of representatives from the schools that are awarded ASPIRE recognition continues to increase and those individuals find new ways to contribute, hopes are high for this program. Challenges remain in how to better define excellence in low-resources settings, what new areas to take on, and how to keep infrastructure costs down. However, as an example of continuing global interaction for quality improvement, optimism prevails.
Matsuda, Naoki; Yoshida, Masahiro; Takao, Hideaki
The radiation safety training course has been conducted for nurses of the university hospital by the collaboration of medical and educational staffs in Nagasaki University. This course was given for 6 hours covering basics of radiation, effects on human body, tips for radiation protection in clinical settings, and practical training, to more than 350 nurses overall. The pre-instruction survey by questionnaire revealed that 60% of nurses felt fears about radiation when they care for patients, which reduced to less than 15% in the post-instruction survey. The course also motivated nurses to give an answer patients' questions about radiation safety. In contrast, more than 30% of nurses were aware of neither their glass badge readings nor the maximum dose limit of radiation exposure even after the course. These results suggested that medical-educational collaborative training for nurses were effective on reducing nurses' fears about radiation and that repeated and continuous education would be necessary to establish their practice for radiation protection. (author)
Heilbron, Nicole; Goldston, David; Walrath, Christine; Rodi, Michael; McKeon, Richard
Several agencies have emphasized the importance of establishing clear protocols or procedures to address the needs of youths who are identified as suicidal through suicide prevention programs or in emergency department settings. What constitutes optimal guidelines for developing and implementing such protocols, however, is unclear. At the request…
Full Text Available Nephrolithiasis is a common health problem across the globe with a prevalence of 15%–20%. Idiopathic hypercalciuria is the most common cause of nephrolithiasis, and calcium oxalate stones are the most common type of stones in idiopathic hypercalciuric patients. Calcium phosphate stones are frequently associated with other diseases such as renal tubular acidosis type 1, urinary tract infections, and hyperparathyroidism. Compared with flat abdominal film and renal sonography, a noncontrast helical computed tomography scan of the abdomen is the diagnostic procedure of choice for detection of small and radiolucent kidney stones with sensitivity and specificity of nearly 100%. Stones smaller than 5 mm in diameter often pass the urinary tract system and rarely require surgical interventions. The main risk factors for stone formation are low urine output, high urinary concentrations of calcium, oxalate, phosphate, and uric acid compounded by a lower excretion of magnesium and citrate. A complete metabolic workup to identify the risk factors is highly recommended in patients who have passed multiple kidney stones or those with recurrent disease. Calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate stones are treated by the use of thiazide diuretics, allopurinol, and potassium citrate. Strategies to prevent kidney stone recurrence should include the elimination of the identified risk factors and a dietary regimen low in salt and protein, rich in calcium and magnesium which is coupled with adequate fluid intake.
Rosamaria Rodrigues Garcia
Full Text Available Objective: Describe the activities performed on apublic specialized ambulatory care for dengue prevention among elderly. Case report: the epidemiological outlook of dengue is scaring being characterized as a public health problem. The elderly are most at risk for hospitalization and severe forms of the disease, thus health education activities are essential to improve awareness of the need to fight and prevent the disease. A Health Education project was created, evolving communication strategies to raise awareness on the issue. They were performed by a post graduate Gerontology group in activities such as interactive puppet show, myths and truths dynamic, informative folder, parody, posters, training seniors, caregivers and family members, internal and external health professionals, staff and residents of nearby long term care facilities. The materials were available in print and digital version. 2,500 elderly and 350 professionals were trained and encouraged to multiply the information and inspire adoption of preventive measures. The actions provided intergenerational interaction and empowerment of the elderly, whom trained, had the opportunity to exercise social participation and disseminate recommendations for other users. Conclusion: the project enabled the construction of knowledge through interactive educational activities that contributed to strengthen the individual and collective awareness, awareopinion leaderstothe importance of communication/education in the fight against dengue, which emphasized social responsibility in rescuing citizenship in a perspective thateach citizen is responsible for himself and for community. DESCRIPTORS: Dengue. Aged. Disease prevention. Health education.
Prokhorov, Alexander V; Wetter, David W; Padgett, Diana; de, Moor Carl; Le, Tao; Kitzman, Heather
The use of spit tobacco (ST) products is a serious public health problem in the United States. Use of ST is associated with increased risk of oral cancer, gastrointestinal neoplasms, and other deleterious effects. The prevalence of ST use among adolescents is high in many areas, especially in predominantly rural states (e.g., South Dakota, Montana). Community-wide efforts aimed at prevention and cessation of ST use among young people are needed. A total of 4089 clinicians and educators were surveyed in 1998 regarding their personal ST use and several other characteristics associated with ST prevention and cessation counseling. Educators reported significantly higher rates of ST use than did clinicians. The most prevalent barriers to ST counseling among clinicians were perceptions of patient resistance to referral to ST cessation programs and the lack of community services that effectively treat ST use. Lack of training was a major barrier to ST counseling among all educator subgroups. Although knowledge of the health effects of ST was fairly high among all subgroups, more than 10% of dentists and dental hygienists failed to report that ST use causes gum disease. Most clinicians believed that they should demonstrate leadership in efforts aimed at ST control; however, only 64% of dentists believed that repeated counseling attempts were necessary with patients who continued to use ST. Compared with clinicians, educators generally felt less obligated to provide ST counseling. Eighty percent of physicians reported counseling activities, but fewer than half of the dental professionals did. More than 75% of Drug Abuse Resistance Education (DARE) officers reported having delivered ST counseling, whereas only 4% of volunteer leaders did. Fewer than 50% of educators believed that the ST program they taught was effective. Training of various professionals in ST interventions may benefit from emphasizing different issues (reduction of personal ST use, knowledge, commitment
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We analyzed HIV testing rates, prevalence of undiagnosed HIV, and predictors of testing in the Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey (KAIS 2007. METHODS: KAIS was a nationally representative sero-survey that included demographic and behavioral indicators and testing for HIV, HSV-2, syphilis, and CD4 cell counts in the population aged 15-64 years. We used gender-specific multivariable regression models to identify factors independently associated with HIV testing in sexually active persons. RESULTS: Of 19,840 eligible persons, 80% consented to interviews and blood specimen collection. National HIV prevalence was 7.1% (95% CI 6.5-7.7. Among ever sexually active persons, 27.4% (95% CI 25.6-29.2 of men and 44.2% (95% CI 42.5-46.0 of women reported previous HIV testing. Among HIV-infected persons, 83.6% (95% CI 76.2-91.0 were unaware of their HIV infection. Among sexually active women aged 15-49 years, 48.7% (95% CI 46.8-50.6 had their last HIV test during antenatal care (ANC. In multivariable analyses, the adjusted odds ratio (AOR for ever HIV testing in women ≥35 versus 15-19 years was 0.2 (95% CI: 0.1-0.3; p<0.0001. Other independent associations with ever HIV testing included urban residence (AOR 1.6, 95% CI: 1.2-2.0; p = 0.0005, women only, highest wealth index versus the four lower quintiles combined (AOR 1.8, 95% CI: 1.3-2.5; p = 0.0006, men only, and an increasing testing trend with higher levels of education. Missed opportunities for testing were identified during general or pregnancy-specific contacts with health facilities; 89% of adults said they would participate in home-based HIV testing. CONCLUSIONS: The vast majority of HIV-infected persons in Kenya are unaware of their HIV status, posing a major barrier to HIV prevention, care and treatment efforts. New approaches to HIV testing provision and education, including home-based testing, may increase coverage. Targeted interventions should involve sexually active men, sexually
Full Text Available Victoria Crofts,1,* Emmanuel Flahault,1,* Pierre-Marie Tebeu,2 Sarah Untiet,3 Gisèle Kengne Fosso,2 Michel Boulvain,3 Pierre Vassilakos,4 Patrick Petignat3 1Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland; 2Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Center Hospital, Yaoundé, Cameroon; 3Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland; 4Geneva Foundation for Medical Education and Research, Geneva, Switzerland *These authors contributed equally to this paper Background: Information about women’s acceptance of new screening methods in Sub-Saharan Africa is limited. The aim of this study was to report on women’s acceptance of human papillomavirus (HPV self-sampling following an educational intervention on cervical cancer and HPV.Methods: Women were recruited from the city of Tiko and a low-income neighborhood of Yaoundé, both in Cameroon. Written and oral instructions about how to perform an unsupervised HPV self-sample were given to participants, who performed the test in a private room. Acceptability of HPV self-sampling was evaluated by questionnaire. Participants previously screened for cervical cancer by a physician were asked additional questions to assess their personal preferences about HPV self-sampling.Results: A sample of 540 women were prospectively enrolled in the study; median age was 43 years old (range 30–65 years. Participants expressed a high level of acceptance of HPV self-sampling as a screening method following information sessions about cervical cancer and HPV. Most expressed no embarrassment, pain, anxiety, or discomfort (95.6%, 87.8%, 91.3%, and 85.0%, respectively during the information sessions. Acceptance of the method had no correlation with education, knowledge, age, or socio-professional class. Eighty-six women (16% had a history of previous screening; they also reported high acceptance of HPV self-sampling.Conclusion: Educational interventions on
Machado, Alexandre Paulo; Lima, Bruno Muniz; Laureano, Monique Guilharducci; Silva, Pedro Henrique Bauth; Tardin, Giovanna Pereira; Reis, Paulo Silva; Santos, Joyce Sammara; Jácomo, Domingos; D'Artibale, Eliziana Ferreira
The main goal of this work was to produce a review of educational strategies to prevent diabetes, hypertension, and obesity. PubMed database was consulted using combined descriptors such as [Prevention], [Educational Activities], [Diabetes], [Hypertension], and [Obesity]. Data from randomized trials published between 2002 and 2014 were included in spreadsheets for analysis in duplicate by the reviewers. A total of 8,908 articles were found, of which 1,539 were selected about diabetes mellitus (DM, n=369), arterial systemic hypertension (ASH, n=200), and obesity (OBES, n=970). The number of free full text articles available was 1,075 (DM = 276, ASH = 118 and OBES = 681). In most of these studies, demographic characteristics such as gender and age were randomized, and the population mainly composed by students, ethnic groups, family members, pregnant, health or education professionals, patients with chronic diseases (DM, ASH, OBES) or other comorbidities. Group dynamics, physical activity practices, nutritional education, questionnaires, interviews, employment of new technologies, people training and workshops were the main intervention strategies used. The most efficient interventions occurred at community level, whenever the intervention was permanent or maintained for long periods, and relied on the continuous education of community health workers that had a constant interference inside the population covered. Many studies focused their actions in children and adolescents, especially on students, because they were more influenced by educational activities of prevention, and the knowledge acquired by them would spread more easily to their family and to society.
Alexandre Paulo Machado
Full Text Available Summary Objective: The main goal of this work was to produce a review of educational strategies to prevent diabetes, hypertension, and obesity. Method: PubMed database was consulted using combined descriptors such as [Prevention], [Educational Activities], [Diabetes], [Hypertension], and [Obesity]. Data from randomized trials published between 2002 and 2014 were included in spreadsheets for analysis in duplicate by the reviewers. Results: A total of 8,908 articles were found, of which 1,539 were selected about diabetes mellitus (DM, n=369, arterial systemic hypertension (ASH, n=200, and obesity (OBES, n=970. The number of free full text articles available was 1,075 (DM = 276, ASH = 118 and OBES = 681. In most of these studies, demographic characteristics such as gender and age were randomized, and the population mainly composed by students, ethnic groups, family members, pregnant, health or education professionals, patients with chronic diseases (DM, ASH, OBES or other comorbidities. Group dynamics, physical activity practices, nutritional education, questionnaires, interviews, employment of new technologies, people training and workshops were the main intervention strategies used. Conclusion: The most efficient interventions occurred at community level, whenever the intervention was permanent or maintained for long periods, and relied on the continuous education of community health workers that had a constant interference inside the population covered. Many studies focused their actions in children and adolescents, especially on students, because they were more influenced by educational activities of prevention, and the knowledge acquired by them would spread more easily to their family and to society.
Sølvik, Una Ørvim; Bjelkarøy, Wenche Iren; Berg, Kari van den; Saga, Anne Lise; Hager, Helle Borgstrøm; Sandberg, Sverre
Errors in the preanalytical phase in clinical laboratories affect patient safety. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of intensive educational efforts together with external quality assessment (EQA) of the preanalytical phase from 2013 to 2015 to improve patient identification in primary health care in Norway. In addition, routines for venous and capillary blood sampling were investigated. A preanalytical EQA was circulated in 2013 by the Norwegian Quality Improvement of Laboratory Examinations (Noklus) to general practitioner offices and nursing homes (n=2000) to obtain information about important issues to focus on before launching an intensive educational program with courses, posters and visits in 2013-2015. Preanalytical EQA surveys were further circulated in 2014 and 2015. The response rate varied between 42% and 55%. The percentages of participants asking for the patients' name and the Norwegian identification number increased from about 8% in 2013 to about 35% in 2015. The increase was similar for those participating in only one EQA survey and for those who participated in EQA surveys both in 2013 and 2015. Guidelines for venous and capillary blood sampling were not always followed. Educational efforts more than the preanalytical EQA influenced the actions and resulted in an increase in the percentages of participants that followed the guidelines for patient identification. Some aspects of blood sampling routines need improvement.
Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Andra is responsible for proposing and implementing industrial management solutions for France's radioactive waste. Andra's goal is to ensure that everyone has the opportunity to make up his or her own mind on a subject that generates such heated debate within our society. This duty of communication is enshrined in law and is an integral part of Andra's activities, in the same way as research, industry and risk management. Because the subject of radioactive waste is a complex one and concerns such a variety of audiences, Andra adapts its communication policy so that it is accessible to all, according to individual needs and levels of interest. For the 'non-specialists' (general public, young people, etc.) Andra proposes a system built around education and awareness-raising. Its aim is to make the subject of radioactive waste accessible to and comprehensible to as many as possible. Its educational communication approach is built on 3 pillars: first and foremost information, the keystone of any system of communication, then explanation and finally sharing with the legitimate stakeholders in this pedagogical approach. Providing dependable information Andra offers information that is appropriate to the level of knowledge of its audiences and uses all communication media
University of West Florida, Pensacola.
This revised curriculum, developed for use in Florida middle schools, is a comprehensive family life education course. The content of the course was determined (1) through a "Needs Assessment Inventory for Teenage Pregnancy Prevention," which was sent to more than 1,200 home economics teachers in Florida (and returned by the majority of…
Charles, Leslie Bermann
The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) is an international organization which coordinates space-based Earth observations world wide. Created in 1984, CEOS now comprises 38 national space agencies, regional organizations and international space-related and research groups. The aim of CEOS is to achieve international coordination in the planning of satellite missions for Earth observation and to maximize the utilization of data from these missions world-wide. With regard to developing countries, the fundamental aim of CEOS is to encourage the creation and maintenance of indigenous capability that is integrated into the local decision-making process, thereby enabling developing countries to obtain the maximum benefit from Earth observation. Obtaining adequate access to remote sensing information is difficult for developing countries and students and teachers alike. High unit data prices, the specialized nature of the technology , difficulty in locating specific data, complexities of copyright provisions, the emphasis on "leading edge" technology and research, and the lack of training materials relating to readily understood application are frequently noted obstacles. CEOS has developed an education CD-ROM which is aimed at increasing the integration of space-based data into school curricula, meeting the heretofore unsatisfied needs of developing countries for information about Earth observation application, data sources and future plans; and raising awareness around the world of the value of Earth observation data from space. The CD-ROM is designed to be used with an Internet web browser, increasing the information available to the user, but it can also be used on a stand-alone machine. It contains suggested lesson plans and additional resources for educators and users in developing countries.
Zhang, Wenjing; Chen, Jingqi; Feng, Yanan; Li, Jingyi; Liu, Chengfeng; Zhao, Xiaoxia
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of a sexual abuse prevention education in a sample of Chinese preschool children in Beijing, China. Method: One hundred and fifty preschool children were randomly assigned to either the intervention group (N = 78) or the wait-list control group (N = 72). Children were posttested on…
Walter, Katherine Ott; Paulo, Jonathan R.; Polacek, Georgia N. L. J.
Alcohol use among college students continues to be a major public health threat to our nation. The purpose of this study was to explore faculty perceptions of their roles and responsibilities in alcohol education and prevention. The researchers adapted the Core Faculty and Staff Environmental Alcohol and Other Drug Survey to include only questions…
I rep ort on an inve stigatio n into a group of Free State educators' recognition of bullying, their reaction s to incidences of b ullying, and the ir perceptions of the effectiveness of a number o f bul lying prevention s trategies. The research instrument was a synthesis of the Delaware Research Questionnaire and questions ...
the 'very hard-to-reach' youth of informal settlements countrywide. 'Although it was done in a small community, we need to think of feasible ways in which we can ... strewn about below the condocans, perhaps indicating the community's. HIV-prevention studies: Educate smarter, boost women's earning power. Professor ...
The implementation and evaluation of a peer education and support programme in secondary schools to prevent and reduce high-risk sexual behaviour amongst adolescents is discussed.The aims of the programme were to provide accurate information about HIV/AIDS, discuss and reconsider peer group norms, and ...
Stroup-Benham, Christine A.; And Others
This study assessed the impact of two educational strategies: text only versus text plus small group discussion, among two groups of third-year internal medicine clerkship students in a preventive cardiology course. The course was a required, 12-week Internal Medical clerkship at the University of Texas Medical Branch. The first group reviewed…
Erickson, Megan; Braun, Katie; List, Riesa; Utech, Anne; Moore, Carolyn; White, Donna L; Garcia, Jose M
Evaluate the effectiveness of nutrition education interventions for diabetes prevention. Retrospective cohort design. Tertiary-care US Veterans' Hospital, July 2007 to July 2012, using pre-existing database. Prediabetic, adult veterans (n = 372), mostly men (94.4%, n = 351). Visits with existing nutrition education classes were collected. diabetes status; predictors: visits/encounters, age, body mass index, weight change, and hemoglobin A1c. Cox proportional hazards method, χ(2) test, and logistic regression. In this sample, prediabetic veterans who received nutrition education were less likely to develop diabetes when compared with prediabetic veterans who did not receive nutrition education (hazard ratio, 0.71; 95% confidence interval, 0.55-0.92; P Nutrition education was significantly associated with preventing the progression from prediabetes to diabetes in US Veterans participating in a nutrition education intervention at the Michael E. DeBakey Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. All rights reserved.
Carpenter, Christopher S.; Bruckner, Tim A.; Domina, Thurston; Gerlinger, Julie; Wakefield, Sara
Objectives We examine whether state educational standards regarding tobacco correspond with teacher reports of classroom instruction. Methods We test this relation with data on tobacco use prevention standards, reports of middle and high school teachers from the 2008 and 2010 School Health Profiles study, and logistic regression models. Results State education standards are significantly related to increased likelihood of a lead health education teacher in that state reporting that the specific topic was taught in the school. These relationships are stronger for middle school teachers than for high school teachers. Conclusions Associations between state standards and teacher reports of actual instruction are consistent with education standards influencing the teaching of these health education topics. PMID:29552575
Full Text Available Neo-colonialism in the modern era no longer emerges physically. Rather, it appears as a mechanism control (Olssen and O‘Neill, 2004 or an influential force. Such control comes in the form of certain products which are aimed for various political or economic purposes. In the realm of language education in Indonesia, especially in the context of English Language and Teaching, certain products such as language testing system have attained a position of dominance. Thus, the tests have been employed by many institutions or organizations in Indonesia to measure nonnatives ability in English by using a standard determined by native speaker of English. In fact, our tracer study discovered that a large number of Indonesian workers communicate in English with non-native speakers of English. Therefore, an appropriate instrument to measure the English proficiency of non-native speakers is badly needed. The present research is aimed at addressing the immediate need. The research discusses the design, development, and the current use of Test of A`cademic English Proficiency (TAEP which is initiated by Language Center of Universitas Muhammadiyah Malang. Since it was legally certified and acknowledged in 2016, TAEP has been used by various institutions and organizations for national and international purposes. Further development and collaboration will conclude this article.
In most developing countries, the role of science education for combating and preventing diseases is both minimal and impracticable. There are two main reasons to this: i) lack of medical knowledge; and ii) lack of practical knowledge. These consequences may be a result of exclusion of medically trained people in the education system, e.g. in our education systems, there is no established trend of medical doctors to teach at school, college or even at university levels. There is a provision of medical education at teaching hospitals, but they still lack the right educationists and latest trainings at par with global standards. In order to consolidate the concept and promotion of science education in the field of health and medicine, this paper discusses four diseases commonly found in developing countries like Pakistan. These diseases are Poliomyelitis, Malaria, Rabies and Typhoid. The disability/mortality due to Poliomyelitis; the morbidity and mortality as a result of Malaria and Typhoid fever, and a very high death rate (up to 5000/year) as a result of dog bites (Rabies) are reported in Pakistan. The study takes into account myths and mysteries related to these diseases and their consequences/complications leading to mortality. This study is focused on the prophylactic measures (prophylaxis), as an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure. Prophytactic measures can only be taken by creating awareness about these diseases and re-evaluation of the role of science education in all sectors. (author)
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To determine policy implications, this analysis tracks the evolution of HIV/AIDS infection across China to understand current trends and potential risk factors. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A retrospective study with spatial analytical model and multilevel spatial models was conducted among 326,157 HIV/AIDS cases reported from 1989-2009. The results indicate that the distribution of HIV/AIDS was clustered at the county level with different directional distributions across China from 2003 to 2009. Compared to 2003, by 2009 there was a 122% increase in HIV cases among rural residents, 294% increase among urban residents, 211% increase among migrants, and 237% increase among permanent residents. The overall proportion of HIV by different routes of transmission showed dramatic changes with a 504% increase in sexual transmission of HIV, 90% decrease in blood/plasma transmission, and 35% decrease in injecting drug user transmission. Sexual transmission was the major transmission route among women (44% and the elderly (59% in men, 44% in women as well as among permanent (36% and urban residents (33%. Among those <65 years old, women increased more than men, but among those ≥ 65 years, men increased more than women. Migrants contributed to the variance of HIV infection between counties but not within counties. The length of highway and urbanization combined with illiteracy were risk factors for HIV/AIDS. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Rates of HIV/AIDS among permanent urban residents, particularly women and elderly men, have increased significantly in recent years. To prevent HIV from spreading further among the general population, additional attention should be paid to these populations as well as to migrants.
Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul
Numerous trials provide support for the Body Project, an eating disorder prevention program wherein young women with body image concerns critique the thin ideal. Despite medium to large effects, some participants subsequently develop an eating disorder, suggesting that intervention or recruitment procedures could be improved. This study investigated baseline and acute intervention predictors of DSM-5 eating disorder development during a 3-year follow-up among Body Project participants. Combined data from two trials compare participants who experienced eating disorder onset during follow-up (n=20) to those who did not (n=216). Participants who did versus did not develop an eating disorder started the intervention with higher eating disorder symptoms (η2=0.08), negative affect (η2=0.06), thin-ideal internalization (η2=0.02), and body dissatisfaction (η2=0.02); the same baseline predictors of eating disorder onset emerged in controls. Attenuated pre–post reductions in eating disorder symptoms (η2=0.01) predicted eating disorder onset but not after controlling for baseline levels. Given that Body Project and control participants who later developed an eating disorder started with initial elevations in risk factors and eating disorder symptoms, it might be useful to develop a more intensive variant of this program for those exhibiting greater risk at baseline and to deliver the prevention program earlier to prevent initial escalation of risk. The fact that nonresponders also showed greater negative affect and eating disorder symptoms suggests that it might be useful to add activities to improve affect and increase dissonance about disordered eating. PMID:25342026
Horney, Audra C; Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul
Numerous trials provide support for the Body Project, an eating disorder prevention program wherein young women with body image concerns critique the thin ideal. Despite medium to large effects, some participants subsequently develop an eating disorder, suggesting that intervention or recruitment procedures could be improved. This study investigated baseline and acute intervention predictors of DSM-5 eating disorder development during a 3-year follow-up among Body Project participants. Combined data from two trials compare participants who experienced eating disorder onset during follow-up (n = 20) to those who did not (n = 216). Participants who did versus did not develop an eating disorder started the intervention with higher eating disorder symptoms (η (2) = 0.08), negative affect (η (2) = 0.06), thin-ideal internalization (η (2) = 0.02), and body dissatisfaction (η (2) = 0.02); the same baseline predictors of eating disorder onset emerged in controls. Attenuated pre-post reductions in eating disorder symptoms (η (2) = 0.01) predicted eating disorder onset but not after controlling for baseline levels. Given that Body Project and control participants who later developed an eating disorder started with initial elevations in risk factors and eating disorder symptoms, it might be useful to develop a more intensive variant of this program for those exhibiting greater risk at baseline and to deliver the prevention program earlier to prevent initial escalation of risk. The fact that nonresponders also showed greater negative affect and eating disorder symptoms suggests that it might be useful to add activities to improve affect and increase dissonance about disordered eating.
Camenga, D R; Fiellin, L E; Pendergrass, T; Miller, Erica; Pentz, M A; Hieftje, K
Flavored tobacco products have been shown to appeal to youth, however tobacco control strategies have traditionally not focused on these products. To inform the adaptation of an existing videogame to focus on the prevention of flavored tobacco product use, this study explored adolescents' perceptions, beliefs, and social norms surrounding these products, including flavored e-cigarettes. We conducted and analyzed transcripts from seven focus groups with 11-17-year-old adolescents (n = 33) from after-school programs in CT and CA in 2016. Participants discussed flavored tobacco product beliefs and experiences, and how these compared to traditional cigarettes. Thematic analysis of transcripts revealed that participants could name flavors in tobacco products, even though few discussed first-hand experience with the products. Most groups perceived that flavored tobacco product and flavored e-cigarette use facilitated peer approval and acceptance. All groups discussed how youth could easily access flavored tobacco products, including e-cigarettes. Flavoring was a salient aspect of e-cigarette advertisements; however the groups did not recall exposure to other types of flavored tobacco product counter-marketing. These data can help inform the development of tobacco control strategies, novel interventions (such as videogames), and future FDA efforts to prevent adolescent tobacco product use through education and risk communication. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Szpringer, Monika; Błaszczyk, Barbara
Results of research on the functioning of addictions prevention at schools, as well as in welfare-educational institutions have been presented in the study. The survey covered 861 teachers and form tutors from institutions situated all over Poland. The results of studied documents have been also used in the analyses. During last years, systematic growth of social pathology among groups of children and school children has been observed. Pathologies of family life are considered to be the main reason. 79.2% of those participating in the survey bear it out. Negative influence of violence in programmes presented in mass media appears to be another reason (23.7%). As many as 68.1% of being surveyed point to other causes: among them demoralizing influence of a place of residence, acquaintances, lack of possibilities to spend leisure time. A huge role in averting the social pathology growth is attributed to prevention, also to prevention carried out at schools. 35.7% of those under the survey think that prevention is carried out at Polish schools. However, its efficiency is low because it is done on irregular basis, mainly during so called weekly class meetings. In practice, programme contents included in different subjects are used to the limited extent during prevention actions. Thus, there appears an urgent need to promote prevention programmes designed by central, provincial and council institutions, as well as schools.
Describes principles of rational-emotive education (REE), emotional education program based on rational-emotive therapy which has been shown to be effective with school-age children who present variety of problems. Discusses role of school psychologist in introducing REE to teachers interested in employing mental health prevention programs.…
Kuchma, V R; Milushkina, O Iu; Bokareva, N A; Skoblina, N A
In the national strategic documents of the Russian Federation's leading destination for health development in the coming years is preventive. In this connection it seems to be necessary to study the causes of the impairment of the formation of morphological and functional indices in today's schoolchildren, the establishment of controlled factors in educational institutions and the substantiation of the system of preventive measures for children and adolescents. The performed study of the physical development of Moscow schoolchildren revealed the discoordination of the morphofunctional development. Besides that there were revealed factor-forming morphofunctional state in children and adolescents. The results of performed studies allowed us to formulate preventive recommendations aimed at optimization of the morphofunctional state of the organism of schoolchildren.
Whitney, Kriscinda A; Maoz, Omry; Hook, Julie N; Steiner, Amy R; Bieliauskas, Linas A
The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Third Edition (PPVT-III) were administered to 76 Extended Care Center inpatients of a Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 56 of whom did not carry a diagnosis associated with brain impairment, and 20 of whom had a diagnosis associated with degenerative or cerebrovascular conditions. MMSE and PPVT-III scores, the latter of which estimates verbal IQ, were significantly correlated in both groups, even when controlling for the effects of education. This correlation was attenuated, but remained significant, in the face of varying levels of patient effort. The findings of this study support earlier findings, which also suggest that interpretation of "impaired" performance on the MMSE for those with IQ scores below 90 should be interpreted with caution. Average MMSE scores for Wechsler IQ classifications are provided.
Bank, C.; Jackson, D.; Hymers, L.
Too few Canadian high-school students are pursuing post-secondary studies and career opportunities in the Earth Sciences. Given Canada's wealth of renewable and non-renewable resources and their importance to society, it is imperative that all students become literate in the Earth Sciences, and that they are encouraged to pursue career opportunities in the many fields that comprise the Earth Sciences. To achieve these goals, a number of outreach efforts by members of industry, academia and secondary education have been initiated in Canada. We outline here an example of our own collaboration in one such program directed not only at students, but also at primary and secondary teachers, university faculty, industry representatives and government officials. Our program has achieved significant results, and so will continue. Others interested in increasing the profile of the Earth Sciences will be are encouraged to explore such new outreach approaches.
Gupta, Tanya; Arrandale, Victoria H; Kudla, Irena; Holness, D Linn
Occupational contact dermatitis (OCD) is a common occupational disease. Evidence suggests that education and training are effective prevention strategies. In spite of these known prevention strategies, workers continue to develop OCD. Little is reported regarding the actual training experience of workers. To examine the training experience of workers with contact dermatitis to identify areas for improvement. Participants were workers being assessed for contact dermatitis in an occupational health clinic. The anonymous survey collected demographics, workplace characteristics, and education and prevention practices. Approximately 80% reported general occupational health and safety training; however, only 49% reported skin-specific training (SST). For workers reporting SST, most received information regarding exposure avoidance, hand washing, and glove use. This content was reported as helpful by at least 50%. Workers who did not receive SST indicated the most important content would be warning signs of skin problems, how to avoid exposure and skin care while using gloves. While the study was anonymous and used self-reported of training experience, the study suggests there are gaps in skin protection training. Addressing these gaps may lead to improved prevention and reduction in OCD. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.
Amy Price Azano
Full Text Available Recruiting and retaining highly qualified teachers in rural schools is a persistent struggle in many countries, including the U.S. Salient challenges related to poverty, geographic isolation, low teacher salaries, and a lack of community amenities seem to trump perks of living in rural communities. Recognizing this issue as a complex and hard to solve fixture in the composition of rural communities, we sought to understand how teacher preparation programs might better prepare preservice teachers for successful student teaching placements and, ideally, eventual careers in rural schools. In this study, we explore teacher candidates’ perceptions of rurality while examining how specific theory, pedagogy, and practice influence their feelings of preparedness for working in a rural school. Using pre- and post- questionnaire data, classroom observations, and reflections, we assess the effectiveness of deliberate efforts in our teacher preparation program to increase readiness for rural teaching. In our analysis and discussion, we draw on critical and sociocultural theories to understand the experiences of a cohort of teacher candidates as they explore personal histories, the importance of place, expectations, and teaching strategies for rural contexts. While rural education researchers have long lamented the struggle to recruit and retain teachers, there is relatively little known about intentional efforts to prepare teachers specifically for rural classrooms. We conclude our article with recommendations for enhancing teacher preparation programs in ways that might result in significant progress toward the goal of staffing rural schools with the highly skilled teachers all students deserve.
Viriam Leiva Díaz
Full Text Available This article presents the main results of the implementation of an educational program for the preventionand management of violence in public schools by teachers of first and second cycle, the program was taught bythe School of Nursing at the University of Costa Rica, with a total of 40 hours from January to February 2011. Weused various teaching strategies based on the educational needs of this group of teachers, which were shown in aprevious study and application of a needs assessment. Attended by 33 teachers, 32 women and one man. Of theparticipants, 30 completed the program. The main results are as follows: participants were able to acquire, buildor improve their knowledge about the prevention and treatment of school violence, and also learned varioustechniques and strategies for prevention and control of violence in schools. It is concluded that success inachieving the goals set for each of the sessions is directly related to the fact that the entire educational programstuck to the educational needs expressed by the participating population and its characteristics as teachers, usingprinciples of andragogy, which allowed understanding learning as a knowledge sharing among stakeholders
Davis, Elaine K
Youth and children's sports are becoming increasingly popular in America. Previous studies have shown that children and adolescents are not small adults in their responses to exercise and stress. As children around the world become involved in more competitive and organized sports activities, the frequency and severity of acute and overuse injuries continue to rise. Safety guidelines, protective equipment and prevention education are crucial to reducing pediatric recreational and sports injuries. Preventing injuries and ensuring safe athletic practices are necessary for children and adolescents to continue to receive benefits from organized sports and recreational activities. Efforts to minimize these injuries are warranted both to ensure the long-term health of children and to reduce medical costs.
Stephens-Hernandez, Aileen B; Livingston, Jonathan N; Dacons-Brock, Karen; Craft, Howard L; Cameron, Amura; Franklin, Steven O; Howlett, Allyn C
The substance abuse prevention goal of the theatre production "TUNNELS" was to provide community education on substance abuse to an audience in Durham, NC and surrounding communities. The education effort intended to increase awareness and understanding of the risk and protective factors associated with alcohol and other drug use, and to promote pro-active behaviors in substance abuse prevention within the adult community. It was hypothesized that community-based education via drama would change attitudes toward alcohol and substance abuse, and increase participation in family and community activities aimed at substance abuse prevention. A focus group comprised of educators, substance abuse researchers and local substance abuse counselors developed "life stories" of users of alcohol and other drugs and a local playwright incorporated these and other experiences into a series of six vignettes. The production was publicized throughout the Durham area, and 700 adults attending the play signed a consent form and completed the pre-play survey. The participant pool was restricted to those adults who completed both the time-1 and time-2 surveys and resided within Durham and surrounding communities. Paired comparisons of mean responses were analyzed using a paired sample two-tailed t-test. A telephone survey three months after the play assessed attitudes toward substance abuse as a disease, and whether the respondents had increased their participation in prevention activities including discussions of the play with others. Viewing the play increased the knowledge base of participants regarding substance abuse as a disease, even though the audience demonstrated an appreciation of risk and protective factors prior to attending the performance. In the pre-play survey, participants indicated a strong opinion that parental involvement in teen life was important, and therefore this was not increased as a result of viewing the play. It was found that the drama increased intent to
Full Text Available Abstract Background The substance abuse prevention goal of the theatre production "TUNNELS" was to provide community education on substance abuse to an audience in Durham, NC and surrounding communities. The education effort intended to increase awareness and understanding of the risk and protective factors associated with alcohol and other drug use, and to promote pro-active behaviors in substance abuse prevention within the adult community. It was hypothesized that community-based education via drama would change attitudes toward alcohol and substance abuse, and increase participation in family and community activities aimed at substance abuse prevention. Methods A focus group comprised of educators, substance abuse researchers and local substance abuse counselors developed "life stories" of users of alcohol and other drugs and a local playwright incorporated these and other experiences into a series of six vignettes. The production was publicized throughout the Durham area, and 700 adults attending the play signed a consent form and completed the pre-play survey. The participant pool was restricted to those adults who completed both the time-1 and time-2 surveys and resided within Durham and surrounding communities. Paired comparisons of mean responses were analyzed using a paired sample two-tailed t-test. A telephone survey three months after the play assessed attitudes toward substance abuse as a disease, and whether the respondents had increased their participation in prevention activities including discussions of the play with others. Results Viewing the play increased the knowledge base of participants regarding substance abuse as a disease, even though the audience demonstrated an appreciation of risk and protective factors prior to attending the performance. In the pre-play survey, participants indicated a strong opinion that parental involvement in teen life was important, and therefore this was not increased as a result of viewing
Boltaev, Azizbek A; El-Bassel, Nabila; Deryabina, Anna P; Terlikbaeva, Assel; Gilbert, Louisa; Hunt, Timothy; Primbetova, Sholpan; Strathdee, Steffanie A
In Central Asia, between 33% and 72% of cumulative HIV infections has been attributed to unsafe injection practices among people who inject drugs (PWID). We reviewed the current status and trends of national efforts in Central Asian countries to control HIV among PWID, and also reviewed the key structural and health-systems-related challenges that facilitate drug-use-related HIV risk in Central Asia. The spectrum and scale of HIV prevention services targeting PWID vary considerably among Central Asian countries. In all countries, the potential impact of these interventions is hindered by several key features: a restrictive legal environment, poor performance of service providers, widespread opposition to harm reduction, deficient human resources and funding mechanisms, poor services integration, insufficient community involvement, and other structural factors. Scaling up HIV prevention interventions in Central Asia will demand greater attention to the structural, health-care-related and social factors that facilitate HIV risk and impede service utilization among PWID. Multi-level combination prevention interventions should be developed with a focus on the sexual partners and risk networks of PWID, aiming at early detection of HIV, timely enrollment in HIV care, and retention in HIV care. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bekalu, Mesfin Awoke; Eggermont, Steven
Despite a growing recognition of songs as a useful HIV/AIDS campaign strategy, little research has investigated their potential and/or actual impact. In this study, through a theory-based content analysis, we have assessed the prevention domains covered and the health-relevant constructs promoted by 23 AIDS songs widely used to aid prevention efforts in Ethiopia. To identify the health-relevant constructs and reveal their potential to facilitate or inhibit positive changes, the Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM) has been used. The findings revealed that the songs cover most of the prevention domains that constitute the current agenda of behavior change communication in Sub-Saharan Africa. However, although all the EPPM variables have been found in almost every song, there were significantly more efficacy messages than threat messages. This suggests that although the songs may lead to positive changes in HIV/AIDS-related outcomes among audiences who have already perceived the threat posed by HIV/AIDS, they are less likely to motivate and thereby generate responses from audiences who have less or no threat perceptions. It is argued that given their potential as a culturally appropriate strategy in Sub-Saharan Africa where oral channels of communication play significant roles, songs could be harnessed for better outcomes through a theory-based design.
Education for disaster prevention has become more and more important since the Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami in 2011. More than 18 thousand people were killed or have not been found yet in the tragedy, however, in Kesn'numa, which is a city located in the seriously damaged area, there were few student victims of tsunami. This is because every school in Kesen'numa has excellent education systems for disaster prevention. They have several safety exercises and conducts emergency drills each year in unique ways which have been developed upon the tragic experiences of serious earthquakes and tsunami in the past. For disaster prevention education, we should learn two important points from the case in Kesen'numa; to learn from the ancient wisdom, and to ensure for students to have enough opportunities of safety exercises and emergency drills at school. In addition to these two points, another issue from the viewpoint of science education can be added, which is to learn about the mechanisms of earthquake. We have developed disaster prevention and reduction programs in educational context, taking these three points into consideration. First part of the program is to study local history, focusing on ancient wisdom. In Kesen'numa City, there were thirty-three monumental stones with cautionary lessons of the possible danger of tsunami before the great earthquake. The lessons were based on the disasters actually happened in the past and brought down to the current generation. Kesen'numa-Otani elementary school has conducted education for disaster prevention referring to this information with full of ancient wisdom. Second part of the program is to make sure that every student has enough and rich opportunities to simulate the worst situation of any disasters. For example, in the case of earthquake and tsunami, teachers take students to the safest place through the designated evacuation rout according to each school's original manual. Students can experience this
Adongo, Philip Baba; Tabong, Philip Teg-Nefaah; Asampong, Emmanuel; Ansong, Joana; Robalo, Magda; Adanu, Richard M.
Background Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) is a condition with high fatality. Though the disease is deadly, taking precautions to reduce contact with infected people and their secretions can prevent cross- infection. In the 2014 EVD outbreak, socio-cultural factors were identified to be responsible for the spread of the disease in the three most affected countries in West Africa. In this light, we undertook this study to identify socio-cultural factors that may influence the prevention and containment of EVD in Ghana and ways to address such practices. Methods We conducted a descriptive qualitative study in five regions in Ghana. Twenty-five focus group discussions (5 in each region) with community members (4 in each region) and nurses (1 in each region) were conducted. In addition, forty (40) in-depth interviews were conducted with various stakeholders and opinion leaders; eight in each region. All interviews were recorded using a digital voice recorder and transcribed. With the aid of Nvivo 10 for windows, we analyzed the data using framework analysis. Results We found that socio-cultural practices, such as care of the body of dead and burial practices, widowhood rites and anointing children with water used to rinse the dead, were common. These practices require individuals coming into direct contact with either the dead or items used to take care of the dead. Social norms also require frequent handshakes in all social gatherings such as funeral, and religious congregations. We also found that self-medication (using herbs and orthodox medications) was a common practice. People use both biomedical and non-orthodox health outlets either simultaneously or in sequence in times of ill-health. Conclusion The study concludes that high risk socio-cultural practices were common among Ghanaians and generally perceived as indispensable. These high risk practices may hinder containment efforts in the event of an outbreak. Community leaders should be engaged in any social
Titus, Sandra Larsen
This paper examines how well U.S. medical school institutions are doing to promote research integrity. It is an important question to ask in order to determine whether there are sufficient and adequate protections in place to protect the U.S. Public Health Service's (PHS) resources devoted to medical research. This paper focuses on 5,100 medical school researchers' knowledge of what constitutes research misconduct as well as their willingness to report it to the research integrity officer (RIO) and educate their Ph.D. trainees. We learned that 5.6% of researchers could correctly distinguish seven or more of the nine scenarios that depicted likely research misconduct, as defined by the PHS regulations, from scenarios describing other ethical issues. Instead, researchers had expansive definitions and often inappropriately identified infractions such as conflicts of interest, Institutional Review Board (IRB) violations, and other breaches in ethical standards to be research misconduct. In addition, researchers who correctly identified four instances of likely research misconduct in the test items were highly unlikely to report their observations to a RIO. Researchers also provided insight on the factors they believe influence their decision making process of whether to report research misconduct. In addition, this paper also reports on the guidance that faculty said they provided their trainees on research misconduct issues. We conclude with a discussion and recommendations on what institutional leaders might consider doing in order to enhance their research integrity efforts and protect their institution's reputation.
Ashar, Bimal; Levine, Rachel; Magaziner, Jeffrey; Shochet, Robert; Wright, Scott
Medical schools often rely on faculty volunteerism to address clinical teaching needs for students. Increasing time pressures on physicians has made it difficult to secure commitments for clinical instruction. In the 2005-2006 academic year, the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (JHUSOM) launched the Colleges Program, recruiting 24 salary-supported physician-faculty to serve as advisors to students as well as teachers of the second year course, 'clinical skills'. We hypothesized that compensating physician educators would have a measurable positive impact on the students' experiences in this course. Students' assessments of paid colleges faculty (CF) preceptors from the 2005-2006 year were compared to those of volunteer preceptors from the two prior years (2003-2005 academic years) along six different teaching parameters linked to the course's objectives. Multivariable regression analysis was used to identify the factors independently associated with higher preceptor scores. Fifty-eight preceptors taught clinical skills over the 3-year study period. The overall response rate for preceptor evaluations by medical learners was 77% (277/359). CF, more likely than volunteer preceptors to have a full-time academic appointment (100 vs 63%, p evaluation domains were higher for CF compared to those from the two previous years combined (all p evaluation scores (Odds Ratio 4.3, 95% CI 1.01-18.20). Salary support for teaching efforts in the time-intensive CS course coupled with the prestige of being appointed to the CF was associated with higher student evaluations.
Full Text Available Artistic abilities of students who had been enrolled in Arts Educations Department of UNESA, in general, were a lack in realizing artistic aspect. It created the problems in learning and teaching of art. The purpose of this research was to increase the students’ sensitivity in creating their work. One way to solve this problem was by doing the work as much as possible, but the results were not fully obtained. So far, there were no standardized guidelines to help the improvement of the work quality in term artistic achievement level. While it became a problem in learning, there was an effort to find a simple and effective way by mixed media watercolor paint and wax. The method in this research was the design of class action research, where the research was conducted in the learning process of each cycle. Every cycle consists of planning, implementation, observation, and reflection. The result of this research shows an increasing of artistic quality regarding practical grades of art. However, there are other alternatives must be sought to increase students’ ability to create, view, appreciate something that is artistic.
Carraher, Charles E., Jr.; Berda, Erik; Blum, Frank D.; Droske, John P.; Ford, Warren T.; Howell, Bob A.; Long, John M.; Morgan, Sarah E.
The Committee on Polymer Education (PolyEd) had its initial planning meeting in 1974. The Intersociety Polymer Education Council (IPEC) has been active since 1990 as an outgrowth of PolyEd. Because of the activities of PolyEd and IPEC, basic polymer concepts have become a required part of undergraduate education and a more common topic in the…
Oki, S.; Tsuji, H.; Koketsu, K.; Yazaki, Y.
Japan frequently suffers from all types of disasters such as earthquakes, typhoons, floods, volcanic eruptions, and landslides. In the first half of this year, we already had three big earthquakes and heavy rainfall, which killed more than 30 people. This is not just for Japan but Asia is the most disaster-afflicted region in the world, accounting for about 90% of all those affected by disasters, and more than 50% of the total fatalities and economic losses. One of the most essential ways to reduce the damage of natural disasters is to educate the general public to let them understand what is going on during those desasters. This leads individual to make the sound decision on what to do to prevent or reduce the damage. The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), therefore, offered for public subscription to choose several model areas to adopt scientific education to the local elementary schools, and ERI, the Earthquake Research Institute, is qualified to develop education for earthquake disaster prevention in the Tokyo metropolitan area. The tectonic setting of this area is very complicated; there are the Pacific and Philippine Sea plates subducting beneath the North America and the Eurasia plates. The subduction of the Philippine Sea plate causes mega-thrust earthquakes such as the 1703 Genroku earthquake (M 8.0) and the 1923 Kanto earthquake (M 7.9) which had 105,000 fatalities. A magnitude 7 or greater earthquake beneath this area is recently evaluated to occur with a probability of 70 % in 30 years. This is of immediate concern for the devastating loss of life and property because the Tokyo urban region now has a population of 42 million and is the center of approximately 40 % of the nation's activities, which may cause great global economic repercussion. To better understand earthquakes in this region, "Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Tokyo Metropolitan Area" has been conducted mainly by ERI. It is a 4-year
Walsh, Kerryann; Brandon, Leisa
In this descriptive focus group study, we investigated parents' views about child sexual abuse prevention education at home and in schools. Focus groups were conducted with a sample of 30 Australian adults who identified as the parent or caregiver of a child/children aged 0-5 years. The study explored (1) parents' "knowledge" about child…
Araújo, M F; de Almeida, M I; da Silva, R M
The development of educational resources to mediate actions in health education and AIDS prevention has been a challenge to health's educators. Due to the undeniable importance of this kind of material in environments favourable to learning, the authors created a methodological proposal to be used in the elaboration of educative games with the purpose of mediating educational measures and the prevention of HIV/AIDS. For theoretical framework, the study relied on the ideas/premises about problem solving, adapted from Charles Manguerez's "arch method", which where put into practice in public schools and health institutions in the state of Ceara, having as study population a group of students (180), aged 13 to 19 years, from the period of 1995 to 1997. Data collection occurred during four workshops, according to a predefined scheme. The results dealing with the meaning of the game, place of action and social environment were obtained from the teenagers while they were engaged in the games and further analysed by them, resulting in the formulation of (03) educative games (memor AIDS, baralhAIDS and dominAIDS). The authors conclude that the proposal is favourable to participatory action, encouraging during its entire process the development of intellectual and creative skills, by way of mobilizing human capacities and exercising associations related to the AIDS epidemic. Due to its clarity, the authors consider the proposal scientifically acceptable as a methodological guideline for the elaboration of educative games.
Lacerda, Adriana Bender Moreira
Full Text Available Introduction The presence of noise in our society has attracted the attention of health professionals, including speech-language pathologists, who have been charged along with educators with developing hearing conservation programs in schools. Objective To describe the results of three strategies for awareness and hearing preservation in first to fourth grades in public elementary schools. Methods The level of environmental noise in classrooms was assessed, and 638 elementary school students from first to fourth grades, 5 to 10 years of age, were audiologically evaluated. After the evaluations, educational activities were presented to children and educators. Results The noise level in the classroom ranged from 71.8 to 94.8 A-weighted decibels. The environment of the classroom was found to promote sound reverberation, which hinders communication. Thirty-two students (5.1% presented hearing alterations. Conclusion The application of strategies for a hearing conservation program at the school showed that noise is present in the room, and hearing loss, sometimes silent, affects schoolchildren. Students and teachers were aware that hearing problems can be prevented. Avoiding exposure to noise and improving the acoustics in classrooms are essential.
Lacerda, Adriana Bender Moreira; Gonçalves, Claudia Giglio de Oliveira; Lacerda, Giselle; Lobato, Diolén Conceição Barros; Santos, Luciana; Moreira, Aline Carlezzo; Ribas, Angela
Introduction The presence of noise in our society has attracted the attention of health professionals, including speech-language pathologists, who have been charged along with educators with developing hearing conservation programs in schools. Objective To describe the results of three strategies for awareness and hearing preservation in first to fourth grades in public elementary schools. Methods The level of environmental noise in classrooms was assessed, and 638 elementary school students from first to fourth grades, 5 to 10 years of age, were audiologically evaluated. After the evaluations, educational activities were presented to children and educators. Results The noise level in the classroom ranged from 71.8 to 94.8 A-weighted decibels. The environment of the classroom was found to promote sound reverberation, which hinders communication. Thirty-two students (5.1%) presented hearing alterations. Conclusion The application of strategies for a hearing conservation program at the school showed that noise is present in the room, and hearing loss, sometimes silent, affects schoolchildren. Students and teachers were aware that hearing problems can be prevented. Avoiding exposure to noise and improving the acoustics in classrooms are essential. PMID:25992146
Full Text Available "nObjective: Family violence, specifically domestic violence, has been identified by the medical community as a serious, no remitting epidemic with adverse health consequences. World Health Organization(WHO has stated that violence against women is a priority issue in the fields of health and human rights. A quasi experimental study were conducted in different faculties of Tehran University of Medical Sciences to determine the effect of teaching on prevention of domestic violence against female employees. "nMethods: Forty four women working in various faculties of Tehran University of Medical Sciences in 2004 were selected. A designed questionnaire was given to the participants to identify kinds, causes and consequences of domestic violence. Then an educational booklet was given to subjects. This booklet contained information about kinds, causes and consequences of domestic violence and how to manage them. To compare the impact of teaching, the same questionnaires were distributed among the subjects after six months. The questionnaire was specifically tested for content validity. "nResults:The results indicated that the incidence rate of domestic violence pre test and post test education was 5.17%. "nConclusion: Our study showed that education had no effect on domestic violence. Solving problems relating to domestic violence due to cardinal roots in short time seems to be impossible and impracticable.
Brown, Emma J; Smith, Frances B
Preventing HIV transmission is a major world health goal. The international nursing shortage and the cost of educational and healthcare require innovative approaches to meet this goal. The initiative described provided HIV education at three levels: to students in an R.N. to BSN program, lay health advisors (LHA's), and participants in a high-risk community. Students completed the traditional community needs assessment and teaching plans. Additionally, they contributed to funding proposals, implemented and evaluated their plan. They prepared LHA's as peer group educators. This was cost-effective and increased credibility in an African-American community. Using tested materials tailored to this population, six LHA's conducted 24 sessions in two months. Of the 168 community participants, 151 completed the pre-and post-test of HIV knowledge. Correct responses increased significantly overall from 81.9% to 88.3 (t = 4.88, df = 150; p = .001). The three items with the greatest change in correct responses related to African American HIV exposure, female condoms, and lubricants. Rationale for the project and recommendations for improvement are included.
Hunt, Robyn; Walsh, Kerryann
This paper presents the results of a systematic review of literature on the topic of parents' views about child sexual abuse prevention education. It describes: i) what parents know about child sexual abuse prevention education; ii) what child sexual abuse prevention messages parents provide to their children and what topics they discuss; iii)…
Bering, E. A., III; Dusenbery, P.; Gross, N. A.; Johnson, R.; Lopez, R. E.; Lysak, R. L.; Moldwin, M.; Morrow, C. A.; Nichols-Yehling, M.; Peticolas, L. M.; Reiff, P. H.; Scherrer, D. K.; Thieman, J.; Wawro, M.; Wood, E. L.
The American Geophysical Union Space Physics and Aeronomy Section Education and Public Outreach Committee (AGU SPA-EPO Committee) was established in 1990 to foster the growth of a culture of outreach and community engagement within the SPA Section of the AGU. The SPA was the first AGU Section to establish an EPO Committee. The Committee has initiated several key Section EPO programs that have grown to become Union programs. NASA sponsored research is central to the mission of the SPE-EPO. Programs highlighting NASA research include the Student Paper Competition, Exploration Station, a precursor to the GIFT workshops, the Student mixer, and more. The Committee played a key role in coordinating the AGU's outreach activities relating to the International Heliophysical Year in 2007-2008. This paper will review the triumphs, the failures, and the lessons learned about recruiting colleagues to join with us from the last quarter century of effort.
Cunningham, Charles E.; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Rimas, Heather; Deal, Ken; Cunningham, Lesley; Short, Kathy; Chen, Yvonne
We used discrete choice conjoint analysis to model the bullying prevention program preferences of educators. Using themes from computerized decision support lab focus groups (n = 45 educators), we composed 20 three-level bullying prevention program design attributes. Each of 1,176 educators completed 25 choice tasks presenting experimentally…
Stanley, Summer Lynn Gainey
Legislation maintains expectations that educators form partnerships with parents, specifically within the field of special education (IDEA, 2004), and requires schools to allow parents to participate in all phases of educational assessment and planning for students who receive special education services. Many parents, however, encounter barriers…
Goossens, L; Cardon, G; Witvrouw, E; Steyaert, A; De Clercq, D
Physical Education Teacher Education (PETE) students are at considerable risk for non-contact sports injuries of the lower extremities. Multifactorial injury prevention interventions including exercises have been successful in sports populations, but no such study has ever been performed in PETE students. This study investigated the efficacy of a multifactorial injury prevention intervention on injury incidence reduction in PETE students. PETE students in the intervention group (n = 154) and in the control group (n = 189) registered sports injuries prospectively. The intervention lasted one academic year and consisted of an injury awareness programme and preventive strategies, implemented by the PETE sports lecturers. Differences in injury incidence between the intervention and control group were tested by Poisson regression Wald tests. There was a trend towards significantly lower incidence rate (2.18 vs. 2.73; p = 0.061) in the intervention group compared with the control group. Students in the intervention group had significantly less acute, first-time and extracurricular injuries. The largest reduction was observed for injuries during unsupervised practice sessions. A multifactorial injury prevention intervention embedded into a regular PETE programme is a promising and feasible strategy to prevent injuries in PETE students. Further research is needed to investigate whether the results may be generalised to other PETE programmes.
Chesler, Mark; And Others
The final report of a research effort, interracial and multidisciplinary in nature and designed to deal with the politics of change in professional systems, outlines a) a diagnosis of American high schools and consequent change strategies, b) its goals and objectives, c) program outcomes, and d) issues facing the Educational Change Team and others…
Jaspers, M. W. M.; Gardner, R. M.; Gatewood, L. C.; Haux, R.; Evans, R. S.
PURPOSE: Today, the need for health informatics training for health care professionals is acknowledged and educational opportunities for these professionals are increasing. To contribute to these efforts, a new initiative was undertaken by the Medical Informatics Program of the University of
The 39th World Health Assembly, which met in May 1986, recognized the escalating health problem of smoking-related diseases and affirmed that tobacco smoking and its use in other forms are incompatible with the attainment of "Health for All by the Year 2000." If properly implemented, antismoking campaigns can decrease the prevalence of smoking. Nations as a whole must work toward changing smoking habits, and governments must support these efforts by officially stating their stand against smoking. Over 60 countries have introduced legislation affecting smoking. The variety of policies range from adopting a health education program designed to increase peoples' awareness of its dangers to increasing taxes to deter smoking by increasing tobacco prices. Each country must adopt an antismoking campaign which works most effectively within the cultural parameters of the society. Other smoking policies include: printed warnings on cigarette packages; health messages via radio, television, mobile teams, pamphlets, health workers, clinic walls, and newspapers; prohibition of smoking in public areas and transportation; prohibition of all advertisement of cigarettes and tobacco; and the establishment of upper limits of tar and nicotine content in cigarettes. The tobacco industry spends about $2000 million annually on worldwide advertising. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), controlling this overabundance of tobacco advertisements is a major priority in preventing the spread of smoking. Cigarette and tobacco advertising can be controlled to varying degrees, e.g., over a dozen countries have enacted a total ban on advertising on television or radio, a mandatory health warning must accompany advertisements in other countries, and tobacco companies often are prohibited from sponsoring sports events. Imposing a substantial tax on cigarettes is one of the most effective means to deter smoking. However, raising taxes and banning advertisements is not enough because
Full Text Available The primary goal of this paper is to show the capacity of the program content of physical education in the implementation of the third specific objective of the Framework Action Plan for the Prevention of Violence in Educational Institutions. Ministry of Education brought this plan in January 2009. The third specific objective of the Framework Action Plan: Provide preventive and protective role of school sport and sporting activities of students. This paper examines the extent to which this goal is achieved, trough regular classes, after-school and extracurricular activities of physical education; indicates the capacity of the teaching field in the creation and development of a safe and supportive environment in the institution; sees level of participation by experts, council and teams in the design and implementation of sports activities in school and the extent to which these activities are implemented in the institution documents, plans and programs of experts, and larger teams; it is the sustainability of these activities achieved in school practices and also to strengthen the competence of teachers in supporting the development of students personality, communication and collaboration. In order to complete document association of council, experts and teams in the institution, there has been an insight into the school curriculum, the development plan, annual plan of the institution, protection program community of students, the curriculum of a school parliament, council of parents, higher vocational and physical education teachers and report on the implementation of the protection program. In order to document by empirical data the capacity of the teaching areas in the function of preventing violence, a sample of 46 primary schools in Sumadija area, evaluation of the implementation of sports and sports activities students in programming classes of physical education, was executed. By these results, it can be concluded that in teaching methods
Shuster, R. D.; Grandgenett, N.
The University of Nebraska at Omaha has been a state leader in helping Nebraska teachers embrace earth systems science education, with a special emphasis in online coursework. UNO was one of the initial members in the Earth Systems Science Education Alliance (ESSEA) and has offered three different ESSEA courses, with a total of 167 students having taken ESSEA courses at UNO for graduate credit. UNO is currently involved in expanding its earth system science courses, modules, and educational research. We are also integrating these courses into several degree programs, including a Masters of Science in Education, a new Middle School Endorsement, a Certificate in Urban Education, and the Graduate Program for the Department of Geography/Geology. UNO is beginning to examine teacher content learning and science reasoning within its coursework. Feedback surveys from earlier ESSEA offerings already indicate a strongly positive perception of the courses by the teachers enrolled in the coursework. Project impact has been documented in teacher projects, quotes, and lessons associated with the coursework activities. We will describe the UNO earth system science efforts (emphasizing ESSEA coursework), and describe past efforts and teacher perceptions, as well as new strategies being undertaken to more closely examine content learning and science reasoning impact with course participants. We will also describe online course modules being developed within the UNO online course efforts, including one on the global amphibian crisis, and also the impact of urbanization on a local native prairie environment.
Gámez, J M; Ripoll, T; Barrios, V; Anguita, M; Pedreira, M; Madariaga, I
Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death for women, especially ischaemic heart disease, which is still considered a man's disease. In Spain, there are various registries on ischaemic heart disease, although none are exclusively for women. The objectives of the SIRENA study were to describe the clinical profile of women with ischaemic heart disease treated in cardiology consultations, to estimate its prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and understand its clinical management. A multicentre observational study was conducted with a sample of 631 women with stable ischaemic heart disease, consecutively included during cardiology consultations. Forty-one researchers from all over Spain participated in the study. The mean age was 68.5 years. The clinical presentation was in the form of acute coronary syndrome in up to 67.2% of the patients. The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors was high (77.7% of the patients had hypertension, 40.7% had diabetes and 68% had dyslipidaemia), with 30.7% having uncontrolled hypertension, 78.4% having LDL-cholesterol levels higher than 70mg/dL and 49.2% having HbA1c levels greater than 7%. The considerable majority of the patients underwent optimal medical treatment with antiplatelet agents, beta-blockers, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockers and hypolipidaemic agents. Coronary angiography was performed for 88.3% of the patients, and 63.4% underwent percutaneous coronary intervention. Women with stable ischaemic heart disease in Spain initially present some form of acute coronary syndrome and a high prevalence of inadequately controlled cardiovascular risk factors, despite undergoing optimal medical therapy. A high percentage of these women undergo coronary revascularisation. Increased efforts are required for secondary prevention in women with stable ischaemic heart disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.
Dean, J; Forsberg, R C; Mendlovitz, S
At the end of history's bloodiest century and the outset of a new millennium, we have an opportunity to fulfil one of humanity's oldest dreams: making the world largely free of war. Global changes make this goal achievable. Nuclear weapons have shown the folly of war. For the first time, there is no war and no immediate prospect of war among the main military powers. For the first time, many proven measures to prevent armed conflict, distilled in the crucible of this century's wars, are available. If systematically applied, these measures can sharply decrease the frequency and violence of war, genocide, and other forms of deadly conflict. To seize the opportunity, nations should adopt a comprehensive programme to reduce conventional armaments and armed conflict. This programme will complement and strengthen efforts to eliminate nuclear arms. To assure its ongoing worldwide implementation, the conventional reduction programme should be placed in a treaty framework. We propose a four-phased process, with three treaties, each lasting five to ten years, to lay the groundwork for the fourth treaty, which will establish a permanent international security system. The main objectives of the treaties are to achieve: 1. A verified commitment to provide full transparency on conventional armed forces and military spending, not to increase forces during negotiations on arms reductions, and to increase the resources allocated to multilateral conflict prevention and peacekeeping. 2. Substantial worldwide cuts in national armed forces and military spending and further strengthening of United Nations and regional peacekeeping and peace-enforcement capabilities. 3. A trial of a watershed commitment by participating nations, including the major powers, not to deploy their armed forces beyond national borders except in a multilateral action under UN or regional auspices. 4. A permanent transfer to the UN and regional security organizations of the authority and capability for armed
In the United States, 46% of high school students have had sexual intercourse and potentially are at risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and pregnancy. The National HIV/AIDS Strategy for the United States recommends educating young persons about HIV before they begin engaging in behaviors that place them at risk for HIV infection. The Community Preventive Services Task Force (CPSTF) also recommends risk reduction interventions to prevent HIV, other STDs, and pregnancy among adolescents. To estimate changes in the percentage of secondary schools that teach specific HIV, other STD, and pregnancy risk reduction topics, a key intervention consistent with those supported by the National HIV/AIDS Strategy and CPSTF, CDC analyzed 2008 and 2010 School Health Profiles data for public secondary schools in 45 states. This report summarizes the results of those analyses, which indicated that in 2010, compared with 2008, the percentage of secondary schools teaching 11 topics on HIV, other STD, and pregnancy prevention in a required course in grades 6, 7, or 8 was significantly lower in 11 states and significantly higher in none; the percentage of secondary schools teaching eight topics in a required course in grades 9, 10, 11, or 12 was significantly lower in one state and significantly higher in two states; and the percentage of secondary schools teaching three condom-related topics in a required course in grades 9, 10, 11, or 12 was significantly lower in eight states and significantly higher in three states. Secondary schools can increase efforts to teach all age-appropriate HIV, other STD, and pregnancy prevention topics to help reduce risk behaviors among students.
Piasta, Shayne B.; Logan, Jessica A. R.; Pelatti, Christina Yeager; Capps, Janet L.; Petrill, Stephen A.
Because recent initiatives highlight the need to better support preschool-aged children's math and science learning, the present study investigated the impact of professional development in these domains for early childhood educators. Sixty-five educators were randomly assigned to experience 10.5 days (64 hr) of training on math and science or on…
Posselt, Julie Renee; Reyes, Kimberly A.; Slay, Kelly E.; Kamimura, Aurora; Porter, Kamaria B.
Background/Context: Education scholars have examined how state policy and informal practice can widen or reproduce racial and gender inequalities in graduate education. Just one empirical study, which focused on psychology programs, has identified organizational practice that supports recruitment and retention of graduate students of color. Focus…
Reese, Sara M; Gilmartin, Heather M
Nurses have historically occupied the infection preventionist (IP) role. As the knowledge and skills needed to advance the field expand, professionals from public health and the laboratory sciences have become IPs. Our study describes the characteristics of current IPs and assesses for relationships between background, certification, experience, and type of work performed. The data were drawn from an existing dataset collected in the conduct of the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC) MegaSurvey. Descriptive statistics were computed. Associations were calculated using χ 2 or Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel tests. Characteristics of IPs were stratified by work-related activities to allow for comparisons between groups. Of the 13,050 active APIC members, 4,079 participated in the survey (31% response rate). The primary job activity for nurses (97.9%; n = 2,434) was preventing and controlling the transmission of infectious agents or health care-associated infections, for laboratory scientists (97.5%; n = 307) it was the interpretation of surveillance data, and for public health professionals (96.1%; n = 136) it was management and communication: feedback. Infection control departments would benefit from hiring IPs with diverse education and training to address the expanding roles and responsibilities of IPs. This may facilitate the implementation of novel and innovative processes that will impact patient care. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. All rights reserved.
Kim, Shin-Jeong; Kang, Kyung-Ah
Child sexual abuse (CSA) threatens children's safety and even their lives. CSA is increasing steadily, despite the government's efforts to decrease and prevent its incidence. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of the Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Education (C-SAPE) program on fifth-grade elementary school students' competence in…
Cox, Pamela J.; Lang, Karen S.; Townsend, Stephanie M.; Campbell, Rebecca
Social work practice has long focused on the connections between an individual and the social environment that affect the individual's social functioning. The Rape Prevention and Education (RPE) Program's theory model, Creating Safer Communities: The Rape Prevention and Education Model of Community Change, provides family social workers with a…
Treloar, Carla; Laybutt, Becky; Carruthers, Susan
Aims: Prevention education has had limited success in reducing transmission of blood borne virus among people who inject drugs. Innovative approaches to prevention education are required. Method: This study used video recordings of injecting episodes and interviews with participants reviewing their video recordings to explore the concept of…
Gross, Anita R; Kaplan, Faith; Huang, Stacey
To conduct an overview on psychological interventions, orthoses, patient education, ergonomics, and 1⁰/2⁰ neck pain prevention for adults with acute-chronic neck pain.......To conduct an overview on psychological interventions, orthoses, patient education, ergonomics, and 1⁰/2⁰ neck pain prevention for adults with acute-chronic neck pain....
Bello-Bravo, Julia; Namatsi Lutomia, Anne; Madela, Lawrence Mbhekiseni; Pittendrigh, Barry Robert
Despite worldwide efforts to prevent malaria, the disease continues to take its strongest toll in sub-Saharan Africa. Kenya is no exception, with millions of cases and thousands of deaths reported annually. This pilot study looks at knowledge on malaria prevention and treatment among peri-urban communities in Western Kenya. Through a study on the…
Walsh, Kerryann; Berthelsen, Donna; Nicholson, Jan M.; Brandon, Leisa; Stevens, Judyann; Rachele, Jerome N.
The past four decades have seen increasing public and professional awareness of child sexual abuse. Congruent with public health approaches to prevention, efforts to eliminate child sexual abuse have inspired the emergence of prevention initiatives which can be provided to all children as part of their standard school curriculum. However,…
Laying the Groundwork for an Interdisciplinary Effort Aimed at Prevention of Pregnancy among Middle School Youth. Phase II: A Survey of Florida Vocational Home Economics Teachers. Final Report, July 1, 1979-June 30, 1980.
Morse, Betty R.; Dixon, Betty L.
Attitudes of Florida vocational home economics teachers were surveyed concerning a pregnancy-prevention education program for early adolescents during project phase 2. The Needs Assessment Inventory for Teenage Pregnancy Prevention developed in phase 1 was administered to 1274 teachers who approved the range of objectives cited in the Inventory…
Bourgeois, Denis M; Phantumvanit, Prathip; Llodra, Juan Carlos; Horn, Virginie; Carlile, Monica; Eiselé, Jean-Luc
Ensuring that members of society are healthy and reaching their full potential requires the prevention of oral diseases through the promotion of oral health and well-being. The present article identifies the best policy conditions of effective public health and primary care integration and the actors who promote and sustain these efforts. In this review, arguments and recommendations are provided to introduce an oral health collaborative promotion programme called Live.Learn.Laugh. phase 2, arising from an unique partnership between FDI World Dental Federation, the global company Unilever plc and an international network of National Dental Associations, health-care centres, schools and educators populations. © 2014 FDI World Dental Federation.
Scott, Vicky; Gallagher, Elaine; Higginson, Anne; Metcalfe, Sarah; Rajabali, Fahra
A staged, mixed methods approach was applied to the development and evaluation of an evidence-based education program for health care professionals and community leaders on how to design, implement and evaluate a fall prevention program. Stages included pre-development, development, pilot testing and impact on practice. The goal of the evaluation was to determine if the Canadian Falls Prevention Curriculum met the needs of the target audience and had an impact on learning and practice. Methods included a needs assessment, systematic reviews, pre-post tests of learning, follow-up surveys and interviews, and descriptive reports of stakeholder involvement. The needs assessment and systematic review of existing programs indicated that there was a demand for a comprehensive, evidence-based curriculum on fall prevention and that no similar curricula existed. Pre-post test findings showed significant increases in learning and follow-up surveys showed a positive impact on practice. Evidence shows that the most effective fall prevention efforts are those that address the multifactorial nature of fall risk, with proven interventions provided by trained clinicians. The Canadian Falls Prevention Curriculum provides evidence-based training for clinicians and community leaders using a public health approach to fall prevention that includes instruction on how to define the problem, assess the risk, examine best practices, implement the program, and conduct evaluation of the program's effectiveness. Copyright © 2011 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Crone, M; Reijneveld, S; Willemsen, M; van Leerdam, F J M; Spruijt, R; Sing, R
Objective: To assess the effect of an antismoking intervention focusing on adolescents in lower education. Students with lower education smoke more often and perceive more positive norms, and social pressure to smoke, than higher educated students. An intervention based on peer group pressure and social influence may therefore be useful to prevent smoking among these students.
Mason-Jones, Amanda J.; Flisher, Alan J.; Mathews, Catherine
Characteristics of learners who become peer educators are rarely explored despite the potential relevance to the success of peer education programmes. Fifteen high schools selected to implement peer education HIV prevention programmes in South Africa were recruited. A total of 2339 Grade 10 learners were surveyed and comparisons were made between…
Ho, Faith C S
Medical education in Hong Kong began with the inauguration of the College of Medicine for Chinese in 1887. Although training in western medicine for Chinese had been started half a century earlier in the mainland of China, with a few exceptions, much of it was in the form of apprenticeships without a formal course of study, such that by the end of the 19th century medical education in China was still on the whole poorly developed. This paper presents some examples of significant efforts in western medical education on the Chinese mainland during the 19th century. It compares the Hong Kong College with these efforts, and examines those features which, together, made the College unique. These included its independent status as an educational institution, its use of English as a medium of instruction together with the attendant advantages that brings, the availability of students with the requisite language skills to undertake such studies, the availability of teachers, support of the public, and access to autopsies and dissection. Moreover, opportunities for employment in the public sector and in private practice gradually became available for its graduates, thus accelerating the acceptance of western medicine by the Chinese population and the development of these services in Hong Kong. The College, at its inception, could rightfully claim a leading position in these various aspects. Its story should be a source of inspiration and pride, and of encouragement for the local medical profession to continue this 125-year-old tradition of service and leadership.
Parent engagement plays an essential role in student achievement and well-being, but not all families are able to participate in their children's education. This article focuses on strategies for reaching and supporting parents who face challenges to engagement such as poverty and cultural diversity. Five district-level parent engagement projects…
This case study was produced in conjunction with the Center for American Progress's accompanying report on these issues, "Increasing the Effectiveness and Efficiency of Existing Public Investments in Early Childhood Education." This report establishes a set of policies and administrative changes on the federal level that will begin to…
Yeo, Kee Jiar; Lee, Shih Hui; Handayani, Lina
Federation of Reproductive Health Association, Malaysia (FRHAM) is a pioneer Non-governmental Organization (NGO) in disseminating the knowledge and services of sexual reproductive health in Malaysia. A qualitative case study research design was employed to explore the roles of FRHAM in promoting Comprehensive Sexuality Education (CSE) for the…
Boberg, John Eric
Transformational leadership has been shown to affect organizational commitment, capacity development, and performance. However, these relationships have received very little attention in schools, especially high schools in the United States that are experiencing educational reform initiatives under No Child Left Behind. Using a sample of 1403 high…
Intractable conflicts are usually defined as long-lasting, violent, intergroup ones perceived as having no foreseen solutions. Such conflicts heavily affect the societies involved, which invest massive resources in all issues related to the conflict, including various educational elements. Regardless of the context of national conflict,…
Lodewyk, Ken R.; Gao, Zan
Epistemic beliefs are deeply held convictions about the nature of knowledge, knowing, and learning. In this study, approximately 500 ninth and tenth-grade physical education (PE) students completed fitness-specific measures assessing their epistemic beliefs in the simplicity and stability of knowledge and the speed of its acquisition along with…
Hanlon, C A; Olson, J G; Clark, C J
Substantial changes in the epizootic characteristics of rabies have transpired in the United States during the past 50 years. Traditional veterinary practices and public health recommendations have effectively controlled rabies in dogs and prevented associated human fatalities; however, they have been unable to adequately address the problem of rabies in wildlife. Attributable in part to a renewed focus on emerging infectious diseases, a conference was held at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 1993 to begin discussion focused on the reemergence of rabies and to formulate new suggestions for prevention and control of rabies in the United States. Three major working groups were formed from a national committee of professionals representing a broad array of biomedical disciplines. These groups concentrated on prevention of rabies in human beings, education, laboratory diagnosis of rabies, and rabies control in animals. The groups described the perceived minimum requirements to promote prevention and control of rabies in the United States into the next century. The following article describes the needs and recommendations identified by the prevention and education working group. Two other articles, scheduled for the Nov 15 and Dec 1, 1999 issues of JAVMA, will relay the needs and recommendations of the working groups on laboratory diagnosis of rabies and rabies in wildlife.
Levkoff, Sue; And Others
Describes 10 modules for primary care practitioners on health promotion/disease prevention for the elderly on these topics: Alzheimer's disease in minorities, dehydration, diabetes, elder abuse, geriatric nutrition, oncology, oral health in long-term care, incontinence, injury prevention, and physical activity. These areas are significant for…
Munoz-Baell, I M; Alvarez-Dardet, C; Ruiz, M T; Ortiz, R; Esteban, M L; Ferreiro, E
Education is a basic prerequisite for d/Deaf people's health. Deaf education varies considerably from country to country and we still know very little about the reasons for such variation. To identify international megatrends that influence the current Deaf bilingual education move (Deaf Bilingual-Bicultural education; DBiBi) worldwide. Using the Delphi technique, 41 experts in d/Deaf education (nine Deaf, 32 hearing) from 18 countries identified, ranked, and rated international megatrends in DBiBi education. The process revealed six main essential elements of the international implementation of DBiBi education and nine main barriers against it. The top five promoting forces in that list in order of priority were: (1) societal and political changes towards a growing acceptance of diversity and Deaf issues; (2) growing Deaf activism, self-awareness and empowerment; (3) scientific research in sign linguistics and bilingualism; (4) changes in the d/Deaf educational community; and (5) international cooperation. The top five hindering forces included: (1) the view of deafness as a medical condition with a technological solution; (2) phonocentrism and societal resistance to the unknown; (3) educational and d/Deaf educational policies; (4) DBiBi education weaknesses; and (5) invisibility, heterogeneity and underperformance of the d/Deaf population. The results of this study reveal that social/political changes and a medical/social model of Deaf people's health can promote or limit Deaf people's educational options much more than changes within the education system itself, and that a transnational perspective is needed in deciding how best to support DBiBi education at a national and local level in an increasingly globalised world.
Fong, Y T; Anantharaman, V; Lim, S H; Leong, K F; Pokkan, G
Mass cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) 99 in Singapore was a large-scale multi-organisational effort to increase awareness and impart basic cardiac life support skills to the lay public. Mass CPR demonstrations followed by small group manikin practice with instructor guidance was conducted simultaneously in three centres, four times a day. The exercise enlisted 15 community organisations and received the support of 19 other organisations. Three hundred and ninety-eight manikins and 500 instructors ('I's) were mobilised to teach an audience of 6000 participants ('P's). Two surveys, for 'I's and 'P's were conducted with respondent rates of 65.8% and 50%, respectively. 73.6% of the P-respondents ('P-R's) indicated that they attended the event to increase their knowledge. 66.9% were willing to attend a more comprehensive CPR course. Concerns and perceptions in performing bystander CPR were assessed.
This paper explores whether or not the recent increase of interest by the U.S. Supreme Court in educational disputes results in a gradual reduction in the role that professional ethics plays in educators' everyday decisions. It is argued that there are links between an educator's professional ethics and constitutional justice. The increase in…
Hahlweg, Kurt; Heinrichs, Nina; Kuschel, Annett; Bertram, Heike; Naumann, Sebastian
Abstract Background Approximately 20% of children experience internalizing or externalizing DSM-IV-TR disorders. This prevalence rate cannot be reduced through treatment only. Effective preventive interventions are therefore urgently needed. The aim of the current investigation is to evaluate the two-year efficacy of the group Triple P parenting program administered universally for the prevention of child behavior problems. Methods Based on their respective preschool, N = 280 families were ra...
General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Health, Education, and Human Services Div.
Teenage pregnancy and parenthood have unfortunate consequences for society, teenage mothers, and the children born to them. This report to the Senate is intended to provide information on (1) state strategies to reduce teen pregnancy and how states fund these efforts; (2) how welfare reform affected states' strategies; (3) the extent to which…
As part of the National Clinical Programme on healthcare-associated infection prevention, a Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (RCSI) and Royal College of Physicians of Ireland (RCPI) working group developed a quality improvement tool for prevention of surgical site infection (SS). We aimed to validate the effectiveness of an educational campaign, which utilises this quality improvement tool to prevent SSI in a tertiary hospital. Prior to the SSI educational campaign, surgical patients were prospectively audited and details of antibiotic administration recorded. Prophylactic antibiotic administration recommendations were delivered via poster and educational presentations. Post-intervention, the audit was repeated. 50 patients were audited pre-intervention, 45 post-intervention. Post-intervention, prophylaxis within 60 minutes prior to incision increased from 54% to 68% (p = 0.266). Appropriate postoperative prescribing improved from 71% to 92% (p = 0.075). A multifaceted educational program may be effective in changing SSI prevention practices.
Hughes, Robert, Jr.; Bowers, Jill R.; Mitchell, Elissa Thomann; Curtiss, Sarah; Ebata, Aaron T.
Although numerous online family life education programs have been developed over the past few years, there has been little discussion about best practices in the development of these programs. This article presents a framework to assist family life educators in the development and improvement of online programs from the initial problem analysis…
Monig, Julia Maria
In this paper, I try to argue why it is worth turning to Hannah Arendt when reflecting on education. I am exploring her political theory in "The Human Condition" which, with the anthropologic category of natality, seems to offer an interesting approach for democratic education. Apparently everyone can participate in politics or even…
Fernandes,Luciana Magnani; Caliri,Maria Helena Larcher; Haas,Vanderlei José
OBJECTIVE: The aim was to evaluate the effect of the educative interventions on nursing staff knowledge about pressure ulcer prevention in Intensive Care Centers (ICC). It is a descriptive-comparative study. METHODS: Data were collected from nursing team members before and after educative interventions using a knowledge test with true-false questions related to pressure ulcer prevention and description as a research instrument. RESULTS: Seven registered nurses participated in the pre-interven...
Fraas, Michael R; Burchiel, Jessica
There is a high incidence of concussion sustained by athletes participating in rugby union, many of which go unreported. A lack of sufficient knowledge about concussion injuries may explain athletes' failure to report. Several rugby union-playing countries have developed injury education and prevention programmes to address this issue. The aim of the current review was to systematically assess the content and level of evidence on concussion education/prevention programmes in rugby union and to make recommendations for the quality, strength, and consistency of this evidence. We searched PubMed, PsycInfo, MEDLINE, SPORTDiscuss, Webofscience, and conducted a manual search for articles. Ten articles were included for review. Of these, six focused on the BokSmart injury prevention programme in South Africa, two focused on the RugbySmart injury prevention programme in New Zealand, one was an analysis of prevention programmes, and one was a systematic review of rugby injury prevention strategies. Despite the initiative to develop concussion education and prevention programmes, there is little evidence to support the effectiveness of such programmes. There is evidence to support education of coaches and referees. In addition, there is scant evidence to suggest that education and rule changes may have the benefit of changing athlete behaviours resulting in a reduction in catastrophic injury.
Miller, Thomas W; Kraus, Robert F; Veltkamp, Lane J
Prevention education is seen as a key component in addressing school violence. Three hundred and three fourth grade students in 9 elementary schools in a predominantly rural community were provided a specialized program of character education as a prevention tool to reduce the potential for deviant behavior. Students in 3 schools were in the no treatment control condition. Students in the remaining 6 schools received a school-based and curriculum driven character education program; two of the schools were in the curriculum only condition while in four of the schools students were randomly selected to receive a protocol-driven summer academic (6 weeks) and experiential education/program. The intervention results suggest that the students who received the academic/camp intervention had the greatest increases in social competence, the largest gains in reading achievement, and the largest increase in parental interaction. Recommendations for prevention education are discussed at the primary, secondary and tertiary levels.
Uymaz, Pelin E.; Nahcivan, Nursen O.
Falls are a major cause of morbidity and mortality among the elderly living in nursing homes. There is a need to implement and evaluate fall prevention programs in nursing homes to reduce the number of falls. The purpose of this research was to examine the effect of a nurse-led fall prevention education program in a sample of nursing home…
White, Jennifer; Morris, Jonathan; Hinbest, Jerry
The development and implementation of a new school-based suicide prevention education programme in one secondary school in Vancouver, British Columbia, recently provided us with an opportunity to conduct an in-depth, qualitative case study. The purpose of our study was to deepen our understanding of how school-based suicide prevention education…
Meeks, Linda; And Others
The Gynecology Clinic, Wilce Health Center, Ohio State University, is putting into operation a comprehensive family planning service program that includes (1) patient education, (2) medical care, (3) pregnancy counseling, and (4) reproductive and sexuality counseling. (Author)
Bauer, K. W.; Neumark-Sztainer, D.; Hannan, P. J.; Fulkerson, J. A.; Story, M.
Identifying factors that contribute to students' behavior and weight improvements during school-based obesity prevention interventions is critical for the development of effective programs. The current study aims to determine whether the support and resources that adolescent girls received from their families were associated with improvements in…
Seed, Mary St. John; Higgins, Sally
Recent research on temperament and attachment theory highlights the importance of early intervention to helping children develop secure attachments and prevent mental illnesses. A mental illness curriculum for nursing students should integrate concepts from psychiatry and public health to prepare community-based for participation in intervention.…
Leung, Wai Yin; Adelman, Jason; Bates, David W; Businger, Alexandra; Dykes, John S; Ergai, Awatef; Hurley, Ann; Katsulis, Zachary; Khorasani, Sarah; Scanlan, Maureen; Schenkel, Laura; Rai, Amisha; Dykes, Patricia C
Falls with injury are the most prevalent hospital adverse event. The objective of this project was to refine fall risk and prevention icons for a patient-centric bedside toolkit to promote patient and nurse engagement in accurately assessing fall risks and developing a tailored fall prevention plan. Eighty-eight patients and 60 nurses from 2 academic medical centers participated in 4 iterations of testing to refine 6 fall risk and 10 fall prevention icons. During individual interviews, participants rated their satisfaction with the degree to which that icon represented the concept on a 4-point Likert scale, enabling computation of a Content Validity Index (CVI), and provided comments and suggestions for improvement. After reviewing CVI scores and feedback, the research team consulted with the illustrator to revise the icons. Content Validity Index scores improved after icon modifications. Icons that depicted multiple concepts required further iterations to be acceptable. Using icons to depict an accurate and easy-to-interpret fall risk assessment and intervention plan for all care team members including patients and family to follow should lead to improved adherence with that plan and decreased falls. All 16 icons were refined and used to form the basis for a bedside fall prevention toolkit.
Background: Malaria accounts for 1 million deaths among children under five annually. It has been shown that improving home treatment and preventing delays in seeking treatment, by teaching women to respond promptly when their children have fever, can decrease malaria related complications and mortality. This study ...
Frank L. Ryan; Frank H. Gladen; William S. Folkman
The California Department of Forestry's Team Teaching Fire Prevention Program consists of small-group discussions, slides or films, and a visit by Smokey Bear to school classrooms. In a survey, teachers and principals who had experienced the program responded favorably to it. The conduct by team members also received approval. The limited criticisms of the Program...
Hettler, Shannon; Johnston, Linda M.
The authors review the types of experiential peace education programs available to teens in the US and provide a classification guide for educators, parents, other concerned adults and teens who may be interested in developing conflict, peace and/or violence prevention knowledge, skills and attitudes. The authors identify experiential programs in…
Bowie, Robert A.
The article interprets changes in human rights education in English school policy on values which have increasingly been framed by PREVENT and a move from international to national expressions of values. It reveals the extent of the impact and nature of this change on human rights education in school policy for the first time. It reports changes…
Jones, Paul R.; Sheppard, Monique A.; Snowden, Cecelia B.; Miller, Ted R.; Nelkin, Valerie S.; Nguyen, Denise D.; Tominack, Ivy; Dunlap, Hallie Chillag
Background: Unintentional poisoning is an important public health issue that exacts a heavy toll on our nation's seniors. However, relatively few empirical studies have examined the efficacy of poison prevention education programs on this cohort. Purpose: This study assessed the impact of a poison education program on the knowledge, perceptions,…
Minelli, Mark J.; And Others
Because some high school student athletes use steroids, educational intervention should occur in middle and high school. The health and physical educator is important in prevention or early intervention. Community/school-based intervention is recommended. The article discusses psychological and physical addiction and presents guidelines and…
Kseniya S. Shalaginova
Full Text Available The article presents the experience of violence prevention in contemporary educational environment, describes the work with performers of educational process (teachers, schoolchildren, parents, administration, aimed at tolerance, empathy, habits of structural interaction and behavior in conflict situations, acceptance set forming
Tze, Virginia M. C.; Li, Johnson C.-H.; Pei, Jacqueline
Substance abuse, especially among adolescents, has long been an important issue in society. In light of the adverse impact of substance abuse, scholars, educators, and policy-makers have proposed different approaches to prevent and reduce such abuse. This paper investigates the effectiveness of the two prominent approaches--educational and…
Repo, Laura; Sajaniemi, Nina
Research suggests that bullying behaviour begins at an early age (three to six years) and that preventive practices should target early educational settings. However, no previous studies focus on early educational settings (kindergartens) as an arena for bullying behaviour. The aim of this study was to find what kind of organisational and…
After the disaster of the earthquake and tsunami in Tohoku, Japan in 2011, it is necessary to teach more "Disaster Prevention" in school. The government guideline for education of high school geography students emphasizes improving students' awareness of disaster prevention through acquiring geographical skills, for example reading hazard and thematic maps. The working group of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) says that the purpose of Disaster Prevention Education is to develop the following competencies: 1. To acquire knowledge about disasters in the local area and the science of disaster prevention. 2. To teach individuals to protect themselves from natural hazards. 3. To safely support other people in the local area. 4. To build a safe society during rebuilding from the disasters. "Disaster Prevention Education" is part of the "Education for Sustainable Development" (ESD) curriculum. That is, teaching disaster prevention can contribute to developing abilities for sustainable development and building a sustainable society. I have tried to develop a high school geography class about "tsunami". The aim of this class is to develop the students' competencies to acquire the knowledge about tsunami and protect themselves from it through reading a hazard map. I especially think that in geography class, students can protect themselves from disasters through learning the risks of disasters and how to escape when disasters occur. In the first part of class, I have taught the mechanism of tsunami formation and where tsunamis occur in Japan. In the second part of class, I have shown students pictures that I had taken in Tohoku, for instance Ishinomaki-City, Minamisanriku-Town, Kesen'numa-City, and taught how to read hazard maps that show where safe and dangerous places are when natural hazards occur. I think that students can understand the features of the local area and how to escape from disasters that may occur in local area by
Introduces a collection of papers that address the High/Scope Foundation's approach to risk reduction and dropout prevention. Examines High/Scope's history and describes various High/Scope efforts (e.g., the Michigan School Readiness Program Evaluation, preschool and elementary curriculum development and training, movement and music curriculum…
... Error processing SSI file About Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Heart disease and stroke are an epidemic in ... secondhand smoke. Barriers to Effective Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Many people with key risk factors for heart ...
Ryan, Barbara E.
For more than two decades the U.S. Department of Education has supported campus- and community-based prevention programs through a number of programs and activities. For example, in 1987 the Department convened the first annual National Meeting for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse and Violence Prevention in Higher Education as a forum to disseminate…
Katchmarchi, Adam Bradley; Taliaferro, Andrea R; Kipfer, Hannah Joy
There have been long-standing calls to better educate the public at large on risks of drowning; yet limited evaluation has taken place on current resources in circulation. The purpose of this qualitative research is to develop an understanding of the content in currently circulated drowning prevention resources in the United States. Data points (n = 451) consisting of specific content within 25 different drowning prevention educational resources were analyzed using document analysis methods; a grounded theory approach was employed to allow for categorical development and indexing of the data. Results revealed six emerging categories, including safety precautions (n = 152), supervision (n = 109), preventing access (n = 57), safety equipment (n = 46), emergency procedures (n = 46), and aquatic education (n = 41). Results provide an initial insight into the composition of drowning prevention resources in the United States and provide a foundation for future research.
Hahlweg, Kurt; Heinrichs, Nina; Kuschel, Annett; Bertram, Heike; Naumann, Sebastian
Approximately 20% of children experience internalizing or externalizing DSM-IV-TR disorders. This prevalence rate cannot be reduced through treatment only. Effective preventive interventions are therefore urgently needed. The aim of the current investigation is to evaluate the two-year efficacy of the group Triple P parenting program administered universally for the prevention of child behavior problems. Based on their respective preschool, N = 280 families were randomly assigned either to the parent training or to the control group. The efficacy was analyzed using multi-source assessments, including questionnaires by mother and father, behavioral observation of mother-child interaction, and teacher evaluations. At the 2-year follow-up, both parents in the Triple P intervention reported significant reductions in dysfunctional parenting behavior, and mothers also an increase in positive parenting behavior. In addition, mothers reported significant reductions in internalizing and externalizing child behavior. Single-parent mothers in the Triple P intervention did not report significant changes in parenting or child problem behavior which is primarily due to inexplicable high positive effects in single parent mothers of the control group. Neither mother-child interactions nor teacher ratings yielded significant results. The results support the long-term efficacy of the Triple P - group program as a universal prevention intervention for changing parenting behavior in two-parent households, but not necessarily in single-parent mothers.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Approximately 20% of children experience internalizing or externalizing DSM-IV-TR disorders. This prevalence rate cannot be reduced through treatment only. Effective preventive interventions are therefore urgently needed. The aim of the current investigation is to evaluate the two-year efficacy of the group Triple P parenting program administered universally for the prevention of child behavior problems. Methods Based on their respective preschool, N = 280 families were randomly assigned either to the parent training or to the control group. The efficacy was analyzed using multi-source assessments, including questionnaires by mother and father, behavioral observation of mother-child interaction, and teacher evaluations. Results At the 2-year follow-up, both parents in the Triple P intervention reported significant reductions in dysfunctional parenting behavior, and mothers also an increase in positive parenting behavior. In addition, mothers reported significant reductions in internalizing and externalizing child behavior. Single-parent mothers in the Triple P intervention did not report significant changes in parenting or child problem behavior which is primarily due to inexplicable high positive effects in single parent mothers of the control group. Neither mother-child interactions nor teacher ratings yielded significant results. Conclusions The results support the long-term efficacy of the Triple P - group program as a universal prevention intervention for changing parenting behavior in two-parent households, but not necessarily in single-parent mothers.
Full Text Available Background: Women’s beliefs are one of the main reasons for not undergoing Pap-test for cervical cancer prevention. Health education programs could help change these beliefs and motivate women to adopt a preventive health behavior.Objectives: This study aims to assess the modification in women’s beliefs and behavior about cervical cancer prevention after the implementation of a health education intervention.Methodology: A health education intervention for cervical cancer prevention was implemented to 300 women in two prefectures of southern Greece. The experimental group received a 120-minute health education intervention, based on the Health Beliefs Model (HBM including a lecture, discussion and leaflets. The hypotheses were a will this brief intervention change women’s beliefs (perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer, benefits and barriers ofundergoing the Pap-test? b will this change in beliefs sustain in six months follow-up period? and c will women undergo pap-test in six months period? The women filled in an anonymous questionnaire, based on the Health Belief Model (HBM, before, immediately after and six months after the program.Results: The health education intervention significantly modified women’s beliefs and behaviors towards pap-test. The greater changes in women’s beliefs were observed in their sense of susceptibility towards the disease and the benefits of prevention which were sustained or improved after six months. Perceived barriers to undergo the Paptest, pain, embarrassment, and worry for the results decreased immediately after the program but started relapsingin the six month follow up period. Moreover, 88.1% of the women answered that they had underwent a Pap-test during the following six months.Conclusions: This health education intervention modified women’s beliefs and behavior about cervical cancer prevention. Short, low cost, health education interventions for breast cancer prevention to women can be
Pletcher, Beth A
The American Academy of Pediatrics is committed to working to ensure that workplaces and educational settings in which pediatricians spend time are free of sexual harassment. The purpose of this statement is to heighten awareness and sensitivity to this important issue, recognizing that institutions, clinics, and office-based practices may have existing policies.
The aim of the project was to evaluate a peer education programme in Zambia run by local people in relation to changes in behaviours, the effects of the programme on the community and the dynamics of peer health promotion. A qualitative process evaluation using focus groups consisting of both participants in the peer ...
Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Office of Research and Development.
This guide provides an overview of waste generating processes and operations that occur in educational or research institutions and presents options for minimizing waste generation through source reduction and recycling. A broad spectrum of waste chemicals in laboratories, art studios, print shops, maintenance, and other operations can be…
Hust, Stacey J T; Adams, Paula M; Willoughby, Jessica Fitts; Ren, Chunbo; Lei, Ming; Ran, Weina; Marett, Emily Garrigues
Among the existing sexual assault prevention efforts on college campuses, few use mass communication strategies designed to simultaneously entertain and educate. Although many entertainment-education efforts are guided by social cognitive theory, other theories may be useful in entertainment-education design. Previous research has found that social cognitive theory and social norms theory can successfully influence participants' perceived norms and efficacy related to sexual assault reduction; however, whether such results can be replicated in a naturalistic setting and the extent to which the guiding theoretical foundation may influence outcomes remain unknown. We used a pre- and posttest field experiment with college students in residence halls to assess how different theoretical foundations may influence effects. Over the course of a semester, the participants viewed eight mini-magazines developed using (1) social cognitive theory, (2) social norms theory, (3) a combination of both theoretical frameworks, or (4) a control condition with no sexual assault prevention messaging. Participants in the combined content condition had greater levels of self-efficacy related to sexual assault prevention and more accurate norm perceptions. There were also effects for the mini-magazines developed with only one theoretical framework. Overall, we found that multiple theories can effectively guide entertainment-education message development.
Taruscio, Domenica; Arriola, Larraitz; Baldi, Francesca
. The resulting EUROCAT-EUROPLAN 'Recommendations on Policies to Be Considered for the Primary Prevention of Congenital Anomalies in National Plans and Strategies on Rare Diseases' were issued in 2012 and endorsed by EUCERD (European Union Committee of Experts on Rare Diseases) in 2013. The recommendations...... exploit interdisciplinary expertise encompassing drugs, diet, lifestyles, maternal health status, and the environment. The recommendations include evidence-based actions aimed at reducing risk factors and at increasing protective factors and behaviors at both individual and population level. Moreover...
Full Text Available A sustainable financial system relies on two pillars: the functional and healthy financial institutions, as well as the financially competent customers-investors-entrepreneurs. The responsibility for the implementation of training programs and preparation for the well-informed choice does not lie only with the natural persons and legal entities. This is a shared responsibility of different stakeholders: individuals, families, small and medium enterprises, public administration, the Ministry of Education, the financial services sector, employers and representatives of trade unions and consumer protection organizations as well as other civil society initiatives. A prime example of such an integrated approach towards the same goal is the European Platform for Financial Education, an initiative launched by the European Banking Federation, the European Banking Training Network and other institutions (professional associations, in February 2017 in Brussels as an incentive for the national level efforts in implementing the respective financial literacy programs. In this paper we analyzed the importance and role of the European Platform for Financial Education in the case of the Serbian banking sector through the activities of the Association of Serbian Banks. These activities will be implemented by the Association of Banks of Serbia continuously throughout the year, and after the celebration of the European Money Week on 27-31 March 2017.
Education for AIDS Prevention: Bibliography--Supplement No. 1=Education pour la prevention du SIDA: Bibliographie--Supplement No. 1=Educacion para la Prevencion del SIDA: Bibliografia--Suplemento No. 1.
United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Documentation and Information Service.
This supplement to the Education for AIDS Prevention Bibliography provides a list of titles received by ASERC (AIDS School Education Resource Centre) from August 1991 to December 1992, consisting mainly of educational material for schools. It also includes documents of a more general nature on AIDS and AIDS prevention. ASERC is a documentation…
Lacerda,Adriana Bender Moreira; Gonçalves,Claudia Giglio de Oliveira; Lacerda,Giselle; Lobato,Diolén Conceição Barros; Santos,Luciana; Moreira,Aline Carlezzo; Ribas,Angela
Introduction The presence of noise in our society has attracted the attention of health professionals, including speech-language pathologists, who have been charged along with educators with developing hearing conservation programs in schools. Objective To describe the results of three strategies for awareness and hearing preservation in first to fourth grades in public elementary schools.Methods The level of environmental noise in classrooms was assessed, and 638 elementary school students f...
Rollin, Stephen A.; Subotnik, Rena F.; Bassford, Maya; Smulson, Jennifer
The following article details the work of the American Psychological Association's (APA's) Coalition for Psychology in the Schools and Education (CPSE). First, a brief history of the background and creation of the coalition is described. The article then details the projects, completed and ongoing, of the CPSE. Those projects include a Teacher…
Finch, Caroline F; Mitchell, Rebecca; Boufous, Soufiane
Sport/leisure injuries are a population health issue in Australia. Over 2003-2004 to 2007-2008, the rate of sport/leisure injury NSW hospitalisations was 195.5/100,000 residents. Males and children/young people had consistently highest rates of hospitalisation. There was no significant decline in rates over this period and no change in the profiles of the types of sport/leisure injuries. The extent to which effective preventive programs have been developed and implemented needs to be determined as current programs do not seem to be impacting on hospitalisation rates. Medical/health promotion agencies and sports bodies need to jointly formulate and implement policies to reduce sport/leisure injuries. This is one of the most significant challenges facing sports medicine professionals today. Copyright © 2010 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
O. A. Selivanova
Full Text Available The paper reveals the inefficiency problem of preventive measures controlling students’ intolerant and extremist behavior in higher educational institutions. According to the author, such trends in students’ society, as well as the rising phenomenon of nationalistic religious identity inevitably leading to interpersonal tensions, are caused in the last decades by the degrading prestige of higher education, growing pragmatism and formality of its achievement and key value depreciation in higher educational institutions. To improve the existing situation, it is necessary to revive the main functions of higher educational establishments –the intellectual and professional elite formation, cherishing the humanity values, social responsibility and active civil position; on the other hand, it is vitally important to create the system of prevention and correction of such trends as intolerance and extremism. However, the above goals are aggravated by the number of other problems listed in the paper.The method of developing the system of complex prevention of the mentioned negative phenomena is proposed with the reference to higher educational institutions; the specific stages of the given method, the technologies and organizational forms being outlined; the practical application and outcome in Tyumen State University being discussed. The research findings can be interesting for people responsible for preventive measures in higher educational instinutionms.
Full Text Available The aim of this study is investigating the Levels of Strain, From the Point of Various Variables (according to gender, branch, working at a job which provides financial gain, the reason to prefer the teaching profession, the number of digests of related field which have been followed, the frequency of weekly using internet, the aim of using internet, the frequency of weekly utilization from a library at studies related with branch, and the number of read books monthly , at Their Efforts of Obtain Information of Preservice Teachers’ of Secondary Education. Study carried out by general screening model and data has been collected by content validity and reliability has been through a survey. The opinions of 115 teachers were included in the study. The scale developed by the researcher used in the research. Cronbach Alpha reliability coefficient of the scale has been determined as .968. The value of the normal distribution of the data set as 6.57. Preservice teachers’ in their efforts to obtain information, the information needed to identify, access to information, assessment, use and in this process to consider the ethical and legal values of stages have been forced from time to time. Preservice teachers’ views on the strain level did not vary according to personal characteristics. Preservice teachers in the social field to learn to work less hard than Preservice teachers in the fields of science and mathematics. Study skills and habits of the prospective teachers to learn to be scraped in pre-service education and in-service training of vocational qualifications to support this have been proposed.
Full Text Available Like many developing or transitional countries affected by the HIV epidemic, The Bahamas has been deeply committed to HIV and sexually transmitted infection reduction and continues to make great strides in controlling the epidemic within its boundaries. Encouraged by the impact of the Focus on Youth Caribbean (FOYC, a school-based HIV/AIDS prevention programme and its parenting component on Grade 6 and Grade 10 students and their parents, a team of researchers from The Bahamas and the United States sought to implement a similar programme at a national level, while simultaneously evaluating factors that impact the sustainability of sexual risk-reduction programmes like FOYC. This paper describes five research projects conducted in The Bahamas between 1998 and 2016 and includes a list of over 40 published research articles
María Matilde García
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to assess the psychosocial risks of university teachers and identify enhancement areas for a healthy organization in a sample of 621 teachers from the University of A Coruña, Spain. To achieve this aim, the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (CoPsoQ adapted to the Spanish population (ISTAS21 Method was applied. The results showed an unfavorable situation for psychosocial health in five dimensions: high psychological demands, low esteem, high double presence, low social support, and high job insecurity. In contrast, a favorable situation for health is the dimension active work and development opportunities. It was also found that there is not a single profile of university teacher in psychosocial risk. To conclude, a diagnosis of psychosocial risks of university teachers is made and, in that scenario, some risk prevention strategies at university level are proposed.
Jozkowski, Kristen N.; Henry, Dayna S.; Sturm, Ashley A.
Introduction: Sexual assault continues to be a pervasive health issue among college students in the USA. Prevention education initiatives have been implemented to address this concern. However, little is known about college students' perceptions of such programming. The purpose of this study was to assess predictors of college students'…
Romano, John L.
This paper explores the science of prevention, with special attention to prevention research and applications in education and psychology, and the importance of prevention in Asian countries. One example that will be highlighted is the recently adopted Korean government policy on Internet addiction which addresses the problem from prevention to…
Minnis, A M; Moore, J G; Doherty, I A; Rodas, C; Auerswald, C; Shiboski, S; Padian, N S
Among a cohort of 237 sexually active females aged 14-19 years recruited from community venues in a predominantly Latino neighborhood in San Francisco, California, the authors examined the relation between gang exposure and pregnancy incidence over 2 years of follow-up between 2001 and 2004. Using discrete-time survival analysis, they investigated whether gang membership by individuals and partners was associated with pregnancy incidence and determined whether partnership characteristics, contraceptive behaviors, and pregnancy intentions mediated the relation between gang membership and pregnancy. Pregnancy incidence was determined by urine-based testing and self-report. Latinas represented 77% of participants, with one in five born outside the United States. One quarter (27.4%) became pregnant over follow-up. Participants' gang membership had no significant effect on pregnancy incidence (hazard ratio = 1.25, 95% confidence interval: 0.54, 3.45); however, having partners who were in gangs was associated with pregnancy (hazard ratio = 1.90, 95% confidence interval: 1.09, 3.32). The male partner's perceived pregnancy intentions and having a partner in detention each mediated the effect of partner's gang membership on pregnancy risk. Increased pregnancy incidence among young women with gang-involved partners highlights the importance of integrating reproductive health prevention into programs for gang-involved youth. In addition, high pregnancy rates indicate a heightened risk for sexually transmitted infections.
Ian W Holloway
Full Text Available The present study addresses gaps in the literature related to theory development for young men who have sex with men (YMSM sexual practices through the application and modification of Social Action Theory. Data come from the Healthy Young Men study (N = 526, which longitudinally tracked a diverse cohort of YMSM ages 18-24 to characterize risk and protective factors associated with drug use and sexual practices. Structural equation modeling examined the applicability of, and any necessary modifications to a YMSM-focused version of Social Action Theory. The final model displayed excellent fit (CFI = 0.955, TLI = 0.947, RMSEA = 0.037 and suggested concordance between social support and personal capacity for sexual health promotion. For YMSM, practicing health promotion and avoiding practices that may put them at risk for HIV was associated with both social isolation and psychological distress (β = -0.372, t = -4.601, p<0.001; psychological distress is an internalized response to environmental and cognitive factors and sexual practices are an externalized response. Results point to the utility of Social Action Theory as a useful model for understanding sexual practices among YMSM, the application of which shows health protective sexual practices are a function of sociocognitive factors that are influenced by environmental contexts. Social Action Theory can help prevention scientists better address the needs of this vulnerable population.
Holloway, Ian W.; Traube, Dorian E.; Schrager, Sheree M.; Tan, Diane; Dunlap, Shannon; Kipke, Michele D.
The present study addresses gaps in the literature related to theory development for young men who have sex with men (YMSM) sexual practices through the application and modification of Social Action Theory. Data come from the Healthy Young Men study (N = 526), which longitudinally tracked a diverse cohort of YMSM ages 18–24 to characterize risk and protective factors associated with drug use and sexual practices. Structural equation modeling examined the applicability of, and any necessary modifications to a YMSM-focused version of Social Action Theory. The final model displayed excellent fit (CFI = 0.955, TLI = 0.947, RMSEA = 0.037) and suggested concordance between social support and personal capacity for sexual health promotion. For YMSM, practicing health promotion and avoiding practices that may put them at risk for HIV was associated with both social isolation and psychological distress (β = -0.372, t = -4.601, pcognitive factors and sexual practices are an externalized response. Results point to the utility of Social Action Theory as a useful model for understanding sexual practices among YMSM, the application of which shows health protective sexual practices are a function of sociocognitive factors that are influenced by environmental contexts. Social Action Theory can help prevention scientists better address the needs of this vulnerable population. PMID:28886128
Wong, Mee Lian; Sen, Priya; Wong, Christina M; Tjahjadi, Sylvia; Govender, Mandy; Koh, Ting Ting; Yusof, Zarina; Chew, Ling; Tan, Avin; K, Vijaya
We reviewed the current human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention education programmes in Singapore, discussed the challenges faced and proposed prevention education interventions for the future. Education programmes on HIV prevention have shown some success as seen by reduced visits to sex workers among the general adult population and a marked increase in condom use among brothel-based sex workers. However, we still face many challenges such as low awareness of HIV preventive strategies and high prevalence of HIV stigma in the general population. Voluntary HIV testing and condom use remain low among the priority groups such as men who have sex with men (MSM) and heterosexual men who buy sex. Casual sex has increased markedly from 1.1% in 1989 to 17.4% in 2007 among heterosexuals in Singapore, with the majority (84%) practising unprotected sex. Sex workers have moved from brothels to entertainment venues where sex work is mostly hidden with lack of access to sexually transmitted infections (STIs)/ HIV prevention education and treatment programmes. Education programmes promoting early voluntary testing is hampered because of poor access, high cost and stigma towards people living with HIV. It remains a challenge to promote abstinence and consistent condom use in casual and steady sexual relationships among heterosexuals and MSM. New ways to promote condom use by using a positive appeal about its pleasure enhancing effects rather than the traditional disease-oriented approach should be explored. Education programmes promoting early voluntary testing and acceptance of HIV-infected persons should be scaled up and integrated into the general preventive health services.
Academic librarians and university instructors worldwide are grappling with an increasing incidence of student plagiarism. Recent publications urge educators to prevent plagiarism by teaching students about the issue, and some have advocated the value of a subject-specific approach to plagiarism prevention education. There is, however, a complete lack of resources and guidance for librarians and instructors who want to adopt this approach in their teaching. This book opens with a brief overview of plagiarism today, followed by arguments in favour of a subject-based approach. The rest of the bo
Andrea L. Wirtz
Full Text Available Abstract Background Violence against children (VAC remains a global problem. The health sector has an opportunity and responsibility to be part of the multi-sector collaboration to prevent and respond to VAC. This review aimed to assess the health sector’s response to VAC among Latin American & Caribbean (LAC countries, particularly as it relates to physical violence, sexual violence, and neglect. Method National protocols for the identification and provision of health care to child survivors of violence, abuse and neglect were solicited in partnership with UNICEF and PAHO/WHO country offices within the LAC region. A parallel systematic review was undertaken in January 2015 to review studies published in the last 10 years that describe the regional health sector response to VAC. Results We obtained health sectors guidelines/protocols related to VAC from 22 of 43 (51 % countries and reviewed 97 published articles/reports that met the review inclusion criteria. Country protocols were presented in Spanish (n = 12, Portuguese (n = 1, and English (n = 9. Thematic areas of country protocols included: 1 identifying signs and symptoms of VAC, 2 providing patient-centered care to the victim, and 3 immediate treatment of injuries related to VAC. The systematic review revealed that health professionals are often unaware of national protocols and lack training, resources, and support to respond to cases of VAC. Further, there is limited coordination between health and social protection services. Conclusions VAC remains an international, public health priority. Health professionals are well-positioned to identify, treat and refer cases of VAC to appropriate institutions and community-based partners. However, poor protocol dissemination and training, limited infrastructure, and inadequate human resources challenge adherence to VAC guidelines.
Full Text Available Background: Training medical students in tobacco prevention and cessation skills is critical to have competent physicians who are prepared to address the grave levels of morbidity and mortality associated with tobacco use. However, in India, enough attention has not been given to elicit the active participation of physicians in tobacco control. Keeping this in view, a program was undertaken to develop the skills and competence of medical students with the objective of improving medical student inquiry into smoking and the delivery of advice accordingly for patients in their clinical year′s routine consultations. Methods: The targeted learners were 149 1 st -year medical and dental students of SCB Medical College, Cuttack, Orissa, India, who had appeared the second semester examination; 84 of the participants were male. Students were allowed to appear a test before the training session on knowledge of tobacco cessation and post test was done after 1.5 months of training. The knowledge score was evaluated to evaluate the learning outcome. Results: We observed that a curriculum on tobacco intervention could improve relevant knowledge, attitudes and self-confidence and be applied in students early clinical experiences. Conclusions: There is need of joint action by practicing clinicians, the medical faculty and the curriculum planners of the country to incorporate tobacco cessation into the curriculum.
Hewitt, Caroline; Cappiello, Joyce
To identify the essential competencies for prevention and care related to unintended pregnancy to develop program outcomes for nursing curricula. Modified Delphi study. National. Eighty-five nurse experts, including academic faculty and advanced practice nurses providing sexual and reproductive health care in primary or specialty care settings. Expert panelists completed a three-round Delphi study using an electronic survey. Eighty-five panelists completed the first round survey, and 72 panelists completed all three rounds. Twenty-seven items achieved consensus of at least 75% of the experts by the third round to comprise the educational competencies. Through an iterative process, experts in prevention and care related to unintended pregnancy reached consensus on 27 core educational competencies for nursing education. The competencies provide a framework for curricular development in an important area of nursing education. © 2015 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.
... section 110(d)(4) of the Act, with respect to Algeria, the Central African Republic, Guinea-Bissau, Kuwait... governance, education, agriculture and food security, poverty reduction, livelihoods, family planning, and... prevention efforts through education and awareness campaigns highlighting the dangers of trafficking or...
... the Act, with respect to Algeria, the Central African Republic, Kuwait, Libya, Papua New Guinea, Saudi... programs to support the promotion of health, good governance, education, agriculture and food security... prevention efforts through education and awareness campaigns highlighting the dangers of trafficking or...
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Santos, Zélia Maria de Sousa Araújo; Caetano, Joselany Afio; Moreira, Francisco Getúlio Alves
This participatory research aimed to evaluate behavioral changes in fifteen parents of pre-school children to prevent the risk factors of arterial hypertension, by applying education technology for health that is based on the Health Beliefs Model at a private school in Fortaleza, State of Ceará, Brazil. The field research was carried out through educational workshops and data collection through questionnaires and interviews. After organizing the data into categories, analysis was based on the premises of health education. Through the application of education technology for health, significant changes were observed in the parents' habits, besides the roles they assumed as agents of change and multipliers of educational actions in the family. Although difficulties arose in the process of change, the parents were motivated to prevent the risk factors of arterial hypertension in themselves and their children. Thus, education technology for health based on the Health Beliefs Model proved to be efficient, as significant behavioral changes occurred and the parents were motivated to prevent arterial hypertension by means of a healthy lifestyle.
Isaacson, R S; Haynes, N; Seifan, A; Larsen, D; Christiansen, S; Berger, J C; Safdieh, J E; Lunde, A M; Luo, A; Kramps, M; McInnis, M; Ochner, C N
Internet-based educational interventions may be useful for impacting knowledge and behavioral change. However, in AD prevention, little data exists about which educational tools work best in terms of learning and interest in participating in clinical trials. Primary: Assess effectiveness of interactive webinars vs. written blog-posts on AD prevention learning. Secondary: Evaluate the effect of AD prevention education on interest in participating in clinical trials; Assess usability of, and user perceptions about, an online AD education research platform; Classify target populations (demographics, learning needs, interests). Observational. Online. Men/Women, aged 25+, recruited via facebook.com. Alzheimer's Universe (www.AlzU.org) education research platform. Pre/post-test performance, self-reported Likert-scale ratings, completion rates. Over two-weeks, 4268 visits were generated. 503 signed-up for a user account (11.8% join rate), 196 participated in the lessons (39.0%) and 100 completed all beta-testing steps (19.9%). Users randomized to webinar instruction about AD prevention and the stages of AD demonstrated significant increases (p=0.01) in pre vs. post-testing scores compared to blog-post intervention. Upon joining, 42% were interested in participating in a clinical trial in AD prevention. After completing all beta-test activities, interest increased to 86%. Users were primarily women and the largest category was children of AD patients. 66.3% joined to learn more about AD prevention, 65.3% to learn more about AD treatment. Webinar-based education led to significant improvements in learning about AD prevention and the stages of AD. AlzU.org participation more than doubled interest in AD prevention clinical trial participation. Subjects were quickly and cost-effectively recruited, and highly satisfied with the AD education research platform. Based on these data, we will further refine AlzU.org prior to public launch and aim to study the effectiveness of 25
Cooke, Natalie K; Ash, Sarah L; Goodell, L Suzanne
Medical schools are challenged to incorporate more prevention-based education into curricula, offering an opportunity to revisit approaches to nutrition education. The objective of this study was to explore United States (US) medical students' understanding of childhood obesity, specifically barriers to childhood obesity prevention and treatment and students' perceived educational deficits. The research team conducted phone interviews with 78 3rd- and 4th-year medical students, representing 25 different medical schools across the US. Using a semi-structured interview guide, researchers asked students to describe the etiology of childhood obesity and reflect on where they acquired knowledge of the etiology and what additional resources they would need to treat obese children. Using a phenomenological approach to analysis, researchers identified five dominant emergent themes. Student-perceived barriers to childhood obesity prevention and treatment in clinical care included student-centered (e.g., lack of knowledge), patient-centered (e.g., lack of access), and healthcare system-centered barriers (e.g., limited time). Students requested more applicable nutrition information and counseling skills relevant to preventing and treating childhood obesity; however, they tended to identify others (e.g., parents, schools), rather than themselves, when asked to describe how childhood obesity should be prevented or treated. To provide students with an understanding of their role in preventing and treating childhood obesity, US medical schools need to provide students with childhood obesity-specific and general nutrition education. To build their self-efficacy in nutrition counseling, schools can use a combination of observation and practice led by skilled physicians and other healthcare providers. Increasing students' self-efficacy through training may help them overcome perceived barriers to childhood obesity prevention and treatment.
Finley, Cara; Suellentrop, Katherine; Griesse, Rebecca; House, Lawrence Duane; Brittain, Anna
Teen pregnancies and births continue to decline due in part to implementation of evidence-based interventions and clinical strategies. While local stakeholder education is also thought to be critical to this success, little is known about what types of strategies work best to engage stakeholders. With the goal of identifying and describing evidence-based or best practice strategies for stakeholder education in community-based public health initiatives, we conducted a systematic literature review of strategies used for effective stakeholder education. Over 400 articles were initially retrieved; 59 articles met inclusion criteria. Strategies were grouped into four steps that communities can use to support stakeholder education efforts: identify stakeholder needs and resources, develop a plan, develop tailored and compelling messaging, and use implementation strategies. These strategies lay a framework for high-quality stakeholder education. In future research, it is important to prioritize evaluating specific activities taken to raise awareness, educate, and engage a community in community-wide public health efforts.
Suicide is a significant issue facing higher education institutions. Many campuses are involved in a variety of procedures, programs, and initiatives that seek to reduce or prevent suicide and the impact of suicide-related behavior. This article offers examples of campus prevention efforts, important resources on suicide prevention for college…
Scorzelli, J F
It is a common belief that a massive effort in law enforcement, preventive education and rehabilitation will result in the elimination of a country's drug problem. Based on this premise. Malaysia in 1983 implemented such a multifaceted anti-drug strategy, and the results of a 1987 study by the author suggested that Malaysia's effort had begun to contribute to a steady decrease in the number of identified drug abusers. Although the number of drug-addicted individuals declined, the country's recidivism rates were still high. Because of this high relapse rate, Malaysia expanded their rehabilitation effort and developed a community transition program. In order to determine the impact of these changes on the country's battle against drug abuse, a follow-up study was conducted in 1990. The results of this study did not clearly demonstrate that the Malaysian effort had been successful in eliminating the problem of drug abuse, and raised some questions concerning the effectiveness of the country's drug treatment programs.
Kirsch, Breanne A.; Bradley, Lola
At the University of South Carolina Upstate, two librarians created a series of workshops to proactively prevent plagiarism. To reach distance education students, online workshops were developed in Blackboard including basic and advanced workshops for lower and upper-level courses. The workshops are intended to introduce students to the concepts…
Berg, Dianne R.; Lonsway, Kimberly A.; Fitzgerald, Louise F.
Fifty-four male undergraduates participated in a rape prevention education program in which the experimental group listened to an audiotape of a man versus a woman describing the experience of being raped. Two weeks later, the students who heard the female tape reported more likelihood to engage in rape-supportive behaviors but no difference in…
This rule adopts the interim rule implementing the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) nutrition education and obesity prevention grant program with changes as provided in this rule. This rule also amends SNAP regulations to implement section 28 of the Food and Nutrition Act (FNA) of 2008, as added by section 241 of the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act (HHFKA) of 2010, to award grants to States for provision of nutrition education and obesity prevention programs. These programs provide services for eligible individuals that promote healthy food choices consistent with the current Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGAs). The rule provides State agencies with requirements for implementing section 28, including the grant award process and describes the process for allocating the Federal grant funding for each State's approved SNAP-Ed plan authorized under the FNA to carry out nutrition education and obesity prevention services each fiscal year. This final rule also implements section 4028 of the Agricultural Act of 2014 (Farm Bill of 2014), which authorizes physical activity promotion in addition to promotion of healthy food choices as part of this nutrition education and obesity prevention program.
Eck, Kaitlyn; Alleman, Gayle Povis; Quick, Virginia; Martin-Biggers, Jennifer; Hongu, Nobuko; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol
Community family educators have the opportunity to incorporate childhood obesity prevention concepts in their programming with families of young children, but often lack formal health and nutrition education. The purpose of this feasibility study was to create an online training certificate program for community family educators and assess the program's effectiveness at improving participant's knowledge, attitudes, and intended and actual behaviors related to healthy lifestyles. Community family educators (n = 68) completed an online pretest, viewed 13 brief videos (8-15 min) focused on childhood obesity related topics and took mini-knowledge self-checks after each video followed by an online posttest. At posttest, paired t tests showed participants' childhood obesity prevention related knowledge (i.e., nutrition, physical activity, screen time and sleep) improved significantly (p obesity prevention behaviors (i.e., age appropriate portions sizes, adequate physically active, and parental role modeling). Furthermore, changes in personal health behaviors at posttest revealed participants had significantly (p obesity-prevention related parenting practices.
Kocken, P.L.; Scholten, A.M.; Westhoff, P.; Kok, B.P. De; Taal, E.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.
The effectiveness of the "Extra Fit!" (EF!) education program in promoting healthy diet and physical activity to prevent and reduce overweightness among primary school children aged 9 to 11 was evaluated. A randomized controlled design was carried out in 45 primary schools (n = 1112) in the
Kocken, P.L.; Scholten, A.M.; Westhoff,E.; Kok, B.P.H.; Taal, E.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.
The effectiveness of the “Extra Fit!” (EF!) education program in promoting healthy diet and physical activity to prevent and reduce overweightness among primary school children aged 9 to 11 was evaluated. A randomized controlled design was carried out in 45 primary schools (n = 1112) in the
Moilanen, Donna L.; Bradbury, Susan
Examined a collaboration between health education and psychological services in generating a high school depression and suicide prevention program. The five-component program raised awareness of teen depression and suicide, increased communication about these issues within the school and community, and provided information about available…
Athletes can be involved as role models and leaders--in collaboration with coaches and other staff--to enhance life skills and prevent substance use among their peers. "Drugs in Sport" is a peer education program involving collegiate athletes visiting middle schools to speak with school children. This article discusses the structure of the Drugs…
Rhodes, Darson L.; Jozkowski, Kristen N.; Hammig, Bart J.; Ogletree, Roberta J.; Fogarty, Erin C.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine if education about human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted disease (STD) and pregnancy prevention is dependent on professional preparation and/or class structure. Design: A secondary data analysis of the 2006 School Health Policies and Programmes Study (SHPPS) was conducted.…
Valencia Community Coll., Orlando, FL.
This curriculum module, one of seven developed by the "Infusion Project," offers information and lessons on drug use prevention for integration into an existing seventh-grade exceptional education middle school curriculum for social skills, mathematics, science and language arts. The module, based on a type of interactive learning called…
Fellmeth, Gracia; Heffernan, Catherine; Nurse, Joanna; Habibula, Shakiba; Sethi, Dinesh
Objectives: To assess the efficacy of educational and skills-based interventions to prevent relationship and dating violence in adolescents and young adults. Methods: We searched Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and other databases for randomized, cluster-randomized, and quasi-randomized…
Berman, Barbara A.; Guthmann, Debra S.; Liu, Weiqing; Streja, Leanne
We report results of a survey of tobacco education practices and perspectives among faculty at four Schools for the Deaf participating in the trial of a tailored tobacco prevention curriculum. Few faculty (20.4%) included tobacco use among the three most important health problems facing their students, although 88.8% considered tobacco education…
Lowe, John; Aquilino, Mary; Abramsohn, Erin
Objectives: Comprehensive training in the area of tobacco control and prevention has not been available to public health students receiving professional degrees. This study describes findings of a project designed to develop and evaluate an integrated approach to the education of Masters of Public Health (MPH) students at the University of Iowa…
Morris, Heather; Skouteris, Helen; Edwards, Susan; Rutherford, Leonie
Partnering early childhood education and care (ECEC) and the home together may be more effective in combating obesogenic risk factors in preschool children. Thus, an evaluation of ECEC obesity prevention interventions with a parental component was conducted, exploring parental engagement and its effect on obesity and healthy lifestyle outcomes. A…
Wyrick, David L.; Fearnow-Kenney, Melodie; Wyrick, Cheryl Haworth; Orsini, Muhsin Michael; Strack, Robert W.; Milroy, Jeffrey J.
The purpose of this project was to develop a technology that can be used in schools where there are insufficient resources to implement a quality drug prevention program. The specific technology--distance education via teleconferencing--allows a highly qualified teacher to deliver programs in such settings with increased quality. A promising high…
Midford, Richard; Cahill, Helen; Ramsden, Robyn; Davenport, Gillian; Venning, Lynne; Lester, Leanne; Murphy, Bernadette; Pose, Michelle
Aim: This pilot study investigated what alcohol prevention benefits could be achieved by a harm reduction focused school drug education intervention that addressed all drug use, both licit and illicit. Method: The study population comprised a cohort of 225 students in three intervention secondary schools and 93 students in a matched control school…
Objective: This study was aimed at assessing the knowledge, opinion and practices of Nigerian primary and secondary school teachers on HIV/AIDS education. Method: A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data on demography, knowledge of HIV transmission and prevention, training on HIV transmission ...
Trout, Muffet; Basford, Letitia
This article explores the practice of one teacher educator to understand how she mitigates student resistance to prevent what we call "the shut-down" when teaching mostly White students about systemic forms of oppression. Engaging students in conversations about oppression does not in itself disrupt systems of power and privilege in…
Nguyen, Vu H.; Wang, Ze; Waigandt, Alexander C.
Background: Osteoporosis prevention education interventions have been found to be ineffective. Purpose: To determine the effectiveness of a developed intervention based on the health belief model, which emphasized its visible severity and proximal time of onset. Method: A sample of 109 college women were randomly assigned to either a treatment or…
Zander, Mark F; Voltmer, Edgar; Spahn, Claudia
Music-related symptoms can already be found among student musicians during their years of university training. The goals of the present study were to ascertain the state and developmental course of the student musicians' health and to test the effectiveness of a preventive curriculum given to student musicians during their first two semesters at university. Within a longitudinal, observational study, we assessed students' psychological and physical health during the first 2 years of university training. We compared data from the group of students who had followed the prevention program (intervention group, IG, n = 144) with data of a comparison group (CG, n = 103) of students who had not followed the program. Using standardized questionnaires, we measured physical and psychological symptoms as well as health behavior in a sequential plan (duration, 3.5 yrs). Student musicians (n = 247) showed elevated ratings in psychological and physical health in comparison with nonmusicians of the same age. These ratings decreased at the end of the students' second year. The prevention program had a preventive effect on the students' psychological health: while IG students remained stable in their performance and powers of concentration, CG students got worse in those same areas. However, the prevention program did not reduce physical symptoms. In comparison with their younger colleagues, upper-level students took more courses in body-oriented methods, relaxation, and mental techniques, which focus on preventive measures for musicians. At present, the study offers evidence supporting the use of the prevention curriculum for young musicians. In higher music education, preventive education has a positive impact on students' performance and their attitude toward health. The preventive curriculum does not have an effect on preexisting physical symptoms, and those symptoms related to the students musicians' activity should rather be treated in an additional therapeutic setting.
Pitini, E; Russo, M L; Civitelli, G; Pizzini, E; Marceca, M; Di Foggia, F; Marceca Iascone, M
In Italy recent statistics show a huge difference between abortion rate among Italian and migrant women: is it an inequity in health? The Italian Ministry of Health / Center for Disease Prevention and Control, which recognized this issue as a specific public health problem, has financed a national Project whose aim was the prevention of abortion among migrant women. The Project was characterized by a multitasking approach: 1) information and health education of migrant women and their communities; 2) education of health and social care professionals; 3) analysis and development of new proposals for the networks of services directed towards the improvement of woman's health. In this article the Authors describe the main characteristics of the realized intervention of inter-professional education. It began with a multidisciplinary process for the identification of educational needs which has allowed the identification of educational goals. A Training of Trainers event was then organized in order to involve and make the ten Italian Regions partners of the Project aware of their responsibilities. A DVD collecting all the material of the course and other useful resources was produced in order to support the educational process. At the moment it is not possible to evaluate the medium- and long-time results of the process (e.g. the efficacy of educational interventions or the health outcomes related to the reduction of abortion among migrant women). Nevertheless all the actors involved have made positive evaluations on the usefulness of the process.
Halken, S; Høst, A
, breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....
Cheng, Kimhaung; Fucharoen, Supan; Sanchaisuriya, Kanokwan; Fucharoen, Goonnapa; Sanchaisuriya, Pattara; Jetsrisuparb, Arunee
Severe thalassemia diseases are a major health problem in Southeast Asia. In Cambodia, there has never been a significant program for prevention or control of severe thalassemia. We, therefore, studied the effect of a health education program on severe thalassemia prevention and control in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. A quasi-experimental study in several communities around Phnom Penh was done. The respective intervention and control group comprised 124 and 117 people, between 18 and 40 years of age, male and female. Pre- and post-tests using a validated and reliable questionnaire were performed in the intervention group and one test was done in the control group. A health education program was organized to give important information to the intervention group and, at the end of the process, to the control group. The outcomes were evaluations of their knowledge and attitude vis-à-vis severe thalassemia prevention and control, and participating in thalassemia screening. Among participants in the intervention group, 105 (84.7%) considered undergoing blood screening vs. 65 (55.6%) in the control group ( p -value < 0.001). In the intervention group, the respective mean scores for knowledge and attitude to a prevention and control program for severe thalassemia before and after health education were 2.6 VS 6.5 ( p -value < 0.001) and 4.6 VS 6.5 ( p -value < 0.001). The intention to undergo screening was significantly higher in the intervention group than the control group. Knowledge and attitude towards prevention and control of severe thalassemia was significantly improved in the intervention group. Health education clearly heightens awareness and improves consideration of screening for prevention and control of severe thalassemia.
Full Text Available Background: Prevalence rates in breast cancer have now reached epidemic levels. One of the main reasons behind onset of breast cancer is poor preventive beliefs and behavior of women towards cancer prevention. We examined the effectiveness of health education intervention in two communities of South Greece.Objective: The study investigates the effectiveness of a brief health education intervention on women’s beliefs and behaviour changes concerning breast cancer prevention.Methodology: A 90-minute, one-off encounter, health education study was designed for 300 women from Peloponissos, South Greece. A Health Belief Model questionnaire, was used before the intervention, immediately after and 6-months after the intervention.Results: Despite certain perception-related barriers (embarrassment, anxiety, ect women’s overall beliefs towards breast cancer prevention (perceived susceptibility, perceived benefits and perceived barriers changed positively after the health education intervention and this change was sustained at 6-month follow up. However, specific barriers (embarrassment, fear of pain, anxiety when anticipating tests’ results were not maintained at the same level of post-intervention during the same follow up. During the follow up period, women performed breast self-examination every month (73% and 55.10% had breast examination by a clinician and underwent a mammography.Conclusions: Short, low cost, health education interventions for breast cancer prevention to women can be effective in changing beliefs and behaviour. Tailored interventions are necessary to overcome relapsing of specific barriers. Emphasis should be given on the importance of doctor/nurse role in breast screening.
Reavley, Nicola; Jorm, Anthony F
The age at which most young people are in higher education is also the age of peak onset for mental and substance use disorders, with these having their first onset before age 24 in 75% of cases. In most developed countries, over 50% of young people are in higher education. To review the evidence for prevention and early intervention in mental health problems in higher education students. The review was limited to interventions targeted to anxiety, depression and alcohol misuse. Interventions to review were identified by searching PubMed, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Interventions were included if they were designed to specifically prevent or intervene early in the general (non-health professional) higher education student population, in one or more of the following areas: anxiety, depression or alcohol misuse symptoms, mental health literacy, stigma and one or more behavioural outcomes. For interventions to prevent or intervene early for alcohol misuse, evidence of effectiveness is strongest for brief motivational interventions and for personalized normative interventions delivered using computers or in individual face-to-face sessions. Few interventions to prevent or intervene early with depression or anxiety were identified. These were mostly face-to-face, cognitive-behavioural/skill-based interventions. One social marketing intervention to raise awareness of depression and treatments showed some evidence of effectiveness. There is very limited evidence that interventions are effective in preventing or intervening early with depression and anxiety disorders in higher education students. Further studies, possibly involving interventions that have shown promise in other populations, are needed.
Haughtigan, Kara; Main, Eve; Bragg-Underwood, Tonya; Watkins, Cecilia
Cosmetologists frequently develop occupational skin disease related to workplace exposures. The purpose of this study was to evaluate an educational intervention to increase cosmetology students' occupational skin disease knowledge and use of preventive practices. A quasi-experimental design was used to evaluate students' knowledge, behaviors, intentions, expectancies, and expectations. A 20-minute verbal presentation and printed two-page educational handout were provided for participants. Statistically significant increases in knowledge, frequency of glove use, and frequency of moisturizer use were found, but the frequency of handwashing did not increase. In addition, the Behavioral Strategies subscale, the Intention subscale, and the Expectancies subscale showed statistically significant improvements. The results of this study suggest an educational intervention can increase cosmetology students' knowledge of occupational skin diseases and their use of preventive strategies.
Full Text Available Suicide is a major public health problem in India, probably even bigger than in the West. Suicidal behavior is the best conceptualized as a multifaceted complex problem involving social factors and mental illnesses. Broadly, there are two approaches to suicide prevention; population preventive strategies and high-risk preventive strategies. Population preventive strategies include reducing availability of means for suicide, education of primary care physicians, influencing media portrayal of suicidal behavior, education of the public, telephone helplines, and addressing economic issues associated with suicidal behavior. High-risk preventive strategy includes identifying individuals with high risk of committing suicide, intensively treating mental illness if present, and providing psychosocial support. Thus, prevention requires a multipronged effort with collaboration from various sectors including mental health professionals, social justice department, and macroeconomic policy makers.
Chatterji, A; Sehgal, K
The Indian Health Organisation (IHO) is a nongovernmental organization based in Bombay with more than 12 years experience in HIV/AIDS prevention and control efforts. It has attacked ignorance and prejudice via communication efforts. IHO has created a bond with some hospital systems of Bombay. IHO disseminated information about HIV/AIDS in Bombay's red light districts and has bridged the gap between the city's medical establishment and the community most in need. IHO's aggressive street-level fighting in a sector replete with sensitive issues has somewhat isolated it from mainstream national NGOs involved in HIV/AIDS education and control as well as from the medical establishment and potential partners. IHO funds have been reduced, forcing IHO to reduce intervention programs and responses to field demands. It suffers from a high rate of turnover among middle management staff. IHO's chief advantage is its confidence gained over the past 12 years. IHO has clearly delineated the direction it wants to go: care and support programs for persons affected by HIV/AIDS and for commercial sex workers to allow them to quit prostitution, orphan care, and development of training institutions for the education and motivation of medical personnel on HIV/AIDS care and prevention. It plans to build a hospice for AIDS patients and orphans and a training center. Training activities will vary from one-week orientation programs to three-month certificate courses for medical workers, NGOs, and managers from the commercial sector. IHO is prepared to share its experiences in combating HIV/AIDS in Bombay in a team effort. As official and bilateral funding has been decreasing, IHO has targeted industry for funding. Industry has responded, which enables IHO to sustain its core programs and approaches. IHO observations show a decrease in the number of men visiting red-light districts. IHO enjoys a positive relationship with Bombay's media reporting on AIDS.
Tolli, M. V.
Peer education remains a popular strategy for health promotion and prevention, but evidence of its effectiveness is still limited. This article presents a systematic review of peer education interventions in the European Union that were published between January 1999 and May 2010. The objective of the review is to determine the effectiveness of…
Yoshiike, Nobuo; Iwabe, Maiko; Yoshioka, Yoshiko
Educational interventions for obesity prevention from early childhood is one of the important measures in health promotion policies, especially in locations where obesity and overweight in school and preschool children are prevalent, such as in the Aomori Prefecture. The Aomori Prefecture government started a new demonstration project in FY 2014 that targeted children in nursing schools for the prevention of obesity through both population approaches (nutrition/physical activity education and nutrition management in lunch programs) and individual approaches to solving overweight in children. Our study group developed a data management tool to routinely accumulate data on measured body height and weight. We also developed educational materials with growth charts for nutritional education of guardians, and summary sheets showing the distributions of degree of obesity and prevalence of overweight/obesity in age-sex groups for use in assessment in each nursing school. To promote and evaluate the demonstration project, we offered the data management tool to all nursing schools in the prefecture for nutritional education and management in the nursing schools and asked them to anonymously submit data to build a prefecture-based monitoring dataset. Around 70% (310 institutes) of the institutes responded to this request, and we developed a longitudinal dataset with about 4,000 children in each of the 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old cohorts. This first revealed the prevalence of overweight in preschool children in the entire prefecture. The dataset will be further utilized for evaluating the effectiveness of educational interventions in preschool settings in local communities.
Temkin, Deborah; Horton, Susannah; Kim, Audrey
The Robert F. Kennedy Center for Justice and Human Rights' bullying prevention initiative, RFK Project SEATBELT (RFKC) was contracted by the DC Office of Human Rights (OHR), in June 2013, to provide resources and support for DC public and public charter schools' bullying prevention efforts. This contract moved to Child Trends in August 2014. From…
Samuels, Christina A.
The number of sports-related concussions reported by young athletes is on the rise, prompting awareness campaigns from athletic and medical groups, as well as proposed federal legislation to set minimum standards for concussion management in public schools. Concussions are caused by a jolt to the body or a blow to the head that causes the head to…
Heng, Kenneth W J; Vasu, Alicia
Newspaper media advocacy can help steer public attention away from motor vehicle crash (MVC) injuries as a personal problem to that of a social and public health issue. If used properly, newspaper media is potentially a powerful mass educator on MVC prevention. However, there is often a conflict of interest in which newspapers, in an attempt to boost readership and revenue, may over-emphasize and sensationalize the human-interest aspect of an MVC story. The aim of this study is to examine newspaper articles of MVCs in Singapore to assess how our newspaper media coverage portray MVCs and identify factors that mitigate injury and educate the public on injury prevention measures. Details of the MVC were extracted from 12 months of newspaper coverage in Singapore. Two independent coders were used to establish inter-rater reliability. From 1 January to 31 December 2007, 201 articles about MVCs were published. About 74.1% of articles assigned blame to a particular road user, negligence on either road user was implied in 56.7% of articles, and road safety messages were mentioned in 8% of the articles. The mainstream communication tone used was positive for law enforcement (71.1%) and neutral towards injury prevention or road safety messages (89.1%). Newspaper media reporting of MVCs in Singapore generally does not include injury prevention messages or highlight injury-mitigating measures. This is a lost opportunity for public education. Collaboration between public health practitioners and newspaper media is required to address this issue.
Ding, Xiaojie; Zhao, Liping; Chu, Haiyan; Tong, Na; Ni, Chunhui; Hu, Zhibin; Zhang, Zhengdong; Wang, Meilin
Problem-based learning (PBL) is defined as a student-centered pedagogy which can provide learners more opportunities for application of knowledge acquired from basic science to the working situations than traditional lecture-based learning (LBL) method. In China, PBL is increasingly popular among preventive medicine educators, and multiple studies have investigated the effectiveness of PBL pedagogy in preventive medicine education. A pooled analysis based on 15 studies was performed to obtain an overall estimate of the effectiveness of PBL on learning outcomes of preventive medicine. Overall, PBL was associated with a significant increase in students' theoretical examination scores (SMD = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.41-0.83) than LBL. For the attitude- and skill-based outcomes, the pooled PBL effects were also significant among learning attitude (OR = 3.62, 95% CI = 2.40-5.16), problem solved skill (OR = 4.80, 95% CI = 2.01-11.46), self-directed learning skill (OR = 5.81, 95% CI = 3.11-10.85), and collaborative skill (OR = 4.21, 95% CI = 0.96-18.45). Sensitivity analysis showed that the exclusion of a single study did not influence the estimation. Our results suggest that PBL of preventive medicine education in China appears to be more effective than LBL in improving knowledge, attitude and skills.
Woźniak-Holecka, Joanna; Sobczyk, Karolina
Osteoporosis affects millions of people in the whole world and brings about far-reaching physical and psycho-social consequences for patients and financial ones for the health care system, and therefore it is classified as one of public health problems and treated as a social disease. Women belong to the increased osteoporosis illness risk group due to lower top bone mass reached earlier in life as compared to men and due to hormonal changes occurring in the menopausal period, which affect loss of the bone mineral density (BMD). Limitation of the osteoporosis-related financial and social costs increase requires efficient preventive actions on the level of early, primary, secondary or tertiary prevention. At all the four osteoporosis prevention phases, the crucial role is played by health education and nutrition education, the latter being the key element of the former one. The nutritional education purpose is to acquaint patients with nutrition recommendations that are the basic element of the osteoporosis prevention and to make them change their nutrition habits, which will improve their osseous metabolism. The education should be based on results of the latest scientific researches and focus on recommendations relating to proper supplementing of calcium and vitamin D, simultaneously including all the other nutrition components, necessary to decrease the osteoporosis risk. The primary prevention oriented to a specific group at risk for osteoporosis, including peri- or postmenopausal women, should be provided in cooperation with the different levels' medical professionals and it should focus on causing positive changes in patients both as regards nutrition habits and physical activities.
Full Text Available Osteoporosis affects millions of people in the whole world and brings about far-reaching physical and psycho-social consequences for patients and financial ones for the health care system, and therefore it is classified as one of public health problems and treated as a social disease. Women belong to the increased osteoporosis illness risk group due to lower top bone mass reached earlier in life as compared to men and due to hormonal changes occurring in the menopausal period, which affect loss of the bone mineral density (BMD. Limitation of the osteoporosis-related financial and social costs increase requires efficient preventive actions on the level of early, primary, secondary or tertiary prevention. At all the four osteoporosis prevention phases, the crucial role is played by health education and nutrition education, the latter being the key element of the former one. The nutritional education purpose is to acquaint patients with nutrition recommendations that are the basic element of the osteoporosis prevention and to make them change their nutrition habits, which will improve their osseous metabolism. The education should be based on results of the latest scientific researches and focus on recommendations relating to proper supplementing of calcium and vitamin D, simultaneously including all the other nutrition components, necessary to decrease the osteoporosis risk. The primary prevention oriented to a specific group at risk for osteoporosis, including peri- or postmenopausal women, should be provided in cooperation with the different levels’ medical professionals and it should focus on causing positive changes in patients both as regards nutrition habits and physical activities.
Matsumoto, I.; LI, W.
Field learning in through elementary school to University is very important for cultivation of science, environment and disaster prevention literacy. In Japan, we have various natural disasters such as earthquakes and volcanoes based on its geological settings ( Island-arc with subduction zone settings). And, it is a challenge environmental problem such as global warming prevention and energy problem to be solved by a human. For the above problem solving, it said that science education plays very important role. Especially learning with direct experience in the field is not only to get the only knowledge, we believe that greater development of science literacy, environmental literacy and disaster prevention literacy. In this presentation, we propose the new teaching method of field learning not only provided by school but also provided by outside school. We show following four studies that are (1) function of running water and origin of the land (science education and disaster prevention), (2) environmental consciousness of student (environmental education), (3) radiation education (scientific technology and its utilization) and (4) astronomical observation (acquisition of time and space concept). We were led to the preliminary conclusion of above four categories in practice research in and out of school. That is, the teacher is teaching the essence and phenomena of science to focus on science learning of school, in addition to environmental awareness, disaster prevention awareness, use of scientific technology are also important to teach at the same time. To do this, it is to make effective use of field learning. It can be said that the field study is a perfect and power place to perform learning such simultaneity. Because, natural field is originally the place can learn along with the feeling through the five senses of human. It is important especially for the growth stage of the student.
Stansbury, Sydney Lynn
Compared with majority students, underrepresented minorities have demonstrated weaker undergraduate science performance. Previous research has attributed the weaker performance to socioeconomic factors that influence poorer precollege preparation. Studies also have found that, compared with majority students, underrepresented minorities are less confident about their science skills and more interested in extrinsic rewards of science careers. Social Cognitive Theory posits that low self-efficacy coupled with high extrinsic goal orientation diminishes cognitive engagement, resulting in weak performance. Applying motivational characteristics of underrepresented minority students to a Social Cognitive Model may explain why their performance is weaker than that of Caucasians. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the degree to which motivation variables account for the difference between underrepresented minority and majority students' undergraduate science performance. The study was conducted at a large, predominantly Caucasian, private university located in an urban setting in the Southwest. Two hundred twenty-two students--154 Caucasians and 68 Latinos--enrolled in a general chemistry course participated. Students were administered the Motivation for Learning Questionnaire, designed specifically for this study, consisting of scales measuring the following variables: ethnicity, level of parental education, and effort exertion; self-efficacy, effort regulation, intrinsic goal orientation, and extrinsic goal orientation, measures from the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (Pintrich, Smith, Garcia, & McKeachie, 1991); and ability orientation, a measure from the Patterns of Adaptive Learning Survey (Midgley, Maehr, & Urdan, 1995). Financial aid information, chemistry and math placement test scores, and chemistry grades were obtained from other on-campus departments. Results demonstrated that the hypotheses were only partially confirmed by the
Kuchma, V R; Sokolova, S B; Rapoport, I K; Makarova, A Yu
Prevention measures are relevant for children and adolescents as among them there is the high prevalence of leading risk factors for chronic diseases. For the improvement of the preventive work it is necessary the introduction of amendments into the legislative documents and orders of the Ministry of Health, governing health care for children and adolescents in educational organizations. The consistent methodology for primary health care must be provided with the appropriate protocols. It is necessary to perform the systematic work on the reduction of the prevalence of risk factors for children's health and a healthy lifestyle. The number of doctors and nurses in the preschool and educational institutions is insufficient, and in organizations of primary and secondary vocational education is disastrous. Medical personnel departments of medical assistance to students due to the excessive load is not capable to fufill all of their functional responsibilities. Due to the low wages there is a constant reduction of health workers in schools and kindergartens. In the paper there are proposed measures aimed at improving the quality of preventive work in educational organizations.
Montgomery, Catherine M; Mwengee, William; Kong'ong'o, Maurice; Pool, Robert
Acknowledging that mothers are often the primary caregivers at the household level, malaria control efforts have emphasized educating women in its early recognition. This fails to consider the context in which knowledge will be transformed into action, as women lack decision-making responsibility and financial resources. We examine the knowledge and power dynamics of provider-patient interactions and the implications for malaria treatment of educating mothers during consultations. We conducted in-depth interviews in Tanga, Tanzania, with 79 household participants over 2 years to explore knowledge and perceptions of febrile illness, its treatment and prevention. We also interviewed 55 clinicians at government and private healthcare facilities about their patients' knowledge and treatment-seeking behaviour. We analysed our data using a grounded theory approach. Informants had good knowledge of malaria aetiology, symptoms and treatment. Healthcare workers reported that mothers were able to give them sufficient information about their child for accurate diagnosis. However, health staff continued to see mothers who present 'late' as uneducated, intellectually incapable and lazy. Whilst evidence shows that decisions about treatment do not rest with mothers, but with male family members, it is women who continue to be blamed and targeted by health education. Aggressive didactic teaching methods used by health staff may be disempowering those already equipped with knowledge, yet unable to control treatment decisions within the household. This may lead to further delays in presentation at a healthcare facility. We propose a rethinking of health education that is context-sensitive, acknowledges class and gendered power relations, and targets men as well as women.
Rhina Cabezas Valencia
Full Text Available This article presents a general overview of the current situation of the phenomenon of childyouth violence in El Salvador. It describes some of the measures, both governmental and those deriving from international cooperation, that have been implemented to date, in order to seek a solution to the problem. The authors also explore more deeply the new trends in preventing the phenomenon. In this sense, the article is aimed at the prevention of violence through twospecific mechanisms: peace education and social cohesion. As the authors demonstrate, both mechanisms are potentially adaptable to the reality of El Salvador.
Metz, M J; Miller, C J; Lin, W S; Abdel-Azim, T; Zandinejad, A; Crim, G A
In today's dental school curricula, an increasing amount of time is dedicated to technological advances, and preventive dentistry topics may not be adequately addressed. Freshman (D1) students participated in a new Introduction to Preventive Dentistry course, which consisted of didactic lectures, active learning breakout sessions and case-based studies. The goal of this study was to determine if D1 dental students completing the course had a better knowledge and comfort level with basic preventive dentistry concepts and caries risk assessment than the upcoming graduating senior dental students. Following the completion of the course, D1 students were administered a survey that assessed their comfort level describing preventive dentistry topics to patients. This was immediately followed by an unannounced examination over the same topics. Senior (D4) students, who had not taken a formal course, reported statistically significant higher comfort levels than D1 students. However, the D4s scored significantly lower in all of the examination areas than the D1 students. Higher scores in D1s may have been due to recent exposure to the course material. However, the basic nature of the content-specific questions should be easily answered by novice practitioners educating their patients on oral disease prevention. As the current data shows lower content-specific scores of basic preventive dentistry knowledge amongst graduating D4 students, this may indicate a need for more guidance and education of students during the patient care. This study showed that implementation of a formalised course for D1 students can successfully ameliorate deficiencies in knowledge of preventive dentistry topics. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Hartnett, Erin; Krainovich-Miller, Barbara
Early childhood dental caries (dental cavities) is an infectious process. The development of oral problems during cancer care results in pain, fever, and delay in treatment. . The objective of this project was to integrate preventive oral care into pediatric oncology care. . This project consisted of an educational program for pediatric oncology providers who completed pre- and postprogram surveys assessing oral health knowledge, attitudes, and practice; attended an oral health education session; and performed oral assessment and fluoride varnish application on children during cancer treatment. . Three major outcomes resulted from this project.
Goldston, David B.; Walrath, Christine M.; McKeon, Richard; Puddy, Richard W.; Lubell, Keri M.; Potter, Lloyd B.; Rodi, Michael S.
In response to calls for greater efforts to reduce youth suicide, the Garrett Lee Smith (GLS) Memorial Act has provided funding for 68 state, territory, and tribal community grants, and 74 college campus grants for suicide prevention efforts. Suicide prevention activities supported by GLS grantees have included education, training programs…
Opsahl, Angela G; Ebright, Patricia; Cangany, Marty; Lowder, Melissa; Scott, Dawn; Shaner, Tamara
Nurses strive to reduce risk and ensure patient safety from falls in health care systems. Patients and their families are able to take a more active role in reducing falls. The focus of this article is on the use of bundled fall prevention interventions highlighted by a patient/family engagement educational video. The implementation of this quality improvement intervention across 2 different patient populations was successful in achieving unit benchmarks.
Marta Alfonso Nazco; Evaristo Reinoso Porra; Ana Consuelo Figueroa Carbonell
The article introduces a characterization of the educative prevention stage at the early professional formation process of educacionist in Sancti Spìritus province. The study is done by the indication analysis of assistant, learning, permanence and behavior at youths who course pedagogical carrers, and haven’t expressed a desire stage yet. The main shown results dealt with the assumption of the searching variables and its indicators, the construction of instruments and the definition of aspec...
Full Text Available 55 (2002) 331?345 Peer education, gender and the development of critical consciousness: participatory HIV prevention by South African youth Catherine Campbella,*, Catherine MacPhailb a Department of Social Psychology, London School of Economics... of empowerment, which believesthat people can be empowered at the individual level through methods such as assertiveness training courses. Others have been fiercely critical of the psychological reduction- ism inherent in this understanding of empowerment...
Jacobsen, Audrey A; Maisonet, Jezabel; Kirsner, Robert S; Strasswimmer, John
Incidence of skin cancer is rising in Hispanic populations and minorities often have more advanced disease and experience higher mortality rates. Community health worker (CHW) programs to promote primary and secondary prevention show promise for many diseases, but an adequate training program in skin cancer prevention is not documented. We present a model for CHW specialty certification in skin cancer prevention for underserved, Hispanic communities. We designed a culturally appropriate CHW training program according to an empowerment model of education for skin cancer prevention and detection in underserved Hispanic communities. We partnered with a large nonprofit clinic in South Florida. Nineteen CHWs completed the 2-h training course. After the course, 82.4% (n = 14) strongly agreed with the statement "I feel confident I can educate others on the warning signs of melanoma." Eighty-eight percent (88.2%, n = 15) strongly agreed that they felt confident that they could educate others on the importance of sun safety. One hundred percent (n = 19) answered each question about how the sun affects the skin correctly while 84.2% (n = 16) were able to identify the "ABCDEs" of melanoma. Nearly 90% strongly agreed with "I plan to change my personal sun safety behaviors based on what I learned today". Our results indicate successful transfer of information and empowerment to CHWs with high levels of confidence. Disease specific "specialty certifications" are a component of effective CHW policies. An appropriate training tool for skin cancer education is an important addition to a growing list of CHW specialty certifications. © 2017 The International Society of Dermatology.
Ostroff, Jared L; Wolff, Marissa L; Andros, Christina; Nemec, Eric C
The purpose of this article is to describe a service learning experience involving tobacco prevention education and to measure the education's effect on the learners' knowledge of tobacco products. Student pharmacists planned and presented a 40-min tobacco prevention education program using the Tar Wars curriculum to fourth and fifth grade students at three suburban elementary schools in Western Massachusetts. Mean scores on a five-question assessment given to school age children before and after the presentation were compared. A total of 206 elementary school students in ten classrooms participated. The average survey score increased from 1.87 on the pre-survey to 3.72 out of a maximum of five on the post-survey (Peducation to three suburban elementary schools. The children demonstrated an increase in short-term knowledge regarding tobacco use. Tobacco prevention is a unique co-curricular opportunity for student pharmacists to get involved in their community. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kahl-Nieke, Bärbel; Vonneilich, Nico
The Study of dentistry in Germany is in need of reform. The actual regulation on licensing dentists in Germany is from 1955, with the last changes made in 1993. Recently there have been different initiatives related to reform: a national catalogue of competency-based learning objectives in dental education (NKLZ), changes and stipulations in the respective rules relating to undergraduate curriculum in dental medicine, and an initiative of the Germany Ministry of Health to tackle and reorganize dental education in Germany.This article presents and reflects on these reform efforts in the context of actual teaching in Germany, Europe, and the United States.The reform process is an opportunity for dental education in German faculties of medicine. New dentistry programs are allowed at all faculties with model educational programs in medicine. Therefore, an example of actual reform efforts are presented based on the experiences of Hamburg. Research on dental educational programs revealed interesting approaches in dental education in other European faculties of medicine. Selected faculties were visited. These experiences led to the formulation of five main goals of reform: interdisciplinary study, problem- and symptom-based learning, early patient contact, science-based education, and communication training. The main goal is a dental education program designed along science-based, prevention-oriented, multidisciplinary, and individualized dental care that contributes to the life-long oral health of patients.
McRae, Martin; Hancock, Mark J
How important are different aspects of physiotherapy care to patients presenting to a primary care physiotherapist? Are patient factors (eg, age and gender) associated with how important different aspects of physiotherapy care are to individual patients? A cross-sectional survey with consecutive recruitment. A total of 500 adults aged≥18years who presented to a primary care physiotherapist. Participants were recruited from 10 private practices within the Sydney metropolitan area. Participants completed a survey assessing how important five aspects of physiotherapy care were in their initial decision to present to a primary care physiotherapist. These aspects were: diagnosis; information and education; treatment for pain relief; treatment to improve function; and prevention. The survey also collected characteristics of the patients and information about their presentation to the physiotherapist, to assess whether these factors were associated with the aspects of physiotherapy care that they considered most important. A total of 500 surveys were completed, with a response rate of 94%. All five aspects of physiotherapy care were considered either 'quite important' or 'extremely important' by most participants (diagnosis 65%; information and education 68%; pain relief 89%; improved function 93%; prevention 90%). Patient factors were associated with the participants' ratings of importance. Female participants and those with spinal pain more commonly rated pain relief as highly important. Participants with lower educational levels were more likely to rate diagnosis and information and education as important. This study demonstrated that most patients presenting to primary care physiotherapists value all aspects of physiotherapy care and do not simply want treatment for pain. Patient characteristics were associated with what individual patients considered the most important reason for presenting to a private primary care physiotherapist. [McRae M, Hancock MJ (2017
Halliday Katherine E
Full Text Available Abstract Background Improving the health of school-aged children can yield substantial benefits for cognitive development and educational achievement. However, there is limited experimental evidence on the benefits of school-based malaria prevention or how health interventions interact with other efforts to improve education quality. This study aims to evaluate the impact of school-based malaria prevention and enhanced literacy instruction on the health and educational achievement of school children in Kenya. Design A factorial, cluster randomised trial is being implemented in 101 government primary schools on the coast of Kenya. The interventions are (i intermittent screening and treatment of malaria in schools by public health workers and (ii training workshops and support for teachers to promote explicit and systematic literacy instruction. Schools are randomised to one of four groups: receiving either (i the malaria intervention alone; (ii the literacy intervention alone; (iii both interventions combined; or (iv control group where neither intervention is implemented. Children from classes 1 and 5 are randomly selected and followed up for 24 months. The primary outcomes are educational achievement and anaemia, the hypothesised mediating variables through which education is affected. Secondary outcomes include malaria parasitaemia, school attendance and school performance. A nested process evaluation, using semi-structured interviews, focus group discussion and a stakeholder analysis will investigate the community acceptability, feasibility and cost-effectiveness of the interventions. Discussion Across Africa, governments are committed to improve health and education of school-aged children, but seek clear policy and technical guidance as to the optimal approach to address malaria and improved literacy. This evaluation will be one of the first to simultaneously evaluate the impact of health and education interventions in the improvement of
Brooker, Simon; Okello, George; Njagi, Kiambo; Dubeck, Margaret M; Halliday, Katherine E; Inyega, Hellen; Jukes, Matthew C H
Improving the health of school-aged children can yield substantial benefits for cognitive development and educational achievement. However, there is limited experimental evidence on the benefits of school-based malaria prevention or how health interventions interact with other efforts to improve education quality. This study aims to evaluate the impact of school-based malaria prevention and enhanced literacy instruction on the health and educational achievement of school children in Kenya. A factorial, cluster randomised trial is being implemented in 101 government primary schools on the coast of Kenya. The interventions are (i) intermittent screening and treatment of malaria in schools by public health workers and (ii) training workshops and support for teachers to promote explicit and systematic literacy instruction. Schools are randomised to one of four groups: receiving either (i) the malaria intervention alone; (ii) the literacy intervention alone; (iii) both interventions combined; or (iv) control group where neither intervention is implemented. Children from classes 1 and 5 are randomly selected and followed up for 24 months. The primary outcomes are educational achievement and anaemia, the hypothesised mediating variables through which education is affected. Secondary outcomes include malaria parasitaemia, school attendance and school performance. A nested process evaluation, using semi-structured interviews, focus group discussion and a stakeholder analysis will investigate the community acceptability, feasibility and cost-effectiveness of the interventions. Across Africa, governments are committed to improve health and education of school-aged children, but seek clear policy and technical guidance as to the optimal approach to address malaria and improved literacy. This evaluation will be one of the first to simultaneously evaluate the impact of health and education interventions in the improvement of educational achievement. Reflection is made on the
The author feels that personal concerns about death, natural or otherwise, cause anxieties which often color and mask additional personality problems. The course outlined deals with student obsession and depression about death, and seeks to encourage other health educators to include the study of death in their own classes. (CJ)
Sanaeinasab, H; Tavakoli, R; Karimizarchi, A; Amini, Z Haji; Farokhian, A; Najarkolaei, F Rahmati
This study was conducted to determine the impact of education using the Health Belief Model on preventing osteoporosis among female students. This interventional study (quasi-experimental) was performed on 45 female students aged 15-16 years old who resided in a town near Tehran. The females participated in a threeweek educational programme based on the Health Belief Model. The data collection instrument was a validated and reliable questionnaire in five sections: demographics, knowledge, Health Belief Model constructs, physical activity and consumption of foods containing calcium. The mean scores of students' knowledge were significantly different before and after the educational intervention (P Health Belief Model structures changed significantly after the intervention (P health beliefs and may positively impact physical activity-related behaviour.
Pullen, Julie M; Gilje, Fredricka; Tesar, Emily
Internationally, little is known regarding the amount of educational content on suicide in undergraduate nursing curriculum. The literature conducted found few published research studies on implementation of suicide prevention instruction in baccalaureate nursing curriculum, even though various international healthcare and nursing initiatives address suicide prevention. The aim was to describe senior baccalaureate students' responses to an evidence-based suicide prevention gatekeeper training program entitled Question-Persuade-Refer implemented in a required course. This is a multi-method descriptive study. Data were collected utilizing a pre-post-survey questionnaire administered to 150 students in four classes of a psychiatric nursing course over a two-year period. The quantitative data were statistically significant (p suicide'. Students responded very positively to the evidence based suicide prevention gatekeeper training program. The instruction addresses various national initiatives and strategies filling a void in nursing curriculum, as well as empowering students to engage in suicide prevention interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Introduction: Overcoming social problems requires a participatory approach. This study was performed in order to determine the effect of community based educational prevention program of drug abuse in reduction of high risk behavior. Methods: This study was a community based participatory research. According to planned approach to community health model, "the health companion group" was established with participation of public representatives of villages, researchers, and managers of health sectors. Need assessment and priority setting of health problems was done. Drug abuse was selected as the topmost priority of health problems. By interviewing 10 year olds and older members of households, the questionnaires were completed. By conducting workshops, distributing educational pamphlets and face to face training for six months, the educational program was carried out. After this period, the study population was interviewed again. Data was analyzed by SPSS software, X2, and T tests. Results: The mean score of drug abuse related high risk behavior was 26.8 +/- 2.05 before educational program and 25.2 ±2.3 after the program. The mean score of psychological health was 26.2±5.8 before educational program and 26.4±5.7 after the program. The rate of negative drug abusing related behavior decreased and positive behavior increased after the educational program. Conclusion: The community based participatory research with participation of the public can be a proper pattern to prevent drug abuse and related high risk behaviors and as a result reduce costs and complications of this problem.
Liu, Chung-Feng; Kuo, Kuang-Ming
Self-care management is becoming an important part of care for chronic patients. However, various kinds of self-management educational materials which government or healthcare institutions provide for patients may not achieve the expected outcome. One of the critical reasons affecting patients' use intention could be patients' perceived information overload regarding the self-management educational materials. This study proposed an extended model of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), which incorporated perceived information overload, to explore if information overload will prevent chronic patients from reading educational materials for self-care management. The independent variables are attitude, subject norm, perceived behavior control and perceived information overload while the dependent variable is behavior intention to use the self-management educational materials. Perceived information overload is also referred to as an antecedent variable which may has impacts on attitude and perceived behavior control. The cross-sectional study interviewed newly diagnosed chronic patients with coronary artery disease, who are the potential users of the self-management educational materials, in a medical center in Taiwan. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics of the basic information distribution of the respondents, and structural equation modeling to study the reliability and validity for testing hypotheses. A total of 110 respondents were enrolled in this study and successful interview data were collected from 106 respondents. The result indicates that the patients' perceived information overload of self-management educational materials was validated to have impacts on attitude and perceived behavioral control constructs of the TPB as well as contributing a direct impact on patients' intentions to use self-management educational materials. Besides, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control constructs were validated to have significant impacts on
Shamai, S; Coambs, R B
This paper evaluates intervention programs in schools using the theoretical framework of the critical sociology of education, and most specifically, the extent to which schools are autonomous from the larger society. Three different types of intervention programs are reviewed: drug abuse prevention, sex education, and programs to change gender stereotypes, all of which were found to have limited effectiveness. Schools appear unable to change behaviors which are prevalent in a culture because they themselves are strongly influenced by that culture, and because adolescents are influenced by forces outside school. To be effective, such interventions would seem to require governmental agencies, community groups, and the media to work with the schools in order to influence the culture and thus produce behavioral changes in individuals.
Sranacharoenpong, Kitti; Hanning, Rhona M
The aim of this study was to investigate barriers to and supports for implementing a diabetes prevention education programme for community health-care workers (CHCWs) in Chiang Mai province, Thailand. The study also aimed to get preliminary input into the design of a tailored diabetes prevention education programme for CHCWs. Thailand has faced under-nutrition and yet, paradoxically, the prevalence of diseases of over-nutrition, such as obesity and diabetes, has escalated. As access to diabetes prevention programme is limited in Thailand, especially in rural and semi-urban areas, it becomes critical to develop a health information delivery system that is relevant, cost-effective, and sustainable. Health-care professionals (n = 12) selected from health centres within one district participated in in-depth interviews. In addition, screened people at risk for diabetes participated in interviews (n = 8) and focus groups (n = 4 groups, 23 participants). Coded transcripts from audio-taped interviews or focus groups were analysed by hand and using NVivo software. Concept mapping illustrated the findings. Health-care professionals identified potential barriers to programme success as a motivation for regular participation, and lack of health policy support for programme sustainability. Health-care professionals identified opportunities to integrate health promotion and disease prevention into CHCWs' duties. Health-care professionals recommended small-group workshops, hands-on learning activities, case studies, and video presentations that bring knowledge to practice within their cultural context. CHCWs should receive a credit for continuing study. People at risk for diabetes lacked knowledge of nutrition, diabetes risk factors, and resources to access health information. They desired two-way communication with CHCWs. Formative research supports the need for an effective, sustainable programme to support knowledge translation to CHCWs and at-risk populations in the
Lennox, Richard D; Cecchini, Marie A
An estimated 13 million youths aged 12 to 17 become involved with alcohol, tobacco and other drugs annually. The number of 12- to 17-year olds abusing controlled prescription drugs increased an alarming 212 percent between 1992 and 2003. For many youths, substance abuse precedes academic and health problems including lower grades, higher truancy, drop out decisions, delayed or damaged physical, cognitive, and emotional development, or a variety of other costly consequences. For thirty years the Narconon program has worked with schools and community groups providing single educational modules aimed at supplementing existing classroom-based prevention activities. In 2004, Narconon International developed a multi-module, universal prevention curriculum for high school ages based on drug abuse etiology, program quality management data, prevention theory and best practices. We review the curriculum and its rationale and test its ability to change drug use behavior, perceptions of risk/benefits, and general knowledge. After informed parental consent, approximately 1000 Oklahoma and Hawai'i high school students completed a modified Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP) Participant Outcome Measures for Discretionary Programs survey at three testing points: baseline, one month later, and six month follow-up. Schools assigned to experimental conditions scheduled the Narconon curriculum between the baseline and one-month follow-up test; schools in control conditions received drug education after the six-month follow-up. Student responses were analyzed controlling for baseline differences using analysis of covariance. At six month follow-up, youths who received the Narconon drug education curriculum showed reduced drug use compared with controls across all drug categories tested. The strongest effects were seen in all tobacco products and cigarette frequency followed by marijuana. There were also significant reductions measured for alcohol and amphetamines. The program
Cecchini Marie A
Full Text Available Abstract Background An estimated 13 million youths aged 12 to 17 become involved with alcohol, tobacco and other drugs annually. The number of 12- to 17-year olds abusing controlled prescription drugs increased an alarming 212 percent between 1992 and 2003. For many youths, substance abuse precedes academic and health problems including lower grades, higher truancy, drop out decisions, delayed or damaged physical, cognitive, and emotional development, or a variety of other costly consequences. For thirty years the Narconon program has worked with schools and community groups providing single educational modules aimed at supplementing existing classroom-based prevention activities. In 2004, Narconon International developed a multi-module, universal prevention curriculum for high school ages based on drug abuse etiology, program quality management data, prevention theory and best practices. We review the curriculum and its rationale and test its ability to change drug use behavior, perceptions of risk/benefits, and general knowledge. Methods After informed parental consent, approximately 1000 Oklahoma and Hawai'i high school students completed a modified Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP Participant Outcome Measures for Discretionary Programs survey at three testing points: baseline, one month later, and six month follow-up. Schools assigned to experimental conditions scheduled the Narconon curriculum between the baseline and one-month follow-up test; schools in control conditions received drug education after the six-month follow-up. Student responses were analyzed controlling for baseline differences using analysis of covariance. Results At six month follow-up, youths who received the Narconon drug education curriculum showed reduced drug use compared with controls across all drug categories tested. The strongest effects were seen in all tobacco products and cigarette frequency followed by marijuana. There were also significant
Juan M. Moreno-Manso
Full Text Available This study analyses the effectiveness of a child abuse prevention programme in an educational context. The proposal for action is based on the use of stories as an instrument of primary prevention. The programme aims to improve a child's capacity to face potentially threatening situations and was applied in 10 primary schools of Extremadura (Spain to 317 pupils aged 9 and 10 years old. There were 12 sessions whose aim was for the children to gain an awareness of abuse, identify situations of abuse and learn strategies to face them. This was done through the use of tutorials and by linking the programme to the aims of the pupils' educational stage. The evaluation of the programme shows that the pupils in the experimental group resolved the situations with increasing skill, confidence and determination; and that they could see more clearly where to look for help in terms of protection measures. The tutors evaluated the programme positively, considering the contents useful for prevention.
Joventino, Emanuella Silva; Ximenes, Lorena Barbosa; da Penha, Jardeliny Corrêa; Andrade, Lucilande Cordeiro de Oliveira; de Almeida, Paulo César
Diarrhoea is responsible for high rates of infant morbidity and mortality. It is multifactorial, manifested by socioeconomic, hygienic, and maternal factors. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of an educational video on maternal self-efficacy for the prevention of childhood diarrhoea. This was a randomized trial conducted in the state of Ceará, Brazil. Participants were 2 groups (comparison and intervention), composed of mothers of children under 5 years of age. Group membership was allocated by cluster randomization. Outcomes were maternal self-efficacy measured using the Maternal Self-efficacy Scale for Prevention of Early Childhood Diarrhoea; outcome data collectors were blinded to group allocation. Ninety participants were randomized to each group; 83 intervention group and 80 comparison group members were contained in the final analysis. Maternal self-efficacy in preventing childhood diarrhoea increased in both groups, but average scores of the intervention group were higher at all time than those of the comparison group. The educational video had a significant effect on maternal self-efficacy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Betsch, M.D.; Lewis, R.A.
Demolishing outdated structures from the US Department of Energy Hanford Site in Washington, generates large quantities of waste which can be minimized. The Hanford cleanup is one of the world's largest and most complex environmental restoration efforts. Approximately 280 square miles of ground water and soil are contaminated; there are more than 80 surplus facilities, including nine shut-down nuclear reactors in various stages of decay; and there are 177 underground waste storage tanks containing highly radioactive waste. In all, 1,500 cleanup sites have been identified and the Environmental Restoration Contractor (ERC) is currently responsible for surveillance and maintenance of 170 structures. A two hour orientation training in pollution prevention was developed by the Westinghouse Hanford Company to provide all Decontamination and Decommissioning/Environmental Restoration (D ampersand D/ER) personnel with the knowledge to apply waste minimization principles during their cleanup activities. The ERC Team Pollution Prevention Workshop serves to communicate pollution prevention philosophies and influences the way D ampersand D/ER projects are conducted at the Hanford Site
Glagoleva, O N; Turchaninov, D V; Vilms, E A
There was performed an experimental study of the use of educational programs as tools of the improvement of the structure of nutrition and primary prevention of anemias associated with nutrition. Educational programs were differentiated for each of the target audience (pupils of 5-7 classes, 1-4 year students of the medical school, the adult unorganized population; n = 645). Their efficacy was evaluated with the use of issues included in the educational program and analysis of the actual nutrition (only in groups of students and adults). Performance assessment were: testing on the issues included in the educational program and analysis of actual of dietary intake (only in groups of students and adults). Testing was performed at the points: before the intervention, immediately after 6 and 12 months after intervention. An analysis of the frequency of food consumption with an estimation of the actual consumption of nutrients was carried out at the initial and final points. There was noted the low level of public knowledge about the principles ofrational nutrition: the proportion ofcorrect answers, reflecting the level of awareness ofconstructing an optimal diet in the starting point of the study was 25%for schoolchildren, 45%--in adults, 35%--the students, after the intervention--75%, 90% and 85% respectively. One year after the implementation of the educational program the level ofresidual knowledge of study participants remained at a level above the original (the proportion of correct answers during testing of schoolchildren--50% (p anemia.
Podschun, G D
Each year, there are approximately 2 million homeless and runaway youths in the United States. On any given night, there are 1,000 homeless youngsters living on the streets of San Diego, CA. Homeless young people are commonly involved in one or more of the following activities that place them at risk for HIV infection--unprotected sexual intercourse, needle-sharing in the use of injectable drugs, sex with someone who injects drugs. The Teen Peer Outreach-Street Work Project trains teen peer educators to work in three existing San Diego youth service programs with street outreach staff members to provide HIV prevention education and referral services to San Diego's homeless youth. Selected teens from the target population also participate in street-based case management that provides skill development to bring about behavioral and attitudinal changes. An HIV outreach program cannot stand alone and is most successful if it is integrated with services that meet the basic needs of its clients. In the three participating youth service programs of the Teen Peer Outreach-Street Work Project, food, clothes, and shelter information are provided. There are shelters in two of the three programs that become places where HIV educational messages, delivered on the street, can be reinforced. Immediate and concrete assistance can be offered to homeless youth. Low literacy among the target population presents a significant obstacle to adequate and appropriate HIV prevention education for homeless youth. Currently, education materials that specifically target homeless youth do not exit. The outreach street project is being expanded to develop materials for homeless youth with low literacy levels.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8464971
Nagamatsu, Miyuki; Sato, Takeshi; Nakagawa, Aki; Saito, Hisako
We developed an extended HIV prevention program for students, parents, and school teachers, and then evaluated its effectiveness. The participants were 490 students, aged 13-14 years, attending four public junior high schools in Saga Prefecture, Japan. They were divided into two groups: control and intervention. All the students received group education by health professionals. In the control group, students received only two group education sessions given by health professionals. In the intervention group, there were three intervention components: parent education, teacher education, and student individual counseling by health professionals. Before and 3 months after the intervention, participants underwent evaluation of their frequency of communication about AIDS with parents or teachers, their knowledge of HIV/AIDS, and attitudes to sexual intercourse, self-esteem, and high-risk behavior. A total of 135 students (80 boys and 55 girls) from the intervention group and 236 students (115 boys and 121 girls) from the control group participated in the evaluation 3 months after intervention. Adolescents in the intervention group showed more positive changes than those in the control group from baseline to follow-up. Intervention had a significant impact on the frequency of communication about AIDS with teachers (p = 0.027) and HIV/AIDS knowledge among females (p = 0.023), and intervention also had a significant impact on refusal of sexual activity by males (p = 0.045). These findings suggest that effective prevention of HIV might be achieved by an expanded education program for students and teachers such as that described, and individual counseling that takes into consideration the sexual differences of Japanese adolescents.
Pérez Fernández, María Reyes; Almazán Ortega, Raquel; Martínez Portela, José María; Alves Pérez, M Teresa; Segura Iglesias, M Carmen; Pérez Fernández, Román
The aim of this study is to determine whether an educational intervention in perimenopausal women in rural environments achieves significant changes in risk behaviors related to osteoporosis. Randomized clinical trials of parallel groups: 216 women (45-54 years old) of a rural Primary Healthcare service. Pre- and post- intervention were covered: body mass index (BMI), densitometry and blood test (calcium [Ca], parathormone [PTH]). Intervention group (n1=110): 2 interactive workshops on the prevention of osteoporosis. Control group (n2=106): information by post. After the educational intervention, the intervention group maintained its BMI, increased its bone mineral density (BMD) (P<.001) and decreased the Ca (P ≤.048) and PTH (P<.001) levels. The control group increased its BMI (P<.001) and its BMD (P ≤.048), maintained its Ca levels and decreased the PTH values (P=.01). The improvement in the objective parameters related to osteoporosis indicates the importance of health education as a preventive measure in this group of women. It would be interesting to analyze the repercussions of this improvement on a long-term basis in terms of reducing the incidence of osteoporosis and fractures. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Luana Ibiapina Cordeiro
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To describe the process of manufacturing and validation of an educational booklet for HIV/Aids prevention in older adults Methods: Methodological study developed in two phases - manufacturing of the booklet and validation of the educational material by judges. The manufacturing process involved a situational diagnosis with older adults, and its result indicated gaps in the knowledge with respect to HIV/Aids. The validation process was performed by nine judges, selected by convenience. It was considered an agreement index of at least 0.80, analyzed through the content validity index. Results: We opted for a dialogue between two older adults divided into three categories: myths and taboos; ignorance; and prevention and importance of diagnosis. The average of the items was 0.90. The suggestions made by the judges were observed and modified for the final version. Conclusion: The material had relevant content for the judges, in addition to being able to be used by health professionals in the education and clarification of issues on the subject.
Silva Pastura, Valeria Fonseca da; Wieland, Patricia
Aiming at increasing awareness of radiation health effects, environmental issues and preventive measures, the Nuclear Energy National Commission (CNEN) launched in 2004 an education and public outreach programme for mine workers, students, teachers, governmental leaders, labor representatives and members of communities nearby small mining sites at the North and Northeast regions. Many Brazilian conventional mines present a significant risk of exposure to radiation due to Uranium and Thorium. CNEN inspects the mines but there are several small mining sites dedicated to open pit short term mineral extraction, called 'garimpagem', that are of difficult control. Therefore, information at large about preventive measures to avoid contamination during exploration, transportation and storage is necessary. CNEN developed an educational campaign which includes a series of open seminars, talks, folders, booklets and posters. The objective of this paper is to present the Brazilian educational campaign to avoid contamination risks at those small mineral exploration sites and its results. This campaign is a joint task that receives collaboration of other organizations such as federal police, schools and universities
Omaki, Elise; Rizzutti, Nicholas; Shields, Wendy; Zhu, Jeffrey; McDonald, Eileen; Stevens, Martha W; Gielen, Andrea
The aims of this literature review are to (1) summarise how computer and mobile technology-based health behaviour change applications have been evaluated in unintentional injury prevention, (2) describe how these successes can be applied to injury-prevention programmes in the future and (3) identify research gaps. Studies included in this systematic review were education and behaviour change intervention trials and programme evaluations in which the intervention was delivered by either a computer or mobile technology and addressed an unintentional injury prevention topic. Articles were limited to those published in English and after 1990. Among the 44 technology-based injury-prevention studies included in this review, 16 studies evaluated locally hosted software programmes, 4 studies offered kiosk-based programmes, 11 evaluated remotely hosted internet programmes, 2 studies used mobile technology or portable devices and 11 studies evaluated virtual-reality interventions. Locally hosted software programmes and remotely hosted internet programmes consistently increased knowledge and behaviours. Kiosk programmes showed evidence of modest knowledge and behaviour gains. Both programmes using mobile technology improved behaviours. Virtual-reality programmes consistently improved behaviours, but there were little gains in knowledge. No studies evaluated text-messaging programmes dedicated to injury prevention. There is much potential for computer-based programmes to be used for injury-prevention behaviour change. The reviewed studies provide evidence that computer-based communication is effective in conveying information and influencing how participants think about an injury topic and adopt safety behaviours. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Full Text Available The development of civilization made crises an inseparable part of our lives. Crises manifest themselves in almost all social areas and organizations, including educational institutions. The goals of the article are to present a theoretical model of normal, deviant and antisocial behaviors, and discuss the psycho-social characteristics of emotionally disturbed adolescents situated in a residential special education school in the United States. The article also gives an analysis of their most prevalent behavioral crises, escalation stages, as well as nonviolent crisis prevention and intervention strategies. The methods that were used include scientific literature review, analysis of statistical information supplied from different government sources, review and analysis of student records, as well as the author’s analytical reflections in working with emotionally disturbed youngsters in residential special education schools in the United States.The results of the study indicate that scientists from different fields use different terminology to describe socially nonconforming behaviors. The author presents a theoretical model of normal, deviant and antisocial behavior that could enhance better understanding and identification of high risk situations and conduct leading to serious crises. The analysis of student records revealed that most of the adolescents situated in special education residential schools are diagnosed with a number of mental health problems. This suggests that the currently prevailing care and education paradigm in the special education residential schools should shift to a more comprehensive treatment paradigm. The article also discusses the pros and cons of nonviolent crisis intervention. It is the author’s opinion that all special education schools serving children with emotional disorders should adopt one of the nonviolent crisis intervention models and develop and implement crisis management policies, plans and procedures.
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.
The text of a hearing on drug abuse prevention and education is provided in this document. After an opening statement by Representative Augustus Hawkins which briefly describes progress that has been made towards drug abuse prevention legislation, statements are given by these witnesses: (1) Carolyn Burns of the National Federation of Parents for…
Ogunfowokan, Adesola A.; Fajemilehin, Reuben B.
Sexual abuse has been considered a public health issue because of the various health implications resulting from it. The school nurse has a responsibility in assisting the high school girl to prevent victimization. This study adopted a quasi-experimental design in which a sexual abuse prevention education package was developed and used to educate…
McHugh, S M
Surgical patients are at particular risk of healthcare-associated infection (HCAI) due to the presence of a surgical site leading to surgical site infection (SSI), and because of the need for intravascular access resulting in catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI). A two-year initiative commenced with an initial audit of surgical practice; this was used to inform the development of a targeted educational initiative by surgeons specifically for surgical trainees. Parameters assessed during the initial audit and a further audit after the educational initiative were related to intra- and postoperative aspects of the prevention of SSIs, as well as care of peripheral venous catheters (PVCs) in surgical patients. The proportion of prophylactic antibiotics administered prior to incision across 360 operations increased from 30.0% to 59.1% (P<0.001). Surgical site dressings were observed in 234 patients, and a significant decrease was found in the percentage of dressings that were tampered with during the initial 48h after surgery (16.5% vs 6.2%, P=0.030). In total, 574 PVCs were assessed over the two-year period. Improvements were found in the proportion of unnecessary PVCs in situ (37.9% vs 24.4%, P<0.001), PVCs in situ for >72h (10.6% vs 3.1%, P<0.001) and PVCs covered with clean and intact dressings (87.3% vs 97.6%, P<0.001). Significant improvements in surgical practice were established for the prevention of SSI and CRBSI through a focused educational programme developed by and for surgeons. Potentially, other specific measures may also be warranted to achieve further improvements in infection prevention in surgical practice.
Wu, Helen W; Backman, Desiree; Kizer, Kenneth W
The US Department of Agriculture Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education (SNAP-Ed) funds state programs to improve nutrition and physical activity in low-income populations through its Nutrition Education and Obesity Prevention grants. States vary in how they manage and structure these programs. California substantially restructured its program in 2012 to universally position local health departments (LHDs) as the programmatic lead in all jurisdictions. This study sought to determine whether California's reorganization aligned with desirable attributes of decentralized public management. This study conducted 40 in person, semistructured interviews with 57 local, state, and federal SNAP-Ed stakeholders between October 2014 and March 2015. Local respondents represented 15 counties in all 7 of California's SNAP-Ed regions. We identified 3 common themes that outlined advantages or disadvantages of local public management, and we further defined subthemes within: (1) coordination and communication (within local jurisdictions, across regions, between local and state), (2) efficiency (administrative, fiscal, program), and (3) quality (innovation, skills). We conducted qualitative content analysis to evaluate how respondents characterized the California experience for each theme, identifying positive and negative experiences. California's LHD model offers some distinct advantages, but the model does not exhibit all the advantages of decentralized public management. Strategic planning, partnerships, subcontracting, and fiscal oversight are closer to communities than previously. However, administrative burden remains high and LHDs are limited in their ability to customize programs on the basis of community needs because of state and federal constraints. California's use of a universal LHD model for SNAP-Ed is novel. Recent federal SNAP-Ed changes present an opportunity for other states to consider this structure. Employing small-scale approaches initially (eg
Mountifield, Réme; Andrews, Jane M; Bampton, Peter
Individuals with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) have poor knowledge regarding the implications of disease for fertility and pregnancy. Previous studies suggest that this poor knowledge adversely influences reproductive decision making. To examine the effect of a single group education session on IBD-specific reproductive knowledge in subjects with IBD. People with IBD attending an educational event were invited to complete the CCPKnow questionnaire, testing reproductive knowledge in IBD, before and after an evidenced based presentation on this topic delivered by a Gastroenterologist. Of 248 attendees, 155 participated; 69% female, mean age 40.3years. CCPKnow scores (maximum 17) were low at baseline and increased significantly post education (mean 5.4 pre vs. 14.5 post education; p<0.0001). A large majority (65.1%) of subjects had "poor" (score <8) knowledge at baseline, compared with only 1.9% after education (p<0.0001). Whilst all subareas of knowledge improved after education, the most important improvement was in attitudes toward medication use in pregnancy: 33.5% of subjects indicated at baseline that women should avoid all drugs in pregnancy compared with only 1.2% post education (p<0.0001). A single group-delivered education event focussed on reproductive issues in IBD can dramatically improve patient knowledge. This has the potential to change reproductive behaviour and may reduce voluntary childlessness resulting from misperceptions amongst individuals with IBD. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Benjamin Neelon, S E; Østbye, T; Hales, D; Vaughn, A; Ward, D S
Obesity prevention in young children is a public health priority. In the USA, nearly 10% of children less than 5 years of age are obese, and most attend some form of out-of-home child care. While a number of interventions have been conducted in early care and education settings, few have targeted the youngest children in care or the less formal types of child care like family child care homes. Additionally, only two previous studies provided recommendations to help inform future interventions. This paper presents lessons learned from two distinct intervention studies in early care and education settings to help guide researchers and public health professionals interested in implementing and evaluating similar interventions. We highlight two studies: one targeting children ages 4 to 24 months in child care centres and the other intervening in children 18 months to 4 years in family child care homes. We include lessons from our pilot studies and the ongoing larger trials. To date, our experiences suggest that an intervention should have a firm basis in behaviour change theory; an advisory group should help evaluate intervention materials and plan for delivery; and realistic recruitment goals should recognize economic challenges of the business of child care. A flexible data collection approach and realistic sample size calculations are needed because of high rates of child (and sometimes facility) turnover. An intervention that is relatively easy to implement is more likely to appeal to a wide variety of early care and education providers. Interventions to prevent obesity in early care and education have the potential to reach large numbers of children. It is important to consider the unique features and similarities of centres and family child care homes and take advantage of lessons learned from current studies in order to develop effective, evidence-based interventions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Beatriz Brandão SCARPELLI
Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed at evaluating the Protocol for the Prevention of Malocclusions (PPM, established in the preventive educational program developed by the Public Infant Oral Health Program of the State University of Londrina (PIOHP-UEL. Guardians of three-year-olds or older, maintaining nutritive (bottle and/or non-nutritive (pacifier and finger sucking habits, attended meetings designed to alert and guide them to eliminating these habits from their children. PPM patient records (2006–2013 were assessed and the data were described and evaluated by the Chi-square test, with a 5% significance level. Results 506 of the 802 guardians/children referred to the PPM joined. As for the children, the most frequently assessed habits were: bottle (56.1%, bottle and pacifier (18.4%, finger (11.9%, bottle and finger (7.1%, pacifier (5.7%, pacifier and finger (0.6%, and bottle/pacifier/finger (0.2%. After parent participation in the meetings, 335 (66.2% children abandoned their habits. There was a statistical difference between type of oral habit and time to abandonment (p = 0.0001. However, those with only one habit abandoned it more easily (72.6% than those with two or more associated habits (48.1% (p = 0.042. Presence or absence of breastfeeding and parents’ level of education had no significant effect on habit abandonment. Conclusion PPM was an important tool for spreading knowledge to guardians, greatly contributing to the abandonment of deleterious oral habits. Bottle sucking warrants special attention - mentioned by 81.8% of parents - either alone or associated with other habits. Thus, educational actions to implement the children’s approach to oral health are fundamental to making behavioral changes and promoting education of healthy habits, thereby keeping malocclusions from developing.
Svetlana V. Doubova
Full Text Available Abstract Background Risky sexual behaviors of adolescents in Mexico are a public health problem; 33.4 % of adolescent girls and 14.7 % of boys report not having used any protection at their first intercourse. The fertility rate is 77 births/1000 girls aged 15–19 years. The infrequent contact of adolescents with health services and the limited extent of school sex and reproductive health education require the support of innovative strategies. The objective of this paper is to present the design of an internet-based educational strategy to prevent risky sexual behaviors in Mexican adolescents. Methods A field trial with intervention and comparison group and with ex-ante and ex-post measurements will be conducted in two public secondary schools. Adolescents between 14 and 15 years of age will participate. The intervention will be conducted in one school and the second school will serve as a comparison group where the investigators will observe the usual sex education provided by the school. The intervention will be delivered using an internet web page that includes four educational sessions provided during a 4 week period. Follow-up will last 3 months. Information on the study variables will be obtained through an Internet-based self-applied questionnaire and collected on three occasions: 1 when the adolescents enter the study (baseline, 2 once the intervention is completed (at 1 month and 3 after 3 months of follow-up (at the fourth month. There will be three outcome variables: 1 knowledge in regard to sexually transmitted infections, 2 attitudes regarding condom use, and 3 self-efficacy toward consistent condom use. The generalized linear model will be used to assess changes in each outcome variable controlling for baseline measures and for study covariates. Discussion The design and evaluation of an Internet-based educational strategy to prevent risky sexual behaviors in Mexican adolescents is important in order to provide a new, large
Doubova, Svetlana V; Infante-Castañeda, Claudia; Pérez-Cuevas, Ricardo
Risky sexual behaviors of adolescents in Mexico are a public health problem; 33.4 % of adolescent girls and 14.7 % of boys report not having used any protection at their first intercourse. The fertility rate is 77 births/1000 girls aged 15-19 years. The infrequent contact of adolescents with health services and the limited extent of school sex and reproductive health education require the support of innovative strategies. The objective of this paper is to present the design of an internet-based educational strategy to prevent risky sexual behaviors in Mexican adolescents. A field trial with intervention and comparison group and with ex-ante and ex-post measurements will be conducted in two public secondary schools. Adolescents between 14 and 15 years of age will participate. The intervention will be conducted in one school and the second school will serve as a comparison group where the investigators will observe the usual sex education provided by the school. The intervention will be delivered using an internet web page that includes four educational sessions provided during a 4 week period. Follow-up will last 3 months. Information on the study variables will be obtained through an Internet-based self-applied questionnaire and collected on three occasions: 1) when the adolescents enter the study (baseline), 2) once the intervention is completed (at 1 month) and 3) after 3 months of follow-up (at the fourth month). There will be three outcome variables: 1) knowledge in regard to sexually transmitted infections, 2) attitudes regarding condom use, and 3) self-efficacy toward consistent condom use. The generalized linear model will be used to assess changes in each outcome variable controlling for baseline measures and for study covariates. The design and evaluation of an Internet-based educational strategy to prevent risky sexual behaviors in Mexican adolescents is important in order to provide a new, large-scale, easily implemented preventive tool. The
Robelen, Erik W.; McNeil, Michele
The author reports on a new effort by 12 major education philanthropies that aims to dovetail with the Education Department's "i3" agenda, raising complex issues. The decision by a dozen major education grantmakers to team up on an initiative designed to dovetail with the federal "Investing in Innovation" grant competition is being seen by…
Davis, Joan M; Ramseier, Christoph A; Mattheos, Nikos; Schoonheim-Klein, Meta; Compton, Sharon; Al-Hazmi, Nadia; Polychronopoulou, Argy; Suvan, Jean; Antohé, Magda E; Forna, Doriana; Radley, Nicki
The use of tobacco continues to be a substantial risk factor in the development and progression of oral cancer, periodontitis, implant failure and poor wound healing. Dental and dental hygiene education providers have made great advances towards the incorporation of tobacco education into their curricula in recent years. Unfortunately, however, both medical and dental education research has consistently reported schools providing only basic knowledge-based curricula that rarely incorporate more effective, behaviourally-based components affecting long-term change. The limited training of oral healthcare students, at least in part, is reflected in practising dental professionals continuing to report offering incomplete tobacco interventions. In order to prepare the next generation of oral healthcare providers, this paper proposes a paradigm shift in how tobacco use prevention and cessation (TUPAC) may be incorporated into existing curricula. It is suggested that schools should carefully consider: to what level of competency should TUPAC be trained in dental and dental hygiene schools; the importance of establishing rapport through good communication skills; the core knowledge level for TUPAC; suggested instructional and assessment strategies; the importance of continuing professional education for the enhancement of TUPAC.
Gacoin, Andrée E.
Globally, sexuality education is framed as a key programmatic strategy for achieving HIV prevention among youth. In particular, sexuality education is positioned as a way to address gender inequalities and promote youth empowerment in relation to gendered identities. In this paper, I argue that the focus on what content should be taught and…
del Carmen Cabezas, María; Fornasini, Marco; Barmettler, David; Ortuño, Diego; Borja, Teresa; Albert, Adelin
Objective: To develop and assess an innovative educational video package for improving HIV knowledge, attitudes and practices among company workers in Ecuador. Methods: The design and development of the HIV prevention educational video was based on the results of a large-scale survey conducted in 115 companies (commerce, manufacturing and real…
Oyeoku, E. K.; Meziobi, D.; Ezegbe, N. B.; Obikwelu, C. L.
The main purpose of the study was to evolve modalities for preventing domestic violence against women in Nsukka education zone. Three research questions and two null hypotheses guided the study. The sample comprised 150 urban women and 450 rural women in Nsukka education zone. A 20-item questionnaire was developed, validated, and administered to…
Medley, Amy; Kennedy, Caitlin; O'Reilly, Kevin; Sweat, Michael
Peer education for HIV prevention has been widely implemented in developing countries, yet the effectiveness of this intervention has not been systematically evaluated. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of peer education interventions in developing countries published between January 1990 and November 2006. Standardized methods of…
Sheeladevi, Sethu; Sagar, Jayanthi; Pujari, Siddharth; Rani, Padmaja Kumari
Objective: To present results from a district-wide diabetes prevention programme involving health education for school children and the local community. Method: The model of health education that was utilized aimed to secure lifestyle changes and the identification of diabetes risk by school children (aged 9-12 years). The children acted as health…
Gacoin, Andrée E.
Sexuality education as an HIV prevention strategy is positioned as a way to empower youth in relation to their sexual identities and behaviours. While the youth subject is recognized as complex, the underlying premise is that identity can be targeted "through" sexuality education. In this paper, I present data from an ethnographic…
Taghdisi, Mohammad Hossein; Estebsari, Fatemeh; Dastoorpour, Maryam; Jamshidi, Ensiyeh; Jamalzadeh, Fiesal; Latifi, Marzieh
One of the most obvious forms of violence in today's society is violence against women. In Iran, along with other countries, violence against women has become a problematic issue. The present research aims to investigate the impact of educational intervention based on empowerment model in preventing violent behaviors against women. The present study is an intervention research done through the random selection of 91 women under the aegis of Imam Khomeini Relief Foundation in Gorgan. Tools for data gathering included demographics checklist, Rosenberg Self-Esteem, general self-efficacy, awareness and attitude questionnaires. Three ninety-minute educational sessions were held for each group to enhance their awareness, change their attitudes, and train them life skills to increase self-esteem so that they can express their vicarious experiences to increase their self-efficacy toward violent behavior. Following the post-test, data were analyzed with SPSS software (version 20). Tests for analyzing data included descriptive and analytical tests (chi-square, Pearson's correlation, independent samples t-test, One-way ANOVA and paired t test). Results indicated that the frequency of domestic violence against participating women was significant after educational intervention, as compared to pre-intervention period. Paired t-test showed that average scores of awareness, attitude, self-esteem, and self-efficacy constructs, and total power were statistically higher after educational intervention as compared to the period prior to intervention. As one of the manifestations and the moving force of empowerment, education is the first major strategy in codifying, designing, and implementing empowerment programs. For women to be empowered, the active participation of all people in education is required.
Vercruysse, Sien; Haerens, Leen; Verhagen, Evert; Goossens, Lennert; De Clercq, Dirk
Physical education (PE) teachers are at a high risk of musculoskeletal sports or work-related injuries because of the physical activity as inherent part of their profession. Such injuries have a negative impact on work and leisure time activities, and effective injury prevention interventions are needed. The present study aimed at testing the effectiveness of an injury prevention intervention that was developed and optimized according to PE teachers' wishes and values. Fifty-five PE teachers were randomly assigned to intervention or control group. Intervention group teachers engaged in two days of training during which they familiarized with eight injury prevention strategies (seven intrinsic and one extrinsic). A special feature of the intervention was that the way of delivery was based on the self-determination theory in order to stimulate participants' motivation to adhere to the proposed strategies. Prospective registrations during one school year were conducted concerning injuries and preventive behaviours. Results showed that the intervention group teachers had a lower number of injuries per 1000 h time of exposure (TOE) than the controls (INT: 0.49, CON: 1.14 injuries/1000 h TOE, OR: 2.32, 95% CI: 1.06-5.07), and applied a broader variety of strategies including dynamic and static stretching, core stability, balance and strength training, when compared to the controls who mainly engaged in warming-up. In conclusion, with the same amount of time, an injury reduction was found in PE teachers through a more balanced use of provided preventive strategies.
Khong, Linda; Farringdon, Fiona; Hill, Keith D; Hill, Anne-Marie
Falls are common in older people. Despite strong evidence for effective falls prevention strategies, there appears to be limited translation of these strategies from research to clinical practice. Use of peers in delivering falls prevention education messages has been proposed to improve uptake of falls prevention strategies and facilitate translation to practice. Volunteer peer educators often deliver educational presentations on falls prevention to community-dwelling older adults. However, research evaluating the effectiveness of peer-led education approaches in falls prevention has been limited and no known study has evaluated such a program from the perspective of peer educators involved in delivering the message. The purpose of this study was to explore peer educators' perspective about their role in delivering peer-led falls prevention education for community-dwelling older adults. A two-stage qualitative inductive constant comparative design was used. In stage one (core component) focus group interviews involving a total of eleven participants were conducted. During stage two (supplementary component) semi-structured interviews with two participants were conducted. Data were analysed thematically by two researchers independently. Key themes were identified and findings were displayed in a conceptual framework. Peer educators were motivated to deliver educational presentations and importantly, to reach an optimal peer connection with their audience. Key themes identified included both personal and organisational factors that impact on educators' capacity to facilitate their peers' engagement with the message. Personal factors that facilitated message delivery and engagement included peer-to-peer connection and perceived credibility, while barriers included a reluctance to accept the message that they were at risk of falling by some members in the audience. Organisational factors, including ongoing training for peer educators and formative feedback following
Bradbury, Thomas N; Lavner, Justin A
Improving intimate relationships with preventive and educational interventions has proven to be more difficult than originally conceived, and earlier models and approaches may be reaching their limits. Basic concerns remain about the long-term effectiveness of these interventions, whether they are reaching and benefiting couples most likely to need them, and how they might be exerting their effects. We identify six problems that we believe are hindering progress in the field, and for each we outline research findings that point to new ways forward. These problems include (a) the incomplete understanding of couple communication and unwarranted translation of communication findings into interventions; (b) the surprising stability of relationship satisfaction; (c) the powerful roles that personal histories, personalities, and stress play in determining relationship outcomes; (d) the difficulties involved in recruiting and retaining high-risk couples in intervention programs; (e) the lack of attention given to specific stages of relationship development in interventions; and (f) the tendency to deliver preventive and educational interventions in the same format as therapies for distressed couples. We conclude by noting that a large body of basic research about intimate relationships, and large-scale outcome research with diverse populations, hold great promise for advancing the field. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Khong, Linda A M; Berlach, Richard G; Hill, Keith D; Hill, Anne-Marie
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of delivering a contemporary peer-led falls prevention education presentation on community-dwelling older adults' beliefs, knowledge, motivation and intention to engage in falls prevention strategies. A two-group quasi-experimental pre-test-post-test study using a convenience sample was conducted. A new falls prevention training package for peer educators was developed, drawing on contemporary adult learning and behaviour change principles. A 1-h presentation was delivered to community-dwelling older adults by peer educators trained with the new package (intervention group). Control group participants received an existing, 1-h falls prevention presentation by trained peer educators who had not received the adult learning and behaviour change training. Participants in both groups completed a purpose-developed questionnaire at pre-presentation, immediately post-presentation and at one-month follow-up. Participants' levels of beliefs, knowledge, motivation and intention were compared across these three points of time. Generalised estimating equations models examined associations in the quantitative data, while deductive content analysis was used for qualitative data. Participants (control n = 99; intervention n = 133) in both groups showed significantly increased levels of beliefs and knowledge about falls prevention, and intention to engage in falls prevention strategies over time compared to baseline. The intervention group was significantly more likely to report a clear action plan to undertake falls prevention strategies compared to the control group. Peer-led falls prevention education is an effective approach for raising older adults' beliefs, knowledge and intention to engage in falls prevention strategies.
Reynolds, Arthur J; Ou, Suh-Ruu; Temple, Judy A
Educational attainment is the leading social determinant of health, but few studies of prevention programs have examined whether the programs are associated with educational attainment outcomes after the mid-20s, especially for large-scale programs that provide a longer duration of services. To examine the association between a preschool to third grade intervention and educational attainment at midlife and differences by program duration, sex, and parental educational level. This matched-group, alternative intervention study assessed 1539 low-income minority children born in 1979 or 1980 who grew up in high-poverty neighborhoods in Chicago, Illinois. The comparison group included 550 children primarily from randomly selected schools participating in the usual early intervention. A total of 989 children who entered preschool in 1983 or 1984 and completed kindergarten in 1986 were included in the Chicago Longitudinal Study and were followed up for 27 to 30 years after the end of a multicomponent intervention. A total of 1398 participants (90.8%) in the original sample had educational attainment records at 35 years of age. The study was performed from January 1, 2002, through May 31, 2015. The Child-Parent Center Program provides school-based educational enrichment and comprehensive family services from preschool to third grade (ages 3-9 years). Educational outcomes from administrative records and self-report included school dropout, 4-year high school graduation, years of education, postsecondary credential, and earned degrees from associate's to master's or higher. A total of 1539 participants (mean [SD] age, 35.1 [0.32] years; 1423 [92.9%] black and 108 [7.1%] Hispanic) were included in the study. After weighting on 2 propensity scores, preschool participants had higher rates of postsecondary degree completion, including associate's degree or higher (15.7% vs 10.7%; difference, 5.0%; 95% CI, 1.0%-9.0%), master's degree (4.2% vs 1.5%; difference, 2.7%; 95% CI, 1
Schober, Daniel J.; Fawcett, Stephen B.; Thigpen, Sally; Curtis, Anna; Wright, Renee
Objective: This empirical case study describes Prevent Child Abuse Georgia's effort to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA) by educating communities throughout the state on supporting preventive behaviour. The initiative consisted of three major components: (1) dissemination of CSA prevention messages and materials; (2) a statewide helpline that…
Preterm birth (delivery before 37 completed weeks of gestation) is common and rates are increasing. In the past, medical efforts focused on ameliorating the consequences of prematurity rather than preventing its occurrence. This approach resulted in improved neonatal outcomes, but it remains costly in terms of both the suffering of infants and their families and the economic burden on society. Increased understanding of the pathophysiology of preterm labor has altered the approach to this problem, with increased focus on preventive strategies. Primary prevention is a limited strategy which involves public education, smoking cessation, improved nutritional status and avoidance of late preterm births. Secondary prevention focuses on recurrent preterm birth which is the most recognisable risk factor. Widely accepted strategies include cervical cerclage, progesterone and dedicated clinics. However, more research is needed to explore the role of antibiotics and anti-inflammatory treatments in the prevention of this complex problem.
Lu, Yunkai; Guo, Yangfeng; Diao, Hongxing; Liang, Xiaosong; Lu, Jinhua; Zeng, Yangfa
To compare the education effect of video demonstrations and conventional teaching on the prevention and control of myopia. Eighty students were randomly divided into an experimental (n = 40) and a control (n = 40) group, and each group was split into two classes of 40 students. The students in the experimental group attended classes mainly based on video demonstration and those in the control group received conventional teaching. All students then undertook a test and the examination scores were statistically compared between the two groups. The educational background, age, and gender did not differ between the two groups (all P > 0.05). The experimental group had a mean test score of 8.25 ± 1.45, which was slightly lower than the mean of 8.58 ± 1.11 in the control group, but the difference was not statistically significant (t = -1.589, P = 0.114). The educational effect of video demonstrations was almost identical to that of traditional teaching. In addition, video classes reduced the training time and financial costs, indicating that they deserve widespread application.
Yuri Arnold Domínguez
Full Text Available Background: Healthy lifestyles incorporated in early ages could influence the most important behaviours and risk factors for atherosclerotic vascular disease in order to reduce the incidence of this condition during adulthood. Objective: To assess the effectiveness of the educational-participatory intervention on students' knowledge as to cardiovascular risk factors. Material: An educational intervention with a quasi-experimental design was conducted from April 2007 to October 2008 in eighth grade junior high school students from Old Havana (the intervention group and Center Havana (the control group. The nonparametric Chi square tests from McNemar and Mantel-Haenszel were used. Results: There were significant statistical associations with a confidence limit of 95% between initial and final state of knowledge in relation to cardiovascular risk factors in the intervention group (p = 0.0001, in the control group (p = 0.035 and between the study group versus the control group after the intervention (p = 0.0001. Conclusions: An educational-participatory program for health promotion and prevention of major risk factors of cardiovascular disease (inadequate dietary habits, smoking and physical inactivity among adolescents, contributes to increase their knowledge and encourages the adoption of healthy daily habits and lifestyles.
Hagel, L M; Pickett, W; Pahwa, P; Day, L; Brison, R J; Marlenga, B; Crowe, T; Snodgrass, P; Ulmer, K; Dosman, J A
To evaluate the effectiveness of an agricultural health and safety program in reducing risks of injury. Cross-sectional survey. 50 rural municipalities in the Province of Saskatchewan, Canada. The Agricultural Health and Safety Network (AHSN), a mainly educational program that administered 112 farm safety interventions over 19 years. 5292 farm people associated with 2392 Saskatchewan farms. Farms and associated farm people were categorized into three groups according to years of participation in the AHSN. self-reported prevalence of: (1) farm safety practices; (2) physical farm hazards. (1) self-reported agricultural injuries. After adjustment for group imbalances and clustering at the rural municipality level, the prevalence of all impact and outcome measures was not significantly different on farms grouped according to years of AHSN participation. To illustrate, the adjusted relative risk of reporting no rollover protection on tractors among farms with none (0 years) versus high (>8 years) levels of AHSN participation was 0.95 (95% CI 0.69 to 1.30). The adjusted relative risk for agricultural injuries (all types) reported for the year before the survey was 0.99 (95% CI 0.74 to 1.32). Educational interventions delivered via the AHSN program were not associated with observable differences in farm safety practices, physical farm hazards, or farm-related injury outcomes. There is a need for the agricultural sector to extend the scope of its injury prevention initiatives to include the full public health model of education, engineering, and regulation.
Full Text Available Background: Prevention of breeding of Aedes mosquito is an effective method for dengue control. Practice of source reduction to prevent breeding depends on the knowledge of the community, which can be improved by health education. Objectives: Our objective was to ascertain the knowledge and practice of the community regarding dengue and its prevention, and to assess the effectiveness of individual health education on practice of dengue prevention. Methodology: In urban service area of JIPMER, using Street-wise cluster sampling pre and post intervention data collection was done. Intervention was “Individual health education on the practice of dengue prevention”. Main outcome measures were Awareness and practice regarding dengue prevention. McNemar’s test was used in the analysis. Results: A total of 351 respondents were studied of whom 89% knew that dengue was spread by mosquitoes. Only one-fourths knew about the correct biting time and breeding condition of Aedes mosquitoes. Practice regarding draining of unused tyres, coolers, flower vases, disposal of coconut shells and keeping unused flower pots upturned were found to improve significantly after health education. Conclusions: Individual health education was effective in improving the practice of source reduction in a community with poor knowledge of vector biting and breeding habits.
Jeihooni, Ali Khani; Hidarnia, Alireza; Kaveh, Mohammad Hossein; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim; Askari, Alireza
Osteoporosis is the most common metabolic bone disease. The study's objective is to investigate the effect of an educational program based on Health Belief Model (HBM) on preventing osteoporosis in women. In this quasi-experimental study, 120 patients (60 experimental and 60 control) who were registered under the health centers in Fasa City, Fars Province, Iran, were selected in 2014. A questionnaire consisting of demographic information, HBM constructs was used to measure nutrition and walking performance for the prevention of osteoporosis before, immediately after intervention, and 6 months later. Bone mineral density (BMD) was recorded at the lumbar spine and femur before and 6 months after intervention. The mean age of women participated in the study was 41.75 ± 5.4 years for the experimental group, and 41.77 ± 5.43 years for the control group. The mean body mass index was 22.44 ± 3.30 for the experimental group and 22.27 ± 3.05 for the control group. The average number of women deliveries for the experimental group was 2.57 ± 1.47 and 2.50 ± 1.19 for the control group. There is no significant difference between the two groups in education level (P = 0.771), marital status (P = 0.880), occupation (P = 0.673), breastfeeding (P = 0.769), smoking (P = 0.315), history of osteoporosis in the family (P = 0.378), history of special diseases (P = 0.769), and records of bone densitometry (P = 0.543). Immediately and 6 months after intervention, the experimental group showed a significant increase in the knowledge, perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, self-efficacy, internal cues to action, nutrition, and walking performance compared to the control group. Six months after intervention, the value of lumbar spine BMD T-score in the experimental group increased to 0.127, while in the control group it reduced to -0.043. The value of the hip BMD T-score in the intervention group increased to 0.125, but it decreased to -0
Ali Khani Jeihooni
Full Text Available Background: Osteoporosis is the most common metabolic bone disease. The study′s objective is to investigate the effect of an educational program based on Health Belief Model (HBM on preventing osteoporosis in women. Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 120 patients (60 experimental and 60 control who were registered under the health centers in Fasa City, Fars Province, Iran, were selected in 2014. A questionnaire consisting of demographic information, HBM constructs was used to measure nutrition and walking performance for the prevention of osteoporosis before, immediately after intervention, and 6 months later. Bone mineral density (BMD was recorded at the lumbar spine and femur before and 6 months after intervention. Results: The mean age of women participated in the study was 41.75 ± 5.4 years for the experimental group, and 41.77 ± 5.43 years for the control group. The mean body mass index was 22.44 ± 3.30 for the experimental group and 22.27 ± 3.05 for the control group. The average number of women deliveries for the experimental group was 2.57 ± 1.47 and 2.50 ± 1.19 for the control group. There is no significant difference between the two groups in education level (P = 0.771, marital status (P = 0.880, occupation (P = 0.673, breastfeeding (P = 0.769, smoking (P = 0.315, history of osteoporosis in the family (P = 0.378, history of special diseases (P = 0.769, and records of bone densitometry (P = 0.543. Immediately and 6 months after intervention, the experimental group showed a significant increase in the knowledge, perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, self-efficacy, internal cues to action, nutrition, and walking performance compared to the control group. Six months after intervention, the value of lumbar spine BMD T-score in the experimental group increased to 0.127, while in the control group it reduced to −0.043. The value of the hip BMD T-score in the intervention group
This study, generally aims to know the background of the rise of radicalism and a portrait of the role, the Education Management reduced the radical movements, especially in the village of Tenggulun Subdistrict Solokuro Lamongan East Java Province. The study used a qualitative approach with grounded theory method. Analysis of data using open…
A positive initiative needs to be taken to place more emphasis on undergraduate education in the field of nuclear engineering in Australia. Excellent facilities exist at the AAEC to aid tertiary institutions. Many excellent opportunities also exist for developing post-graduate research projects in nuclear technology
An Examination of Secondary School Teachers' Technology Integration Recommended by ISTE's National Educational Technology Standards for Teachers and School Principal Support for Teacher Technology Efforts
The National Educational Technology Standards for teachers (NETS-T) was adopted by New York State, and was critical to the development of students entering a global society. This study examines teachers' use of digital tools to promote student learning and reflection, promote digital citizenship, communicate and collaborate with parents and…
Wakeland, Wayne; Nielsen, Alexandra; Schmidt, Teresa D.; McCarty, Dennis; Webster, Lynn R.; Fitzgerald, John; Haddox, J. David
Three educational interventions were simulated in a system dynamics model of the medical use, trafficking, and nonmedical use of pharmaceutical opioids. The study relied on secondary data obtained in the literature for the period of 1995 to 2008 as well as expert panel recommendations regarding model parameters and structure. The behavior of the…
Orton, Elizabeth; Whitehead, Jessica; Mhizha-Murira, Jacqueline; Clarkson, Mandy; Watson, Michael C; Mulvaney, Caroline A; Staniforth, Joy Ul; Bhuchar, Munish; Kendrick, Denise
Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death in children aged four to 18 years and are a major cause of ill health. The school setting offers the opportunity to deliver preventive interventions to a large number of children and has been used to address a range of public health problems. However, the effectiveness of the school setting for the prevention of different injury mechanisms in school-aged children is not well understood. To assess the effects of school-based educational programmes for the prevention of injuries in children and evaluate their impact on improving children's safety skills, behaviour and practices, and knowledge, and assess their cost-effectiveness. We ran the most recent searches up to 16 September 2016 for the following electronic databases: Cochrane Injuries Group Specialised Register; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials; Ovid MEDLINE(R), Ovid MEDLINE(R) In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations; Ovid MEDLINE(R) Daily and Ovid OLDMEDLINE(R); Embase and Embase Classic (Ovid); ISI Web of Science: Science Citation Index Expanded; ISI Web of Science Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science; ISI Web of Science: Social Sciences Citation Index; ISI Web of Science: Conference Proceedings Citation Index - Social Sciences & Humanities; and the 14 October 2016 for the following electronic databases: Health Economics Evaluations Database (HEED); Health Technology Assessment Database (HTA); CINAHL Plus (EBSCO); ZETOC; LILACS; PsycINFO; ERIC; Dissertation Abstracts Online; IBSS; BEI; ASSIA; CSA Sociological Abstracts; Injury Prevention Web; SafetyLit; EconLit (US); PAIS; UK Clinical Research Network Study Portfolio; Open Grey; Index to Theses in the UK and Ireland; Bibliomap and TRoPHI. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomised controlled trials (non-RCTs), and controlled before-and-after (CBA) studies that evaluated school-based educational programmes aimed at preventing a range of injury mechanisms. The
Moore, Susan Fordney
The purpose of this paper is to provide the beginning counselor with an overview of prevention concepts. Prevention is a relatively new emphasis in community efforts to stem the rising costs of substance abuse and other high-risk behaviors. The paper discusses agent, host, and environmental prevention models and how they relate to causal theories…
St John, K. K.; Jones, M. H.; Leckie, R. M.; Pound, K. S.; Krissek, L. A.
The context for understanding modern global climate change lies in the records of Earth's past. This is demonstrated by decades of paleoclimate research by scientists in organizations such as IODP and ANDRILL, yet making that science accessible to educators has been a long-standing challenge. Furthermore, content transfer is not enough; in science education, addressing how we know is as important as addressing what we know about science. To that end, our initial NSF-CCLI/TUES objective of Teaching Anchor Concepts of Climate Change (NSF #0737335) was to put authentic data and published case studies of past climate change at students' fingertips in a series of 7 multipart inquiry-based exercise modules for undergraduate classroom and lab use. After 4 years of funding (incl. 2 no-cost extensions) we surpassed our project objective and established an avenue for sustainability that is proving successful. The purpose of this presentation is to share (1) the process by which we developed the curriculum and (2) the strategies used to ensure sustainability. The curriculum development process reflected many of the same successful strategies used in scientific research. It drew on the knowledge and skills of the team; it was collaborative, iterative, and primarily distributive, yet at times directive. The team included paleoclimate researchers and educators from a broad range of undergraduate institutions. We evaluated published data from scientific reports and peer-reviewed journal articles, and used these as the foundation for writing curriculum that was data-rich and inquiry-based. In total 14 multipart exercise modules were developed. The feedback from early and frequent meeting presentations, from formative evaluation by students in courses and by faculty in workshops, and from peer-review by paleoclimate scientists and undergraduate educators helped us fine-tune the materials to the needs of the education and paleoclimate science communities. It additionally helped us
Lakestani, Nelly; Donaldson, Morag L.
This study aimed to investigate whether preschool children can learn how to interpret dogs’ behaviours, with the purpose of helping avoid dog bites. Three- to five-year-old children (N = 70) were tested on their ability to answer questions about dogs’ emotional states before and after participating in either an educational intervention about dog behaviour (intervention group) or an activity about wild animals (control group). Children who had received training about dog behaviour (intervention group) were significantly better at judging the dogs’ emotional states after the intervention compared to before. The frequency with which they referred to relevant behaviours in justifying their judgements also increased significantly. In contrast, the control group’s performance did not differ significantly between the two testing times. These results indicate that preschool children can be taught how to correctly interpret dogs’ behaviours. This implies that incorporating such training into prevention programmes may contribute to reducing dog bite incidents. PMID:26287686
Wagner, Jordan; Clodfelter, Sharon
From 2005 to 2008, Washoe County, Nevada, child care centers experienced an increase in illnesses from communicable disease outbreaks. The number of ill children and caregivers from these outbreaks went from 26 in 2005 to 266 in 2008, an increase of 923%. A clear need to reverse this trend existed. Therefore, in 2009 Washoe County strengthened its regulations for child care facilities by adding numerous communicable disease prevention standards. In addition, in 2009 a two-year education, evaluation, and inspection program was implemented at Washoe County child care centers. Following the implementation of this program, a decline occurred in the number of illnesses. The number of ill children and caregivers from outbreaks went from 266 in 2008 to 13 in 2011, a decrease of 95%.
Alfonso Blasco Gutierrez
Full Text Available En el presente artículo se presenta una práctica académica que aporta una visión de la evolución de los esfuerzos resultantes en vigas debido a las cargas concentradas o distribuidas en vigas isostáticamente apoyadas. Debido a la versatilidad del sistema se pueden realizar medidas dinámicas cambiando la disposición geométrica de la carga o su valor observando en tiempo real el cambio en los esfuerzos medidos. Por contraposición a las medidas clásicas de esfuerzos, consistentes en la sucesión de medidas estáticas costosas en tiempo y que suelen conllevar que los alumnos “desconecten” de la práctica, la capacidad de realizar medidas dinámicas permite que los alumnos adquieran una comprensión rápida y más intuitiva de cómo cambian los esfuerzos que afectan a la viga (elemento estructural en función de la carga. El coste de los materiales y la infraestructura necesarios para esta práctica es lo suficientemente bajo como para que sea posible su implementación en casi cualquier centro formativo. Abstract This work shows a new teaching practice focused on a better understanding of the efforts on beams, both owing to concentrated or distributed loads in isostatically supported beams. Due to the system versatility, it can obtain dynamic measurements changing the geometric arrangement of the load or its values. The system allows us to obtain, in real time, the measurements of efforts. By contrast to the classical measurements, that consist in the succession of static measures which during for so long and entail the students don’t pay attention to the practice. This ability to get dynamic measurements allows that students get an intuitive knowledge and a better understanding of how the efforts affect the beam (structural element versus the load. The cost of materials needed to carry out this practice and its own infrastructure is very low and because of that, is affordable for the most academic centers.
Full Text Available El Salvador was one of three countries to receive funding from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria to conduct a combination HIV prevention intervention among transwomen (TW, men who have sex with men (MSM, and commercial sex workers (CSW. Program evaluation revealed that prevention activities reached only 50% of the target population. The purpose of this study is to examine the barriers that Salvadoran educators faced in implementing the peer education as designed and adaptations made as a result. Between March and June 2015, 18 in-depth interviews with educators were conducted. Violence was reported as the biggest barrier to intervention implementation. Other barriers differed by subpopulation. The level of violence and discrimination calls into question the feasibility and appropriateness of peer-led interventions in the Salvadoran context and demonstrates the importance of implementation research when translating HIV prevention interventions developed in high-income countries to low- and middle-income countries.
Full Text Available Introduction: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in many countries. Its prevention has been discussed by the World Health Organization. The current study determined the effect of an educational program designed to raise awareness about cardiovascular disease based on the health belief model on the preventative nutrition behavior of women aged 30-45 years. Result: Educational intervention increased the scores for knowledge and health belief model structures except when barriers were perceived (The mean consumption of calories, carbohydrates, fats, fatty acids, salt, milk groups, bread and cereals decreased, but the consumption of milk, dairy products and vegetables increased (p < 0.05. Education based on the health belief model effectively increased knowledge and promoted nutritional behavior for the prevention of cardiovascular disease.
Full Text Available Background Osteoporosis is the most common metabolic bone disease that decreases bone mass, causes destruction and eventually friability. This disease is preventable, and because adolescent females are the high-risk population, teaching this age group is of the utmost importance. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of the two educational methods (Lecture and Pamphlet on osteoporosis preventive behaviors among female students. Materials and Methods: This was a randomized clinical trial (RCT. To collect data, demographic questionnaire, food frequency questionnaire (FFQ, and physical activity questionnaire were used. Subjects were 205 seventh-grade girls who were selected by multistage random method and allocated in two experimental (Lecture = 68, Pamphlet = 67 and 70 for control group. In the Lecture group, there were 5 sessions of training, each of which lasted 60 minutes. In the Pamphlet group, only educational pamphlets were given, and no interventions were performed in the control group. Data were analyzed through statistical software SPSS version 21.0. Descriptive statistics, chi-square tests, t-test and ANOVA were applied to analyze the data. Results: The mean age of the students was 13 + 0.856 years old and there was no difference in terms of demographic variables between intervention and control groups. The results identified the mean scores of physical activity behaviors significantly improved two mounts after the intervention in the lecture group (P=0.001.While, the men scores of the pamphlet group had no significant changes after two months, but the differences of the both group compared to the control group were significant. Considering the significant decreased in the control group (P= 001. The mean scores of calcium intake in the two lecture and pamphlet groups significantly increased (P
Myers, E.; Coppin, P.; Wagner, M.; Fischer, K.; Lu, L.; McCloskey, R.; Seneker, D.; Cabrol, N.; Wettergreen, D.; Waggoner, A.
The EventScope educational telepresence project has been involved with education and public outreach for a number of NASA-sponsored missions including the Mars Exploration Rovers, the Odyssey Mission, and the Life in the Atacama project. However, during the second year of operations in the Atacama, a modified version of the EventScope public interface was used as the remote science operations interface. In addition, the EventScope lab hosted remote science operations. This intimate connection with the mission operations allowed the EventScope team to bring the experience of the mission to the public in near real-time. Playing to this strength, the lab developed strategies for releasing E/PO content as close to real-time as possible.
Cowan, Stephanie; Pease, Anna; Bennett, Sharon
This paper describes the usage, impact and reach of an online education tool for preventing sudden infant death. A 24-slide presentation was formatted for online access. Content was designed for mainstream audiences to align current knowledge, attitudes and actions for a blitz approach to preventing sudden infant death in New Zealand (NZ). The tool was promoted through a network of 'safe sleep' champions across the country and collected basic information on usage, reach and impact. From 3286 completed online sessions between 18 November 2009 and 31 December 2011, there were 2683 (81.7%) with complete data. Average usage was 24.4 completed sessions/week, over a 2-year period, at a cost of NZD1.11 per completed session. Usage reached across regions, ethnic groups and roles. On completion of the course, most rated highly (7-9/9) (68.8%) their 'increased confidence' to discuss infant sleep safety with others. A high increased confidence rating was significantly influenced by spending more time per slide (P effective impact on increasing confidence to discuss infant sleep safety with others. e-Learning modes should be considered where there is a need to align large numbers of people in a short time with understandings and actions for addressing a specific health issue. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2013 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
Aguiar, Elroy J; Morgan, Philip J; Collins, Clare E; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Young, Myles D; Callister, Robin
Self-administered lifestyle interventions have been suggested as an alternative to face-to-face delivery modes, although their efficacy remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the Type 2 diabetes mellitus Prevention Using LifeStyle Education (PULSE) Program, a self-administered and gender-tailored lifestyle intervention for men at high risk for developing Type 2 diabetes mellitus. A 6-month, assessor-blinded, parallel-group RCT was conducted at the University of Newcastle, Australia in 2012-2013. Men (aged 18-65 years, BMI 25-40 kg/m(2), high risk for developing Type 2 diabetes mellitus) were stratified by age (50 years) and BMI category (25.0-29.9, 30.0-35.9, and 35.0-40 kg/m(2)) and individually randomized (1:1 ratio) to the intervention (n=53) or waitlist control groups (n=48). The intervention group received the PULSE Program, which contained print and video resources on weight loss (Self-Help, Exercise and Diet using Internet Technology [SHED-IT] Weight Loss Program), diet modification, and exercise for Type 2 diabetes mellitus prevention. The waitlist control group received no information until 6 months. Data were collected from September 2012 to September 2013 and analyzed in 2014-2015. Linear mixed models (intention-to-treat) were used to determine group X time interactions (differences between groups in changes over time) at 6 months for the primary outcome (weight), glycated hemoglobin, and several secondary outcomes (significance level, plifestyle intervention, which has potential for dissemination in community settings. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Susan Zief; Rachel Shapiro; Debra Strong
Congress created the Personal Responsibility Education Program (PREP), an initiative to fund evidence-based teen pregnancy prevention programs, in 2010 to help reduce teen pregnancies and their negative consequences. The evaluation will expand the knowledge base on teen pregnancy prevention programs and help to identify decisions, successes, and challenges involved in replicating, adapting, and scaling up evidence-based programs. This issue brief documents key decisions state grantees made ab...
Feruglio, G A
In this symposium an extensive review of the basic role of health education for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, has been made. Principles and methods have been analysed in the light of recent advances in primary and secondary prevention of rheumatic heart disease, ischemic heart disease and hypertension. The cardiologist's role in health education of individual subjects and of high-risk target groups or of the whole community, has been stressed. Recent trials have shown that it is possible to achieve behavioural changes and a reduction in the levels of risk factors in a good proportion of participants. It should be possible to bring up children virtually free from risk factors. Cardiologists on their own are unlikely to succeed in a program of prevention. They need the help of many others including public health workers, sociologists, nurses and above all, general practitioners. Cardiologists however have responsibility for leadership and for providing background knowledge. Cardiologists need to be educated and motivated. Health education should be founded on a scientific basis and should be organized in an efficient and planned fashion. Medical and post-graduated schools, hospital institutions and cardiological associations must be specifically involved in preparing the cardiologists for this specific task. On the other hand, dedicated teams or sections in the cardiological departments must be activated to promote, coordinate and carry out specific programs of health education for preventing cardiovascular diseases. The attention of governmental authorities should be drawn to the theoretical and practical importance of health education in preventive cardiology, especially in connection with the planning, organization and direction of health education at the regional and national level.
Tingey, Lauren; Larzelere-Hinton, Francene; Goklish, Novalene; Ingalls, Allison; Craft, Todd; Sprengeler, Feather; McGuire, Courtney; Barlow, Allison
American Indian (AI) adolescents suffer the largest disparities in substance use and suicide. Predominating prevention models focus primarily on risk and utilize deficit-based approaches. The fields of substance use and suicide prevention research urge for positive youth development frameworks that are strength based and target change at individual and community levels. Entrepreneurship education is an innovative approach that reflects the gap in available programs. This paper describes the development and evaluation of a youth entrepreneurship education program in partnership with one AI community. We detail the curriculum, process evaluation results, and the randomized controlled trial evaluating its efficacy for increasing protective factors. Lessons learned may be applicable to other AI communities.
Gonzalez, Gerardo M.; Moreno, Veronica Kaune
The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of adapting and implementing in La Paz, Bolivia a drug education course originally developed for use in the middle schools in the United States. On the basis of teacher and student evaluations, it was concluded that the unit is a viable, culturally relevant and effective method of drug education in the public and private schools in La Paz. Implications for the prevention of other health-related problems and for implementation of a demandreduction strategy to prevent drug abuse throughout the Americas are discussed.
Moura, Ionara Holanda de; Silva, Antônia Fabiana Rodrigues da; Rocha, Aparecida do Espírito Santo de Holanda; Lima, Luisa Helena de Oliveira; Moreira, Thereza Maria Magalhães; Silva, Ana Roberta Vilarouca da
To develop and validate an educational technology focused on prevention of metabolic syndrome among adolescents. This was methodological research. Using an integrative review, the available publications on the subject were analyzed. Then, this knowledge was used to describe the theoretical content and, with the help of a graphic designer, the art and layout of the pages were developed. In the third phase, the booklet was evaluated and validated by 21 specialists and 39 adolescents. Data collection included three different questionnaires, according to the focus of evaluation of each group of participants, analyzed for reliability (Cronbach's Alpha) and agreement by Infraclass Correlation Coefficient. The mean score attributed by technical content experts was 91.7%, and the content validity index, measured by experts responses, was 0.98, showing high reliability and agreement. In addition, the level of agreement of the positive responses given by adolescents was 88.4%. the educational booklet has proved to be a valid and reliable tool to be used for promoting adolescent health.
Wu, Kin Bing
In the aftermath of the Wenchuan earthquake, measures to restore education will be a critical part of the recovery efforts in Sichuan province. The education system can play an important role in both: (i) minimizing the impact of the disaster on children; and (ii) improving disaster preparedness. To help restore normalcy for children and provide them with physical and psychological assista...
Cordeiro, Luana Ibiapina; Lopes, Thais de Oliveira; Lira, Luciane Elise de Abreu; Feitoza, Sarah Maria de Sousa; Bessa, Maria Eliana Peixoto; Pereira, Maria Lúcia Duarte; Feitoza, Aline Rodrigues; Souza, Adriano Rodrigues de
To describe the process of manufacturing and validation of an educational booklet for HIV/Aids prevention in older adults. Methodological study developed in two phases - manufacturing of the booklet and validation of the educational material by judges. The manufacturing process involved a situational diagnosis with older adults, and its result indicated gaps in the knowledge with respect to HIV/Aids. The validation process was performed by nine judges, selected by convenience. It was considered an agreement index of at least 0.80, analyzed through the content validity index. We opted for a dialogue between two older adults divided into three categories: myths and taboos; ignorance; and prevention and importance of diagnosis. The average of the items was 0.90. The suggestions made by the judges were observed and modified for the final version. The material had relevant content for the judges, in addition to being able to be used by health professionals in the education and clarification of issues on the subject. Descrever o processo de construção e validação de cartilha educativa para prevenção de HIV/Aids em idosos. Estudo metodológico desenvolvido em duas etapas - construção da cartilha e validação do material educativo por juízes. O processo de construção envolveu um diagnóstico situacional com idosos, cujo resultado apontou lacunas no conhecimento com relação ao HIV/Aids. Já o processo de validação foi realizado por nove juízes, selecionados por conveniência. Considerou-se uma concordância de no mínimo 0,80, analisado pelo índice de validade de conteúdo. Optou-se por um diálogo entre dois idosos dividido em três categorias: mitos e tabus; desconhecimento; e prevenção e importância do diagnóstico. A média dos itens foi de 0,90. As sugestões realizadas pelos juízes foram acatadas e modificadas para a versão final. O material apresentou conteúdo relevante para os juízes, além de poder ser utilizado pelos profissionais de sa
Traeger, Adrian C; Moseley, G Lorimer; Hübscher, Markus; Lee, Hopin; Skinner, Ian W; Nicholas, Michael K; Henschke, Nicholas; Refshauge, Kathryn M; Blyth, Fiona M; Main, Chris J; Hush, Julia M; Pearce, Garry; McAuley, James H
Low back pain (LBP) is the leading cause of disability worldwide. Of those patients who present to primary care with acute LBP, 40% continue to report symptoms 3 months later and develop chronic LBP. Although it is possible to identify these patients early, effective interventions to improve their outcomes are not available. This double-blind (participant/outcome assessor) randomised controlled trial will investigate the efficacy of a brief educational approach to prevent chronic LBP in 'at-risk' individuals. Participants will be recruited from primary care practices in the Sydney metropolitan area. To be eligible for inclusion participants will be aged 18-75 years, with acute LBP (free period and at-risk of developing chronic LBP. Potential participants with chronic spinal pain and those with suspected serious spinal pathology will be excluded. Eligible participants who agree to take part will be randomly allocated to receive 2×1 h sessions of pain biology education or 2×1 h sessions of sham education from a specially trained study physiotherapist. The study requires 101 participants per group to detect a 1-point difference in pain intensity 3 months after pain onset. Secondary outcomes include the incidence of chronic LBP, disability, pain intensity, depression, healthcare utilisation, pain attitudes and beliefs, global recovery and recurrence and are measured at 1 week post-intervention, and at 3, 6 and 12 months post LBP onset. Ethical approval was obtained from the University of New South Wales Human Ethics Committee in June 2013 (ref number HC12664). Outcomes will be disseminated through publication in peer-reviewed journals and presentations at international conference meetings. https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?ACTRN=12612001180808. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Jozkowski, Kristen N
Sexual assault is prevalent in the United States, particularly among college women. Prevention programs are implemented to combat assault, yet rates have not changed for five decades. A course designed to deconstruct contextualized factors contributing to assault was developed as an alternative prevention initiative. The current study assessed the effectiveness of the course compared with a traditional program via in-depth interviews with students. Findings indicated that students in the course were more likely to acknowledge underlying determinants of sexual assault and articulate how such behaviors could lead to assault. The course could be an effective approach to sexual assault prevention education. © The Author(s) 2015.
Roh, HyeRin; Lee, Kuhn Uk; Lee, Yoon Seong; Kim, Ock Joo; Kim, Sun Whe; Choi, Jae Woon
The aims of this study were to define the necessity and effectiveness of patient safety education during surgical clerkship to develop competency for managing and preventing medical errors. Fifty 3rd-year students participated in the patient safety education program during a 4-week surgical clerkship. The students were divided into 4 groups: control group, pretest-only group, education-only group, and pretest and education group. Students were assessed using short essays and an oral exam for reasoning skills, clinical performance exams for patient education and communication skills, and multisource feedback and direct observation of error reporting for real-world problem-solving skills. The results were analyzed with SPSS 14.0K. The reliability (Cronbach alpha) of the entire assessment was 0.893. There was no difference in scores between early and late clerkship groups. Reasoning skills were improved by the pretest. Reasoning, patient education, and error reporting skills were much more developed by patient safety education. Real-world error identification, reporting, and communication did not change after the 4-week course. Patient safety education during surgical clerkship is necessary and effective. Error prevention and competency management in the real world should developed.
Hill, Anne-Marie; Francis-Coad, Jacqueline; Haines, Terry P; Waldron, Nicholas; Etherton-Beer, Christopher; Flicker, Leon; Ingram, Katharine; McPhail, Steven M
Objectives The aim of the study was to determine how providing individualised falls prevention education facilitated behaviour change from the perspective of older hospital patients on rehabilitation wards and what barriers they identified to engaging in preventive strategies. Design A prospective qualitative survey. Methods Older patients (n=757) who were eligible (mini-mental state examination score>23/30) received falls prevention education while admitted to eight rehabilitation hospital wards in Western Australia. Subsequently, 610 participants were surveyed using a semistructured questionnaire to gain their response to the in-hospital education and their identified barriers to engaging in falls prevention strategies. Deductive content analysis was used to map responses against conceptual frameworks of health behaviour change and risk taking. Results Participants who responded (n=473) stated that the education raised their awareness, knowledge and confidence to actively engage in falls prevention strategies, such as asking for assistance prior to mobilising. Participants’ thoughts and feelings about their recovery were the main barriers they identified to engaging in safe strategies, including feeling overconfident or desiring to be independent and thinking that staff would be delayed in providing assistance. The most common task identified as potentially leading to risk-taking behaviour was needing to use the toilet. Conclusions Individualised education assists older hospital rehabilitation patients with good levels of cognition to engage in suitable falls prevention strategies while on the ward. Staff should engage with patients to understand their perceptions about their recovery and support patients to take an active role in planning their rehabilitation. PMID:27466244
Harrod, Curtis S; Goss, Cynthia W; Stallones, Lorann; DiGuiseppi, Carolyn
Suicide is a leading cause of death among post-secondary students worldwide. Suicidal thoughts and planning are common among post-secondary students. Previous reviews have examined the effectiveness of interventions for symptomatic individuals; however, many students at high risk of suicide are undiagnosed and untreated. We evaluated the effect on suicide and suicide-related outcomes of primary suicide prevention interventions that targeted students within the post-secondary setting. We searched the following sources up to June 2011: Specialised Registers of two Cochrane Groups, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and nine other databases, trial registers, conference proceedings, and websites of national and international organizations. We screened reference lists and contacted authors of included studies to identify additional studies. We updated the search in November 2013; we will include these results in the review's next update. We included studies that tested an intervention for the primary prevention of suicide using a randomized controlled trial (RCT), controlled before-and-after (CBA), controlled interrupted time series (CITS), or interrupted time series (ITS) study design. Interventions targeted students within the post-secondary setting (i.e. college, university, academy, vocational, or any other post-secondary educational institution) without known mental illness, previous suicide attempt or self-harm, or suicidal ideation. Outcomes included suicides, suicide attempts, suicidal ideation, changes in suicide-related knowledge, attitudes and behavior, and availability of means of suicide. We used standardized electronic forms for data extraction, risk of bias and quality of evidence determination, and analysis. We estimated standardised mean differences (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We analysed studies by intervention type and study design. We summarized RCT effect sizes using random-effects models meta-analyses; and analysed
Neumann, Mary Spink; Finlayson, Teresa J; Pitts, Nicole L; Keatley, JoAnne
Transgender persons are at high risk for HIV infection, but prevention efforts specifically targeting these people have been minimal. Part of the challenge of HIV prevention for transgender populations is that numerous individual, interpersonal, social, and structural factors contribute to their risk. By combining HIV prevention services with complementary medical, legal, and psychosocial services, transgender persons' HIV risk behaviors, risk determinants, and overall health can be affected simultaneously. For maximum health impact, comprehensive HIV prevention for transgender persons warrants efforts targeted to various impact levels-socioeconomic factors, decision-making contexts, long-lasting protections, clinical interventions, and counseling and education. We present current HIV prevention efforts that reach transgender persons and present others for future consideration.
Full Text Available ... Watchful Waiting and Education Injection Treatments for Spinal Pain Epidural Steroid Injections Lumbar Zygapophysical (Facet) Joint Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle Choices 10 ...
Richard R Rosenkranz
Full Text Available Service-learning is a type of experiential teaching and learning strategy combining classroom instruction and meaningful community service and guided activities for reflection. This educational approach has been used frequently in higher education settings, including an array of disciplines such as medicine, theology, public health, physical education, nutrition, psychology, anthropology, and sociology. The purpose of the present review paper was to provide guidance on the use of service-learning within higher education, relevant to the preventive medicine and public health topics of healthful eating, physical activity, and obesity prevention. In service-learning, coursework is structured to address community needs, and to benefit students through the real-world application of knowledge. The benefits for students include positive impacts on social skills, empathy, awareness, understanding, and concern regarding community issues, plus greater confidence and skills to work with diverse populations, increased awareness of community resources, improved motivation, and enhanced knowledge. Educational institutions may also benefit through improved "town and gown" relations, as strong ties, partnerships, and mutually beneficial activities take place. The present literature review describes several service-learning applications such as nutrition education for kids, dietary improvement for seniors, foodservice recipe modification on a college campus, an intergenerational physical activity program for nursing home residents, motor skill development in kindergarteners, organized elementary school recess physical activities, health education, and obesity prevention in children. From this review, service-learning appears to have great potential as a flexible component of academic coursework in the areas of preventive medicine and public health.
Zachariah, Bobby; de Wit, Emma E.; Bahirat, Jyotsna Dnyaneshwar; Bunders-Aelen, Joske F.G.; Regeer, Barbara J.
Youth suicide is a public health problem in India, and young people in school, particularly adolescents, experience heavy psychological burden. Prevention programs, involving peer educators (PEs), have proved useful strategies to address this problem, but their impact on the PEs is less understood,
Walsh, Kerryann; Zwi, Karen; Woolfenden, Susan; Shlonsky, Aron
Objective: To assess evidence of the effectiveness of school-based education programs for the prevention of child sexual abuse (CSA). The programs deliver information about CSA and strategies to help children avoid it and encourage help seeking. Methods: Systematic review including meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), cluster…
Lee, Den-Ching A.; Pritchard, Elizabeth; McDermott, Fiona; Haines, Terry P.
Objectives: To assess the effectiveness of patient education in reducing falls, promoting behavioural change and the uptake of prevention activities in older adults during and after hospitalization. Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods: A systematic search of five health science databases was performed up to November 2012. Studies…
Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Simons-Morton, Denise G.; Ramirez, Gilbert; Frankowski, Ralph F.; Green, Lawrence W.; Mains, Douglas A.
The overall effectiveness of patient education and counseling on preventive health behaviors was examined across published clinical trials, 1971-1994. The effectiveness of various approaches for modifying specific types of behaviors among patients without diagnosed disease was assessed. Multiple regression models indicated differences among…
Data breach prevention is a battle, rarely plain and never simple. For higher education institutions, the Sisyphean aspects of the task are more complex than for industry and business. Two-year colleges have payrolls and vendor contracts like those enterprises. They also have public record and student confidentiality requirements. Colleges must…
Burke, H. M.; Pedersen, K. F.; Williamson, N. E.
Youth peer education (YPE) programs are a popular strategy for HIV prevention in sub-Saharan Africa. However, research on the effectiveness of YPE programs is scarce and the wide variation in programs makes it difficult to generalize research findings. Measuring quality and comparing program effectiveness require the use of standardized…
Kafonek, Katherine; Richards, Tara N.
Although gender-based violence prevention programs at institutions of higher education (IHEs) are mandated by federal legislation, research focusing on the prevalence or content of programming is limited. The present exploratory research examines campus websites for a nationally representative sample of Title IX eligible IHEs that offer at least a…
Ward, Dianne S; Welker, Emily; Choate, Ashley; Henderson, Kathryn E; Lott, Megan; Tovar, Alison; Wilson, Amanda; Sallis, James F
2010-2015; INTERNATIONAL: Given the high levels of obesity in young children, numbers of children in out-of-home care, and data suggesting a link between early care and education (ECE) participation and overweight/obesity, obesity prevention in ECE settings is critical. As the field has progressed, a number of interventions have been reviewed yet there is a need to summarize the data using more sophisticated analyses to answer questions on the effectiveness of interventions. We conducted a systematic review of obesity prevention interventions in center-based ECE settings published between 2010 and 2015. Our goal was to identify promising intervention characteristics associated with successful behavioral and anthropometric outcomes. A rigorous search strategy resulted in 43 interventions that met inclusion criteria. We developed a coding strategy to assess intervention strength, used a validated study quality assessment tool, and presented detailed descriptive information about interventions (e.g., target behaviors, intervention strategies, and mode of delivery). Intervention strength was positively correlated with reporting of positive anthropometric outcomes for physical activity, diet, and combined interventions, and parent engagement components increased the strength of these relationships. Study quality was modestly related to percent successful healthy eating outcomes. Relationships between intervention strength and behavioral outcomes demonstrated negative relationships for all behavioral outcomes. Specific components of intervention strength (number of intervention strategies, potential impact of strategies, frequency of use, and duration of intervention) were correlated with some of the anthropometric and parent engagement outcomes. The review provided tentative evidence that multi-component, multi-level ECE interventions with parental engagement are most likely to be effective with anthropometric outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights
Salmun, H.; Buonaiuto, F. S.
The Catalyst Scholarship Program at Hunter College of The City University of New York (CUNY) was established with a four-year award from the National Science Foundation (NSF) to fund scholarships for academically talented but financially disadvantaged students majoring in four disciplines of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). Led by Earth scientists the Program awarded scholarships to students in their junior or senior years majoring in computer science, geosciences, mathematics and physics to create two cohorts of students that spent a total of four semesters in an interdisciplinary community. The program included mentoring of undergraduate students by faculty and graduate students (peer-mentoring), a sequence of three semesters of a one-credit seminar course and opportunities to engage in research activities, research seminars and other enriching academic experiences. Faculty and peer-mentoring were integrated into all parts of the scholarship activities. The one-credit seminar course, although designed to expose scholars to the diversity STEM disciplines and to highlight research options and careers in these disciplines, was thematically focused on geoscience, specifically on ocean and atmospheric science. The program resulted in increased retention rates relative to institutional averages. In this presentation we will discuss the process of establishing the program, from the original plans to its implementation, as well as the impact of this multidisciplinary approach to geoscience education at our institution and beyond. An overview of accomplishments, lessons learned and potential for best practices will be presented.
Walsh, Kerryann; Zwi, Karen; Woolfenden, Susan; Shlonsky, Aron
Child sexual abuse is a significant global problem in both magnitude and sequelae. The most widely used primary prevention strategy has been the provision of school-based education programmes. Although programmes have been taught in schools since the 1980s, their effectiveness requires ongoing scrutiny. To systematically assess evidence of the effectiveness of school-based education programmes for the prevention of child sexual abuse. Specifically, to assess whether: programmes are effective in improving students' protective behaviours and knowledge about sexual abuse prevention; behaviours and skills are retained over time; and participation results in disclosures of sexual abuse, produces harms, or both. In September 2014, we searched CENTRAL, Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE and 11 other databases. We also searched two trials registers and screened the reference lists of previous reviews for additional trials. We selected randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cluster-RCTs, and quasi-RCTs of school-based education interventions for the prevention of child sexual abuse compared with another intervention or no intervention. Two review authors independently assessed the eligibility of trials for inclusion, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. We summarised data for six outcomes: protective behaviours; knowledge of sexual abuse or sexual abuse prevention concepts; retention of protective behaviours over time; retention of knowledge over time; harm; and disclosures of sexual abuse. This is an update of a Cochrane Review that included 15 trials (up to August 2006). We identified 10 additional trials for the period to September 2014. We excluded one trial from the original review. Therefore, this update includes a total of 24 trials (5802 participants). We conducted several meta-analyses. More than half of the trials in each meta-analysis contained unit of analysis errors.1. Meta-analysis of two trials (n = 102) evaluating protective behaviours favoured intervention (odds
Asbridge, Mark; Smart, Reginald G; Mann, Robert E
Road rage has become a serious concern in many countries, and preventive efforts are required. This article reviews what can be done to prevent road rage by exploring potential prevention avenues in five areas. First, legal changes aimed at increasing the penalties for road rage behavior could be instituted, drawing on models from aggressive-driving or impaired-driving laws. A second approach would involve the adoption of court programs for convicted road ragers. Third, car redesign offers a means of reducing crime through environmental design. Fourth, mass media education could be implemented to inform drivers of the risk from road rage and how to avoid situations that facilitate road rage. Finally, prevention efforts could be directed to long-term societal changes that emphasize structural modifications, such as reducing congestion on the roads, reduced driver stress, or promoting public transportation. The strengths and weaknesses of these strategies are discussed.
Rivière, S; Gillette-Guyonnet, S; Voisin, T; Reynish, E; Andrieu, S; Lauque, S; Salva, A; Frisoni, G; Nourhashemi, F; Micas, M; Vellas, B
Weight loss is a common problem in patients with Alzheimer's Disease (AD). It is a predictive factor of mortality and it decreases patients' and caregivers' quality of life. To determine if a nutritional education program can prevent weight loss in AD patients. 151 AD patients and their caregivers were enrolled to follow the intervention and 74 AD patients and their caregivers constituted a control group. Caregivers in the intervention group followed 9 nutritional sessions of one hour each, over one year. Caregivers in the control group didn't follow any sessions but were offered advice provided in a normal follow-up. Patients weight, nutritional state, cognitive function, autonomy, mood, behaviour disorders at baseline and at 6- and 12-month follow-up. Caregivers burden, nutritional and AD knowledge at the baseline and at the 12-month follow-up. During the year follow-up, the mean weight increased in the intervention group (0.7+/-3.6 kg) whereas it decreased in the control group (-0.7+/-5.4 kg) (pnutritional status (MNA) was maintained in the intervention group (0.3+/-2.6) whereas it decreased significantly in the control group (-1.0+/-3.4) (pnutritional state, eating behaviour disorders, depression), the weight change between the two groups was not significant (0.6+/-0.4 kg vs. -0.6+/-0. 6 kg respectively in intervention group and control group). However, the percentage of patients with significant weight loss is decreased. The MMSE change became significant between the two groups: -2.3+/-0.3 vs. -3.4+/-0.4 respectively in intervention group and control group (pnutritional educational program intended for caregivers of AD patients could have a positive effect on patients weight and cognitive function.
Fritz, Marie F.; Miller, Maury
This paper briefly addresses critical issues in documenting studies of the effectiveness of inclusive education for students with disabilities and includes a summary table of the existing literature and guidelines for problem solving about inclusion. The importance of sound methodology in documenting effects of inclusion and the dangers of value…
Santos, Azenildo M
The current Brazilian situation is such that it is difficult to obtain a worldwide evaluation of failure in education, intervention, or prevention programs. How fragile Brazil's anti-doping system is, its appropriateness as well as its relevance, with needed policy infrastructures for achieving the selected goals, and how wide the gap is between education and prevention program effectiveness between high-performance athletes and recreational practitioners who just want to look good. An additional concern, and ever present flaw regarding Brazil's "common sportsman" in day-to-day society is their not receiving known and necessary "sports education," enabling the development of an "at-risk" population for self-harm. Reflections on public health policy are noted.
Windhaber, Thomas; Koula, Maria Lamprini; Ntzani, Evangelia; Velivasi, Alexandra; Rizos, Evangelos; Doumas, Michail Theofilos; Pappas, Evangelos Elias; Onder, Graziano; Vetrano, Davide Liborio; Roudriguez Laso, Angel; Roudriguez Manjas, Leocadio; Illario, Maddalena; Roller-Wirnsberger, Regina Elisabeth
In addition to the normal process of ageing, frailty, defined as a geriatric syndrome, is becoming more prevalent. Around 10% of people over 65 years and 25-50% of those aged over 85 years are frail. Frail elderly are more vulnerable to external stressors and have an increased risk of adverse health outcomes. To tackle these challenges, European Union (EU) member states need to develop a health work force capable of the right skills mix. A goal-centred education and training of professionals is crucial for effective and efficient health care delivery for Europe's greying population. The aim of this study was to systematically collect, review and critically appraise studies carried out to investigate the efficacy and effectiveness of comprehensive educational programmes for health professionals related to frailty prevention and/or frailty management. A systematic review was carried out searching the databases PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane CENTRAL, Medline, Up to date and Embase. Additionally, a manual search of the reference lists and searches via Google Scholar and greylit.org was done. No relevant publications addressing the evidence and sustainability of educational/training programmes for frailty prevention and/or frailty management were identified. The result of an empty review is surprising because several educational programmes in different countries are currently run. A significant knowledge gap exists in the scientific literature regarding education and training of health care workers regarding prevention and management of frailty. Further research is needed to identify effective educational strategies for health professionals to prevent and manage frailty.
Alberto José García Rubio
Full Text Available Currently, childhood obesity is one of the most important problems in the world health since in recent years has increased significantly in developed countries. The origin of this problem is due to a lifestyle based on little or no physical activity, coupled with poor and unbalanced diet. This condition, in turn, may adversely affect the formation of students due to low self esteem, depression and other psychological problems. The measures proposed are constant to the families of the students and the students themselves, through weekly lectures and workshops, which will take place in the school itself up. In addition, another measure would be to increase the number of hours of physical activity within the school timetable, taking advantage schedules for recreation and dining.The objective of the above work is to make a proposal, as a tool to prevent and treat overweight and obesity among children from the same education.The hypothesis of the project is that the BMI of the sample of the selected school will be reduced significantly due to changes in habits, promoted from this initiative, thereby improving their school performance. No conclusive results because it has not been implemented so far.
Report III, Volume 1 contains those specifications numbered A through J, as follows: General Specifications (A); Specifications for Pressure Vessels (C); Specifications for Tanks (D); Specifications for Exchangers (E); Specifications for Fired Heaters (F); Specifications for Pumps and Drivers (G); and Specifications for Instrumentation (J). The standard specifications of Bechtel Petroleum Incorporated have been amended as necessary to reflect the specific requirements of the Breckinridge Project, and the more stringent specifications of Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc. These standard specifications are available to the Initial Effort (Phase Zero) work performed by all contractors and subcontractors. Report III, Volume 1 also contains the unique specifications prepared for Plants 8, 15, and 27. These specifications will be substantially reviewed during Phase I of the project, and modified as necessary for use during the engineering, procurement, and construction of this project.
Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2010
Most of the colleges and universities that have received U.S. Department of Education Models of Exemplary, Effective, and Promising Alcohol or Other Drug Abuse Prevention Programs on College Campuses grants credit strong presidential leadership for the success of their prevention efforts. With many colleges and universities currently facing budget…
Norem-Hebeisen, Ardyth A.; Lucas, Mark S.
A review of correlates of chemical abuse provides background for an inferentially derived proposal for direction of prevention efforts in educational settings. The proposed developmental model suggests five simultaneously viewed perspectives for generating curriculum with a preventative thrust. The five perspectives provide the basis for a…
Eidelman, Scott; Crandall, Christian S; Goodman, Jeffrey A; Blanchar, John C
The authors test the hypothesis that low-effort thought promotes political conservatism. In Study 1, alcohol intoxication was measured among bar patrons; as blood alcohol level increased, so did political conservatism (controlling for sex, education, and political identification). In Study 2, participants under cognitive load reported more conservative attitudes than their no-load counterparts. In Study 3, time pressure increased participants' endorsement of conservative terms. In Study 4, participants considering political terms in a cursory manner endorsed conservative terms more than those asked to cogitate; an indicator of effortful thought (recognition memory) partially mediated the relationship between processing effort and conservatism. Together these data suggest that political conservatism may be a process consequence of low-effort thought; when effortful, deliberate thought is disengaged, endorsement of conservative ideology increases.
Chen, J Q; Dunne, M P; Zhao, D C
This study assessed the preparedness of school health personnel to develop and deliver HIV/AIDS prevention education programmes for young people in China. A survey of 653 personnel working in secondary schools in 14 cities was conducted. More than 90% had basic knowledge of ways in which HIV can be transmitted, but knowledge of ways in which the virus is not transmitted needs improvement. Substantial numbers of teachers were not sure whether there was an effective preventive vaccine (42%) or did not know whether AIDS was a curable illness or not (32%). The great majority approved of AIDS prevention programmes in universities (98%) and secondary schools (91%), although fewer (58%) agreed that the topic was appropriate for primary schools. Currently, most classroom activities focuses on teaching facts about HIV/AIDS transmission, while less than half are taught about HIV/AIDS related discrimination and life skills to reduce peer pressure. Personnel with some prior training on HIV/ AIDS education (53%) had better factual knowledge, more tolerant attitudes and more confidence in teaching about HIV/AIDS than those without training. The majority of teachers indicated a need for more resource books, audiovisual products, expert guidance, school principal support and dissemination of national AIDS prevention education guidelines to schools.
Bele, Julija Lapuh; Dimc, Maja; Rozman, David; Jemec, Andreja Sladoje
The widespread use of mobile devices that enable Internet access increases the exposure of both individuals and organizations to cybercrime. This article addresses the issue of strategic prevention of cybercrime with the key focus on the measures to prevent cybercrime related to children and teenagers. The primary tool for such prevention is…
Conejo-Cerón, Sonia; Moreno-Peral, Patricia; Rodríguez-Morejón, Alberto; Motrico, Emma; Navas-Campaña, Desirée; Rigabert, Alina; Martín-Pérez, Carlos; Rodríguez-Bayón, Antonina; Ballesta-Rodríguez, María Isabel; Luna, Juan de Dios; García-Campayo, Javier; Roca, Miquel; Bellón, Juan Ángel
Although evidence exists for the efficacy of psychosocial interventions to prevent the onset of depression, little is known about its prevention in primary care. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of psychological and educational interventions to prevent depression in primary care. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examining the effect of psychological and educational interventions to prevent depression in nondepressed primary care attendees. We searched MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Web of Science, OpenGrey Repository, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and other sources up to May 2016. At least 2 reviewers independently evaluated the eligibility criteria, extracted data, and assessed the risk of bias. We calculated standardized mean differences (SMD) using random-effects models. We selected 14 studies (7,365 patients) that met the inclusion criteria, 13 of which were valid to perform a meta-analysis. Most of the interventions had a cognitive-behavioral orientation, and in only 4 RCTs were the intervention clinicians primary care staff. The pooled SMD was -0.163 (95%CI, -0.256 to -0.070; P = .001). The risk of bias and the heterogeneity (I 2 = 20.6%) were low, and there was no evidence of publication bias. Meta-regression detected no association between SMD and follow-up times or SMD and risk of bias. Subgroup analysis suggested greater effectiveness when the RCTs used care as usual as the comparator compared with those using placebo. Psychological and educational interventions to prevent depression had a modest though statistically significant preventive effect in primary care. Further RCTs using placebo or active comparators are needed. © 2017 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.
Matyas, Nina; Auer, Stefanie; Gisinger, Christoph; Kil, Monika; Keser Aschenberger, Filiz; Klerings, Irma; Gartlehner, Gerald
Because of the enormous social and economic burden of disease, the prevention of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's-type dementia has become a major global public health priority. Studies show that cognitively stimulating activities during middle adulthood might have a protective effect on the brain by boosting the cognitive reserve. The aim of this review is to identify evidence investigating the effects of continuing education for the prevention of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's-type dementia in late life. Our approach employs a two-stage design: First, we will conduct a systematic review to assess the preventive effects of continuing education on mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's-type dementia. Second, because we expect to find few studies, we will perform a review of systematic reviews on leisure activities that mimic formal continuing education to determine their effects on the prevention of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's-type dementia. We will search electronic databases (e.g., MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EMBASE, CENTRAL, CINAHL, and Scopus) for published studies and gray literature databases (e.g., trial registries) for unpublished studies. Two authors will independently screen abstracts and full-texts using pre-defined eligibility criteria, select studies, extract data, and assess the quality of included studies or reviews. Outcomes of interest include the incidence of mild cognitive impairment or Alzheimer's-type dementia, quality of life, functional capacity, and psychological wellbeing. Intermediate outcomes are cognitive (test) performance, cognitive functioning, and social inclusion. The review team is a multidisciplinary group consisting of methodological experts and dementia, geriatrics, and continuing education researchers. We anticipate that our review will highlight serious gaps in the current evidence. Results will build the basis for further research regarding the relation of continuing education and cognitive decline
Johansen, Mette-Louise; Mouritsen, Tina; Montgomery, Edith
basis. The book provides recommendations for organizing and implementing well-defined network meeting flows as well as methods for achieving systemic meeting management. The network-oriented approach emphasizes involvement of the parents, knowledge-sharing between specialist groups and dialogue......This book contains a method model for the prevention of youth crime in Danish municipalities. The method model consists of instructions for conducting processual network meetings between traumatized refugee parents and the professional specialists working with their children on an intermunicipal...... and division of responsibilities between specialists and parents. The book is based on a method development project carried out in Karlebo municipality involving refugee families and welfare staff representatives in the municipality, the health system, and the police. The project was carried out with financial...
Green, Emalee T; Venta, Amanda
The purpose of this study was to examine the implementation of eating disorder education and prevention programs in high schools retrospectively, as reported by incoming college freshmen, exploring whether characteristics of the school influenced implementation. The sample, 169 first-year students from a public university, participated in an online survey inquiring about exposure to programs and high school characteristics. Results demonstrated few students exposed to any eating disorder programming (29.0%), with no students reporting exposure to prevention programming. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in the implementation based on school characteristics, suggesting that this is a universal issue across high schools.
Liu, Qin; Liu, Liping; Vu, Huyen; Liu, Xiaoxue; Tang, Shenglan; Wang, Hong
The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of tuberculosis (TB) education through a comparison of peer-led and teacher-led methods of education about TB prevention among middle school students in rural Chongqing, China. A preintervention and postintervention questionnaire survey was conducted in 2 different middle school student groups to measure changes in knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) status of those students before and after each TB education program. Of 1265 students participating in the preintervention survey, 1176 completed the postintervention survey. KAP scores of both peer-led and teacher-led groups after intervention improved by as much as 2 times compared with before the intervention and those of the control group (P led education group (P led group had a larger improvement than the peer-led group in practice scores (P < .01) in immediate effect evaluation. © 2013 APJPH.
The SAATELLITE and EVADE Clinical Studies Within the COMBACTE Consortium : A Public-Private Collaborative Effort in Designing and Performing Clinical Trials for Novel Antibacterial Drugs to Prevent Nosocomial Pneumonia
François, Bruno; Chastre, Jean; Eggiman, Philippe; Laterre, Pierre-François; Torres, Antoni; Sanchez, Miguel; Esser, Mark T; Bishop, Brian; Bonten, Marc; Goosens, Herman; Jafri, Hasan S
The Innovative Medicines Initiative-funded COMBACTE consortium fosters academic-industry partnership in pioneering studies to combat serious bacterial infections. We describe how this partnership is advancing the development of 2 monoclonal antibodies, MEDI4893 and MEDI3902, for the prevention of
Pizolato, Raquel Aparecida; Rehder, Maria Inês Beltrati Cornacchioni; Meneghim, Marcelo de Castro; Ambrosano, Glaucia Maria Bovi; Mialhe, Fábio Luiz; Pereira, Antonio Carlos
Voice problems are more common in teachers due to intensive voice use during routine at work. There is evidence that occupational disphonia prevention programs are important in improving the quality voice and consequently the quality of subjects' lives. To investigate the impact of educational voice interventions for teachers on quality of life and voice. A longitudinal interventional study involving 70 teachers randomly selected from 11 public schools, 30 to receive educational intervention with vocal training exercises and vocal hygiene habits (experimental group) and 40 to receive guidance on vocal hygiene habits (control group control). Before the process of educational activities, the Voice-Related Quality of Life instrument (V-RQOL) was applied, and 3 months after conclusion of the activities, the subjects were interviewed again, using the same instrument. For data analysis, Prox MIXED were applied, with a level of significance α Teachers showed significantly higher domain and overall V-RQOL scores after preventive intervention, in both control and experimental groups. Nevertheless, there was no statistical difference in scores between the groups. Educational actions for vocal health had a positive impact on the quality of life of the participants, and the incorporation of permanent educational actions at institutional level is suggested.
Nor, Sharifah Md; Roslan, Samsilah; Mohamed, Aminuddin; Hassan, Kamaruddin Hj. Abu; Ali, Mohamad Azhar Mat; Manaf, Jaimah Abdul
This paper discusses dropout prevention initiatives by the Malaysian government for the disadvantaged indigenous Orang Asli people in the rural villages of Peninsular Malaysia. The roles of the Ministry of Education (MOE) as well as the Institutes of Teacher Education (ITEs) are highlighted pertaining to efforts at improving the quality of…
After the introduction of a law prohibiting the start-up of any new nuclear power plant until the utility had shown that the waste produced by the plant could be taken care of in an absolutely safe way, the Swedish nuclear utilities in December 1976 embarked on the Nuclear Fuel Safety Project, which in November 1977 presented a first report, Handling of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Final Storage of Vitrified Waste (KBS-I), and in November 1978 a second report, Handling and Final Storage of Unreprocessed Spent Nuclear Fuel (KBS II). These summary reports were supported by 120 technical reports prepared by 450 experts. The project engaged 70 private and governmental institutions at a total cost of US $15 million. The KBS-I and KBS-II reports are summarized in this document, as are also continued waste research efforts carried out by KBS, SKBF, PRAV, ASEA and other Swedish organizations. The KBS reports describe all steps (except reprocessing) in handling chain from removal from a reactor of spent fuel elements until their radioactive waste products are finally disposed of, in canisters, in an underground granite depository. The KBS concept relies on engineered multibarrier systems in combination with final storage in thoroughly investigated stable geologic formations. This report also briefly describes other activities carried out by the nuclear industry, namely, the construction of a central storage facility for spent fuel elements (to be in operation by 1985), a repository for reactor waste (to be in operation by 1988), and an intermediate storage facility for vitrified high-level waste (to be in operation by 1990). The R and D activities are updated to September 1981.
Loeste de Arruda Barbosa
Full Text Available in childhood by means of Health Education actions. Methods: A descriptive study of educational intervention with residents of a neighborhood in the municipality of Crato - CE, in partnership with the Family Health strategy. Fecal samples from children aged 2 to 8 years were collected for analysis by both direct and Holffmann methods and from the results, we directed the educational process for children and their parents on preventive behaviors for infection by intestinal parasites. Results: Regarding to material collection and the analysis of the results, approximately 47% of the containers for collection of feces were delivered, comprising 21 samples and, from this total, 10 children had some type of parasites, the most frequent being: Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytic, Entamoeba coli, Endomilax nana and Ascaris lumbricoides. The educational moment occurred with the participation of 48 persons, among them 16 children. There was medical consultation and prescription of antiparasitic drugs to children, with positive results for some type of parasites. Both children and their parents showed to have understood the message by actively participating in educational activities. Conclusion: The population proved to be aware of the actions taken, and succeeded the educational process carried out in a subject-subject approach and not in a vertical manner, in the search for community empowerment on the issues raised, stressing the importance of a continuous process of health education.
Full Text Available The problem of construction of a holistic methodological system of training future doctors considered in the article, is impossible outside the context of integration processes taking place in modern education and needs a careful study of international experience. The research aim is to develop a system of innovative means of education for the formation of preventive thinking in students of higher medical educational establishment, concerning professionally oriented undergraduate preparation of doctors. Analysis of the results allowed to determine the characteristic features of innovative means, forms and teaching methods, specificity of their use in interactive educational environment, this against the background of meticulous work of the teaching staff of the department of general hygiene of Dnepropetrovsk Medical Academy provides the efficiency of educational process which integrates personal, creative, social and educational purposes. The suggested innovative methods are involved in the general system of modern education in higher school being effectively used for providing a high level of professional training in teaching of academic subject area "Hygiene and Ecology".
Jensen, Niels Rosendal
Artiklen omfatter en gennemgang af modeller for forældreuddannelse, der fortrinsvis anvendes i Danmark. Artiklen indlejrer modellerne i nogle bredere blikke på uddannelsessystemet og den aktuelle diskurs om ansvarliggørelse af forældre. Udgivelsesdato: Marts 2010...
Raúl S. Moran García
Full Text Available Cervical cancer is a serious health problem due to high mortality rates that are associated with it. The high incidence rates can be explained by women and their families’ ignorance about this disease. In fact, cervical cancer can be diagnosed early and, if detected on time, the likelihood of cure is high. Latin America is considered at high risk for cervical cancer. More specifically, cervical cancer in Mexico ranks second in incidence after breast cancer, in spite of having a screening program for over 20 years, which has only been able to prevent 13% of potentially preventable cases. The purpose of this analysis is to once again address the importance cervical cancer, to offer a general overview of the nature of this disease, but most of all, to underscore the relevance of education as a means of detection and prevention.
Cogan, Alison M; Blanchard, Jeanine; Garber, Susan L; Vigen, Cheryl Lp; Carlson, Mike; Clark, Florence A
To investigate the efficacy of behavioral or educational interventions in preventing pressure ulcers in community-dwelling adults with spinal cord injury (SCI). Cochrane, Clinical Trials, PubMed, and Web of Science were searched in June 2016. The search combined related terms for pressure ulcers, spinal cord injury, and behavioral intervention. Each database was searched from its inception with no restrictions on year of publication. Inclusion criteria required that articles were (a) published in a peer-reviewed journal in English, (b) evaluated a behavioral or educational intervention for pressure ulcer prevention, (c) included community-dwelling adult participants aged 18 years and older with SCI, (d) measured pressure ulcer occurrence, recurrence, or skin breakdown as an outcome, and (e) had a minimum of 10 participants. All study designs were considered. Two reviewers independently screened titles and abstracts. Extracted information included study design, sample size, description of the intervention and control condition, pressure ulcer outcome measures, and corresponding results. The search strategy yielded 444 unique articles of which five met inclusion criteria. Three were randomized trials and two were quasi-experimental designs. A total of 513 participants were represented. The method of pressure ulcer or skin breakdown measurement varied widely among studies. Results on pressure ulcer outcomes were null in all studies. Considerable methodological problems with recruitment, intervention fidelity, and participant adherence were reported. At present, there is no positive evidence to support the efficacy of behavioral or educational interventions in preventing pressure ulcer occurrence in adults with SCI.
Velasques, Kelle; Michels, Luana Roberta; Colome, Leticia Marques; Haas, Sandra Elisa
Excessive exposure to the sun during childhood is strongly associated with the development of skin cancer in the future. The only way to prevent the development of skin cancer is to protect against ultraviolet radiation, which can be achieved through strategic awareness during childhood and adolescence. The aim of this work was to evaluate the impact of educational activities for rural and urban students to promote the use of sunscreens and prevent skin cancer. This study was carried out with students (9-12 years) of rural (n=70) and urban (n=70) schools in Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. The educational interventions were lectures and games. The impact of this strategy was evaluated through the application of a questionnaire before and after the interventions. Before the intervention, it was found around 50% of rural and urban students were not aware of the damage caused by sun exposure, often exposing themselves to UV radiation without use sunscreen ( ~ 25 %) and at the most critical times of the day/year. After the lectures we observed an improvement in the behavior of the students with regard to sun exposure and knowledge about skin cancer. The results of this study emphasize the importance of prevention strategies for skin cancer and promoting the use of sunscreens based educational strategies. The interventions were of great value in relation to disseminating knowledge on the subject.
Gonzalez, Jose L; Gilmer, Loise
Obesity is a highly burdensome public health issue associated with premature death, multiple comorbid disabilities and staggering healthcare costs. Between 1980-2000, the prevalence of obesity among children and adolescents nearly tripled. Obesity subjects youth to social stigmatization and discrimination. These economic and personal burdens mandate targeted prevention and detection educational programs for all individuals at risk. The most cost-effective method of approaching this obesity epidemic is through education of health professionals. As part of an "Obesity Prevention in Pediatrics" curriculum, postgraduate-year (PGY)-2 residents first observed and then participated in the dietary evaluation and counseling of pediatric patients and their families. Attitudinal questionnaires, multiple-choice knowledge examinations and a pre-established checklist of desired skills and behaviors provided evaluation of the curriculum's effect on the participants' ability and willingness to manage actually obese or at-risk pediatric patients and their families. Attitudinal survey and knowledge test scores from control PGY-3 residents generally confirmed that their knowledge and counseling skills on obesity prevention and management were well below expectation. Following participation in the curriculum, study residents' knowledge tended to improve, as did their level of comfort in counseling obese and at-risk children, adolescents and their parents. Implementation of an "Obesity Prevention in Pediatrics" curriculum appears to improve participants' knowledge base as well as their skills and level of personal comfort in the recognition, evaluation and management, including counseling, of both obese and at-risk pediatric patients and their families.
Full Text Available Background Osteoporosis is one of the most common metabolic bone diseases and is the silent epidemic of this era. Objectives This study evaluates the effect of education that is based on the health belief model on promoting osteoporosis prevention behaviors among female high school students. Methods In this two-group interventional study, 172 students age 11 to 14 years (experimental group = 86 subjects; control group = 86 subjects were randomly selected from Khorramshahr high schools using multistage sampling. Data were collected before the intervention and two months after its completion using a researcher-made questionnaire with four parts: demographic questions, knowledge questions, questions related to the health belief model constructs, and questions regarding preventive behaviors. Data was analyzed using SPSS 22 software and by applying the Mann-Whitney test, the analysis of covariance procedure, and the Wilcoxon statistical test. Results After the intervention, significant statistical differences were seen between the experimental and control groups in mean scores of knowledge, health belief model constructs, and preventive behaviors. Conclusions The education based on health belief model plays an important role in increasing knowledge and improving osteoporosis prevention behaviors in students.
The SAATELLITE and EVADE Clinical Studies Within the COMBACTE Consortium: A Public-Private Collaborative Effort in Designing and Performing Clinical Trials for Novel Antibacterial Drugs to Prevent Nosocomial Pneumonia.
François, Bruno; Chastre, Jean; Eggiman, Philippe; Laterre, Pierre-François; Torres, Antoni; Sanchez, Miguel; Esser, Mark T; Bishop, Brian; Bonten, Marc; Goosens, Herman; Jafri, Hasan S
The Innovative Medicines Initiative-funded COMBACTE consortium fosters academic-industry partnership in pioneering studies to combat serious bacterial infections. We describe how this partnership is advancing the development of 2 monoclonal antibodies, MEDI4893 and MEDI3902, for the prevention of nosocomial pneumonia. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail email@example.com.
In this paper, I report on an examination of the rhetoric and implementation of peer education in Myanmar. I demonstrate that while there was widespread consistency on interviewees' views of what peer education should involve, there was a significant gap between this rhetoric and the ways in which peer education was implemented, particularly in…
Treloar, Carla; Rance, Jake; Laybutt, Becky; Crawford, Sione
Despite advances in understanding the structural contexts in which drug use occurs and shifts beyond the individual-level focus of adult education theory, peer education models remain wedded to questions of individual behaviour. Our analysis examines the structural context of peer education and its implications for peer training. People who inject…
Crone, M.R.; Reijneveld, S.A.; Willemsen, M.C.; Leerdam, F.J.M. van; Spruijt, R.D.; Hira Sing, R.A.
Objective: To assess the effect of an antismoking intervention focusing on adolescents in lower education. Students with lower education smoke more often and perceive more positive norms, and social pressure to smoke, than higher educated students. An intervention based on peer group pressure and