Haire-Joshu, Debra; Tabak, Rachel
To prevent the intergenerational transfer of obesity and end the current epidemic, interventions are needed across the early life stages, from preconception to prenatal to infancy through the age of 2 years. The foundation for obesity is laid in early life by actions and interactions passed from parent to child that have long-lasting biologic and behavioral consequences. The purpose of this paper is to examine the best evidence about (a) factors in parents and offspring that promote obesity during the early life stages, (b) the social determinants and dimensions of obesity in early life, (c) promising and effective interventions for preventing obesity in early life, and (d) opportunities for future research into strategies to disrupt the intergenerational cycle of obesity that begins early in life. The pathway for halting the intergenerational obesity epidemic requires the discovery and development of evidence-based interventions that can act across multiple dimensions of influence on early life.
JUANITA HENAO ESCOBAR
Full Text Available The article presents a review of different kinds of international early violence prevention-intervention programs,which have shown effectiveness in the reduction of preschooler’s aggression, and in some cases, in the prevention ofviolent behavior during adolescence and youth. The central matter of this article is what we can learn from theexperiences on this field of knowledge around the world. First, the target intervention problem is presented andframed in the colombian context. After presenting the main research findings about aggressive behavior in childrenand the risk factors associated with it, the related intervention modalities will be analyzed and described. Finally, thearticle derives some pragmatic conclusions and recommendations.
Shepard, Stephanie A; Dickstein, Susan
The purpose of this article is to highlight the importance of preventive interventions targeting parents when addressing early childhood behavior problems. The authors briefly review evidence-based parent management training programs, focusing on one particular program, the Incredible Years (IY) Series. Next, the authors discuss the barriers to embedding evidence-based practice such as IY in community contexts and demonstrate how early childhood mental health consultation can be used to enhance community capacity to adopt evidence-based practice and improve outcomes for the large number of young children and their families in need.
Full Text Available Wendy W Harrison, Vladimir YevseyenkovArizona College of Optometry, Midwestern University, Glendale, AZ, USAAbstract: Diabetic eye disease is a public health concern in all areas of the world as a leading cause of blindness in the working aged to elderly populations. Diabetes damages the lining of the microvasculature throughout the body through prolonged exposure to hyperglycemic conditions. The ocular changes are progressive with very little recourse for improvement once damage begins. Current treatments for the eye focus mainly on the late stages of the disease when neovascularization or edema threatens sight. Early interventions for diabetic vasculopathy involve metabolic therapy to improve blood glucose and blood pressure control. Technology improvements have a large part to play in advancing diagnosis of diabetic eye disease. These new technologies offer both structural and functional means for assessment of retinal health. This review focuses on current treatments for diabetic eye disease at all stages with an emphasis on new and early interventions. It also details established and emerging technologies used for earlier detection of diabetic eye disease, which is vital to the development and approval of much needed treatments targeted at earlier stages of diabetic retinopathy. Possible future treatments should be aimed to prevent retinal vasculopathy from progressing. This review will explore current research on this topic and what is needed moving forward.Keywords: diabetes, diabetic retinopathy, vascular disease
Pillhofer, M.; Schoellhorn, A.; Jungmann, T.; Eickhorst, A.; Schuengel, C.
In Germany early intervention has not been systematically implemented in the regular service delivery and the existing programs have not been profoundly evaluated. Due to serious child protection cases the German Federal Ministry for Family Affairs, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth participated in a
Hegelstad, Wenche Ten Velden; Bronnick, Kolbjorn S; Barder, Helene Eidsmo
OBJECTIVE: This study tested the hypothesis that early detection of psychosis improves long-term vocational functioning through the prevention of negative symptom development. METHODS: Generalized estimating equations and mediation analysis were conducted to examine the association between...... employment and negative symptoms over ten years among patients in geographic areas characterized by usual detection (N=140) or early detection (N=141) of psychosis. RESULTS: Improved vocational outcome after ten years among patients in the early-detection area was mediated by lower levels of negative...
Reavley, Nicola; Jorm, Anthony F
The age at which most young people are in higher education is also the age of peak onset for mental and substance use disorders, with these having their first onset before age 24 in 75% of cases. In most developed countries, over 50% of young people are in higher education. To review the evidence for prevention and early intervention in mental health problems in higher education students. The review was limited to interventions targeted to anxiety, depression and alcohol misuse. Interventions to review were identified by searching PubMed, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Interventions were included if they were designed to specifically prevent or intervene early in the general (non-health professional) higher education student population, in one or more of the following areas: anxiety, depression or alcohol misuse symptoms, mental health literacy, stigma and one or more behavioural outcomes. For interventions to prevent or intervene early for alcohol misuse, evidence of effectiveness is strongest for brief motivational interventions and for personalized normative interventions delivered using computers or in individual face-to-face sessions. Few interventions to prevent or intervene early with depression or anxiety were identified. These were mostly face-to-face, cognitive-behavioural/skill-based interventions. One social marketing intervention to raise awareness of depression and treatments showed some evidence of effectiveness. There is very limited evidence that interventions are effective in preventing or intervening early with depression and anxiety disorders in higher education students. Further studies, possibly involving interventions that have shown promise in other populations, are needed.
Whaley, Shannon E.; McGregor, Samar; Jiang, Lu; Gomez, Judy; Harrison, Gail; Jenks, Eloise
Objective: To evaluate the impact of a Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC)-based intervention on the food and beverage intake, physical activity, and television watching of children ages 1-5. Design: Longitudinal surveys of intervention and control participants at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months.…
The purpose of this paper is to explore the child/youth homelessness including its preventive care.This paper explores the housing support program implemented across Australia in brief at first, and then profile child/youth homelessness and housing policy. Based on that, it discusses early intervention and preventive methods followed by the conclusion.
Reilly, John J; Martin, Anne; Hughes, Adrienne R
To critique the evidence from recent and ongoing obesity prevention interventions in the first 1000 days in order to identify evidence gaps and weaknesses, and to make suggestions for more informative future intervention trials. Completed and ongoing intervention trials have had fairly modest effects, have been limited largely to high-income countries, and have used relatively short-term interventions and outcomes. Comparison of the evidence from completed prevention trials with the evidence from systematic reviews of behavioral risk factors shows that some life-course stages have been neglected (pre-conception and toddlerhood), and that interventions have neglected to target some important behavioral risk factors (maternal smoking during pregnancy, infant and child sleep). Finally, while obesity prevention interventions aim to modify body composition, few intervention trials have used body composition measures as outcomes, and this has limited their sensitivity to detect intervention effects. The new WHO Healthy Lifestyles Trajectory (HeLTI) initiative should address some of these weaknesses. Future early obesity prevention trials should be much more ambitious. They should, ideally: extend their interventions over the first 1000 days; have longer-term (childhood) outcomes, and improved outcome measures (body composition measures in addition to proxies for body composition such as the BMI for age); have greater emphasis on maternal smoking and child sleep; be global.
Nader, Kathleen, Ed.
Together, "School Rampage Shootings and Other Youth Disturbances" and its accompanying CD provide a complete toolkit for using early preventative interventions with elementary-school age children. In ten thoughtful, clearly written chapters, both new and experienced practitioners will find a wealth of research- and evidence-based…
Morris, Heather; Skouteris, Helen; Edwards, Susan; Rutherford, Leonie
Partnering early childhood education and care (ECEC) and the home together may be more effective in combating obesogenic risk factors in preschool children. Thus, an evaluation of ECEC obesity prevention interventions with a parental component was conducted, exploring parental engagement and its effect on obesity and healthy lifestyle outcomes. A…
Landau, Marina; Anand, Chytra V; Besins, Thierry; Chao, Yates Yen Yu; Fabi, Sabrina Guillen; Gout, Uliana; Kerscher, Martina; Pavicic, Tatjana; Peng, Peter Hsien Li; Rzany, Berthold; Sattler, Gerhard; Tiryaki, Tunk; Waldorf, Heidi A; Braz, Andre
Facial aging is a complex interplay of extrinsic and intrinsic factors leading to progressive changes in the skin, subcutaneous tissue, and bone. Clinical experience suggests that early aesthetic intervention may slow the signs of aging, but treatment in the absence of symptoms or with minimal signs of aging has not yet been properly addressed. To provide treatment recommendations for primary prevention and early intervention in individuals with no or minimal signs of aging. Fourteen specialists in aesthetic medicine convened over a full-day meeting under the guidance of a certified moderator. Tailored treatment recommendations have been provided for prevention and early intervention of fine wrinkles, static lines and folds, irregular pigmentation, laxity, and subcutaneous volume loss by protecting the epidermis, stimulating neocollagenesis, reducing hyperkinetic musculature, and reinforcing supporting structures. Preventive measures and early therapeutic interventions that may alter the course of facial aging were defined. Further studies are needed to support these recommendations with the best possible evidence. J Drugs Dermatol. 2017;16(9):846-854..
Benjamin Neelon, S E; Østbye, T; Hales, D; Vaughn, A; Ward, D S
Obesity prevention in young children is a public health priority. In the USA, nearly 10% of children less than 5 years of age are obese, and most attend some form of out-of-home child care. While a number of interventions have been conducted in early care and education settings, few have targeted the youngest children in care or the less formal types of child care like family child care homes. Additionally, only two previous studies provided recommendations to help inform future interventions. This paper presents lessons learned from two distinct intervention studies in early care and education settings to help guide researchers and public health professionals interested in implementing and evaluating similar interventions. We highlight two studies: one targeting children ages 4 to 24 months in child care centres and the other intervening in children 18 months to 4 years in family child care homes. We include lessons from our pilot studies and the ongoing larger trials. To date, our experiences suggest that an intervention should have a firm basis in behaviour change theory; an advisory group should help evaluate intervention materials and plan for delivery; and realistic recruitment goals should recognize economic challenges of the business of child care. A flexible data collection approach and realistic sample size calculations are needed because of high rates of child (and sometimes facility) turnover. An intervention that is relatively easy to implement is more likely to appeal to a wide variety of early care and education providers. Interventions to prevent obesity in early care and education have the potential to reach large numbers of children. It is important to consider the unique features and similarities of centres and family child care homes and take advantage of lessons learned from current studies in order to develop effective, evidence-based interventions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Ward, Dianne S; Welker, Emily; Choate, Ashley; Henderson, Kathryn E; Lott, Megan; Tovar, Alison; Wilson, Amanda; Sallis, James F
2010-2015; INTERNATIONAL: Given the high levels of obesity in young children, numbers of children in out-of-home care, and data suggesting a link between early care and education (ECE) participation and overweight/obesity, obesity prevention in ECE settings is critical. As the field has progressed, a number of interventions have been reviewed yet there is a need to summarize the data using more sophisticated analyses to answer questions on the effectiveness of interventions. We conducted a systematic review of obesity prevention interventions in center-based ECE settings published between 2010 and 2015. Our goal was to identify promising intervention characteristics associated with successful behavioral and anthropometric outcomes. A rigorous search strategy resulted in 43 interventions that met inclusion criteria. We developed a coding strategy to assess intervention strength, used a validated study quality assessment tool, and presented detailed descriptive information about interventions (e.g., target behaviors, intervention strategies, and mode of delivery). Intervention strength was positively correlated with reporting of positive anthropometric outcomes for physical activity, diet, and combined interventions, and parent engagement components increased the strength of these relationships. Study quality was modestly related to percent successful healthy eating outcomes. Relationships between intervention strength and behavioral outcomes demonstrated negative relationships for all behavioral outcomes. Specific components of intervention strength (number of intervention strategies, potential impact of strategies, frequency of use, and duration of intervention) were correlated with some of the anthropometric and parent engagement outcomes. The review provided tentative evidence that multi-component, multi-level ECE interventions with parental engagement are most likely to be effective with anthropometric outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights
Brotman, Laurie Miller; Dawson-McClure, Spring; Huang, Keng-Yen; Theise, Rachelle; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Wang, Jing; Petkova, Eva; Ogedegbe, Gbenga
To test the hypothesis that family intervention to promote effective parenting in early childhood affects obesity in preadolescence. Participants were 186 minority youth at risk for behavior problems who enrolled in long-term follow-up studies after random assignment to family intervention or control condition at age 4. Follow-up Study 1 included 40 girls at familial risk for behavior problems; Follow-up Study 2 included 146 boys and girls at risk for behavior problems based on teacher ratings. Family intervention aimed to promote effective parenting and prevent behavior problems during early childhood; it did not focus on physical health. BMI and health behaviors were measured an average of 5 years after intervention in Study 1 and 3 years after intervention in Study 2. Youth randomized to intervention had significantly lower BMI at follow-up relative to controls (Study 1 P = .05; Study 2 P = .006). Clinical impact is evidenced by lower rates of obesity (BMI ≥95th percentile) among intervention girls and boys relative to controls (Study 2: 24% vs 54%, P = .002). There were significant intervention-control group differences on physical and sedentary activity, blood pressure, and diet. Two long-term follow-up studies of randomized trials show that relative to controls, youth at risk for behavior problems who received family intervention at age 4 had lower BMI and improved health behaviors as they approached adolescence. Efforts to promote effective parenting and prevent behavior problems early in life may contribute to the reduction of obesity and health disparities.
Adair, Linda S
Maternal nutritional deficiencies and excesses during pregnancy, and faster infant weight gain in the first 2 years of life are associated with increased risk of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) in adulthood. The first 1,000 days of life (from conception until the child reaches age 2 years) represent a vulnerable period for programming of NCD risk, and are an important target for prevention of adult disease. This paper takes a developmental perspective to identify periconception, pregnancy, and infancy nutritional stressors, and to discuss mechanisms through which they influence later disease risk with the goal of informing age-specific interventions. Low- and middle-income countries need to address the dual burden of under- and overnutrition by implementing interventions to promote growth and enhance survival and intellectual development without increasing chronic disease risk. In the absence of good evidence from long-term follow-up of early life interventions, current recommendations for early life prevention of adult disease presume that interventions designed to optimize pregnancy outcomes and promote healthy infant growth and development will also reduce chronic disease risk. These include an emphasis on optimizing maternal nutrition prior to pregnancy, micronutrient adequacy in the preconception period and during pregnancy, promotion of breastfeeding and high-quality complementary foods, and prevention of obesity in childhood and adolescence. © 2014 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.
Sara A. Freedman
Full Text Available Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD develops in approximately 20% of people exposed to a traumatic event, and studies have shown that cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT is effective as a treatment for chronic PTSD. It has also been shown to prevent PTSD when delivered early after a traumatic event. However, studies have shown that uptake of early treatment is generally low, and therefore, the need to provide interventions through other mediums has been identified. The use of technology may overcome barriers to treatment. Objective: This paper describes a randomized controlled trial that will examine an early CBT intervention for PTSD. The treatment incorporates virtual reality (VR as a method for delivering exposure-based elements of the treatment. The intervention is Internet based, such that the therapist and patient will “meet” in a secure online site. This site will also include multi-media components of the treatment (such as videos, audios, VR that can be accessed by the patient between sessions. Method: Two hundred patients arriving to a Level 1 emergency department following a motor vehicle accident will be randomly assigned to either treatment or control groups. Inclusion criteria are age 18–65, PTSD symptoms 2 weeks posttrauma related to current trauma, no suicidality, no psychosis. Patients will be assessed by telephone by a team blind to the study group, on four occasions: before and after treatment, and 6 and 12 months posttreatment. The primary outcome is PTSD symptoms at follow up. Secondary outcomes include depression and cost effectiveness. Analyses will be on an intention-to-treat basis. Discussion: The results will provide more insight into the effects of preventive interventions, in general, and Internet-based early interventions, in particular, on PTSD, in an injured population, during the acute phase after trauma. We will discuss possible strengths and limitations.
Mouthaan, Joanne; Sijbrandij, Marit; de Vries, Giel-Jan; Reitsma, Johannes B; van de Schoot, Rens; Goslings, J Carel; Luitse, Jan S K; Bakker, Fred C; Gersons, Berthold P R; Olff, Miranda
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) develops in 10-20% of injury patients. We developed a novel, self-guided Internet-based intervention (called Trauma TIPS) based on techniques from cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) to prevent the onset of PTSD symptoms. To determine whether Trauma TIPS is effective in preventing the onset of PTSD symptoms in injury patients. Adult, level 1 trauma center patients were randomly assigned to receive the fully automated Trauma TIPS Internet intervention (n=151) or to receive no early intervention (n=149). Trauma TIPS consisted of psychoeducation, in vivo exposure, and stress management techniques. Both groups were free to use care as usual (nonprotocolized talks with hospital staff). PTSD symptom severity was assessed at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months post injury with a clinical interview (Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale) by blinded trained interviewers and self-report instrument (Impact of Event Scale-Revised). Secondary outcomes were acute anxiety and arousal (assessed online), self-reported depressive and anxiety symptoms (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), and mental health care utilization. Intervention usage was documented. The mean number of intervention logins was 1.7, SD 2.5, median 1, interquartile range (IQR) 1-2. Thirty-four patients in the intervention group did not log in (22.5%), 63 (41.7%) logged in once, and 54 (35.8%) logged in multiple times (mean 3.6, SD 3.5, median 3, IQR 2-4). On clinician-assessed and self-reported PTSD symptoms, both the intervention and control group showed a significant decrease over time (PInternet-based early intervention in the prevention of PTSD symptoms for an unselected population of injury patients. Moreover, uptake was relatively low since one-fifth of individuals did not log in to the intervention. Future research should therefore focus on innovative strategies to increase intervention usage, for example, adding gameplay, embedding it in a blended care context, and targeting high
Moxley, Kathleen M.; Squires, Jane; Lindstrom, Lauren
Current literature regarding the prevalence of child abuse and neglect, resulting developmental impacts on children, and early intervention services for children and families involved in the child welfare system is summarized. While early intervention eligibility referrals are mandated for this population under the Child Abuse Prevention and…
Weber-Gasparoni, Karin; Reeve, Johnmarshall; Ghosheh, Natalie; Warren, Joh J.; Drake, David R.; Kramer, Katherine W.O.; Dawson, Deborah V.
Purpose The purpose was to compare whether mothers exposed to an autonomy-supportive psychoeducational videotaped message, informed by the self-determination theory (SDT), demonstrated greater changes in oral health knowledge and behavioral intentions as a preventive means for early childhood caries (ECC) than mothers exposed to a neutral message delivered by brochure. Methods Data were collected at baseline, one-, and six-month follow-ups from 415 12- to 49-month-old WIC-enrolled children and their mothers: 283 in the video intervention group and 132 in the brochure control group. Mothers completed questionnaires on maternal knowledge and behavioral intentions for oral health care. Chi-square, Wilcoxon rank-sum, and Mann-Whitney tests were used to analyze data (P<.05). Results Relative to their baseline scores, the intervention group showed a greater increase in knowledge than the control group, both at one-month (P=.002) and six-month follow-ups (P<.001). The video group also demonstrated a greater increase in behavioral intentions than controls, both at one-month (P<.05) and six-month follow-ups (P<.001). Knowledge and behavioral intention levels at six-month follow-up did not differ significantly from those at one-month follow-up, indicating that intervention-based increases in these measures were maintained over time. Conclusions Data provided evidence of the effectiveness of the autonomy-supportive psychoeducational intervention for ECC prevention relative to a neutral brochure. PMID:23756308
Çelik, Seçil; Arikan, Azru; Diken, Ibrahim H.; Aksoy, Funda; Çolak, Aysun; Tomris, Gözde
Preventing antisocial behaviors appearing at an early age--before they become chronic--through effective early intervention programs, has become an important issue in recent years. In Turkey, the increase in the number of children at risk of antisocial behavior makes it necessary to get these behaviors under control at an early age through some…
Malhi, Gin S; Bargh, Danielle M; Coulston, Carissa M; Das, Pritha; Berk, Michael
Bipolar disorder is a multifaceted illness and there is often a substantial delay between the first onset of symptoms and diagnosis. Early detection has the potential to curtail illness progression and disorder-associated burden but it requires a clear understanding of the initial bipolar prodrome. This article summarizes the phenomenology of bipolar disorder with an emphasis on the initial prodrome, the evolution of the illness, and the implications for prevention and early intervention. A literature review was undertaken using Medline, Web of Science, and a hand search of relevant literature using keywords (e.g., phenomenology, initial or early symptoms, risk factors, and predictors/prediction). Findings from the literature were reviewed and synthesized and have been put into a clinical context. Bipolar disorder is a recurrent, persistent, and disabling illness that typically develops in adolescence or early adulthood. The literature search yielded 28 articles, in which mood lability, nonspecific, non-mood symptoms, and cyclothymic temperament were the most cited prodromal features. A small number of key prospective studies have provided evidence in support of an initial bipolar prodrome; however, methodological differences across studies have prohibited its clear delineation. It is, therefore, not currently possible to anticipate those who will develop bipolar disorder solely on the basis of early phenomenology. Accurate characterization of the bipolar disorder prodrome through high-quality, prospective research studies with adequate control groups will ultimately facilitate prompt and accurate diagnosis. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Anne M. Dattilo
Full Text Available Childhood obesity is currently one of the most prevailing and challenging public health issues among industrialized countries and of international priority. The global prevalence of obesity poses such a serious concern that the World Health Organization (WHO has described it as a “global epidemic.” Recent literature suggests that the genesis of the problem occurs in the first years of life as feeding patterns, dietary habits, and parental feeding practices are established. Obesity prevention evidence points to specific dietary factors, such as the promotion of breastfeeding and appropriate introduction of nutritious complementary foods, but also calls for attention to parental feeding practices, awareness of appropriate responses to infant hunger and satiety cues, physical activity/inactivity behaviors, infant sleep duration, and family meals. Interventions that begin at birth, targeting multiple factors related to healthy growth, have not been adequately studied. Due to the overwhelming importance and global significance of excess weight within pediatric populations, this narrative review was undertaken to summarize factors associated with overweight and obesity among infants and toddlers, with focus on potentially modifiable risk factors beginning at birth, and to address the need for early intervention prevention.
Dattilo, Anne M; Birch, Leann; Krebs, Nancy F; Lake, Alan; Taveras, Elsie M; Saavedra, Jose M
Childhood obesity is currently one of the most prevailing and challenging public health issues among industrialized countries and of international priority. The global prevalence of obesity poses such a serious concern that the World Health Organization (WHO) has described it as a "global epidemic." Recent literature suggests that the genesis of the problem occurs in the first years of life as feeding patterns, dietary habits, and parental feeding practices are established. Obesity prevention evidence points to specific dietary factors, such as the promotion of breastfeeding and appropriate introduction of nutritious complementary foods, but also calls for attention to parental feeding practices, awareness of appropriate responses to infant hunger and satiety cues, physical activity/inactivity behaviors, infant sleep duration, and family meals. Interventions that begin at birth, targeting multiple factors related to healthy growth, have not been adequately studied. Due to the overwhelming importance and global significance of excess weight within pediatric populations, this narrative review was undertaken to summarize factors associated with overweight and obesity among infants and toddlers, with focus on potentially modifiable risk factors beginning at birth, and to address the need for early intervention prevention.
Lewis, Timothy J.; Mitchell, Barbara S.
Students with emotional and behavioral disorders are at great risk for long-term negative outcomes. Researchers and practitioners alike acknowledge the need for evidence-based, preventive, and early intervention strategies. Accordingly, in this chapter an expanded view of prevention is presented as a series of data driven decisions to guide…
Rodgers, Rachel F; Paxton, Susan J
Depressive and eating disorder symptoms are highly comorbid. To date, however, little is known regarding the efficacy of existing programs in decreasing concurrent eating disorder and depressive symptoms. We conducted a systematic review of selective and indicated controlled prevention and early intervention programs that assessed both eating disorder and depressive symptoms. We identified a total of 26 studies. The large majority of identified interventions (92%) were successful in decreasing eating disorder symptoms. However fewer than half (42%) were successful in decreasing both eating disorder and depressive symptoms. Intervention and participant characteristics did not predict success in decreasing depressive symptoms. Indicated prevention and early intervention programs targeting eating disorder symptoms are limited in their success in decreasing concurrent depressive symptoms. Further efforts to develop more efficient interventions that are successful in decreasing both eating disorder and depressive symptoms are warranted.
Grapp, Miriam; Hutter, Elisabeth; Argstatter, Heike; Plinkert, Peter K; Bolay, Hans V
In the present study a music therapeutic intervention according to the ‘Heidelberg Model’ was evaluated as a complementary treatment option for patients with acute tinnitus whom medical treatment only brought minimal or no improvement. The central question was if music therapy in an early phase of tinnitus was able to reduce tinnitus symptoms and to prevent them from becoming chronical. 23 patients with acute tinnitus (6-12 weeks) were included in this study and took part in our manualized short term music therapeutic treatment which lasted ten consecutive 50-minutes sessions of individualized therapy. Tinnitus severity and individual tinnitus related distress were assessed by the Tinnitus Beeinträchtigungs-Fragebogen (i.e. Tinnitus Impairment Questionnaire, TBF-12) at baseline, start of treatment, and end of treatment. Score changes in TBF-12 from start to end of the treatment showed significant improvements in tinnitus impairment. This indicates that this music therapy approach applied in an initial stage of tinnitus can make an important contribution towards preventing tinnitus from becoming a chronic condition. PMID:23936599
family conflict.12 We also know that the effects of violence exposure are likely magnified in unstable ... and how chronic 'toxic stress' may lead to difficulties in self-regulation, poor control of emotions, and ... High levels of violence affect every family in South Africa. Exposure to violence starts early, in both the home.
McClung, Michael R; Wasnich, Richard D; Hosking, David J
We report the effect of continuous treatment with alendronate for 6 yr vs. placebo in the Early Postmenopausal Intervention Cohort study. A total of 1609 healthy, early postmenopausal women were recruited; we describe results for the 585 women who received continuous placebo or alendronate (2...
Lynch, Sarah; McFarlane, William R; Joly, Brenda; Adelsheim, Steven; Auther, Andrea; Cornblatt, Barbara A; Migliorati, Margaret; Ragland, J Daniel; Sale, Tamara; Spring, Elizabeth; Calkins, Roderick; Carter, Cameron S; Jaynes, Rebecca; Taylor, Stephan F; Downing, Donna
This study assessed the effects of a community outreach and education model implemented as part of the Early Detection, Intervention and Prevention of Psychosis Program (EDIPPP), a national multisite study in six U.S. regions. EDIPPP's model was designed to generate rapid referrals of youths at clinical high risk of psychosis by creating a network of professionals and community members trained to identify signs of early psychosis. Qualitative and quantitative data were gathered through an evaluation of outreach efforts at five sites over a two-year period and through interviews with staff at all six sites. All outreach activities to groups (educational, medical, and mental health professionals; community groups; media; youth and parent groups; and multicultural communities) were counted for the six sites to determine correlations with total referrals and enrollments. During the study period (May 2007-May 2010), 848 formal presentations were made to 22,840 attendees and 145 informal presentations were made to 11,528 attendees at all six sites. These presentations led to 1,652 phone referrals. A total of 520 (31%) of these individuals were offered in-person orientation, and 392 (75%) of those were assessed for eligibility. A total of 337 individuals (86% of those assessed) met criteria for assignment to the EDIPPP study. EDIPPP's outreach and education model demonstrated the effectiveness of following a protocol-defined outreach strategy combined with flexibility to reach culturally diverse audiences or initially inaccessible systems. All EDIPPP sites yielded appropriate referrals of youths at risk of psychosis.
Iachini, Aidyn L.; Rogelberg, Sandra; Terry, John David; Lutz, Amy
This article describes Aspire, a new motivational interviewing (MI) early intervention program designed to prevent dropout among students repeating the ninth grade, and then examines the feasibility and acceptability of this program through a mixed-methods approach. The Aspire program is a nine-lesson curriculum grounded in MI with an emphasis on…
Gout, Uliana; Anand, Chytra V; Braz, Andre; Chao, Yates Yen Yu; Fabi, Sabrina Guillen; Kerscher, Martina; Landau, Marina; Pavicic, Tatjana; Peng, Peter Hsien Li; Rzany, Berthold; Sattler, Gerhard; Tiryaki, Tunk; Waldorf, Heidi A; Besins, Thierry
Communication concepts relating to prevention and early intervention (P&E) within aesthetic medicine are poorly understood and highly underexplored. However, effective communication is a key criterion for successful outcomes. To introduce the framework for P&E communication strategies within a younger population and explore the barriers that may be encountered. A literature review on P&E communication strategies in aesthetic medicine and related topics of interest was conducted and used to construct a working framework that may be applied in clinical practice. Examination of existing literature revealed a need for a more structured communication framework for P&E encompassing up-to-date evidence-based learning and educational marketing that is tailored to individual needs and target populations. Message framing-the way in which a message is presented-is an important consideration in the dissemination of information to promote changes in health behaviour. A structured consultation is key to optimising patient engagement and ensures a tailored approach to understanding and catering to the specific needs of each patient. This is the first paper to discuss the communication concepts behind P&E within aesthetic medicine and paves the way for further research and focus in this significant field. J Drugs Dermatol. 2017;16(9):859-864..
Advances in the fields of cognitive and affective developmental neuroscience, developmental psychopathology, neurobiology, genetics, and applied behavior analysis have contributed to a more optimistic outcome for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). These advances have led to new methods for early detection and more effective treatments. For the first time, prevention of ASD is plausible. Prevention will entail detecting infants at risk before the full syndrome is present and implementing treatments designed to alter the course of early behavioral and brain development. This article describes a developmental model of risk, risk processes, symptom emergence, and adaptation in ASD that offers a framework for understanding early brain plasticity in ASD and its role in prevention of the disorder.
Mouthaan, Joanne; Sijbrandij, Marit; de Vries, Giel-Jan; Reitsma, Johannes B.; van de Schoot, Rens; Goslings, J. Carel; Luitse, Jan S. K.; Bakker, Fred C.; Gersons, Berthold P. R.; Olff, Miranda
Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) develops in 10-20% of injury patients. We developed a novel, self-guided Internet-based intervention (called Trauma TIPS) based on techniques from cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) to prevent the onset of PTSD symptoms. Objective: To determine
Mouthaan, J.; Sijbrandij, M.; de Vries, G.J.; Reitsma, J.B.; van de Schoot, R.; Goslings, J.C.; Luitse, J.S.K.; Bakker, F.C.; Gersons, B.P.R.; Olff, M.
Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) develops in 10-20% of injury patients. We developed a novel, self-guided Internet-based intervention (called Trauma TIPS) based on techniques from cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) to prevent the onset of PTSD symptoms. Objective: To determine
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Early infant male circumcision (EIMC is simpler, safer and more cost-effective than adult circumcision. In sub-Saharan Africa, there are concerns about acceptability of EIMC which could affect uptake. In 2009 a quantitative survey of 2,746 rural Zimbabweans (aged 18-44 indicated that 60% of women and 58% of men would be willing to have their newborn son circumcised. Willingness was associated with knowledge of HIV and male circumcision. This qualitative study was conducted to better understand this issue. METHODS: In 2010, 24 group discussions were held across Zimbabwe with participants from seven ethnic groups. Additionally, key informant interviews were held with private paediatricians who offer EIMC (n = 2 plus one traditional leader. Discussions were audio-recorded, transcribed, translated into English (where necessary, coded using NVivo 8 and analysed using grounded theory principles. RESULTS: Knowledge of the procedure was poor. Despite this, acceptability of EIMC was high among parents from most ethnic groups. Discussions suggested that fathers would make the ultimate decision regarding EIMC although mothers and extended family can have (often covert influence. Participants' concerns centred on: safety, motive behind free service provision plus handling and disposal of the discarded foreskin. Older men from the dominant traditionally circumcising population strongly opposed EIMC, arguing that it separates circumcision from adolescent initiation, as well as allowing women (mothers to nurse the wound, considered taboo. CONCLUSIONS: EIMC is likely to be an acceptable HIV prevention intervention for most populations in Zimbabwe, if barriers to uptake are appropriately addressed and fathers are specifically targeted by the programme.
Dulin Keita, Akilah; Risica, Patricia M.; Drenner, Kelli L.; Adams, Ingrid; Gorham, Gemma; Gans, Kim M.
Background. This study examined the feasibility and acceptability of a home-based early childhood obesity prevention intervention designed to empower low-income racially/ethnically diverse parents to modify their children's health behaviors. Methods. We used a prospective design with pre-/posttest evaluation of 50 parent-child pairs (children aged 2 to 5 years) to examine potential changes in dietary, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors among children at baseline and four-month follow-...
Full Text Available BackgroundChildhood obesity is a major clinical and economic health concern. Alongside the clinical understanding of obesity, there is a growing interest in designing and implementing interventions that are worth their money given the scarce resources in the health care sector. This study is one of the first efforts to provide evidence by assessing the effects and costs of a population-based primary prevention intervention targeting pre-school children attending child health centers in Sweden.MethodsThe economic evaluation is based on the PRIMROSE cluster-randomized controlled trial aiming to establish healthy eating and physical activity among pre-school children (9–48 months of age through motivational interviewing applied by trained nurses at child health centers. The cost-effectiveness is assessed over the trial period from a societal perspective. The primary outcome was BMI at age 4. Cost data was prospectively collected alongside the trial. Scenario analyses were carried out to identify uncertainty.ResultsThe estimated additional mean total costs of the PRIMROSE intervention were 342 Euro (95% CI: 334; 348 per child. During pre-school years direct costs mainly consist of training costs and costs for the additional time used by nurses to implement the intervention compared to usual care. Early indirect costs mainly consist of parents’ absence from work due to their participation in the intervention. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio in the base case analysis was 3,109 Euro per 1 BMI unit prevented.ConclusionWe cannot provide evidence that the PRIMROSE intervention is cost-effective, given the uncertainty in the effect measure. Until further evidence is provided, we recommend resources to be spent elsewhere within the field of obesity prevention. Furthermore, to achieve valid and reliable cost-effectiveness results, the economic evaluation of obesity prevention programs in early childhood should incorporate the life time
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Based on different studies, substance use is one of the health problems in the Iranian society. The prevalence of substance use is on a growing trend; moreover, the age of the onset of substance use has declined to early adolescence and even lower. Regarding this, the present study aimed to develop a family-based early-onset substance use prevention program in children (My Family-Study by using intervention mapping approach. Materials and Methods: This study descirbes the research protocol during which the intervention mapping approach was used as a framework to develop My Family-Study. In this study, six steps of intervention mapping were completed. Interviews with experts and literature review fulfilled the need assessment. In the second step, the change objectivs were rewritten based on the intersection of the performance objectives and the determinants associated in the matrices. After designing the program and planning the implementation of the intervention, the evaluation plan of the program was accomplished. Results: The use of intervention mapping approach facilitated the develop-pment of a systematic as well as theory- and evidence-based program. Moreover, this approach was helful in the determination of outcomes, performance and change objectives, determinants, theoretical methods, practical application, intervention, dissemination, and evaluation program. Conclusions: The intervention mapping provided a systematic as well as theory- and evidence-based approach to develop a quality continuing health promotion program.
Rothbaum, Barbara Olasov; Kearns, Megan C.; Price, Matthew; Malcoun, Emily; Davis, Michael; Ressler, Kerry J.; Lang, Delia; Houry, Debra
Background Posttraumatic stress disorder is a major public health concern with long term sequelae. There are no accepted interventions delivered in the immediate aftermath of trauma. This study tested an early intervention aimed at modifying the memory to prevent the development of PTSD prior to memory consolidation. Methods Patients (N=137) were randomly assigned to receive 3 sessions of an early intervention beginning in the emergency department (ED) compared to an assessment only control group. Posttraumatic stress reactions (PTSR) were assessed at 4 and 12 weeks post-injury and depression at baseline and week 4. The intervention consisted of modified prolonged exposure including imaginal exposure to the trauma memory, processing of traumatic material, and in vivo and imaginal exposure homework. Results Patients were assessed an average of 11.79 hours post-trauma. Intervention participants reported significantly lower PTSR than the assessment group at 4 weeks post-injury, p rape victims at Week 4 (p=.004) and Week 12 (p=.05). Conclusions These findings suggest that the modified prolonged exposure intervention initiated within hours of the trauma in the ED is successful at reducing PTSR and depression symptoms one and three months after trauma exposure and is safe and feasible. This is the first behavioral intervention delivered immediately post-trauma that has been shown to be effective at reducing PTSR. PMID:22766415
Rothbaum, Barbara Olasov; Kearns, Megan C; Price, Matthew; Malcoun, Emily; Davis, Michael; Ressler, Kerry J; Lang, Delia; Houry, Debra
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a major public health concern with long-term sequelae. There are no accepted interventions delivered in the immediate aftermath of trauma. This study tested an early intervention aimed at modifying the memory to prevent the development of PTSD before memory consolidation. Patients (n = 137) were randomly assigned to receive three sessions of an early intervention beginning in the emergency department compared with an assessment only control group. Posttraumatic stress reactions (PTSR) were assessed at 4 and 12 weeks postinjury and depression at baseline and week 4. The intervention consisted of modified prolonged exposure including imaginal exposure to the trauma memory, processing of traumatic material, and in vivo and imaginal exposure homework. Patients were assessed an average of 11.79 hours posttrauma. Intervention participants reported significantly lower PTSR than the assessment group at 4 weeks postinjury, p rape victims at week 4 (p = .004) and week 12 (p = .05). These findings suggest that the modified prolonged exposure intervention initiated within hours of the trauma in the emergency department is successful at reducing PTSR and depression symptoms 1 and 3 months after trauma exposure and is safe and feasible. This is the first behavioral intervention delivered immediately posttrauma that has been shown to be effective at reducing PTSR. Copyright © 2012 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Persson, Frederik; Lindhardt, Morten; Rossing, Peter
Hypothesis/objectives: Early prevention of diabetic nephropathy by way of blocking the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in patients with normoalbuminuria seems rational, but trials have so far shown conflicting results. The present meta-analysis was undertaken to investigate if such treatment can p......-cause mortality(p=0.07). Conclusions: We conclude that in patients with type 2 diabetes and normoalbuminuria, early intervention with ACEis or ARBs reduces the risk for development of microalbuminuria.......Hypothesis/objectives: Early prevention of diabetic nephropathy by way of blocking the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in patients with normoalbuminuria seems rational, but trials have so far shown conflicting results. The present meta-analysis was undertaken to investigate if such treatment can...
Jirkovský, Eduard; Lenčová-Popelová, Olga; Hroch, Miloš; Adamcová, Michaela; Mazurová, Yvona; Vávrová, Jaroslava
Despite incomplete understanding to its mechanism of action, dexrazoxane (DEX) is still the only clearly effective cardioprotectant against chronic anthracycline (ANT) cardiotoxicity. However, its clinical use is currently restricted to patients exceeding significant ANT cumulative dose (300 mg/m 2 ), although each ANT cycle may induce certain potentially irreversible myocardial damage. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare early and delayed DEX intervention against chronic ANT cardiotoxicity and study the molecular events involved. The cardiotoxicity was induced in rabbits with daunorubicin (DAU; 3 mg/kg/week for 10 weeks); DEX (60 mg/kg) was administered either before the 1st or 7th DAU dose (i.e. after ≈300 mg/m 2 cumulative dose). While both DEX administration schedules prevented DAU-induced premature deaths and severe congestive heart failure, only the early intervention completely prevented the left ventricular dysfunction, myocardial morphological changes and mitochondrial damage. Further molecular analyses did not support the assumption that DEX cardioprotection is based and directly proportional to protection from DAU-induced oxidative damage and/or deletions in mtDNA. Nevertheless, DAU induced significant up-regulation of heme oxygenase 1 pathway while heme synthesis was inversely regulated and both changes were schedule-of-administration preventable by DEX. Early and delayed DEX interventions also differed in ability to prevent DAU-induced down-regulation of expression of mitochondrial proteins encoded by both nuclear and mitochondrial genome. Hence, the present functional, morphological as well as the molecular data highlights the enormous cardioprotective effects of DEX and provides novel insights into the molecular events involved. Furthermore, the data suggests that currently recommended delayed intervention may not be able to take advantage of the full cardioprotective potential of the drug
Corrigan, Matthew J; Krase, Kathryn; Reed, John Charles
The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act represents a reinvestment in primary care, with a focus on prevention of illness and remediation of the impacts of chronic diseases through a behavioral health framework. Licensed social work professionals, specifically those trained in behavioral health, are a natural fit to help implement these new approaches. Though there are many evidence-based interventions that will be helpful, two that come from the field of substance abuse ought to be specifically beneficial: SAMHSA's SBIRT Model and Motivational Interviewing, developed by Miller and Rollnick. In response to the growing need for specially trained social work practitioners, the Social Work Program at Seton Hall University has developed the initial concentration of its MSW Program around these learning needs.
Mänty, Minna Regina
study, on 63 to 75-year-old community-dwelling women (n=434). Data on mobility limitation, physical activity and health status were obtained in face-to-face interviews or with questionnaires. Muscle power and walking speed were measured during the research centre examinations and falls were followed......The purpose of this study was to examine the early signs of mobility decline and falls in older people. In addition, the effects of physical activity counseling on the development of mobility limitation in an older community-dwelling population were studied. Data from two larger studies were used......: Screening and Counseling for Physical activity and Mobility among Older People, SCAMOB, a 2-year single-blinded randomized controlled trial (n=632) with a 1.5-year post-intervention follow-up, focused on 75 to 81-year-old community-dwelling people and the FITSA study, a 3-year prospective observational...
Maliszewska-Cyna, Ewelina; Lynch, Madelaine; Oore, Jonathan Jordan; Nagy, Paul Michael; Aubert, Isabelle
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by neuronal degeneration, vascular pathology and cognitive decline. Furthermore, deficits in cerebral glucose metabolism and insulin resistance are being increasingly recognized in AD. Many lifestyle-modifying approaches, including diet and exercise, have yielded promising results in modulating brain morphology and function for the prevention and early treatment of AD. This review focuses on the effects of physical exercise on rescuing cognition and limiting the progression of AD pathology. Specifically, the impact of exercise, in human and animal models of AD, on the stimulation and preservation of cognition, neurotransmission, neurogenesis, vasculature, glucose metabolism and insulin signaling is discussed. Studies have highlighted the potential of physical activity to improve overall brain health, which could delay or lessen AD-related cognitive deficits and pathology. Physical activity influences cognitive function, vascular health and brain metabolism, which taken together offers benefits for the aging population, including AD patients.
Amy J. Morgan
Full Text Available Anxiety disorders are common, debilitating, and begin early in life. Early intervention to prevent anxiety disorders in children who are at risk could have long-term impact. The ‘Cool Little Kids’ parenting group program has previously been shown to be efficacious in preventing anxiety disorders in temperamentally inhibited young children. Wider dissemination of the program could be achieved with an internet-based delivery platform, affording greater accessibility and convenience for parents. The aim of this study was to evaluate ‘Cool Little Kids Online’, a newly developed online version of the existing parenting group program. Fifty-one parents of children aged 3–6 years were recruited to evaluate the online program's acceptability and preliminary efficacy in reducing inhibited young children's anxiety problems. Parents were randomized to receive either a clinician-supported version or an unsupported version of the program. Parents had 10 weeks to access the program and completed questionnaires at baseline and post-intervention. Both groups showed medium-to-large reductions in children's anxiety symptoms, emotional symptoms, number of child anxiety diagnoses, and improvements in life interference from anxiety. The effect of clinician support was inconsistent and difficult to interpret. Parents reported high levels of satisfaction with the program. These encouraging results indicate that the online version is acceptable and useful for parents with temperamentally inhibited young children. Cool Little Kids Online may be a promising direction for improving access to an evidence-based prevention and early intervention program for child anxiety problems. A large randomized trial is warranted to further evaluate efficacy.
RTO-MP-HFM-134 6 - 1 Guideline for Early Interventions Maaike de Vries Impact Foundation, Dutch Knowledge & Advice Centre for Post...assistance, also referred to as ‘ early interventions ’ or ‘debriefing’, is offered following shocking events. These may be large scale disasters or...calamities, but also military deployment and individual incidents. During the last years, the demand for early interventions has been increasing
Akilah Dulin Keita
Full Text Available Background. This study examined the feasibility and acceptability of a home-based early childhood obesity prevention intervention designed to empower low-income racially/ethnically diverse parents to modify their children’s health behaviors. Methods. We used a prospective design with pre-/posttest evaluation of 50 parent-child pairs (children aged 2 to 5 years to examine potential changes in dietary, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors among children at baseline and four-month follow-up. Results. 39 (78% parent-child pairs completed evaluation data at 4-month follow-up. Vegetable intake among children significantly increased at follow-up (0.54 cups at 4 months compared to 0.28 cups at baseline, P=0.001 and ounces of fruit juice decreased at follow-up (11.9 ounces at 4 months compared to 16.0 ounces at baseline, P=0.036. Sedentary behaviors also improved. Children significantly decreased time spent watching TV on weekdays (P<0.01 and also reduced weekend TV time. In addition, the number of homes with TV sets in the child’s bedroom also decreased (P<0.0013. Conclusions. The findings indicate that a home-based early childhood obesity prevention intervention is feasible, acceptable and demonstrates short-term effects on dietary and sedentary behaviors of low-income racially/ethnically diverse children.
Marshall, Max; Rathbone, John
Background Proponents of early intervention have argued that outcomes might be improved if more therapeutic efforts were focused on the early stages of schizophrenia or on people with prodromal symptoms. Early intervention in schizophrenia has two elements that are distinct from standard care: early detection, and phase-specific treatment (phase-specific treatment is a psychological, social or physical treatment developed, or modified, specifically for use with people at an early stage of the illness). Early detection and phase-specific treatment may both be offered as supplements to standard care, or may be provided through a specialised early intervention team. Early intervention is now well established as a therapeutic approach in America, Europe and Australasia. Objectives To evaluate the effects of: (a) early detection; (b) phase-specific treatments; and (c) specialised early intervention teams in the treatment of people with prodromal symptoms or first-episode psychosis. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (March 2009), inspected reference lists of all identified trials and reviews and contacted experts in the field. Selection criteria We included all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) designed to prevent progression to psychosis in people showing prodromal symptoms, or to improve outcome for people with first-episode psychosis. Eligible interventions, alone and in combination, included: early detection, phase-specific treatments, and care from specialised early intervention teams. We accepted cluster-randomised trials but excluded non-randomised trials. Data collection and analysis We reliably selected studies, quality rated them and extracted data. For dichotomous data, we estimated relative risks (RR), with the 95% confidence intervals (CI). Where possible, we calculated the number needed to treat/harm statistic (NNT/H) and used intention-to-treat analysis (ITT). Main results Studies were diverse, mostly small
Spoth, Richard; Trudeau, Linda; Redmond, Cleve; Shin, Chungyeol
This brief report summarizes a replication and extension of a developmental outcome modeling study, by examining whether delayed substance initiation during adolescence, resulting from universal middle school preventive interventions, reduces problematic use in young adults Ages 25 and 27, up to 14.5 years after baseline. Participants were middle school students from 36 Iowa schools randomly assigned to the Strengthening Families Program plus Life Skills Training (SFP 10-14 + LST), LST-only, or a control condition. Self-report questionnaires originally were collected at 11 time points, through Age 22. A subsequent grant allowed for assessments at Ages 25 and 27, including measures of drunkenness, alcohol-related problems, cigarette use, illicit drug use (lifetime and frequency), marijuana use and prescription drug misuse. These outcomes were modeled as variables influenced by growth factors describing substance initiation during adolescence. Models included the effects of baseline risk, intervention condition assignment, and their interaction; risk-related moderation effects were examined and relative reduction rates were calculated for dichotomous variables. Model fits were good. Analyses showed significant or marginally significant indirect intervention effects on all outcomes, through effects on adolescent substance initiation growth factors. Intervention × Risk interaction effects favored the higher risk subsample, replicating earlier findings. Additional direct effects on young adult use were observed only for cigarette frequency. Relative reduction rates were larger for the higher risk subsamples, ranging from 3.9% to 36.2%. Universal preventive interventions implemented during early adolescence have the potential to decrease the rates of substance misuse and associated problems into young adulthood. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Romero, Estrella; Rodríguez, Concepción; Villar, Paula; Gómez-Fraguela, X Antón
The aim of this study is to evaluate the long-term effects of a manualised program which intervenes on children with early-onset conduct problems, their families and teachers. The program evaluation involved 14 primary schools which were randomly assigned to the intervention (45 participating families) and control (30 families) conditions during 2007-2008. After a screening process which identified children with significant conduct problems both at home with their family and at school, the program was implemented in eight schools. Seven years later, 58 families (37 from the intervention group and 21 from the control group), with characteristics equivalent to those of the study's entire initial group, were contacted again. With measures administered to the children and their parents, comparisons through multivariate analyses of variance between intervention and control groups supported the program's efficacy in reducing both conduct problems and relations with antisocial peers. Furthermore, the program fostered social and communication skills. As regards drug use, the intervention group showed less favourable attitudes towards drugs, lower intention of drug use, lower frequency of tobacco use and lower intensity of alcohol use. These results support the usefulness of multicomponent programs for conduct problems as a way to prevent, in the long term, unfavourable developmental trajectories, where drug use is a key element.
Sansolios, Sanne; Storm Slumstrup, Camilla
The intervention carried out in Denmark included a foodintervention in four kindergartens over at four weeks baseline period and a two weeks intervention period, also a tasteworkshop were carried out introducing a new boardgame using the Sapere method and finally a foodtale book and an activity f...
Sansolios, Sanne; Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg
The intervention carried out in Denmark included a foodintervention in four kindergartens over at four weeks baseline period and a two weeks intervention period, also a tasteworkshop were carried out introducing a new boardgame using the Sapere method and finally a foodtale book and an activity...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple factors combine to support a compelling case for interventions that target the development of obesity-promoting behaviours (poor diet, low physical activity and high sedentary behaviour from their inception. These factors include the rapidly increasing prevalence of fatness throughout childhood, the instigation of obesity-promoting behaviours in infancy, and the tracking of these behaviours from childhood through to adolescence and adulthood. The Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial (INFANT aims to determine the effectiveness of an early childhood obesity prevention intervention delivered to first-time parents. The intervention, conducted with parents over the infant's first 18 months of life, will use existing social networks (first-time parent's groups and an anticipatory guidance framework focusing on parenting skills which support the development of positive diet and physical activity behaviours, and reduced sedentary behaviours in infancy. Methods/Design This cluster-randomised controlled trial, with first-time parent groups as the unit of randomisation, will be conducted with a sample of 600 first-time parents and their newborn children who attend the first-time parents' group at Maternal and Child Health Centres. Using a two-stage sampling process, local government areas in Victoria, Australia will be randomly selected at the first stage. At the second stage, a proportional sample of first-time parent groups within selected local government areas will be randomly selected and invited to participate. Informed consent will be obtained and groups will then be randomly allocated to the intervention or control group. Discussion The early years hold promise as a time in which obesity prevention may be most effective. To our knowledge this will be the first randomised trial internationally to demonstrate whether an early health promotion program delivered to first-time parents in their existing social groups
Keita, Akilah Dulin; Risica, Patricia M; Drenner, Kelli L; Adams, Ingrid; Gorham, Gemma; Gans, Kim M
This study examined the feasibility and acceptability of a home-based early childhood obesity prevention intervention designed to empower low-income racially/ethnically diverse parents to modify their children's health behaviors. We used a prospective design with pre-/posttest evaluation of 50 parent-child pairs (children aged 2 to 5 years) to examine potential changes in dietary, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors among children at baseline and four-month follow-up. 39 (78%) parent-child pairs completed evaluation data at 4-month follow-up. Vegetable intake among children significantly increased at follow-up (0.54 cups at 4 months compared to 0.28 cups at baseline, P = 0.001) and ounces of fruit juice decreased at follow-up (11.9 ounces at 4 months compared to 16.0 ounces at baseline, P = 0.036). Sedentary behaviors also improved. Children significantly decreased time spent watching TV on weekdays (P prevention intervention is feasible, acceptable and demonstrates short-term effects on dietary and sedentary behaviors of low-income racially/ethnically diverse children.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Early childhood caries (ECC is the most common dental disease among children, which can affect children’s primary teeth during their teething. This study evaluates an intervention for preventing early childhood caries in a pediatric population in Ahvaz, Iran. Method The population of this study (IRCT2017070210804N10 consists of 104 women with 12 to 36 months of age without dental caries referred to a health care center in Ahvaz, Iran. The children were randomly assigned to either an experimental or control group in equal numbers. First, the demographic information of participants was collected through a questionnaire containing components of perceived threat, health literacy, and oral health behaviors using a valid and reliable questionnaire. The ECC status of the children was established by a dentist. Control group received “standard well baby care”. The experimental group received standard well baby care in addition to educational interventions, including lecture and group discussion. After 6 months, the participant completed the questionnaire for the second time, and the children’s teeth were reexamined. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 15 at a significance level of p 0.05. However, after the intervention, a significant difference was observed between the perceived threats (41.15 ± 4.46 in the experimental group and 38.26 ± 4.21 in the control group, p = 0.001, health literacy (20.98 ± 2.15 in the experimental group and 19.76 ± 2.70 in the control group, p = 0.01, oral health behaviors (7.75 ± 2.30 in the experimental group and 6.15 ± 2.65 in the control group, p = 0.01, and the incidence of ECC (13% in the experimental group and 35% in the control group, p = 0.001. Conclusion This intervention had positive effects on the perceived threat, health literacy, and health behaviors; and the intervention could reduce the incidence of ECC. The finding of this study provided a suggestion
Csillag, Claudio; Nordentoft, Merete; Mizuno, Masafumi
AIM: Early intervention in psychosis (EIP) is a well-established approach with the intention of early detection and treatment of psychotic disorders. Its clinical and economic benefits are well documented. This paper presents basic aspects of EIP services, discusses challenges to their implementa......AIM: Early intervention in psychosis (EIP) is a well-established approach with the intention of early detection and treatment of psychotic disorders. Its clinical and economic benefits are well documented. This paper presents basic aspects of EIP services, discusses challenges...
Vries, de, Maaike
.... During the last years, the demand for early interventions has been increasing. International literature has shown that the psychosocial effects of disaster and military deployment may last for years...
Svensson, Annemarie Lyng; Christensen, Robin; Persson, Frederik
rheumatological nurse-administered set-up of behaviour modification and pharmacological therapy targeting (1) hyperlipidaemia, (2) hypertension, (3) hyperglycaemia and (4) microalbuminuria (intervention group). ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This protocol is approved by the local ethics committee (DK-S-2014007...
Sansolios, Sanne; Husby, Sofie; Strand, Diana
Resultaterne viste at frugt & grønt en til flere gange om ugen indtaget i hjemmet steg samlet med 6,6 % i interventions- og kontrolbørnehaverne. Derudover viste at børns første prioritet var katagorien brød, pasta og ris (indenfor denne katagori, var prioritetsrangordnen som beskrevet) og dernæst...
Cueva, J F; Antolín, S; Calvo, L; Fernández, I; Ramos, M; de Paz, L; Mata, J G; López, R; Constenla, M; Pérez, E; González, A; Pellón, M L; Varela, S; López, T
This Galician consensus statement is a joint oncologists/cardiologists initiative indented to establish basic recommendations on how to prevent and to manage the cardiotoxicity in breast cancer with the aim of ensuring an optimal cardiovascular care of these patients. A clinical screening of the patients before treatment is recommended to stratify them into a determined risk group based on their intrinsic cardiovascular risk factors and those extrinsic arose from breast cancer therapy, thereby providing individualized preventive and monitoring measures. Suitable initial and ongoing assessments for patients with low and moderate/high risk and planned treatment with anthracyclines and trastuzumab are given; also, measures aimed at preventing and correcting any modifiable risk factor are pointed out .
Spicer, Rebecca S; Miller, Ted R
PeerCare is a workplace peer intervention program that focuses on changing workplace attitudes toward on-the-job substance use and trains workers to recognize, intervene with, and refer coworkers who have a problem. Monthly injuries at the study company (January 1983 through June 1996) were compared to counts at four other companies in the same industry. Using these panel data, fixed-effects negative binomial regression measured the association of the percentage of the workforce covered by PeerCare with the workplace injury rate. For every 1% increase in the workforce covered with PeerCare, the risk of injury declined by 0.9984 (95% confidence interval, 0.9975-0.9994). These findings suggest that, by June 1996, when 86% of the workforce was covered under PeerCare, the program had reduced injury rates by an average 14% per month. The findings support the implementation of peer intervention programs as a means to reduce workplace injuries.
Weber-Gasparoni, Karin; Warren, John J.; Reeve, Johnmarshall; Drake, David R.; Kramer, Katherine W.O.; Marshall, Teresa A.; Dawson, Deborah V.
Purpose The purpose was to compare whether mothers exposed to an autonomy-supportive psychoeducational videotaped message, informed by self-determination theory (SDT), demonstrated greater changes in behavior concerning their children's oral health than mothers exposed to a neutral message delivered by brochure. Methods Data were collected at baseline, one- and six-month follow-ups from 415 12- to 49- month-old WIC-enrolled children and their mothers: 283 in the video intervention group and 132 in the brochure control group. Mothers completed questionnaires regarding their child's dietary/oral hygiene habits. Chi-square, Wilcoxon Signed Rank, Mann-Whitney, and McNemar tests were used to analyze data (P<0.05). Results Significantly more positive changes were observed for dietary/oral hygiene behaviors among the intervention group mothers at one- and six-month follow-ups than for the controls. Significantly fewer mothers in the intervention group shared dining ware with their child at both one- (P=0.0046) and six-month follow-ups (P<0.0001); this practice was decreased only at six-months for the control group mothers (P=0.05). Restricting consideration only to mothers who were not checking for white spot lesions at baseline, a significantly greater proportion of mothers in the intervention group performed this behavior at six-months (P=0.0044). Conclusions Data provided evidence of the effectiveness of the SDT videotaped oral health message relative to a neutral brochure. PMID:23756309
Svensson, Annemarie Lyng; Christensen, Robin; Persson, Frederik
) in patients with early RA fulfilling the 2010 American College of Rheumatology European League Against Rheumatism (ACR/EULAR) criteria. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The study is a prospective, randomised, open label trial with blinded end point assessment and balanced randomisation (1:1) conducted in 10 outpatient....... Three hundred treatment-naive patients with early RA will be randomly assigned (1:1) to receive either conventional treatment administered and monitored by their general practitioner according to national guidelines (control group) or a stepwise implementation administered and monitored in a quarterly......) and The Danish Health and Medicines Authority. Dissemination will occur through presentations at National and International conferences and publications in international peer-reviewed journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02246257....
Series. o Arresting Cartilage Degradation after Injury: Focus on Primary Response Genes, UC Davis Dean’s Symposium, Translating Basic Science to...apoptosis and cell cycle arrest by FTY720 in gastric cancer cells and nude mice. J Cell Biochem 111: 218-228. Zhou Q, Yik JH (2006) The Yin and Yang of P...biomarkers for early intestinal cancer using 15N metabolic labeling and quantitative proteomics in the ApcMin/+ mouse, J. Proteome Res. 12 (2013) 4152
Knappe, Susanne; Beesdo-Baum, Katja; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich
Within the last decade, social anxiety disorder (SAD) has been identified as a highly prevalent and burdensome disorder. Both the characterization of its symptomatology and effective treatment options are widely documented. Studies particularly indicate that SAD aggregates in families and has its onset in early adolescence. Given the family as an important context for children's cognitive, emotional and behavioural development, familial risk factors could be expected to significantly contribute to the reliable detection of populations at risk for SAD. Reviewing studies on familial risk factors for SAD argues for the importance of parental psychopathology and unfavourable family environment, but also denotes to several shortcomings such as cross-sectional designs, short follow-up periods, diverging methodologies and the focus on isolated factors. Using a prospective longitudinal study that covers the high-risk period for SAD, including a broader spectrum of putative risk factors may help to overcome many of the methodological limitations. This review sets out to develop a more family-oriented approach for predicting the onset and maintenance of SAD that may be fruitful to derive targeted prevention and early intervention in SAD.
Gillham, Jane E.; Reivich, Karen J.; Freres, Derek R.; Lascher, Marisa; Litzinger, Samantha; Shatte, Andrew; Seligman, Martin E. P.
Previous studies suggest that school-based cognitive-behavioral interventions can reduce and prevent depressive symptoms in youth. This pilot study investigated the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral depression prevention program, the Penn Resiliency Program for Children and Adolescents (the PRP-CA), when combined with a parent intervention…
Çolak, Aysun; Tomris, Gözde; Diken, Ibrahim H.; Arikan, Arzu; Aksoy, Funda; Çelik, Seçil
This study aims to describe the views of teachers, parents, and FSS-PSV counselors on the Preschool Version of First Step to Success Early Intervention Program (FSS-PSV) in preventing antisocial behaviors; in addition, the implementation process and contributions from the program will also be outlined. The study was conducted in six different…
Kindermann, Sally; Moessner, Markus; Ozer, Fikret; Bauer, Stephanie
Flexible, individualized interventions allow participants to adjust the intensity of support to their current needs. Between-persons, participants with greater needs can receive more intense support, within-persons, participants can adjust utilization to their current level of symptoms. The purpose of the present study was to analyze associations between ED-related symptoms and utilization of the individualized program ProYouth both between- and within-persons, aiming to investigate whether participants adapt utilization intensity to their current needs. Generalized estimated equations (GEEs) were used to analyze log data on program utilization (monthly page visits, monthly use of chats and forum) assessed via server logs and self-reported data on ED-related symptoms from N = 394 ProYouth participants who provided longitudinal data for at least two months. Between-persons, page visits per month were significantly associated with compensatory behavior, body dissatisfaction, and binge eating. Monthly use of the more intense modules with personal support chat and forum was associated with the frequency of compensatory behavior. Within-persons, unbalanced nutrition and dieting showed the strongest associations with monthly page visits. Monthly use of chats and forum was significantly associated with compensatory behavior and unbalanced nutrition and dieting. Results indicate that program utilization is associated with ED-related symptoms between- as well as within-persons. The individualized, flexible approach of ProYouth thus seems to be a promising way for Internet-based provision of combined prevention and early intervention programs addressing ED. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Anderson, Cheryl A; Lieser, Carol
Frequently undiagnosed and untreated, prenatal depression affects approximately one in four childbearing women. Screening and appropriate management is essential to prevent adverse consequences to both the woman and her unborn infant. Early conversations between the woman and her nurse practitioner are essential to making medical management decisions.
Scheenen, Myrthe E; Visser-Keizer, Annemarie C.; van der Naalt, Joukje; Spikman, Jacoba M
Purpose: Many patients with mild traumatic brain injury do not fully return to work owing to persistent posttraumatic complaints. Research suggests that preventing chronic complaints might be prevented by giving cognitive behavioral therapy early after injury. Therefore, a new cognitive behavioral
de Silva-Sanigorski, Andrea M; Bell, Andrew C; Kremer, Peter; Park, Janet; Demajo, Lisa; Smith, Michael; Sharp, Sharon; Nichols, Melanie; Carpenter, Lauren; Boak, Rachel; Swinburn, Boyd
The Romp & Chomp controlled trial, which aimed to prevent obesity in preschool Australian children, was recently found to reduce the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity and improve children's dietary patterns. The intervention focused on capacity building and policy implementation within various early childhood settings. This paper reports on the process and impact evaluation of this trial and the lessons learned from this complex community intervention. Process data was collected throughout and audits capturing nutrition and physical activity-related environments and practices were completed postintervention by directors of Long Day Care (LDC) centers (n = 10) and preschools (n = 41) in intervention and comparison (n = 161 LDC and n = 347 preschool) groups. The environmental audits demonstrated positive impacts in both settings on policy, nutrition, physical activity opportunities, and staff capacity and practices, although results varied across settings and were more substantial in the preschool settings. Important lessons were learned in relation to implementation of such community-based interventions, including the significant barriers to implementing health-promotion interventions in early childhood settings, lack of engagement of for-profit LDC centers in the evaluation, and an inability to attribute direct intervention impacts when the intervention components were delivered as part of a health-promotion package integrated with other programs. These results provide confidence that obesity prevention interventions in children's settings can be effective; however, significant efforts must be directed toward developing context-specific strategies that invest in policies, capacity building, staff support, and parent engagement. Recognition by funders and reviewers of the difficulties involved in implementing and evaluating such complex interventions is also critical to strengthening the evidence base on the effectiveness of such public health
Tawfik, Mirella Youssef
This study aims to investigate the impact of a health belief model (HBM)-based educational intervention on knowledge, beliefs, self-reported practices, gestational and postpartum weight in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). A cluster randomized controlled trial was performed, with randomization at the level of Primary Health Care centers in three Egyptian cities. Eligible women with GDM were enrolled at 24 weeks pregnancy. The intervention group (n = 103) received health education intervention based on the HBM construct. Control subjects (n = 98) received the usual care. The outcomes measured were: women's knowledge, beliefs, self-reported practices, gestational weight gain (GWG), and postpartum weight retention. Patients were investigated at baseline, at end of pregnancy, and at 6 weeks postpartum. After the intervention, percentages of women who had high knowledge and beliefs scores had significantly increased from less than 50 % to more than 70 % in the intervention group (p < 0.001). More women in the intervention group reported practicing exclusive breast feeding (85.4 %) and screening for T2DM (43.7 %) at 6 weeks postpartum compared to the control group (63.3 and 19.4 % respectively) (p < 0.001). More women with excessive body mass index in the intervention group (65 %) compared to the control group (11.6 %) were meeting recommended GWG (p < 0.001), and postpartum weight (37.7, and 20.3 % respectively) (p < 0.01). This intervention significantly improved knowledge, beliefs, self-reported practices, and gestational and postpartum weight in patients with GDM. Further research is needed for investigating the effectiveness of applying early, multi-phase, and longer intervention.
Trott Alexander T
Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV prevention is increasingly focused on people living with HIV (PLWH and the role of healthcare settings in prevention. Emergency Departments (EDs frequently care for PLWH, but do not typically endorse a prevention mission. We conducted a pilot exploratory evaluation of the first reported ED program to address the prevention needs of PLWH. Methods This retrospective observational cohort evaluation reviewed program records to describe the first six months of participants and programmatic operation. Trained counselors provided a risk assessment and counseling intervention combined with three linkage interventions: i linkage to health care, ii linkage to case management, and iii linkage to partner counseling and referral. Results Of 81 self-identified PLWH who were approached, 55 initially agreed to participate. Of those completing risk assessment, 17/53 (32%, 95 CI 20% to 46% reported unprotected anal/vaginal intercourse or needle sharing in the past six months with a partner presumed to be HIV negative. Counseling was provided to 52/53 (98%. For those requesting services, 11/15 (73% were linked to healthcare, 4/23 (17% were coordinated with case management, and 1/4 (25% completed partner counseling and referral. Conclusion Given base resources of trained counselors, it was feasible to implement a program to address the prevention needs for persons living with HIV in an urban ED. ED patients with HIV often have unmet needs which might be addressed by improved linkage with existing community resources. Healthcare and prevention barriers for PLWH may be attenuated if EDs were to incorporate CDC recommended prevention measures for healthcare providers.
Guralnick, Michael J., Ed.
This book reviews research on the effectiveness of early intervention for children with disabilities or who are at risk. Program factors for children at risk and with disabilities, the effects of early intervention on different types of disabilities, and the outcomes of early intervention are explored. Chapters include: "Second-Generation Research…
Morgan, Amy J; Rapee, Ronald M; Salim, Agus; Goharpey, Nahal; Tamir, Elli; McLellan, Lauren F; Bayer, Jordana K
The Cool Little Kids parenting group program is an effective intervention for preventing anxiety disorders in young children who are at risk because of inhibited temperament. The program has six group sessions delivered by trained psychologists to parents of 3- to 6-year-old children. An online adaptation (Cool Little Kids Online) has been developed to overcome barriers to its wide dissemination in the community. This study tested the efficacy of Cool Little Kids Online in a randomized controlled trial. A total of 433 parents of a child aged 3 to 6 years with an inhibited temperament were randomized to the online parenting program or to a 24-week waitlist. The online program has 8 interactive modules providing strategies that parents can implement with their child to manage their child's avoidant coping, reduce parental overprotection, and encourage child independence. Parents were provided telephone consultation support with a psychologist when requested. Parents completed self-report questionnaires at baseline and at 12 and 24 weeks after baseline. The intervention group showed significantly greater improvement over time in child anxiety symptoms compared to the control group (d = 0.38). The intervention group also showed greater reductions in anxiety life interference (ds = 0.33-0.35) and lower rates of anxiety disorders than the control group (40% versus 54%), but there were minimal effects on broader internalizing symptoms or overprotective parenting. Results provide empirical support for the efficacy of online delivery of the Cool Little Kids program. Online dissemination may improve access to an evidence-based prevention program for child anxiety disorders. Clinical trial registration information-Randomised Controlled Trial of Cool Little Kids Online: A Parenting Program to Prevent Anxiety Problems in Young Children; http://www.anzctr.org.au/; 12615000217505. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc
Glaspey, Lindsey J; Roberts, Michael B; Mazzarelli, Anthony; Trzeciak, Stephen; Roberts, Brian W
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is being increasingly reported among survivors of critical illness and injury. Previous work has demonstrated that PTSD reduces patient quality of life and ability to return to work, as well as increases healthcare costs. As such, identifying interventions aimed at preventing the development of critical illness-related PTSD could have an important public health impact. The objective of this systematic review is to collate the world's literature on early interventions aimed at preventing PTSD among survivors of critical illness. We will perform a qualitative systematic review of human clinical trials of interventions aimed at preventing or reducing critical illness-related PTSD symptoms. We will methodically search CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase and CINAHL. We will also search websites containing details on clinical trials registration (National Library of Medicine's ClinicalTrials.gov and the WHO's International Clinical Trials Registry Platform), as well as screen reference lists of the articles we select for inclusion to identify additional studies for potential inclusion. Two authors will independently review all search results. After identification and inclusion of articles, we will use a standardised form for data extraction. We will use tables to describe the study type, populations, interventions tested and timing of interventions, outcome measures and effects of interventions on outcome measures compared with control groups. This review will be completed between 1 August 2017 and 31 August 2017. The proposed systematic review will not collect individual patient level data and does not require ethical approval. Results of this study will contribute to the understanding of critical illness-related PTSD and help prompt future research aimed at further developing interventions to prevent PTSD symptoms in survivors of critical illness. This systematic review is registered in the PROSPERO international prospective register of
Blackman, James A.
The recognition of the importance of brain development in the early years of life has led to expanded early intervention programs for very young children with or at risk for developmental disabilities. A biological basis for early intervention is explored, and brain plasticity is discussed. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)
What Works Clearinghouse, 2012
"Early Risers" is a multi-year prevention program for elementary school children demonstrating early aggressive and disruptive behavior. The intervention model includes two child-focused components and two parent/family components. The Child Skills component is designed to teach skills that enhance children's emotional and behavioral…
Sun, Yu; Zhao, Hong
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is one of the most common complications of pregnancy and is associated with substantially elevated risk of adverse health outcomes for both mothers and offspring. This quasi-experimental trial was conducted to assess whether a lifestyle intervention in early pregnancy can reduce the incidence of GDM and excessive gestational weight (GWG) gain among Chinese overweight women. Convenience samples of 74 women in gestational weeks 8-12 with a BMI ≥ 24 kg/m(2) were enrolled. They were divided into intervention (N=37) or control group (N=37) according to the time sequence of seeing the doctor. The intervention group was provided with exercise, dietary, weight gain counseling and detailed plans at weeks 8-12 and every month in the second trimester. In addition, each counseling session included a personalized feedback based on their 5-day-records. Follow-up phone calls or emails were conducted every week between antenatal visits. The control group was just provided with exercise, dietary and weight gain counseling at weeks 8-12, besides the usual health education provided at the O&G outpatient department. The lifestyle intervention resulted in a lower incidence of gestational diabetes in the intervention group (9/32, 28.1%) compared with the control group (19/34, 55.9%), p=0.023. Women in the intervention group gained much less weight (6.86 ± 2.31 versus 10.08 ± 3.84 kg, p=0.000) at the end of second trimester. Lifestyle intervention in early pregnancy can reduce the incidence of GDM and prevent excessive maternal weight gain in overweight and obese pregnant women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have shown that a proportion of children as young as two years are already overweight. This indicates that obesity prevention programs that commence as early as possible and are family-focused are needed. This Healthy Beginnings Trial aims to determine the efficacy of a community-based randomized controlled trial (RCT of a home visiting intervention in preventing the early onset of childhood overweight and obesity. The intervention will be conducted over the first two years of life to increase healthy feeding behaviours and physical activity, decrease physical inactivity, enhance parent-child interaction, and hence reduce overweight and obesity among children at 2 and 5 years of age in the most socially and economically disadvantaged areas of Sydney, Australia. Methods/design This RCT will be conducted with a consecutive sample of 782 first time mothers with their newborn children. Pregnant women who are expecting their first child, and who are between weeks 24 and 34 of their pregnancy, will be invited to participate in the trial at the antenatal clinic. Informed consent will be obtained and participants will then be randomly allocated to the intervention or the control group. The allocation will be concealed by sequentially numbered, sealed opaque envelopes containing a computer generated random number. The intervention comprises eight home visits from a specially trained community nurse over two years and pro-active telephone support between the visits. Main outcomes include a duration of breastfeeding measured at 6 and 12 months, b introduction of solids measured at 4 and 6 months, c nutrition, physical activity and television viewing measured at 24 months, and d overweight/obesity status at age 2 and 5 years. Discussion The results of this trial will ascertain whether the home based early intervention is effective in preventing the early onset of childhood overweight and obesity. If proved to be effective, it
Vella, Stewart A; Swann, Christian; Batterham, Marijka; Boydell, Katherine M; Eckermann, Simon; Fogarty, Andrea; Hurley, Diarmuid; Liddle, Sarah K; Lonsdale, Chris; Miller, Andrew; Noetel, Michael; Okely, Anthony D; Sanders, Taren; Telenta, Joanne; Deane, Frank P
There is a recognised need for targeted community-wide mental health strategies and interventions aimed specifically at prevention and early intervention in promoting mental health. Young males are a high need group who hold particularly negative attitudes towards mental health services, and these views are detrimental for early intervention and help-seeking. Organised sports provide a promising context to deliver community-wide mental health strategies and interventions to adolescent males. The aim of the Ahead of the Game program is to test the effectiveness of a multi-component, community-sport based program targeting prevention, promotion and early intervention for mental health among adolescent males. The Ahead of the Game program will be implemented within a sample drawn from community sporting clubs and evaluated using a sample drawn from a matched control community. Four programs are proposed, including two targeting adolescents, one for parents, and one for sports coaches. One adolescent program aims to increase mental health literacy, intentions to seek and/or provide help for mental health, and to decrease stigmatising attitudes. The second adolescent program aims to increase resilience. The goal of the parent program is to increase parental mental health literacy and confidence to provide help. The coach program is intended to increase coaches' supportive behaviours (e.g., autonomy supportive behaviours), and in turn facilitate high-quality motivation and wellbeing among adolescents. Programs will be complemented by a messaging campaign aimed at adolescents to enhance mental health literacy. The effects of the program on adolescent males' psychological distress and wellbeing will also be explored. Organised sports represent a potentially engaging avenue to promote mental health and prevent the onset of mental health problems among adolescent males. The community-based design, with samples drawn from an intervention and a matched control community
Larsen, Tor Ketil; Friis, Svein; Haahr, U
OBJECTIVE: To review the literature on early intervention in psychosis and to evaluate relevant studies. METHOD: Early intervention was defined as intervention in the prodromal phase (primary prevention) and intervention after the onset of psychosis, i.e. shortening of duration of untreated psych...
Full Text Available Disruptive behavior disorders in children are on the increase. However, there is evidence that the younger a child is at the time of intervention, the more positive the behavioral effects on his/her adjustment at home and at school. Parental education might be an effective way of addressing early problems. The Incredible Years (IY programs were designed to prevent and treat behavior problems when they first appear (in infancy-toddlerhood through middle childhood and to intervene in multiple areas through parent, teacher, and child training. This paper summarizes the literature demonstrating the impact of the IY parent, teacher and child intervention programs, and describes in more detail the work done in Portugal so far to disseminate IY programs with fidelity, with particular emphasis on the IY Basic Preschool Parenting and Teacher Classroom Management programs.
Winther, Jo; Carlsson, Anthony; Vance, Alasdair
Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) or conduct disorder (CD) occurs when children's disruptive and antisocial behaviours start to interfere with their academic, emotional and/or social development. Recently, there has been a considerable investment to implement national school-based early intervention programs to help prevent the onset of ODD/CD. This paper describes the delivery of the Royal Children's Hospital, Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service and Schools Early Action Program: a whole school, multi-level, multidisciplinary approach to address emerging ODD/CD and pre- versus post-delivery assessment in 40 schools over a 4-year period (2007-2010). All children from preparatory to grade 3 (ages 4-10 years) were screened for conduct problems (n = 8546) using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Universal, targeted and indicated interventions were delivered in school settings. In total, 304 children participated in the targeted group program where the Child Behaviour Checklist was used as a pre- and post-intervention measure. Cohen's d effect sizes and a reliability change index were calculated to determine clinical significance. Significant reductions in both parent- and teacher-reported internalizing and externalizing symptoms were noted. Parent, teacher and child feedback were very positive. A future randomized controlled trial of the program would address potential placebo and selection bias effects. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Vieta, Eduard; Salagre, Estela; Grande, Iria; Carvalho, André F; Fernandes, Brisa S; Berk, Michael; Birmaher, Boris; Tohen, Mauricio; Suppes, Trisha
Bipolar disorder is a recurrent disorder that affects more than 1% of the world population and usually has its onset during youth. Its chronic course is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality, making bipolar disorder one of the main causes of disability among young and working-age people. The implementation of early intervention strategies may help to change the outcome of the illness and avert potentially irreversible harm to patients with bipolar disorder, as early phases may be more responsive to treatment and may need less aggressive therapies. Early intervention in bipolar disorder is gaining momentum. Current evidence emerging from longitudinal studies indicates that parental early-onset bipolar disorder is the most consistent risk factor for bipolar disorder. Longitudinal studies also indicate that a full-blown manic episode is often preceded by a variety of prodromal symptoms, particularly subsyndromal manic symptoms, therefore supporting the existence of an at-risk state in bipolar disorder that could be targeted through early intervention. There are also identifiable risk factors that influence the course of bipolar disorder, some of them potentially modifiable. Valid biomarkers or diagnosis tools to help clinicians identify individuals at high risk of conversion to bipolar disorder are still lacking, although there are some promising early results. Pending more solid evidence on the best treatment strategy in early phases of bipolar disorder, physicians should carefully weigh the risks and benefits of each intervention. Further studies will provide the evidence needed to finish shaping the concept of early intervention.
Mills, Roger C.; And Others
Addresses issues such as dropouts, teenage pregnancy, drug abuse, suicide, and other health-damaging behaviors. Presents a theory of youth development and learning, and an integrated, interactive and reciprocal model for the prevention of health-damaging behavior. Addresses the role of the schools in prevention. (Author/BH)
Hosking, D; Chilvers, C E; Christiansen, C
BACKGROUND: Estrogen-replacement therapy prevents osteoporosis in postmenopausal women by inhibiting bone resorption, but the balance between its long-term risks and benefits remains unclear. Whether other antiresorptive therapies can prevent osteoporosis in these women is also not clear. METHODS...
Csillag, Claudio; Nordentoft, Merete; Mizuno, Masafumi
AIM: Early intervention (EI) in psychosis is a comprehensive and evidence-based approach aimed at detection and treatment of psychotic symptoms in their early stages. This paper presents core features and noteworthy aspects of the evidence basis and limitations of EI, the importance of programme...
Full Text Available Abstract Background While a number of preventive interventions delivered within schools have shown both short-term and long-term impact in epidemiologically based randomized field trials, programs are not often sustained with high-quality implementation over time. This study was designed to support two purposes. The first purpose was to test the effectiveness of a universal classroom-based intervention, the Whole Day First Grade Program (WD, aimed at two early antecedents to drug abuse and other problem behaviors, namely, aggressive, disruptive behavior and poor academic achievement. The second purpose--the focus of this paper--was to examine the utility of a multilevel structure to support high levels of implementation during the effectiveness trial, to sustain WD practices across additional years, and to train additional teachers in WD practices. Methods The WD intervention integrated three components, each previously tested separately: classroom behavior management; instruction, specifically reading; and family-classroom partnerships around behavior and learning. Teachers and students in 12 schools were randomly assigned to receive either the WD intervention or the standard first-grade program of the school system (SC. Three consecutive cohorts of first graders were randomized within schools to WD or SC classrooms and followed through the end of third grade to test the effectiveness of the WD intervention. Teacher practices were assessed over three years to examine the utility of the multilevel structure to support sustainability and scaling-up. Discussion The design employed in this trial appears to have considerable utility to provide data on WD effectiveness and to inform the field with regard to structures required to move evidence-based programs into practice. Trial Registration Clinical Trials Registration Number: NCT00257088
Post, Loren M; Michopoulos, Vasiliki; Stevens, Jennifer S; Reddy, Renuka; Maples, Jessica L; Morgan, Jessica R; Rothbaum, Alex O; Jovanovic, Tanja; Ressler, Kerry J; Rothbaum, Barbara O
Research suggests that exposure therapy provided in the hours immediately following trauma exposure may prevent PTSD development. This case report presents data on an at-risk for PTSD participant involved in a motor-vehicle crash that caused her severe distress. She received one session of exposure therapy in the emergency department (ED) as part of an ongoing randomized controlled study examining the optimal dose of exposure therapy in the immediate aftermath of trauma. PTSD and depression measures were collected at pre-treatment assessment and one- and three-month follow-up. Potential PTSD biomarkers were also examined. Psychophysiological reactions were measured using skin conductance data measured on an iPad during the exposure therapy session and the follow-up assessments. A fear-potentiated startle paradigm and an functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) behavioral inhibition task were used at follow-up. The participant demonstrated subjective and psychophysiological extinction from pre- to post-imaginal exposure. At follow-up, she did not meet DSM-IV criteria for PTSD or demonstrate hyperarousal to trauma reminders and showed robust fear extinction and the ability to inhibit responses in an fMRI behavioral inhibition task. In line with previous early intervention for the prevention of PTSD studies, this case report supports the need for ongoing empirical research investigating the possibility that one session of exposure therapy in the ED may attenuate risk for PTSD. Furthermore, the current findings demonstrate psychophysiological extinction serving as a prognostic indicator of treatment response for PTSD early intervention to be an exciting avenue to explore in future systematic research.
Post, Loren M.; Michopoulos, Vasiliki; Stevens, Jennifer S.; Reddy, Renuka; Maples, Jessica L.; Morgan, Jessica R.; Rothbaum, Alex O.; Jovanovic, Tanja; Ressler, Kerry J.; Rothbaum, Barbara O.
Research suggests that exposure therapy provided in the hours immediately following trauma exposure may prevent PTSD development. This case report presents data on an at-risk for PTSD participant involved in a motor-vehicle crash that caused her severe distress. She received one session of exposure therapy in the emergency department (ED) as part of an ongoing randomized controlled study examining the optimal dose of exposure therapy in the immediate aftermath of trauma. PTSD and depression measures were collected at pre-treatment assessment and one- and three-month follow-up. Potential PTSD biomarkers were also examined. Psychophysiological reactions were measured using skin conductance data measured on an iPad during the exposure therapy session and the follow-up assessments. A fear-potentiated startle paradigm and an functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) behavioral inhibition task were used at follow-up. The participant demonstrated subjective and psychophysiological extinction from pre- to post-imaginal exposure. At follow-up, she did not meet DSM-IV criteria for PTSD or demonstrate hyperarousal to trauma reminders and showed robust fear extinction and the ability to inhibit responses in an fMRI behavioral inhibition task. In line with previous early intervention for the prevention of PTSD studies, this case report supports the need for ongoing empirical research investigating the possibility that one session of exposure therapy in the ED may attenuate risk for PTSD. Furthermore, the current findings demonstrate psychophysiological extinction serving as a prognostic indicator of treatment response for PTSD early intervention to be an exciting avenue to explore in future systematic research. PMID:28993816
Hosking, D; Chilvers, C E; Christiansen, C
increases in bone mineral density. Alendronate did not increase bone mineral density of the forearm, but it slowed the loss. The responses to estrogen-progestin were 1 to 2 percentage points greater than those to the 5-mg dose of alendronate. Alendronate was well tolerated, with a safety profile similar...... to that of placebo or estrogen-progestin. CONCLUSIONS: Alendronate prevents bone loss in postmenopausal women under 60 years of age to nearly the same extent as estrogen-progestin.......BACKGROUND: Estrogen-replacement therapy prevents osteoporosis in postmenopausal women by inhibiting bone resorption, but the balance between its long-term risks and benefits remains unclear. Whether other antiresorptive therapies can prevent osteoporosis in these women is also not clear. METHODS...
De Young, Alexandra C; Haag, Ann-Christin; Kenardy, Justin A; Kimble, Roy M; Landolt, Markus A
Accidental injury represents the most common type of traumatic event experienced by children under the age of 6 years. Around 10-30 % of young injured children will go on to develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other co-morbid conditions. Parents of injured children are also at risk of PTSD, and this is associated with short- and long-term consequences for their children's physical and psychological recovery. Despite the significance of this problem, to date, the mental health needs of injured young children have been neglected. One reason for this is due to the uncertainty and considerable debate around how to best provide early psychological intervention to traumatised children and adults. To address these gaps, researchers and psychologists in Australia and Switzerland have developed the Coping with Accident Reactions (CARE) programme, which is a two-session early intervention designed to prevent persistent PTSD reactions in young injured children screened as 'at risk'. Two separate international studies are being conducted to evaluate the effectiveness and feasibility of this programme. The study design for the two proposed studies will employ a randomised controlled trial design and children (aged 1-6 years) who are screened as at risk for PTSD 1 week after an unintentional injury, and their parents will be randomised to either (1) CARE intervention or (2) treatment as usual. Assessment will be completed at baseline (2 weeks) and 3 and 6 months post-injury. This international collaboration provides an excellent opportunity to test the benefit of screening and providing early intervention to young children in two different countries and settings. It is expected that outcomes from this research will lead to significant original contributions to the scientific evidence base and clinical treatment and recovery of very young injured children. The Australian study was registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ( ACTRN
Fisker, Annette; Langberg, Henning; Petersen, Tom
Musculoskeletal disorders account for one third of the long-term absenteeism in Denmark and the number of individuals sick listed for more than four weeks is increasing. Compared to other diagnoses, patients with musculoskeletal diseases, including low back pain, are less likely to return to work...... after a period of sick leave. It seems that a multidisciplinary intervention, including cooperation between the health sector, the social sector and in the work place, has a positive effect on days off work due to musculoskeletal disorders and particularly low back pain. It is a challenge to coordinate......-coordinator and treating the patient....
Zheng, Yuzhu; Maude, Susan P.; Brotherson, Mary Jane
With rapid economic development and increasing awareness of the importance of early childhood intervention (ECI), China is re-examining its social and educational practices for young children with disabilities. This re-examination may have a significant impact on young children with disabilities in China. It may also set an example for other…
Zhang, Fang Fang; Kelly, Michael J; Must, Aviva
Childhood cancer survivors experience excessive weight gain early in treatment. Lifestyle interventions need to be initiated early in cancer care to prevent the early onset of obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We reviewed the existing literature on early lifestyle interventions in childhood cancer survivors and consider implications for clinical care. Few lifestyle interventions focus on improving nutrition in childhood cancer survivors. A consistent effect on reducing obesity and CVD risk factors is not evident from the limited number of studies with heterogeneous intervention characteristics, although interventions with a longer duration and follow-up show more promising trends. Future lifestyle interventions should be of a longer duration and include a nutrition component. Interventions with a longer duration and follow-up are needed to assess the timing and sustainability of the intervention effect. Lifestyle interventions introduced early in cancer care are both safe and feasible.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity is not only associated with adult obesity but also with increased risk of adult onset of type 2 diabetes and subsequent coronary heart disease. The potential effects of school-based health intervention programmes on cardiovascular risk and surrogate markers are unclear, as only few studies have attempted to investigate a complete risk profile including a detailed laboratory analysis or micro- and macrovascular function. In this study a comprehensive school-based randomized intervention programme will be investigated in 10-14-year old children addressing the influence of lifestyle intervention on inactivity, cardiometabolic risk factors and early signs of vascular disease. Methods/Design 15 secondary schools in Southern Germany are randomly assigned to intervention or control schools. Children in the fifth grade (10-11 years will be observed over four years. The study combines a school-based with a home-based approach, aiming at children, teachers and parents. The main components are weekly lifestyle-lessons for children, taught by regular classroom teachers to increase physical activity in- and outside of school, to improve eating patterns at school and at home, to reduce media consumption and to amplify well-being. In 4-6 annual meetings, teachers receive information about health-related topics with worksheets for children and supporting equipment, accounting for school-specific needs and strategies. Parents' trainings are provided on a regular basis. All examinations are performed at the beginning and at the end of every school year. Anthropometry includes measurements of BMI, waist and upper arm circumferences, skinfold thickness as well as peripheral blood pressure. Blood sampling includes lipid parameters, insulin, glucose, hsCRP, adiponectin, and IL-6 as well as testosteron and estrogen to determine maturation status. Vascular function is non-invasively assessed by measuring arterial stiffness in large
Full Text Available Internationally early intervention programmes for infants and preschoolers with disabilities have proved to be remarkably successful. In many countries, they began with teachers for visually impaired or hearing impaired children visiting the family home to teach parents how they could overcome the child's impairments. The logic of early intervention was inequitable. For example, the sooner children with visual impairments learnt to be independently mobile, then the greater their potential to learn and to kad an ordinary life. In time, this philosophy was extended to children with neurological and developmental delays, such as mental retardation, although success could be variable. In part, many different factors contributed to this variability: the form the interventions took, the extent of family involvement in the intervention and the lack of sensitivity of the measures used to assess a child's progress, to name but three. Perhaps the most extensive and intensive Early intervention schemes have been in the United States with their Head Start programmes. They were aimed at promoting the educational potential of preschoolers from deprived socio - economic backgrounds. Although the first phase of programmes had varying success, those in the second phase yielded impressive results which were mainly attributed to a greater focus on parental participation and links forged with the school system. Recently in developing countries, priority has been given to establishing early intervention as a means of creating new styles of family-based and community-based service in these countries in contrast to the hospital or institutional-services that were a legacy from a previous generation. Although formal evaluations are largely lacking, informal reports have been broadly enthusiastic. In sum, early intervention is no longer a new approach to developmental disabilities. It is an approach of proven effectiveness with children who have different impairments
Early childhood intervention is an essential contributor and catalyst for the development of a culture of positive attitudes towards children with disabilities in a country like Ghana. Intervention could begin at the early years or early childhood education level. Does early intervention make a difference in the lives of children ...
Chamberlain, Chris; MacKenzie, David
The issue of youth homelessness in Australia is examined in the context of relevant social and educational policies. The exploration is based on 8 years of research into the situation of homeless youth in Australia involving several studies, including a study of school students in 9 communities and field visits to 100 schools. In 1994, researchers…
Turawa, Eunice B; Musekiwa, Alfred; Rohwer, Anke C
Postpartum constipation, with symptoms such as pain or discomfort, straining, and hard stool, is a common condition affecting mothers. Haemorrhoids, pain at the episiotomy site, effects of pregnancy hormones and haematinics used in pregnancy can increase the risk of postpartum constipation. Eating a high-fibre diet and increasing fluid intake is usually encouraged, although laxatives are commonly used in relieving constipation. The effectiveness and safety of available interventions for preventing postpartum constipation needs to be ascertained. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of interventions for preventing postpartum constipation. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 April 2015), Stellenbosch University database, ProQuest Dissertation and Theses database, World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP), ClinicalTrials.gov (30 April 2015) and reference lists of included studies. All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing any intervention for preventing postpartum constipation versus another intervention, placebo or no intervention. Interventions could include pharmacological (e.g. laxatives) and non-pharmacological interventions (e.g. acupuncture, educational and behavioural interventions).We included quasi-randomised trials. Cluster-RCTs were eligible for inclusion but none were identified. Studies using a cross-over design were not eligible for inclusion in this review. Two review authors independently screened the results of the search to select potentially relevant studies, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Results were pooled in a meta-analysis only where there was no substantial statistical heterogeneity. We included five trials (1208 postpartum mothers); four compared a laxative with placebo and one compared a laxative alone versus the same laxative plus a bulking agent in women who underwent surgical repair of third degree perineal tears. Trials were poorly
Meijel, Berno van
This thesis describes a study into the development and testing of a nursing intervention with a view to preventing psychotic relapses in patients suffering from schizophrenia or a related disorder. The purpose of the intervention is to recognise the early signs of an oncoming psychotic relapse. If
This article examines the causes of pressure ulcers and provides an overview of the best advice available in preventing them in the clinical setting. This should enable nurses to provide more effective interventions for preventing patients from developing pressure ulcers.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic neuroinflammation is an important component of Alzheimer’s disease and could contribute to neuronal dysfunction, injury and loss that lead to disease progression. Multiple clinical studies implicate tumor necrosis factor-α as an inflammatory mediator of neurodegeneration in patients with Alzheimer’s because of elevated levels of this cytokine in the cerebrospinal fluid, hippocampus and cortex. Current Alzheimer’s disease interventions are symptomatic treatments with limited efficacy that do not address etiology. Thus, a critical need exists for novel treatments directed towards modifying the pathophysiology and progression. Methods To investigate the effect of early immune modulation on neuroinflammation and cognitive outcome, we treated triple transgenic Alzheimer’s disease mice (harboring PS1M146V, APPSwe, and tauP301L transgenes with the small molecule tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitors, 3,6′-dithiothalidomide and thalidomide, beginning at four months of age. At this young age, mice do not exhibit plaque or tau pathology but do show mild intraneuronal amyloid beta protein staining and a robust increase in tumor necrosis factor-α. After 10 weeks of treatment, cognitive performance was assessed using radial arm maze and neuroinflammation was assessed using biochemical, stereological and flow cytometric endpoints. Results 3,6′-dithiothalidomide reduced tumor necrosis factor-α mRNA and protein levels in the brain and improved working memory performance and the ratio of resting to reactive microglia in the hippocampus of triple transgenic mice. In comparison to non-transgenic controls, triple transgenic Alzheimer’s disease mice had increased total numbers of infiltrating peripheral monomyelocytic/granulocytic leukocytes with enhanced intracytoplasmic tumor necrosis factor-α, which was reduced after treatment with 3,6′-dithiothalidomide. Conclusions These results suggest that modulation of tumor
Herskind, Anna; Greisen, Gorm; Nielsen, Jens Bo
Infants with possible cerebral palsy (CP) are commonly assumed to benefit from early diagnosis and early intervention, but substantial evidence for this is lacking. There is no consensus in the literature on a definition of 'early', but this review focuses on interventions initiated within...
Tarquinio, Cyril; Rotonda, Christine; Houllé, William A; Montel, Sébastien; Rydberg, Jenny Ann; Minary, Laetitia; Dellucci, Hélène; Tarquinio, Pascale; Fayard, Any; Alla, François
This randomized controlled trial study aims to investigate the efficacy of an early psychological intervention called EMDR-RE compared to Critical Incident Stress Debriefing on 60 victims of workplace violence, which were divided into three groups: 'EMDR-RE' (n = 19), 'CISD' (n = 23), and 'delayed EMDR-RE' (n = 18). EMDR-RE and CISD took place 48 hours after the event, whilst third intervention was delayed by an additional 48 hours. Results showed that after 3 months PCLS and SUDS scores were significantly lower with EMDR-RE and delayed EMDR-RE compared to CISD. After 48 hours and 3 months, none of the EMDR-RE-treated victims showed PTSD symptoms.
Nelson, Lauri; Bradham, Tamala S.; Houston, K. Todd
State coordinators of early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) programs completed a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, or SWOT, analysis that examined 12 areas within state EHDI programs. For the early intervention focus question, 48 coordinators listed 273 items, and themes were identified within each SWOT category. A…
Implementing prevention interventions for non-communicable diseases within the Primary Health Care system in the Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria. ... Conclusion: The capacity of the PHC system to implement NCDs interventions is weak, necessitating a need to strengthen coordination, partnership and funding for better ...
Moessner, Markus; Minarik, Carla; Ozer, Fikret; Bauer, Stephanie
Only little is known about costs and effects (i.e., success) of dissemination strategies, although cost-effective dissemination strategies are crucial for the transfer of interventions into routine care. This study investigates the effects and cost-effectiveness of five school-based dissemination strategies for an Internet-based intervention for the prevention and early intervention of eating disorders. Three-hundred ninety-five schools were randomly assigned to one of five dissemination strategies. Strategies varied with respect to intensity from only sending advertisement materials and asking the school to distribute them among students to organizing presentations and workshops at schools. Effects were defined as the number of page visits, the number of screenings conducted, and the number of registrations to the Internet-based intervention. More expensive strategies proved to be more cost-effective. Cost per page visit ranged from 2.83€ (introductory presentation plus workshop) to 20.37€ (dissemination by student representatives/peers). Costs per screening ranged from 3.30€ (introductory presentation plus workshop) to 75.66€ (dissemination by student representatives/peers), and costs per registration ranged from 6.86€ (introductory presentation plus workshop) to 431.10€ (advertisement materials only). Dissemination of an Internet-based intervention for prevention and early intervention is challenging and expensive. More intense, expensive strategies with personal contact proved to be more cost-effective. The combination of an introductory presentation on eating disorders and a workshop in the high school was most effective and had the best cost-effectiveness ratio. The sole distribution of advertisement materials attracted hardly any participants to the Internet-based program.
Bauer, Andrea; Schmitt, Jochen; Bennett, Cathy; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan; Elsner, Peter; English, John; Williams, Hywel C.
Background Occupational irritant hand dermatitis (OIHD) is an important cause of discomfort in the working population. Different preventive measures are in place but it is not clear how effective these are. Objectives To assess the effect of interventions for preventing OIHD in healthy people who
Fisker, Annette; Langberg, Henning; Petersen, Tom; Mortensen, Ole Steen
-statement in designing and reporting RCTs. This large RCT is testing the effectiveness of a preventive intervention targeting patients on short term sick leave or at risk being sick listed because of low back pain. We have developed a novel multidisciplinary team structure using the treating physiotherapist as the return to work coordinator, and having the case manager from the municipal sickness benefit office participating in team meetings. The study has the potential to contribute to the knowledge about how to target the challenges in the treatment of LBP. The aim is to prevent sickness absence and labour market exclusion--both on the individual level and economic costs at community level. Short term results will be available in 2014.This study is approved by the Danish Regional Ethics Committee (J.nr: H-C-2008-112) and is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01690234.
Tonani,Marcela; Carvalho,Emilia Campos de
The effectiveness of interventions for health promotion, protection, and early diagnosis may include the process of persuasion employed. This study aims to evaluate the risk level of developing cancer, considering the pertinent risk factors, and the presence of persuasion and characteristics in communication regarding cancer prevention and early detection. It is an observational study, conducted among 110 inhabitants of a neighborhood in Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo, Brazil. It was confirmed tha...
Grabert, John C.
This article describes the process of enhancing early childhood mental health awareness and skills in non-mental health staff. The author describes a pilot training model, conducted the U.S. Army's Early Intervention Services, that involved: (a) increasing early childhood mental health knowledge through reflective readings, (b) enhancing…
Larsen, Lone Marie; Hertel, Niels Thomas; Mølgaard, Christian
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of two intervention modalities concerning overweight and obesity among children in general practice. DESIGN: Prospective randomized controlled trial. SETTING: A total of 60 general practices in the former County of Funen, Denmark. SUBJECTS: Overweight children...... models, with a mean of 12 consultations in general practice. CONCLUSION: In this particular setting the two intervention strategies against overweight and obesity did not differ significantly with regard to change in BMI z-scores....
Peters, Janne A; Zwerver, Johannes; Diercks, Ronald L; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge
Tendinopathy, the most prevalent tendon disorder which is considered as the clinical diagnosis of pain and dysfunction, is common in sports and its prevalence is ever-increasing. Despite the lack of clarity about risk factors, various preventive interventions for tendinopathy have been investigated. The main objective of this study is to review current preventive interventions for tendinopathy in the major regions: ankle, knee, hip, groin, shoulder and elbow. A systematic literature search was conducted. The PubMed and Embase databases were explored to identify articles that met the inclusion criteria. The included studies were assessed on methodological quality and data was summarized. Ten articles were included that describe a wide variety of preventive interventions. These were divided into three categories: stretch and exercise interventions, shoe adaptations and other interventions. The methodological quality of the studies was moderate to high. Three out of ten studies showed a significant beneficial result. There is limited evidence that a long-term intervention including balance training is effective in the prevention of patellar and Achilles tendinopathy. Shoe adaptations in the form of shock absorbing insoles could have a preventive effect on Achilles tendinopathy. Hormone replacement therapy seems to reduce the risk for structural Achilles tendon changes in active post-menopausal women. No evidence was found for a positive effect of stretching exercises. Prophylactic eccentric training and stretching can increase the risk of injury in asymptomatic players with patellar tendon abnormalities. A limited amount of studies was available and more research is needed on (multifactorial) etiology, risk factors and preventive interventions. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Awa, Wendy L; Plaumann, Martina; Walter, Ulla
To evaluate the effectiveness of intervention programs at the workplace or elsewhere aimed at preventing burnout, a leading cause of work related mental health impairment. A systematic search of burnout intervention studies was conducted in the databases Medline, PsycINFO and PSYNDEX from 1995 to 2007. Data was also extracted from papers found through a hand search. A total of 25 primary intervention studies were reviewed. Seventeen (68%) were person-directed interventions, 2 (8%) were organization-directed and 6 (24%) were a combination of both interventions types. Eighty percent of all programs led to a reduction in burnout. Person-directed interventions reduced burnout in the short term (6 months or less), while a combination of both person- and organization-directed interventions had longer lasting positive effects (12 months and over). In all cases, positive intervention effects diminished in the course of time. Intervention programs against burnout are beneficial and can be enhanced with refresher courses. Better implemented programs including both person- and organization-directed measures should be offered and evaluated. A combination of both intervention types should be further investigated, optimized and practiced. Institutions should recognize the need for and make burnout intervention programs available to employees. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Manuel, Celie; Jørgensen, Anne-Marie Klint
This review centers on evaluations of youth crime prevention interventions published between 2008 and 2012. The aim of the review is to bring forward the newest information to supplement existing knowledge about crime preventive methods targeting youth. The review lists 56 studies, all targeting 12...... produced for TrygFonden and the Danish Crime Prevention Council TrygFonden and The Danish Crime Prevention Council have entered into an ambitious collaboration. The objective of this collaboration is to reduce crime and increase the feeling of security in Denmark by engaging citizens and creating new...
Summerbell, C D; Waters, E; Edmunds, L D; Kelly, S; Brown, T; Campbell, K J
Obesity prevention is an international public health priority. The prevalence of obesity and overweight is increasing in child populations throughout the world, impacting on short and long-term health. Obesity prevention strategies for children can change behaviour but efficacy in terms of preventing obesity remains poorly understood. To assess the effectiveness of interventions designed to prevent obesity in childhood through diet, physical activity and/or lifestyle and social support. MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EMBASE, CINAHL and CENTRAL were searched from 1990 to February 2005. Non-English language papers were included and experts contacted. Randomised controlled trials and controlled clinical trials with minimum duration twelve weeks. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed study quality. Twenty-two studies were included; ten long-term (at least 12 months) and twelve short-term (12 weeks to 12 months). Nineteen were school/preschool-based interventions, one was a community-based intervention targeting low-income families, and two were family-based interventions targeting non-obese children of obese or overweight parents. Six of the ten long-term studies combined dietary education and physical activity interventions; five resulted in no difference in overweight status between groups and one resulted in improvements for girls receiving the intervention, but not boys. Two studies focused on physical activity alone. Of these, a multi-media approach appeared to be effective in preventing obesity. Two studies focused on nutrition education alone, but neither were effective in preventing obesity. Four of the twelve short-term studies focused on interventions to increase physical activity levels, and two of these studies resulted in minor reductions in overweight status in favour of the intervention. The other eight studies combined advice on diet and physical activity, but none had a significant impact. The studies were heterogeneous in terms of study design
Reynolds, Arthur J.; Ou, Suh-Ruu; Mondi, Christina F.; Hayakawa, Momoko
This article describes the contributions of cognitive-scholastic advantage, family support behavior, and school quality and support as processes through which early childhood interventions promote well-being. Evidence in support of these processes is from longitudinal cohort studies of the Child-Parent Centers and other preventive interventions…
Lang, R.B.; Sigafoos, J.; Meer, L. van der; O'Reilly, M.F.; Lancioni, G.E.; Didden, H.C.M.; Hastings, R.; Rojahn, J.
This chapter summarizes research on the emergence of challenging behavior and early behavioral intervention for the treatment of challenging behavior in young children with Intellectual Disability (ID). Biological and learning theories related to the emergence of challenging behavior and risk
This thesis presents results from a qualitative research project on early interventions to counter childhood obesity in Denmark. Overall, it was found that these interventions in families with preschool children were rarely performed. One barrier to the interventions is the structural setting...... to enforce lifestyle changes. Overall, this thesis addresses issues of childhood obesity, inequality in health, health policy, individualization, racialized biases in health care, the role of health care practitioners and insecurity and health....
Research over the past three decades has shown that early intervention in infants biologically at risk of developmental disorders, irrespective of the presence of a brain lesion, is associated with improved cognitive development in early childhood without affecting motor development. However, at
Full Text Available This study is aimed to examine preschool teachers’ knowledge of, attitudes about, and training related to child sexual abuse (CSA prevention in Beijing, China. Two hundred and forty-five preschool teachers were administered the 16-item questionnaire that contained questions on CSA prevention knowledge, attitudes, and teacher training. Results showed that Chinese preschool teachers had limited knowledge on CSA prevention (M = 4.86, SD = 2.12. Less than 5% of the teachers ever attended CSA prevention training programs. Preschool teachers’ training on CSA prevention was the significant factor for their knowledge and attitudes. To help protect children against sexual abuse, there is an urgent need to develop appropriate prevention training programs for preschool teachers in China.
Full Text Available This paper reviews the opportunities and challenges for early diagnosis and early intervention in cerebral palsy (CP. CP describes a group of disorders of the development of movement and posture, causing activity limitation, that are attributed to disturbances that occurred in the fetal or infant brain. Therefore the paper starts with a summary of relevant information from developmental neuroscience. Most lesions underlying CP occur in the second half of gestation, when developmental activity in the brain reaches its summit. Variations in timing of the damage not only result in different lesions, but also in different neuroplastic reactions and different associated neuropathologies. This turns CP into a heterogeneous entity. This may mean that the best early diagnostics and the best intervention methods may differ for various subgroups of children with CP. Next, the paper addresses possibilities for early diagnosis. It discusses the predictive value of neuromotor and neurological exams, neuro-imaging techniques and neurophysiological assessments. Prediction is best when complementary techniques are used in longitudinal series. Possibilities for early prediction of CP differ for infants admitted to neonatal intensive care and other infants. In the former group best prediction is achieved with the combination of neuro-imaging and the assessment of general movements, in the latter group best prediction is based on carefully documented milestones and neurological assessment. The last part reviews early intervention in infants developing CP. Most knowledge on early intervention is based on studies in high risk infants without CP. In these infants early intervention programs promote cognitive development until preschool age; motor development profits less. The few studies on early intervention in infants developing CP suggest that programs that stimulate all aspects of infant development by means of family coaching are most promising. More research is
Benwell, Ann Fenger
A growing body of literature emphasizes the importance of using both quantitative and qualitative methods to investigate the wide range of aspects which hinder or promote the success of health interventions. The pilot phase of this study highlights how mixed-method approaches can be strengthened ...... to investigate factors associated with multi-level obesity prevention....
Peters, Janne A; Zwerver, Johannes; Diercks, Ronald L; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge
Objectives: Tendinopathy, the most prevalent tendon disorder which is considered as the clinical diagnosis of pain and dysfunction, is common in sports and its prevalence is ever-increasing. Despite the lack of clarity about risk factors, various preventive interventions for tendinopathy have been
van Dijken, M.W.; Stams, Geert-Jan; de Winter, M.
Despite the many efforts taken to prevent child maltreatment, this continues to be a significant worldwide problem. Interventions predominantly focus on ‘at risk’ populations and individual characteristics of the victim or abuser, but is that enough? The present review was designed to examine the
Huisman, A.; Pirkis, J; Robinson, J.
Background: Despite the growing strength of the field of suicidology, various commentators have recently noted that insufficient effort is being put into intervention research, and that this is limiting our knowledge of which suicide prevention strategies might be the most effective. Aims: To
Interventions for Violence Prevention among Young Female Hawkers in Motor Parks in South-Western Nigeria: A Review of Effectiveness. ... Findings show that they had greater knowledge of the different types of violence (p < 0.05), were more aware of their vulnerability to violence (99.4% after compared to 82.7% before ...
Evaluation of two educational interventions regarding prevention of early childhood caries on self-reported practice of parents of 2-5-year-old children receiving dental treatment under general anesthesia
(pamphlet and pamphlet along with reminder on self-reported practice of parents of 2-5-years-old children receiving dental treatment under general anesthesia was assessed. Thirty seven couples of children and mothers in two groups were randomly selected. Before and three months after interventions, a standard questionnaire regarding self-reported practice of mothers on prevention of early childhood caries was completed by respondents. Moreover, oral examination including Simplified oral hygiene index (S-OHI, dmft, and white spot lesions were rerecorded at the beginning and three months after interventions. At this time in one of the groups reminder phone calls were made every month. Finally, the answers were scored and data were statistically analyzed to be compared in pre- and post-test. Results: Comparing each of the groups before and after interventions showed that in both groups there were significant differences in mothers’ perception of perceived ability to make child brush his teeth twice a day (P=0.001, and child’s tooth brushing frequency more than once a day (P=0.03. S-OHI had no significant difference after the intervention between two groups. But each group had a significant decrease three months after intervention (P=0.003. Also the mean number of white spots showed a significant decrease before and after intervention in each groups. Regarding mothers’ self-reported practice no significant difference was observed between two groups (P>0.05. Conclusion: Using pamphlets along with or without reminder as educational measures had similar enhancing effects on the mothers’ self-reported practice on oral health of children within three months.
Jenner, JA; van de Willige, G
Objective: Early intervention in psychosis is considered important in relapse prevention. Limited results of monotherapies prompt to development of multimodular programmes. The present study tests feasibility and effectiveness of HIT, an integrative early intervention treatment for auditory
Androutsos, O; Katsarou, C; Payr, A; Birnbaum, J; Geyer, C; Wildgruber, A; Kreichauf, S; Lateva, M; De Decker, E; De Craemer, M; Socha, P; Moreno, L; Iotova, V; Koletzko, B V; Manios, Y
Since school-based interventions are mainly delivered by the school staff, they need to be well-trained and familiarized with the programme's aims, procedures and tools. Therefore, the institute, research group, governmental or non-governmental body in charge of the coordination and implementation of the programme needs to devote time and resources to train the school staff before programme's implementation. This is particularly crucial in multi-centre studies where more than one research teams are involved. Both research teams and school staff need to be trained, using standard protocols and procedures, to ensure that the intervention will be delivered in a standardized manner throughout the intervention centres. The ToyBox-intervention, a multi-component, kindergarten-based, family-involved intervention, focusing on water consumption, snacking, physical activity and sedentary behaviours in preschool children, was implemented over the academic year 2012-2013 in six European countries. As part of this intervention, three teachers' training sessions were delivered to motivate and train teachers in implementing the intervention. The local researchers were trained centrally before delivering the training sessions for the teachers and followed a common protocol using standardized presentations and procedures. The aim of the current paper is to describe the protocol and methodological issues related to the teachers' training sessions conducted within the ToyBox-intervention. © 2014 World Obesity.
Moore, Ida M; Hockenberry, Marilyn J; Anhalt, Cynthia; McCarthy, Kathy; Krull, Kevin R
Despite evidence that CNS treatment is associated with cognitive and academic impairment, interventions to prevent or mitigate these problems are limited. The purpose was to determine if early intervention can prevent declines in mathematics abilities. Fifty-seven children with ALL were enrolled and randomized to a Mathematics Intervention or Standard Care. Subjects completed neurocognitive assessments prior to the intervention, post-intervention, and 1 year later. Parents received written results and recommendations for use with their school. The Mathematics Intervention was based on Multiple Representation Theory and delivered individually over 1 year. Thirty-two of 57 subjects completed the study and were included in data analyses. These 32 subjects completed all neurocognitive assessments and, for those in the Intervention Group, 40-50 hours of the Mathematics Intervention. There were no group differences on relevant demographic variables; risk stratification; number of intrathecal methotrexate injections; or high dose systemic methotrexate. Significant improvements in calculation and applied mathematics from Baseline to Post-Intervention (P = 0.003 and 0.002, respectively) and in visual working memory from Baseline to 1 year Follow-up (P = 0.02) were observed in the Intervention but not the Standard Care Group. Results from repeated measures ANOVA demonstrated significant between group differences for applied mathematics [F(2,29) = 12.47, P Mathematics Intervention improved mathematics abilities and visual working memory compared to standard care. Future studies are needed to translate the Mathematics Intervention into a "virtual" delivery method more readily available to parents and children. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Dementia is about 15% aged 65 and over people now, and is regarded as the common disease. Early symptoms, such as forgetfulness, tend to be overlooked. Alzheimer type dementia is now possible to treat with medication. Therefore, early diagnosis and early treatment are required. Prevention of dementia is also expected and dementia checkup attracts attention. Although there was little data with high evidence, I introduced some reports about dementia prevention including our data. Dementia prevention is an important issue and establishment of evidence is desired in the near future.
Bauer, Stephanie; Moessner, Markus; Wolf, Markus; Haug, Severin; Kordy, Hans
New communication technologies offer novel possibilities for the prevention of mental illness, in which geographical and psychosocial distances often hamper help-seeking. This paper introduces ES[S]PRIT, an Internet-based eating disorders (ED) prevention programme for university students. The programme follows a stepped-care approach combining…
Lindenskov, Lena; Weng, Peter
We describe a pilot project 2009 – 2010 about early intervention in second grade mathematics (about 8 years old) in Frederiksberg, a Danish urban municipality. We shortly describe the background of the pilot project, aims and organisation in four design cycles. We explore the pilot teachers' feed...... as a starting point. We find an urgent need to develop and research projects on early intervention in Nordic school culture, preferably in critical dialogue with international research in this field. , while critically discussing ideas and experiences from other countries....
Chanen, Andrew M; Berk, Michael; Thompson, Katherine
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) has been demonstrated to be a reliable and valid construct in young people (adolescents and young adults). Both borderline- and mood-related psychopathology become clinically apparent from puberty through to young adulthood, frequently co-occur, can reinforce one another, and can be difficult to differentiate clinically. This Gordian knot of overlapping clinical features, common risk factors, and precursors to both BPD and mood disorders complicates clinical assessment, prevention, and treatment. Regardless of whether an individual crosses an arbitrary diagnostic threshold, a considerable proportion of young people with borderline- and mood-related psychopathology will develop significant and persistent functional, vocational, and interpersonal impairment and disability during this critical risk and developmental period. There is a clear need for early intervention, but spurious diagnostic certainty risks stigma, misapplication of diagnostic labels, inappropriate treatment, and unfavorable outcomes. This article aims to integrate early intervention for BPD and mood disorders in the clinical context of developmental and phenomenological change and evolution. "Clinical staging," similar to disease staging in general medicine, is presented as a pragmatic, heuristic, and trans-diagnostic framework to guide prevention and intervention. It acknowledges that the early stages of these disorders cannot be disentangled sufficiently to allow for disorder-specific preventive measures and early interventions. Clinical staging defines an individual's location along the continuum of the evolving temporal course of a disorder. Such staging aids differentiation of early or milder clinical phenomena from those that accompany illness progression and chronicity, and suggests the application of appropriate and proportionate intervention strategies.
Lee, Ming-Shinn; Zi-Pei, Wu; Svanström, Leif; Dalal, Koustuv
This study aimed to explore the effectiveness of the cyber bullying prevention WebQuest course implementation. The study adopted the quasi-experimental design with two classes made up of a total of 61 junior high school students of seventh grade. The study subjects comprised of 30 students from the experimental group and 31 students from the control group. The experimental group received eight sessions (total 360 minutes) of the teaching intervention for four consecutive weeks, while the control group did not engage in any related courses. The self-compiled questionnaire for the student's knowledge, attitudes, and intentions toward cyber bullying prevention was adopted. Data were analysed through generalized estimating equations to understand the immediate results on the student's knowledge, attitudes, and intentions after the intervention. The results show that the WebQuest course immediately and effectively enhanced the knowledge of cyber bullying, reduced the intentions, and retained the effects after the learning. But it produced no significant impact on the attitude toward cyber bullying. The intervention through this pilot study was effective and positive for cyber bulling prevention. It was with small number of students. Therefore, studies with large number of students and long experimental times, in different areas and countries are warranted.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study aimed to explore the effectiveness of the cyber bullying prevention WebQuest course implementation. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: The study adopted the quasi-experimental design with two classes made up of a total of 61 junior high school students of seventh grade. The study subjects comprised of 30 students from the experimental group and 31 students from the control group. The experimental group received eight sessions (total 360 minutes of the teaching intervention for four consecutive weeks, while the control group did not engage in any related courses. The self-compiled questionnaire for the student's knowledge, attitudes, and intentions toward cyber bullying prevention was adopted. Data were analysed through generalized estimating equations to understand the immediate results on the student's knowledge, attitudes, and intentions after the intervention. The results show that the WebQuest course immediately and effectively enhanced the knowledge of cyber bullying, reduced the intentions, and retained the effects after the learning. But it produced no significant impact on the attitude toward cyber bullying. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The intervention through this pilot study was effective and positive for cyber bulling prevention. It was with small number of students. Therefore, studies with large number of students and long experimental times, in different areas and countries are warranted.
Overgaard, Steffen; Tonnesen, Pia Beck
This study is one of more substudies in the project Early Math Intervention for Marginalized Students (TMTM2014). The paper presents the initial process of this substudy that will be carried out fall 2015. In the TMTM2014 project, 80 teachers, who completed a one week course in the idea of TMTM...
Einav, Michal; Levi, Uzi; Margalit, Malka
The goals of the study were to examine the relations between maternal coping and hope among mothers who participated in early intervention program for their infants. Earlier studies focused attention on mothers' experiences of stress and their coping. Within the salutogenic construct, we aim at examining relations between mothers' coping and hope…
Margalit, M.; Kleitman, T.
The aim of the study was to examine factors that predict maternal stress, reported by mothers whose infants were diagnosed as having developmental disabilities at the beginning of participating in an early intervention programme "Me and My Mommy" and after one year. A second goal was to identify and to portray a subgroup of resilient…
This article uses the developmental systems approach, an approach developed by M. Guralnick (2001), with an aim to assess and evaluate early childhood intervention (ECI) practices in Australia. The author explores the Australian national context of ECI and its complexities and conclude with recommendations to address (a) the possibility of a…
Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, the introduction in several countries of universal neonatal hearing screening programs has changed the landscape of education for deaf children. Due to the increasing provision of early intervention services for children identified with hearing loss, public education for deaf children often starts…
Søgaard, Rikke; Sørensen, Jan; Waldorff, Frans B
OBJECTIVE: To assess the cost utility of early psychosocial intervention for patients with Alzheimer's disease and their primary caregivers. DESIGN: Cost utility evaluation alongside a multicentre, randomised controlled trial with 3 years of follow-up. SETTING: Primary care and memory clinics...
Objectives. To identify the protocols and practices for audiology early intervention (EI) in Gauteng government hospitals, and determine whether these protocols comply with the principles for effective EI in audiology. Methods and materials. Self-administered questionnaires were hand-delivered and distributed to ...
Fisker, Annette; Langberg, Henning; Petersen, Tom; Mortensen, Ole Steen
Background Musculoskeletal disorders account for one third of the long-term absenteeism in Denmark and the number of individuals sick listed for more than four weeks is increasing. Compared to other diagnoses, patients with musculoskeletal diseases, including low back pain, are less likely to return to work after a period of sick leave. It seems that a multidisciplinary intervention, including cooperation between the health sector, the social sector and in the work place, has a positive effec...
Atwan, S M; Turner, D; Khalid, A
Recognition of dental anomalies is essential in determining appropriate treatment for each patient. Diagnosis and assessment of mesiodens are critical in avoiding complications such as blocking the eruption of the maxillary central incisors, cyst formation, and dilaceration of the permanent incisors. Collecting data for diagnostic criteria, utilizing diagnostic radiographs, and determining when to refer to a specialist are important steps in the treatment of mesiodens. Early diagnosis and timely intervention could reduce or eliminate the need for orthodontic treatment and prevent serious complications.
Pasechnikov, Victor; Chukov, Sergej; Fedorov, Evgeny; Kikuste, Ilze; Leja, Marcis
Gastric cancer continues to be an important healthcare problem from a global perspective. Most of the cases in the Western world are diagnosed at late stages when the treatment is largely ineffective. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a well-established carcinogen for gastric cancer. While lifestyle factors are important, the efficacy of interventions in their modification, as in the use of antioxidant supplements, is unconvincing. No organized screening programs can be found outside Asia (Japan and South Korea). Although several screening approaches have been proposed, including indirect atrophy detection by measuring pepsinogen in the circulation, none of them have so far been implemented, and more study data is required to justify any implementation. Mass eradication of H. pylori in high-risk areas tends to be cost-effective, but its adverse effects and resistance remain a concern. Searches for new screening biomarkers, including microRNA and cancer-autoantibody panels, as well as detection of volatile organic compounds in the breath, are in progress. Endoscopy with a proper biopsy follow-up remains the standard for early detection of cancer and related premalignant lesions. At the same time, new advanced high-resolution endoscopic technologies are showing promising results with respect to diagnosing mucosal lesions visually and targeting each biopsy. New histological risk stratifications (classifications), including OLGA and OLGIM, have recently been developed. This review addresses the current means for gastric cancer primary and secondary prevention, the available and emerging methods for screening, and new developments in endoscopic detection of early lesions of the stomach.
van der Molen, Henk F; Basnet, Prativa; Hoonakker, Peter Lt; Lehtola, Marika M; Lappalainen, Jorma; Frings-Dresen, Monique Hw; Haslam, Roger; Verbeek, Jos H
Construction workers are frequently exposed to various types of injury-inducing hazards. There are a number of injury prevention interventions, yet their effectiveness is uncertain. To assess the effects of interventions for preventing injuries in construction workers. We searched the Cochrane Injuries Group's specialised register, CENTRAL (issue 3), MEDLINE, Embase and PsycINFO up to April 2017. The searches were not restricted by language or publication status. We also handsearched the reference lists of relevant papers and reviews. Randomised controlled trials, controlled before-after (CBA) studies and interrupted time-series (ITS) of all types of interventions for preventing fatal and non-fatal injuries among workers at construction sites. Two review authors independently selected studies, extracted data and assessed their risk of bias. For ITS studies, we re-analysed the studies and used an initial effect, measured as the change in injury rate in the year after the intervention, as well as a sustained effect, measured as the change in time trend before and after the intervention. Seventeen studies (14 ITS and 3 CBA studies) met the inclusion criteria in this updated version of the review. The ITS studies evaluated the effects of: introducing or changing regulations that laid down safety and health requirements for the construction sites (nine studies), a safety campaign (two studies), a drug-free workplace programme (one study), a training programme (one study), and safety inspections (one study) on fatal and non-fatal occupational injuries. One CBA study evaluated the introduction of occupational health services such as risk assessment and health surveillance, one evaluated a training programme and one evaluated the effect of a subsidy for upgrading to safer scaffoldings. The overall risk of bias of most of the included studies was high, as it was uncertain for the ITS studies whether the intervention was independent from other changes and thus could be
Verbeek, Jos H.; Kateman, Erik; Morata, Thais C.; Dreschler, Wout; Sorgdrager, Bas
BACKGROUND: Millions of workers worldwide are exposed to noise levels that increase their risk of hearing impairment. Little is known about the effectiveness of hearing loss prevention interventions. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of non-pharmaceutical interventions for preventing
Verbeek, Jos H.; Kateman, Erik; Morata, Thais C.; Dreschler, Wouter A.; Mischke, Christina
Background Millions of workers worldwide are exposed to noise levels that increase their risk of hearing impairment. Little is known about the effectiveness of hearing loss prevention interventions. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of non-pharmaceutical interventions for preventing
White, Wendi E; Carmody, Dianne
Facebook, Twitter, and other social networking sites have changed the way we interact online. Technological advances have also facilitated the emergence of cyberstalking and online harassment, a growing issue on college campuses. This study utilizes focus group data to examine college students' experiences with online harassment and cyberstalking. Students voiced concerns with online tracking, falsifying identities, and harassment. They also noted that incoming first-year students and those negotiating some of their first romantic relationships are especially vulnerable. In addition, students were asked to propose appropriate prevention, education, and intervention strategies at the college level. Surprisingly, many students recommended offline programs to battle this online problem. © The Author(s) 2016.
G. P. Plotnikov
Full Text Available Objective: to substantiate a need for early use of extracorporeal homeostatic correction techniques during cardiosurgical intensive care. Subjects and methods: A non-randomized study was conducted in 63 cardiosurgical patients with postoperatively evolving multiple organ dysfunction. The clinical efficiency and economic expediency of the early initiation of homeostatic correction were estimated by continuous low-flow venovenous hemofiltration on a Prisma apparatus. Results. The study has demonstrated the advantages of early (within the 36-hour postoperative period initiation of a procedure by the time of organ dysfunction recovery, the length of stay on a resuscitation bed, and pharmacoeconomic indices. Conclusion. The early (at the stage of dysfunction, until hemostasis becomes stable and in the absence of drainage volume losses initiation of hemofiltration in the development of multiple organ dysfunction after surgical interventions has been clinically and economically warranted. Key words: extracorporeal homeostatic correction, multiple organ dysfunction, cardiac surgery.
Baker, Philip R A; Francis, Daniel P; Hairi, Noran N; Othman, Sajaratulnisah; Choo, Wan Yuen
Maltreatment of older people (elder abuse) includes psychological, physical, sexual abuse, neglect and financial exploitation. Evidence suggests that 10% of older adults experience some form of abuse, and only a fraction of cases are actually reported or referred to social services agencies. Elder abuse is associated with significant morbidity and premature mortality. Numerous interventions have been implemented to address the issue of elder maltreatment. It is, however, unclear which interventions best serve to prevent or reduce elder abuse. The objective of this review was to assess the effectiveness of primary, secondary and tertiary intervention programmes used to reduce or prevent abuse of the elderly in their own home, in organisational or institutional and community settings. The secondary objective was to investigate whether intervention effects are modified by types of abuse, types of participants, setting of intervention, or the cognitive status of older people. We searched 19 databases (AgeLine, CINAHL, Psycinfo, MEDLINE, Embase, Proquest Central, Social Services Abstracts, ASSIA, Sociological Abstracts, ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global, Web of Science, LILACS, EPPI, InfoBase, CENTRAL, HMIC, Opengrey and Zetoc) on 12 platforms, including multidisciplinary disciplines covering medical, health, social sciences, social services, legal, finance and education. We also browsed related organisational websites, contacted authors of relevant articles and checked reference lists. Searches of databases were conducted between 30 August 2015 and 16 March 2016 and were not restricted by language. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cluster-randomised trials, and quasi-RCTs, before-and-after studies, and interrupted time series. Only studies with at least 12 weeks of follow-up investigating the effect of interventions in preventing or reducing abuse of elderly people and those who interact with the elderly were included. Two review authors
Oringanje, Chioma; Meremikwu, Martin M; Eko, Hokehe; Esu, Ekpereonne; Meremikwu, Anne; Ehiri, John E
Unintended pregnancy among adolescents represents an important public health challenge in high-income countries, as well as middle- and low-income countries. Numerous prevention strategies such as health education, skills-building and improving accessibility to contraceptives have been employed by countries across the world, in an effort to address this problem. However, there is uncertainty regarding the effects of these interventions, hence the need to review the evidence-base. To assess the effects of primary prevention interventions (school-based, community/home-based, clinic-based, and faith-based) on unintended pregnancies among adolescents. We searched all relevant studies regardless of language or publication status up to November 2015. We searched the Cochrane Fertility Regulation Group Specialised trial register, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2015 Issue 11), MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, Social Science Citation Index and Science Citation Index, Dissertations Abstracts Online, The Gray Literature Network, HealthStar, PsycINFO, CINAHL and POPLINE and the reference lists of articles. We included both individual and cluster randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating any interventions that aimed to increase knowledge and attitudes relating to risk of unintended pregnancies, promote delay in the initiation of sexual intercourse and encourage consistent use of birth control methods to reduce unintended pregnancies in adolescents aged 10 years to 19 years. Two authors independently assessed trial eligibility and risk of bias, and extracted data. Where appropriate, binary outcomes were pooled using a random-effects model with a 95% confidence interval (Cl). Where appropriate, we combined data in meta-analyses and assessed the quality of the evidence using the GRADE approach. We included 53 RCTs that enrolled 105,368 adolescents. Participants were ethnically diverse. Eighteen studies randomised individuals, 32
... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Early intervention program. 303.11 Section 303.11... AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND... intervention program. As used in this part, early intervention program means the total effort in a State that...
Kolligs, Frank Thomas
Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer associated morbidity and mortality. Main risk factors include advanced age, affected family members, male sex and lifestyle factors. The development of early adenoma to invasive cancer requires 10 and more years. Therefore, prevention via colonoscopy with polypectomy and early detection of asymptomatic stages is possible. Colonoscopy is a diagnostic and therapeutic tool with the highest sensitivity for precancerous lesions and early cancers of the colon. New fecal immunological tests reveal a higher sensitivity for advanced adenoma and cancer than guaiac based hemoccult tests while maintaining a high specificity. Molecular stool and blood tests are promising new developments. However, similar to virtual colonoscopy and colon capsule endoscopy, they have so far not been established as routine instruments for prevention and early detection of colorectal cancer. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prevention of childhood obesity is an international public health priority given the significant impact of obesity on acute and chronic diseases, general health, development and well-being. The international evidence base for strategies that governments, communities and families can implement to prevent obesity, and promote health, has been accumulating but remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: This review primarily aims to update the previous Cochrane review of childhood obesity prevention research and determine the effectiveness of evaluated interventions intended to prevent obesity in children, assessed by change in Body Mass Index (BMI. Secondary aims were to examine the characteristics of the programs and strategies to answer the questions "What works for whom, why and for what cost?" METHODS: Search methods: The searches were re-run in CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO and CINAHL in March 2010 and searched relevant websites. Non-English language papers were included and experts were contacted. Selection criteria: The review includes data from childhood obesity prevention studies that used a controlled study design (with or without randomisation. Studies were included if they evaluated interventions, policies or programs in place for twelve weeks or more. If studies were randomized at a cluster level, six clusters were required. Data collection and analysis: Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of included studies. Data was extracted on intervention implementation, cost, equity and outcomes. Outcome measures were grouped according to whether they measured adiposity, physical activity (PA-related behaviours or diet-related behaviours. Adverse outcomes were recorded. A meta-analysis was conducted using available BMI or standardized BMI (zBMI score data with subgroup analysis by age group (0-5, 6-12, 13-18 years, corresponding to stages of developmental and childhood settings. MAIN RESULTS: This
Handoll, Helen Hg; Rowe, Brian H; Quinn, Kathryn M; de Bie, Rob
Some sports, for example basketball and soccer, have a very high incidence of ankle injuries, mainly sprains. Consequently, ankle sprains are one of the most commonly treated injuries in acute care. To assess the effects of interventions used for the prevention of ankle ligament injuries or sprains in physically active individuals from adolescence to middle age. We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauam Group's specialised register, MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, the National Research Register and bibliographies of study reports. We also contacted colleagues and some trialists. The most recent search was conducted in July 2000. Randomised or quasi-randomised trials of interventions for the prevention of ankle sprains in physically active individuals from adolescence to middle age were included provided that ankle sprains were recorded. Interventions included use of modified footwear, external ankle supports, co-ordination training and health education. These could be applied as a supplement to treatment provided that prevention of re-injury was the primary objective. At least two reviewers independently assessed methodological quality and extracted data. Wherever possible, results of outcome measures were pooled and sub-grouped by history of previous sprain. Relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) are reported for individual and pooled data. In this review update, a further nine new trials were included. Overall, 14 randomised trials with data for 8279 participants were included. Twelve trials involved active, predominantly young, adults participating in organised, generally high-risk, activities. The other two trials involved injured patients who had been active in sports before their injury. The prophylactic interventions under test included the application of an external ankle support in the form of a semi-rigid orthosis (three trials), air-cast brace (one trial) or high top shoes (one trial); ankle disk training; taping; muscle
Handoll, H H; Rowe, B H; Quinn, K M; de Bie, R
Some sports, for example basketball and soccer, have a very high incidence of ankle injuries, mainly sprains. Consequently, ankle sprains are one of the most commonly treated injuries in acute care. To assess the effects of interventions used for the prevention of ankle ligament injuries or sprains in physically active individuals from adolescence to middle age. We searched the Cochrane Musculoskeletal Injuries Group's specialised register, MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, the National Research Register and bibliographies of study reports. We also contacted colleagues and some trialists. The most recent search was conducted in July 2000. Randomised or quasi-randomised trials of interventions for the prevention of ankle sprains in physically active individuals from adolescence to middle age were included provided that ankle sprains were recorded. Interventions included use of modified footwear, external ankle supports, co-ordination training and health education. These could be applied as a supplement to treatment provided that prevention of re-injury was the primary objective. At least two reviewers independently assessed methodological quality and extracted data. Wherever possible, results of outcome measures were pooled and sub-grouped by history of previous sprain. Relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) are reported for individual and pooled data. In this review update, a further nine new trials were included. Overall, 14 randomised trials with data for 8279 participants were included. Twelve trials involved active, predominantly young, adults participating in organised, generally high-risk, activities. The other two trials involved injured patients who had been active in sports before their injury. The prophylactic interventions under test included the application of an external ankle support in the form of a semi-rigid orthosis (three trials), air-cast brace (one trial) or high top shoes (one trial); ankle disk training; taping; muscle
Ma, Xiao-Yuan; Tian, Li-Xing; Liang, Hua-Ping
Trauma still represents one of the major causes of death worldwide. Despite the reduction of post-traumatic sepsis over the past two decades, the mortality of septic trauma inpatients is still high (19.5-23 %). Early prevention of sepsis development can aid in the subsequent treatment of patients and help improve their outcomes. To date, the prevention of trauma-related infection/sepsis has mainly included infection prevention (e.g., surgical management, prophylactic antibiotics, tetanus vaccination, immunomodulatory interventions) and organ dysfunction prevention (e.g., pharmaceuticals, temporary intravascular shunts, lung-protective strategies, enteral immunonutrition, acupuncture). Overall, more efficient ways should be developed to prevent trauma-related infection/sepsis.
McCambridge, Jim; Cunningham, John A
This study explores the early development of brief interventions for alcohol using a history of ideas approach with a particular focus on intervention content. The source publications of the key primary studies published from approximately 1962 to 1992 were examined, followed by a brief review of the earliest reviews in this field. These studies were placed in the context of developments in alcohol research and in public health. After early pioneering work on brief interventions, further advances were not made until thinking about alcohol problems and their treatment, most notably on controlled drinking, along with wider changes in public health, created new conditions for progress. There was then a golden era of rapid advance in the late 1980s and early 1990s, when preventing the development of problem drinking became important for public health reasons, in addition to helping already problematic drinkers. Many research challenges identified at that time remain to be met. The content of brief interventions changed over the period of study, although not in ways well informed by research advances, and there were also obvious continuities, with a renewed emphasis on the facilitation of self-change being one important consequence of the development of internet applications. Ideas about brief interventions have changed in important ways. Brief interventions have been studied with different populations of drinkers, with aims embracing both individual and population-level perspectives, and without well-specified contents. The brief intervention field is an appropriate target for further historical investigations, which may help thinking about addressing alcohol and other problems. © 2013 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.
The focus of this article is to express the importance of early referral to early intervention in the natural environment of a child with feeding disorder. It is also to get the facts about treating feeding disorders early, in order to prevent long-term problems with feeding, to the people who are in any way involved in the life and care of an…
Branik, Emil; Meng, Heiner
It will be largely supposed that early intervention in schizophrenia improves the outcome of the illness. The paper summarizes the up today significant knowledge about the early recognition and treatment of schizophrenic psychosis in the adolescence. It will be pointed at the diagnostic difficulties and peculiarities in this age group. A comprehensive repeated assessment is necessary if prodromal symptoms of schizophrenia respectively psychotic states have to be taken in account. It will be pleaded for a early low dosis therapy with atypical neuroleptics to prevent the "psychotic catastrophe", that means the full outbreak of the disease. The pharmacotherapy should be a part of an intensive multimodal treatment program. The longstanding continuity of the relations to one and the same treatment setting and therapist responsible for it seems to influence the outcome positively.
Marković, B Bergman
Colorectal cancer is a global problem worldwide because of its very high prevalence and mortality. Therefore, prevention of colorectal cancer and its early diagnosis is of great importance. In Croatia, the National Program for Colorectal Cancer has been carried out since 2007; however, the rate of response was about 18 percent, depending on the region. Such a great public health and social and economic problem requires multidisciplinary approach in which family physicians have an important role. The well spread and developed network of primary health care and the availability of family physicians to each inhabitant have not been sufficiently exploited, especially for such preventive activities where family physicians could supervise program implementation.
Krishnaswamy, Saroja; Subramaniam, Kavitha; Indran, Tishya; Low, Wah-Yun
Disasters, natural or man-made, bring numerous health care challenges. In any crisis, mental health programs are a requirement during both the acute and postemergency phases. In the Asian tsunami on December 26, 2004, some of the northwestern coastal areas of Malaysia, particularly the island of Penang, were affected with devastating effects on the residents. Such disasters can predispose to mental health problems among the affected people. An early mental health intervention program was carried out in Balik Pulau, Penang, an area badly affected by the tsunami. The objective of the intervention program was to identify the victims, counsel them, make referrals if necessary, and provide help and resources to prevent the development of mental health problems. Penang residents identified as tsunami victims by the local health authorities were recruited. A group of health care workers, school teachers, village authorities, and volunteers were trained to carry out the crisis intervention program by health care workers experienced in crisis interventions. A total of 299 adults participated in the crisis intervention program, with follow-up assessments being made 4 to 6 weeks later. At the follow-up assessment, 1% of the victims had a problem and they were then referred for further medical assessment. This indicates that the intervention program in the first 2 weeks after the tsunami disaster with referrals to medical services may have helped stabilize the victims.
DenBoer, John W
Dementia is a growing world-wide phenomenon, impacting more than six million people in the United States. Despite its high projected prevalence, it is a significantly under-estimated phenomena, with estimates ranging from 15 to 25% of the current U.S. The effect of the aging of the population and significant increase in life expectancy has combined to catapult dementia into the range of one of world's most alarming healthcare problems. Diverse and emerging literature in the area of cognitive prevention/intervention for mild cognitive impairment (MCI)/early stage dementia will be reviewed. Additionally, future research and clinical directions will be explored.
To determine what secondary schoolchildren in Jordan want from overweight and obesity intervention strategies and prevention programmes. A school-based, cross-sectional study using a quantitative design was carried out during October 2014. The participants were secondary schoolchildren in grades 11 and 12. Data were analysed using SPSS program version 17. Percentages, standard deviations and means were computed. The main suggestions were for programmes at school, during school hours (n=962, 85.4%), followed by one that involved family and friends (n=951, 84.5%), and a programme at a convenient time free of charge (n=919, 81.6%). The students also suggested many strategies to tackle overweight and obesity, such as: taking more physical exercise (n=925, 82.1%), increasing consumption of more fruit and vegetables (n=712, 63.2%) eating less fast food (n=689, 61.2%). Schools, families, health providers and community organisations should encourage students to adopt healthy lifestyles, and facilitate their selection and participation in health programmes.
Brandes, Joyce A.; Ormsbee, Christine K.; Haring, Kathryn A.
More than one million transitions between early intervention services and early childhood programs are facilitated annually for youngsters with special needs. To be successful, these transitions require planning and ongoing communication between all parties. This article substantiates the need for a timeline/checklist and provides a model of…
This article presents a systematic review of school-based cyberbullying prevention and intervention programs. Research presenting empirical evidence about the effectiveness of a school-based cyberbullying prevention or intervention program published before August 2016 was searched. Seventeen studies were obtained and reviewed. The findings showed…
Mohammad Ali Karimzadeh
Full Text Available Female fertility begins to decline many years prior to the onset of menopause despite continued regular ovulatory cycles. Age related infertility is due to oocyte abnormalities and decreased ovarian reserve. Treatment of infertility when the cause is limited to decreased ovarian reserve is empirical at present except for oocyte donation. This mini review of the literature covers all available English biomedical journals that have been published from 1995 to 2008. The search based on combination of the words age, fertility, infertility, and oocyte abnormalities. The important findings from this search strategy are summarized and presented in the sub headings including female age and fertility, miscarriage and in vitro fertilization. Regarding infertility prevention, this mini review suggested that early marriage is a primordial, effective, inexpensive and easy way to prevent infertility.
K. B. Miloserdova
Full Text Available The probability of the caries development largely depends on the oral microflora imbalance. This imbalance can be corrected with probiotics. The article analyzes the results of studies on the use of adapted milk formulas with probiotics to prevent caries in early childhood. It shows that the use of adapted formulas with probiotics is accompanied by a decrease in the frequency of releasing cariogenic streptococci and actinomycetes with a simultaneous increase in the frequency of detecting bacterial antagonists of the cariogenic flora, normalization of sIgA concentration in saliva, and decrease in the severity of the caries process. The survey results will contribute to the development of effective approaches to prevention of dental caries in children.
The SENSE Study (Sleep and Education: learning New Skills Early): a community cognitive-behavioural therapy and mindfulness-based sleep intervention to prevent depression and improve cardiac health in adolescence.
Waloszek, Joanna M; Schwartz, Orli; Simmons, Julian G; Blake, Matthew; Blake, Laura; Murray, Greg; Raniti, Monika; Dahl, Ronald E; O'Brien-Simpson, Neil; Dudgeon, Paul; Trinder, John; Allen, Nicholas B
Sleep problems are a major risk factor for the emergence of depression in adolescence. The aim of this study was to test whether an intervention for improving sleep habits could prevent the emergence of depression, and improve well-being and cardiovascular indices amongst at-risk adolescents. A longitudinal randomised controlled trial (RCT) is being conducted across Victorian Secondary Schools in Melbourne, Australia. Adolescents (aged 12-17 years) were defined as at-risk for depression if they reported high levels of anxiety and sleep problems on in-school screening questionnaires and had no prior history of depression (assessed by clinical diagnostic interview). Eligible participants were randomised into either a sleep improvement intervention (based on cognitive behavioral and mindfulness principles) or an active control condition teaching study skills. Both programs consisted of seven 90 minute-long sessions over seven weeks. All participants were required to complete a battery of mood and sleep questionnaires, seven-days of actigraphy, and sleep diary entry at pre- and post-intervention. Participants also completed a cardiovascular assessment and two days of saliva collection at pre-intervention. Participants will repeat all assessments at two-year follow up (ongoing). This will be the first efficacy trial of a selective group-based sleep intervention for the prevention of depression in an adolescent community sample. If effective, the program could be disseminated in schools and greatly improve health outcomes for anxious adolescents. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12612001177842. Date of Registration: 06-Nov-2012.
Baglama, Basak; Demirok, Mukaddes Sakalli
Experiences in early childhood have a great influence on a child's physical and mental development. Early childhood interventions are widely accepted as an effective way to prevent learning difficulties and to promote healthy development for children with special needs. For this reason, it is important for teachers who will work with children with…
Nordentoft, Merete; Jeppesen, Pia; Petersen, Lone
, adherence to treatment, comorbid drug abuse, relapse and readmission. Some benefits persist after cessation of the intervention. Conclusions: Early intervention in schizophrenia is justified to reduce the negative personal and social impact of prolonged periods of untreated symptoms. Furthermore, phase...
Nordentoft, Merete; Jeppesen, Pia; Petersen, Lone
, adherence to treatment, comorbid drug abuse, relapse and readmission. Some benefits persist after cessation of the intervention. Conclusions: Early intervention in schizophrenia is justified to reduce the negative personal and social impact of prolonged periods of untreated symptoms. Furthermore, phase...... and this relationship holds even after controlling for the potential confounding variable of premorbid functioning. In Norway, the early Treatment and Intervention in PSychosis study demonstrated that duration of untreated psychosis is amenable to intervention with the combination of educational campaigns...
McNally, Richard J; Bryant, Richard A; Ehlers, Anke
In the wake of the terrorist attacks at the World Trade Center, more than 9,000 counselors went to New York City to offer aid to rescue workers, families, and direct victims of the violence of September 11, 2001. These mental health professionals assumed that many New Yorkers were at high risk for developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and they hoped that their interventions would mitigate psychological distress and prevent the emergence of this syndrome. Typically developing in response to horrific, life-threatening events, such as combat, rape, and earthquakes, PTSD is characterized by reexperiencing symptoms (e.g., intrusive recollections of the trauma, nightmares), emotional numbing and avoidance of reminders of the trauma, and hyperarousal (e.g., exaggerated startle, difficulty sleeping). People vary widely in their vulnerability for developing PTSD in the wake of trauma. For example, higher cognitive ability and strong social support buffer people against PTSD, whereas a family or personal history of emotional disorder heightens risk, as does negative appraisal of one's stress reactions (e.g., as a sign of personal weakness) and dissociation during the trauma (e.g., feeling unreal or experiencing time slowing down). However, the vast majority of trauma survivors recover from initial posttrauma reactions without professional help. Accordingly, the efficacy of interventions designed to mitigate acute distress and prevent long-term psychopathology, such as PTSD, needs to be evaluated against the effects of natural recovery. The need for controlled evaluations of early interventions has only recently been widely acknowledged. Psychological debriefing-the most widely used method-has undergone increasing empirical scrutiny, and the results have been disappointing. Although the majority of debriefed survivors describe the experience as helpful, there is no convincing evidence that debriefing reduces the incidence of PTSD, and some controlled studies
Adiel C. Rios
Full Text Available Objective: To characterize the early stages of bipolar disorder (BD, defined as the clinical prodrome/subsyndromal stage and first-episode phase, and strategies for their respective treatment. Methods: A selective literature search of the PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, and ISI databases from inception until March 2014 was performed. Included in this review were articles that a characterized prodromal and first-episode stages of BD or b detailed efficacy and safety/tolerability of interventions in patients considered prodromal for BD or those with only one episode of mania/hypomania. Results: As research has only recently focused on characterization of the early phase of BD, there is little evidence for the effectiveness of any treatment option in the early phase of BD. Case management; individual, group, and family therapy; supportive therapy; and group psychoeducation programs have been proposed. Most evidence-based treatment guidelines for BD do not address treatment specifically in the context of the early stages of illness. Evidence for pharmacotherapy is usually presented in relation to illness polarity (i.e., manic/mixed or depressed or treatment phase. Conclusions: Although early recognition and treatment are critical to preventing unfavorable outcomes, there is currently little evidence for interventions in these stages of BD.
Early Intervention; Child of Impaired Parents; Child; Adolescent; Mental Disorders, Severe; Schizophrenia; Bipolar Disorder; Depressive Disorder, Recurrent; Psychotic Disorders; Parent-Child Relations
Pérez Morente, Ma Angeles; Sánchez Ocón, Ma Teresa; Mingorance Ruiz, Ma Visitación; Pérez Robles, Angustias; Munoz de la Fuente, José Manuel; Sánchez De Arias, Celia
To determine the current epidemiological situation, prevention and management of child and youth obesity based on the best scientific evidence available. Literature search in PubMed, Cochrane, Science Direct, ENFISPO, Lilacs and SciELO, selecting articles about child and youth obesity, its prevention and treatment. Child and youth obesity is a multifactorial chronic disease that it has been increasing, tending to stay in adolescence and adulthood with greater intensity than more early starts. The data vary from country to country, although most articles are governed by body mass index (BMI). Pediatric overweight is defined by a BMI percentiles located between 91-98 and obesity by a percentile equal or greater than 99. Its prevalence varies according to time, geography, age, gender and race. The prevalence rates of obesity in Spain are one of the highest around the world. The overweight prevalence is lower slightly and there is no difference in gender. Its implications include the metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus II. Unanimously, the combination of interventions on life and dietary habits and physical activity is important for the management of obesity and overweight. Currently, the obesity management requires a generalized approach, with changes in lifestyle, diet and physical activity. The best solution for reducing this epidemic lies in prevention rather than treatment.
The School for Young Deaf Children was founded in 1969 when the All India Institute of Speech and Hearing at Mysore and the Christian Medical College Hospital at Vellore started diagnosing hearing impairment in children and prescribing hearing aids. These schools admitted children when they were 5 years old. Bala Vidyalaya was funded as an experimental school to satisfy the needs of younger children. A multi sensory approach based on the Montessori method of teaching with special emphasis on language acquisition was adopted. The School that began with 5 children and 2 teachers had 120 children and 15 teachers in 1992: 50 children were under 3 years old and the rest were between 3 and 6 years. Early auditory management and training is the foundation of the child's linguistic achievement which help the child use the innate ability to develop sophisticated listening skills such as listening to one signal in the presence of competing sounds. Simple games captivate the infants. At the age of 2 1/2 years ideovisual reading is introduced to the child: written sentences are presented to the child about an activity that the child had just experienced. Even before 2 years of age he or she starts scribbling. School lessons are used as tools for writing. The school takes efforts to win the confidence of the parents. So far 97 children have joined the mainstream of education after an initial training the school. Of these, 6 are settled in jobs, 5 are in college or in postgraduate studies, 11 are studying at the university, 8 are in the higher secondary school (classes XI or XII)m 28 are studying in high school (class VI to class X), while the remaining 39 are in primary schools. It has been demonstrated that early educational intervention and involvement of the family into the educational program are very important for the successful integration of hearing-impaired children into the main stream.
Pratt, B M; Woolfenden, S R
psychopathology or general psychological and physical well-being in the general sample or those classified as being at high risk for eating disorder (Buddeberg-F 1998; Killen 1993/1996; Santonastaso 1999; Zanetti 1999). Given only one program used a psychoeducation approach to prevent bulimia nervosa (Jerome, unpublished) and only one program adopted a focus on self-esteem (O'Dea 2000), the effect of these approaches could not be evaluated via meta-analyses. In relation to potential harmful effects, there is not sufficient evidence to suggest that harm resulted from any of the prevention programs included in the review. The one significant pooled effect in the current review does not allow for any firm conclusions to be made about the impact of prevention programs for eating disorders in children and adolescents, although none of the pooled comparisons indicated evidence of harm. From a clinical perspective, the development and refinement of prevention programs is complicated by a lack of knowledge about risk factors associated with eating disorders and the need to strike a balance between delivering preventive interventions for eating disorders and considering the potential to cause harm. From a research perspective, the idea of "thresholds" for identifying young people at risk of developing eating disorders has been raised, and denial of concern or denial of illness represents a further issue complicating early identification in relation to eating disorder symptomatology. Longer-term effects of the intervention approaches will need to be monitored across development in order to demonstrate a decline in the incidence of eating disorders and associated risk factors.
Tso, Lai Sze; Tang, Weiming; Li, Haochu; Yan, H Yanna; Tucker, Joseph D
Persistent new HIV infections and risky behaviors underscore the need for enhanced HIV prevention. Social media interventions may promote safe sexual behaviors, increase HIV testing uptake, and promote safe injection behaviors. This review discusses how social media interventions tap into the wisdom of crowds through crowdsourcing, build peer-mentored communities, and deliver interventions through social networks. Social media HIV prevention interventions are constrained by ethical issues, low social media usage among some key populations, and implementation issues. Comprehensive measurement of social media interventions to prevent HIV is necessary, but requires further development of metrics.
Lifter, Karin; Foster-Sanda, Suzanne; Arzamarski, Caley; Briesch, Jacquelyn; McClure, Ellen
Play is a natural activity of early childhood, which has great relevance to the fields of early intervention, early childhood special education, and early childhood education. Within these fields, ongoing tensions persist in how play is described and used. These tensions compromise activities of assessment, intervention, and curriculum development…
Christensen, Helen; Batterham, Philip J; O'Dea, Bridianne
Many people at risk of suicide do not seek help before an attempt, and do not remain connected to health services following an attempt. E-health interventions are now being considered as a means to identify at-risk individuals, offer self-help through web interventions or to deliver proactive interventions in response to individuals' posts on social media. In this article, we examine research studies which focus on these three aspects of suicide and the internet: the use of online screening for suicide, the effectiveness of e-health interventions aimed to manage suicidal thoughts, and newer studies which aim to proactively intervene when individuals at risk of suicide are identified by their social media postings. We conclude that online screening may have a role, although there is a need for additional robust controlled research to establish whether suicide screening can effectively reduce suicide-related outcomes, and in what settings online screening might be most effective. The effectiveness of Internet interventions may be increased if these interventions are designed to specifically target suicidal thoughts, rather than associated conditions such as depression. The evidence for the use of intervention practices using social media is possible, although validity, feasibility and implementation remains highly uncertain.
Agrawal, Tara; Hoffman, Jessica A; Ahl, Marilyn; Bhaumik, Urmi; Healey, Christine; Carter, Sonia; Dickerson, Deborah; Nethersole, Shari; Griffin, Daphne; Castaneda-Sceppa, Carmen
This article presents Healthy Kids, Healthy Futures, a multilevel initiative in Boston, Massachusetts, which brings major institutions' missions and resources together to address early childhood obesity prevention. Programming is designed to facilitate healthy eating and physical activity in preschool children's home, school, and community environments by engaging parents and early childhood educators in the places where they live, learn, and play. This article describes how established interventions were implemented in a novel setting to engage the parents of children attending Head Start and staff, and presents pilot data from the first 2 years of the initiative. Healthy Kids, Healthy Futures is a feasible initiative, which has shown concrete, positive results that can be replicated.
Payr, A; Birnbaum, J; Wildgruber, A; Kreichauf, S; Androutsos, O; Lateva, M; De Decker, E; De Craemer, M; Iotova, V; Manios, Y; Koletzko, B
The key person for the implementation of kindergarten-based behavioural interventions is the kindergarten teacher. When conducting intervention studies in kindergartens, training sessions are needed to train and motivate kindergarten teachers for programme implementation. This paper presents the systematic development of the teachers' trainings executed in the ToyBox-intervention - a kindergarten-based and family-involved obesity prevention programme for children aged 4-6. Based on concepts for the education of kindergarten teachers, on general strategies for successful programme implementation and on the ToyBox programme-specific requirements, the aims of the teachers' trainings were defined and an overall concept was deduced. Regarding the concept for the ToyBox teachers' training sessions, it is concluded that the training modules should focus on presenting information on the practical implementation of the intervention. Furthermore, these modules should also include self-efficacy enhancing components and should give kindergarten teachers opportunities to share experiences. Regarding the didactic methods applied in the ToyBox teachers' training sessions, constructivist learning approaches that facilitate active participation, reflective thinking and personal involvement were implemented. Emphasis was put not only on the content but especially on the didactic methods of teachers' trainings in order to enhance devotion to, and quality and sustainability of the ToyBox-intervention. © 2014 World Obesity.
Noting that many communities have overlooked a promising approach to reducing violence in the United States, this report examines early risk factors for violence and discusses the potential of prevention and intervention programs for children ages birth to 5 years. The report defines violence and discusses the importance of early experiences in…
Lemieux, Anthony F; Fisher, Jeffrey D; Pratto, Felicia
This research examines the process of conducting and evaluating a music-based HIV prevention intervention among urban adolescents, and is informed by the information, motivation, behavioral skills (IMB) model. Musically talented opinion leaders were recruited to write, record, and distribute HIV prevention themed music to their peers to increase HIV prevention motivation, behavioral skills, and behaviors. In this 3-month field experiment, participants were 306 students enrolled in health classes at each of three large multiracial urban high schools (one treatment school; two control schools). Measures of HIV prevention information, motivation, behavioral skills, and behaviors, both pre- and postintervention. Results indicate that the intervention influenced several aspects of HIV prevention motivation, behavioral skills, and condom use and HIV testing behaviors. This research demonstrates that the incorporation of music into HIV prevention interventions for adolescents has the potential to be effective.
EMMA ELISE ROBERTS
Teachers have a central role in the management and prevention of bullying within schools and are in turn involved in the implementation of anti-bullying interventions (Kochenderfer-Ladd & Pelletier, 2008). Therefore an assessment of teachers’ attitudes towards bullying interventions is needed to determine how helpful they perceived interventions to be. This study investigated teachers’ attitudes towards anti-bullying interventions and the types of bullying they perceived the interventions wou...
Blair, Clancy; Raver, C Cybele
We review some of the growing evidence of the costs of poverty to children's neuroendocrine function, early brain development, and cognitive ability. We underscore the importance of addressing the negative consequences of poverty-related adversity early in children's lives, given evidence supporting the plasticity of executive functions and associated physiologic processes in response to early intervention and the importance of higher order cognitive functions for success in school and in life. Finally, we highlight some new directions for prevention and intervention that are rapidly emerging at the intersection of developmental science, pediatrics, child psychology and psychiatry, and public policy. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hu, Xiaoyi; Yang, Xijie
Early intervention services to young children with developmental delays in China have experienced significant growth since 1978, the beginning of the period of Reform and Opening. This article described the present situation of early intervention practices in mainland China, framed around the key components and guiding principles of Guralnick's…
Han, Heejeong Sophia; Brown, E. Todd
This study is based on an intervention designed to enhance early childhood teacher candidates' critical thinking abilities. The concept, elements, standards, and traits of critical thinking were integrated into the main course contents, and the effects of the intervention were examined. The results indicated that early childhood teacher…
Foorman, Barbara; Dombek, Jennifer; Smith, Kevin
The objective of this article is to describe seven elements important to successful implementation of early literacy intervention. The seven elements are drawn from research as well as from the authors' recent randomized controlled trial of effective early literacy interventions in kindergarten through second grade in 55 schools across Florida.…
The legal frameworks in most jurisdictions make provision for early intervention in bank resolution as an exception to the general corporate formal insolvency regime. The exercise of the early intervention powers however contravenes well established shareholder rights and gives rise to legal acrimony as seen in the deluge ...
Hurley, Jennifer J.; Looby, Winnie; Goodrum, Ashley R.; Campbell, Elizabeth M.; Bonti, Gregg K.; Raymon, Becca A.; Condon, Rebecca; Schwaeber, Sami E.; Mauceri, Melina E.; Bourne, Erin M.; Callahan, Elizabeth D.; Hardy, Danielle L.; Mathews, Pamela
Early intervention (EI) services are provided for families and children at risk for or with developmental delays. Early intervention includes services that are provided in the natural environment as mandated by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA; 2004). The natural environment is where children and families would naturally spend…
Jennings, Danielle; Hanline, Mary Frances; Woods, Juliann
Embedding early intervention activities into routines and activities of early care and education programs can result in increased skill development for young children with special needs or developmental delays. Routines-based interventions must be implemented through ongoing collaboration and communication among teachers, families, intervention…
Khavjou, Olga A.; Bradley, Christina; Neuwahl, Simon; Hoerger, Thomas J.; Bellard, David; Cash, Amanda J.
Introduction In 2010, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention funded 50 communities to participate in the Communities Putting Prevention to Work (CPPW) program. CPPW supported community-based approaches to prevent or delay chronic disease and promote wellness by reducing tobacco use and obesity. We collected the direct costs of CPPW for the 44 communities funded through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) and analyzed costs per person reached for all CPPW interventions and by intervention category. Methods From 2011 through 2013, we collected quarterly data on costs from the 44 CPPW ARRA-funded communities. We estimated CPPW program costs as spending on labor; consultants; materials, travel, and services; overhead activities; and partners plus the value of in-kind donations. We estimated communities’ costs per person reached for each intervention implemented and compared cost allocations across communities that focused on reducing tobacco use, or obesity, or both. Analyses were conducted in 2014; costs are reported in 2012 dollars. Results The largest share of CPPW total costs of $363 million supported interventions in communities that focused on obesity ($228 million). Average costs per person reached were less than $5 for 84% of tobacco-related interventions, 88% of nutrition interventions, and 89% of physical activity interventions. Costs per person reached were highest for social support and services interventions, almost $3 for tobacco‑use interventions and $1 for obesity prevention interventions. Conclusions CPPW cost estimates are useful for comparing intervention cost per person reached with health outcomes and for addressing how community health intervention costs vary by type of intervention and by community size. PMID:27468157
Schelke, Matthew W; Hackett, Katherine; Chen, Jaclyn L; Shih, Chiashin; Shum, Jessica; Montgomery, Mary E; Chiang, Gloria C; Berkowitz, Cara; Seifan, Alon; Krikorian, Robert; Isaacson, Richard Scott
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a major source of morbidity and mortality, with the disease burden expected to rise as the population ages. No disease-modifying agent is currently available, but recent research suggests that nutritional and lifestyle modifications can delay or prevent the onset of AD. However, preventive nutritional interventions are not universally applicable and depend on the clinical profile of the individual patient. This article reviews existing nutritional modalities for AD prevention that act through improvement of insulin resistance, correction of dyslipidemia, and reduction of oxidative stress, and discusses how they may be modified on the basis of individual biomarkers, genetics, and behavior. In addition, we report preliminary results of clinical application of these personalized interventions at the first AD prevention clinic in the United States. The use of these personalized interventions represents an important application of precision medicine techniques for the prevention of AD that can be adopted by clinicians across disciplines. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.
Hoogeveen, Ruben C; Dorresteijn, Johannes A N; Kriegsman, Didi M W; Valk, Gerlof D.
BACKGROUND: Ulceration of the feet, which can lead to the amputation of feet and legs, is a major problem for people with diabetes mellitus, and can cause substantial economic burden. Single preventive strategies have not been shown to reduce the incidence of foot ulceration to a significant extent.
Alcohol dependence is a chronic, debilitating disorder that is an important public health problem worldwide. Combined psychological and pharmacological treatment packages produce best outcomes in its management. In this paper we discuss the three NICE – approved relapse prevention medications used in treatment of ...
Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012
Developed in 1993 at the University of Washington, Brief Alcohol Screening and Intervention for College Students (BASICS) is a preventive intervention program to reduce drinking and enhance awareness about alcohol-related issues. BASICS targets college students who are considered at risk because of heavy drinking behaviors. The brief intervention…
Spence, Christine M.; Connor, Susan M.; Burke, Ted; Cheema, Jehanzeb R.; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.
A statewide needs assessment was conducted with early interventionists to gather information on perceived professional development (PD) needs. Across 3 years, 4,455 early interventionists responded to an online survey. Data were analyzed for reported needs on PD topics in seven broad areas related to early intervention processes and content.…
Miller-Day, Michelle; Hecht, Michael L.
This paper describes a Narrative Engagement Framework (NEF) for guiding communication-based prevention efforts. This framework suggests that personal narratives have distinctive capabilities in prevention. The paper discusses the concept of narrative, links narrative to prevention, and discusses the central role of youth in developing narrative interventions. As illustration, the authors describe how the NEF is applied in the keepin’ it REAL adolescent drug prevention curriculum, pose theoretical directions, and offer suggestions for future work in prevention communication. PMID:23980613
The purpose of this article was to review international (excluding the United States) school-based interventions for preventing obesity in children published between 1999 and 2005. A total of 21 such interventions were found from Australia (1), Austria (1), Canada (1), Chile (1), France (1), Germany (3), Greece (1), New Zealand (1), Norway (1), Singapore (1) and the United Kingdom (9). The grade range of these interventions was from pre-school to high school with the majority (17) from elementary schools. Nine of these interventions targeted nutrition behaviours followed by seven aiming to modify both physical activity and nutrition behaviours. Only five interventions in international settings were based on any explicit behavioural theory which is different than the interventions developed in the United States. Majority of the interventions (9) were one academic year long. It can be speculated that if the interventions are behavioural theory-based, then the intervention length can be shortened. All interventions that documented parental involvement successfully influenced obesity indices. Most interventions (16) focused on individual-level behaviour change approaches. Most published interventions (16) used experimental designs with at least 1-year follow-up. Recommendations from international settings for enhancing the effectiveness of school-based childhood obesity interventions are presented.
A combination of quantitative and qualitative research was used to determine the effectiveness of a cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programme in a cohort of patients referred to the service at a London hospital. Quantitative data analysis provided evidence of effectiveness of participation in CR in reduced hospital readmission rates and use of recognised pharmacological management strategies. Self-reported physical activity levels and quality of life (QOL) in individuals who participated in the cardiac rehabilitation programme were qualitatively measured with questionnaires. Results provided evidence of benefit in continued participation in exercise. However, there was no evidence of benefit to QOL status post participation at 1 year. A p-value of 0.001 provided significant statistical evidence supporting the hypothesis of benefit in continued participation in exercise in participants following attendance at a cardiac rehabilitation programme. QOL status; a statistically significant p-value of 0.001 rejected the hypothesis (H1) of benefit. This would imply that participation CR programmes does not appear to provide sustained benefits in QOL. A number of moderating variables were suggested as explaining the finding such as homogeneity of respondents, age, mood bias and the timeframe of 1 year between participation in rehabilitation and self-reporting. CR appears to be an effective but time-limited intervention in relation to improvements in QOL. Collaborative working partnerships between specialist interventions, such as CR with chronic disease management strategies may provide greater sustainability of benefits gained from participation in cardiac rehabilitation programmes.
Anzman, S L; Rollins, B Y; Birch, L L
Most childhood obesity prevention efforts have focused on school-age children and adolescents and have had limited success. We argue that the first years of life, including the prenatal period, the postnatal suckling period and the transition to the modified adult diet, may provide opportunities for preventive interventions. These early periods are characterized by high plasticity and rapid transitions, and parents have a high degree of control over children's environments and experiences. Observational and experimental evidence reveal persistent effects of early environments on eating behavior and obesity risk, suggesting that interventions should be tested during these early periods. The central task parents have in early development points to their potential as key targets and agents of change in early preventive interventions. In this paper, we review evidence of early environmental effects on children's eating and obesity risk, highlighting ways that parental feeding practices and parents' own behaviors impact these outcomes and calling for further experimental research to elucidate whether these factors are indeed promising targets for childhood obesity preventive interventions.
Full Text Available Early Intervention (EI services for children birth through two years of age are mandated by Part C of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA; however, personnel shortages, particularly in rural areas, limit access for children who qualify. Telerehabilitation has the potential to build capacity among caregivers and local providers as well as promote family-centered services through remote consultation. This article provides an overview of research related to telerehabilitation and early intervention services; discusses the feasibility of telerehabilitation within traditional EI service delivery models; examines telecommunications technology associated with telerehabilitation; and provides hypothetical case examples designed to illustrate potential applications of telerehabilitation in early intervention.
Early Intervention (EI) services for children birth through two years of age are mandated by Part C of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA); however, personnel shortages, particularly in rural areas, limit access for children who qualify. Telerehabilitation has the potential to build capacity among caregivers and local providers as well as promote family-centered services through remote consultation. This article provides an overview of research related to telerehabilitation and early intervention services; discusses the feasibility of telerehabilitation within traditional EI service delivery models; examines telecommunications technology associated with telerehabilitation; and provides hypothetical case examples designed to illustrate potential applications of telerehabilitation in early intervention.
Randomized controlled trial of a coordinated care intervention to improve risk factor control after stroke or transient ischemic attack in the safety net: Secondary stroke prevention by Uniting Community and Chronic care model teams Early to End Disparities (SUCCEED).
Towfighi, Amytis; Cheng, Eric M; Ayala-Rivera, Monica; McCreath, Heather; Sanossian, Nerses; Dutta, Tara; Mehta, Bijal; Bryg, Robert; Rao, Neal; Song, Shlee; Razmara, Ali; Ramirez, Magaly; Sivers-Teixeira, Theresa; Tran, Jamie; Mojarro-Huang, Elizabeth; Montoya, Ana; Corrales, Marilyn; Martinez, Beatrice; Willis, Phyllis; Macias, Mireya; Ibrahim, Nancy; Wu, Shinyi; Wacksman, Jeremy; Haber, Hilary; Richards, Adam; Barry, Frances; Hill, Valerie; Mittman, Brian; Cunningham, William; Liu, Honghu; Ganz, David A; Factor, Diane; Vickrey, Barbara G
Recurrent strokes are preventable through awareness and control of risk factors such as hypertension, and through lifestyle changes such as healthier diets, greater physical activity, and smoking cessation. However, vascular risk factor control is frequently poor among stroke survivors, particularly among socio-economically disadvantaged blacks, Latinos and other people of color. The Chronic Care Model (CCM) is an effective framework for multi-component interventions aimed at improving care processes and outcomes for individuals with chronic disease. In addition, community health workers (CHWs) have played an integral role in reducing health disparities; however, their effectiveness in reducing vascular risk among stroke survivors remains unknown. Our objectives are to develop, test, and assess the economic value of a CCM-based intervention using an Advanced Practice Clinician (APC)-CHW team to improve risk factor control after stroke in an under-resourced, racially/ethnically diverse population. In this single-blind randomized controlled trial, 516 adults (≥40 years) with an ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attack or intracerebral hemorrhage within the prior 90 days are being enrolled at five sites within the Los Angeles County safety-net setting and randomized 1:1 to intervention vs usual care. Participants are excluded if they do not speak English, Spanish, Cantonese, Mandarin, or Korean or if they are unable to consent. The intervention includes a minimum of three clinic visits in the healthcare setting, three home visits, and Chronic Disease Self-Management Program group workshops in community venues. The primary outcome is blood pressure (BP) control (systolic BP control of other vascular risk factors including lipids and hemoglobin A1c, (3) inflammation (C reactive protein [CRP]), (4) medication adherence, (5) lifestyle factors (smoking, diet, and physical activity), (6) estimated relative reduction in risk for recurrent stroke or myocardial
Full Text Available Doctors are exposed to high levels of stress in the course of their profession and are particularly susceptible to experiencing burnout. Burnout has far-reaching implications on doctors; patients and the healthcare system. Doctors experiencing burnout are reported to be at a higher risk of making poor decisions; display hostile attitude toward patients; make more medical errors; and have difficult relationships with co-workers. Burnout among doctors also increases risk of depression; anxiety; sleep disturbances; fatigue; alcohol and drug misuse; marital dysfunction; premature retirement and perhaps most seriously suicide. Sources of stress in medical practice may range from the emotions arising in the context of patient care to the environment in which doctors practice. The extent of burnout may vary depending on the practice setting; speciality and changing work environment. Understanding dynamic risk factors associated with burnout may help us develop strategies for preventing and treating burnout. Some of these strategies will be reviewed in this paper.
Doctors are exposed to high levels of stress in the course of their profession and are particularly susceptible to experiencing burnout. Burnout has far-reaching implications on doctors; patients and the healthcare system. Doctors experiencing burnout are reported to be at a higher risk of making poor decisions; display hostile attitude toward patients; make more medical errors; and have difficult relationships with co-workers. Burnout among doctors also increases risk of depression; anxiety; sleep disturbances; fatigue; alcohol and drug misuse; marital dysfunction; premature retirement and perhaps most seriously suicide. Sources of stress in medical practice may range from the emotions arising in the context of patient care to the environment in which doctors practice. The extent of burnout may vary depending on the practice setting; speciality and changing work environment. Understanding dynamic risk factors associated with burnout may help us develop strategies for preventing and treating burnout. Some of these strategies will be reviewed in this paper.
Bourgeois, Nicole; Brauer, Paula; Simpson, Janis Randall; Kim, Susie; Haines, Jess
Preventing childhood obesity is a public health priority, and primary care is an important setting for early intervention. Authors of a recent national guideline have identified a need for effective primary care interventions for obesity prevention and that parent perspectives on interventions are notably absent from the literature. Our objective was to determine the perspectives of primary care clinicians and parents of children 2-5 years of age on the implementation of an obesity prevention intervention within team-based primary care to inform intervention implementation. We conducted focus groups with interprofessional primary care clinicians (n = 40) and interviews with parents (n = 26). Participants were asked about facilitators and barriers to, and recommendations for implementing a prevention program in primary care. Data were recorded and transcribed, and we used directed content analysis to identify major themes. Barriers existed to addressing obesity-related behaviours in this age group and included a gap in well-child primary care between ages 18 months and 4-5 years, lack of time and sensitivity of the topic. Trust and existing relationships with primary care clinicians were facilitators to program implementation. Offering separate programs for parents and children, and addressing both general parenting topics and obesity-related behaviours were identified as desirable. Despite barriers to addressing obesity-related behaviours within well-child primary care, both clinicians and parents expressed interest in interventions in primary care settings. Next steps should include pilot studies to identify feasible strategies for intervention implementation.
Komiya, Masami; Fujii, Gen; Takahashi, Mami; Iigo, Masaaki; Mutoh, Michihiro
There have been a number of candidates for chemopreventive agents from synthetic drugs and natural compounds suggested to prevent colorectal cancer. However, they have shown modest efficacy in humans. The reason for this could be partly explained by the use of inappropriate models in vitro and in vivo, and the limitation of chemoprevention trials. In Japan, there are no cancer chemopreventive medicines, and few cancer chemoprevention trials to date. In contrast, an increase in the prevalence of colorectal cancer in Japan has forced us to develop more efficient chemopreventive strategies. It is now a good time to review in detail the current status and future prospects for chemoprevention of colorectal cancer with respect to the future development of chemopreventive medicines, particularly using synthetic drugs and natural compounds in Asian populations. The role and mode of action of available synthetic drugs, mainly aspirin and metformin, are reviewed. In addition, the possible impact of natural compounds with anti-inflammatory/immunosuppressive properties, such as ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acid and lactoferrin, are also reviewed.
Berlin, Lisa; Blair, Clancy; Boyd, Misty L.; Constantino, John N.; Hallam, Rena A.; Han, Myae; Hustedt, Jason; Harden, Brenda Jones; Raver, C. Cybele; Sarche, Michelle; Vu, Jennifer A.; Watamura, Sarah Enos; Meyer, Aleta; Fortunato, Christine
The Buffering Toxic Stress Consortium was created by the Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation within the Administration for Children and Families to test preventive interventions for Early Head Start families facing toxic stress, as conceptualized by Shonkoff, Boyce, and McEwen in their influential 2009 article. Because relationships…
Scheenen, Myrthe E.; Visser-Keizer, Annemarie C.; de Koning, Myrthe E.; van der Horn, Harm J.; van de Sande, Peter; van Kessel, Marlies E.; van der Naalt, Joukje; Spikman, Jacoba M.
Many patients do not return to work (RTW) after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) because of persistent complaints that are often resistant to therapy in the chronic phase. Recent studies suggest that psychological interventions should be implemented early post-injury to prevent patients from
Poteat, Tonia; Wirtz, Andrea L; Radix, Anita; Borquez, Annick; Silva-Santisteban, Alfonso; Deutsch, Madeline B; Khan, Sharful Islam; Winter, Sam; Operario, Don
Worldwide, transgender women who engage in sex work have a disproportionate risk for HIV compared with natal male and female sex workers. We reviewed recent epidemiological research on HIV in transgender women and show that transgender women sex workers (TSW) face unique structural, interpersonal, and individual vulnerabilities that contribute to risk for HIV. Only six studies of evidence-based prevention interventions were identified, none of which focused exclusively on TSW. We developed a deterministic model based on findings related to HIV risks and interventions. The model examines HIV prevention approaches in TSW in two settings (Lima, Peru and San Francisco, CA, USA) to identify which interventions would probably achieve the UN goal of 50% reduction in HIV incidence in 10 years. A combination of interventions that achieves small changes in behaviour and low coverage of biomedical interventions was promising in both settings, suggesting that the expansion of prevention services in TSW would be highly effective. However, this expansion needs appropriate sustainable interventions to tackle the upstream drivers of HIV risk and successfully reach this population. Case studies of six countries show context-specific issues that should inform development and implementation of key interventions across heterogeneous settings. We summarise the evidence and knowledge gaps that affect the HIV epidemic in TSW, and propose a research agenda to improve HIV services and policies for this population. PMID:25059941
Fragile States Early Warning and Intervention 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e...position of the Department of the Army, Department of Defense, or the U.S. government Environmental Change & Fragile States Early Warning and... Intervention Steven Hearne, P.E., Senior Fellow Army Environmental Policy Institute (AEPI) Jeremey Alcorn, Research Fellow Logistics Management Institute (LMI
Zhou, Yuan E; Emerson, Janice S; Levine, Robert S; Kihlberg, Courtney J; Hull, Pamela C
Childcare settings are an opportune location for early intervention programs seeking to prevent childhood obesity. This article reports on a systematic review of controlled trials of obesity prevention interventions in childcare settings. The review was limited to English language articles published in PubMed, Web of Science, and Education Resources Information Center (ERIC) between January 2000 and April 2012. childhood obesity prevention interventions in childcare settings using controlled designs that reported adiposity and behavior outcomes. no interventions, non-childcare settings, clinical weight loss programs, non-English publications. Publications were identified by key word search. Two authors reviewed eligible studies to extract study information and study results. Qualitative synthesis was conducted, including tabulation of information and a narrative summary. Fifteen studies met the eligibility criteria. Seven studies reported improvements in adiposity. Six of the 13 interventions with dietary components reported improved intake or eating behaviors. Eight of the 12 interventions with physical activity components reported improved activity levels or physical fitness. Evidence was mixed for all outcomes. Results should be interpreted cautiously given the high variability in study designs and interventions. Further research needs long-term follow-up, multistrategy interventions that include changes in the nutrition and physical activity environment, reporting of cost data, and consideration of sustainability.
Gupta, Seema; Marwah, Nikhil
Abstract Supernumerary teeth are considered to be one of the most significant dental anomalies affecting the primary and early mixed dentition and may cause a variety of pathological disturbances to the developing permanent dentition. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment is necessary for prevention of deleterious effects on dentoalveolar structures. However, the time of intervention is the most crucial factor governing the outcome of surgical management of hyperdontia. The aim of this case re...
Søgaard, R.; Sørensen, J.; Waldorff, F.B.
BACKGROUND/AIM: To investigate the impact of early psychosocial intervention aimed at patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and their caregivers on resource use and costs from a societal perspective. METHODS: Dyads of patients and their primary caregiver were randomised to intervention (n = 163...
Jensen, Michael Ladegaard
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common gastrointestinal disorder in premature newborn infants, yet there is still no well-established prevention strategy or treatment for this disease. The pathogenesis of NEC remains to be fully elucidated; however, prematurity, enteral nutrition...... with regard to challenge dose and supportive nutrition was done and presented in Paper IV....
This article assesses the situation of preschool children in Austria facing the need to implement the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disability. Eligibility criteria for preventive preschool services and the necessary labeling of children as "disabled" or "at risk" are assessed as inhibiting factors within…
Muktabhant, Benja; Lumbiganon, Pisake; Ngamjarus, Chetta; Dowswell, Therese
Background Excessive weight gain during pregnancy is associated with multiple maternal and neonatal complications. However, interventions to prevent excessive weight gain during pregnancy have not been adequately evaluated. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of interventions for preventing excessive weight gain during pregnancy and associated pregnancy complications. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (20 October 2011) and MEDLINE (1966 to 20 October 2011). Selection criteria All randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised trials of interventions for preventing excessive weight gain during pregnancy. Data collection and analysis We assessed for inclusion all potential studies we identified as a result of the search strategy. At least two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We resolved discrepancies through discussion. We have presented results using risk ratio (RR) for categorical data and mean difference for continuous data. We analysed data using a fixed-effect model. Main results We included 28 studies involving 3976 women; 27 of these studies with 3964 women contributed data to the analyses. Interventions focused on a broad range of interventions. However, for most outcomes we could not combine data in a meta-analysis, and where we did pool data, no more than two or three studies could be combined for a particular intervention and outcome. Overall, results from this review were mainly not statistically significant, and where there did appear to be differences between intervention and control groups, results were not consistent. For women in general clinic populations one (behavioural counselling versus standard care) of three interventions examined was associated with a reduction in the rate of excessive weight gain (RR 0.72, 95% confidence interval 0.54 to 0.95); for women in high-risk groups no intervention appeared to reduce excess weight gain. There were
The purpose of the present article is to provide a detailed description of the highly successful lifestyle intervention administered to 1,079 participants, which included 45% racial and ethnic minorities and resulted in a 58% reduction in the incidence rate of diabetes (2). The two major goals of the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) lifestyle intervention were a minimum of 7% weight loss/weight maintenance and a minimum of 150 min of physical activity similar in intensity to brisk walking. B...
du Roscoät, E; Beck, F
This review focuses on interventions to prevent suicide. It excludes psychotherapy evaluations and pharmaceutical clinical trials. The aim of this article is to provide useful input to the reflection on and the development of actions for professionals who may be concerned by suicide prevention. This research is based on 41 published evaluation studies presenting results on at least one of the three following outcomes: completed suicides, suicide attempts, and suicidal ideations. These studies have been classified into seven categories of preventive action. According to data from the literature selected for our analysis, the three most efficient categories of intervention seem to be the limitation of access to lethal means, the preservation of contact with the patients hospitalized for a suicide attempt after hospitalization, and the implementation of emergency call centers. The four other categories of intervention examined in this study - the training of general practitioners, the reorganization of care, programs in schools, and information campaigns - have not yet shown sufficient proof of their efficacy. Nevertheless, these interventions, under certain conditions, can also contribute significantly to the prevention of suicide. The majority of effective interventions minister to people already suffering from psychological disorders, but health promotion initiatives prior to situations of psychological disorders also deserve to be considered, in particular the implementation of services for the isolated elderly. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Ames, Genevieve M.; Bennett, Joel B.
The workplace offers advantages as a setting for interventions that result in primary prevention of alcohol abuse. Such programs have the potential to reach broad audiences and populations that would otherwise not receive prevention programs and, thereby, benefit both the employee and employer. Researchers have implemented and evaluated a variety of workplace alcohol problem prevention efforts in recent years, including programs focused on health promotion, social health promotion, brief interventions, and changing the work environment. Although some studies reported significant reductions in alcohol use outcomes, additional research with a stronger and integrated methodological approach is needed. The field of workplace alcohol prevention also might benefit from a guiding framework, such as the one proposed in this article. PMID:22330216
Berryman, Mere; Woller, Paul
This paper examines Early Intervention (EI) service provision from within one Ministry of Education region in New Zealand. It does this in order to better understand what works well and what needs to change if children from Maori families, of Early Childhood age, are to be provided with the most effective EI services. By engaging with Maori…
Kaminski, Ruth A.; Powell-Smith, Kelly A.
Phonemic awareness has been consistently identified as an essential skill for as well as an important predictor of later reading achievement. Children who lack these early literacy skills at kindergarten entry are more likely to demonstrate both short- and long-term reading difficulties. Despite the importance of providing intervention early,…
Suzuki, T; Makizako, H; Doi, T; Park, H; Lee, S; Tsutsumimoto, K; Umemura, K; Maki, Y; Shimada, H
Population aging is accelerating, with prolonged life expectancy and a decrease in birth rate. As age is a significant risk factor for dementia, we are confronted with an ever-increasing prevalence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI)/dementia. Thus, the Japanese National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology launched a project to promote community-based research, including the development of an effective screening system for high-risk groups and intervention for dementia prevention. This review introduces the project, the Obu Study of Health Promotion for the Elderly, with the following strategic triad: 1) Identification of the target population by population screening; we regarded patients with MCI as the target population, and developed a screening test battery to identify MCI in a population screening setting. 2) Scientific evaluation of community-based intervention; we developed an interventional method combining exercise and cognitive training ("cognicise"). In practical settings, "cognicise" is programmed into multicomponent exercise intervention, which was reported to have benefits of cognitive improvement and reduction of brain atrophy based on randomized controlled trials. 3) Standardization of the methods of population screening and community-based intervention for evidence-based policy making and widespread implementation. Dementia prevention, or at least delaying the onset of dementia and/or stopping/slowing the progression of dementia, should benefit the whole society as well as individuals. It is our continuing challenge to improve the screening system and community-based intervention for dementia prevention through accumulation of evidence.
Walker, Dilys; Gutierrez, Juan Pablo; Torres, Pilar; Bertozzi, Stefano M
OBJECTIVE: To assess effects on condom use and other sexual behaviour of an HIV prevention programme at school that promotes the use of condoms with and without emergency contraception. DESIGN: Cluster randomised controlled trial. SETTING: 40 public high schools in the state of Morelos, Mexico. PARTICIPANTS: 10 954 first year high school students. INTERVENTION: Schools were randomised to one of three arms: an HIV prevention course that promoted condom use, the same course with emergency contr...
Zalaquett, Daniela F; Schönstedt, Marianne G; Angeli, Milagros; Herrrera, Claudia C; Moyano, Andrea C
Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are characterized by impairments in communication and social interaction, as well as restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior. They have a prevalence of 0.6% in the general population, although there are no national statistics. Even though their evolution is variable, it has been observed that early intervention is an important factor determining prognosis. The aim of this study is to update concepts regarding the current available evidence on the importance of early intervention. After analyzing the collected information, the importance of early intervention programs for children with ASD is confirmed, as well as the role of pediatricians and other health professionals in the early detection of these disorders. Copyright © 2015. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.
Kessing, Lars Vedel; Hansen, Hanne Vibe; Christensen, Ellen Margrethe
BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether young adults with bipolar disorder are able to benefit from early intervention combining optimised pharmacological treatment and group psychoeducation. The aim of the present report was to compare the effects of early intervention among patients with bipolar...... disorder aged 18-25 years to that of patients aged 26 years or older. METHODS: Patients were randomised to early treatment in a specialised outpatient mood disorder clinic versus standard care. The primary outcome was risk of psychiatric re-hospitalisation. RESULTS: A total of 158 patients with mania/bipolar...... different, the observed differences of the point estimates was surprisingly larger for young adults suggesting that young adults with bipolar disorder may benefit even more than older adults from early intervention combining pharmacological treatment and group psychoeducation....
Thomas A Odeny
Full Text Available Maternal attendance at postnatal clinic visits and timely diagnosis of infant HIV infection are important steps for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT of HIV. We aimed to use theory-informed methods to develop text messages targeted at facilitating these steps.We conducted five focus group discussions with health workers and women attending antenatal, postnatal, and PMTCT clinics to explore aspects of women's engagement in postnatal HIV care and infant testing. Discussion topics were informed by constructs of the Health Belief Model (HBM and prior empirical research. Qualitative data were coded and analyzed according to the construct of the HBM to which they related. Themes were extracted and used to draft intervention messages. We carried out two stages of further messaging development: messages were presented in a follow-up focus group in order to develop optimal phrasing in local languages. We then further refined the messages, pretested them in individual cognitive interviews with selected health workers, and finalized the messages for the intervention.Findings indicated that brief, personalized, caring, polite, encouraging, and educational text messages would facilitate women bringing their children to clinic after delivery, suggesting that text messages may serve as an important "cue to action." Participants emphasized that messages should not mention HIV due to fear of HIV testing and disclosure. Participants also noted that text messages could capitalize on women's motivation to attend clinic for childhood immunizations.Applying a multi-stage content development approach to crafting text messages--informed by behavioral theory--resulted in message content that was consistent across different focus groups. This approach could help answer "why" and "how" text messaging may be a useful tool to support maternal and child health. We are evaluating the effect of these messages on improving postpartum PMTCT retention and infant
Efevbera, Yvette; McCoy, Dana C.; Wuermli, Alice J.; Betancourt, Theresa S.
Limited evidence describes promoting development and reducing violence in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), a missed opportunity to protect children and promote development and human capital. This study presents a systematic literature review of integrated early childhood development plus violence prevention (ECD+VP) interventions in…
The purpose of this paper is to emphasize the importance of early intervention. The purpose of early intervention in Taipei City is to help child development, promote parenting skills, and reduce educational and social costs. In order to meet these goals, parenting groups and Taipei City Council have made great efforts to make early intervention work in Taipei City. In April 1995, Taipei City Government started planning and setting up the service network. To date, Taipei City has set up one reporting and referral center?, ?six community resources centers, 22 medical assessment and intervention clinics, 12 child development centers, one early intervention training center, three non-profit foundations and more than 300 inclusion schools, such as kindergartens and day care centers. With parent participation, professional devotion and Taipei City Government's commitment, the number of assisted children has increased from 98 to 2,523 /year. By the end of 2006, Taipei had already funded 25,277 children. We estimate Taipei City early intervention services to have affected at least 75,000 persons, including development-delayed and disabled children, their parents?, ?grandparents and siblings. We found that early intervention services help the children to build up self esteem, grow their potential, learn how to socialize, and receive an education, while the most important aim is to help them to reduce their level of disability or to prevent them from getting worse. At the same time, their families get support and a diverse range of services. An integrated early intervention program should include children, families, and multidisciplinary professionals. The system should therefore be more "family-centered" and "community-oriented" to provide appropriate services to children and families through a positive and aggressive attitude.
Background Early communication intervention services rendered by speech-language therapists and audiologists to families of infants and young children with feeding difficulties, hearing loss or emerging communication disorders should be implemented throughout South Africa. Early intervention can ameliorate risks, enhance development and may prevent further delays. Based on research initiated during a community-service year experience in a rural subdistrict, an incremental process of establishing accessible early communication intervention services was deemed feasible. Such a process cannot be successful if the collaboration of primary healthcare personnel and managers is not ensured. Objectives The aim of the article was to describe the perceptions of primary healthcare personnel with regard to expansion of early communication intervention services to infants at risk of developmental delay. Method A qualitative descriptive survey design was followed. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 primary healthcare nurses and sisters and eight primary healthcare programme managers in Ditsobotla subdistrict in the North West province of South Africa. Results The participants indicated that by improving team work, developing training programmes and evaluating identification methods and resources, the step-by-step rollout of early communication intervention functions on four organisational levels may be a realistic goal for sustainable services in the resource-limited district. Conclusion The positive perceptions and contributions by participants promise a rich human-resource basis for transdisciplinary collaboration between speech-language therapists, audiologists and primary healthcare personnel in order to reduce the burden of early communication disorders in a rural district.
Tikka, Christina; Verbeek, Jos H.; Kateman, Erik; Morata, Thais C.; Dreschler, Wouter A.; Ferrite, Silvia
This is the second update of a Cochrane Review originally published in 2009. Millions of workers worldwide are exposed to noise levels that increase their risk of hearing disorders. There is uncertainty about the effectiveness of hearing loss prevention interventions. To assess the effectiveness of
Schneeberger, Caroline; Geerlings, Suzanne E.; Middleton, Philippa; Crowther, Caroline A.
Background Recurrent urinary tract infections (RUTI) are common in women who are pregnant and may cause serious adverse pregnancy outcomes for both mother and child including preterm birth and small-for-gestational-age babies. Interventions used to prevent RUTI in women who are pregnant can be
Schneeberger, Caroline; Geerlings, Suzanne E.; Middleton, Philippa; Crowther, Caroline A.
Recurrent urinary tract infections (RUTI) are common in women who are pregnant and may cause serious adverse pregnancy outcomes for both mother and child including preterm birth and small-for-gestational-age babies. Interventions used to prevent RUTI in women who are pregnant can be pharmacological
Schneeberger, Caroline; Geerlings, Suzanne E.; Middleton, Philippa; Crowther, Caroline A.
Background Recurrent urinary tract infections (RUTI) are common in women who are pregnant and may cause serious adverse pregnancy outcomes for both mother and child including preterm birth and small-for-gestational-age babies. Interventions used to prevent RUTI in women who are pregnant can be
Slavkin, Michael L.
Examines the literature on preventing firesetting behavior in preadolescents and adolescents, suggesting the need for policies and programs designed to help juveniles by providing community support and stability. Alternatives to juvenile justice interventions include making changes in the home environment, acquiring a greater sense of self, and…
Conclusion: This study indicates that the Prevention of. Mother-to- Child Transmission of HIV treatment interventions in reducing transmission of HIV in infants and young children in two Lusaka urban clinics had been effective. Exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months, and use of triple therapy can reduce the transmission of HIV.
Calear, A.L.; Christensen, H.; Freeman, A.; Fenton, K.; Grant, J.B.; van Spijker, B.; Donker, T.
Youth suicide is a significant public health problem. A systematic review was conducted to examine the effectiveness of school, community and healthcare-based interventions in reducing and preventing suicidal ideation, suicide attempts and deliberate self-harm in young people aged 12–25 years.
Ginsburg, Golda S
The article presents the intervention model and primary outcomes of a preventive intervention designed to reduce anxiety symptoms and prevent the onset of anxiety disorders in the offspring of parents with anxiety disorders. Participants were 40 volunteer children (mean age = 8.94 years; 45% girls; 90% Caucasian) whose parents met criteria for a broad range of anxiety disorders. Families were randomly assigned to an 8-week cognitive-behavioral intervention, the Coping and Promoting Strength program (CAPS; n = 20) or a wait list control condition (WL; n = 20). Independent evaluators (IEs) conducted diagnostic interviews, and children and parents completed measures of anxiety symptoms. Assessments were conducted pre- and postintervention and 6 and 12 months after the postintervention assessment. On the basis of intent to treat analyses, 30% of the children in the WL group developed an anxiety disorder by the 1-year follow-up compared with 0% in the CAPS group. IE and parent-reported (but not child-reported) levels of anxiety showed significant decreases from the preintervention assessment to the 1-year follow-up assessment in the CAPS but not the WL group. Parental satisfaction with the intervention was high. Findings suggest that a family-based intervention may prevent the onset of anxiety disorders in the offspring of parents with anxiety disorders. Copyright 2009 APA
Espelage, Dorothy L; Hong, Jun Sung
Bullying is a serious public health concern that is associated with significant negative mental, social, and physical outcomes. Technological advances have increased adolescents' use of social media, and online communication platforms have exposed adolescents to another mode of bullying- cyberbullying. Prevention and intervention materials, from websites and tip sheets to classroom curriculum, have been developed to help youth, parents, and teachers address cyberbullying. While youth and parents are willing to disclose their experiences with bullying to their health care providers, these disclosures need to be taken seriously and handled in a caring manner. Health care providers need to include questions about bullying on intake forms to encourage these disclosures. The aim of this article is to examine the current status of cyberbullying prevention and intervention. Research support for several school-based intervention programs is summarised. Recommendations for future research are provided.
Hong, Jun Sung
Bullying is a serious public health concern that is associated with significant negative mental, social, and physical outcomes. Technological advances have increased adolescents’ use of social media, and online communication platforms have exposed adolescents to another mode of bullying—cyberbullying. Prevention and intervention materials, from websites and tip sheets to classroom curriculum, have been developed to help youth, parents, and teachers address cyberbullying. While youth and parents are willing to disclose their experiences with bullying to their health care providers, these disclosures need to be taken seriously and handled in a caring manner. Health care providers need to include questions about bullying on intake forms to encourage these disclosures. The aim of this article is to examine the current status of cyberbullying prevention and intervention. Research support for several school-based intervention programs is summarised. Recommendations for future research are provided. PMID:28562094
This paper presents a prospective longitudinal study that attempts to predict juvenile delinquency measured by first contact with the police (arrest, pre-trial detention or charges of crimes) taking a complete cohort of all children born in Denmark in 1984 (N=54,458). The children are followed from......,591 person-years available. More than twenty risk factors were significantly predicting first-time contact with the police. Predictions were substantially more accurate than chance. Results also showed that the proportion of ‘false-positives’ were about 77 % of estimated high-risk subjects when observing...... birth to early adulthood in 2006. The predictors represent the major crime reduction paradigms, such as family circumstance and individual skills. A discrete-time Cox model is used to allow for changing covariates over time. The population had 6,075 first time contacts with the police over the 300...
Grock, Shira; Ku, Jeong-Hee; Kim, Julie; Moin, Tannaz
The high prevalence of prediabetes and success of the diabetes prevention program (DPP) has led to increasing efforts to provide readily accessible, cost-effective DPP interventions to the general public. Technology-assisted DPP interventions are of particular interest since they may be easier to widely distribute and sustain as compared to traditional in-person DPP. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of currently available technology-assisted DPP interventions. This review focuses on studies that have examined the use of mobile phone text messaging, smartphone/web-based apps, and telehealth programs to help prevent or delay the onset of incident type 2 diabetes. While there is variability in the results of studies focused on technology-assisted DPP and weight loss interventions, there is evidence to suggest that these programs have been associated with clinically meaningful weight loss and can be cost-effective. Patients who are at risk for diabetes can be offered technology-assisted DPP and weight loss interventions to lower their risk of incident diabetes. Further research should determine what specific combination of intervention features would be most successful.
Abstract The rates of paediatric obesity have risen dramatically. Given the challenge of successful weight loss and maintenance, preventive interventions are sorely needed. Furthermore, since a substantial proportion of individuals do not respond to traditional behavioural weight loss therapy, alternative approaches are required. Psychological treatments for binge eating disorder have been generally effective at reducing binge episodes and producing weight maintenance or modest weight loss in obese adults. Given the strong link between loss of control eating and obesity in youths, binge eating disorder treatment may serve as a viable form of excess weight gain prevention. An adapted version of interpersonal psychotherapy for binge eating disorder is one such intervention that we have considered. A description of the theoretical basis and proposed mechanism is described. Adaptations of interpersonal psychotherapy and other established therapies for binge eating disorder may serve as platforms from which to develop and disseminate obesity and eating disorder prevention programs in children and adolescents.
a given operational conditions and predicts the resulting stability margins for the new steady state, while avoiding time consuming time domain simulations. The method has been validated on the Western Danish power system model, containing 464 buses. The case study of aperiodic small signal angular....... The predicted effect of the suggested countermeasure application is in a good agreement with the results obtained by RMS dynamic simulation. Developed method enables adaptive preventive control for near real-time stability maintenance. The achieved results are opening promising perspective for power system’s......In the scope of this work, a method capable of fast identification of the proper countermeasure, that prevents emerging instability, has been developed. The focus is placed on the prevention of aperiodic small signal angular instability by means of manipulations applied to load nodes (nodes...
McCullough, P A; O'Neill, W W
In this article we have outlined the current rationale and role of invasive management in ACS. For the majority of patients with ACS, who are either at high risk or unstable, invasive management is a critical element in breaking the sequence of recurrent ischemia leading to early cardiac events (Fig. 11). Secular trends in the care of cardiovascular patients predict even more sophisticated, invasive methods of treating coronary occlusion in the future. A futurist's view on this subject may envision the following type of scenario. A patient with prior CAD experiences persistent chest pain and notifies the emergency medical system. The paramedics arrive, and perform a rapid fingerstick cardiac biomarker panel and ECG. The results are interpreted by an emergency physician via a telecommunication system, and the patient is determined to be at high risk. He or she is triaged to a center capable of angioplasty and bypass surgery. On the way to the hospital, the patient is treated with aspirin, IV heparin, and an IV glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor. The patient undergoes triage angiography within 1 hour of hospital arrival, culprit lesion(s) are identified, and a revascularization plan is made--setting a critical pathway that is definitive. This vision is not far off on the horizon. We anticipate additional clinical trial results will help form the decision points in this optimal treatment scenario, which for a large proportion of patients will involve invasive management.
Full Text Available Decisions to intervene in a foreign country to prevent genocide and mass atrocities are among the most challenging and controversial choices facing national leaders. Drawing on techniques from decision analysis, psychology, and negotiation analysis, we propose a structured approach to these difficult choices that can provide policy makers with additional insight, consistency, efficiency, and defensibility. We propose the use of a values-based framework to clarify the key elements of these complex choices and to provide a consistent structure for comparison of the likely benefits, risks, and tradeoffs associated with alternative intervention strategies. Results from a workshop involving Ambassadors and experienced policy makers provide a first test of this new method for clarifying intervention choices. A decision-aiding framework is shown to improve the clarity and relevance of intervention deliberations, laying the groundwork for a more comprehensive and clearer understanding of the threats and opportunities associated with various intervention options.
Stuart, Elizabeth A; Perry, Deborah F; Le, Huynh-Nhu; Ialongo, Nicholas S
Individuals not fully complying with their assigned treatments is a common problem encountered in randomized evaluations of behavioral interventions. Treatment group members rarely attend all sessions or do all "required" activities; control group members sometimes find ways to participate in aspects of the intervention. As a result, there is often interest in estimating both the effect of being assigned to participate in the intervention, as well as the impact of actually participating and doing all of the required activities. Methods known broadly as "complier average causal effects" (CACE) or "instrumental variables" (IV) methods have been developed to estimate this latter effect, but they are more commonly applied in medical and treatment research. Since the use of these statistical techniques in prevention trials has been less widespread, many prevention scientists may not be familiar with the underlying assumptions and limitations of CACE and IV approaches. This paper provides an introduction to these methods, described in the context of randomized controlled trials of two preventive interventions: one for perinatal depression among at-risk women and the other for aggressive disruptive behavior in children. Through these case studies, the underlying assumptions and limitations of these methods are highlighted.
The increasing prevalence of obesity or overweight at all ages, their associated morbidity and mortality associated, and the increased perception of the problem by the society have generated several hypotheses in response to the scientific and the international community. Investigate the preventive interventions in childhood obesity so far. Integrative review during the study period from April 2013 to November 2014. The MEDLINE international database was used, including PubMed, the Cochrane Library (Issue 4 2002), the national database Isooc (CSIC) national database, as well as the Internet. The review included health articles published in Spanish and English between 1990 and 2014 that focused on or included education, prevention, diagnostic, and treatment of obesity interventions. Of the 726 articles identified, 34 of most relevant (peer reviewed) were selected. It was noted that there is limited generisable evidence on interventions that could be implemented in Primary Care or referral services available, although numerous studies suggest that improvements in the overweight are possible. Despite the abundant literature and that many institutions place childhood obesity as one of the priorities of Public Health, we face the paradox that the evidence on cost-effectiveness of prevention interventions is sparse. Knowing these gaps in knowledge should lead to filling them with rigorous and well-designed studies. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Pedro Almeida Laires
Full Text Available Introduction: Aging of the population and early retirement translates into productivity losses to society. Persistence of working life is crucial to counteract this sustainability issue faced by western countries. Musculoskeletal and rheumatic diseases (RD may cause work disability and early exit from work, including early retirement. The objective of this article is to review the current knowledge about interventions aiming to reduce early retirement due to RD. Methods: We searched PubMed and The Cochrane Library for studies either in English or Portuguese between January 2000 and June 2016 that evaluated the impact of interventions targeting early retirement in RD patients still at work. We also searched for grey literature from Portuguese institutional repositories. Results: We identified several published studies testing pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic vocational rehabilitation interventions. None was specifically identified for Portugal. The general low quality of the literature and its inconsistency makes it unfeasible to draw definitive conclusions. However, some broad recommendations might be outlined. An effective intervention must: 1 act upon different levels (e.g. RD patient, workplace, involving several stakeholders (e.g. rheumatologists, occupational physicians, employers; 2 prioritize the right patients (e.g. more disabling RD; and 3 consider the patients’ role, for instance by including an element of patient education and support. Despite the lack of good quality evidence on this field, there seems to be a growing interest in the international scientific community with several ongoing studies promoting such interventions. This promising data will be very useful to set up effective policies. Conclusions: This article summarizes the current knowledge about the impact of interventions to avoid or mitigate early retirement in RD patients. It highlights the demand for further research and it also contributes to aware decision
Saracho, Olivia N.
Bullying is a serious problem that affects the young children's well being. Early childhood educators find it difficult to manage bullying in the classroom. Preschool is the first environment outside of the home setting where children encounter difficulties when they socially interact with their peers. Based on the principles of protecting and…
Hutsebaut, J; Hessels, C J
Within the accumulating evidence for a life span perspective on borderline personality disorder (BPD), the key factor is a developmental perspective. AIM: To demonstrate that the lessons learnt from early intervention in somatic medicine and psychosis should be used to improve the diagnosis and treatment of BPD. METHOD: We describe the rationale for early detection and intervention and present a staging model which can serve as a guideline for the development and selection of interventions for BPD. RESULTS: There is increasing evidence that BPD first manifests itself in adolescence and that BPD symptoms can already be distinguished from normative adolescent development. BPD tends to develop gradually and to have a progressive, social and professional impact. Inadequate treatment can lead to iatrogenic damage, whereas adequate treatment shows promising results in adolescents with emerging BPD. These findings may underpin an early intervention paradigm for BPD. CONCLUSION: Early intervention and clinical staging can improve the assessment and treatment of severe forms of psychopathology, such as BPD. This has implications for research, mental health care policy and society.
Döring, Nora; Mayer, Susanne; Rasmussen, Finn; Sonntag, Diana
Despite methodological advances in the field of economic evaluations of interventions, economic evaluations of obesity prevention programmes in early childhood are seldom conducted. The aim of the present study was to explore existing methods and applications of economic evaluations, examining their limitations and making recommendations for future cost-effectiveness assessments. A systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed, Cochrane Library, the British National Health Service Economic Evaluation Databases and EconLit. Eligible studies included trial-based or simulation-based cost-effectiveness analyses of obesity prevention programmes targeting preschool children and/or their parents. The quality of included studies was assessed. Of the six studies included, five were intervention studies and one was based on a simulation approach conducted on secondary data. We identified three main conceptual and methodological limitations of their economic evaluations: Insufficient conceptual approach considering the complexity of childhood obesity, inadequate measurement of effects of interventions, and lack of valid instruments to measure child-related quality of life and costs. Despite the need for economic evaluations of obesity prevention programmes in early childhood, only a few studies of varying quality have been conducted. Moreover, due to methodological and conceptual weaknesses, they offer only limited information for policy makers and intervention providers. We elaborate reasons for the limitations of these studies and offer guidance for designing better economic evaluations of early obesity prevention.
Christofferson, Dana E; Hamlett-Berry, Kim; Augustson, Erik
Automated mobile health (mHealth) programs deliver effective smoking cessation interventions through text message platforms. Smoking is an independent risk factor for suicide, so the Department of Veterans Affairs incorporated information about the Veterans Crisis Line into its SmokefreeVET smoking cessation text messaging program. Almost 7% of all SmokefreeVET enrollees have accessed this information. Because of the reach and automated nature of this and similar programs, we recommend including a referral to a suicide prevention hotline for all smoking cessation mHealth interventions.
Beharry, Kay D; Valencia, Gloria B; Lazzaro, Douglas R; Aranda, Jacob V
Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), a significant morbidity in prematurely born infants, is the most common cause of visual impairment and blindness in children and persists till adulthood. Strict control of oxygen therapy and prevention of intermittent hypoxia are the keys in the prevention of ROP, but pharmacologic interventions have decreased risk of ROP. Various drug classes such as methylxanthines (caffeine), VEGF inhibitors, antioxidants, and others have decreased ROP occurrence. The timing of pharmacologic intervention remains unsettled, but early prevention rather than controlling disease progression may be preferred. These drugs act through different mechanisms, and synergistic approaches should be considered to maximize efficacy and safety. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Didier N. Kramer
Full Text Available Background: Road traffic accidents (RTA and burns are frequent events in children. Although many children recover spontaneously, a considerable number develop long-term psychological sequelae. Evidence on early psychological interventions to prevent such long-term problems is still scarce for school-age children and completely lacking for pre-school children. Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of an early two-session cognitive-behavioral intervention in 108 children ages 2–16 after RTAs and burns. Methods: Children assessed at risk for the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD were randomly assigned to either a control group offered treatment as usual or an intervention group. Primary outcomes were PTSD, behavioral problems, and depression symptoms. Baseline and blinded 3- and 6-month follow-up assessments were conducted. Results: In pre-school children, no intervention effects were found. School-age children in the intervention group exhibited significantly fewer internalizing problems at 3-month follow-up relative to controls and a borderline significant time-by-group effect for PTSD intrusion symptoms was found (p=0.06. Conclusions: This is the first study examining the efficacy of an indicated, early psychological intervention among both school-age and pre-school-age children. Because the intervention was ineffective for young children, no evidence-based practice can currently be suggested. Given that parents of pre-school children perceived the intervention as helpful, brief counseling of parents in terms of psychoeducation and training in coping skills still should be provided by clinicians, despite the current lack of evidence. To prevent trauma-related disorders in school-age children, the intervention might be used in a step-wise manner, where only children at risk for long-term psychological maladjustment are provided with psychological support.
Izard, Carroll E; Fine, Sarah; Mostow, Allison; Trentacosta, Christopher; Campbell, Jan
We present an analysis of the role of emotions in normal and abnormal development and preventive intervention. The conceptual framework stems from three tenets of differential emotions theory (DET). These principles concern the constructs of emotion utilization; intersystem connections among modular emotion systems, cognition, and action; and the organizational and motivational functions of discrete emotions. Particular emotions and patterns of emotions function differentially in different periods of development and in influencing the cognition and behavior associated with different forms of psychopathology. Established prevention programs have not emphasized the concept of emotion as motivation. It is even more critical that they have generally neglected the idea of modulating emotions, not simply to achieve self-regulation, but also to utilize their inherently adaptive functions as a means of facilitating the development of social competence and preventing psychopathology. The paper includes a brief description of a theory-based prevention program and suggestions for complementary targeted interventions to address specific externalizing and internalizing problems. In the final section, we describe ways in which emotion-centered preventions can provide excellent opportunities for research on the development of normal and abnormal behavior.
Sagarra, R; Costa, B; Cabré, J J; Solà-Morales, O; Barrio, F
Transferring the results from clinical trials on type 2 diabetes prevention is the objective of the Diabetes in Europe-Prevention using Lifestyle, Physical Activity and Nutritional intervention (DE-PLAN) project in Catalonia, whose cost-effectiveness analysis is now presented. A prospective cohort study was performed in primary care involving individuals without diagnosed diabetes aged 45-75 years (n=2054) screened using the questionnaire Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC) and a subsequent oral glucose tolerance test. Where feasible, high-risk individuals who were identified (n=552) were allocated sequentially to standard care (n=219), a group-based (n=230) or an individual-level (n=103) intensive (structured programme of six hours using specific teaching techniques) lifestyle intervention (n=333). The primary outcome was the development of diabetes (WHO). We evaluated the cost of resources used with comparison of standard care and the intervention groups in terms of effectiveness and quality of life (15D questionnaire). After 4.2-year median follow-up, the cumulative incidences were 18.3% (14.3-22.9%) in the intensive intervention group and 28.8% (22.9-35.3%) in the standard care group (36.5% relative-risk-reduction). The corresponding 4-year HR was 0.64 (0.47-0.87; P<.004). The incremental cost induced by intensive intervention compared with the standard was 106€ per participant in the individual level and 10€ in the group-based intervention representing 746€ and 108€ per averted case of diabetes, respectively. The estimated incremental cost-utility ratio was 3243€ per quality-adjusted life-years gained. The intensive lifestyle intervention delayed the development of diabetes and was efficient in economic analysis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Coker, Ann L; Bush, Heather M; Fisher, Bonnie S; Swan, Suzanne C; Williams, Corrine M; Clear, Emily R; DeGue, Sarah
The 2013 Campus Sexual Violence Elimination Act requires U.S. colleges to provide bystander-based training to reduce sexual violence, but little is known about the efficacy of such programs for preventing violent behavior. This study provides the first multiyear evaluation of a bystander intervention's campus-level impact on reducing interpersonal violence victimization and perpetration behavior on college campuses. First-year students attending three similarly sized public university campuses were randomly selected and invited to complete online surveys in the spring terms of 2010-2013. On one campus, the Green Dot bystander intervention was implemented in 2008 (Intervention, n=2,979) and two comparison campuses had no bystander programming at baseline (Comparison, n=4,132). Data analyses conducted in 2014-2015 compared violence rates by condition over the four survey periods. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate violence risk on Intervention relative to Comparison campuses, adjusting for demographic factors and time (2010-2013). Interpersonal violence victimization rates (measured in the past academic year) were 17% lower among students attending the Intervention (46.4%) relative to Comparison (55.7%) campuses (adjusted rate ratio=0.83; 95% CI=0.79, 0.88); a similar pattern held for interpersonal violence perpetration (25.5% in Intervention; 32.2% in Comparison; adjusted rate ratio=0.79; 95% CI=0.71, 0.86). Violence rates were lower on Intervention versus Comparison campuses for unwanted sexual victimization, sexual harassment, stalking, and psychological dating violence victimization and perpetration (preduce violence at the community level and meet Campus Sexual Violence Elimination Act bystander training requirements. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.
Esther Quirós Abajo
Eating Disorders are an important health problem of our society because of their rising incidence in the last years, as well as their high cost in terms of Public Health. Nowadays the best option to face this problem is through prevention. The objective of the present work is to evaluate if a Web nursing intervention based on Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy can prevent Eating Disorders by reducing risk factors in 15 to 18 years old women.Methodology: It is a randomized clinical trial in which t...
Multisectoral approaches to early pregnancy prevention in colleges in Togo. The goal of this program is to generate knowledge about the early pregnancy phenomenon through operational research, and to develop multisectoral strategies focusing on teens, in conjunction with stakeholders in the education, health and legal ...
Harvey, Hannah; Reissland, Nadja; Mason, James
Vaccination is one of the most effective ways of reducing childhood mortality. Despite global uptake of childhood vaccinations increasing, rates remain sub-optimal, meaning that vaccine-preventable diseases still pose a public health risk. A range of interventions to promote vaccine uptake have been developed, although this range has not specifically been reviewed in early childhood. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of parental interventions to improve early childhood (0–5 y...
JHON J. SANABRIA
Full Text Available In this paper, I review the prevention and intervention efforts addressing youth homelessness in the fieldof psychology between 1994 and 2004. Analyses of the literature revealed that the majority of papersincluding homeless youth as a population for study have focused on issues other than homelessness.These issues include HIV/AIDS and substance abuse prevention. Eleven journal articles addressing youthhomelessness were reviewed. These articles focused on outcomes, interventions, and recommendationsfor clinical practice. Literature findings revealed that demographic variables did not predict outcomesfor homeless youth; youth returning home with their parents have more positive outcomes than youthmoving into other locations, emergency shelter services improve youth’s mental health and social condition,and services should be comprehensive and move beyond the individuals. Implications for communitypsychology, policy makers, and shelters are discussed.
Vos, Petra J.; Visser, Adriaan P.; Garssen, Bert; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J.; de Haes, Hanneke C. J. M.
The importance of psychosocial counselling after a diagnosis of cancer has been acknowledged and many intervention studies have been carried out, with the aim to find out which types of intervention are most effective in enhancing quality of life in cancer patients. A factor which could be part of
The aim of this study is to evaluate HIV/AIDS/STD prevention intervention messages on a rural adult (25-49 years) sample in South Africa over a period of 15 months. A representative community sample of 398 adults at time 1 and 382 at time 2 (25-49 years) participated in the study using a three-stage cluster sampling ...
Kjøbli, John; Sørlie, Mari-Anne
The Early Intervention for Children at Risk for Developing Behavioral Problems (EICR) is a community-wide intervention model preventing and treating problem behavior and promoting social competence in children. The aim of the study was to test whether EICR would result in fewer incidences of problem behavior and improved learning climate in elementary schools in a Norwegian municipality. The municipality was divided in two, each section having equal chance of being assigned to the intervention condition. Participants were principals and school staff. One year after the initiation of EICR, the prevalence of student problem behavior was significantly lower, and student relations were significantly better for schools located in the intervention area than for schools located in the comparison area. The findings support further development, implementation and research on the EICR model.
Elsman, Ellen B M; Leerlooijer, Joanne N; Ter Beek, Josien; Duijzer, Geerke; Jansen, Sophia C; Hiddink, Gerrit J; Feskens, Edith J M; Haveman-Nies, Annemien
Although lifestyle interventions have shown to be effective in reducing the risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus, maintenance of achieved results is difficult, as participants often experience relapse after the intervention has ended. This paper describes the systematic development of a maintenance programme for the extensive SLIMMER intervention, an existing diabetes prevention intervention for high-risk individuals, implemented in a real-life setting in the Netherlands. The maintenance programme was developed using the Intervention Mapping protocol. Programme development was informed by a literature study supplemented by various focus group discussions and feedback from implementers of the extensive SLIMMER intervention. The maintenance programme was designed to sustain a healthy diet and physical activity pattern by targeting knowledge, attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control of the SLIMMER participants. Practical applications were clustered into nine programme components, including sports clinics at local sports clubs, a concluding meeting with the physiotherapist and dietician, and a return session with the physiotherapist, dietician and physical activity group. Manuals were developed for the implementers and included a detailed time table and step-by-step instructions on how to implement the maintenance programme. The Intervention Mapping protocol provided a useful framework to systematically plan a maintenance programme for the extensive SLIMMER intervention. The study showed that planning a maintenance programme can build on existing implementation structures of the extensive programme. Future research is needed to determine to what extent the maintenance programme contributes to sustained effects in participants of lifestyle interventions.
Lach, Helen W; Harrison, Barbara E; Phongphanngam, Sutthida
Older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early-stage dementia have an increased risk of falling, with risks to their health and quality of life. The purpose of the current integrative review was to evaluate evidence on fall risk and fall prevention in this population. Studies were included if they examined falls or fall risk factors in older adults with MCI or early-stage dementia, or reported interventions in this population; 40 studies met criteria. Evidence supports the increased risk of falls in individuals even in the early stages of dementia or MCI, and changes in gait, balance, and fear of falling that may be related to this increased fall risk. Interventions included exercise and multifactorial interventions that demonstrated some potential to reduce falls in this population. Few studies had strong designs to provide evidence for recommendations. Further study in this area is warranted. [Res Gerontol Nurs. 2017; 10(03):139-148.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.
Esther Quirós Abajo
Full Text Available Eating Disorders are an important health problem of our society because of their rising incidence in the last years, as well as their high cost in terms of Public Health. Nowadays the best option to face this problem is through prevention. The objective of the present work is to evaluate if a Web nursing intervention based on Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy can prevent Eating Disorders by reducing risk factors in 15 to 18 years old women.Methodology: It is a randomized clinical trial in which the experimental group will receive the Web nursing intervention and the control group will not receive any kind of preventive intervention related to Eating Disorders. The study will be developed in six Secondary Education Institutes of the areas 9 and 10 of Madrid Community. Women at risk will be selected by the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ. Risk factors such as body image dissatisfaction, eating and depressive symptoms will be evaluated. Measurements will be, besides BSQ, the Body Attitudes Test (BAT, the Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI, the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI.
Navarro, A M; Senn, K L; Kaplan, R M; McNicholas, L; Campo, M C; Roppe, B
Our goal was to describe the development and implementation of an intervention on cancer prevention for Latinas in San Diego, Calif. Thirty-six lay community workers ("consejeras") were recruited and trained to conduct educational group sessions. Each consejera recruited approximately 14 peers from the community to participate in the program (total number = 512). Half of the consejeras were randomly assigned to a control group, in which they participated in an equally engaging program entitled "Community Living Skills." Implementation of the intervention was assessed by qualitative and quantitative methods. Preintervention and postintervention self-report information was obtained from project participants on access to health care services, cancer knowledge, preventive measures, and previous cancer-screening examinations. Base-line data suggest that lack of knowledge, costs of cancer-screening tests, and the lack of a regular health care provider are the major obstacles against obtaining cancer-screening tests. Predisposing factors, such as fear and embarrassment, also constitute barriers to getting regular cervical cancer screening. Preliminary analysis indicates that the Por La Vida intervention increases use of cancer-screening tests in comparison to a community living skills control group. Universal access to health care would remove some of the major financial barriers to cancer screening. The Por La Vida program attempts to overcome the substantial barriers by reaching out to low-income Latinas and by providing information regarding the availability, acceptability, and preventive nature of cancer-screening tests.
Early intervention (EI) services are mandated by Part C of The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA, 2004). The EI team, a multidisciplinary team overseen by individual states, is charged with providing family-centered services to support child development in the natural environment. This article examines the use of occupational…
Correia Leite, Carina Sofia; Da Silva Pereira, Ana Paula
This study investigated the support and benefits of early intervention (EI) in families with children with special needs. Data were gathered through a written questionnaire, "Family Benefits Inventory," completed by 126 families with children with special needs supported by EI teams, with ages from six months to six years in Portugal.…
The topic of early intervention for autism is widely researched and discussed within the literature. The application of applied behavioral analysis (ABA) continues to be an important topic. Due to the extensive amount of research on behavioral treatments for autism, and its widespread practice, the focus of this paper will be based upon treatment…
Sibieta, Luke; Kotecha, Mehul; Skipp, Amy
The Nuffield Early Language Intervention is designed to improve the spoken language ability of children during the transition from nursery to primary school. It is targeted at children with relatively poor spoken language skills. Three sessions per week are delivered to groups of two to four children starting in the final term of nursery and…
Zheng, Yuzhu; Maude, Susan P.; Brotherson, Mary Jane; Merritts, Ashley
Research highlights the importance of early childhood intervention (ECI) for children with disabilities, and there is an increasing interest in China with respect to research on ECI. However, little research exists exploring the experience of families of young children with disabilities receiving ECI services and supports in China. The purpose of…
Onslow, Mark; And Others
Four stutterers, aged 3-5, received treatment based on parent-administered, operant verbal stimulation. Data show that the intervention, coupled with a programed maintenance schedule, reduced stuttering and accompanied increases in syllable output. Findings suggest that cases of early stuttering might be managed effectively by parents, with…
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Part C Early Intervention Services Grant AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), HHS. ACTION: Notice of non-competitive transfer of Part C funds from North General Hospital to the Institute for Family...
Glovinsky, Ira; Keller, Jackie
An early intervention project for preschool handicapped children is described. Specific program goals (including improved functioning in social, emotional, communication, and preacademic areas) are listed, and roles of the interdisciplinary staff members are considered. Among evaluation approaches discussed are psychological measures, family…
Campbell, Philippa H.; Coletti, Catherine Ehret
The purpose of this study was to identify the extent to which multidiscipline early intervention providers identified and demonstrated caregiver-teaching strategies. A total of 78 providers submitted 205 videotaped segments to illustrate 1 of 5 caregiver-teaching strategies (i.e., demonstration; caregiver practice with feedback; guided practice;…
Describes the modes of transmission of HIV and the course of the disease in infants and toddlers. Information is provided on its effects on early development, medical screening and treatments, therapies, psychosocial assistance, and interventions, including nutritional therapy, occupational and physical therapies, and speech and language therapy.…
Literature is available on Web-based learning, but the understanding of the impact of Web-based learning and the efficiency with which it addresses set goals for teaching is in its infancy. This article describes the evaluation of the first module of the Masters course in early childhood intervention (M ECI) as part of a formative ...
Sommer, Robert; Sommer, Barbara A.
Textbooks in developmental and abnormal psychology were examined for references to the Milwaukee study of the effects of early intervention on intelligence. The absence of citations to articles in refereed journals shows how research data of questionable validity can seep into the research literature without going through the journal review…
Shore, Elissa A.; Shore, Harvey H.
Encourages early-intervention practitioners to recognize the benefits of applying management concepts to the field of social work. A five-function model of management is presented that includes the concepts of planning, organizing, staffing, leadership, and control. Case studies illustrate relevance of the five-function model for improving…
Background and design. HIV is a major contributor to childhood morbidity and mortality in South Africa. We describe HIV prevalence, disease profile, outcome and missed opportunities for early intervention in a cohort of HIV-infected children admitted to Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital's general paediatric wards between ...
Ellenbogen, Stephen; Klein, Benjamin; Wekerle, Christine
The profound injuries caused by child maltreatment are well documented in the neurological, attachment, cognitive, and developmental literature. In this review paper, we explore the potential of early childhood education (ECE) as a community-based resilience intervention for mitigating the impacts of child abuse and neglect and supporting families…
Ziviani, Jenny; Darlington, Yvonne; Feeney, Rachel; Rodger, Sylvia; Watter, Pauline
Early intervention (EI) for children with physical disabilities is advocated as a means of enhancing child outcomes and family functioning. The issues confronted by service providers in delivering this support have received relatively little attention. The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of the experiences of frontline EI staff…
Ramey, C T; Yeates, K O; Short, E J
Debates regarding the plasticity of intelligence are often fired by a confusion between 2 distinct realms of development, that is, between developmental functions (e.g., a group's average IQ over time) and individual differences (e.g., the relative rank ordering of individual IQs within a group). Questions concerning the stability of these 2 realms are statistically independent. Thus there are 2 kinds of intellectual plasticity, and there may be no developmental convergences between them. In the present study, data from an early intervention program were used to investigate the 2 kinds of plasticity separately and to examine certain possible convergences between them. The program involved children at risk for developmental retardation who were randomly assigned at birth to 2 rearing conditions (i.e., educational daycare vs. no educational intervention) and whose intellectual development was then studied longitudinally to 4 years of age. Our findings indicate that developmental functions are moderately alterable through systemic early education, particularly after infancy, whereas individual differences are moderately stable, again particularly after infancy. They also indicate that the 2 kinds of plasticity are independent; the alteration of developmental functions through daycare affects neither the stability nor the determinants of individual differences. We discuss the implications that these findings have for current models of mental development, for the nature-nurture debate, and for arguments concerning the efficacy of early intervention programs.
Diamond, Karen E.; Justice, Laura M.; Siegler, Robert S.; Snyder, Patricia A.
A primary purpose of early childhood education and interventions is to promote children's acquisition of knowledge and skills linked to later social competence and academic success. In this report, special attention is given to summarizing what has been learned about early childhood classrooms as contexts for development and learning, the kinds of…
Full Text Available Over the last several years there has been an increasing focus on early detection of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD, not only from the scientific field but also from professional associations and public health systems all across Europe. Not surprisingly, in order to offer better services and quality of life for both children with ASD and their families, different screening procedures and tools have been developed for early assessment and intervention. However, current evidence is needed for healthcare providers and policy makers to be able to implement specific measures and increase autism awareness in European communities. The general aim of this review is to address the latest and most relevant issues related to early detection and treatments. The specific objectives are (1 analyse the impact, describing advantages and drawbacks, of screening procedures based on standardized tests, surveillance programmes, or other observational measures; and (2 provide a European framework of early intervention programmes and practices and what has been learnt from implementing them in public or private settings. This analysis is then discussed and best practices are suggested to help professionals, health systems and policy makers to improve their local procedures or to develop new proposals for early detection and intervention programmes.
Magán-Maganto, María; Bejarano-Martín, Álvaro; Fernández-Alvarez, Clara; Narzisi, Antonio; García-Primo, Patricia; Kawa, Rafal; Posada, Manuel; Canal-Bedia, Ricardo
Over the last several years there has been an increasing focus on early detection of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), not only from the scientific field but also from professional associations and public health systems all across Europe. Not surprisingly, in order to offer better services and quality of life for both children with ASD and their families, different screening procedures and tools have been developed for early assessment and intervention. However, current evidence is needed for healthcare providers and policy makers to be able to implement specific measures and increase autism awareness in European communities. The general aim of this review is to address the latest and most relevant issues related to early detection and treatments. The specific objectives are (1) analyse the impact, describing advantages and drawbacks, of screening procedures based on standardized tests, surveillance programmes, or other observational measures; and (2) provide a European framework of early intervention programmes and practices and what has been learnt from implementing them in public or private settings. This analysis is then discussed and best practices are suggested to help professionals, health systems and policy makers to improve their local procedures or to develop new proposals for early detection and intervention programmes.
Gillen, Patricia A; Sinclair, Marlene; Kernohan, W George; Begley, Cecily M; Luyben, Ans G
Bullying has been identified as one of the leading workplace stressors, with adverse consequences for the individual employee, groups of employees, and whole organisations. Employees who have been bullied have lower levels of job satisfaction, higher levels of anxiety and depression, and are more likely to leave their place of work. Organisations face increased risk of skill depletion and absenteeism, leading to loss of profit, potential legal fees, and tribunal cases. It is unclear to what extent these risks can be addressed through interventions to prevent bullying. To explore the effectiveness of workplace interventions to prevent bullying in the workplace. We searched: the Cochrane Work Group Trials Register (August 2014); Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; The Cochrane Library 2016, issue 1); PUBMED (1946 to January 2016); EMBASE (1980 to January 2016); PsycINFO (1967 to January 2016); Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL Plus; 1937 to January 2016); International Bibliography of the Social Sciences (IBSS; 1951 to January 2016); Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts (ASSIA; 1987 to January 2016); ABI Global (earliest record to January 2016); Business Source Premier (BSP; earliest record to January 2016); OpenGrey (previously known as OpenSIGLE-System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe; 1980 to December 2014); and reference lists of articles. Randomised and cluster-randomised controlled trials of employee-directed interventions, controlled before and after studies, and interrupted time-series studies of interventions of any type, aimed at preventing bullying in the workplace, targeted at an individual employee, a group of employees, or an organisation. Three authors independently screened and selected studies. We extracted data from included studies on victimisation, perpetration, and absenteeism associated with workplace bullying. We contacted study authors to gather additional data. We used the
Koffman, Stephen; Ray, Alice; Berg, Sarah; Covington, Larry; Albarran, Nadine M.; Vasquez, Max
Youths in gang-ridden neighborhoods are at risk for trauma-related mental health disorders, which are early indicators of likely school failure and delinquency. Such youths rarely seek out services for these problems. The Juvenile Intervention and Prevention Program (JIPP), a school-based gang intervention and prevention program in Los Angeles,…
Necula Dana; Marcu Vasile; Pădure Liliana; Hodorcă Raluca Mihaela
Objectives targeted in early intervention thru physical therapy postoperative, to recover the functional for the neuro-musculo-arthropod kinetic system and prevent bone deformities and dysfunctions of micturition and defecation sequlae. Materials and methods The study included 12 children aged 0-5 years, 7 boys and 5 girls that followed at least 12 months of recovery. The group included children with hydrocephalus associated with myelomeningocele and equinus foot lime, lime myelomeningocele ...
Walker, Dilys; Gutierrez, Juan Pablo; Torres, Pilar; Bertozzi, Stefano M
To assess effects on condom use and other sexual behaviour of an HIV prevention programme at school that promotes the use of condoms with and without emergency contraception. Cluster randomised controlled trial. 40 public high schools in the state of Morelos, Mexico. 10 954 first year high school students. Schools were randomised to one of three arms: an HIV prevention course that promoted condom use, the same course with emergency contraception as back-up, or the existing sex education course. Self administered anonymous questionnaires were completed at baseline, four months, and 16 months. Students at intervention schools received a 30 hour course (over 15 weeks) on HIV prevention and life skills, designed in accordance with guidelines of the joint United Nations programme on HIV/AIDS. Two extra hours of education on emergency contraception were given to students in the condom promotion with contraception arm. Primary outcome measure was reported condom use. Other outcomes were reported sexual activity; knowledge and attitudes about HIV and emergency contraception; and attitudes and confidence about condom use. Intervention did not affect reported condom use. Knowledge of HIV improved in both intervention arms and knowledge of emergency contraception improved in the condom promotion with contraception arm. Reported sexual behaviour was similar in the intervention arms and the control group. A rigorously designed, implemented, and evaluated HIV education course based in public high schools did not reduce risk behaviour, so such courses need to be redesigned and evaluated. Addition of emergency contraception did not decrease reported condom use or increase risky sexual behaviour but did increase reported use of emergency contraception.
Bacchieri, Giancarlo; Barros, Aluísio J D; Santos, Janaína V dos; Gonçalves, Helen; Gigante, Denise P
To evaluate an educational intervention designed to prevent traffic accidents among workers that use the bicycle for commuting. A longitudinal intervention study with a stepped wedge implementation was carried out between January 2006 and May 2007. Five neighborhoods with distinct geographic characteristics were selected in the city of Pelotas, Brazil, and 42 census tracts were randomly selected from these neighborhoods. All households were screened for male bicycle commuters, resulting in a sample of 1,133 individuals. The outcomes analyzed were "traffic accidents" and "near accidents". The cyclists were interviewed monthly by phone to record traffic accidents and "near accidents". Every 15 days, from the second month of study, a group of about 60 cyclists was invited to attend the intervention meeting that included an educational component (a talk and a video presentation), distribution of a safety kit (reflective belt & sash, reflective tape and an educational booklet) and a bicycle breaks check-up (maintenance performed if necessary). Poisson regression adjusted for time effect was used to assess the intervention effect. Nearly 45% of the cyclists did not attend the intervention. During the study period, 9% of the study individuals reported a traffic accident and 88% reported a "near accident". In total there were 106 accidents and 1,091 near accidents. There was no effect observed from the intervention on either of the outcomes. The intervention tested was not capable of reducing traffic accidents among bicycle commuters. Lack of interest in safety by commuters and external factors, such as road design and motorist behavior, may have together influenced this result.
Luecking, C T; Hennink-Kaminski, H; Ihekweazu, C; Vaughn, A; Mazzucca, S; Ward, D S
Social marketing is a promising planning approach for influencing voluntary lifestyle behaviours, but its application to nutrition and physical activity interventions in the early care and education setting remains unknown. PubMed, ISI Web of Science, PsycInfo and the Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health were systematically searched to identify interventions targeting nutrition and/or physical activity behaviours of children enrolled in early care centres between 1994 and 2016. Content analysis methods were used to capture information reflecting eight social marketing benchmark criteria. The review included 135 articles representing 77 interventions. Two interventions incorporated all eight benchmark criteria, but the majority included fewer than four. Each intervention included behaviour and methods mix criteria, and more than half identified audience segments. Only one-third of interventions incorporated customer orientation, theory, exchange and insight. Only six interventions addressed competing behaviours. We did not find statistical significance for the effectiveness of interventions on child-level diet, physical activity or anthropometric outcomes based on the number of benchmark criteria used. This review highlights opportunities to apply social marketing to obesity prevention interventions in early care centres. Social marketing could be an important strategy for early childhood obesity prevention efforts, and future research investigations into its effects are warranted. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.
Using the Medical Research Council Framework for the Development and Evaluation of Complex Interventions in a Theory-Based Infant Feeding Intervention to Prevent Childhood Obesity: The Baby Milk Intervention and Trial
Full Text Available Introduction. We describe our experience of using the Medical Research Council framework on complex interventions to guide the development and evaluation of an intervention to prevent obesity by modifying infant feeding behaviours. Methods. We reviewed the epidemiological evidence on early life risk factors for obesity and interventions to prevent obesity in this age group. The review suggested prevention of excess weight gain in bottle-fed babies and appropriate weaning as intervention targets; hence we undertook systematic reviews to further our understanding of these behaviours. We chose theory and behaviour change techniques that demonstrated evidence of effectiveness in altering dietary behaviours. We subsequently developed intervention materials and evaluation tools and conducted qualitative studies with mothers (intervention recipients and healthcare professionals (intervention deliverers to refine them. We developed a questionnaire to assess maternal attitudes and feeding practices to understand the mechanism of any intervention effects. Conclusions. In addition to informing development of our specific intervention and evaluation materials, use of the Medical Research Council framework has helped to build a generalisable evidence base for early life nutritional interventions. However, the process is resource intensive and prolonged, and this should be taken into account by public health research funders. This trial is registered with ISRTCN: 20814693 Baby Milk Trial.
Abstract Supernumerary teeth are considered to be one of the most significant dental anomalies affecting the primary and early mixed dentition and may cause a variety of pathological disturbances to the developing permanent dentition. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment is necessary for prevention of deleterious effects on dentoalveolar structures. However, the time of intervention is the most crucial factor governing the outcome of surgical management of hyperdontia. The aim of this case report is to share knowledge about management of such cases, which might assist the clinician in decision-making in cases of impacted supernumerary teeth. How to cite this article: Gupta S, Marwah N. Impacted Supernumerary Teeth–Early or Delayed Intervention: Decision Making Dilemma?. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(3):226-230. PMID:25206175
Gupta, Seema; Marwah, Nikhil
Supernumerary teeth are considered to be one of the most significant dental anomalies affecting the primary and early mixed dentition and may cause a variety of pathological disturbances to the developing permanent dentition. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment is necessary for prevention of deleterious effects on dentoalveolar structures. However, the time of intervention is the most crucial factor governing the outcome of surgical management of hyperdontia. The aim of this case report is to share knowledge about management of such cases, which might assist the clinician in decision-making in cases of impacted supernumerary teeth. How to cite this article: Gupta S, Marwah N. Impacted Supernumerary Teeth-Early or Delayed Intervention: Decision Making Dilemma?. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(3):226-230.
van der Leij, Aryan
Part of the Dutch Dyslexia Programme has been dedicated to early intervention. The question of whether the genetically affected learning mechanism of children who are at familial risk (FR) of developing dyslexia could be influenced by training phoneme awareness and letter-sound associations in the prereading phase was investigated. The rationale was that intervention studies reveal insights about the weaknesses of the learning mechanisms of FR children. In addition, the studies aimed to gather practical insights to be used in the development of a system of early diagnosis and prevention. Focused on the last period of kindergarten before formal reading instruction starts in Grade 1, intervention methods with comparable samples and designs but differences in delivery mode (use of computer or manual), tutor (semi-professional or parent), location (at school or at home), and additional practices (serial rapid naming or simple word reading) have been executed to test the hypothesis that the incidence and degree of dyslexia can be reduced. The present position paper summarizes the Dutch Dyslexia Programme findings and relates them to findings of other studies. It is discussed that the Dutch studies provide evidence on why prevention of dyslexia is hard to accomplish. It is argued that effective intervention should not only start early but also be adapted to the individual and often long-lasting educational needs of children at risk of reading failure. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Nordentoft, Merete; Jeppesen, Pia; Petersen, Lone
Abstract Aim: To examine the rationale and evidence supporting an early intervention approach in schizophrenia. Methods: A selective literature review was conducted. Results: During the onset of schizophrenia, there is often a significant delay between the emergence of psychotic symptoms and the ......Abstract Aim: To examine the rationale and evidence supporting an early intervention approach in schizophrenia. Methods: A selective literature review was conducted. Results: During the onset of schizophrenia, there is often a significant delay between the emergence of psychotic symptoms...... and the initiation of treatment. The average duration of untreated psychosis is around 1–2 years. During this period, brain function may continue to deteriorate and social networks can be irreversibly damaged. Studies have consistently linked longer duration of untreated psychosis with poorer outcomes...... and this relationship holds even after controlling for the potential confounding variable of premorbid functioning. In Norway, the early Treatment and Intervention in PSychosis study demonstrated that duration of untreated psychosis is amenable to intervention with the combination of educational campaigns...
Karanja, Njeri; Aickin, Mikel; Lutz, Tam; Mist, Scott; Jobe, Jared B.; Maupome, Gerardo; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl
Eating and physical activity behaviors associated with adult obesity have early antecedents, yet few studies have focused on obesity prevention interventions targeting very young children. Efforts to prevent obesity beginning at birth seem particularly important in populations at risk for early-onset obesity. National estimates indicate that…
Theise, Rachelle; Huang, Keng-Yen; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Doctoroff, Greta L; Dawson-McClure, Spring; Palamar, Joseph J; Brotman, Laurie Miller
The current study examined whether parent psychological resources (parenting stress, depression, and social support from friends and family) moderated the effects of early family preventive intervention on parenting among high-risk families. Ninety-two preschool-age children (M age = 3.94 years) at familial risk for conduct problems participated in a randomized controlled trial of a family intervention to prevent conduct problems. The majority of families were African American or Latino and experienced multiple stressors associated with poverty and familial antisocial behavior. Families were randomized to a 22-session group-based intervention or to a no-intervention, assessment-only control condition. Parents reported on their psychological resources (parenting stress, depression and social support from friends and family) at baseline. Parenting (responsive, harsh, stimulation for learning) was assessed through self-report and observational measures four times over 24 months. Previously-reported intervention effects on responsive parenting and stimulation for learning were moderated by depression and social support from friends, respectively, such that benefits were concentrated among those at greatest risk (i.e., depressed, limited support from friends). The intervention effect on harsh parenting was not moderated by any of the parent psychological resources examined, such that parents with high and low resources benefited comparably. Consideration of moderators of preventive intervention effects on parenting provides important information about intervention impact among families experiencing multiple barriers to engagement and effective parenting. Findings suggest that parents with diminished psychological resources are just as likely to benefit. Family-focused, group-based intervention is promising for strengthening parenting among the highest risk families.
Halken, S; Høst, A
, breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....
Morales, Eduardo S
Translation from research to practice faces numerous problems that include replicating effectiveness, fidelity to the protocol and processes, and adaptations to different types of target populations. Working collaboratively with existing service providers can speed up the time for development and can ease the implementation of empirical randomized trials. Contextual community prevention theory is an innovative approach that focuses on changing behaviors of community members by creating a visible institutional presence that draws and pulls the targeted population into the organization's activities and interventions. The result is an institution or organization within the community that provides a new active and dynamic context, engaging its community members into its activities, interventions, and functions. An HIV prevention program developed collaboratively from the ground up for Latino gay/bisexual men is presented. Results from the program evaluation efforts across the years suggest promise for testing its efficacy through a randomized trial. HIV prevention efforts need to develop dynamic support systems within communities where these men have ownership, have control, and feel safe; otherwise HIV infection rates in this population will increase. Copyright 2009 by the American Psychological Association
Wicks, K M
This paper illustrates one model of providing an integrated paediatric speech and language therapy service which attempts to meet the demands of both inclusive education and effective early intervention. A move has been made from location-oriented therapy provision to offering children and their families equal opportunities to have appropriate intervention according to need. The model incorporates the philosophy of inclusive education and supports the development of current specialist educational establishments into resource bases of expertise for children with special needs in mainstream schools.
Tools, harmonization and standardization procedures of the impact and outcome evaluation indices obtained during a kindergarten-based, family-involved intervention to prevent obesity in early childhood: the ToyBox-study.
Mouratidou, T; Miguel, M L; Androutsos, O; Manios, Y; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Cardon, G; Kulaga, Z; Socha, P; Galcheva, S; Iotova, V; Payr, A; Koletzko, B; Moreno, L A
The ToyBox-intervention is a kindergarten-based, family-involved intervention targeting multiple lifestyle behaviours in preschool children, their teachers and their families. This intervention was conducted in six European countries, namely Belgium, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Poland and Spain. The aim of this paper is to provide a descriptive overview of the harmonization and standardization procedures of the baseline and follow-up evaluation of the study (and substudies). Steps related to the study's operational, standardization and harmonization procedures as well as the impact and outcome evaluation assessment tools used are presented. Experiences from the project highlight the importance of safeguarding the measurement process to minimize data heterogeneity derived from potential measurement error and country-by-country differences. In addition, it was made clear that continuing quality control and support is an important component of such studies. For this reason, well-supported communication channels, such as regular email updates and teleconferences, and regular internal and external meetings to ensure smooth and accurate implementation were in place during the study. The ToyBox-intervention and its harmonized and standardized procedures can serve as a successful case study for future studies evaluating the efficacy of similar interventions. © 2014 World Obesity.
Jensen, Claus Sixtus; Aagaard, Hanne; Olesen, Hanne Vebert
Paediatric Early Warning System on evolving critical illness and intervention in hospitalised children; a regional multicentre study on implementation of a Paediatric Early Warning System Background: Critical illness in the patient and death can potentially be predicted and prevented. Deterioration...... of the clinical condition of hospitalised patients is often preceded by physiological changes up to 24 hours before death. Despite this several reports show that lack of identification and proper actions in patients developing acute and critical illness remains a problem. Challenges in assessing if a child...
Vermunt, P.W.A.; Milder, I.E.J.; Wielaard, F.; Baan, C.A.; Schelfhout, J.D.M.; Westert, G.P.; van Oers, J.A.M.
Background Despite the favorable effects of behavior change interventions on diabetes risk, lifestyle modification is a complicated process. In this study we therefore investigated opportunities for refining a lifestyle intervention for type 2 diabetes prevention, based on participant perceptions of
Sisson, Susan B; Krampe, Megan; Anundson, Katherine; Castle, Sherri
Review peer-reviewed interventions designed to reduce obesity and improve obesogenic behaviors, including physical activity, diet, and screen time, at child care centers. Interventions components and outcomes, study design, duration, use of behavioral theory, and level of social ecological influence are detailed. Article searches were conducted from March 2014, October 2014, March 2015, January 2016 across three databases. Eligible interventions were conducted in child care settings, included 3-to-5-year-old children, included an outcome measure of obesity or obesogenic behavior, and published in English. Study design quality was assessed using Stetler's Level of Quantitative Evidence. All unique records were screened (n=4589): 237 articles were assessed for eligibility. Of these, 97 articles describing 71 interventions met inclusion criteria. Forty-four articles included multi-level interventions. Twenty-nine interventions included an outcome measure of obesity. Forty-one interventions included physical activity. Forty-five included diet. Eight included screen time. Fifty-five percent of interventions were Level II (randomized controlled trials), while 37% were Level III (quasi-experimental or pre-post only study design), and 8% were Level IV (non-experimental or natural experiments). Most interventions had the intended effect on the target: obesity 48% (n=14), physical activity 73% (n=30), diet 87% (n=39), and screen time 63% (n=5). Summarizing intervention strategies and assessing their effectiveness contributes to the existing literature and may provide direction for practitioners and researchers working with young children in child care. Most interventions produced the targeted changes in obesity and obesity-associated behaviors, supporting current and future efforts to collaborate with early-care centers and professionals for obesity prevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This article reviews the Australian evidence concerning interventions in early childhood aimed at promoting children’s psychological well-being and preventing social and psychological dysfunction in later life. Two kinds of research are surveyed. One is the Australian social science literature that has emerged in the last twenty years from five major research programs. The other is the evaluation studies that, more recently, have assessed the effectiveness of various early childhood preventive interventions. Together these studies provide an evidentiary platform for reviewing current policy in this field. A full analysis of ‘what works’ would need to include relevant international evidence, which is outside the scope of this article. However, the Australian evidence does support the current policy focus on good parenting programs, while also suggesting that a number of other factors matter in promoting children’s well-being.
Mary V. Seeman
Full Text Available Depending on jurisdiction, time period studied, and specifics of the population, approximately 50 percent of mothers who suffer from schizophrenia lose custody of their children. The aim of this paper is to recommend interventions aimed at preventing unnecessary custody loss. This paper reviews the social work, nursing, psychology, psychiatry, and law literature on mental illness and custody loss, 2000–2011. Recommendations to mothers are to (a ensure family health (b prevent psychotic relapse, (c prepare in advance for crisis, (d document daily parenting activities, (e take advantage of available parenting resources, and f become knowledgeable about legal issues that pertain to mental health and custody. From a policy perspective, child protection and adult mental health agencies need to dissolve administrative barriers and collaborate. Access to appropriate services will help mothers with schizophrenia to care appropriately for their children and allow these children to grow and develop within their family and community.
Early Intervention (EI) services for children birth through two years of age are mandated by Part C of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA); however, personnel shortages, particularly in rural areas, limit access for children who qualify. Telerehabilitation has the potential to build capacity among caregivers and local providers as well as promote family-centered services through remote consultation. This article provides an overview of research related to telerehabili...
Reza Rahimi Moghaddam
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The hamstring muscles have very important role in the stabilization of body posture, movement of the lower extremities and trunk movements in relation to the thigh. Hamstring injuries are common among athletes, especially in sports like soccer with sprinting demands, kicking, and sudden accelerations. Hamstring strains are frustrating for the injured athletes because the symptoms are persistent, healing is slow, and the rate of re-injury is high. This indicates a need to develop prevention strategies for hamstring injuries. The aims of this review are introducing hamstring strains, associated risk factors, and providing rehabilitative ecommendations for injured athletes to prevent re-injury. METHOD: Information was gathered from an online literatures search using the key words hamstring injuries, soccer injuries, injury prevention, hamstring rehabilitation, and stretching exercises. Screening of references and hand searches of relevant journals were also employed. All relevant studies in English were reviewed and abstracted.RESULTS: It has been shown that hamstring strains account for 12-16% of all injuries in athletes with a re-injury rate reported as high as 22-34%. The hamstrings have a tendency to shorten. Tight hamstrings with limited range of motion and flexibility may lead to postural deficiency and deformities. It also makes the hamstring susceptible to re-injury. Risk factors such as age, strength imbalance, previous injury and flexibility should be considered. CONCLUSION: Prevention intervention may minimize the risk factors of hamstring injuries. Training modalities should emphasize on eccentric strength training, and prevention of fatigue. There is wide disagreement about the impact of stretching exercise on prevention/rehabilitation of hamstring injuries.
Xu, Tingting; He, Yasheng; Dainelli, Livia; Yu, Kai; Detzel, Patrick; Silva-Zolezzi, Irma; Volger, Sheri; Fang, Hai
Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is a type of diabetes which occurs during pregnancy. Women with GDM are at greater risk of complications during pregnancy and delivery, while babies born from mothers with GDM are at greater risk of post-natal complications. Using the most updated diagnosis criteria, the GDM prevalence is estimated at 9.3-25.5% worldwide and 9.3-18.9% in China. Our objective was to identify healthcare interventions aimed at GDM prevention and control in China. A best-evidence synthesis was performed based on a systematic search of literature published between 1997 and October 2015 in PubMed, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Wan-fang databases using keywords "Gestational Diabetes Mellitus", "GDM", "Intervention" "Medical Intervention" "Early Medical Intervention", "Dietary Intervention", "Exercise Intervention", "Lifestyle Intervention", "Therapy", "Treatment" and "China". Inclusion criteria were studies conducted in China, reporting GDM healthcare interventions, and published in either Chinese or English. Two reviewers independently assessed eligibility and quality of the studies and extracted the data. Treatment efficacy was examined with weighted pooled odds ratio (OR) meta-analyses. The search resulted in 5961 articles (published in 276 different Chinese language journals and 6 English language journals), of which 802 were included in this synthesis. While 39.4% (n = 316) failed to report the GDM diagnostic criteria used, the remaining studies classified GDM with various international (n = 5) or Chinese (n = 7) diagnostic standards. Treatment interventions were categorized into 6 types: dietary (18.6%), exercise (1.6%), medication (20.7%), health education (9.0%), psychological (2.6%) and combination (47.4%). No interventions aimed at GDM prevention were identified. Meta-analyses demonstrated a statistically significant overall benefit of GDM treatment strategies in reducing the odds of maternal and
Jeannie van der Linde
Full Text Available Background: Early communication intervention services rendered by speech-language therapists and audiologists to families of infants and young children with feeding difficulties, hearing loss or emerging communication disorders should be implemented throughout South Africa. Early intervention can ameliorate risks, enhance development and may prevent further delays. Based on research initiated during a community-service year experience in a rural subdistrict,an incremental process of establishing accessible early communication intervention services was deemed feasible. Such a process cannot be successful if the collaboration of primary healthcare personnel and managers is not ensured.Objectives: The aim of the article was to describe the perceptions of primary healthcare personnel with regard to expansion of early communication intervention services to infants at risk of developmental delay.Method: A qualitative descriptive survey design was followed. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 primary healthcare nurses and sisters and eight primary healthcare programme managers in Ditsobotla subdistrict in the North West province of South Africa.Results: The participants indicated that by improving team work, developing training programmes and evaluating identification methods and resources, the step-by-step rollout of early communication intervention functions on four organisational levels may be a realistic goal for sustainable services in the resource-limited district.Conclusion: The positive perceptions and contributions by participants promise a rich human-resource basis for transdisciplinary collaboration between speech-language therapists, audiologists and primary healthcare personnel in order to reduce the burden of early communication disorders in a rural district.
Jahanfar, Shayesteh; Howard, Louise M; Medley, Nancy
Domestic violence during pregnancy is a major public health concern. This preventable risk factor threatens both the mother and baby. Routine perinatal care visits offer opportunities for healthcare professionals to screen and refer abused women for effective interventions. It is, however, not clear which interventions best serve mothers during pregnancy and postpartum to ensure their safety. To examine the effectiveness and safety of interventions in preventing or reducing domestic violence against pregnant women. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 July 2014), scanned bibliographies of published studies and corresponded with investigators. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) including cluster-randomised trials, and quasi-randomised controlled trials (e.g. where there was alternate allocation) investigating the effect of interventions in preventing or reducing domestic violence during pregnancy. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. We included 10 trials with a total of 3417 women randomised. Seven of these trials, recruiting 2629 women, contributed data to the review. However, results for all outcomes were based on single studies. There was limited evidence for the primary outcomes of reduction of episodes of violence (physical, sexual, and/or psychological) and prevention of violence during and up to one year after pregnancy (as defined by the authors of trials). In one study, women who received the intervention reported fewer episodes of partner violence during pregnancy and in the postpartum period (risk ratio (RR) 0.62, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.43 to 0.88, 306 women, moderate quality). Groups did not differ for Conflict Tactics Score - the mean partner abuse scores in the first three months postpartum (mean difference (MD) 4.20 higher, 95% CI -10.74 to 19.14, one study, 46 women, very low quality). The Current
Kobayashi, R; Takenoshita, Y; Kobayashi, H; Kamijo, A; Funaba, K; Takarabe, M
To date, many researchers in Japan have assumed that the cause of autistic spectrum disorders is attributable to some disorder in the ability of the child. However, we have been working on the premise that autistic spectrum disorders are brought about by relationship disturbances in early infancy and have been attempting to validate this hypothesis through early intervention. We have examined the developmental process of affective communication in infants with autistic spectrum disorders. We have postulated that approach-avoidance motivational conflict (Richer) is the primary factor impeding the development of affective communication and have focused therapeutic intervention on this perspective. As a result, attachment behavior was markedly improved in children, but affective communication with their mothers was not. Examing the mothers' images of themselves in infancy in mother-infant psychotherapy, problems that the mothers had themselves in infacy with attachment behavior to their own mothers affected the mothers' internal representation of their children, leading to active evolution of mother-child interaction and development of affective communication between the mother and child. In this context, the basis and significance of the internal representation of both parties being determinants in the quality of mother-child communication are discussed. Our goal in early intervention is not the elevation of a child's linguistic-cognitive abilities, but the creation of a comforting relationship in which both parent and child can live securely, without strain.
Carson, Kristin V; Ameer, Faisal; Sayehmiri, Kourosh; Hnin, Khin; van Agteren, Joseph Em; Sayehmiri, Fatemeh; Brinn, Malcolm P; Esterman, Adrian J; Chang, Anne B; Smith, Brian J
Mass media interventions can be used as a way of delivering preventive health messages. They have the potential to reach and modify the knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of a large proportion of the community. To assess the effects of mass media interventions on preventing smoking in young people, and whether it can reduce smoking uptake among youth (under 25 years), improve smoking attitudes, intentions and knowledge, improve self-efficacy/self-esteem, and improve perceptions about smoking, including the choice to follow positive role models. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register, with additional searches of MEDLINE and Embase in June 2016. This is an update of a review first published in 1998. Randomized trials, controlled trials without randomization and interrupted time-series studies that assessed the effect of mass media campaigns (defined as channels of communication such as television, radio, newspapers, social media, billboards, posters, leaflets or booklets intended to reach large numbers of people and which are not dependent on person-to-person contact) in influencing the smoking behaviour (either objective or self-reported) of young people under the age of 25 years. We define smoking behaviour as the presence or absence of tobacco smoking or other tobacco use, or both, and the frequency of tobacco use. Eligible comparators included education or no intervention. Two review authors independently extracted information relating to the characteristics and the content of media interventions, participants, outcomes, methods of the study and risks of bias. We combined studies using qualitative narrative synthesis. We assessed the risks of bias for each study using the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool, alongside additional domains to account for the nature of the intervention. We assessed the quality of evidence contributing to outcomes using GRADE. We identified eight eligible studies reporting information about mass media smoking
Søgaard, Rikke; Sørensen, Jan; Waldorff, Frans B; Eckermann, Ane; Buss, Dorthe V; Waldemar, Gunhild
To investigate the impact of early psychosocial intervention aimed at patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and their caregivers on resource use and costs from a societal perspective. Dyads of patients and their primary caregiver were randomised to intervention (n = 163) or control (n = 167) and followed for 3 years. Health care use was extracted from national registers, and the Resource Utilisation in Dementia questionnaire was used to measure informal care and productivity loss. Multiple imputation was used to replace missing data, and non-parametric bootstrapping was used to estimate standard errors. Overall, there were no statistically significant differences because of large variation in the observations. The average additional cost of psychosocial intervention provision was estimated at EUR 3,401 per patient. This cost masked a reduced use of formal health care and an increased use of informal care. Early psychosocial intervention in AD could be cost-saving from a health care perspective, whereas the opposite seems to be true from a broader societal perspective.
Phantumvanit, Prathip; Makino, Yuka; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Rugg-Gunn, Andrew; Moynihan, Paula; Petersen, Poul Erik; Evans, Wendell; Feldens, Carlos Alberto; Lo, Edward; Khoshnevisan, Mohammad H; Baez, Ramon; Varenne, Benoit; Vichayanrat, Tippanart; Songpaisan, Yupin; Woodward, Margaret; Nakornchai, Siriruk; Ungchusak, Chantana
Early Childhood Caries (ECC) is prevalent around the world, but in particular the disease is growing rapidly in low- and middle-income countries in parallel with changing diet and lifestyles. In many countries, ECC is often left untreated, a condition which leads to pain and adversely affects general health, growth and development, and quality of life of children, their families and their communities. Importantly, ECC is also a global public health burden, medically, socially and economically. In many countries, a substantial number of children require general anaesthesia for the treatment of caries in their primary teeth (usually extractions), and this has considerable cost and social implications. A WHO Global Consultation with oral health experts on "Public Health Intervention against Early Childhood Caries" was held on 26-28 January 2016 in Bangkok (Thailand) to identify public health solutions and to highlight their applicability to low- and middle-income countries. After a 3-day consultation, participants agreed on specific recommendations for further action. National health authorities should develop strategies and implement interventions aimed at preventing and controlling ECC. These should align with existing international initiatives such as the Sixtieth World Health Assembly Resolution WHA 60.17 Oral health: action plan for promotion and integrated disease prevention, WHO Guideline on Sugars and WHO breastfeeding recommendation. ECC prevention and control interventions should be integrated into existing primary healthcare systems. WHO public health principles must be considered when tackling the effect of social determinants in ECC. Initiatives aimed at modifying behaviour should focus on families and communities. The involvement of communities in health promotion, and population-directed and individual fluoride administration for the prevention and control of ECC is essential. Surveillance and research, including cost-effectiveness studies, should be
Anna Purna Basu
Full Text Available Children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy often have marked hand involvement with excessive thumb adduction and flexion and limited active wrist extension from infancy. Post-lesional aberrant plasticity can lead to progressive abnormalities of the developing motor system. Disturbances of somatosensory and visual function and developmental disregard contribute to difficulties with hand use. Progressive soft tissue and bony changes may occur, leading to contractures which further limit function in a vicious cycle. Early intervention might help to break this cycle: however, the precise nature and appropriateness of the intervention must be carefully considered. Traditional approaches to the hemiplegic upper limb include medications and botulinum toxin injections to manage abnormalities of tone, and surgical interventions. Therapist input, including provision of orthoses, remains a mainstay although many therapies have not been well evaluated. There has been a recent increase in interventions for the hemiplegic upper limb, mostly aimed outside the period of infancy. These include trials of constraint-induced movement therapy and bimanual therapy as well as the use of virtual reality and robot-assisted therapy. In future, non-invasive brain stimulation may be combined with therapy. Interventions under investigation in the infant age group include modified constraint-induced movement therapy and action observation therapy. A further approach which may be suited to the infant with thumb-in-palm deformity, but which requires evaluation, is the use of elastic taping. Enhanced cutaneous feedback through mechanical stimulation to the skin provided by the tape during movement has been postulated to modulate ongoing muscle activity. If effective, this would represent a low-cost, safe, widely applicable early intervention.
Sanders, Lee M; Perrin, Eliana M; Yin, H Shonna; Bronaugh, Andrea; Rothman, Russell L
Children who become overweight by age 2 years have significantly greater risks of long-term health problems, and children in low-income communities, where rates of low adult literacy are highest, are at increased risk of developing obesity. The objective of the Greenlight Intervention Study is to assess the effectiveness of a low-literacy, primary-care intervention on the reduction of early childhood obesity. At 4 primary-care pediatric residency training sites across the US, 865 infant-parent dyads were enrolled at the 2-month well-child checkup and are being followed through the 24-month well-child checkup. Two sites were randomly assigned to the intervention, and the other sites were assigned to an attention-control arm, implementing the American Academy of Pediatrics' The Injury Prevention Program. The intervention consists of an interactive educational toolkit, including low-literacy materials designed for use during well-child visits, and a clinician-centered curriculum for providing low-literacy guidance on obesity prevention. The study is powered to detect a 10% difference in the number of children overweight (BMI > 85%) at 24 months. Other outcome measures include observed physician-parent communication, as well as parent-reported information on child dietary intake, physical activity, and injury-prevention behaviors. The study is designed to inform evidence-based standards for early childhood obesity prevention, and more generally to inform optimal approaches for low-literacy messages and health literacy training in primary preventive care. This article describes the conceptual model, study design, intervention content, and baseline characteristics of the study population. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Lewis, Timothy J.; Jones, Stacey E. L.; Horner, Robert H.; Sugai, George
Special education continues to document the poor within and post-school outcomes among children and youth with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders (EBD). While the poor outcomes are due to a myriad of causes, three issues routinely emerge as problematic in the field. First, the need for early intervention and prevention has been well documented, and…
This article explores the pattern of early marriage in Africa. It focuses on the sub-Saharan region as an area with the highest rates of early marriage in the world. The harmful effects of early marriage are explored in terms of impact on the health, education and economic well-being of young girls. The paper outlines a framework for analyzing global, regional and local initiatives to curb early marriage and examines the application of these interventions in sub-Saharan countries. Regional patterns are then examined and countries which have made progress in reducing age of marriage are compared to countries in which age of marriage amongst girls has reminded low. The paper concludes on the note that countries with the highest rates of early marriage are also the countries with the highest rates of poverty and highest population growth rates. The paper argues for a sub-regional strategy to address the problem of early marriage in the zone with the highest incidence.
Sarama, Julie; Clements, Douglas H
Although specific interventions in early mathematics have been successful, few have been brought to scale successfully, especially across the challenging diversity of populations and contexts in the early childhood system in the United States. In this chapter, we analyze a theoretically based scale-up model for early mathematics that was designed to avoid the pollution and dilution that often plagues efforts to achieve broad success. We elaborate the theoretical framework by noting the junctures that are susceptible to dilution or pollution. Then we expatiate the model's guidelines to describe specifically how they were designed and implemented to mitigate pollution and dilution. Finally, we provide evidence regarding the success of these efforts. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rivera-Colón, Venessa; Ramos, Roberto; Davis, Jenna L; Escobar, Myriam; Inda, Nikki Ross; Paige, Linda; Palencia, Jeannette; Vives, Maria; Grant, Cathy G; Green, B Lee
It is well documented that cancer is disproportionately distributed in racial/ethnic minority groups and medically underserved communities. In addition, cancer prevention and early detection represent the key defenses to combat cancer. The purpose of this article is to showcase the comprehensive health education and community outreach activities at the H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute (Moffitt) designed to promote and increase access to and utilization of prevention and early detection services among underserved populations. One of Moffitt's most important conduits for cancer prevention and early detection among underserved populations is through its community education and outreach initiatives, in particular, the Moffitt Program for Outreach Wellness Education and Resources (M-POWER). M-POWER works to empower underserved populations to make positive health choices and increase screening behaviors through strengthening collaboration and partnerships, providing community-based health education/promotion, and increasing access to care. Effective, empowering, and culturally and linguistically competent health education and community outreach, is key to opening the often impenetrable doors of cancer prevention and early detection to this society's most vulnerable populations.
The aim of this study was to present results of our one year experience with Cognitive Behavioral Psychology Program, in order to contribute to the building of whole school approach and positive psychology preventive mental health problems model. Based on Penn Resilience program (PRP), we modify and create program for early adolescents: how to…
Kivipelto, Miia; Solomon, Alina; Ahtiluoto, Satu; Ngandu, Tiia; Lehtisalo, Jenni; Antikainen, Riitta; Bäckman, Lars; Hänninen, Tuomo; Jula, Antti; Laatikainen, Tiina; Lindström, Jaana; Mangialasche, Francesca; Nissinen, Aulikki; Paajanen, Teemu; Pajala, Satu; Peltonen, Markku; Rauramaa, Rainer; Stigsdotter-Neely, Anna; Strandberg, Timo; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Soininen, Hilkka
Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER) is a multi-center, randomized, controlled trial ongoing in Finland. Participants (1200 individuals at risk of cognitive decline) are recruited from previous population-based non-intervention studies. Inclusion criteria are CAIDE Dementia Risk Score ≥6 and cognitive performance at the mean level or slightly lower than expected for age (but not substantial impairment) assessed with the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) neuropsychological battery. The 2-year multidomain intervention consists of: nutritional guidance; exercise; cognitive training and social activity; and management of metabolic and vascular risk factors. Persons in the control group receive regular health advice. The primary outcome is cognitive performance as measured by the modified Neuropsychological Test Battery, Stroop test, and Trail Making Test. Main secondary outcomes are: dementia (after extended follow-up); disability; depressive symptoms; vascular risk factors and outcomes; quality of life; utilization of health resources; and neuroimaging measures. Screening began in September 2009 and was completed in December 2011. All 1200 persons are enrolled and the intervention is ongoing as planned. Baseline clinical characteristics indicate that several vascular risk factors and unhealthy lifestyle-related factors are present, creating a window of opportunity for prevention. The intervention will be completed during 2014. The FINGER is at the forefront of international collaborative efforts to solve the clinical and public health problems of early identification of individuals at increased risk of late-life cognitive impairment, and of developing intervention strategies to prevent or delay the onset of cognitive impairment and dementia. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Dattilo, Anne M
Worldwide, the prevalence of childhood obesity has increased, amounting to 42 million overweight or obese children, and there is increasing evidence that the origins are within the first 1,000 days: the period of conception through 2 years. Antecedents of early childhood obesity are multifactorial, and associations of varying strength have been documented for genetic/epigenetic, biologic, dietary, environmental, social, and behavioral influences. Modifiable factors in pregnancy and early infancy associated with childhood obesity include maternal overweight/obesity, maternal smoking, gestational weight gain, infant and young child feeding, caregiver responsive feeding practices, as well as sleep duration, and physical activity. Promising obesity prevention interventions include those beginning during the first 1,000 days, using a multicomponent approach, with roots in nutrition education theories or behavior change communication that can continue over time. However, the limited number of completed interventions to date (within pediatric clinics or in home-based or community settings) may not be scalable to the magnitude needed for sustainable obesity prevention. Scale-up interventions that can be maintained for the durations needed, addressing infant and young child feeding and other modifiable risk factors associated with childhood obesity are needed. © 2017 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.
Fulton, Alexandra M; Paynter, Jessica M; Trembath, David
Males are diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) approximately four times as often as females. This has led to interest in recent years of potential under-diagnosis of females, as well as negative consequences for females with ASD due to under-identification. A number of potential explanations for gender bias in diagnosis are discussed including that females and males may present differently despite showing the same core symptoms. Previous research has shown inconsistent findings in comparisons between genders in young children with ASD for whom early intervention is vital. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the social, communication, and cognitive functioning, as well as level of ASD symptoms, in a cohort of children who presented for early intervention to inform understanding of gender differences in this population, as well as to inform understanding of the mechanisms by which gender bias may occur. Participants included 254 children (42 females) aged 29-74 months who completed measures of cognition, communication skills, adaptive behaviour, and ASD symptoms on entry to early intervention. Consistent with hypotheses, no significant gender differences were found both overall, and when split by functioning level. However, a similar ratio of males and females was found in both high- and low-functioning groups contrary to predictions. These results are consistent with some of the previous research that suggests gender differences may not be apparent in clinical samples at this young age. We highlight a need for further research that may use universal screening or longitudinal methods to understand the trajectory of development for females with ASD specifically. Such research could better inform timely and tailored intervention from the preschool years onwards. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cavallo, David N; Chou, Wen-Ying Sylvia; McQueen, Amy; Ramirez, Amelie; Riley, William T
Social media are now used by a majority of American internet users. Social media platforms encourage participants to share information with their online social connections and exchange user-generated content. Significant numbers of people are already using social media to share health-related information. As such, social media provide an opportunity for "user-generated" cancer control and prevention interventions that employ users' behavior, knowledge, and existing social networks for the creation and dissemination of interventions. These interventions also enable novel data collection techniques and research designs that will allow investigators to examine real-time behavioral responses to interventions. Emerging social media-based interventions for modifying cancer-related behaviors have been applied to such domains as tobacco use, diet, physical activity, and sexual practices, and several examples are discussed for illustration purposes. Despite some promising early findings, challenges including inadequate user engagement, privacy concerns, and lack of internet access among some groups need to be addressed in future research. Recommendations for advancing the field include stronger partnerships with commercial technology companies, utilization of rapid and adaptive designs to identify successful strategies for user engagement, rigorous and iterative efficacy testing of these strategies, and inclusive methods for intervention dissemination. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.
Shepherd, Emily; Gomersall, Judith C; Tieu, Joanna; Han, Shanshan; Crowther, Caroline A; Middleton, Philippa
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with a wide range of adverse health consequences for women and their infants in the short and long term. With an increasing prevalence of GDM worldwide, there is an urgent need to assess strategies for GDM prevention, such as combined diet and exercise interventions. This is an update of a Cochrane review that was first published in 2015. To assess the effects of diet interventions in combination with exercise interventions for pregnant women for preventing GDM, and associated adverse health consequences for the mother and her infant/child. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (27 November 2016) and reference lists of retrieved studies. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and cluster-RCTs, comparing combined diet and exercise interventions with no intervention (i.e. standard care), that reported on GDM diagnosis as an outcome. Quasi-RCTs were excluded. Cross-over trials were not eligible for inclusion. We planned to include RCTs comparing two or more different diet/exercise interventions, however none were identified. Two review authors independently assessed study eligibility, extracted data, assessed the risk of bias of the included trials and assessed quality of evidence for selected maternal and infant/child outcomes using the GRADE approach. We checked data for accuracy. In this update, we included 23 RCTs (involving 8918 women and 8709 infants) that compared combined diet and exercise interventions with no intervention (standard care). The studies varied in the diet and exercise programs evaluated and health outcomes reported. None reported receiving funding from a drug manufacturer or agency with interests in the results. Overall risk of bias was judged to be unclear due to the lack of methodological detail reported. Most studies were undertaken in high-income countries.For our primary review outcomes, there was a possible reduced risk of GDM in the diet and
Arshad, Ahmed; Salam, Rehana A; Lassi, Zohra S; Das, Jai K; Naqvi, Imama; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A
In 2012, an estimated 8.6 million people developed tuberculosis (TB) and 1.3 million died from the disease. With its recent resurgence with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); TB prevention and management has become further challenging. We systematically evaluated the effectiveness of community based interventions (CBI) for the prevention and treatment of TB and a total of 41 studies were identified for inclusion. Findings suggest that CBI for TB prevention and case detection showed significant increase in TB detection rates (RR: 3.1, 95% CI: 2.92, 3.28) with non-significant impact on TB incidence. CBI for treating patients with active TB showed an overall improvement in treatment success rates (RR: 1.09, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.11) and evidence from a single study suggests significant reduction in relapse rate (RR: 0.26, 95% CI: 0.18, 0.39). The results were consistent for various study design and delivery mechanism. Qualitative synthesis suggests that community based TB treatment delivery through community health workers (CHW) not only improved access and service utilization but also contributed to capacity building and improving the routine TB recording and reporting systems. CBI coupled with the DOTS strategy seem to be an effective approach, however there is a need to evaluate various community-based integrated delivery models for relative effectiveness.
Troller-Renfree, Sonya; McDermott, Jennifer Martin; Nelson, Charles A; Zeanah, Charles H; Fox, Nathan A
Children raised in institutions experience psychosocial deprivation that can negatively impact attention skills and emotion regulation, which subsequently may influence behavioral regulation and social relationships. The current study examined visual attention biases in 8-year-old children who were part of the Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP). Relations among attention biases and concurrent social outcomes were also investigated. In early childhood, 136 children abandoned at birth or shortly thereafter into institutional care were randomized to receive a high-quality foster care intervention or care-as-usual within the context of the Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP). At 8 years of age, 50 care-as-usual, 55 foster care, and 52 community controls performed a behavioral dot-probe task, and indices of attention biases to threat and positive stimuli were calculated. Concurrent data on social behavior were collected. Children placed into the foster care intervention had a significant attention bias toward positive stimuli, while children who received care-as-usual had a significant bias toward threat. Children in the foster care intervention had a significantly larger positive bias when compared to the care-as-usual group. A positive bias was related to more social engagement, more prosocial behavior, less externalizing disorders, and less emotionally withdrawn behavior. The magnitude of positive bias was predicted by age of placement into foster care among children with a history of institutionalization. An attention bias towards positive stimuli was associated with reduced risk for behavioral problems amongst children who experienced early psychosocial deprivation. Research assessing attention biases in children experiencing early environmental stress may refine our understanding of the mechanisms underlying risk for later psychiatric and social disorders and inform prevention efforts. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Bonuck, Karen; Grant, Roy
Sleep disorders negatively impact behavior, cognition, and growth--the same areas targeted by early intervention. Conversely, developmental delays and disabilities may themselves precipitate sleep disorders. Young children with developmental delays experience sleep disorders at a higher rate than do typically developing children; the most common…
The necessity of early intervention is recognized both nationally and internationally. This however goes hand in hand with the legitimate request for proving the efficacy and effectiveness of prevention and intervention programs. There are many international studies on this. Some of these exhibit a number of problems, which often restricts the validity of the studies' results. A scientific evaluation of programs in Germany, on the other hand, is often missing entirely or the studies and evaluations are currently in progress. The article at hand using the example of the randomized controlled trial (RCT) gives an overview of which gold standards of evaluation are desirable or should be scientifically demanded to prove efficacy and effectiveness of prevention/intervention in the field of early intervention. Standards for efficacy refer to 1) specification of the program's efficacy, 2) program documentation, 3) evaluating the quality of how the program was carried out, 4) recording and evaluating expected changes, as well as 5) conclusions concerning the causality of results and generalizations. Standards for efficiency refer to 1) description of the intervention, 2) evaluation in real-life contexts and 3) cost-benefit analysis. Based on a presentation of these standards, recommendations are made for the dissemination of prevention and intervention programs.
Jacobson, Therese M; Thompson, Susan L; Halvorson, Anna M; Zeitler, Kristine
Prevention of hospital-acquired pressure ulcers requires the implementation of evidence-based interventions. A quality improvement project was conducted to provide nurses with data on the frequency with which pressure ulcer prevention interventions were performed as measured by documentation. Documentation reports provided feedback to stakeholders, triggering reminders and reeducation. Intervention reports and modifications to the documentation system were effective both in increasing the documentation of pressure ulcer prevention interventions and in decreasing the number of avoidable hospital-acquired pressure ulcers.
El-Jardali, Fadi; Akl, Elie A; Fadlallah, Racha; Oliver, Sandy; Saleh, Nadine; El-Bawab, Lamya; Rizk, Rana; Farha, Aida; Hamra, Rasha
Drug counterfeiting has serious public health and safety implications. The objective of this study was to systematically review the evidence on the effectiveness of interventions to combat or prevent drug counterfeiting. We searched multiple electronic databases and the grey literature up to March 2014. Two reviewers completed, in duplicate and independently, the study selection, data abstraction and risk of bias assessment. We included randomised trials, non-randomised studies, and case studies examining any intervention at the health system-level to combat or prevent drug counterfeiting. Outcomes of interest included changes in failure rates of tested drugs and changes in prevalence of counterfeit medicines. We excluded studies that focused exclusively on substandard, degraded or expired drugs, or that focused on medication errors. We assessed the risk of bias in each included study. We reported the results narratively and, where applicable, we conducted meta-analyses. We included 21 studies representing 25 units of analysis. Overall, we found low quality evidence suggesting positive effects of drug registration (OR=0.23; 95% CI 0.08 to 0.67), and WHO-prequalification of drugs (OR=0.06; 95% CI 0.01 to 0.35) in reducing the prevalence of counterfeit and substandard drugs. Low quality evidence suggests that licensing of drug outlets is probably ineffective (OR=0.66; 95% CI 0.41 to 1.05). For multifaceted interventions (including a mix of regulations, training of inspectors, public-private collaborations and legal actions), low quality evidence suggest they may be effective. The single RCT provided moderate quality evidence of no effect of 'two extra inspections' in improving drug quality. Policymakers and stakeholders would benefit from registration and WHO-prequalification of drugs and may also consider multifaceted interventions. Future effectiveness studies should address the methodological limitations of the available evidence. PROSPERO CRD42014009269
Clasen, Thomas F; Alexander, Kelly T; Sinclair, David; Boisson, Sophie; Peletz, Rachel; Chang, Howard H; Majorin, Fiona; Cairncross, Sandy
Background Diarrhoea is a major cause of death and disease, especially among young children in low-income countries. In these settings, many infectious agents associated with diarrhoea are spread through water contaminated with faeces. In remote and low-income settings, source-based water quality improvement includes providing protected groundwater (springs, wells, and bore holes), or harvested rainwater as an alternative to surface sources (rivers and lakes). Point-of-use water quality improvement interventions include boiling, chlorination, flocculation, filtration, or solar disinfection, mainly conducted at home. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of interventions to improve water quality for preventing diarrhoea. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register (11 November 2014), CENTRAL (the Cochrane Library, 7 November 2014), MEDLINE (1966 to 10 November 2014), EMBASE (1974 to 10 November 2014), and LILACS (1982 to 7 November 2014). We also handsearched relevant conference proceedings, contacted researchers and organizations working in the field, and checked references from identified studies through 11 November 2014. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-RCTs, and controlled before-and-after studies (CBA) comparing interventions aimed at improving the microbiological quality of drinking water with no intervention in children and adults. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We used meta-analyses to estimate pooled measures of effect, where appropriate, and investigated potential sources of heterogeneity using subgroup analyses. We assessed the quality of evidence using the GRADE approach. Main results Forty-five cluster-RCTs, two quasi-RCTs, and eight CBA studies, including over 84,000 participants, met the inclusion criteria. Most included studies were conducted in low- or middle-income countries (LMICs) (50 studies) with
Langer, Gero; Fink, Astrid
ulcer development (pooled RR 0.86; 95% CI 0.73 to 1.00; P value 0.05; I(2) = 13%, random effects). This outcome is at unclear or high risk of bias.Fourteen trials evaluated the effects of nutritional supplements on the healing of existing pressure ulcers: seven trials examined mixed nutritional supplements, three the effects of proteins, two trials examined zinc, and two studies examined ascorbic acid. The included trials were heterogeneous with regard to participants, interventions, comparisons and outcomes and meta-analysis was not appropriate. There was no clear evidence of an improvement in pressure ulcer healing from the nutritional supplements evaluated in any of these individual studies. There is currently no clear evidence of a benefit associated with nutritional interventions for either the prevention or treatment of pressure ulcers. Further trials of high methodological quality are necessary.
Intervention studies This dissertation describes three trials in which the effectiveness of three preventive interventions for youth were tested in the Netherlands. The interventions aim to improve the social and emotional development of children in elementary school (PATHS), reduce alcohol use and
Rinandri Charea Runizar
Full Text Available Timing of orthodontic treatment for Class III malocclusion has always been somewhat controversial. Many orthodontic pioneers like Angle, Tweed, and Graber have advocated early interception of class II malocclusion because this kind of skeletal discrepancy once established, would usually progress rapidly. What kind of early treatment would be appropriate for this malocclusion? Would this approach be effective and promises a stable result? Early orthodontic treatment is defined as a treatment that is initiated during the primary or mixed dentition stage to enhance skeletal and dental development. It is usually done in two phases. The first phase is intended to correct skeletal discrepancy by taking advantage of growth and development period. The second phase followed to improve occlusal relationship. Early treatment of Class III malocclusion is a possible alternative to improve skeletal discrepancy or at the very east may serve to prevent a worsening malocclusion. Principles of Class III early treatment depend on whether it is dental Class III, functional Class III, or skeletal Class III. Practitioners should consider positive and negative factors of a patient before initiating treatment. Likewise, they should understand factors that affect prognosis and stability of the results.
Lyness, Jeffrey M; Yu, Qin; Tang, Wan; Tu, Xin; Conwell, Yeates
Prevention of late-life depression, a common, disabling condition with often poor outcomes in primary care, requires identification of seniors at highest risk of incident episodes. The authors examined a broad range of clinical, functional, and psychosocial predictors of incident depressive episodes in a well-characterized cohort of older primary care patients. In this observational cohort study, patients age >/=65 years without current major depression, recruited from practices in general internal medicine, geriatrics, and family medicine, received annual follow-up assessments over a period of 1 to 4 years. Of 617 enrolled subjects, 405 completed the 1-year follow-up evaluation. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) determined incident major depressive episodes. Each risk indicator's predictive utility was examined by calculating the risk exposure rate, incident risk ratio, and population attributable fraction, leading to determination of the number needed to treat in order to prevent incident depression. A combination of risks, including minor or subsyndromal depression, impaired functional status, and history of major or minor depression, identified a group in which fully effective treatment of five individuals would prevent one new case of incident depression. Indicators routinely assessed in primary care identified a group at very high risk for onset of major depressive episodes. Such markers may inform current clinical care by fostering the early detection and intervention critical to improving patient outcomes and may serve as the basis for future studies refining the recommendations for screening and determining the effectiveness of preventive interventions.
Stallard, Paul; Velleman, Richard; Salter, Emma; Howse, Imogen; Yule, William; Taylor, Gordon
Objective: To determine whether an early intervention using a psychological debriefing format is effective in preventing psychological distress in child road traffic accident survivors. Design: Randomised controlled trial. Setting: Accident and Emergency Department, Royal United Hospital, Bath. Subjects: 158 children aged 7-18. Follow-up…
Popp, Tierney K.; You, Hyun-Kyung
The mediating role of parental satisfaction in the relation between family involvement in early intervention service planning and parental self-efficacy was explored. Participants included families of children with disability or delay involved in early intervention (n = 2586). Data were examined upon entry into early intervention (T1) and at…
1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0032 TITLE: Targeting Premalignant Lesions: Implications for Early Breast Cancer Detection and Intervention ...therapeutically intervene to successfully inhibit or even reverse tumor progression. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Breast cancer, Premalignant lesions, early intervention ...INTRODUCTION: Difficulty in managing treatment of advanced stage breast cancer has led to the goal for detection and intervention of early -stage disease
This podcast discusses how important it is that every child receives a hearing screening as soon as possible after birth. It also gives specific ways that parents and health providers can find out if a child has a possible hearing loss and where to get further information. (Created 6/5/2007 by the Early Hearing Detection and Intervention Program, NCBDDD). Created: 6/15/2007 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities. Date Released: 6/25/2007.
Full Text Available Exposure to adult smoking can have deleterious effects on children. Interventions that assist families with smoking cessation/reduction and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS avoidance can improve child health outcomes and reduce the risk of smoking initiation. The purpose of this review was to describe the state of the science of interventions with families to promote smoke-free home environments for infants and young children, including parent smoking reduction and cessation interventions, ETS reduction, and anti-smoking socialisation interventions, using the socio-ecological framework as a guide. A systematic review of peer-reviewed articles identified from journal databases from 2000 to 2014 was undertaken. Of 921 articles identified, 28 were included in the review. Considerable heterogeneity characterised target populations, intervention types, complexity and intensity, precluding meta-analysis. Few studies used socio-ecological approaches, such as family theories or concepts. Studies in early parenthood (child age newborn to one year tended to focus on parent smoking cessation, where studies of families with children aged 1–5 years were more likely to target household SHSe reduction. Results suggest that interventions for reduction in ETS may be more successful than for smoking cessation and relapse prevention in families of children aged less than 5 years. There is a need for a range of interventions to support families in creating a smoke free home environment that are both tailored and targeted to specific populations. Interventions that target the social and psychodynamics of the family should be considered further, particularly in reaching vulnerable populations. Consideration is also required for approaches to interventions that may further stigmatise families containing smokers. Further research is required to identify successful elements of interventions and the contexts in which they are most effective.
Panteliadis, Christos P; Hagel, Christian; Karch, Dieter; Heinemann, Karl
One of the oldest and probably well-known examples of cerebral palsy is the mummy of the Pharaoh Siptah about 1196–1190 B.C., and a letter from Hippocrates (460–390 B.C.). Cerebral palsy (CP) is one of the most common congenital or acquired neurological impairments in paediatric patients, and refers to a group of children with motor disability and related functional defects. The visible core of CP is characterized by abnormal coordination of movements and/or muscle tone which manifest very early in the development. Resulting from pre- or perinatal brain damage CP is not a progressive condition per se. However, without systematic medical and physiotherapeutic support the dystonia leads to muscle contractions and to deterioration of the handicap. Here we review the three general spastic manifestations of CP hemiplegia, diplegia and tetraplegia, describe the diagnostic procedures and delineate a time schedule for an early intervention. PMID:26191093
Recent advances in brain research have provided new evidence that early experience matters and have greatly increased interest in the effects of early childhood interventions on outcomes for children. This paper reviews what is now known about the potential benefits and potential ill effects of early childhood interventions, with particular attention to evidence from the Rand study of early interventions, recent studies of the Head Start programme, and the NICHD study of early child care. The...
Tikka, Christina; Verbeek, Jos H; Kateman, Erik; Morata, Thais C; Dreschler, Wouter A; Ferrite, Silvia
This is the second update of a Cochrane Review originally published in 2009. Millions of workers worldwide are exposed to noise levels that increase their risk of hearing disorders. There is uncertainty about the effectiveness of hearing loss prevention interventions. To assess the effectiveness of non-pharmaceutical interventions for preventing occupational noise exposure or occupational hearing loss compared to no intervention or alternative interventions. We searched the CENTRAL; PubMed; Embase; CINAHL; Web of Science; BIOSIS Previews; Cambridge Scientific Abstracts; and OSH UPDATE to 3 October 2016. We included randomised controlled trials (RCT), controlled before-after studies (CBA) and interrupted time-series (ITS) of non-clinical interventions under field conditions among workers to prevent or reduce noise exposure and hearing loss. We also collected uncontrolled case studies of engineering controls about the effect on noise exposure. Two authors independently assessed study eligibility and risk of bias and extracted data. We categorised interventions as engineering controls, administrative controls, personal hearing protection devices, and hearing surveillance. We included 29 studies. One study evaluated legislation to reduce noise exposure in a 12-year time-series analysis but there were no controlled studies on engineering controls for noise exposure. Eleven studies with 3725 participants evaluated effects of personal hearing protection devices and 17 studies with 84,028 participants evaluated effects of hearing loss prevention programmes (HLPPs). Effects on noise exposure Engineering interventions following legislationOne ITS study found that new legislation in the mining industry reduced the median personal noise exposure dose in underground coal mining by 27.7 percentage points (95% confidence interval (CI) -36.1 to -19.3 percentage points) immediately after the implementation of stricter legislation. This roughly translates to a 4.5 dB(A) decrease in
Tomayko, Emily J.; Prince, Ronald J.; Hoiting, Jill; Braun, Abbe; LaRowe, Tara L.; Adams, Alexandra K.
Physical activity is a critical component of obesity prevention, but few interventions targeting early childhood have been described. The Active Early guide was designed to increase physical activity in early care and education (ECE) settings. The purpose of Active Early 2.0 was to evaluate the effectiveness of Active Early along with provider training, microgrant support, and technical assistance over 2 years (2012–2014) to increase physical activity and related behaviors (e.g., nutrition) i...
Full Text Available Mohamed A Hendaus,1,2 Fatima A Jomha,3 Mohammad Ehlayel2,4 1Department of Pediatrics, Section of Academic General Pediatrics, Hamad Medical Corporation, 2Weill Cornell Medical College, Doha, Qatar; 3School of Pharmacy, Lebanese International University, Khiara, Lebanon; 4Department of Pediatrics, Section of Pediatric Allergy-Immunology, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar Abstract: Allergic diseases comprise a genetically heterogeneous group of chronic, immunomediated diseases. It has been clearly reported that the prevalence of these diseases has been on the rise for the last few decades, but at different rates, in various areas of the world. This paper discusses the epidemiology of allergic diseases among children and their negative impact on affected patients, their families, and societies. These effects include the adverse effects on quality of life and economic costs. Medical interest has shifted from tertiary or secondary prevention to primary prevention of these chronic diseases among high-risk infants in early life. Being simple, practical, and cost-effective are mandatory features for any candidate methods delivering these strategies. Dietary therapy fits this model well, as it is simple, practical, and cost-effective, and involves diverse methods. The highest priority strategy is feeding these infants breast milk. For those who are not breast-fed, there should be a strategy to maintain beneficial gut flora that positively influences intestinal immunity. We review the current use of probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics, and safety and adverse effects. Other dietary modalities of possible potential in achieving this primary prevention, such as a Mediterranean diet, use of milk formula with modified (hydrolyzed proteins, and the role of micronutrients, are also explored. Breast-feeding is effective in reducing the risk of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic eczema among children. In addition, breast milk constitutes a major source
Birnbaum, Michael L; Garrett, Chantel; Baumel, Amit; Scovel, Maria; Rizvi, Asra F; Muscat, Whitney; Kane, John M
Identifying and engaging youth with early-stage psychotic disorders in order to facilitate timely treatment initiation remains a major public health challenge. Although advertisers routinely use the Internet to directly target consumers, limited efforts have focused on applying available technology to proactively encourage help-seeking in the mental health community. This study explores how one might take advantage of Google AdWords in order to reach prospective patients with early psychosis. A landing page was developed with the primary goal of encouraging help-seeking individuals in New York City to contact their local early psychosis intervention clinic. In order to provide the best opportunity to reach the intended audience, Google AdWords was utilized to link more than 2,000 selected search terms to strategically placed landing page advertisements. The campaign ran for 14 weeks between April 11 and July 18, 2016 and had a total budget of $1,427. The ads appeared 191,313 times and were clicked on 4,350 times, at a per-click cost of $.33. Many users took additional help-seeking steps, including obtaining psychosis-specific information/education (44%), completing a psychosis self-screener (15%), and contacting the local early treatment program (1%). Digital ads appear to be a reasonable and cost-effective method to reach individuals who are searching for behavioral health information online. More research is needed to better understand the many complex steps between online search inquiries and making first clinical contact.
Dodge, Kenneth A; Bierman, Karen L; Coie, John D; Greenberg, Mark T; Lochman, John E; McMahon, Robert J; Pinderhughes, Ellen E
This randomized controlled trial tested the efficacy of early intervention to prevent adult psychopathology and improve well-being in early-starting conduct-problem children. Kindergarteners (N=9,594) in three cohorts (1991-1993) at 55 schools in four communities were screened for conduct problems, yielding 979 early starters. A total of 891 (91%) consented (51% African American, 47% European American; 69% boys). Children were randomly assigned by school cluster to a 10-year intervention or control. The intervention goal was to develop social competencies in children that would carry them throughout life, through social skills training, parent behavior-management training with home visiting, peer coaching, reading tutoring, and classroom social-emotional curricula. Manualization and supervision ensured program fidelity. Ninety-eight percent participated during grade 1, and 80% continued through grade 10. At age 25, arrest records were reviewed (N=817, 92%), and condition-blinded adults psychiatrically interviewed participants (N=702; 81% of living participants) and a peer (N=535) knowledgeable about the participant. Intent-to-treat logistic regression analyses indicated that 69% of participants in the control arm displayed at least one externalizing, internalizing, or substance abuse psychiatric problem (based on self- or peer interview) at age 25, in contrast with 59% of those assigned to intervention (odds ratio=0.59, CI=0.43-0.81; number needed to treat=8). This pattern also held for self-interviews, peer interviews, scores using an "and" rule for self- and peer reports, and separate tests for externalizing problems, internalizing problems, and substance abuse problems, as well as for each of three cohorts, four sites, male participants, female participants, African Americans, European Americans, moderate-risk, and high-risk subgroups. Intervention participants also received lower severity-weighted violent (standardized estimate=-0.37) and drug (standardized
Full Text Available Background : There is a dearth of effective interventions to prevent the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Method : We evaluated the efficacy of a brief dyadic two-session cognitive-behavioral intervention through a controlled trial involving trauma-exposed individuals recruited at the hospital's emergency room. Participants were randomly assigned to either the dyadic intervention group (n=37 or to a waiting list (assessment only group (n=37. Results : In an intent-to-treat analysis, a time-by-group interaction was found, whereby the treated participants had less PTSD symptoms at the post-treatment but not at the pre-treatment compared to controls. Controlling for the improvement observed in the control participants, the intervention yielded a net effect size of d=0.39. Conclusions : A brief, early, and effective intervention can be provided by nurses or social workers in hospital settings, at a fairly low cost to individuals presenting to the emergency room as the result of trauma exposure.
Yuri Arnold Domínguez
Full Text Available Background: Healthy lifestyles incorporated in early ages could influence the most important behaviours and risk factors for atherosclerotic vascular disease in order to reduce the incidence of this condition during adulthood. Objective: To assess the effectiveness of the educational-participatory intervention on students' knowledge as to cardiovascular risk factors. Material: An educational intervention with a quasi-experimental design was conducted from April 2007 to October 2008 in eighth grade junior high school students from Old Havana (the intervention group and Center Havana (the control group. The nonparametric Chi square tests from McNemar and Mantel-Haenszel were used. Results: There were significant statistical associations with a confidence limit of 95% between initial and final state of knowledge in relation to cardiovascular risk factors in the intervention group (p = 0.0001, in the control group (p = 0.035 and between the study group versus the control group after the intervention (p = 0.0001. Conclusions: An educational-participatory program for health promotion and prevention of major risk factors of cardiovascular disease (inadequate dietary habits, smoking and physical inactivity among adolescents, contributes to increase their knowledge and encourages the adoption of healthy daily habits and lifestyles.
Gallo, Carlos; Pantin, Hilda; Villamar, Juan; Prado, Guillermo; Tapia, Maria; Ogihara, Mitsunori; Cruden, Gracelyn; Brown, C Hendricks
Careful fidelity monitoring and feedback are critical to implementing effective interventions. A wide range of procedures exist to assess fidelity; most are derived from observational assessments (Schoenwald and Garland, Psycholog Assess 25:146-156, 2013). However, these fidelity measures are resource intensive for research teams in efficacy/effectiveness trials, and are often unattainable or unmanageable for the host organization to rate when the program is implemented on a large scale. We present a first step towards automated processing of linguistic patterns in fidelity monitoring of a behavioral intervention using an innovative mixed methods approach to fidelity assessment that uses rule-based, computational linguistics to overcome major resource burdens. Data come from an effectiveness trial of the Familias Unidas intervention, an evidence-based, family-centered preventive intervention found to be efficacious in reducing conduct problems, substance use and HIV sexual risk behaviors among Hispanic youth. This computational approach focuses on "joining," which measures the quality of the working alliance of the facilitator with the family. Quantitative assessments of reliability are provided. Kappa scores between a human rater and a machine rater for the new method for measuring joining reached 0.83. Early findings suggest that this approach can reduce the high cost of fidelity measurement and the time delay between fidelity assessment and feedback to facilitators; it also has the potential for improving the quality of intervention fidelity ratings.
Grais, Rebecca F.; Isanaka, I; Langendorf, C; Roederer, T
Full text: Blanket interventions for MAM prevention (Blanket supplementary feeding programming (BSFP)) provide a supplementary food ration often accompanied by a basic medical treatment and prevention package to a vulnerable population for a defined period in a defined geographic location. There is little strong evidence on the impact of BSFP on rates of malnutrition and mortality, and scare guidance on program monitoring and evaluation to improve the implementation of specific programs. Assessing the impact of BSFP has been fraught with difficulty. Their isolated impact is difficult, if not often impossible to disentangle from larger care and prevention packages, the objectives of BSFP may vary by context, implementing agency, time and geography. Various and often multiple co-morbidities among children in the targeted group complicate matters further with respect to impact assessment. This leads to difficulties in generalizing results from one context to another and the need for more complex metrics to guide operational decision-making. Ideally, impact or effectiveness of BSFP should be addressed in a research framework where appropriate and complete data is collected in order to address specific questions. The gold standard is the conduct of randomized studies including a control group. These studies have been scarce as they may be perceived as either rarely feasible or not ethical or both. However, as generating evidence on impact of BSFP is essential to provide operational guidance, these studies should be encouraged through a diversity of robust, yet creative and pragmatic, methodological approaches. As a case study, a series of studies conducted over the past decade are reviewed in the same location in Niger highlighting the lessons learned. (author)
Shamliyan, Tatyana A; Wyman, Jean F; Ping, Ryan; Wilt, Timothy J; Kane, Robert L
Urinary incontinence (UI) in community-dwelling men affects quality of life and increases the risk of institutionalization. Observational studies and randomized, controlled trials published in English from 1990 to November 2007 on the epidemiology and prevention of UI were identified in several databases to abstract rates and adjusted odds ratios (OR) of incontinence, calculate absolute risk difference (ARD) after clinical interventions, and synthesize evidence with random-effects models. Of 1083 articles identified, 126 were eligible for analysis. Pooled prevalence of UI increased with age to 21% to 32% in elderly men. Poor general health, comorbidities, severe physical limitations, cognitive impairment, stroke (pooled OR 1.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14-2.1), urinary tract infections (pooled OR 3.49; 95% CI, 2.33-5.23), prostate diseases, and diabetes (pooled OR 1.36; 95% CI, 1.14-1.61) were associated with UI. Treatment with tolterodine alone (ARD 0.17; 95% CI, 0.02-0.32) or combined with tamsulosin (ARD 0.17; 95% CI, 0.08-0.25) resulted in greater self-reported benefit compared with placebo. Radical prostatectomy or radiotherapy for prostate cancer compared with watchful waiting increased UI. Short-term prevention of UI with pelvic floor muscle rehabilitation after prostatectomy was not consistently seen across randomized, controlled trials. The prevalence of incontinence increased with age and functional dependency. Stroke, diabetes, poor general health, radiation, and surgery for prostate cancer were associated with UI in community-dwelling men. Men reported overall benefit from drug treatments. Limited evidence of preventive effects of pelvic floor rehabilitation requires future investigation.
Intervention studies This dissertation describes three trials in which the effectiveness of three preventive interventions for youth were tested in the Netherlands. The interventions aim to improve the social and emotional development of children in elementary school (PATHS), reduce alcohol use and mental health problems in students in secondary education (Preventure), and empower adolescent second generation migrants (POWER). The results revealed no effectiveness of the PATHS intervention, w...
Amos, Taryn; Stein, Dan J; Ipser, Jonathan C
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating disorder which, after a sufficient delay, may be diagnosed amongst individuals who respond with intense fear, helplessness or horror to traumatic events. There is some evidence that the use of pharmacological interventions immediately after exposure to trauma may reduce the risk of developing of PTSD. To assess the effects of pharmacological interventions for the prevention of PTSD in adults following exposure to a traumatic event. We searched the Cochrane Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Controlled Trials Register (CCDANCTR-Studies and CCDANCTR-References) (to 14 February 2014). This register contains relevant reports of randomised controlled trials from the following bibliographic databases: CENTRAL (all years); EMBASE (1974 to date); MEDLINE (1950 to date) and PsycINFO (1967 to date). We identified unpublished trials by searching the National Institute of Health (NIH) Reporter, the metaRegister of Controlled Trials database (mRCT) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (to December 2013). We scanned the reference lists of articles for additional studies. We placed no constraints on language and setting. We restricted studies to randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of pharmacological interventions compared with placebo for the prevention of PTSD in adults. Two authors (TA and JI) independently assessed trials for eligibility and inclusion based on the review selection criteria. We independently extracted sample, methodological, outcome and 'Risk of bias' data, as well as the number of side effects, from each trial and entered these into a customised data extraction form. We contacted investigators for missing information. We calculated summary statistics for continuous and dichotomous variables (if provided). We did not undertake subgroup analyses due to the small number of included studies. We included nine short-term RCTs (duration 12 weeks or less) in the analysis (345 participants
Alzheimer's disease affects the emotional, physical, and financial aspects of caregivers' lives. Healthcare providers have an opportunity to improve the lives of both caregivers and patients by helping caregivers understand how to best cope with symptoms of the disease. Teaching for caregivers should provide an understanding of the progression of the disease and its symptoms, how to cope with difficult behaviors and avoid triggers, appropriate use of medication and common side effects, and the use of a routine as a means to decrease stress for the caregiver and the patient. Finding ways to intervene early rather than performing crisis management may prevent adverse consequences for the patient and the caregiver.
Wang, Chao; Xie, Wei; Zhu, Jinfeng; Dang, Rui; Wang, Decai
To observe the early prevention effect of the compound nutrients recipe for cognitive dysfunction of Alzheimer' s disease model-APP-PSN transgenic mouse. 36 APP-PSN transgenic mice aged two months randomly were divided into the intervention group supplied with compound recipe in the diet and the control group fed based feed, the former had high dose and low dose, 12 APP-PSN transgenic negative mice aged two months as the negative control were fed based feed. After 3 months' intervention, four groups' cognitive functions were evaluated using the Morris water maze, active avoidance experiment and jumping stair experiment. There was not statistically different between all the four groups for the weight and food intake. Compared with the control group, Morris water maze's incubation period of the intervention group was lower obviously, and jumping stair experiment's incubation period of the intervention group was higher obviously. In the active avoidance experiment, the high and low dose intervention group' s conditioned response accounted about 46.67% and 45.00% respectively, and the control group's conditioned response accounted about 20.83%. The differences of the three behavioral experiments between control group and intervention group had the statistical significance (P nutrition could postpone the occurrence and development of Alzheimer' s disease mice model's cognitive dysfunction.
Agency and program administrators and decisionmakers responsible for implementing early childhood intervention programs are becoming more interested in quantifying the costs and benefits of such programs...
Salzer, Simone; Cropp, Carola; Streeck-Fischer, Annette
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) should be understood as a disorder of development (Streeck-Fischer 2008, 2013) that has its first manifestation in late childhood and adolescence. There are only few treatment studies of adolescents meeting the diagnostic criteria of borderline personality disorder, although early interventions for these patients are urgently needed (see Chanen & McCutcheon 2013). We examined the effectiveness of an inpatient psychodynamic therapy (PDT). Twenty-eight adolescents fulfilling the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria of borderline personality disorder were treated with psychodynamic therapy. The mean duration of treatment was 29.87 weeks (SD = 15.88). Outcomes were remission rates, GAF, GSI, SDQ, IIP and BPI scores. Assessments were made at admission and after treatment. Pre-post comparisons and comparisons with normative data were conducted. At the end of treatment 39.29% of the patients were remitted. We found significant improvements for the GAF, GSI, SDQ, IIP (all p0.001) and the BPI (p = 0.006). These clinically relevant improvements demonstrate the effectiveness of psychodynamic therapy in adolescents with borderline personality disorder and stress the usefulness of an early intervention for these patients.
Day-Hess, Crystal; Clements, Douglas H
The DREME Network was created to advance the field of early mathematics research and improves the opportunities to develop math competencies offered to children birth through age 8 years, with an emphasis on the preschool years. All four main Network projects will have implications for interventions. Section 1 introduces the Network and its four projects. The remainder of the chapter focuses on one of these four projects, Making More of Math (MMM), in depth. MMM is directly developing an intervention for children, based on selecting high-quality instructional activities culled from the burgeoning curriculum resources. We first report a review of 457 activities from 6 research-based curricula, which describes the number of activities by content focus, type (nature), and setting of each activity. Given the interest in higher-order thinking skills and self-regulation, we then identified activities that had the potential to, develop both mathematics and executive function (EF) proficiencies. We rated these, selecting the top 10 for extensive coding by mathematics content and EF processes addressed. We find a wide divergence across curricula in all these categories and provide comprehensive reports for those interested in selecting, using, or developing early mathematics curricula. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pecoraro, Felice; Wilhelm, Markus; Kaufmann, Angela R; Bettex, Dominique; Maier, Willibald; Mayer, Dieter; Veith, Frank J; Lachat, Mario
The objective of this study was to report long-term results of early endovascular aortic aneurysm repair after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). This was a retrospective analysis of all patients presenting with abdominal aortic aneurysm and coronary artery disease treated during the same hospitalization by endovascular aortic aneurysm repair performed soon after PCI. Primary outcomes were perioperative mortality, perioperative complications, survival after treatment, and freedom from reintervention. A total of 20 patients were included, and all completed both procedures. No deaths or abdominal aortic aneurysm ruptures occurred between the PCI and the aortic intervention. Perioperative mortality was 5% as one patient died of mesenteric ischemia after endovascular aneurysm repair. Major cardiovascular vascular complications occurred in four patients (20%) and included non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (one) and access vessel complication (three). Mean follow-up was 94 (range, 1-164; standard deviation, 47) months. Estimated survival at 1 year, 2 years, 5 years, and 10 years was 90%, 90%, 90%, and 60%, respectively. A reoperation was required in six patients. Estimated freedom from reintervention at 1 year, 2 years, 5 years, and 10 years was 83%, 83%, 78%, and 72%, respectively. Our study indicates that early endovascular aneurysm repair performed within a week after PCI may be a reasonable approach in patients with large or symptomatic aneurysms. Copyright © 2015 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Colditz, Graham A; Bohlke, Kari; Berkey, Catherine S.
Purpose Nearly 1 in 4 breast cancers is diagnosed before the age of 50, and many early-stage premalignant lesions are present but not yet diagnosed. Therefore, we review evidence to support the strategy that breast cancer prevention efforts must begin early in life. Methods Literature review Results Exposures during childhood and adolescence affect a woman’s long-term risk of breast cancer, but have received far less research attention than exposures that occur later in life. Breast tissue undergoes rapid cellular proliferation between menarche and first full-term pregnancy, and risk accumulates rapidly until the terminal differentiation that accompanies first pregnancy. Evidence on childhood diet and growth in height, and adolescent alcohol intake, among other adolescent factors are related to breast cancer risk and risk of premalignant proliferative benign lesions. Conclusion Breast cancer prevention efforts will have the greatest effect when initiated at an early age and continued over a lifetime. Gaps in knowledge are identified and deserve increase attention to inform prevention. PMID:24820413
... PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN PROVISION OF EARLY INTERVENTION SERVICES TO ELIGIBLE INFANTS AND TODDLERS... Families A. Requirements For A System of Early Intervention Services 1. A system of coordinated, comprehensive, multidisciplinary, and intercomponent programs providing appropriate early intervention services...
Selph, Shelley S; Bougatsos, Christina; Blazina, Ian; Nelson, Heidi D
In 2004, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force determined that evidence was insufficient to recommend behavioral interventions and counseling to prevent child abuse and neglect. To review new evidence on the effectiveness of behavioral interventions and counseling in health care settings for reducing child abuse and neglect and related health outcomes, as well as adverse effects of interventions. MEDLINE and PsycINFO (January 2002 to June 2012), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (through the second quarter of 2012), Scopus, and reference lists. English-language trials of the effectiveness of behavioral interventions and counseling and studies of any design about adverse effects. Investigators extracted data about study populations, designs, and outcomes and rated study quality using established criteria. Eleven fair-quality randomized trials of interventions and no studies of adverse effects met inclusion criteria. A trial of risk assessment and interventions for abuse and neglect in pediatric clinics for families with children aged 5 years or younger indicated reduced physical assault, Child Protective Services (CPS) reports, nonadherence to medical care, and immunization delay among screened children. Ten trials of early childhood home visitation reported reduced CPS reports, emergency department visits, hospitalizations, and self-reports of abuse and improved adherence to immunizations and well-child care, although results were inconsistent. Trials were limited by heterogeneity, low adherence, high loss to follow-up, and lack of standardized measures. Risk assessment and behavioral interventions in pediatric clinics reduced abuse and neglect outcomes for young children. Early childhood home visitation also reduced abuse and neglect, but results were inconsistent. Additional research on interventions to prevent child abuse and neglect is needed. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.
Jenmalm, M C; Duchén, K
The increasing allergy prevalence in affluent countries may be caused by reduced microbial stimulation and a decreased dietary ω-3/ω-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) ratio, resulting in an abnormal postnatal immune maturation. The timing of allergy-preventive probiotic and ω-3 LCPUFA interventions is critical, as early-life events occurring during critical windows of immune vulnerability can have long-term impact on immune development. The maternal dietary and microbial environment during pregnancy may programme the immune development of the child. Prenatal environmental exposures may alter gene expression via epigenetic mechanisms, aiming to induce physiological adaptations to the anticipated postnatal environment, but potentially also increasing disease susceptibility in the offspring if exposures are mismatched. Although the importance of fetal programming mostly has been studied in cardiovascular and metabolic disease, this hypothesis is also very attractive in the context of environmentally influenced immune-mediated diseases. This review focuses on how prenatal, perinatal or postnatal ω-3 LCPUFA interventions regulate childhood immune and allergy development, and if synergistic effects may be obtained by simultaneous probiotic supplementation. We propose that combined pre- and postnatal preventive measures may be most efficacious. Increasing knowledge on the immunomodulatory effects of prenatal, perinatal and postnatal interventions will help to direct future strategies to combat the allergy epidemic. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Oberklaid, Frank; Baird, Gillian; Blair, Mitch; Melhuish, Edward; Hall, David
Many children arrive at school with problems of development and behaviour which affect their educational achievement and social interaction and can have lifelong consequences. There is a strong association between developmental vulnerability at school entry and a well-documented series of parent and family risk factors, often linked to social disadvantage. Strategies which are likely to make a difference to these children and improve outcomes include family support, high-quality early education and care programmes in the preschool years, and early detection of emerging problems and risk factors. The evidence suggests that these services and programmes are best delivered within a framework of progressive universalism--a universal basket of services for all children and families, with additional support commensurate with additional needs. This provides the best opportunity for early identification and appropriate intervention for emerging developmental problems and family issues that impact on children's development. While there are a number of challenges that need to be addressed and overcome, such an approach is an important investment that will yield measurable educational, social and economic benefits over the long term.
Full Text Available Early intervention with children at risk or facing developmental problems is a practice defined by three fundamental characteristics: being family-centered, being based on the community and on the child’s life context, and being conducted by a team with transdisciplinary practice. In this paper we wish to present how the SNIPI-National System of Early Intervention, implemented in Portugal over the past 15 years, contributes to promote maximum development and the full inclusion of children up to 6 years of age and works to prevent school failure. The SNIPI covers the entire territory and intends to respond to the needs of children with developmental disorders or those in at risk situations. This community-based early intervention model is linked to the health, education and social care systems, involving the three responsible Ministries. In the present community case study, we present the implementation of this program in the Alentejo region, involving 31 local teams and almost 2500 children. Through the regional structure’s reports and the responses of parents and professionals in impact studies, we demonstrate how the system is established and how it tackles school failure and improves the educational inclusion of these children. The impact of this Early Intervention model has been significant not only on children’s developmental outcomes, but also for the health, education and social care professionals who work in a transdisciplinary perspective, as well as for the families who became more skilled at evaluating the children’s needs and the support provided. This approach to implementing a family-centered Early Intervention program can contribute to full inclusion. It facilitates the transition to schooling based on a non-discriminatory approach and educational achievement by aiding development and an adapted contextualization in pre-school education. This program system introduces significant innovation within the framework of existing
Franco, Vitor; Melo, Madalena; Santos, Graça; Apolónio, Ana; Amaral, Leonor
Early intervention with children at risk or facing developmental problems is a practice defined by three fundamental characteristics: being family-centered, being based on the community and on the child's life context, and being conducted by a team with transdisciplinary practice. In this paper we wish to present how the SNIPI-National System of Early Intervention, implemented in Portugal over the past 15 years, contributes to promote maximum development and the full inclusion of children up to 6 years of age and works to prevent school failure. The SNIPI covers the entire territory and intends to respond to the needs of children with developmental disorders or those in at risk situations. This community-based early intervention model is linked to the health, education and social care systems, involving the three responsible Ministries. In the present community case study, we present the implementation of this program in the Alentejo region, involving 31 local teams and almost 2500 children. Through the regional structure's reports and the responses of parents and professionals in impact studies, we demonstrate how the system is established and how it tackles school failure and improves the educational inclusion of these children. The impact of this Early Intervention model has been significant not only on children's developmental outcomes, but also for the health, education and social care professionals who work in a transdisciplinary perspective, as well as for the families who became more skilled at evaluating the children's needs and the support provided. This approach to implementing a family-centered Early Intervention program can contribute to full inclusion. It facilitates the transition to schooling based on a non-discriminatory approach and educational achievement by aiding development and an adapted contextualization in pre-school education. This program system introduces significant innovation within the framework of existing educational policies that
Tarvonen, P-L; Sipilä, K; Yang, G S; Kim, J K; Lamidi, M-L; Suominen, A L
The aim was to compare the change in dental caries status in two different intervention groups of the Children's Oral Health Promotion Programme (COHPP). A longitudinal study among 500 children who had participated into the COHPP for 6 years was conducted in Pyongyang, Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK). Children in Group I received intensified school-based intervention and were clinically examined at the age of 7 years in 2007 (n = 250), 10 years in 2010 (n = 250) and 13 years in 2013 (n = 242). Children in Group II (n = 250) joined the programme at the age of 4 years in kindergarten in 2007, were provided with early preschool-based intervention and were clinically examined at the age of 7 years in 2010 and 10 years in 2013. Both the prevalence and the mean number of dt + DT decreased significantly in both groups during the follow-up. This was due to decrease in the number of dt, whereas the number of DT remained relatively constant. Poisson regression showed that the association between the group status and the change in the number of dt + DT was statistically significant when adjusted for gender but disappeared when the school was included in the analysis. The decrease in dental caries may be partly due to the exfoliation of deciduous teeth and dental treatment received. However, the study gave some reference emphasizing the early starting of the prevention. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Covington, Carolyn Frances; King, Joyce A; Fennell, Irnise; Jones, Chanel; Hutchinson, Charmaine; Evans, Annette
Despite advances in stroke treatment in the United States, stroke remains the third leading cause of death among Americans and the leading cause of serious, long-term disability in the United States. About 780,000 Americans will have a new or recurrent stroke this year. Each year, about 60,000 more women than men have a stroke. African Americans have almost twice the risk of first-ever strokes compared with Whites. Minority populations are less likely to know all stroke symptoms and far less likely to know all heart attack symptoms. There are many benefits of early treatment of stroke, yet most minorities do not get this treatment because they do not recognize the warning signs, risk factors, and prevention of stroke. The objective of this intervention course was to increase the students' knowledge and awareness of stroke, warning signs, risk factors, and prevention. Developing community-based stroke prevention intervention courses in minority communities is a good strategy to reduce morbidity and mortality and help to eliminate health disparities in minority communities.
Conclusion: This systematic yet pragmatic and iterative intervention development process is potentially applicable to any injury prevention topic across all sports settings and levels. It will guide researchers wishing to undertake intervention development.
Rijpkema, G.; Adang, E.M.M.; Dicke, H.C.; Naber, A.H.J.; Swart, B.J.M. de; Disselhorst, L.; Goluke-Willemse, G.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.
BACKGROUND: In order to reduce protein-energy malnutrition in older people during hospitalisation an early interdisciplinary intervention is needed. We developed a protocol which includes screening for malnutrition, dysphagia and dehydration on admission, followed by immediate interventions.
John Cecily, Helen Shaji
Osteoporosis is difficult to treat and is still incurable, and thus prevention is critically important. The aim of this study was to find out the high-risk women for osteoporosis and to correlate their bone mineral density (BMD) with their investigated risk factors. Cross-sectional design was used and it was conducted among 200 pre- and postmenopausal Saudi women. The study documented that postmenopausal females had high prevalence of osteopenia and majority of them had low serum calcium. Significant correlation was found between low BMD and family history of osteoporosis; increased BMD was seen in women, who consumed calcium-rich foods, exposure to sun light, and longer fertility period. Majority of the women 94.5% had inadequate knowledge on preventive measures of osteoporosis. The high prevalence of osteopenia in postmenopausal women indicates the ultimate importance of early intervention to prevent development of osteoporosis in later life.
Maiwald, Karin; de Rijk, Angelique; Guzman, Jaime; Schonstein, Eva; Yassi, Annalee
Introduction Workplace disability prevention is important, but stakeholders can differ in their appreciation of such interventions. We present a responsive evaluation of a workplace disability prevention intervention in a Canadian healthcare organization. Three groups of stakeholders were included: designers of the intervention, deliverers, and workers. The aim was to examine the appreciation of this intervention by analyzing the discrepancies with respect to what these various stakeholders s...
Clasen, Thomas F; Alexander, Kelly T; Sinclair, David; Boisson, Sophie; Peletz, Rachel; Chang, Howard H; Majorin, Fiona; Cairncross, Sandy
Diarrhoea is a major cause of death and disease, especially among young children in low-income countries. In these settings, many infectious agents associated with diarrhoea are spread through water contaminated with faeces.In remote and low-income settings, source-based water quality improvement includes providing protected groundwater (springs, wells, and bore holes), or harvested rainwater as an alternative to surface sources (rivers and lakes). Point-of-use water quality improvement interventions include boiling, chlorination, flocculation, filtration, or solar disinfection, mainly conducted at home. To assess the effectiveness of interventions to improve water quality for preventing diarrhoea. We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register (11 November 2014), CENTRAL (the Cochrane Library, 7 November 2014), MEDLINE (1966 to 10 November 2014), EMBASE (1974 to 10 November 2014), and LILACS (1982 to 7 November 2014). We also handsearched relevant conference proceedings, contacted researchers and organizations working in the field, and checked references from identified studies through 11 November 2014. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-RCTs, and controlled before-and-after studies (CBA) comparing interventions aimed at improving the microbiological quality of drinking water with no intervention in children and adults. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We used meta-analyses to estimate pooled measures of effect, where appropriate, and investigated potential sources of heterogeneity using subgroup analyses. We assessed the quality of evidence using the GRADE approach. Forty-five cluster-RCTs, two quasi-RCTs, and eight CBA studies, including over 84,000 participants, met the inclusion criteria. Most included studies were conducted in low- or middle-income countries (LMICs) (50 studies) with unimproved water sources (30 studies) and unimproved or unclear sanitation (34 studies). The primary
Sin Weon Yun
Full Text Available Although antenatal diagnostic technique has considerably improved, precise detection and proper management of the neonate with congenital heart disease (CHD is always a great concern to pediatricians. Congenital cardiac malformations vary from benign to serious conditions such as complete transposition of the great arteries (TGA, critical pulmonary and aortic valvular stenosis/atresia, hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS, obstructed total anomalous pulmonary venous return (TAPVR, which the baby needs immediate diagnosis and management for survival. Unfortunately, these life threatening heart diseases may not have obvious evidence early after birth, most of the clinical and physical findings are nonspecific and vague, which makes the diagnosis difficult. High index of suspicion and astute acumen are essential to decision making. When patent ductus arteriosus (PDA is opened widely, many serious malformations may not be noticed easily in the early life, but would progress as severe acidosis/shock/cyanosis or even death as PDA constricts after few hours to days. Ductus dependent congenital cardiac lesions can be divided into the ductus dependent systemic or pulmonary disease, but physiologically quite different from each other and treatment strategy has to be tailored to the clinical status and cardiac malformations. Inevitably early presentation is often regarded as a medical emergency. Differential diagnosis with inborn error metabolic disorders, neonatal sepsis, persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN and other pulmonary conditions are necessary. Urgent identification of the newborn at such high risk requires timely referral to a pediatric cardiologist, and timely intervention is the key in reducing mortality and morbidity. This following review deals with the clinical presentations, investigative modalities and approach to management of congenital cardiac malformations presenting in the early life.
Molina-Aguilera, Ida Berenice; Mendoza-Rodríguez, Lourdes Otilia; Palma-Ríos, María Aparicia; Danovaro-Holliday, M Carolina
We sought to review and describe health interventions integrated with immunization delivery, both routine and during national vaccination weeks, in Honduras between 1991 and 2009. We compiled and examined all annual evaluation reports from the national Expanded Program on Immunization and reports from the national vaccination weeks (NVWs) between 1988 and 2009. We held discussions with the persons responsible for immunization and other programs in the Health Secretary of Honduras for the same time period. Since 1991, several health promotion and disease prevention interventions have been integrated with immunization delivery, including vitamin A supplementation (since 1994), folic acid supplementation (2003), early detection of retinoblastoma (since 2003), breastfeeding promotion (2007-2008), and disease control activities during public health emergencies, such as cholera control (1991-1992) and dengue control activities (since 1991, when a dengue emergency coincides with the NVW). Success factors included sufficient funds and supplies to ensure sustainability and joint planning, delivery, and monitoring. Several health interventions have been integrated with vaccination delivery in Honduras for nearly 20 years. The immunization program in Honduras has sufficient structure, organization, acceptance, coverage, and experience to achieve successful integration with health interventions if carefully planned and suitably implemented.
Lindenskov, Lena; Kirsted, Katrine
“There is nothing so practical as a good theory”. The statement from Kurt Lewin is frequently cited, also in mathematics education. The statement invites for and requires close cooperation between different agents, whatever their own specific relation to practice and theory is...... theory?” and “What makes a good theory good for whom?” This paper explores this variation of how theory is perceived by mathematics teachers and by mathematics researchers involved in a developmental project on early intervention in mathematics education in Denmark. The paper exemplifies how agents....... It is not a straightforward endeavour. One reason is that the term theory as well as the term practice may very well be given different meanings by different agents. This variation is in our view to be considered in “implementation research” and Lewin’s statement ought to be qualified by two questions “Who cares for a good...
Reilly, John J
Prevention of obesity in childhood and adolescence remains a worthwhile and realistic goal, but preventive efforts have been beset by a number of problems, which are the subject of this review. The review draws on recent systematic reviews and evidence appraisals and has a United Kingdom (UK) perspective because there is a rich evidence base in the United Kingdom that may be helpful to obesity prevention researchers elsewhere. Recent evidence of a leveling off in child and adolescent obesity prevalence in some Western nations should not encourage the belief that the obesity prevention problem has been solved, although a better understanding of recent secular trends might be helpful for prevention strategy in future. An adequate body of evidence provides behavioral targets of preventive interventions, and there are frameworks for prioritizing these targets logically and models for translating them into generalizable interventions with a wide reach (e.g., school-based prevention interventions such as Planet Health). An improved understanding of the "energy gap" that children and adolescents experience would be helpful to the design of preventive interventions and to their tailoring to particular groups. In the United Kingdom, some recent etiological evidence has been taken as indicative of the need for paradigm shifts in obesity prevention, but this evidence from single studies has not been replicated, and paradigm shifts probably occur only rarely. Ensuring that the evidence base on etiology and prevention influences policy effectively remains one of the greatest challenges for childhood obesity researchers.
Reilly, John J.
Prevention of obesity in childhood and adolescence remains a worthwhile and realistic goal, but preventive efforts have been beset by a number of problems, which are the subject of this review. The review draws on recent systematic reviews and evidence appraisals and has a United Kingdom (UK) perspective because there is a rich evidence base in the United Kingdom that may be helpful to obesity prevention researchers elsewhere. Recent evidence of a leveling off in child and adolescent obesity prevalence in some Western nations should not encourage the belief that the obesity prevention problem has been solved, although a better understanding of recent secular trends might be helpful for prevention strategy in future. An adequate body of evidence provides behavioral targets of preventive interventions, and there are frameworks for prioritizing these targets logically and models for translating them into generalizable interventions with a wide reach (e.g., school-based prevention interventions such as Planet Health). An improved understanding of the “energy gap” that children and adolescents experience would be helpful to the design of preventive interventions and to their tailoring to particular groups. In the United Kingdom, some recent etiological evidence has been taken as indicative of the need for paradigm shifts in obesity prevention, but this evidence from single studies has not been replicated, and paradigm shifts probably occur only rarely. Ensuring that the evidence base on etiology and prevention influences policy effectively remains one of the greatest challenges for childhood obesity researchers. PMID:22798005
Krishnaratne, Shari; Hensen, Bernadette; Cordes, Jillian; Enstone, Joanne; Hargreaves, James R
Much progress has been made in interventions to prevent HIV infection. However, development of evidence-informed prevention programmes that translate the efficacy of these strategies into population effect remain a challenge. In this systematic review, we map current evidence for HIV prevention against a new classification system, the HIV prevention cascade. We searched for systematic reviews on the effectiveness of HIV prevention interventions published in English from Jan 1, 1995, to July, 2015. From eligible reviews, we identified primary studies that assessed at least one of: HIV incidence, HIV prevalence, condom use, and uptake of HIV testing. We categorised interventions as those seeking to increase demand for HIV prevention, improve supply of HIV prevention methods, support adherence to prevention behaviours, or directly prevent HIV. For each specific intervention, we assigned a rating based on the number of randomised trials and the strength of evidence. From 88 eligible reviews, we identified 1964 primary studies, of which 292 were eligible for inclusion. Primary studies of direct prevention mechanisms showed strong evidence for the efficacy of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and voluntary medical male circumcision. Evidence suggests that interventions to increase supply of prevention methods such as condoms or clean needles can be effective. Evidence arising from demand-side interventions and interventions to promote use of or adherence to prevention tools was less clear, with some strategies likely to be effective and others showing no effect. The quality of the evidence varied across categories. There is growing evidence to support a number of efficacious HIV prevention behaviours, products, and procedures. Translating this evidence into population impact will require interventions that strengthen demand for HIV prevention, supply of HIV prevention technologies, and use of and adherence to HIV prevention methods. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
Loeber, Rolf; Farrington, David P.; Petechuk, David
Sparked by high-profile cases involving children who commit violent crimes, public concerns regarding child delinquents have escalated. Compared with juveniles who first become involved in delinquency in their teens, child delinquents (offenders younger than age 13) face a much greater risk of becoming serious, violent, and chronic juvenile…
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To describe the establishment and development of an Early Psychosis Intervention Programme in Singapore that is based on a business model and with concepts drawn from the corporate world. The author who directed this programme describes the circumstances that led to this initiative, the ideas borrowed and adapted from the corporate world, and the lessons learnt in setting up this intervention programme. The modus operandi of the programme is based on the Balanced Scorecard - a model which stresses four equally important components: customers, internal processes, financial health and learning and innovation. Other complementary actions like creating a sense of urgency, forging a vision with a core ideology, empowerment of team members, creating short-term wins, anchoring the changes and finding meaning in the work are vital for the programme to thrive. This model also emphasizes the importance of accountability through the measurability of indicators. These indicators included a significant reduction in the duration of untreated psychosis, a positive change in the referral patterns with better engagement of the primary health-care sector and an improvement in the quality of care for the patients. Much can be learnt from the business world in building and maintaining a public mental health programme. Effective change also requires effective leadership, and the successful implementation of certain strategic steps.
Bak, Jesper; Brandt-Christensen, Anne Mette; Sestoft, Dorte Maria
PURPOSE: To identify interventions preventing mechanical restraints. DESIGN AND METHODS: Systematic review of international research papers dealing with mechanical restraint. The review combines qualitative and quantitative research in a new way, describing the quality of evidence and the effect...... of intervention. FINDINGS: Implementation of cognitive milieu therapy, combined interventions, and patient-centered care were the three interventions most likely to reduce the number of mechanical restraints. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: There is a lack of high-quality and effective intervention studies. This leaves...... patients and metal health professionals with uncertainty when choosing interventions in an attempt to prevent mechanical restraints....
Dalal, Adam; Eskin-Schwartz, Marina; Mimouni, Daniel; Ray, Sujoy; Days, Walford; Hodak, Emmilia; Leibovici, Leonard; Paul, Mical
Erysipelas and cellulitis (hereafter referred to as 'cellulitis') are common bacterial skin infections usually affecting the lower extremities. Despite their burden of morbidity, the evidence for different prevention strategies is unclear. To assess the beneficial and adverse effects of antibiotic prophylaxis or other prophylactic interventions for the prevention of recurrent episodes of cellulitis in adults aged over 16. We searched the following databases up to June 2016: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, and LILACS. We also searched five trials registry databases, and checked reference lists of included studies and reviews for further references to relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs). We searched two sets of dermatology conference proceedings, and BIOSIS Previews. Randomised controlled trials evaluating any therapy for the prevention of recurrent cellulitis. Two authors independently carried out study selection, data extraction, assessment of risks of bias, and analyses. Our primary prespecified outcome was recurrence of cellulitis when on treatment and after treatment. Our secondary outcomes included incidence rate, time to next episode, hospitalisation, quality of life, development of resistance to antibiotics, adverse reactions and mortality. We included six trials, with a total of 573 evaluable participants, who were aged on average between 50 and 70. There were few previous episodes of cellulitis in those recruited to the trials, ranging between one and four episodes per study.Five of the six included trials assessed prevention with antibiotics in participants with cellulitis of the legs, and one assessed selenium in participants with cellulitis of the arms. Among the studies assessing antibiotics, one study evaluated oral erythromycin (n = 32) and four studies assessed penicillin (n = 481). Treatment duration varied from six to 18 months, and two studies
Rollins, Pamela Rosenthal; Campbell, Michelle; Hoffman, Renee Thibodeau; Self, Kayli
This study examined Pathways Early Autism Intervention, a community-based, parent-mediated, intensive behavioral and developmental intervention program for children with autism spectrum disorders that could be used as a model for state-funded early intervention programs. A single-subject, multiple-baseline, across-participants design was used.…
Full Text Available Abstract Background To respond to the rapid surge in the incidence of suicide in Japan, which appears to be an ongoing trend, the Japanese Multimodal Intervention Trials for Suicide Prevention (J-MISP have launched a multimodal community-based suicide prevention program, NOCOMIT-J. The primary aim of this study is to examine whether NOCOMIT-J is effective in reducing suicidal behavior in the community. Methods/DesignThis study is a community intervention trial involving seven intervention regions with accompanying control regions, all with populations of statistically sufficient size. The program focuses on building social support networks in the public health system for suicide prevention and mental health promotion, intending to reinforce human relationships in the community. The intervention program components includes a primary prevention measures of awareness campaign for the public and key personnel, secondary prevention measures for screening of, and assisting, high-risk individuals, after-care for individuals bereaved by suicide, and other measures. The intervention started in July 2006, and will continue for 3.5 years. Participants are Japanese and foreign residents living in the intervention and control regions (a total of population of 2,120,000 individuals. Discussion The present study is designed to evaluate the effectiveness of the community-based suicide prevention program in the seven participating areas. Trial registration UMIN Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN-CTR UMIN000000460.
Murray, N; Kelder, S; Parcel, G; Orpinas, P
This paper describes development of Padres Trabajando por la Paz, a violence prevention intervention for Hispanic parents to increase parental monitoring. The intervention was developed using an innovative new program planning process: intervention mapping. Theory and empirical evidence broadly defined performance objectives and determinants of parental monitoring. These objectives were further refined through group and individual interviews with the target parent group. Learning objectives for the intervention guided the content of the intervention that used modeling as the primary method and role model stories as a strategy delivered through newsletters. Stage-matching members of the target population for their readiness to implement the parental monitoring behaviors further refined the social cognitive message design strategies. Intervention mapping provides an explicit theory- and data-driven guide for intervention development that maximizes intervention impact for a specific target population.
Wilson, Deleise S; Montie, Mary; Conlon, Paul; Reynolds, Margaret; Ripley, Robert; Titler, Marita G
Evidence-based (EB) fall prevention interventions to mitigate patient-specific fall risk factors are readily available but not routinely used in practice. Few studies have examined nurses' perceptions about both the use of these EB interventions and implementation strategies designed to promote their adoption. This article reports qualitative findings of nurses' perceptions about use of EB fall prevention interventions to mitigate patient-specific fall risks, and implementation strategies to promote use of these interventions. The findings revealed five major themes: before-study fall prevention practices, use of EB fall prevention interventions tailored to patient-specific fall risk factors, beneficial implementation strategies, overall impact on approach to fall prevention, and challenges These findings are useful to guide nurses' engagement and use of EB fall prevention practices tailored to patient-specific fall risk factors. © The Author(s) 2016.
Joventino, Emanuella Silva; Ximenes, Lorena Barbosa; da Penha, Jardeliny Corrêa; Andrade, Lucilande Cordeiro de Oliveira; de Almeida, Paulo César
Diarrhoea is responsible for high rates of infant morbidity and mortality. It is multifactorial, manifested by socioeconomic, hygienic, and maternal factors. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of an educational video on maternal self-efficacy for the prevention of childhood diarrhoea. This was a randomized trial conducted in the state of Ceará, Brazil. Participants were 2 groups (comparison and intervention), composed of mothers of children under 5 years of age. Group membership was allocated by cluster randomization. Outcomes were maternal self-efficacy measured using the Maternal Self-efficacy Scale for Prevention of Early Childhood Diarrhoea; outcome data collectors were blinded to group allocation. Ninety participants were randomized to each group; 83 intervention group and 80 comparison group members were contained in the final analysis. Maternal self-efficacy in preventing childhood diarrhoea increased in both groups, but average scores of the intervention group were higher at all time than those of the comparison group. The educational video had a significant effect on maternal self-efficacy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Ritchie, Craig W; Molinuevo, José Luis; Truyen, Luc; Satlin, Andrew; Van der Geyten, Serge; Lovestone, Simon
Alzheimer's dementia affects more than 40 million people worldwide with substantial increases in prevalence anticipated. Interventions that either modify risk or reduce the development of early disease could delay the onset of dementia or reduce the rate of cognitive and functional decline. The European Prevention of Alzheimer's Dementia (EPAD) is a public-private consortium, funded by the Innovative Medicines Initiative, designed to increase the likelihood of successful development of new treatments for the secondary prevention of Alzheimer's dementia. EPAD will help with testing of different agents in this pre-dementia population through four components: improvement of access to existing cohorts and registries, development of the EPAD Registry of approximately 24,000 people who might be at increased risk of developing Alzheimer's dementia, establishment of the EPAD Longitudinal Cohort Study of 6000 people at any one time, and establishment of an adaptive, proof-of-concept trial including 1500 participants at any given time. The need for EPAD and its key design elements are described, and we discuss EPAD in relation to similar projects in progress. These parallel efforts reflect the need for a coordinated, worldwide battle against dementia, in which EPAD will play a crucial role. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
S. A. Perepelitsa
Full Text Available to improve treatment results in premature infants with neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS, by establishing developmental mechanisms and elaborating methods for its early diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Material and methods. The paper analyzes the results of a clinical observation and laboratory, instrumental, immunological, morphological, and radiological studies of 320 premature neonates at 26—35 weeks gestational age. The following groups of neonates were identified: 1 40 premature neonatal infants without NRDS and with the physiological course of an early neonatal period (a comparison group; 2 190 premature neonates with severe NRDS in whom the efficiency of therapy with exogenous surfactants, such as surfactant BL versus curosurf, was evaluated; 3 90 premature newborn infants who had died from NRDS at its different stages. Results. The poor maternal somatic, obstetric, and gynecological histories in the early periods of the current pregnancy create prerequisites for its termination, favor the development of severe acute gestosis, and cause abnormal placental changes. Each gestational age is marked by certain placental changes that promote impaired uterineplacentalfetal blood flow and premature birth. Alveolar and bronchial epithelial damages, including those ante and intranatally, microcircula tory disorders play a leading role in the tanatogenesis of NRDS. Intranatal hypoxia and amniotic fluid aspiration are one of the important factors contributing to alveolar epithelial damage and NRDS in premature neonates. Exogenous surfactants prevent the development of hyaline membranes and are useful in the normalization of ventilation-perfusion relationships and lung biomechanical properties. Conclusion. This study could improve the diagnosis and treatment of NRDS, which assisted in reducing the duration of mechanical ventilation from 130±7.6 to 65±11.6 hours, the number of complications (the incidence of intragastric
A computerized literature search of the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wan Fang, and PubMed databases was conducted to collect related articles published in China. Only self-control intervention studies or studies containing sections regarding self-control interventions wherein the method of intervention was ...
Grossman, Cynthia I; Forsyth, Andrew; Purcell, David W; Allison, Susannah; Toledo, Carlos; Gordon, Christopher M
HIV continues to exact an enormous toll on society and to disproportionately affect gay and bisexual men and other men who have sex with men (MSM). Innovative prevention interventions are needed to reverse this trend. In August 2009, the U.S. National Institute of Mental Health and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention convened a meeting of scientists, community representatives, advocates, and federal partners to discuss innovative prevention-intervention science. The meeting was structured to maximize discussion of (1) healthy sex interventions, (2) community and structural interventions, (3) integrated biomedical and behavioral interventions, and (4) interventions to improve uptake of HIV testing. Presentations and discussion focused on research gaps in designing risk-reducing and sexual health-promoting interventions for MSM, including interventions to address mental health, substance use, disclosure, and stigma. This article summarizes the meeting proceedings, highlights key points, and outlines future directions.
Bockting, Claudi L; Hollon, Steven D; Jarrett, Robin B; Kuyken, Willem; Dobson, Keith
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is highly disabling and typically runs a recurrent course. Knowledge about prevention of relapse and recurrence is crucial to the long-term welfare of people who suffer from this disorder. This article provides an overview of the current evidence for the prevention of relapse and recurrence using psychological interventions. We first describe a conceptual framework to preventive interventions based on: acute treatment; continuation treatment, or; prevention strategies for patients in remission. In brief, cognitive-behavioral interventions, delivered during the acute phase, appear to have an enduring effect that protects patients against relapse and perhaps others from recurrence following treatment termination. Similarly, continuation treatment with either cognitive therapy or perhaps interpersonal psychotherapy appears to reduce risk for relapse and maintenance treatment appears to reduce risk for recurrence. Preventive relapse strategies like preventive cognitive therapy or mindfulness based cognitive therapy (MBCT) applied to patients in remission protects against subsequent relapse and perhaps recurrence. There is some preliminary evidence of specific mediation via changing the content or the process of cognition. Continuation CT and preventive interventions started after remission (CBT, MBCT) seem to have the largest differential effects for individuals that need them the most. Those who have the greatest risk for relapse and recurrence including patients with unstable remission, more previous episodes, potentially childhood trauma, early age of onset. These prescriptive indications, if confirmed in future research, may point the way to personalizing prevention strategies. Doing so, may maximize the efficiency with which they are applied and have the potential to target the mechanisms that appear to underlie these effects. This may help make this prevention strategies more efficacious. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights
Elliot, D; Goldberg, L
Athletes with a higher intent to use anabolic steroids were similar to students who indicated no predisposition to use steroids on economic, academic, and physical measures. They had similar understandings of anabolic steroid effects, and their self-rated understandings of how to weight train and of sports nutrition were similar. In addition, the influence of the coaches and the media and the perceived prevalence of anabolic steroid use were not different between the higher- and lower-intent students. These results demonstrated several significant differences. Higher-intent students had higher levels of alcohol and marijuana use, which suggest that those items might be tackled concurrently. These athletes had higher hostility, impulsivity, and a win-at-all-costs attitude. Despite similar physical measures, they had a high body image, but were less satisfied with their current weight. These findings underscored the importance of using nutrition and appropriate training as effective alternatives to anabolic steroids. Higher-intent students had greater peer tolerance of drug use and less parental influence not to use drugs, which implies that a peer-led small group format might be important to dispel the perceived peer tolerance. Including a parent-based component, one that emphasizes a disapproval of drug use also could be effective. Higher-intent athletes had less ability to refuse an offer of steroids. The dynamics of turning down steroids may differ from that of other illicit substances so that training in refusal skills specific to steroids is needed. These differences provide a needs assessment to identify curricular components for an intervention to permit anabolic steroid use. The sports team may be a unique educational setting because it can capitalize on peer ties, the coach's influence, and an athletes' motivation to improve, to prevent drug use, and to promote healthy behaviors.
Arnetz, Bengt B; Sjögren, Berit; Rydéhn, Berit; Meisel, Roland
Sickness absenteeism caused by musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) is a persistent and costly occupational health challenge. In a prospective controlled trial, we compared the effects on sickness absenteeism of a more proactive role for insurance case managers as well as workplace ergonomic interventions with that of traditional case management. Patients with physician-diagnosed MSDs were randomized either to the intervention group or the reference group offered the traditional case management routines. Participants filled out a comprehensive questionnaire at the initiation of the study and after 6 months. In addition, administrative data were collected at 0.6, and 12 months after the initiation of the project. For the entire 12-month period, the total mean number of sick days for the intervention group was 144.9 (SEM 11.8) days/person as compared to 197.9 (14.0) days in the reference group (P management of MSDs should to a greater degree focus on early return to work and building on functional capacity and employee ability. Allowing the case managers a more active role as well as involving an ergonomist in workplace adaptation meetings might also be beneficial.
Lodi, Giovanni; Franchini, Roberto; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Varoni, Elena Maria; Sardella, Andrea; Kerr, Alexander R; Carrassi, Antonio; MacDonald, L C I; Worthington, Helen V
participants because drop-out rates were similar between treatment and control groups. Surgical treatment for oral leukoplakia has not been assessed in an RCT that included a no treatment or placebo comparison. Nor has cessation of risk factors such as smoking been assessed. The available evidence on medical and complementary interventions for treating people with leukoplakia is very limited. We do not currently have evidence of a treatment that is effective for preventing the development of oral cancer. Treatments such as vitamin A and beta carotene may be effective in healing oral lesions, but relapses and adverse effects are common. Larger trials of longer duration are required to properly evaluate the effects of leukoplakia treatments on the risk of developing oral cancer. High-quality research is particularly needed to assess surgical treatment and to assess the effects of risk factor cessation in people with leukoplakia.
Salvy, S-J; de la Haye, K; Galama, T; Goran, M I
Extant obesity efforts have had limited impact among low-income underserved children, in part because of limitations inherent to existing programs: (i) short duration and low intensity; (ii) late timing of implementation, when children are already overweight or obese; (iii) intervention delivery limiting their accessibility and sustainability; and (iv) failure to address barriers such as a lack of culturally competent services, poverty and housing instability, which interfere with healthy lifestyle changes. This concept paper proposes an innovative model of obesity prevention implemented in infancy and sustained throughout early childhood to address the limitations of current obesity prevention efforts. Specifically, we propose to integrate sustained, weekly, in-home obesity prevention as part of the services already delivered by ongoing Home Visitation Programs, which currently do not target obesity prevention. The home visiting structure represents an ideal model for impactful obesity prevention as home visitation programs: (i) already provide comprehensive services to diverse low-income infants and families who are most at risk for obesity and poor health because of socio-economic and structural conditions; (ii) services are initiated in infancy and sustained throughout critical developmental periods for the formation of healthy/unhealthy behaviors; and (iii) have been in place for more than 40 years, with a widespread presence across the United States and nationwide, which is critical for the scalability and sustainability of obesity prevention. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.
Salvy, Sarah-Jeanne; de la Haye, Kayla; Galama, Titus; Goran, Michael I.
Background Extant obesity efforts have had limited impact among low-income underserved children, in part because of limitations inherent to existing programs: 1) short duration and low intensity; 2) late timing of implementation, when children are already overweight or obese; 3) intervention delivery limiting their accessibility and sustainability; and 4) failure to address barriers such as a lack of culturally competent services, poverty and housing instability, which interfere with healthy lifestyle changes. Objective This concept paper proposes an innovative model of obesity prevention implemented in infancy and sustained throughout early childhood to address the limitations of current obesity prevention efforts. Specifically, we propose to integrate sustained, weekly, in-home obesity prevention as part of the services already delivered by ongoing Home Visitation Programs, which currently do not target obesity prevention. Conclusion The home visiting structure represents an ideal model for impactful obesity prevention as home visitation programs: (1) already provide comprehensive services to diverse low-income infants and families who are most at risk for obesity and poor health due to socio-economic and structural conditions; (2) services are initiated in infancy and sustained throughout critical developmental periods for the formation of healthy/unhealthy behaviors; and (3) have been in place for more than 40 years, with a widespread presence across the United States and nationwide, which is critical for the scalability and sustainability of obesity prevention. PMID:27911984
Hesketh, Kylie D; Campbell, Karen J
The small number and recency of the early childhood obesity-prevention literature identified in a previous review of interventions to prevent obesity, promote healthy eating, physical activity, and/or reduce sedentary behaviors in 0-5 year olds suggests this is a new and developing research area. The current review was conducted to provide an update of the rapidly emerging evidence in this area and to assess the quality of studies reported. Ten electronic databases were searched to identify literature published from January 1995 to August 2008. interventions reporting child anthropometric, diet, physical activity, or sedentary behavior outcomes and focusing on children aged 0-5 years of age. focusing on breastfeeding, eating disorders, obesity treatment, malnutrition, or school-based interventions. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed study quality. Twenty-three studies met all criteria. Most were conducted in preschool/childcare (n = 9) or home settings (n = 8). Approximately half targeted socioeconomically disadvantaged children (n = 12) and three quarters were published from 2003 onward (n = 17). The interventions varied widely although most were multifaceted in their approach. While study design and quality varied most studies reported their interventions were feasible and acceptable, although impact on behaviors that contribute to obesity were not achieved by all. Early childhood obesity-prevention interventions represent a rapidly growing research area. Current evidence suggests that behaviors that contribute to obesity can be positively impacted in a range of settings and provides important insights into the most effective strategies for promoting healthy weight from early childhood.
Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Seeley, John R.; Gau, Jeff M.
Objective: Evaluate a new 5-step method for testing mediators hypothesized to account for the effects of depression prevention programs. Method: In this indicated prevention trial, at-risk teens with elevated depressive symptoms were randomized to a group cognitive-behavioral (CB) intervention, group supportive expressive intervention, CB…
Kelders, Saskia Marion; Oskam, Maarten-Jan; Bohlmeijer, Ernst Thomas; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E.W.C.
Web-based preventive interventions have shown to be effective for the prevention of depression, but high rates of non-use and drop-out, less than optimal implementation in the care organization and low acceptance rates cause interventions to be less effective in practice than in theory and research.
Ecker-Lyster, Meghan; Niileksela, Christopher
This article reviews the literature on dropout trends, prevention, and intervention initiatives for school-aged children. Theoretical and consequential trends are highlighted to offer educators a perspective in which to view the dropout problem. This article also examines current trends in prevention and intervention initiatives aimed at reducing…
Owczarzak, Jill; Dickson-Gomez, Julia
Since 1999, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have trained over 10,000 service providers from more than 5,000 agencies to implement evidence-based HIV prevention interventions through its Diffusion of Effective Behavioral Interventions DEBI) program. Based on in-depth, semistructured interviews with a convenience sample of 22 HIV…
Yoshiike, Nobuo; Iwabe, Maiko; Yoshioka, Yoshiko
Educational interventions for obesity prevention from early childhood is one of the important measures in health promotion policies, especially in locations where obesity and overweight in school and preschool children are prevalent, such as in the Aomori Prefecture. The Aomori Prefecture government started a new demonstration project in FY 2014 that targeted children in nursing schools for the prevention of obesity through both population approaches (nutrition/physical activity education and nutrition management in lunch programs) and individual approaches to solving overweight in children. Our study group developed a data management tool to routinely accumulate data on measured body height and weight. We also developed educational materials with growth charts for nutritional education of guardians, and summary sheets showing the distributions of degree of obesity and prevalence of overweight/obesity in age-sex groups for use in assessment in each nursing school. To promote and evaluate the demonstration project, we offered the data management tool to all nursing schools in the prefecture for nutritional education and management in the nursing schools and asked them to anonymously submit data to build a prefecture-based monitoring dataset. Around 70% (310 institutes) of the institutes responded to this request, and we developed a longitudinal dataset with about 4,000 children in each of the 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old cohorts. This first revealed the prevalence of overweight in preschool children in the entire prefecture. The dataset will be further utilized for evaluating the effectiveness of educational interventions in preschool settings in local communities.
Falcó-Pegueroles, Anna; Rodríguez-Garcia, Catalina; Estrada-Masllorens, Joan Maria
The contribution made by the surgical nurse is essential to ensure the security of the patient who is subjected to surgery as well as accompany this specialized professional work to ensure that the patient is in the best physical and mental condition to deal with procedures of these characteristics. Nurse care in the surgical area is frequently described from a biomedical approach as it focuses on the type of surgery or the surgical technique, a perspective that might be inadequate and obsolete in identifying the areas of professional intervention and in clarifying the objectives of the nursing staff in the surgical area. In this paper nursing interventions such as emotional support, enhanced security and the prevention of infection are described as well as the identification of potential complications more prevalent in the different stages of surgical procedure, such as bleeding, hypoxia or hypothermia, among others, all these different points are developed, from a rationalistic nursing approach with emphasis on a humanistic vision of patient care. The specificity of the surgical area demands a prepared and competent professional nurse in the emotional support of the patient and his or her family, as well as the demons- tration of knowledge and skills in technical management and instruments associated with each type of surgery. It also requires competence in the diagnosis of potential com- plications and the development of activities designed to the prevention, early detection and treatment of potential health problems.
AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0032 TITLE: Targeting Premalignant Lesions - Implications for Early Breast Cancer Detection and Intervention PRINCIPAL...INTRODUCTION: Difficulty in managing treatment of advanced stage breast cancer has led to the goal for detection and intervention of early -stage...Furthermore, these probes will be used to develop targeted therapeutic nanoparticles for early intervention in breast cancer. 2. KEYWORDS
Aboud, Frances; Huq, Nafisa Lira; Larson, Charles P; Ottisova, Livia
Efforts to prevent HIV from becoming widespread among the youth population 15-24 years in Bangladesh are in the early stages. However, conservative religious and cultural norms may curtail the dissemination of needed information about sexuality and condoms. The community-readiness stages model was adopted as a framework for assessing the level of preparedness of community leaders to facilitate planned HIV prevention efforts. Six focus group discussions with three professional groups (teachers, businessmen, drugshop vendors) in Hobiganj district were conducted in late 2005, and a single multi-professional group made up of teachers, imams, and drugshop vendors was convened in early 2007 to assess changes. The audio recordings in Bangla were coded as were English translations. Everyone had heard of AIDS and regarded it as a potential catastrophe for the health, economy and social fabric of Bangladesh. Remarks concerning Stage 1-Vulnerability indicated that most did not believe their community to be at risk, though Bangladesh was. Remarks at Stage 2-Knowledge of Transmission were mostly vague but accurately identified sex, blood and needles as the main means of spread; however sex with sex workers was also mentioned in each group. Remarks at Stage 3-Prevention showed strong opposition to condoms for unmarried males and a preference for current means of forbidding sex outside of marriage. A few in each group recognized the importance of condoms for wayward youth. Stage 4-Planning discussions centered on raising awareness and fear, and a desire for government and media to take the lead. By 2007 participants articulated more realistic strategies that they themselves could, and had, implemented, but also raised barriers that authorities should help them overcome. The findings provide formative information on the constraints and opportunities of community groups as partners in HIV preventive interventions and strategies to help them move to a higher stage of readiness
José Luis GALLEGO ORTEGA
Full Text Available Language is an essential tool for personal and social development of children and it is perceived as the most important learning that children undertake in the early years of their lives. It is generally accepted that from birth to the age of three-four years old, children achieve a basic repertory of skills in different linguistic dimensions which allow them to communicate effectively with their environment. However, research has shown that phonemic disorders, morphosyntactic dysfunctions and semantic poverty figure prominently in the overall oral language disorders in infancy. In this respect, the review of literature informs us of the abundance of work aimed at rehabiliting the conditions already set in childlike expression, but there are significant gaps in regard to systematic prevention programs to prevent such evolutionary disorders which can become operational because of an early intervention in the field of communication. According to the above, it was developed a research project designed to establish the differential impact of a program to develop language skills in preschoolers. We worked with a sample of 32 children (5 years old in a pretest-posttest design. The data analysis shows that the magnitude of change is significant when comparing the results obtained by the experimental and the control group before and after program implementation. The overall effect of the program allowed to determine its effectiveness to increase language skills in the morph syntactic level.
Verbeek, Jos H.; Kateman, Erik; Morata, Thais C.; Dreschler, Wouter A.; Mischke, Christina
To assess the effectiveness of interventions for preventing occupational noise exposure or hearing loss compared to no intervention or alternative interventions. We searched biomedical databases up to 25 January 2012 for randomized controlled trials (RCT), controlled before-after studies and
Karki, Suyen; Pietila, Anna-Maija; Lansimies-Antikainen, Helena; Varjoranta, Pirjo; Pirskanen, Marjatta; Laukkanen, Eila
The aim of this systematic review is to describe and evaluate the effects of interventions used for preventing or reducing substance use among adolescents under 18 years of age. Studies (N = 27) available in CINAHL and PubMed from 2007 to 2010 were included. Results showed that family-based interventions and combined interventions have significant…
Owczarzak, Jill; Phillips, Sarah D.; Filippova, Olga; Alpatova, Polina; Mazhnaya, Alyona; Zub, Tatyana; Aleksanyan, Ruzanna
The current dominant model of HIV prevention intervention dissemination involves packaging interventions developed in one context, training providers to implement that specific intervention, and evaluating the extent to which providers implement it with fidelity. Research shows that providers rarely implement these programs with fidelity due to…
Picciolini, Odoardo; Porro, Matteo; Cattaneo, Elisa; Castelletti, Silvia; Masera, Giuseppe; Mosca, Fabio; Bedeschi, Maria Francesca
Moebius syndrome (MBS) is rare disease characterized by nonprogressive congenital uni- or bi-lateral facial (i. e. VII cranial nerve) and abducens (i. e. VI cranial nerve) palsy. Although the neurological and ophthalmological findings are quite well-known, data concerning the attendant functional difficulties and their changes over time are seldom addressed. In this study we attempt to estimate the prevalence of clinical and functional data in an Italian cohort affected by MBS. The study included 50 children, 21 males and 29 females, aged 1 month to 14 years. The patients entered into a multidisciplinary diagnostic and follow-up protocol that had the specific purpose of detecting clinical and developmental deficits related to MBS. Involvement of the VII cranial nerve (total/partial, bilateral or unilateral) was present in 96 % of patients, and of the VI nerve in 85 %. Two patients were without impairment of the VII nerve and seven patients had no involvement of the VI nerve and were thus classified as Moebius-like because of the involvement of other CNs. Additional affected CNs were numbers III-IV in 16 %, V in 11 %, VIII and X each in 8 %, the XI in 6 %, the IX, most often partially, in 22 %, and the XII in 48 % of cases. Their development was characterized by global delay at one year of age, motor, emotional and speech difficulties at two years of age, a trend toward normalization at three years of age but with weakness in hand-eye coordination, and achieving average results at five years of age. Overall 90 % of children had a normal developmental quotient whereas only 10 % manifested cognitive deficits. Early rehabilitation may enhance the recovery of normal function, particularly in vulnerable areas of development. It is possible that early intervention that integrates sensory and visual information with emotional difficulties can improve the prognosis of the child with MBS.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization predicts that by 2030 internalising problems (e.g. depression and anxiety will be second only to HIV/AIDS in international burden of disease. Internalising problems affect 1 in 7 school aged children, impacting on peer relations, school engagement, and later mental health, relationships and employment. The development of early childhood prevention for internalising problems is in its infancy. The current study follows two successful 'efficacy' trials of a parenting group intervention to reduce internalising disorders in temperamentally inhibited preschool children. Cool Little Kids is a population-level randomised trial to determine the impacts of systematically screening preschoolers for inhibition then offering a parenting group intervention, on child internalising problems and economic costs at school entry. Methods/Design This randomised trial will be conducted within the preschool service system, attended by more than 95% of Australian children in the year before starting school. In early 2011, preschool services in four local government areas in Melbourne, Australia, will distribute the screening tool. The ≈16% (n≈500 with temperamental inhibition will enter the trial. Intervention parents will be offered Cool Little Kids, a 6-session group program in the local community, focusing on ways to develop their child's bravery skills by reducing overprotective parenting interactions. Outcomes one and two years post-baseline will comprise child internalising diagnoses and symptoms, parenting interactions, and parent wellbeing. An economic evaluation (cost-consequences framework will compare incremental differences in costs of the intervention versus control children to incremental differences in outcomes, from a societal perspective. Analyses will use the intention-to-treat principle, using logistic and linear regression models (binary and continuous outcomes respectively to compare outcomes
Aral, S O; Fransen, L
This study was initiated to assess which mix of early STD/HIV prevention interventions would potentially be effective, cost-effective and sustainable in Turkey; and to program an intervention sequence to maximize synergy among the interventions. During rapid assessment we: 1) reviewed past issues of 3 leading newspapers; 2) collected information on TV coverage; 3) interviewed key informants including taxicab drivers, hotel employees, grocery store owners, academicians in public health and law, investigators of STD/HIV and reproductive tract infections, and officials in the ministry of health; 4) reviewed available evidence on STD/HIV morbidity, sexual behavior patterns, migration patterns and same/opposite gender sex trade. We found: 1) discrepancies between decision makers' perceptions and social realities with respect to the epidemiology of sexual behavior and STDs, and the state of public health programs; 2) discrepancies between sexual practices and public expression regarding sexual practices; 3) economic, demographic, and political pressures in Turkey and in surrounding countries for the expansion of prostitution; 4) a sexual double standard and gender specific migration patterns which sustain a high demand for commercial sex; 5) patterns of health care seeking behaviors and provision of STD clinical services which indicate other STDs may play a very important role in spread of HIV infection; 6) an important mass media role in opinion formation; 7) consensual denial of risk for the majority based on beliefs embedded in machismo, nationalism and religion, and a resulting marginalization and externalization of STD/HIV risk; 8) high prevalence of syphilis among both Turkish and immigrant female prostitutes in Istanbul (early latent 8 and 13%; late latent 0 and 4%; previous history 9 and 22%) 9) and high rates of syphilis among male prostitutes (early latent 11%, late latent 21% and previous history 58%). We concluded that interventions should initially include
Child Development, 2011
The impact of the Fast Track intervention on externalizing disorders across childhood was examined. Eight hundred-ninety-one early-starting children (69% male; 51% African American) were randomly assigned by matched sets of schools to intervention or control conditions. The 10-year intervention addressed parent behavior-management, child social…
Dasgupta, Kaberi; Terkildsen Maindal, Helle; Kragelund Nielsen, Karoline
and/or telephone contact CONCLUSIONS: Although penetration and participation reporting is sub-optimal, penetration generally is high while participation is variable. Leveraging and structuring recruitment within standard GDM care and settings appears to be important to engage women in DAP prevention...... (enrolled/invited) rates were calculated after data extraction. RESULTS: Among 2,859 records, 33 intervention studies were identified, among which 16 had sufficient information to calculate penetration or participation. Penetration proportion (n=9 studies) was between 85-100% for two-thirds of studies...... included. Participation proportion (n=16 studies) varied substantially; when recruitment occurred during pregnancy or early postpartum participation was 40% or more, especially if face-to-face contact was used within the GDM care setting, compared to under 15% in mid/late postpartum with mailed invitation...
... can be significantly improved in rural areas, if the caregivers are adequately empowered through appropriate health education intervention though change in attitude and belief may require a longer and persistent effort. Keywords: Health education intervention, knowledge, malaria, nursing mothers, practice, rural Nigeria
The Ububele Baby Mat Service is a community-based, parent–infant mental health intervention offered at five primary health care clinics in Alexandra Township, in Johannesburg. The aim of the intervention is to promote healthy caregiver-infant attachments. There has been a steady increase in the number of mother-baby ...
Atienzo, Erika E; Campero, Lourdes; Lozada, Ana Lilia; Herrera, Cristina
This study aims to explore adolescents' intentions related to the early formation of a family. We administered a survey to students in eight schools in Morelos and Mexico City, in 2010. We analyzed intentions of marrying or having a child and fitted an exploratory path model to assess predictors of the intentions of having a child before the age of 20 (n=2974). Around 77% of adolescents expect to have their first child at 20 years or later; 21% show ambivalence or incongruence regarding this, whereas 2% expect to have a child before the age of 20. Parents' expectations for their child's education influence the importance that adolescents give to education. The latter promotes the idea of postponing childbearing until 20 years or later (β=0.13). In order to prevent early pregnancies, interventions and programs should encourage the construction of personal and professional goals.
Hosking, D J; Ross, P D; Thompson, D E
Calcium's ability to prevent bone loss in early postmenopausal women is controversial. We used data on 394 women from the placebo group of the Early Postmenopausal Interventional Cohort study, a clinical trial of alendronate, to investigate the relation of calcium intake to bone loss. Calcium...... intake was recorded, and bone mineral density (BMD) (in the lumbar spine, total body, forearm, and hip) and biochemical markers of bone turnover (serum total alkaline phosphatase, serum osteocalcin, and urinary N-telopeptide crosslink levels) were measured at baseline and annually thereafter. Women whose...... were not significantly associated with changes in BMD or bone turnover. Even women whose total calcium intake was >1333 mg/d (the highest tertile of total calcium intake) showed a decline in BMD of almost 2%, similar to declines in the lower two tertiles of total calcium intake (
Erika E Atienzo
Full Text Available Objective. This study aims to explore adolescents’ intentions related to the early formation of a family. Materials and methods. We administered a survey to students in eight schools in Morelos and Mexico City, in 2010. We analyzed intentions of marrying or having a child and fitted an exploratory path model to assess predictors of the intentions of having a child before the age of 20 (n=2974. Results. Around 77% of adolescents expect to have their first child at 20 years or later; 21% show ambivalence or incongruence regarding this, whereas 2% expect to have a child before the age of 20. Parents’ expectations for their child’s education influence the importance that adolescents give to education. The latter promotes the idea of postponing childbearing until 20 years or later (β=0.13. Conclusions. In order to prevent early pregnancies, interventions and programs should encourage the construction of personal and professional goals.
Full Text Available Abstract The present study analyses the impact of phonological awareness instruction on the reading achievement of at-risk Grade 1 readers enrolled in an early French immersion program. Twenty-nine children from diverse linguistic backgrounds participated in the study. At-risk readers were identified on the basis of their text reading performance and phonological awareness test scores, and received 20 weeks of phonological awareness training in small groups. The intervention was initially given in English, and switched to French once students had acquired a foundation in the language. Significant gains were found in the phonological awareness skills of the treatment group. Results also indicated that the end-of-year French reading levels of the treatment group were superior to those of the comparison group. These findings suggest that a phonologically-based intervention can effectively address phonological awareness deficits and facilitate French reading acquisition for early immersion students who are considered to be at-risk for later reading difficulties.
Fettig, Angel; Barton, Erin E.; Carter, Alice S.; Eisenhower, Abbey S.
This study examined the effects of e-coaching on the implementation of a functional assessment-based intervention delivered by an early intervention provider in reducing challenging behaviors during home visits. A multiple baseline design across behavior support plan components was used with a provider-child dyad. The e-coaching intervention…
Van Der Beek, Allard J.; Dennerlein, Jack T.; Huysmans, Maaike A.
Objectives Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) are highly prevalent and put a large burden on (working) society. Primary prevention of work-related MSD focuses often on physical risk factors (such as manual lifting and awkward postures) but has not been too successful in reducing the MSD...... thereby strengthening the development and implementation of preventive interventions. Our objective was to define and describe such a framework for multi-disciplinary research on work-related MSD prevention. Methods We described a framework for MSD prevention research, partly based on frameworks from......) evaluation, and (vi) implementation of preventive intervention(s). Conclusions In the present framework for optimal work-related MSD prevention, research disciplines are linked. This framework can thereby help to improve theories and strengthen the development and implementation of prevention strategies...
... under the National Early Intervention Scholarship and Partnership program (NEISP) and that receives a... students under the National Early Intervention Scholarship and Partnership program (NEISP) and that... Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION GAINING EARLY AWARENESS AND...
Gibbs, Andrew; Jacobson, Jessica; Kerr Wilson, Alice
Intimate partner violence (IPV) and HIV are co-occurring global epidemics, with similar root causes of gender and economic inequalities. Economic interventions have become a central approach to preventing IPV and HIV. We undertook a comprehensive scoping review of published evaluations of economic interventions that sought to prevent IPV and/or HIV risk behaviours. Forty-five separate analyses of interventions met our criteria. Broadly, unconditional cash transfer interventions showed either flat or positive outcomes; economic strengthening interventions had mixed outcomes, with some negative, flat and positive results reported; interventions combining economic strengthening and gender transformative interventions tended to have positive outcomes. The review highlighted a number of gaps. Specifically, there were limited studies evaluating the impact of economic interventions on female sex workers, young women, and men. In addition, there were missed opportunities, with many evaluations only reporting either IPV- or HIV-related outcomes, rather than both, despite overlaps.
Laurens, Kristin R; Cullen, Alexis E
The London Child Health and Development Study (CHADS) is a prospective, longitudinal investigation of children, sampled from the general community aged 9-11 years and assessed biennially, who present premorbid risk markers for schizophrenia. The study aims to characterise developmental trajectories of psychological, cognitive, and biological functioning in at-risk children and identify potential targets for early preventative intervention. This review summarises CHADS findings, discusses these in the context of recent theory regarding aetiology and prevention of schizophrenia, and highlights challenges to be addressed with future research. We review (1) epidemiological information on the prevalence and correlates of developmental antecedents of schizophrenia in the general child population, (2) evidence of psychosocial, cognitive, and biological dysfunctions in at-risk children presenting multiple antecedents of schizophrenia and at-risk children with a family history of schizophrenia, and (3) related findings from an associated sample of help-seeking children receiving intervention. Community-based screening of 9-11-year olds identified ~9 % with a triad of antecedents of schizophrenia [including psychotic-like experiences (PLEs)] who are putatively at-risk of psychosis; these children reported greater exposure and responsivity to stressors, impairments in general intelligence and specific cognitive functions, brain structure and function abnormalities, and neuromotor dysfunction. Preliminary evidence suggests distressing PLEs are a viable target for cognitive-behavioural intervention in at-risk children. Intervention in early, premorbid phases of illness might alleviate current difficulties and avert future schizophrenia using benign treatments. The CHADS programme has identified several markers that may index early pathophysiology and constitute potential targets for preventative intervention.
Full Text Available Essentially, people’s diet and nutritional status has been changed substantially worldwide and several lines of evidence suggest that these changes are to the detriment of their health. Additionally, it has been well documented that unhealthy diet especially the fast foods, untraditional foods or bad-eating-habits influence the human gut microbiome. The gut microbiota shapes immune responses during human life and affects his/her metabolomic profiles. Furthermore, many studies highlight the molecular pathways that mediate host and symbiont interactions that regulate proper immune function and prevention of cancer in the body. Intriguingly, if cancer forms in a human body due to the weakness of immune system in detriment of microbiome, the removal of cancer stem cells can be carried out through early Calories Restriction with Annual Fasting (AF before tumor development or progress. Besides, fasting can b balance the gut microbiome for enhancement of immune system against cancer formation.
Eslami, Solat; Barzgari, Zahra; Saliani, Negar; Saeedi, Nazli; Barzegari, Abolfazl
Essentially, people's diet and nutritional status has been changed substantially worldwide and several lines of evidence suggest that these changes are to the detriment of their health. Additionally, it has been well documented that unhealthy diet especially the fast foods, untraditional foods or bad-eating-habits influence the human gut microbiome. The gut microbiota shapes immune responses during human life and affects his/her metabolomic profiles. Furthermore, many studies highlight the molecular pathways that mediate host and symbiont interactions that regulate proper immune function and prevention of cancer in the body. Intriguingly, if cancer forms in a human body due to the weakness of immune system in detriment of microbiome, the removal of cancer stem cells can be carried out through early Calories Restriction with Annual Fasting (AF) before tumor development or progress. Besides, fasting can balance the gut microbiome for enhancement of immune system against cancer formation.
Simmons, Robert A; Cosgrove, Susan C; Romney, Martha C; Plumb, James D; Brawer, Rickie O; Gonzalez, Evelyn T; Fleisher, Linda G; Moore, Bradley S
Health literacy, the degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand health information and services needed to make health decisions, is an essential element for early adults (aged 18-44 years) to make informed decisions about cancer. Low health literacy is one of the social determinants of health associated with cancer-related disparities. Over the past several years, a nonprofit organization, a university, and a cancer center in a major urban environment have developed and implemented health literacy programs within healthcare systems and in the community. Health system personnel received extensive health literacy training to reduce medical jargon and improve their patient education using plain language easy-to-understand written materials and teach-back, and also designed plain language written materials including visuals to provide more culturally and linguistically appropriate health education and enhance web-based information. Several sustainable health system policy changes occurred over time. At the community level, organizational assessments and peer leader training on health literacy have occurred to reduce communication barriers between consumers and providers. Some of these programs have been cancer specific, including consumer education in such areas as cervical cancer, skin cancer, and breast cancer that are targeted to early adults across the cancer spectrum from prevention to treatment to survivorship. An example of consumer-driven health education that was tested for health literacy using a comic book-style photonovel on breast cancer with an intergenerational family approach for Chinese Americans is provided. Key lessons learned from the health literacy initiatives and overall conclusions of the health literacy initiatives are also summarized. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Stauffer, Sterling; Heath, Melissa Allen; Coyne, Sarah Marie; Ferrin, Scott
Recent meta-analyses indicate that bully prevention programs produce minimal change in student behavior. This study examined 66 high school teachers' perceptions regarding the effect of cyberbullying on students, which intervening strategies teachers would use when dealing with cyberbullying, and which prevention strategies would assist in…
Lauersen, Jeppe Bo; Bertelsen, Ditte Marie; Andersen, Lars Bo
Physical activity is important in both prevention and treatment of many common diseases, but sports injuries can pose serious problems.......Physical activity is important in both prevention and treatment of many common diseases, but sports injuries can pose serious problems....
Fedewa, Allison; Moran, Margaret; O’Brien, Matthew; Ackermann, Ronald; Kullgren, Jeffrey T.
Purpose of review This study aims to summarize the recent peer-reviewed literature on workplace interventions for prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), including studies that translate the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) curriculum to workplace settings (n = 10) and those that use different intervention approaches to achieve the specific objective of T2DM prevention among employees (n = 3). Recent findings Weight reduction was achieved through workplace interventions to prevent T2DM, though such interventions varied substantially in their effectiveness. The greatest weight loss was reported among intensive lifestyle interventions (i.e., at least 4 months in duration) that implemented the structured DPP curriculum (n = 3). Weight reduction was minimal among less intensive interventions, including those that substantially modified the DPP curriculum (n = 2) and those that used non-DPP intervention approaches to prevent T2DM (n = 3). Most studies (n = 12) reported increased levels of physical activity following the intervention. Summary Implementation of the DPP in workplaces may be an effective strategy to prevent T2DM among employees. PMID:28150162
Nădăşan, Valentin; Chirvăsuţă, Radu; Ábrám, Zoltan; Mihăicuţă, Ştefan
Smoking among children and adolescents is a pressing public health issue that demands the development, improvement and implementation of programmes aimed at the prevention and cessation of smoking on a global scale. The objective of our article is to review the main types of interventions for smoking prevention and cessation among children and adolescents. These interventions are based on a wide variety of approaches and include school-based programmes, primary and secondary care-based interventions, programmes targeting parents and family, community-based programmes, social marketing programmes and media campaigns, legislative interventions and computer and other IT-based interventions. Generally, there is still a paucity of low level evidence regarding the efficacy of most smoking prevention and cessation programmes for children and adolescents except for a few particular types of interventions that are reasonably well documented.
Bourdel-Marchasson, Isabelle; Rondeau, Virginie
The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of nutritional supplementation on dietary intake and on pressure ulcer development in critically ill older patients. The multi-center trial involved 19 wards stratified according to specialty and recruitment for critically ill older patients; 9 wards were randomly selected for nutritional intervention (nutritional intervention group), consisting of the daily distribution of two oral supplements, with each supplement containg 200 kcal, for 15 ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background UK NHS Stop Smoking Services provide cost effective smoking cessation interventions but, as yet, there has been no assessment of their provision of relapse prevention interventions. Methods Electronic questionnaire survey of 185 UK Stop Smoking Services Managers. Results Ninety six Stop Smoking Service managers returned completed questionnaires (52% response rate. Of these, 58.3% (n = 56 ran NHS Stop Smoking Services which provided relapse prevention interventions for clients with the most commonly provided interventions being behavioural support: telephone (77%, group (73%, and individual (54%. Just under half (48%, n = 27 offered nicotine replacement therapy (NRT, 21.4% (n = 12 bupropion; 19.6% (n = 11 varenicline. Over 80% of those providing relapse prevention interventions do so for over six months. Nearly two thirds of all respondents thought it was likely that they would either continue to provide or commence provision of relapse prevention interventions in their services. Of the remaining respondents, 66.7% (n = 22 believed that the government focus on four-week quit rates, and 42.9% (14 services believed that inadequate funding for provision of relapse prevention interventions, were major barriers to introducing these interventions into routine care. Conclusions Just over half of UK managers of NHS Stop Smoking Services who responded to the questionnaire reported that, in their services, relapse prevention interventions were currently provided for clients, despite, at that time, there being a weak evidence base for their effectiveness. The most commonly provided relapse prevention interventions were those for which there was least evidence. If these interventions are found to be effective, barriers would need to be removed before they would become part of routine care.
Elpers, Julia; Lester, Cathy; Shinn, Jennifer B; Bush, Matthew L
Infant hearing loss has the potential to cause significant communication impairment. Timely diagnosis and intervention is essential to preventing permanent deficits. Many infants from rural regions are delayed in diagnosis and treatment of hearing loss. The purpose of this study is to characterize the barriers in timely infant hearing healthcare for rural families following newborn newborn hearing screening (NHS) testing. Using stratified purposeful sampling, the study design involved semi-structured phone interviews with parents/guardians of children who failed NHS testing in the Appalachian region of Kentucky between 2012 and 2014 to describe their experiences with early hearing detection and intervention program. Thematic qualitative analysis was performed on interview transcripts to identify common recurring themes in content. 40 parents/guardians participated in the study and consisted primarily of mothers. Demographic data revealed limited educational levels of the participants and 70 % had state-funded insurance coverage. Participants reported barriers in timely infant hearing healthcare that included poor communication of hearing screening results, difficulty in obtaining outpatient testing, inconsistencies in healthcare information from primary care providers, lack of local resources, insurance-related healthcare delays, and conflict with family and work responsibilities. Most participants expressed a great desire to obtain timely hearing healthcare for their children and expressed a willingness to use resources such as telemedicine to obtain that care. There are multiple barriers to timely rural infant hearing healthcare. Minimizing misinformation and improving access to care are priorities to prevent delayed diagnosis and treatment of hearing loss.
Aging of the population and lowered average age of retirement imply greatly increased public costs for pensions and health care in western societies. Prolongation of working life is necessary to counteract large budget deficits, and most western countries are now in the process of changing public retirement benefits. However, a prolongation must be accomplished without threatening the well-being of elderly persons, and therefore working life needs changes that accommodate the capacity and demands of an aging work force are needed. No scientific intervention studies have as yet demonstrated that early exits from working life can be prevented while work ability, health, productivity, and a high quality of life are maintained. However, several studies on return-to-work after prolonged sick leave, re-entry to work after lay-offs, risk factors for early retirement, risk/health factors for maintained work ability, and case studies provide indirect support for the feasibility of preventing early exits, Scientific studies comparing different approaches, and performed in varying cultural and environmental conditions, are needed.
Thomas, J; Thomas, C J; Radcliffe, J; Itsiopoulos, C
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the leading cause of dementia and the most common neurodegenerative disease in the elderly. Furthermore, AD has provided the most positive indication to support the fact that inflammation contributes to neurodegenerative disease. The exact etiology of AD is unknown, but environmental and genetic factors are thought to contribute, such as advancing age, family history, presence of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes, and poor diet and lifestyle. It is hypothesised that early prevention or management of inflammation could delay the onset or reduce the symptoms of AD. Normal physiological changes to the brain with ageing include depletion of long chain omega-3 fatty acids and brains of AD patients have lower docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels. DHA supplementation can reduce markers of inflammation. This review specifically focusses on the evidence in humans from epidemiological, dietary intervention, and supplementation studies, which supports the role of long chain omega-3 fatty acids in the prevention or delay of cognitive decline in AD in its early stages. Longer term trials with long chain omega-3 supplementation in early stage AD are warranted. We also highlight the importance of overall quality and composition of the diet to protect against AD and dementia.
O'Rourke, Holly P; MacKinnon, David P
Mediation models are used in prevention and intervention research to assess the mechanisms by which interventions influence outcomes. However, researchers may not investigate mediators in the absence of intervention effects on the primary outcome variable. There is emerging evidence that in some situations, tests of mediated effects can be statistically significant when the total intervention effect is not statistically significant. In addition, there are important conceptual and practical reasons for investigating mediation when the intervention effect is nonsignificant. This article discusses the conditions under which mediation may be present when an intervention effect does not have a statistically significant effect and why mediation should always be considered important. Mediation may be present in the following conditions: when the total and mediated effects are equal in value, when the mediated and direct effects have opposing signs, when mediated effects are equal across single and multiple-mediator models, and when specific mediated effects have opposing signs. Mediation should be conducted in every study because it provides the opportunity to test known and replicable mediators, to use mediators as an intervention manipulation check, and to address action and conceptual theory in intervention models. Mediators are central to intervention programs, and mediators should be investigated for the valuable information they provide about the success or failure of interventions.
Ilesanmi, Rose Ekama; Olabisi, Prisca
We examined the interventions used by nurses to prevent pressure ulcers in 3 hospitals in south west Nigeria and perceived barriers to effective nursing pressure ulcer prevention interventions. One hundred ninety-three nurses were purposively selected from neurological, orthopedic, intensive care, and accident and emergency units of participating hospitals. Study sites were 3 teaching hospitals in south west Nigeria (Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Lagos; University College Hospital, Ibadan; and Obafemi Awolowo Teaching Hospital Ile-Ife). Data were collected via a structured questionnaire designed for this study. It included 3 sections: demographic information, practices used for pressure ulcer prevention, and perceived barriers to prevention. Sections of the questionnaire that queried interventions and perceived barriers to pressure ulcer prevention were evaluated for face and content validity. Reliability was evaluated via internal consistency; the split half reliability was 0.82. Similar practices regarding pressure ulcer prevention were found across the 3 hospitals. The most commonly used intervention was patient repositioning every 2 hours; the least used intervention was completion of a validated pressure ulcer risk scale. Nurses described using interventions that have not proved effective for pressure ulcer prevention such as massaging bony prominences and application of talcum powder. Nurses identified 2 principal factors that act as barriers to successful prevention of pressure ulcers: inadequate manpower and inadequate supply of linens on the wards. Nurses use a combination of evidence-based interventions, along with interventions that have not proved effective for pressure ulcer prevention. We recommend development of national standards for pressure ulcer prevention in Nigeria that are based on current best evidence and consistent with current international guidelines.
Full Text Available Abstract Severe acute exacerbation or liver failure induced by standard interferon-α(IFN-α therapy had been reported to occur in few patients with chronic hepatitis B. However, no report showed that pegylated interferon-α therapy was able to induce severe acute exacerbation of chronic hepatitis B. Here, we describe three patients with severe acute exacerbation of chronic hepatitis B during pegylated interferon-α2a (Pegasys treatment. One patient progressed into acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF at the second week of Pegasys treatment. Two patients progressed into acute-on-chronic pre-liver failure (pre-ACLF at the second and eighth week of Pegasys treatment, respectively. Three patients recovered after early combined intervention with corticosteroid and lamivudine. Our data indicated that there was a risk of severe acute exacerbation among patients with chronic hepatitis B during receiving Pegasys treatment. Importantly, early combined intervention with corticosteroid and lamivudine should be introduced to prevent the disease progression and improve their prognosis once severe acute exacerbation was diagnosed.
Yu, Jun; Zhang, Yi; Jiang, Junjun; Lu, Qinglin; Liang, Bingyu; Liu, Deping; Fang, Keyong; Huang, Jiegang; He, Yang; Ning, Chuanyi; Liao, Yanyan; Lai, Jingzhen; Wei, Wudi; Qin, Fengxiang; Ye, Li; Geng, Wenkui; Liang, Hao
In China, rural areas are a weak link of HIV/AIDS prevention and control. From September 2011, an innovative "county-township-village" allied intervention was implemented in Longzhou County, Guangxi, which assigned the tasks of HIV/AIDS prevention and control to the county Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), township hospitals, and village clinics, respectively, instead of traditional intervention in which the county CDC undertook the entire work. A 6-year consecutive cross-sectional survey, including 3-year traditional intervention (2009-2011) and 3-year innovative intervention (2012-2014), was conducted to evaluate the effects of the new intervention. Compared to traditional intervention, the innovative intervention achieved positive effects in decreasing risky behaviors. Among female sex workers, condom use rate in the last month increased from 72.06% to 96.82% (p risk ratio of HIV infection during innovative intervention was 0.631 (95% confidence interval 0.549-0.726) compared with traditional one. Cost-effectiveness analysis indicates that innovative intervention restores each disability-adjusted life year costing an average of $124.26. Taken together, Longzhou's innovative intervention has achieved good effects on HIV/AIDS prevention and control and provides a good reference for rural China.
Background Many unhealthy dietary and physical activity habits that foster the development of obesity are established by the age of five. Presently, approximately 70 percent of children in the United States are currently enrolled in early childcare facilities, making this an ideal setting to implement and evaluate childhood obesity prevention efforts. We describe here the methods for conducting an obesity prevention randomized trial in the child care setting. Methods/design A randomized, controlled obesity prevention trial is currently being conducted over a three year period (2010-present). The sample consists of 28 low-income, ethnically diverse child care centers with 1105 children (sample is 60% Hispanic, 15% Haitian, 12% Black, 2% non-Hispanic White and 71% of caregivers were born outside of the US). The purpose is to test the efficacy of a parent and teacher role-modelpan>ing intervention on children’s nutrition and physical activity behaviors. . The Healthy Caregivers-Healthy Children (HC2) intervention arm schools received a combination of (1) implementing a daily curricula for teachers/parents (the nutritional gatekeepers); (2) implementing a daily curricula for children; (3) technical assistance with meal and snack menu modifications such as including more fresh and less canned produce; and (4) creation of a center policy for dietary requirements for meals and snacks, physical activity and screen time. Control arm schools received an attention control safety curriculum. Major outcome measures include pre-post changes in child body mass index percentile and z score, fruit and vegetable and other nutritious food intake, amount of physical activity, and parental nutrition and physical activity knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs, defined by intentions and behaviors. All measures were administered at the beginning and end of the school year for year one and year two of the study for a total of 4 longitudinal time points for assessment. Discussion Although few
Natale, Ruby; Scott, Stephanie Hapeman; Messiah, Sarah E; Schrack, Maria Mesa; Uhlhorn, Susan B; Delamater, Alan
Many unhealthy dietary and physical activity habits that foster the development of obesity are established by the age of five. Presently, approximately 70 percent of children in the United States are currently enrolled in early childcare facilities, making this an ideal setting to implement and evaluate childhood obesity prevention efforts. We describe here the methods for conducting an obesity prevention randomized trial in the child care setting. A randomized, controlled obesity prevention trial is currently being conducted over a three year period (2010-present). The sample consists of 28 low-income, ethnically diverse child care centers with 1105 children (sample is 60% Hispanic, 15% Haitian, 12% Black, 2% non-Hispanic White and 71% of caregivers were born outside of the US). The purpose is to test the efficacy of a parent and teacher role-modeling intervention on children's nutrition and physical activity behaviors. . The Healthy Caregivers-Healthy Children (HC2) intervention arm schools received a combination of (1) implementing a daily curricula for teachers/parents (the nutritional gatekeepers); (2) implementing a daily curricula for children; (3) technical assistance with meal and snack menu modifications such as including more fresh and less canned produce; and (4) creation of a center policy for dietary requirements for meals and snacks, physical activity and screen time. Control arm schools received an attention control safety curriculum. Major outcome measures include pre-post changes in child body mass index percentile and z score, fruit and vegetable and other nutritious food intake, amount of physical activity, and parental nutrition and physical activity knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs, defined by intentions and behaviors. All measures were administered at the beginning and end of the school year for year one and year two of the study for a total of 4 longitudinal time points for assessment. Although few attempts have been made to prevent obesity
Full Text Available Abstract Background Many unhealthy dietary and physical activity habits that foster the development of obesity are established by the age of five. Presently, approximately 70 percent of children in the United States are currently enrolled in early childcare facilities, making this an ideal setting to implement and evaluate childhood obesity prevention efforts. We describe here the methods for conducting an obesity prevention randomized trial in the child care setting. Methods/design A randomized, controlled obesity prevention trial is currently being conducted over a three year period (2010-present. The sample consists of 28 low-income, ethnically diverse child care centers with 1105 children (sample is 60% Hispanic, 15% Haitian, 12% Black, 2% non-Hispanic White and 71% of caregivers were born outside of the US. The purpose is to test the efficacy of a parent and teacher role-modeling intervention on children’s nutrition and physical activity behaviors. . The Healthy Caregivers-Healthy Children (HC2 intervention arm schools received a combination of (1 implementing a daily curricula for teachers/parents (the nutritional gatekeepers; (2 implementing a daily curricula for children; (3 technical assistance with meal and snack menu modifications such as including more fresh and less canned produce; and (4 creation of a center policy for dietary requirements for meals and snacks, physical activity and screen time. Control arm schools received an attention control safety curriculum. Major outcome measures include pre-post changes in child body mass index percentile and z score, fruit and vegetable and other nutritious food intake, amount of physical activity, and parental nutrition and physical activity knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs, defined by intentions and behaviors. All measures were administered at the beginning and end of the school year for year one and year two of the study for a total of 4 longitudinal time points for assessment
Ely, Mindy S.; Gullifor, Kateri; Hollinshead, Tara
Early intervention visual impairment services are built on a model that values family. Matrix session planning pulls together parent priorities, family routines, and identified strategies in a way that helps families and early intervention professionals outline a plan that can both highlight long-term goals and focus on what can be done today.…
Dunst, Carl J.; Bruder, Mary Beth; Espe-Sherwindt, Marilyn
Findings from a study investigating the effects of early intervention settings on the extent of parent involvement in IDEA Part C Infant and Toddler Programs are reported. Participants were 124 parents and other primary caregivers of children receiving early intervention in 22 states who completed an investigator-developed scale measuring…
Bowyer, Patricia; Moore, Cary C.; Tiongco, Cynthia G.; Tkach, Melanie M.; Thom, Carly
Occupational therapists in the field of early intervention (EI) are challenged with limited opportunities for communication and collaboration with colleagues and other EI team members. One hundred and two occupational therapists and occupational therapy assistants with early intervention experience completed a descriptive survey. Questions on the…
Paynter, Jessica M.; Riley, Emma P.; Beamish, Wendi; Scott, James G.; Heussler, Helen S.
There is a relative paucity of evidence examining the effectiveness of early intervention for young children with Autism Spectrum Disorder, in particular those delivered through educationally-based programmes. This study aimed to evaluate the real world effectiveness of a community-based autism-specific early learning and intervention programme in…
Wagner, Dana L.; Coolong-Chaffin, Melissa; Deris, Aaron R.
The purpose of this study was to examine the use of brief experimental analysis (BEA) to identify early reading interventions for students in the primary grades and to compare teachers' judgments about their students' early reading intervention needs to BEA results. In addition, the research was conducted to explore how teachers make decisions…
Hansen, Hanne Vibe; Christensen, Ellen Margrethe; Dam, Ole Henrik
Little is known on whether centralised and specialised combined pharmacological and psychological intervention in the early phase of severe unipolar depression improve prognosis. The aim of the present study was to assess the benefits and harms of centralised and specialised secondary care...... intervention in the early course of severe unipolar depression....
the early detection of PCa among AA men are critical. Although culturally targeted health interventions have been found to be effective there are no...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-04-1-0026 TITLE: Increasing Early Detection of Prostate...Cancer in African American Men Through a Culturally Targeted Print Intervention PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Hayley Thompson, Ph.D
Howlin, Patricia; Magiati, Iliana; Charman, Tony
Recent reviews highlight limitations in the evidence base for early interventions for children with autism. We conducted a systematic review of controlled studies of early intensive behavioral interventions (EIBI) for young children with autism. Eleven studies met inclusion criteria (including two randomized controlled trials). At group level,…
Richardson, G M; Gardner, S; Frantz, R A
To describe pressure ulcer preventive interventions and their cost, and to compare the preventive intervention use and cost with level of risk. Comparative, descriptive design. A large midwestern Veteran's Affairs Medical Center with 260 long-term care beds. Thirty-one chair- or bed-bound residents from 1 long-term care unit comprised the study sample. The outcome variables included demographic information (patient record), Braden Risk Assessment score, institutional risk assessment score (Pressure Ulcer Risk Tool), type and frequency of preventive interventions, and the related costs. Subjects were assessed on a weekly basis for type and frequency of preventive intervention and for the development of a pressure ulcer. Each subject was observed until death, discharge, pressure ulcer formation, or the end of the 3-month study period. The 3-month pressure ulcer incidence rate was 13%. All subjects were at risk for pressure ulcer development according to Braden scores; whereas only 74% were assessed at risk with use of the facility's risk assessment tool. Preventive measures included regular repositioning (87%); 67% were placed on mattress support surfaces. There was no relationship between level of risk (facility risk tool score) and type of prevention used. The total cost of pressure ulcer prevention to the nursing unit was $14,926, representing a mean of $497 per subject, and $5.55 per subject per day. As compared with previous studies, the higher cost of prevention described in this study may be attributed to inadequate linkage of preventive interventions to risk level.
The purpose of this thesis is to educate and provide information to promote nursing students to take action in Low Back Pain (LBP) prevention. LBP is a high risk in nursing and prevention measures are recommended prior to starting the work. LBP is a debilitating musculoskeletal condition which affects all parts of the world. Prevention measures are many and this thesis aims to promote the Kettlebell training as one of them. The Kettlebell is a cast-iron ball with a handle. It has become incre...
Matthey, Stephen; Kavanagh, David J; Howie, Pauline; Barnett, Bryanne; Charles, Margaret
control conditions. There were no main or interaction effects by 6 months postpartum. The beneficial effect at 6 weeks was related to partners of these women being more aware of how the mother was feeling, and with women reporting greater satisfaction with the sharing of home and baby tasks. There were no significant main or interaction effects for men at either time point, other than men with low self-esteem reporting poorer adjustment. This brief and inexpensive intervention was effective in reducing postpartum distress in some first-time mothers at 6 weeks postpartum. The effectiveness of this intervention was related to an increased level of awareness in the men as to how their partners were experiencing the early postpartum weeks. That the effect was only evident for women who, antenatally, reported being low in self-esteem, is an important advance in our knowledge of the effectiveness of such prevention programs. No previous studies have investigated the differential effectiveness of such programs depending upon the woman's level of self-esteem, and this finding indicates that future work should measure this variable. These findings should be understood in the context that the population sampled were those attending preparation for parenthood classes, and thus different interventions will be needed for couples who do not attend such classes. This brief psychosocial intervention can be readily applied to antenatal classes routinely conducted in hospitals or the community.
Full Text Available AIM: To study the effect of lutein intervention on visual function of patients with early age-related macular degeneration(AMD. METHODS: Totally 200 early AMD patients were divided into lutein intervention group(20mg/dand placebo group by a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trail. Questionnaire investigation, serum lutein concentration and visual function were conducted at baseline, 12, 24, 36 and 48wk respectively. RESULTS: The serum lutein concentration in lutein intervention group was higher than the baseline(PPPPP>0.05. CONCLUSION: Lutein intervention can improve the visual function of patients with early AMD.
Olusanya, Bolajoko O
Sub-Saharan Africa not only has the highest rates of neonatal, infant, and child mortality worldwide but also accounts for a significant proportion of the global burden of permanent congenital and early-onset hearing loss (PCEHL). This article explores the diverse psychosocial, educational, and economic consequences of PCEHL in the region and highlights the interrelationships between this condition and the crucial domains of early childhood development. It also examines relevant levels of prevention and current practices within the context of the birthing patterns and routine immunization schedules in the first three months of life. It presents practical options for addressing the needs of children with PCEHL and their parents against the backdrop of the prevailing health and socioeconomic conditions. It concludes by underscoring the crucial dimensions of culturally-sensitive interventions as well as the need for ear-care professionals in each country to take advantage of the growing global initiatives for hearing impairment prevention within a multidisciplinary framework to advance the best interests of the affected children and their families.
analysis, SAHARA-J: Journal of ... In China, migrants with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) have become a serious problem in the field of AIDS prevention. ...... Investigation on the knowledge, attitude and practice.
Sandy, K Bowen
Today's pluralistic society is characterized by families from many linguistic and cultural backgrounds, including families with infants and toddlers who are deaf or hard of hearing (d/Dhh). Taking a multicultural perspective, the author examines family-centered early intervention (FCEI) and the transition to school services for children who are d/Dhh. Working with d/Dhh Multilingual Learners (DMLs) and their families presents a unique challenge to early intervention professionals: ensuring that families have adequate information and resources to make informed choices, particularly regarding communication. The author presents information and research related to (a) family and professional partnerships, (b) cultural contexts for early intervention, (c) family communication decisions and linguistic diversity, (d) emerging research on DMLs, (e) considerations for early intervention providers and interpreters who work with culturally and linguistically diverse d/Dhh infants and toddlers, and (f) cultural reflections on ensuring smooth transitions from early intervention into preschool programs.
Hoelscher, Deanna M; Kirk, Shelley; Ritchie, Lorrene; Cunningham-Sabo, Leslie
It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that prevention and treatment of pediatric overweight and obesity require systems-level approaches that include the skills of registered dietitians, as well as consistent and integrated messages and environmental support across all sectors of society to achieve sustained dietary and physical-activity behavior change. This position paper provides guidance and recommendations for levels of intervention targeting overweight and obesity prevention and treatment from preschool age through adolescence. Methods included a review of the literature from 2009 to April 2012, including the Academy's 2009 evidence analysis school-based reviews. Multicomponent interventions show the greatest impact for primary prevention; thus, early childhood and school-based interventions should integrate behavioral and environmental approaches that focus on dietary intake and physical activity using a systems-level approach targeting the multilevel structure of the socioecological model as well as interactions and relationships between levels. Secondary prevention and tertiary prevention/treatment should emphasize sustained family-based, developmentally appropriate approaches that include nutrition education, dietary counseling, parenting skills, behavioral strategies, and physical-activity promotion. For obese youth with concomitant serious comorbidities, structured dietary approaches and pharmacologic agents should be considered, and weight-loss surgery can be considered for severely obese adolescents. Policy and environmental interventions are recommended as feasible and sustainable ways to support healthful lifestyles for children and families. The Academy supports commitment of resources for interventions, policies, and research that promote healthful eating and physical-activity behaviors to ensure that all youth have the opportunity to achieve and maintain a weight that is optimal for health. Copyright © 2013 Academy of
Nores, Milagros; Barnett, W. Steven
This paper reviews the international (non-U.S.) evidence on the benefits of early childhood interventions. A total of 38 contrasts of 30 interventions in 23 countries were analyzed. It focuses on studies applying a quasi-experimental or random assignment. Studies were coded according to: the type of intervention (cash transfer, nutritional,…
Paynter, Jessica M.; Ferguson, Sarah; Fordyce, Kathryn; Joosten, Annette; Paku, Sofia; Stephens, Miranda; Trembath, David; Keen, Deb
A number of autism intervention practices have been demonstrated to be effective. However, the use of unsupported practices persists in community early intervention settings. Recent research has suggested that personal, professional and workplace factors may influence intervention choices. The aim of this research was to investigate knowledge and…
Galluzzi, Katherine E; Appelt, Denah M; Balin, Brian J
More than 5 million people in the United States are afflicted with Alzheimer disease, a condition that is the seventh leading cause of death in the nation. Lacking definitive disease-modifying treatments, modern care for individuals with Alzheimer disease is necessarily multimodal, combining the use of approved pharmaceutic agents (ie, acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists, antipsychotics), lifestyle and behavioral interventions, and components of palliative care. Some promising experimental treatments are undergoing clinical trials, including immunotherapy to prevent the deposition of β-amyloid, a protein implicated as an etiologic factor in the disease. The authors briefly examine the rationale and methods for screening patients for early indications of the onset of Alzheimer disease. They also describe current and potential treatments for patients with this disease.
Goossens, L; Cardon, G; Witvrouw, E; Steyaert, A; De Clercq, D
Physical Education Teacher Education (PETE) students are at considerable risk for non-contact sports injuries of the lower extremities. Multifactorial injury prevention interventions including exercises have been successful in sports populations, but no such study has ever been performed in PETE students. This study investigated the efficacy of a multifactorial injury prevention intervention on injury incidence reduction in PETE students. PETE students in the intervention group (n = 154) and in the control group (n = 189) registered sports injuries prospectively. The intervention lasted one academic year and consisted of an injury awareness programme and preventive strategies, implemented by the PETE sports lecturers. Differences in injury incidence between the intervention and control group were tested by Poisson regression Wald tests. There was a trend towards significantly lower incidence rate (2.18 vs. 2.73; p = 0.061) in the intervention group compared with the control group. Students in the intervention group had significantly less acute, first-time and extracurricular injuries. The largest reduction was observed for injuries during unsupervised practice sessions. A multifactorial injury prevention intervention embedded into a regular PETE programme is a promising and feasible strategy to prevent injuries in PETE students. Further research is needed to investigate whether the results may be generalised to other PETE programmes.
Gow, Rachel W.; Trace, Sara E.; Mazzeo, Suzanne E.
The transition to college has been identified as a critical period for increases in overweight status. Overweight college students are at-risk of becoming obese adults, and, thus prevention efforts targeting college age individuals are key to reducing adult obesity rates. The current study evaluated an Internet intervention with first year college students (N = 170) randomly assigned to one of four treatment conditions: 1) no treatment, 2) 6-week online intervention 3) 6-week weight and calor...
Cox, Georgina R; Fisher, Caroline A; De Silva, Stefanie; Phelan, Mark; Akinwale, Olaoluwa P; Simmons, Magenta B; Hetrick, Sarah E
Depressive disorders often begin during childhood or adolescence. There is a growing body of evidence supporting effective treatments during the acute phase of a depressive disorder. However, little is known about treatments for preventing relapse or recurrence of depression once an individual has achieved remission or recovery from their symptoms. To determine the efficacy of early interventions, including psychological and pharmacological interventions, to prevent relapse or recurrence of depressive disorders in children and adolescents. We searched the Cochrane Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Review Group's Specialised Register (CCDANCTR) (to 1 June 2011). The CCDANCTR contains reports of relevant randomised controlled trials from The Cochrane Library (all years), EMBASE (1974 to date), MEDLINE (1950 to date) and PsycINFO (1967 to date). In addition we handsearched the references of all included studies and review articles. Randomised controlled trials using a psychological or pharmacological intervention, with the aim of preventing relapse or recurrence from an episode of major depressive disorder (MDD) or dysthymic disorder (DD) in children and adolescents were included. Participants were required to have been diagnosed with MDD or DD according to DSM or ICD criteria, using a standardised and validated assessment tool. Two review authors independently assessed all trials for inclusion in the review, extracted trial and outcome data, and assessed trial quality. Results for dichotomous outcomes are expressed as odds ratio and continuous measures as mean difference or standardised mean difference. We combined results using random-effects meta-analyses, with 95% confidence intervals. We contacted lead authors of included trials and requested additional data where possible. Nine trials with 882 participants were included in the review. In five trials the outcome assessors were blind to the participants' intervention condition and in the remainder of trials it was
Prevención, promoción del desarrollo y atención temprana en la Escuela Infantil Prevenção, promoção do desenvolvimento e atenção precoce na Escola Infantil Prevention, promotion of development and early intervention in the Nursery School
to promote child development and family and school adjustment. It describes the experiment carried out since 2005 by the Research Group on Early Childhood Intervention (GIAT, University of Murcia (Spain, and analyzed the results of the 2010-2011 academic years in the Infant School Lorquí (Murcia, Spain with a group of 64 children and their families. The results indicate an improvement of mental and psychomotor development of children, between the beginning and the end of the school, which highlights the relevance of such services. The study finds a higher level of initial development in children and families who have followed the program of prevention and promotion of child development compared to those who have not received it.
Full Text Available This article examines how the field of adolescent sexual health came to embrace evidence-based interventions (EBIs; whether or not this approach is effective in meeting the needs of adolescents, especially those at high risk for teen pregnancy; concerns related to the scaling up of EBIs; and identifies issues which must be resolved as we move forward.
The aim of the study was to evaluate a motivation-based HIV risk reduction intervention for economically disadvantaged urban women in South Africa. Women were recruited through radio and information pamphlets. At baseline 119 women completed a survey regarding HIV-related knowledge, risk perceptions, ...
It will build on the success of Ecohealth-based interventions developed in Guatemala to control Triatoma dimidiata (101812), a blood-sucking insect that is now the main vector of the disease in Central America. This earlier work showed that it was possible to reduce disease transmission through improved housing and ...
Worksites are increasingly being used as locations for implementing healthy diet and weight loss interventions. Hence, there is an urgent need to identify programs that are both successful and sustainable. We conducted a 6-month pilot randomized controlled trial in overweight and obese employees a...
Geboy, Michael J.; Fried, Jacquelyn L.
Proposes a curriculum for dental/dental hygiene schools that would teach oral health care providers how to routinely assess tobacco use, advise cessation, and provide assistance and follow-up for tobacco-using patients. The article emphasizes the importance of making tobacco interventions routine components of schools' clinical teaching programs.…
This project will test the insect control program in selected border areas in the three countries where T. dimidiata is highly prevalent - Copan (Honduras), Chiquimula (Guatemala) and Santa Ana (El Salvador) - with a view to scaling it up further. Researchers will carry out baseline and post-intervention studies at 15 sites in ...
As part of the National Clinical Programme on healthcare-associated infection prevention, a Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (RCSI) and Royal College of Physicians of Ireland (RCPI) working group developed a quality improvement tool for prevention of surgical site infection (SS). We aimed to validate the effectiveness of an educational campaign, which utilises this quality improvement tool to prevent SSI in a tertiary hospital. Prior to the SSI educational campaign, surgical patients were prospectively audited and details of antibiotic administration recorded. Prophylactic antibiotic administration recommendations were delivered via poster and educational presentations. Post-intervention, the audit was repeated. 50 patients were audited pre-intervention, 45 post-intervention. Post-intervention, prophylaxis within 60 minutes prior to incision increased from 54% to 68% (p = 0.266). Appropriate postoperative prescribing improved from 71% to 92% (p = 0.075). A multifaceted educational program may be effective in changing SSI prevention practices.
Reed, Monique; Wilbur, JoEllen; Schoeny, Michael
In the U.S., overweight/obesity among African American (AA) girls has become epidemic. Since parental factors may be associated with improved weight status, it is important to understand the empirical evidence for including parents in obesity prevention interventions with AA girls. The purpose of this integrative review was to identify effectiveness and characteristics of obesity prevention interventions for AA girls (6-17 years) and their parent. Included interventions addressed physical activity (PA), dietary/eating behaviors, and body composition. Of 708 studies published through March 2014, eight met inclusion criteria. Though effects were in the intended direction for most, statistically significant effects were found only for dietary intake and eating behavior. Interventions were characterized by exclusion of girls ages 13-17, failure to link parent involvement to child outcomes, the absence of family systems theory, and modest effects. Further research is needed to ascertain the effectiveness of daughter/parent obesity prevention interventions.
Bachanas, Pamela J; Morris, Mary K; Lewis-Gess, Jennifer K; Sarett-Cuasay, Eileen J; Sirl, Kimberly; Ries, Julie K; Sawyer, Mary K
To describe empirically the risky sexual behavior of an at-risk sample of adolescent girls, to assess psychosocial correlates of risky behavior, and to examine the utility of applying a risk and protective model to predicting teens' risky sexual behavior. Participants included 158 African American girls, ages 12 to 19, who were receiving medical care in an adolescent primary care clinic. Teens completed measures of depression, conduct problems, substance use, peer norms, social support, HIV knowledge, sexual self-efficacy, and sexual behavior. Teens in this sample reported high rates of risky sexual behaviors, including early sexual debuts and frequent unprotected sexual encounters with multiple partners. African American girls who reported high rates of substance use and who reported that their peers engaged in risky behaviors also reported engaging in high rates of risky sexual behaviors. Little support was obtained for protective factors (HIV knowledge, social support, sexual self-efficacy) moderating the relations between risk factors and adolescents' risky sexual behavior in this sample. Teens presenting in primary care settings in urban environments seem to be at high risk for HIV, STDs, and substance abuse, and risk reduction strategies should be introduced during the preteen years. An interdisciplinary model of care in primary care settings serving adolescents is clearly indicated, and prevention-oriented interventions aimed at reducing risky behaviors and preventing the development of more significant health, mental health, or substance abuse disorders are needed.
Sreevatsava, Meghana; Narayan, K M Venkat; Cunningham, Solveig A
Childhood obesity is on the rise worldwide and its increasing prevalence in low and middle income countries is well-known. Obesity interventions have the potential to prevent adverse health outcomes; however, large gaps in research and knowledge about the efficacy and sustainability of such interventions remain. The objectives of this article were to review the evidence for interventions to prevent and control obesity among children and adolescents, evaluate their applicability in India, and discuss the challenges to sustain such interventions. The authors reviewed published research focusing on childhood obesity interventions, especially in India and other lower-resource countries. Nine observational and 10 interventional studies were reviewed. Most studies identified were from developed countries and took place at day-care settings, schools, and after school programs. Nineteen reported studies were grouped into categories: diet (2), physical activity (4), childcare programs (2), media-based programs (2), parental involvement (2), multi-component studies (1), and screen time (6). Most interventions were effective in reducing BMI, decreasing sedentary behaviors, and increasing physical activity. Sustainability of these interventions was not evaluated. While there is no one method or simple intervention to address obesity, multi-component approaches involving home and school environments are promising and warrant evaluation in India. Literature on obesity prevention and control in India and in lower-resource countries, however, is sparse. Existing gaps in knowledge about obesity should be addressed by conducting research in India and carrying out interventions to determine what strategies will be successful and sustainable locally.